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Sample records for arab republic tunisia

  1. Republic of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L

    1986-01-01

    The north African country of Tunisia (632,387 square miles) consists largely of desert, with some rich farmlands and a rocky transitional zone. Despite the government's family planning efforts, the population grew from 5.6 million in 1975, to 7.2 million in 1985, and, with its 2.4% annual growth rate, is projected to reach 8.1 million by 1990. Tunisia's rural population decreased to 46% in 1985 as workers and their families moved into urban areas. 98% of the population is Arab-Berber; Arabic and French are the offical languages. The age-sex distribution is typical of developing countries; the median age has increased from 16.8 years in 1966 to 19.5 in 1950 and persons over age 60 have increased from 5.1% in 1956 to 6.7% in 1980. Tunisian families average 5.7 persons in rural areas, and 5.4 persons in urban one. Marriages are declining, polygamy is outlawed, and divorce, once easy, is more difficult and declining. At independence in 1956, only 15% of Tunisians were literate, now 85-90% of primary school age children are enrolled and literacy had risen to 53% in 1980. Women, once heavily veiled, now have full rights and access to education. More than 60 thousand new workers compete for the 40,000 new job openings each year. An estimated 7000 laborers found work in Europe in 1984. Women composed only 11% of the 1975 work force, but by 1980, held 20% of jobs, although they were mainly low paying positions. In 1980, 35% of the laborers worked in agriculture, 19% in industry, 17% in service industries, and 10% in construction. Agriculture and tourism have declined in recent years, contributing to social unrest, currency decline, and inflated wages and consumer prices.

  2. Changing Revolutions, Changing Attention? Comparing Danish Press Coverage of the Arab Spring in Tunisia and Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented attention to the Arab world in Western news media. This paper presents a comparative study of Danish press coverage of the uprisings in Tunisia and Syria during the early months of the Arab Spring (January-March 2011). The study is based on a mixed...

  3. Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    In 1986, Tunisia's population was 7,424,000, with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate was 90/1000 and life expectancy averages 58 years. The work force of 1,810,000 is distributed as follows: agriculture, 30.5%; manufacturing, 16.5%; services, 15.0%; construction and mining, 11.4%; and other, 26.6%. The gross domestic product was US$8.35 billion in 1985, with a per capita income (1986) of $1163. The Destourian Socialist Party has been the governing party in Tunisia since independence. Tunisia is a leader in the Arab world in the promotion of equal status for women under the law and the government supports an active family planning program. Tunisia's economy depends on oil, agriculture, phosphates, worker remittances, and tourism for economic growth. In response to an economic crisis in 1985-86, measures to restructure the economy were instituted, including basic commodity price increases, limits on wage increases, import liberalization, and price control modifications. Unemployment, aggravated by a rapidly growing work force, is a major problem in Tunisia. An estimated 50% of the potential work force is unemployed or underemployed.

  4. 77 FR 40790 - Republic of Tunisia Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 232 Republic of Tunisia Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Department of State, Foreign... conditions applicable to loan guarantees issued for the benefit of the Republic of Tunisia pursuant to the..., acting on behalf of the Republic of Tunisia (the ``Borrower''). The loan guarantees shall insure...

  5. Thermal waters of the Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowgiallo, J.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal waters (30-61/sup 0/C) occur in springs and shallow drill-holes (max. 300 m) in several areas of the Yemen Arab Republic. Their mineral content is generally low ( < 1000-2000 ppm TDS) except for waters with high CO/sub 2/ content and those directly influenced by the evaporitic Baid formation (Tertiary) in the Western Lowlands along the Red Sea. The temperature anomalies occur in areas of Quaternary basaltic volcanism (Aden formation) and in fault zones connected with the eastern margin of the Red Sea graben. In the latter zones radiogenic heat may be contributed by Tertiary granitic intrusions.

  6. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  7. Changing Revolutions, Changing Attention? Comparing Danish Press Coverage of the Arab Spring in Tunisia and Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented attention to the Arab world in Western news media. This paper presents a comparative study of Danish press coverage of the uprisings in Tunisia and Syria during the early months of the Arab Spring (January-March 2011. The study is based on a mixed quantitative and qualitative content analysis aimed at identifying patterns of news reporting of the Arab Spring. The investigation looks into whether temporal developments of the Arab revolutions, the level of journalistic presence in the region, and national differences influence Danish press coverage of the Arab Spring. The findings indicate that media coverage of the Arab Spring points in different directions. On the one hand there has been a remarkable increase in media attention to the Middle East in purely quantitative terms. On the other hand the study finds that a number of traditional media patterns persist, not least in relation to media perceptions of Islam and democracy, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the ability to reform the Arab world from the inside.

  8. The role of the military in the Arab uprisings: the cases of Tunisia and Libya

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the role of the military in Tunisia and Libya during the 2010-2011 Arab uprisings by asking why the two states’ military forces chose to either defect from or defend the ruling administration. Using a comparative case study methodology, this study demonstrates that the joint configuration of energy capacity, military structure and the strength of protests led to the different outcomes in these two cases. The data indicates that one can understand the impact of these three...

  9. The path towards universal health coverage in the Arab uprising countries Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; Natafgi, Nabil M; Mataria, Awad; Sabri, Belgacem; Nasher, Jamal; Zeiton, Moez; Ahmad, Shaimaa; Siddiqi, Sameen

    2014-01-25

    The constitutions of many countries in the Arab world clearly highlight the role of governments in guaranteeing provision of health care as a right for all citizens. However, citizens still have inequitable health-care systems. One component of such inequity relates to restricted financial access to health-care services. The recent uprisings in the Arab world, commonly referred to as the Arab spring, created a sociopolitical momentum that should be used to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). At present, many countries of the Arab spring are considering health coverage as a priority in dialogues for new constitutions and national policy agendas. UHC is also the focus of advocacy campaigns of a number of non-governmental organisations and media outlets. As part of the health in the Arab world Series in The Lancet, this report has three overarching objectives. First, we present selected experiences of other countries that had similar social and political changes, and how these events affected their path towards UHC. Second, we present a brief overview of the development of health-care systems in the Arab world with regard to health-care coverage and financing, with a focus on Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Yemen. Third, we aim to integrate historical lessons with present contexts in a roadmap for action that addresses the challenges and opportunities for progression towards UHC.

  10. Solar energy applications in the Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Motawakel, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    A thesis is presented on the climatic, environmental influences on regional architecture in the Yemen Arab Republic. The underlying principles of passive solar design methods are reviewed and their suitability for use in the provincial capital cities of the Yemen Arab Republic is investigated using the known annual patterns of energy consumption in residential dwellings. Following the presentation of solar radiation data for the region, the analysis of the thermal design efficiency of the residential dwellings is carried out. The final chapter presents the conclusions and the recommended design method.

  11. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  12. 76 FR 31673 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the... Act with respect to the Arab Republic of Egypt and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

  13. Energy used domestically in the Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Motawakel, M.K.; Norton, B.; Probert, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    The annual patterns of energy consumption in residential dwellings in the provincial capital cities of the Yemen Arab Republic have been surveyed and analyzed during the period April to December 1982. Depending upon occupancy and energy-use patterns, as well as according to geographical location, the investigation indicated that the annual fuel consumption per house varied from 16 to 32 GJ. Assuming that this domestic energy load was satisfied by conventional energy resources, a typical family of five in the Yemen Arab Republic would have spent between 29 and 51% of its income on fuel. The suitability of urban residential housing for harnessing solar energy, either passively, actively, or both has also been assessed. The prospects for employing passively-gained solar energy appear promising: in this respect, 70% of all urban residential houses considered have their walls oriented favourably without direct solar insolation being obstructed. Also 80.5% of the flat roofs were free from over-shading at all times, and thus were suitable locations for roof-mounted solar-energy harnessing devices.

  14. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  15. Energy production and consumption in the Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqqaf, A.

    The energy sector reflects the major changes in the socio-economic structure and massive private and government investments that have given North Yemen a 6% real growth rate since 1970. The author surveys the energy sector over the past decade, and uses an earlier energy balance to forecast to the end of this decade. The survey, which focuses on consumption and supply, considers various potential sources of energy, including renewable forms and discusses new developments in oil exploration and refining capacity. The most significant development is not the dramatic rise in energy consumption, but in the discovery and exploitation of oil which allowed the Yemen Arab Republic to join the league of oil-producing nations. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  16. Yemen Arab Republic - energy situation 1982. BfAI-Marktinformation. Reihe MI-BS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    The energy situation of Yemen Arab Republic is described on the basis of some relevant data. Some remarks on national energy policy are followed by a description of the developments in power generation and in the various energy sources.

  17. On the Potential of Twitter for Understanding the Tunisia of the Post-Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Akin, Meriem Ben-Salah

    2014-01-01

    Micro-blogging through Twitter has made information short and to the point, and more importantly systematically searchable. This work is the first of a series in which quotidian observations about Tunisia are obtained using the micro-blogging site Twitter. Data was extracted using the open source Twitter API v1.1. Specific tweets were obtained using functional search operators in particular thematic hash tags, geo-location, date, time and language. The presence of Tunisia in the international...

  18. Contribution of type 2 diabetes associated loci in the Arabic population from Tunisia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almawi Wassim Y

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have both reproducibly identified several common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs that confer type 2 diabetes (T2D risk in European populations. Our aim was to evaluate the contribution to T2D of five of these established T2D-associated loci in the Arabic population from Tunisia. Methods A case-control design comprising 884 type 2 diabetic patients and 513 control subjects living in the East-Center of Tunisia was used to analyze the contribution to T2D of the following SNPs: E23K in KCNJ11/Kir6.2, K121Q in ENPP1, the -30G/A variant in the pancreatic β-cell specific promoter of Glucokinase, rs7903146 in TCF7L2 encoding transcription factor 7-like2, and rs7923837 in HHEX encoding the homeobox, hematopoietically expressed transcription factor. Results TCF7L2-rs7903146 T allele increased susceptibility to T2D (OR = 1.25 [1.06–1.47], P = 0.006 in our study population. This risk was 56% higher among subjects carrying the TT genotype in comparison to those carrying the CC genotype (OR = 1.56 [1.13–2.16], P = 0.002. No allelic or genotypic association with T2D was detected for the other studied polymorphisms. Conclusion In the Tunisian population, TCF7L2-rs7903146 T allele confers an increased risk of developing T2D as previously reported in the European population and many other ethnic groups. In contrast, none of the other tested SNPs that influence T2D risk in the European population was associated with T2D in the Tunisian Arabic population. An insufficient power to detect minor allelic contributions or genetic heterogeneity of T2D between different ethnic groups can explain these findings.

  19. Yemen Arab Republic - energy situation 1984. Arabische Republik Jemen - Energiewirtschaft 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The energy situation of Yemen Arab Republic is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources (with particular regard to petroleum) and electric power generation. Important figures are presented on the country's external trade imports.

  20. Yemen Arab Republic - energy situation 1986. Jemenitische Arabische Republik - Energiewirtschaft 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of the Yemen Arab Republic is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments.

  1. Yemen Arab Republic - energy situation 1987. Jemenitische Arabische Republik - Energiewirtschaft 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    The energy situation of the Yemen Arab Republic is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA).

  2. The Views of Arab Students Regarding Turks, the Ottoman Empire, and the Republic of Turkey: A Case of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Arab and Turkish people lived together for nearly four hundred years under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, during which time both sides inevitably adopted a certain kind of attitude and view toward the other. This study is an attempt to explore Arab people's views toward Turks, the Ottoman Empire, and the Republic of Turkey. Through a case study…

  3. Publications indexed in Medline and Embase originating from the Syrian Arab Republic: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, H E; Almerie, M Q; Adams, C E; Essali, A

    2009-01-01

    Health research in the Syrian Arab Republic faces many difficulties, including limited funds, infrastructure and means of dissemination. In a search of Medline and Embase databases in March 2006 we extracted data on 386 biomedical papers originating from the Syrian Arab Republic. Embase had the superior coverage. A total of 64% were published in journals from Europe, 22% from North American journals and 12% in periodicals from the Middle East. Output of papers increased by 1.4 articles/year since 1979. The topics of 57% of papers were biomedical, with the remainder being pure science or agricultural/veterinarian issues. Dentistry, public health and surgery were the commonest subjects of the biomedical papers. Funding was largely from government.

  4. The Impact of Social Networks and Mobile Technologies on the Revolutions in the Arab World—A Study of Egypt and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Maurushat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Revolts in Tunisia and Egypt have led many observers to speak of the “first digital revolution” in the Arab world. Social media sites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are now recognised as the important tools that facilitated the “Jasmine Revolution”. In fact, the willingness of the Mubarak government to block all internet connection in Egypt has demonstrated the concern over the power of new technologies in facilitating political change. The tenacity of the social movements that are still on-going in the Arab world continues to demonstrate the important role that networked technologies—such as the internet, satellite channels and social networking sites—play in revolutions. The revolutions demonstrate an effective use of social media and other network technologies as an organisational tool, and as a means of asserting pressure on current rulers and future governments. Accordingly, this article seeks to expose freedom of expression as a fundamental democratic principle and the internet network as a vehicle driving the demonstrations in the Arab countries of Tunisia and Egypt.

  5. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  6. Wind characteristic and energy potentialities of some selected sites in the Yemen Arab Republic and the Republic of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu El-Eizz, H.M.; Abu El-Eizz, Z.A. (Zagazig Univ. (EG). Dept. of Physics); Al-Motawakel, M.K. (Sana' s Univ., Sana' a (Yemen Arab Republic). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    The wind regimes as observed in four meteorological stations in the Yemen Arab Republic and eight meteorological stations in the Republic of Egypt are presented in the form of velocity and power duration curves as well as in the form of velocity and power frequency curves. Based on the analyzed data, the utilization of wind for power production purposes is promising particularly in the coastal stations of both countries. In the locations considered and allowing for aerodynamic imperfections and mechanical as well as electrical losses, the extracted annual amounts of wind energy (evaluated at a wind system conversion efficiency of 40%) range from 103 to 576 kW h per unit area swept by the rotor blades. The energy potentialities of the considered sites are measured by the wind energy utilization factor and presented in the form of design diagrams which can be used in determining the suitability of the sites for wind energy generation as well as in selecting the technical characteristics of the wind turbines. (author).

  7. Colonial Legacy, Women's Rights and Gender-Educational Inequality in the Arab World with Particular Reference to Egypt and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Nagwa; Lack, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    One aspect of the call for democracy in the recent Arab region uprisings is the issue of women's rights and gender equality. Three cultural and ideological forces have continued to shape the gender discourse in Arab Muslim-majority societies. They are: "Islamic" teaching and local traditions concerning women's roles in a given society; Western,…

  8. Colonial Legacy, Women's Rights and Gender-Educational Inequality in the Arab World with Particular Reference to Egypt and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Nagwa; Lack, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    One aspect of the call for democracy in the recent Arab region uprisings is the issue of women's rights and gender equality. Three cultural and ideological forces have continued to shape the gender discourse in Arab Muslim-majority societies. They are: "Islamic" teaching and local traditions concerning women's roles in a given society;…

  9. Building a Data Warehouse for National Social Security Fund of the Republic of Tunisia

    CERN Document Server

    Gouider, Mohamed Salah; 10.5121/ijdms.2010.2207

    2010-01-01

    The amounts of data available to decision makers are increasingly important, given the network availability, low cost storage and diversity of applications. To maximize the potential of these data within the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) in Tunisia, we have built a data warehouse as a multidimensional database, cleaned, homogenized, historicized and consolidated. We used Oracle Warehouse Builder to extract, transform and load the source data into the Data Warehouse, by applying the KDD process. We have implemented the Data Warehouse as an Oracle OLAP. The knowledge extraction has been performed using the Oracle Discoverer tool. This allowed users to take maximum advantage of knowledge as a regular report or as ad hoc queries. We started by implementing the main topic for this public institution, accounting for the movements of insured persons. The great success that has followed the completion of this work has encouraged the NSSF to complete the achievement of other topics of interest within the NSSF. ...

  10. Oil exploration and development in Marib/Al Jawf basin, Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maycock, I.D.

    1988-02-01

    In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well, Alif-1, drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. Appraisal and development drilling followed. The Alif field is believed to contain in excess of 400 million bbl of recoverable oil. Subsequent wildcat drilling has located additional accumulations while further amplifying basin stratigraphy. Rapid basin development took place in the Late Jurassic culminating with the deposition of Tithonian salt. The evaporites provide an excellent seal for hydrocarbons apparently sourced from restricted basin shales and trapped in rapidly deposited clastics.

  11. Oil exploration and development in Marib/Al Jawf basin, Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maycock, I.D.

    1986-07-01

    In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. A successful appraisal drilling program has demonstrated satisfactory lateral reservoir continuity. Further wildcat drilling demonstrates macro-unit correlation within the eastern part of the basin. Rapid basin development apparently commenced in the late Kimmeridgian, culminating with the deposition of Tithonian evaporites. Available geochemical analysis indicates sourcing from restricted-basin sediments. Excellent traps, reservoirs, and source beds underlying the Tithonian evaporites indicate that a significant new petroliferous province is present.

  12. Assessment of the nutritional status of residents in homes for the elderly in Lattakia, Syrian Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaj, F A

    2015-12-13

    Malnutrition is common among residents of homes for the elderly. This study aimed to identify the nutritional status of people in residential homes for the elderly in Lattakia, Syrian Arab Republic, and to determine the factors that affected nutritional status in these homes. A total of 103 elderly people in 3 residential homes were interviewed individually using an Arabic version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scale, and anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess nutritional status. The mean age was 70.9 (SD 6.4) years. Two-thirds of residents were either at risk of malnutrition (39.8%; score 17-23 on the MNA) or malnourished (19.4%; score Nutritional status was significantly affected by age, level of education, source of income, duration of stay in the home, number of diseases, number of medicines taken, anthropometric data and teeth and vision problems.

  13. Organ transplantation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Matri, Aziz; Ben Abdallah, Taieb

    2015-04-01

    Kidney transplants were first performed in Tunisia in 1986, and transplants soon extended to other organs including the heart, liver, and pancreas. Live-related donor and deceased-donor kidney transplants were both began in the summer of 1986. An organ procurement and transplant law was passed in March 1991, and the National Centre for Advancement of Organ Transplantation was created in 1995. The number of transplantation units has increased to 7 throughout the country, and the yearly transplant number has progressively increased to 139 in 2010, including 20% from deceased kidney donors. Despite these gains, the need continues to grow. Heart transplants began in January 1993, and Tunisia and Jordan are currently the only Arab countries where it is practiced. However, only 16 patients have received a heart transplant as of 2004, and the number of recipients has decreased in the past 10 years. Liver transplants are rare in other Arab countries, but began in Tunisia in January 1998. Over 10 years, 38 patients benefited from this procedure. After a few years of stagnation, the number of liver transplants is increasing. While all types of transplantation are needed, kidney transplantation is a priority in Tunisia. The target is to perform 400 transplants annually, which would require a long-term strategy to provide full financial coverage using the National Health Insurance Funds in both the public and private sectors.

  14. Bringing Community Colleges to Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Mezghani, Wafa Thabet

    2013-01-01

    The country of Tunisia experienced intense uprisings and massive civil resistance that were termed the Arab Spring of 2010. The riots stemmed from a desire to topple government rulers who were blamed for the high unemployment, poverty, regional inequalities, and general political unrest within the country. In a quest for relief and prosperity,…

  15. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  16. The Arab Geologists' Association(AGA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WissamS.Al-Hashimi

    2004-01-01

    The Arab Geologists Association (AGA) is a non-governmental pan-Arab geological organization founded in 1975 by geological commissions, i.e., geologists unions, geological societies, representing nine Arab countries, namely, Egypt, Palestine, Morocco, Jordan,Libya, Sudan, Lebanon, Tunisia and Iraq. Organizations of geologists in Syria and Yemen joined the Association shortly after.

  17. Hyalomma (Hyalommina) arabica sp. n. parasitizing goats and sheep in the Yemen Arab Republic and Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, R G; Hoogstraal, H; Wassef, H Y

    1982-02-01

    Hyalomma (Hyalommina) arabica sp. n. is described from 62 adults (29 males, 33 females) taken throughout the year from 23 goats and two sheep, mostly at 200 m altitude in the southern tihama foothills of Ta'izz Province, Yemen Arab Republic. One female from a goat at 2,300 m altitude in this Province may have attached to the host elsewhere and a male from Mecca, Saudi Arabia, was on a goat imported from an unknown source for the traditional religious pilgrimage feast. We postulate that the original host of adults was the Nubian ibex, Capra ibex nubiana F. Cuvier (Artiodactyla: Caprinae). This parasite is most closely related to H. (H.) kumari Sharif, which infests chiefly wild and domestic Caprinae from India to northwestern Iran and Tadzhik, SSR. It also shows relationships to H. (H.) punt Hoogstraal, Kaiser and Pedersen, which parasitizes gazelles and domestic mammals in Somalia and Ethiopia, but differs more widely from the third African-Arabian member of this subgenus, H. (H.) rhipicephaloides Neumann, which feeds on the Nubian ibex and gazelles in the Red Sea and Dead Sea areas. The Hyalomma subgenus Hyalommina now contains seven species, four confined to the Indian subcontinent (including Nepal, Burma, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Afghanistan) and Southwest Asia, and three in eastern Africa north of the equator and Arabia.

  18. The Role of Education and Training in Enhancing Labour Productivity in Arab Countries in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…

  19. The United States and Tunisia: A Foreign Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    headquarters to Tunis from Cairo following the signing of the Egypt- Israel peace treaty, and when the Palestine Liberation Organization .- set up its... Israel [Ref. 201. Such a message serves only to reinforce the appeal of Populist Islam. It is probable that the Islamic movement will, if well...THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT~ Tunisia has been a consistent supporter of the rights of Palestina * Arabs, but the Bourguibist idea of how Palestinians

  20. Tunisia: Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-19

    held two months before national elections. In November 2005, Tunisia hosted the U.N. World Summit on the Information Society in an effort to burnish...Research Service 8 Foreign Minister, who was born in Tunisia, and Communications Minister attended the World Summit on the Information Society in Tunisia

  1. Preliminary lead isotope investigations of brine from the Red Sea, Galena from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and galena from United Arab Republic (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevaux, M.H.; Doe, B.R.; Brown, G.F.

    1967-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead in Red Sea chloride brine containing 0.5 ppm Pb is found to be similar to that of some Cenozoic ore leads such as galena at Rabigh in Saudi Arabia that may have formed during mineralization accompanying Tertiary rifting. Bir Ranga galena in Miocene sediments from United Arab Republic (Egypt) is also isotopically similar to lead in Red Sea brine. The chlorine brine must be considered a possible mineralizing fluid. Lead isotopes show promise for use in mineral prospect evaluation in that galena from Samrah is isotopically similar to that from Mahd adh Dhahab, which has been the only ore producer in Saudi Arabia since 1945. Drilling at Samrah does indicate a possible economic mineralization. The lead isotope data coupled with available geologic knowledge and geochronometry are used to tentatively divide the ore prospects of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia into relative categories of mineralization age. Two Mesozoic and Cenozoic mineralizations are distinguished on the basis of a 207Pb/204Pb difference; an early Paleozoic mineralization grouping is outlined; and a late Precambrian mineralization period is suggested. ?? 1967.

  2. Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged < 18 years (51 males, 83 females). Low serum ferritin (< 12 ng/dL) was present in 17.9% of children (21.7% in females and 11.8% in males). Low haemoglobin (Hb) correlated significantly with a low serum ferritin. Only 1 child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.

  3. Petroleum geology of Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burollet, P.F. (CIFEG, Paris (France)); Ferjami, A.B.; Mejri, F. (ETAP, Tunis (Tunisia))

    1990-05-01

    Recent discoveries and important oil shows have proven the existence of hydrocarbons in newly identified depocenters and reservoirs. In general, except for some areas around the producing fields, Tunisia is largely underdrilled. The national company ETAP has decided to release data and to publish a synthesis on the petroleum geology of Tunisia. The geology of Tunisia provides a fine example of the contrast between Alpine folding, which typifies northern Tunisia and the African craton area of the Saharan part. Eastern Tunisia corresponds to an unstable platform forming plains or low hills and extending eastwards to the shallow Pelagian Sea. There are a wide variety of basins: central and northern Tunisia represents a front basin the Saharan Ghadames basin or the Chott trough are sag basins; the Gulf of Gabes was formed as a distension margin the Gulf of Hammamet is a composite basin and several transversal grabens cut across the country, including offshore, and are rift-type basins. All these features are known to be oil prolific throughout the world. Two large fields and many modest-size pools are known in Tunisia. Oil and gas fields in the surrounding countries, namely the Saharan fields of Algeria and Libya the large Bouri field offshore Tripolitania and discoveries in the Italian part of the Straits of Sicily, suggest a corresponding potential in Tunisia. Exposed paleogeographic and structural maps, balanced sections, and examples of fields and traps will support an optimistic evaluation of the future oil exploration in Tunisia.

  4. Plant diversity in different bioclimatic zones in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana You

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Tunisia, located in northern Africa, faces various environmental challenges caused by anthropogenic practices such as overgrazing, deforestation, and desertification. The conversion of natural ecosystems is the major cause of plant biodiversity loss. Tunisia can be divided into three main climatic zones as follows: a northern Mediterranean climate zone, a central steppe climate zone, and a southern desert climate zone. Because of this great environmental diversity, there are distinctive vegetation and various genetic resources in Tunisia. This research was conducted to investigate plant biodiversity within the various bioclimatic zones and to characterize useful plant resources in Tunisia. We investigated native, medicinal and aromatic, desert, and soil erosion control plant species.

  5. CAFA Delegation of Local Officials and Entrepreneurs Visits Libya and Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYue

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the Council for the Promotion of Overseas Investment of Libya and the Agency for the Promotion of Foreign Investment of Tunisia, a China-Arab Friendship Association (CAFA) delegation of local officials and entrepreneurs headed by Ye Rongbao, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Zhejiang Provincial People's Congress, paid a goodwill visit to Libya and Tunisia from September 17 to 26, 2003. The delegation was organized and sentby the CPAFFC.

  6. Journalism's Rewriting of History in Reporting the Arab Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    of historical references to, in particular, European revolutionary history from Eastern Europe in 1989, are woven into the journalistic descriptions of events in Tunisia and Egypt. But the analysis also reflects on journalism’s own historical precedents in that field. Therefore, this paper takes the topics...... and circumstances that put Tunisia and Egypt on the Danish media’s agenda in the year before the Arab revolutions as a starting point. The central point of this comparison is to convey how journalism, while describing contemporary events of The Arab Spring, at the same time rewrites its own prior commentary...

  7. Archives Educational Programs in Librarianship Schools : A Compression Study Between Algeria and Some Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheba Gheriamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Study about the training of archivists in Algeria, specially of the origin and aims of archival studies programme in librarianship institute at the university of Algiers and comparing its experience with some Arabic contries like Egypt,Tunisia and Arabic Golf countries.

  8. L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Découverte de lacs naturels à Wadi el Natroun en République Arabe d'Egypte Spirulina Sp. Food Alga. Discovery of Natural Lakes At Wadi El Natrun in the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdin El Sherif S. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dépression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais été prospectée autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minéraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs, cherchant à savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels à Spirulines en République Arabe d'Égypte, découvrirent dans la dépression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra où croissaient spontanément les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des eaux, ainsi que la concentration en algues, ont été étudiés afin d'estimer la productivité du site en vue d'une éventuelle exploitation industrielle. L'exploitation de ces lacs permettrait de mettre en valeur le site de Wadi el Natroun par la production d'une substance très riche en protéine pour l'alimentation humaine dont à tant besoin la République Arabe d'Égypte. Even though it has been known from olden days, the depression of Wadi el Natrun had never been prospected other than for its wealth of mineral salts. It was in 1977 that the authors began searching for natural lakes with Spirulina algae in the Arab Republic of Egypt and, in the depression of Wadi el Natrun, discovered varions lakes such as Abu Gobara and El Khadra where Spirulina algae grew in a natural state. The climate of the site, the original and composition of the water as well as the algae concentration were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of the site for eventual industrial exploitation. The exploitation of these lakes would give value to the Wadi el Natrun site by producing a very protein-rich substance for human nourishment which the Arab Republic of Egypt needs so badly.

  9. The Educational System of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    An overview of the basic system of education in Tunisia is presented in this booklet. Since Tunisia's independence in 1956, the government has emphasized the role of education as a major factor in building a modern nation. The educational system in Tunisia is based on both the nation's own rich cultural background and also on the linguistic and…

  10. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 1 No. 3 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated compilation of 108 educational publications in Arabic, French, and English includes texts and data on elementary and secondary school curricula in the Maghreb countries (Tunisia, Morroco, Algeria, and Libya). Categories in this bibliography include--(1) Philosophy and Theory of Education, (2) Administration of the Educational…

  11. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 2, Numbers 1, 2, 3, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Three volumes comprise a 375-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English, French, Italian, and Arabic that provides information on various aspects of education in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and foreign language titles are…

  12. Post-Revolution Constitutionalism: The Impact of Drafting Processes on the Constitutional Documents in Tunisia and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangement...... at identifying the factors have impacted both the constitutional drafting process and the popular perception of the produced constitutions in each of Tunisia and Egypt....

  13. Turkish Foreign Policy towards the Arab Revolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, Mehmet; Korkut, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Turkey's foreign policy has been drawing considerable attention particularly because of the momentous transformations in the Middle East. The visits of Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davuoglu to Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia in September 2011 and their subsequent visits to the region underscored the rise of Turkey's involvement in the region. The Arab Spring came at a time when Turkey's relations with the United States, Israel and the European Union were go...

  14. Transitions in the Arab World: Spring or Fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Eastern Arab states? Conversely, might the passions for accountable governance founder as regime supporters mobilize and raise the price of protest...support of Tunisia’s labor movement, the Union Générale Tunnisienne du Travail , or UGTT. After Ben Ali’s exit from Tunisia, the country’s temporary

  15. Arabic Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This collection of 10 songs was prepared as supplementary material for the Defense Language Institute's basic course in Modern Standard Arabic. The songs appear in Arabic script with special vocabulary items glossed in English. The lyrics also appear in transliteration at the end of the text. Musical scores accompany some of the selections. [Not…

  16. Insupportables successions Unbearable successions. Political time in Tunisia from Bourguiba to the revolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Siino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Loin de s’en prendre aux monarchies, les révolutions du printemps arabe de 2011 ont renversé en tout premier lieu des régimes s’affichant comme des républiques, mais dont les mécanismes de contrôle temporel du politique avaient depuis longtemps été subvertis. La longévité des leaders y était devenue incontrôlable et l’on voyait s’y profiler des successions de type familial. Première à s’être soulevée, la Tunisie avait connu deux séquences successives de blocage du temps politique avec Bourguiba et Ben Ali, qui ont tous deux mis en œuvre des processus de dérégulation du temps républicain. Mais au-delà des traits communs, les deux séquences tunisiennes présentent d’indéniables différences de contextes, de conditions de possibilité, d’imaginaires politiques et de registres de justifications qui sont mobilisés. Elles ne peuvent donc guère se rattacher à un modèle unique d’autoritarisme arabe ou à la tentation du retour à un système monarchique arabe traditionnel. À l’inverse, ces séquences peuvent fournir des éléments de réflexion pour penser plus généralement les phénomènes du temps politique, de la succession et du chevauchement des intérêts publics et privés, y compris au sein de systèmes politiques radicalement différents.Far from attacking monarchies, the Arab Spring revolutions of 2011 overthrew regimes that appeared like Republics in the first place, but where temporal control of power had long been subverted. The leaders’longevity had become unmanageable and dynastic successions were foreseen. Having experienced two sequences of blocked political time, first with Bourguiba and then with Ben Ali, Tunisia was the first country to rebel. Both leaders implemented deregulation processes of controlled republican time. But beyond their similarities, the two Tunisian sequences present undeniable differences in terms of context, conditions of possibility, political representations

  17. THE ROOTS OF REGRESSION IN THE ARAB WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Del Roio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the popular mobilization that placed below the existing dictatorship in Tunisia the media spread the term “Arab spring” for the series of events that followed. You can tell now how different events and with many vectors, which manifest themselves almost all the armed conflict which undermines Syria. However, the objective of this text is to provide a broad overview to suggest the explanation of strong retroactive process present in the Arab world, even with the presence of micro regions of incredible wealth.

  18. A Comparative Assessment of Higher Education Financing in Six Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Araby, Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the policies for financing higher education in six Arab countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia. It assesses the adequacy of spending on higher education, the efficiency with which resources are utilized, and the equity implications of resource allocations. Based on six detailed case studies, this…

  19. The Arabic Revolt: Context, Perspectives and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Mandelc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss three interrelated topics, framed within discourses of individual and collective human rights, right of self-determination, democratic processes, people`s uprisings, and geopolitical (imbalances. First, we are interested in the situation of Western Sahara and the 37 years of ongoing Moroccan occupation; we refer to this country as Africa’s last colony. Discussion leads us to reflection of the political strategies of Sahrawis to achieve their national liberation, one of them being Gdeim Izik camp, understood by some relevant authors as the beginning of the »Arab spring«. The »Arab spring« is the second focus of our discussion. We offer a timetable and stress the context of events from the Western Sahara attempt in Gdeim Izik, popular uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen that ended in the resignations of their leaders and governments, civil wars in Syria and Libya, to bigger and smaller protests and their consequences in Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco, Mauretania, Algeria, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon and Djibouti. We try to offer a deconstruction and reconstruction of the »Arab spring«. In the third part, we discuss the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and the perspectives for solution. The conclusion reflects on the strategic, social and political implications of the »Arab spring«, the role and response of the international community, and the new global wave of resistance against political and financial elites.

  20. ‘Vive la grande famille des médias tunisiens’ Media reform, authoritarian resilience and societal responses in Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Cavatorta, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The concept of authoritarian upgrading introduced by Heydemann significantly contributes to explain how Arab authoritarian rulers have been able to maintain their grip on power while introducing a number of liberal reforms. The media reform in Tunisia has been widely interpreted indeed...

  1. Analysis and background of the “Arab Spring” in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Aghayev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Arab Spring” which first broke out in Tunisia and disseminated to many countries in the Arab world has become one of the most actual topics of the international political agenda in the recent years. The protests that began against the Gaddafi regime after the revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt led the opponents to unite under a single umbrella in a short time and form the main opposition in the country. The opponents which first came to the fore with civilian protest movements then continued their struggle against the government with armed attacks. In this article we are going to analyse the “Arab Spring” in Libya which broke out in February 2011 leaving its mark that year and investigate the positive and negative effects

  2. Population research and research gaps in the Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbarah, R; Mamish, M A; Gemayel, Y

    1978-01-01

    The responsiveness of population research in the Arab countries to the development needs of these countries was studied. The needs are determined on the basis of official government positions and an analysis of the population and development situations prevailing in the countries. Population research is research that deals primarily with 1 or more of 5 categories of variables generally considered the main concern of the population field: 1) the size, growth and structure of the population; 2) morbidity and mortality; 3) reproduction and family formation; 4) population distribution and internal migration; and 5) international migration. An intensive search was made to locate published and unpublished population research undertaken between 1960 and 1976 dealing with the Arab countries. Except for Egypt and Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia), interest in population concerns is generally of relatively recent origin in the Arab countries. The population issues of major concern to most Arab countries relate to population distribution and internal migration, international migration, and the shortage of qualified demographers. There is also general concern for differential mortality and the persistence of high mortality rates among certain socioeconomic groups and in certain geographic areas; and, in a few countries, for high rates of fertility and population growth. Egypt, Tunisia, and to some extent Morocco should be singled out for their long-term preoccupation with questions of overpopulation and their relatively long interest in the control of fertility and the implementation of family planning programs.

  3. Arabic Learning Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Muh. Barid Nizaruddin Wajdi

    2016-01-01

    There are some factors influencing teaching and learning of foreign language. In teaching Arabic, for example, linguistic factors, such as Phonology, Grammatical rules, Morphology, and Vocabulary. Non linguistic factor also influences teaching and learning Arabic, for example, teaching aids, teaching method, age and environment. Teaching method in Arabic is one of the important factor. This article discusses about the Arabic learning skills, and how influenced Arabic teaching

  4. Arabic Learning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Barid Nizaruddin Wajdi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are some factors influencing teaching and learning of foreign language. In teaching Arabic, for example, linguistic factors, such as Phonology, Grammatical rules, Morphology, and Vocabulary. Non linguistic factor also influences teaching and learning Arabic, for example, teaching aids, teaching method, age and environment. Teaching method in Arabic is one of the important factor. This article discusses about the Arabic learning skills, and how influenced Arabic teaching

  5. Women, the law, and the family in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekir, H

    1996-06-01

    As in other Arab-Muslim states, women's status in Tunisia is based upon the superiority of male elders. However, the legal status of women in the family in Tunisia differs from that in other countries in the region. From independence in 1956, the state of Tunisia has been involved in legislating the status of women in the family, denying women the right to vote for members of the constituent National Assembly. The 1956 Code on the Status of the Person allows women to agree freely and personally to their marriage, established the minimum age of marriage for women at greater than 17 years, requires a pre-marriage medical certificate, and allows the wife to consent to the marriage of her children when they are minors. A woman may contribute to the costs of a marriage if she has the means, wives may cooperate with husbands in family matters and child rearing, and they automatically assume guardianship of minor children in the event of a husband's death. In the event of divorce, the wife can assume certain guardianship prerogatives if the male guardian has behaved improperly. The 1956 code forbade polygamy, makes divorce available to both spouses, gives women the right to manage their own assets, and recognizes and protects other para-family rights. Women therefore have the right to abortion in an approved hospital within the first 12 weeks, may grant their nationality to their children with the consent of the husband, and married women have the right to adopt children. The author describes the barriers to the actual practice of such civil law and building democracy in the family.

  6. Arab satellite broadcasting, identity and arab youth

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis challenges a major theme found in Arab public discourse on youth, that the latter's consumption of television is passive in nature. Much discussion on Arab youth presupposes that the consequences of television for culture and identity are straight forward; that young people are merely passively absorbing materials that are offered. Contesting comments in Arab discourse on youth that to date have relied on unsystematic observation, this study adopts qualitative and quantitative res...

  7. China Eximbank Promotes China-Tunisia Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Export and Import Bank of China(China Eximbank) and Tunisia Embassy, on March 28,jointly held "China-Tunisia Cooperation Forum" in Beijing. Wei Jianguo, Vice Minister of the Ministry of Commerce,Li Ruogu, President of China Eximbank and Mohamed Nouri Jouini, Minister of the Tunisia Development and International Cooperation Department attended the forum. Government officials and entrepreneurs from both sides had deep communications on the topics of the investment environment, economic and trade cooperation, etc..

  8. Yemen Arab Republic - energy situation 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The energy situation of Yemen is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Some remarks on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Important figures are presented on external trade and the balance of payments.

  9. Yemen Arab Republic - energy survey 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    With the help of numerous data a short survey of the energy situation in Yemen is given. After some remarks on the energy policy the developments of the individual energy carriers and power generation are described. Furthermore, some remarks on foreign trade are made.

  10. Solar insolation upon the Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Motawakel, M.K.; McVeigh, J.C.; Norton, B.; Probert, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Diurnal global insolation was measured over a 3-year period with a precision pyranometer at Sana'a University's solar station--latitude, 15/sup 0/ N; longitude, 44/sup 0/ E and 2210 m above sea level. Comparison has been made with predictions obtained from three different empirical models proposed by earlier investigators. Durations of sunshine hours, in addition to geographical latitude and altitude above mean sea level, are the only model inputs required. The calculated values obtained from a modified version of Exell's empirical formulas gave agreement to within + or -6 percent with the measured data. The predictions from the regression equation of page 3 and the relation proposed by Barbaro et al. agreed to within + or -10 percent with the measured solar radiation intensities.

  11. Arabs in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐长贵

    2004-01-01

    In the eyes of many people in the United States, Arab-Americans are an invisible part of the population. Though Arab-Americans as a community have made great contributions to American society in the fields from literature to politics to medicine, many Americans know very little about Americans of Arab descent(血统).

  12. Translation from Arabic speech to Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. El-Gayyar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available People with special-needs face a variety of different challenges and barriers that isolate them from their surroundings. Nowadays, several assistive technologies have been developed to reduce many of these barriers and simplify the communication between special-needs persons and the surrounding environment. However, few frameworks are presented to support them in the Arabic region either due to the lack of resources or the complexity of the Arabic language. The main goal of this work is to present a mobile-based framework that will help Arabic deaf people to communicate ‘on the go’ easily with virtually any one without the need of any specific devices or support from other people. The framework utilizes the power of cloud computing for the complex processing of the Arabic text. The speech processing produced a cartoon avatar showing the corresponding Egyptian Arabic Sign Language on the mobile handset of the deaf person.

  13. The Arab Awakening and US counterterrorism in the Greater Middle East: A missed opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Lilli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 'In 2011, the Arab Awakening offered an opportunity to the Obama administration to advance the US interest to counter terrorism in the Greater Middle East without compromising its commitment to the promotion of democracy. As of early 2015, however, with the exception of still-hopeful Tunisia, democracy has not made any significant progress in Middle Eastern countries. Additionally, old and new regional extremist groups have become increasingly active. How did the Obama administration miss the opportunity offered by the Arab Awakening? What actions could the United States take to reverse current unfavorable trends and advance US policies of counterterrorism and democratization in the region?'''

  14. The Israeli Circassians: non-Arab Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Merza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One day, I was at the tahana merkazit [central bus station] in Jerusalem with Mussa and we went through the metal detector. They let him go through but when it was my turn, they asked for my identity card. They saw that we kept talking together so they asked for his I.D. too. He is a redhead and has blue eyes so they thought he was Ashkenazi. But they saw his name ‘Musa’ – that sounds quite Arabic and they asked him if he was Arab, but then his family name doesn’t sound Arabic at all so he ex...

  15. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940–2015: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  16. Analysis of Final Energy Consumption Patterns in 10 Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an analysis of the energy consumption patterns in 10 Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria. Commonalities and variations between these countries are discussed and explained through key economic and energy indicators, and the relationship between the overall final energy consumption per capita and the GDP per capita is examined. The distribution of the final energy consumption across different sectors is also analysed, and the patterns of consumption in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors are discussed with focus on the types of energy consumed, and the main drivers of this consumption. The findings and the conclusions of this study are believed to be beneficial to the national energy policy planners in identifying possible strengths, weaknesses, and areas of emphasis and improvement in their strategic energy plans.

  17. Understanding of Arab Spring with Chaos Theory - Uprising or Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkalın, Şuay Nilhan; Bölücek, Cemal Alpgiray

    `Arab Spring' can be considered as one of the most remarkable events in the history of world politics. On December 18, 2010, a Tunisian young protestor burned himself in a public square of the city. This event triggered probably one of the most chaotic and long term uprisings in the Middle East. From the day of its initiation until the present, `Arab Spring' in the Middle East created unstable political situation and several uprisings. In this chapter, we will first give general information about chaos theory, and then we will examine the `butterfly effect' created by the Tunisian young protestor and process of Arab Spring in the Middle East regarding its extend and form in those countries within the framework of chaos theory. For the first part of this chapter, the spark created by the Tunisian young protestor and its effects can be analyzed under `butterfly effect' perspective within chaos theory, arguing whether the events followed each other consecutively or randomly. The question is whether the incidents following each other have reasonable links of causality to one another, or the events defining the phenomena known as `Arab Spring' have no predictable reasons and outcomes regardless of the regional, social and political differences. The events caused the collapse of the regimes in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya; they had very serious outcomes.

  18. Energy, pollution, and economic development in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miniar Ben Ammar Sghari

    2016-11-01

    The rising level of energy consumption that is occurring internationally also is being mirrored at regional and national levels. An interesting case study along these lines is Tunisia, which is one of the high-growth economies in the Middle East and North African area yet lacks sufficient energy supply to satisfy its growing demand. Tunisia looks like many nations around the world with a young population, growing economy, increasing domestic energy consumption, and the need to balance economic development with environmental concerns.

  19. Islamism, Secularism and the Woman Question in the Aftermath of the Arab Spring: Evidence from the Arab Barometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Fox

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The uprisings that led to regime change during the early period of the Arab Spring were initially inclusive and pluralistic in nature, with men and women from every political and religious orientation engaging actively in political activities on the street and in virtual spaces. While there was an opening of political space for women and the inclusion of demands of marginalized groups in the activists’ agenda, the struggle to reimagine national identities that balance Islamic roots and secular yearnings is still ongoing in many countries in the region. This paper seeks to deepen understanding of the extent to which the pluralistic sentiments and openness to accepting the rights women have persisted following the uprising. We aim to examine changes in attitudes towards women’s equality in countries that underwent regime change through popular uprisings during revolutionary upheavals of the Arab Spring and in countries where regimes have remained unchanged. Using available data from consecutive rounds of the Arab Barometer survey, we examine changes in attitudes in nine countries with two rounds of Arab Barometer during and post Arab Spring (Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Algeria, Lebanon, Sudan, Jordan, Iraq, Palestine. We find that support for “Muslim feminism” (an interpretation of gender equality grounded in Islam has increased over the period and particularly in Arab Spring countries, while support for “secular feminism” has declined. In most countries examined, relatively high degrees of support for gender equality co-exist with a preference for Islamic interpretations of personal status codes pertaining to women. We discuss the implications of these findings for academics and activists concerned with women’s rights in the Middle East North Africa (MENA.

  20. Teaching Science Subjects in Arabic: Arab University Scientists' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamami, Munassir

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates Arab university scientists' views of the status of English and Arabic in the 21st century, and their attitudes towards using English and Arabic as media of instruction in science faculties in the Arab world. Twenty-seven science instructors at a Saudi University coming from different backgrounds responded to a written…

  1. Arab American Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  2. Seismotectonics and seismic Hazard map of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Kadri, Ali; Zargouni, Fouad; Ghanmi, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    One natural hazard in Tunisia is caused by earthquakes and one way to measure the shaking risk is the probabilistic seismic-hazard map. The study of seismic hazard and risk assessment in Tunisia started in 1990 within the framework of the National Program for Assessment of Earthquake Risk. Because earthquakes are random events characterized by specific uncertainties, we used a probabilistic method to build the seismic hazard map of Tunisia. Probabilities were derived from the available seismic data and from results of neotectonic, geophysical and geological studies on the main active domains of Tunisia. This map displays earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across Tunisia and it is used in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessment and other public management activities. The product is a seismotectonic map of Tunisia summarizing the available datasets (e.g., active fault, focal mechanism, instrumental and historical seismicity, peak ground acceleration). In addition, we elaborate some thematic seismic hazard maps that represent an important tool for the social and economic development.

  3. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  4. Present situation of echinococcosis in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Echinococcosis is one of the major zoonotic parasitic diseases in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa from Morocco to Egypt. Both cystic and alveolar echinococcosis has been reported from these areas. However, cystic echinococcosis is more prevalent and has been reported from all countries in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Alveolar echinococcosis is less prevalent and has been reported only from Iran, Turkey, Iraq and Tunisia. Present situation of echinococcosis in dogs and other definitive hosts, animal intermediate hosts and humans in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa has been reviewed. Echinococcus granulosus is highly prevalent in Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya. In the Levant countries, the cystic echinococcosis is also highly endemic. In Oman, it is endemic with low prevalence and a very low level in Cyprus. Various surveys have indicated that hydatid cysts are commonly found in sheep, cattle, goats and camels throughout the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Sheep are the most infected animals of these regions. Most of studies on human have been focused on surgical reports although several population studies have been performed using serological and imaging techniques. Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is prevalent in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. It is hyper endemic in Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria, and endemic in Egypt. Studies on the strain specificities of E. granulosus in the Middle East revealed sheep strain (G1) present in sheep, goats, cattle, camels and humans, and the camel strain (G6) in camels, sheep, cattle as well as humans. Dog/sheep strain seems to be more prevalent in the foregoing regions in documented reports from Iran and Jordan. However, a strain of E. granulosus, which resembles the horse strain (G4) strain, has been reported from Jordan. Strain specifications of E. granulosus in Arabic North Africa showed that sheep/dog strain (G1) have been reported

  5. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  6. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMA AL-OMARI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  7. Strategy to combat obesity and to promote physical activity in Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O Musaiger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al Hazzaa2, Aayed Al-Qahtani3, Jalila Elati4, Jasem Ramadan5, Nebal A AboulElla6, Najat Mokhtar7, Hashem A Kilani81Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2,3King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, 4National Institute of Nutrition, Tunisia; 5University of Kuwait, Kuwait; 6National Nutrition Institute, Egypt; 7Ibn Tofail University, Morocco; 8Sultan Qaboos University, OmanAbstract: Obesity has become a major public health problem in the Arab countries, creating a health and economic burden on these countries’ government services. There is an urgent need to develop a strategy for prevention and control of obesity. The third Arab Conference on Obesity and Physical Activity was held in Bahrain in January 2010, and proposed the Strategy to Combat Obesity and Promote Physical Activity in Arab Countries. This strategy provides useful guidelines for each Arab country to prepare its own strategy or plan of action to prevent and control obesity. The strategy focused on expected outcomes, objectives, indicators to measure the objectives, and action needs for 9 target areas: child-care centers for preschool children, schools, primary health care, secondary care, food companies, food preparation institutes, media, public benefit organizations, and the workplace. Follow-up and future developments of this strategy were also included.Keywords: obesity, physical activity, strategy, Arab countries

  8. Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Monirul Islam, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    This volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society (TJS 2014) held at Gammarth, Republic of Tunisia on November 28-30, 2014. The TJS 2014 is based on the network of the Tunisia-Japan Symposium on Science, Society and Technology (TJASSST) which has been regularly organized since 2000. The symposium was focused on the technological developments of energy and materials for the realization of sustainable society. To generate technological breakthrough and innovation, it seems to be effective to discuss with various fields of researchers such as solid-state physicists, chemists, surface scientists, process engineers and so on. In this symposium, there were as many as 109 attendees from a wide variety of research fields. The technical session consisted of 106 contributed presentations including 3 plenary talks and 7 key-note talks. We hope the Conference Series and publications like this volume will contribute to the progress in research and development in the field of energy and material sciences for sustainable society and in its turn contribute to the creation of cultural life and peaceful society.

  9. Pediatric versus adult kidney transplantation activity in Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the current activity of pediatric versus adult kidney transplantation activity in the Arab world. A questionnaire was mailed to all kidney transplant centers in Arab countries to collect data on the kidney transplant activity in a recent single year. Three thousand three hundred and nine kidney transplants were performed in one year, with a transplant rate of 9.5 per million populations (PMP; 298 were performed for children with a pediatric kidney transplant (PKT rate of 0.87 PMP, which is much lower than that of developed countries where it mostly ranges from 5 to 10. The pediatric share of all transplants is 9%, which is twice as high as that of European children. Kidney transplant programs in most Arab countries rely exclusively on living donors as there is a severe shortage of deceased donors. 93.5% of all transplants, combined adult and pediatric, were from living donors. Deceased transplant activity in Arab countries accounts for 14-31% of all transplants in the three countries with deceased donor programs. Of the 212 adult and pediatric transplants that were performed from deceased donors in eight countries, only 29 cases were for pediatric recipients. Deceased PKT is available in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, Tunisia and Kuwait. Surprisingly, the PKT share was not better in the countries with higher overall kidney transplant rate and or in those where deceased transplant was available. PKT is still inactive in most Arab countries and mostly relies on living donors. The lack of well-developed deceased donor programs is the main issue to be addressed.

  10. The "planned" families of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habchi, M

    1987-07-01

    30 years ago Tunisia achieved independence, and 20 years ago it adopted a family planning policy designed to bring about a balance between demographic and economic growth. Birth control and family planning continue to be a major concern, and services now are provided in over 800 public sector centers -- dispensaries, hospitals, family planning clinics, and mobile teams. 4 out of 10 married women use some form of contraception, and some 30,000 abortions are performed per year by services of the National Office for Family Planning and Population. 2/3 of Tunisians believe that religion has a favorable view of birth control, but there are other sources of resistance to birth control -- sources related to a woman's level of education, her status, and socioeconomic level. The average number of children/woman decreases according to her level of education, from 6.9 among illiterate women to 2.6 among women with a university education. The proportion of illiterate women in Tunisia is close to 50%; the level is as high as 75% among women over age 30. These figures provide the explanation as to why the decline in the birthrate has been so slow. Another major determinant of reproduction rates among Tunisian women is access to employment. Women with jobs have an average of 2 children in contract to women without jobs who normally have more than 4 children. A marked decline occurred in the birthrate between 1966-76, and about 2/3 of Tunisian women now subscribe to the modern family model, i.e., a smaller family oriented toward consumption and comfort. Yet, despite improvements, under the best-case scenario the reproduction rate would be 3.8 children/family at 2000, and a rate of 2.9 would not be achieved until 2020, which is still higher than the rate necessary for simple population replacement -- 2.1. This downward trend would be realized under the combined effects of socioeconomic and cultural changes, i.e., better education, urbanization, declining infant mortality, the

  11. Review of alien marine macrophytes in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. SGHAIER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the list of alien marine macrophytes introduced into Tunisia was updated in the light of available data and new observations. A total of 27 alien marine macrophytes have been recorded so far from Tunisia: 18 Rhodophyta, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Chlorophyta and 1 Magnoliophyta. For each species, the locality (-ies, the year (or period and the source of the first observation in Tunisia are given. The distribution and the status (casual, cryptogenic, established or questionable of species in Tunisia were evaluated and, where appropriate, discussed. Among them, Hypnea cornuta is reported for the first time from Tunisia. Fourteen alien marine macrophytes are established, whereas seven cryptogenic and two casual species require further investigation. Eleven species are considered as invasive or potentially invasive in the Mediterranean Sea: Acrothamnion preissii, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis Indo-Pacific lineage, Hypnea cornuta, Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa chemnitzia, C. cylindracea, C. taxifolia, Codium fragile subsp. fragile and Halophila stipulacea. Finally, the case of four questionable species is also discussed.

  12. Synonymy in Jordanian Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ibrahim Salameh Alomoush

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of synonymy in Jordanian Arabic. It has been assumed that synonymy in Jordanian Arabic has partial rather than complete synonymy. This means that the abundance of Jordanian Arabic in synonyms can be attributed to a number of explanations, namely dialectical variations, the speaker’s attitude, and origin of words. The data for this study come from two main sources: written and spoken material. In accordance with the established literature on the semantics of synonymy, we have classified the corpus of the study on the basis of these parameters. The main findings reveal that total synonymy is hard to find in Jordanian Arabic, supporting the argument of many linguistic studies for the existence of partial rather than total synonymy in a language. Keywords: dialectical variations, evaluative meaning, origin of words, semantics, synonyms

  13. The Arabic Language; Its Role in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chejne, Anwar G.

    This book reviews the position Arabic has traditionally occupied in Arab-Muslim society, and its role in the task of building a nation state. The work is aimed to aid students of Arabic and Arabic lore and add to a greater understanding of the historical factors which made Arabic a revered language in Arabic-Muslim cultural and religious…

  14. Performing Arabness in Arab American Stand-up Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Selim Yasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the dramatic art of stand-up comedy. It locates Arab American stand-up comedy within a broader American humorous tradition and investigates the way Arab American performers use this art to negotiate and (reconstruct their identity. The main question in this article is the way Arab American stand-up comedians define their relationship to the Arab and the western worlds in the process of establishing their Arab American identity. Three humor theories - the relief theory, the incongruity theory, and the superiority theory - are deployed in the study to examine the representation of Arabness in selected Arab American performances. The study argues that Arab American comics minstrelize their own diasporic origin through reinscribing a range of orientalizing practices in order to claim their Americanness.

  15. In the Arab Bedroom: The Sex Life of Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, P

    2016-12-01

    The sex life of Arabs is terra incognita for scientists and policy makers. Shereen El Feki's book "Sex and the Citadel" is the first serious attempt to chart sexual intimacy in the rapidly changing Arab world.

  16. Benchmarking the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in Arab world by utilizing bibliometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Shaher H; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman E; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    Rapid population growth, worsening of the climate, and severity of freshwater scarcity are global challenges. In Arab world countries, where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, the recycling of industrial wastewater could improve the efficiency of freshwater use. The benchmarking of scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world is an initiative that could support in shaping up and improving future research activities. This study assesses the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world. A total of 2032 documents related to industrial wastewater were retrieved from 152 journals indexed in the Scopus databases; this represents 3.6 % of the global research output. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 70. The total number of citations, at the time of data analysis, was 34,296 with an average citation of 16.88 per document. Egypt, with a total publications of 655 (32.2 %), was ranked the first among the Arab countries followed by Saudi Arabia 300 (14.7 %) and Tunisia 297 (14.6 %). Egypt also had the highest h-index, assumed with Saudi Arabia, the first place in collaboration with other countries. Seven hundred fifteen (35.2 %) documents with 66 countries in Arab/non-Arab country collaborations were identified. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from France 239 (11.7 %), followed by the USA 127 (6.2 %). The top active journal was Desalination 126 (6.2 %), and the most productive institution was the National Research Center, Egypt 169 (8.3 %), followed by the King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia 75 (3.7 %). Environmental Science was the most prevalent field of interest 930 (45.8 %). Despite the promising indicators, there is a need to close the gap in research between the Arab world and the other nations. Optimizing the investments and developing regional experiences are key factors to promote the scientific research.

  17. Arab American Journalism and Its Relation to Arab American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Henry H.

    Because of the influence which the Arab press in the U.S. had on Arab literature, it was thought advisable to record a history of its development and find the relation between the two. Ten different newspapers and magazines that directly relate to Arabic literature were examined: "Kawkab Amerika,""Al-Huda,""Mer'at…

  18. Design and Experimental Investigation for Improving the High Frequency Radio Communication Links between Benghazi-Libya and Sfax-Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousef Ahmed Abou-Hussein

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have experimentally planned to replicate the positive results of the application of ionospheric prediction method to design and improve the high frequency (HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Sfax-Tunisia. The central radio propagation laboratory (CRPL method of ionospheric prediction of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS in U.S.A was used in the calculations of the optimal working frequencies for reliable HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Sfax-Tunisia. The results were drawn in the form of curves by using the computer. The computer was used to measure the received signal level variation of a frequency 17.500 Megahertz (MHz, which was transmitted with a power of 100 Kilowatt (KW from the Tunis Republic Broadcasting station in SFAX city, directed to the east region. The measurements were taken during daytime's for winter (December, January& February and summer (June, July & August seasons.

  19. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  20. Ambiguity Resolution in Lateralized Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayadre, Manar; Kurzon, Dennis; Peleg, Orna; Zohar, Eviatar

    2015-01-01

    We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous…

  1. Educational Television and Educational Development in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Educational Broadcasters, Washington, DC.

    The National Association of Educational Broadcasters attempted to determine how educational television and related technologies could strengthen the educational system of Tunisia. An overview of the Tunisian society is presented, followed by a brief history of the development of its educational system. The tremendous educational needs of the…

  2. Performing Arabness in Arab American Stand-up Comedy

    OpenAIRE

    Fouad Selim Yasser

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the dramatic art of stand-up comedy. It locates Arab American stand-up comedy within a broader American humorous tradition and investigates the way Arab American performers use this art to negotiate and (re)construct their identity. The main question in this article is the way Arab American stand-up comedians define their relationship to the Arab and the western worlds in the process of establishing their Arab American identity. Three humor theories - the relief theory...

  3. Research on psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Jamal M; Al-Khateeb, Anas J

    2014-02-01

    This study reviewed research conducted on the psychological aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Several databases (Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and PsycInfo) were searched using the following two sets of search words: (1) Arab, Jordan, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Algiers, Palestine, Mauritania, Djibouti, Sudan, Comoros, and Somalia; and (2) epilepsy, seizure disorders, and convulsive disorders. Fifty-one studies were conducted in 12 Arab states. Social/emotional, employment, and other problems; knowledge and attitudes; and quality of life (QOL) were the most commonly measured parameters of psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Results revealed elevated levels of depression and anxiety, a decline in cognitive function, various behavioral problems, sexual dysfunction, and underemployment among persons with epilepsy (PWE). Misconceptions about epilepsy were found to be prevalent. While many studies reported limited knowledge of epilepsy, some studies found an average knowledge. Negative attitudes toward epilepsy were reported in most studies, and moderately positive attitudes were reported in some studies. Finally, PWE showed low overall QOL scores in the majority of studies.

  4. Introducing Arabic: Meeting the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Bergman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available article addresses two issues that concern new as well as expanding programs in Arabic language. They are myths about (teaching and learning Arabic and advice for new or expanding programs. Myths about (teaching and learning Arabic describe Arabic as impossible or at least extraordinarily difficult to learn, Unless these are countered With factual information from the outset, they can impair the effectiveness of even the most well planned Arabic language program. Advice for new or expanding begins with n brief discussion of Facts about Arabic, in particular Arabic diglossia and its impact on curriculum planning and the trajectory of student progress. It con- tinues with list of strategies for planning and assessing programs, and hiring instructors, Finally, resources list: some of the national organizations and websites to which program administrators can turn for sound advice.

  5. Bibliometric analysis of nutrition and dietetics research activity in Arab countries using ISI Web of Science database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2014-01-01

    Reducing nutrition-related health problems in Arab countries requires an understanding of the performance of Arab countries in the field of nutrition and dietetics research. Assessment of research activity from a particular country or region could be achieved through bibliometric analysis. This study was carried out to investigate research activity in "nutrition and dietetics" in Arab countries. Original and review articles published from Arab countries in "nutrition and dietetics" Web of Science category up until 2012 were retrieved and analyzed using the ISI Web of Science database. The total number of documents published in "nutrition and dietetics" category from Arab countries was 2062. This constitutes 1% of worldwide research activity in the field. Annual research productivity showed a significant increase after 2005. Approximately 60% of published documents originated from three Arab countries, particularly Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia. However, Kuwait has the highest research productivity per million inhabitants. Main research areas of published documents were in "Food Science/Technology" and "Chemistry" which constituted 75% of published documents compared with 25% for worldwide documents in nutrition and dietetics. A total of 329 (15.96%) nutrition - related diabetes or obesity or cancer documents were published from Arab countries compared with 21% for worldwide published documents. Interest in nutrition and dietetics research is relatively recent in Arab countries. Focus of nutrition research is mainly toward food technology and chemistry with lesser activity toward nutrition-related health research. International cooperation in nutrition research will definitely help Arab researchers in implementing nutrition research that will lead to better national policies regarding nutrition.

  6. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    A TEACHING MANUAL FOR AN ELEMENTARY (FIRST LEVEL) COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE IS PRESENTED. THE COURSE USES AN AUDIOLINGUAL-TO-GRAPHIC APPROACH OF INSTRUCTION, DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR PARTS. THE FIRST PART EMPHASIZES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL SKILLS IN PREREADING INSTRUCTIONAL EXERCISES. PART TWO CONSISTS OF A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE…

  7. DATABASES FOR RECOGNITION OF HANDWRITTEN ARABIC CHEQUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alohali, Y.; Cheriet, M.; Suen, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an effort toward building Arabic cheque databases for research in recognition of handwritten Arabic cheques. Databases of Arabic legal amounts, Arabic sub­ words, courtesy amounts, Indian digits, and Arabic cheques are provided. This paper highlights the characteristics of the A

  8. Feline Origin of Rotavirus Strain, Tunisia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredj, Mouna Ben Hadj; Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Fodha, Imene; Benhamida-Rebai, Meriam; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisia in 2008, an unusual G6P[9] rotavirus, RVA/human-wt/TUN/17237/2008/G6P[9], rarely found in humans, was detected in a child. To determine the origin of this strain, we conducted phylogenetic analyses and found a unique genotype constellation resembling rotaviruses belonging to the feline BA222-like genotype constellation. The strain probably resulted from direct cat-to-human transmission. PMID:23631866

  9. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  10. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  11. Learning Arabic through play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the use of educational games in the context of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a three-year project funded through Qatar National Research Fund. The scope of the project is teaching Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) to kindergarten students (5-6 years old) that are native speak...... to increase students’ engagement in language learning, increase their exposure to MSA, and develop their vocabulary....

  12. Arabic summarization in Tw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal El-Fishawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twitter, an online micro blogs, enables its users to write and read text-based posts known as “tweets”. It became one of the most commonly used social networks. However, an important problem arises is that the returned tweets, when searching for a topic phrase, are only sorted by recency not relevancy. This makes the user to manually read through the tweets in order to understand what are primarily saying about the particular topic. Some strategies were developed for summarizing English micro blogs but Arabic micro blogs summarization is still an active research area. This paper presents a machine learning based solution for summarizing Arabic micro blogging posts and more specifically Egyptian dialect summarization. The goal is to produce short summary for Arabic tweets related to a specific topic in less time and effort. The proposed strategy is evaluated and the results are compared with that obtained by the well-known multi-document summarization algorithms including; SumBasic, TF-IDF, PageRank, MEAD, and human summaries.

  13. The Arab Spring: A Simple Compartmental Model for the Dynamics of a Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, John

    2012-01-01

    The self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi on December 17, 2011 in the small Tunisian city of Sidi Bouzid, set off a sequence of events culminating in the revolutions of the Arab Spring. It is widely believed that the Internet and social media played a critical role in the growth and success of protests that led to the downfall of the regimes in Egypt and Tunisia. However, the precise mechanisms by which these new media affected the course of events remain unclear. We introduce a simple compartmental model for the dynamics of a revolution in a dictatorial regime such as Tunisia or Egypt which takes into account the role of the Internet and social media. An elementary mathematical analysis of the model identifies four main parameter regions: stable police state, meta-stable police state, unstable police state, and failed state. We illustrate how these regions capture, at least qualitatively, a wide range of scenarios observed in the context of revolutionary movements by considering the revolutions in Tunisia and ...

  14. Arabic Script and the Rise of Arabic Calligraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Ali A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a concise coherent literature review of the Arabic Language script system as one of the oldest living Semitic languages in the world. The article discusses in depth firstly, Arabic script as a phonemic sound-based writing system of twenty eight, right to left cursive script where letterforms shaped by their…

  15. Soil and Terrain Database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Nachtergaele, F.O.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). A SOTER database was compiled based on the digital soil m

  16. Arab American Experiences in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Based upon field study and a review of the literature, this paper sought to describe the educational experiences that are common in the Middle East and North Africa. The paper explained the curriculum and pedagogy that are most commonly found in Arab schools. It also addresses the misconceptions that many Americans have regarding Arab education.…

  17. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    AN ELEMENTARY COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE WAS DEVELOPED. THIS REPORT IS THE TEXT FOR PART 3 AND PART 4 OF THAT COURSE. (FOR INFORMATION ON THE FIRST TWO PARTS AND SOME DETAIL ON THE OVERALL NATURE OF THE COURSE, REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 860 AND ED 003 861.) PART 3 COMPRISES A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE ARABIC ALPHABET AND THE…

  18. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  19. Coastal tourism and climate change in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henia, Latifa; Hlaoui, Zouhaier; Alouane, Tahar

    2014-05-01

    Tunisia is a major tourist destination on the southern shore of the Mediterranean. The tourism sector occupies an important place in the Tunisian economy with 816 hotels, 229,873 beds and a more than six million tourists at the end of the first decade of the 21th century, i.e. , more than half of the population. It offers a large number of direct and indirect jobs: One out of five people work in the tourism sector. The 1960s tourism boom was caused by a number of factors including long days of sunshine, 1,300 km of sandy coast, and a location close to Europe. Tunisian tourism is fundamentally based on two natural determinants: the sun and the sea. The coastline accounts for 95% of tourism investments and functional beds. The high season extends from April to October and it records 73% of nonresident tourists. This results in a homogenous growth of the "product" and its "consumers". This standardization is an important factor in the vulnerability of the Tunisian tourism to climate change. Global warming may affect the comfort level of the swimming season as well as its structure. An estimation of air and water temperature evolution near the Tunisian coasts was conducted under the CLIM-RUN project "Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean Region: Responding to User Needs" funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7). The University of Tunis research unit "GREVACHOT", project partner in charge of the case study of Tunisian tourism, has made the study of comfort indices of the present climate. This paper presents: - The climate comfort indices for seaside tourism in Tunisia, - The approach and results of the future evolution of air and water temperatures by the Tunisian coasts, - The future evolution of climate seaside comfort indices of Tunisia as well as the evolution of the swimming season in relation to global warming.

  20. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  1. Moriscos and Arabic studies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiegers, Gerard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay studies the contribution of Moriscos to Arabic studies. It concludes that the contributions of Moriscos in the Iberian peninsula remained modest. Some contributed actively to the knowledge of Arabic through their Arabic-Islamic learning. I show that the Mudejar convert known as Juan Andrés, who wrote one of the most influential treatises against Islam, was indeed a canon of the cathedral of Granada. I briefly discuss the contribution of Moriscos to the translations and interpretations of the Lead Books and studied their post-expulssion contribution to Arabic and Islamic studies. The last part focuses on the Dutch Republic, where, as a result of historical circumstances and contingent factors such as personal relations, Moriscos played an important role. Here, in addition to the study of the Arabic language itself, the physical sciences played a noteworthy role. This, I suggest, can be connected to the broad scope of the emergence of Arabic studies in Europe, which incorporated both the physical sciences and religion and philosophy, and an interest in North Africa itself because of developments in the physical sciences, including their application in daily life.

    Este artículo analiza la aportación de los moriscos a los estudios árabes, concluyendo que ésta fue modesta en la Península Ibérica. Algunos moriscos contribuyeron de forma activa al conocimiento del árabe a través de sus estudios sobre temas árabo-islámicos. Se demuesttra que el converso mudéjar conocido como Juan Andrés, autor de uno de los más influyentes tratados contra el Islam, fue un canónigo de la Catedral de Granada. Se aborda brevemente la cuestión de la contribución de los moriscos a la traducción e interpretación de los Libros Plúmbeos y se estudia su contribucción, con posterioridad a la expulsión, a los estudios árabes e islámicos. La última parte del trabajo se centra en Holanda (República de los Siete Países Bajos Unidos

  2. Virtual water balance estimation in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambouli, Talel; Benalaya, Abdallah; Ghezal, Lamia; Ali, Chebil; Hammami, Rifka; Souissi, Asma

    2015-04-01

    The water in Tunisia is limited and unevenly distributed in the different regions, especially in arid zones. In fact, the annual rainfall average varies from less than 100 mm in the extreme South to over 1500 mm in the extreme North of the country. Currently, the conventional potential of water resources of the country is estimated about 4.84 billion m³ / year of which 2.7 billion cubic meters / year of surface water and 2.14 billion cubic meters / year of groundwater, characterizing a structural shortage for water safety in Tunisia (under 500m3/inhabitant/year). With over than 80% of water volumes have been mobilized for agriculture. The virtual water concept, defined by Allan (1997), as the amount of water needed to generate a product of both natural and artificial origin, this concept establish a similarity between product marketing and water trade. Given the influence of water in food production, virtual water studies focus generally on food products. At a global scale, the influence of these product's markets with water management was not seen. Influence has appreciated only by analyzing water-scarce countries, but at the detail level, should be increased, as most studies consider a country as a single geographical point, leading to considerable inaccuracies. The main objective of this work is the virtual water balance estimation of strategic crops in Tunisia (both irrigated and dry crops) to determine their influence on the water resources management and to establish patterns for improving it. The virtual water balance was performed basing on farmer's surveys, crop and meteorological data, irrigation management and regional statistics. Results show that the majority of farmers realize a waste of the irrigation water especially at the vegetable crops and fruit trees. Thus, a good control of the cultural package may result in lower quantities of water used by crops while ensuring good production with a suitable economic profitability. Then, the virtual water

  3. External Debt and Economic Growth in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasfi Fkili Wahiba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the effect of external debt on economic growth; we used the debt service as percentage of exports and debt indicators in the first and second degree. The econometric estimation showed that the sign of the coefficient of debt is positive and the debt squared is negative, and beyond a certain stock, the impact of debt on growth becomes negative and Tunisia must control its debts as additional increases will have adverse impacts on the economic performance of the country. Therefore, the borrowing should remain a necessity in cases of extreme emergency, not a solution to all economic problems experienced by the country.

  4. Guide to OCR for Arabic scripts

    CERN Document Server

    Märgner, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The first book of its kind, specifically devoted to the emerging field of OCR for Arabic Scripts Presents state-of-the-art research from an international selection of pre-eminent authorities in the field Describes numerous applications of Arabic script recognition technology, from historical Arabic manuscripts to online Arabic recognition

  5. "We are Arabs:" The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women's Lived Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2015-12-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity, and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and "We are Arabs." To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society's perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society's honor. "We are Arabs" describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being.

  6. Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Elmahdy, Mohamed; Minker, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech describes approaches to improve automatic speech recognition for dialectal Arabic. Since speech resources for dialectal Arabic speech recognition are very sparse, the authors describe how existing Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) speech data can be applied to dialectal Arabic speech recognition, while assuming that MSA is always a second language for all Arabic speakers. In this book, Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) has been chosen as a typical Arabic dialect. ECA is the first ranked Arabic dialect in terms of number of speakers, and a high quality ECA speech corpus with accurate phonetic transcription has been collected. MSA acoustic models were trained using news broadcast speech. In order to cross-lingually use MSA in dialectal Arabic speech recognition, the authors have normalized the phoneme sets for MSA and ECA. After this normalization, they have applied state-of-the-art acoustic model adaptation techniques like Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR) and M...

  7. PROSPECTIVE MODELLING OF OIL SUPPLY IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thameur Necibi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework which we are developing refers essentially to Hubbert model in order to determine the peak oil in Tunisia and the exploitation speed of the remaining resources, while referring to the data supplied by the Directorate General for Energy. The study focuses on the comparison between the results of the several econometric adjustment techniques (linear, non-linear techniques, linear techniques with structural change and the non-parametric methods applied to the Tunisian oil production during the period going from 1966 to 2011. The prospective study through the econometric models has allowed us to determine the two dates scaring all energy executives, namely the peak which took place in the middle of the eighties and the finiteness of resources planned in 2028. The obtained results have shown that it remains 495 million barrels to be produced in Tunisia, bearing in mind that the data supplied by the authorities announces the figure of 420 million barrels of the remaining proved reserve in the Tunisian underground. Thereby, we have noticed a strong link between the physical models for reservoir flows and the empirical specifications based on the decline curves.

  8. ICT DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Arifah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: ICT in education becomes a matter being discussed at this time. Arabic Language Learning as a part of a Foreign Language Learning is one of many aspect that influenced by ICT. Some researcher believe that ICT can solve some problematic of language learning. Arabic Language Learning has its own problems of non-linguistic that make some difficulties to the learner. This paper discusses the role of ICT in improving the quality of learning Arabic by optimizing the use of ICT in improving cultural competence in learning. DOI: 10.15408/tjems.v1i1.1113

  9. Thermal behaviours of vernacular buildings in the Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Motawakel, M.K.; Probert, S.D.; Norton, B.

    1986-01-01

    A simple steady-state mathematical model, describing the average total daily rate of heat loss through the walls, windows and flat roof of a generalised Yemeni building, has been developed. From this, a technique was evolved by which designers can predict approximately the transient rate of heat loss via traditionally employed combinations of indigenous materials, as used in the walls and roof. The predictions, expressed graphically, enable designers to select the most suitable combination of locally available, indigenous building materials, so that more energy-effective dwellings can be built.

  10. Automatic Translation of Arabic Sign to Arabic Text (ATASAT) System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmoty M.Ahmed; Reda Abo Alez; Muhammad Taha; Gamal Tharwat

    2016-01-01

    Sign language continues to be the preferred tool of communication between the deaf and the hearing-impaired. It is a well-structured code by h and gesture, where every gesture has a specific meaning, In this paper has goal to develop a system for automatic translation of Arabic Sign Language. To Arabic Text (ATASAT) System this system is acts as a translator among deaf and dumb with normal people to enhance their commun ication, the...

  11. Area Handbook Series: Tunisia; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Arabic names, such as the one in this example. are designations of the attributes of God (Allah). Abd al means a slave or servant of, and Rahman means ...merciful: thus, the name literally means the slave or servant of the Merciful (God). $ Where foreign and technical words and phrases have been used in...retreat" (transliterated as marabouts). The marabout.s were mystics and seers, miracle workers endowed with a charisma ( baraka ), whose tradition

  12. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government...... representatives. After her return to the States, she documented her experiences abroad in an unpublished memoir, entitled "Arabian Antipodes." However, this 1955 account does not just chronicle her travels. Hakim performs here her own approach to Arab American womanhood. In this essay Koegeler-Abdi contextualizes...... herself strategically cites these discourses in her self-fashioning to claim her own subject position as a white Arab and American woman during the 1950s. She argues that, while most Arab American authors at this time avoid a serious Arab ethnic affiliation, Rosemary Hakim already proudly uses...

  13. International Conference Terminology : Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Zohni, Hebatallah

    2016-01-01

    Pour pouvoir mettre à jour un glossaire de terminologie de conférence trilingue arabe, anglais et français, ce mémoire tente de répondre à trois questions fondamentales : le glossaire est-il exhaustif, correct et bien adapté à l'objectif poursuivi? Pour répondre à cette question, la conception de recherche est passée en revue puis la méthodologie de recherche en trois étapes est adoptée. Les différents types de glossaires sont examinés et le lien entre glossaire et interprétation de conférenc...

  14. First detection of Leishmania major DNA in Sergentomyia (Sintonius) clydei (Sinton, 1928, Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), from an outbreak area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari, Chiraz; Ben Othman, Souad; Chemkhi, Jomaa; Tabbabi, Ahmed; Fisa, Roser; Ben Salah, Afif; BenAbderrazak, Souha

    2016-04-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in Sergentomyia species. Their role in the spread of mammalian leishmaniasis appears repeatedly in the literature and the possibility of its implication in Leishmania transmission to humans remains controversial. Sergentomyia (Sintonius) clydei is one of several cryptic species sharing therefore common morphologic criteria with others species of the subgenera Sintonius. Little is known about this specie in Tunisia. We sampled and identified different specimens including four specimens of S. clydei collected from Sidi Bouzid and Kairouan areas (center of Tunisia) using morphological tools. Male Sergentomyia clydei and Sergentomyia christophersi are known to share several morphological characters and can be mistaken for. Consequently we took advantage of 5 male S. christophersi available in our collection (Tataouin, South of Tunisia). In our study morphological tools were completed by molecular study of cytochrome b gene to identify S. clydei. For the detection of Leishmania spp. that might infect our specimens, Leishmania DNA was analyzed by amplification of kinetoplast minicircle DNA using real-time PCR and nested-PCR. Obtained result was confirmed by restriction analysis of the amplified ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1). We provide in our study, the first molecular identification of S. clydei, in Tunisia. Our Neighbor Joining tree based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene shows two different clusters. The first includes the Tunisians S. clydei and other specimens from Africa, Middle East and the Arabic peninsula, and the second cluster containing the specimens from Seychelle. Unexpectedly, we also demonstrate the infection of one anthropophilic female S. clydei by Leishmania major DNA. This finding shows that more attention should be paid when identifying parasites by molecular tools within sandfly vector.

  15. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2016-01-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  16. Psychometric Examination of an Arabic Version of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Motohiro; Bouanene, Ines; El-Mhamdi, Sana; Soltani, Mohamed; Bongard, Stephan; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic version of the trait anger and anger expression scales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). Methods: This study took place between April 2005 and August 2014. Adults in Yemen (n = 334) and Tunisia (n = 200) were recruited from university campuses and a smoking cessation clinic, respectively. The STAXI was translated into Arabic using back-translation methods. An explanatory principal component analysis was conducted to explore the factor structure of the anger expression scale, utilising parallel analyses to determine the number of retained factors. Results: Good internal consistency of the trait anger scale was observed among the Yemeni (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.76) and Tunisian (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86) samples. The parallel analysis suggested a three-factor solution for the anger expression scale (anger in, anger out and anger control), in accordance with the original STAXI. The internal consistency of anger in, anger out and anger control factors ranged between 0.51–0.79 in the Yemeni sample and 0.66–0.81 in the Tunisian sample. Overall, items loaded on the anger control factor included all items proposed by the original authors and this factor had higher reliability than the other two factors in both samples. Conclusion: The results of the current study provide initial support for the use of the trait anger and anger expression scales of the STAXI in Arabic-speaking countries. PMID:27606112

  17. Recitation of Chinese and Arabic Poems Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2008-01-01

    <正>On May 7, the Recitation of Chinese and Arabic Poems jointly sponsored by the China-Arab Friendship Association (CAFA) and the Arab Ambassadors Council in China, and organized by the Arabic Literature Association (ALA) of China, the Chinese Society for Arabic Language Teaching (CSALT), and the Arab Student Union in China, was held in the auditorium of the CPAFFC.

  18. West Nile virus in Tunisia, 2014: First isolation from mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, F; Dachraoui, K; Cherni, S; Bosworth, A; Barhoumi, W; Dowall, S; Chelbi, I; Derbali, M; Zoghlami, Z; Beier, J C; Zhioua, E

    2016-07-01

    Several outbreaks of human West Nile virus (WNV) infections were reported in Tunisia during the last two decades. Serological studies on humans as well as on equine showed intensive circulation of WNV in Tunisia. However, no virus screening of mosquitoes for WNV has been performed in Tunisia. In the present study, we collected mosquito samples from Central Tunisia to be examined for the presence of flaviviruses. A total of 102 Culex pipiens mosquitoes were collected in September 2014 from Central Tunisia. Mosquitoes were pooled according to the collection site, date and sex with a maximum of 5 specimens per pool and tested for the presence of flaviviruses by conventional reverse transcription heminested PCR and by a specific West Nile virus real time reverse transcription PCR. Of a total of 21 pools tested, 7 were positive for WNV and no other flavivirus could be evidenced in mosquito pools. In addition, WNV was isolated on Vero cells. Phylogenetic analysis showed that recent Tunisian WNV strains belong to lineage 1 WNV and are closely related to the Tunisian strain 1997 (PAH 001). This is the first detection and isolation of WNV from mosquitoes in Tunisia. Some areas of Tunisia are at high risk for human WNV infections. WNV is likely to cause future sporadic and foreseeable outbreaks. Therefore, it is of major epidemiological importance to set up an entomological surveillance as an early alert system. Timely detection of WNV should prompt vector control to prevent future outbreaks. In addition, education of people to protect themselves from mosquito bites is of major epidemiological importance as preventive measure against WNV infection.

  19. PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB : PROBLEMATIKA DAN SOLUSINYA

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Fahrurrozi

    2014-01-01

    There are some factors influencing teaching and learning of foreign language. In teaching Arabic, for example, linguistic factors, such as Phonology, Grammatical rules, Morphology, and Vocabulary. Non linguistic factor also influences teaching and learning Arabic, for example, teaching aids, teaching method, age and environment. Teaching method in Arabic classroom is one of the important factor. This article discusses how linguistic factor and non linguistic factor influenced Arabic Classroom...

  20. Labialization in Cairene Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper investigates certain morphological categories in Cairene Arabic where the contrast between the short high vowels [i] and [u] is neutralized. The understanding of these neutralizations has direct consequences on the featural composition of different classes of segments. The analysis is formulated in the framework of the Parallel Structures Model of feature geometry, first introduced in Morén (2003, 2006, 2007 and further developed in work at CASTL. Assuming that features are language-specific but also articulatorily based, I motivate feature specifications for each participating segment and offer a straightforward autosegmental analysis of the distribution. The proposed analysis fits neatly into a constraint-based model and supports the growing body of literature claiming that representations are important even to optimality-theoretic analyses.

  1. Arab Americans: Into the Multicultural Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    Long-standing anti-Arab racism in the U.S. has worsened in recent decades, fueled by U.S. military involvement in the Middle East and by the September 11 attack on the U.S. Arab American and Muslim children have been the targets of misunderstanding and discrimination. Following a historical introduction, discrimination against Arab American and…

  2. Diglossia and Illiteracy in the Arab World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari, Salah

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the negative impact the linguistic situation in the Arab world, which is characterized by diglossia, has on Arab children's ability to acquire reading and writing skills in Arabic and on their academic attainment in general. Discusses specific obstacles posed by contemporary diglossia to the acquisition of literacy, including…

  3. Arab-Americans and the Gulf Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    A study examined the sentiment and impact of different types, channels, and forms of aggression against the Arab-American community during the Gulf Crisis. Data were selected from entries in the 1990 Anti-Arab Discrimination and Hate Crimes Log of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination (ADC) National Office. Results show that there were 129 acts of…

  4. BAHASA ARAB DAN INFERIORITAS WANITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syofian Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic is one of - or perhaps only - among the most gender biased language. Symbols in the Arabic language is authentic evidence of how clearly illustrated the superiority of men over women, especially in matters i'rab (grammatical and signs. As seen from the difference dhamir (pronoun between men and women, the difference 'adad (number between men and women, and the form of words mu'rab (change and mabni (does not change between men and women and so on. Keywords : Arabic languange, Women and superiorityCopyright © 2012 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v2i1.47

  5. Research on psychosocial aspects of asthma in the Arab world: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Anas J; Al Khateeb, Jamal M

    2015-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma has long been recognized. This paper offers a review of research published in the English language related to psychosocial aspects of bronchial asthma in Arab countries. Several databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, ERIC, and PsychInfo) were searched using the following keywords: bronchial asthma, Arab countries, Algiers, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine (West Bank, Gaza), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Sudan, Somalia; United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Thirty-two studies were conducted in 9 Arab countries. Almost all studies found were published in the last fourteen years with an apparent increasing rate in the last five years. In descending order, these studies addressed: knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma, quality of life, behavioral and emotional problems and factors related to academic achievement. The main results of the studies reviewed were: (a) physicians', school staff's, and parents' knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma were generally unsatisfactory, (b) in-service asthma education programs significantly impacted parent and staff knowledge and attitudes, and asthma management practices, (c) quality of life in children and adolescents was significantly adversely affected by asthma, (d) asthma was a common cause of school absenteeism, and had a significant negative impact on academic achievement of students, and (e) students with asthma had significantly higher rates of behavioral and emotional difficulties compared to students without asthma. The paper concludes with a discussion about the implications of these results and a call for further research in this area.

  6. The Hindu-Arabic numerals

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David Eugene

    2004-01-01

    The numbers that we call Arabic are so familiar throughout Europe and the Americas that it can be difficult to realize that their general acceptance in commercial transactions is a matter of only the last four centuries and they still remain unknown in parts of the world.In this volume, one of the earliest texts to trace the origin and development of our number system, two distinguished mathematicians collaborated to bring together many fragmentary narrations to produce a concise history of Hindu-Arabic numerals. Clearly and succinctly, they recount the labors of scholars who have studied the

  7. Arab Americans' acculturation and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.

  8. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  9. [Demo-economic theory in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, S

    1980-01-01

    This is a brief overview of the population theory of Tunisia's 1st leader after independence, H. Bourguiba. Bourguiba believed in the Malthusian theory of economic development linked to an appropriate population growth; he was convinced of the power of the human will in changing the traditional sexual behavior of the Tunisian population, and in changing the traditional Tunisian institutions with the purpose of reaching a development in economic production and of limiting population growth. Economics and demography have their basis in political economy; the government has the right to intervene into the private lives of the citizens, through persuasion and not coercion, since birth regulation does not simply concern the welfare of the individual but of the whole country. Toward this goal not only birth control is permitted, but also abortion in certain cases and sexual sterilization. The ideal number of children for the Tunisian family would be 4 at most, and annual population growth should not exceed 3%. Social justice and redistribution of wealth would not be possible without first achieving such goals.

  10. Reading Arabic : legibility studies for the Arabic script

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahine, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    What is the cost of visual complexity? This dissertation sets out to determine the effect of the complexity of word formation on the legibility of Arabic and the role that vocalization plays in reading. This is carried out via a holistic approach to legibility research that combines the visual cultu

  11. Automatic Translation of Arabic Sign to Arabic Text (ATASAT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoty M.Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sign language continues to be the preferred tool of communication between the deaf and the hearing-impaired. It is a well-structured code by h and gesture, where every gesture has a specific meaning, In this paper has goal to develop a system for automatic translation of Arabic Sign Language. To Arabic Text (ATASAT System this system is acts as a translator among deaf and dumb with normal people to enhance their commun ication, the proposed System consists of five main stages Video and Images capture, Video an d images processing, Hand Signs Construction, Classification finally Text transform ation and interpretation, this system depends on building a two datasets image features for Arabi c sign language gestures alphabets from two resources: Arabic Sign Language dictionary and gest ures from different signer's human, also using gesture recognition techniques, which allows the user to interact with the outside world. This system offers a novel technique of hand detect ion is proposed which detect and extract hand gestures of Arabic Sign from Image or video, i n this paper we use a set of appropriate features in step hand sign construction and class ification of based on different classification algorithms such as KNN, MLP, C4.5, VFI and SMO and compare these results to get better classifier.

  12. Arabic Stemmer for Search Engines Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic language is very different and difficult structure than other languages, that’s because it is a very rich language with complex morphology. Many stemmers have been developed for Arabic language but still there are many weakness and problems. There is still lack of usage of Arabic stemming in search engines. This paper introduces a rooted word Arabic stemmer technique. The results of the introduced technique for six Arabic sentences are used in famous search engines Google Chrome, Internet Explore and Mozilla Firefox to check the effect of using Arabic stemming in these search engines in terms of the total number of searched pages and the search time ratio for actual sentences and their stemming results. The results show that Arabic words stemming increase and accelerate the search engines output.

  13. Counseling Considerations among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a focus group interview conducted with a group of therapists in a large-scale, comprehensive family service agency in an Arab American community. The interview format was semistructured, and the results confirmed what little was already known about the population and supplemented that body of knowledge with updated…

  14. Ending Discrimination Against Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourezk, James G.; Revell, Oliver B.

    1983-01-01

    Abourezk holds that Arab Americans are victims of much racial hatred and stereotyping and that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has been the primary governmental agency abusing the civil rights of this group. Revell, an official of the FBI, counters Abourezk's contentions. (GC)

  15. Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

  16. Trip Report United Arab Emirates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A

    2004-10-06

    Keith Nakanishi and Arthur Rodgers traveled to the United Arab Emirates in February, 2004 to continue an on-going technical collaboration with UAE University and to service the two temporary LLNL seismic stations. Nakanishi and Rodgers then participated in the Gulf Seismic Forum, which was organized by LLNL and sponsored by the University of Sharjah.

  17. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC, VOLUME 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    AN ELEMENTARY COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE WAS DEVELOPED. THIS REPORT IS THE TEXT FOR THE FIRST TWO PARTS OF THAT COURSE. (FOR INFORMATION ON OTHER PARTS, REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 860 AND ED 003 862.) THE COURSE USES THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD FOR TEACHING WHICH ATTEMPTS TO FAMILIARIZE THE STUDENT WITH ORAL SKILLS OF A LANGUAGE BEFORE…

  18. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairy Abusyairi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Up to day, the materials of Arabic teaching that are developed and used widely in Indonesia in general are the teaching materials used in the madrassah in the Middle East. If the teaching material is the result of the development of amounts not so much. While the demands for innovation and the development of Arabic language teaching materials, today continues to roll, in line with the dynamics of the development of science and technology. Besides that , the demand for Arabic teaching materials that use Indonesian as the language develops in most introductory students, especially those with a general educational background. Thus, one needs to have a competence of teachers in performing their duties is developing instructional materials. Development of teaching materials a teacher is important for learning more effective, efficient, and does not deviate from the competency achieved. Arabic teaching materials can be developed through the following steps : a analysis, b design, c the writing and preparation of the material, d evaluation, e revision.

  19. Planned Miscommunication: The Arab-American Business Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of Arab-American business communication problems criticizes current Arabic instruction and argues that, if Western commercial interests are to participate in the Arab market, they must understand Arab interest in educating their own citizens to decrease dependency on foreigners and depend less on Arabs' knowledge of English. (MSE)

  20. PENGARUH BAHASA ARAB TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN BAHASA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuba Pantu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discover and describe how the Arabic influence on the development of the Indonesian language,  which focused on the influence of the vocabulary,  the influence of the Arabic alphabet and its influences on Indonesian syntax,  as well as to discover how changes are absorbed Arabic vocabulary into Indonesian. The method used in this study is a literature review using the technique of content analysis,  which is a research technique for making inferences that can be replicable,  and valid the data by looking at the context. Sources of data in this study are the books relating to the object of research,  among Indonesian Dictionary and other books. The results showed that the effect of Indonesian Arabic is big enough. This can be seen in the uptake of the Arabic word which ranks third after Dutch and English 1, 495 words. In addition,  the use of Arabic script in Indonesian,  which until now still many books,  both Islamic religious books,  Arabic books,  tales,  literature,  written in Arabic alphabet Malay. Arabic influence on Indonesian syntax can be seen in books or Qur’an translations. The words of the absorption Arabic generally undergo changes in shape,  as adapted to the Indonesian grammar or phonemes. It also changes the meaning,  although the numbers are limited.

  1. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with: (1) educational philosophy, administration, statistics, and…

  2. Library Education in Tunisia and Jordan: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, A.; Nimer, R.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the state of development of library education in Jordan and Tunisia and pinpoints problems affecting this development in order to verify if library education in countries with similar cultures and type of economy evolves similarly and faces same problems. A brief introduction to the countries is provided. (EJS)

  3. Popular Islam in Tunisia : a regional cults analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, Kees

    1990-01-01

    This study is about cults in northwestern Tunisia. A cult is defined as a religious grouping which exhibits several distinctive characteristics: the number of participants is limited, exclusivism is absent, the beliefs and practices are biased on one or several specific supernatural beings, and it i

  4. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  5. Energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia: Cointegration and causality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloumi, Mounir [Institute of High Commercial Studies of Sousse, University of Sousse. B.P. 40 Street Ceiture, Sahloul III, 4054 Sousse (Tunisia)], E-mail: mounir.balloumi@gmail.com

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, the Johansen cointegration technique is used to examine the causal relationship between per capita energy consumption (PCEC) and per capita gross domestic product (PCGDP) for Tunisia during the 1971-2004 period. In order to test for Granger causality in the presence of cointegration among the variables, a vector error correction model (VECM) is used instead of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model. Our estimation results indicate that the PCGDP and PCEC for Tunisia are related by one cointegrating vector and that there is a long-run bi-directional causal relationship between the two series and a short-run unidirectional causality from energy to gross domestic product (GDP). The source of causation in the long-run is found to be the error-correction terms in both directions. Hence, an important policy implication resulting from this analysis is that energy can be considered as a limiting factor to GDP growth in Tunisia. Conclusions for Tunisia may also be relevant for a number of countries that have to go through a similar development path of increasing pressure on already scarce energy resources.

  6. Energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia Cointegration and causality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloumi, Mounir [Institute of High Commercial Studies of Sousse, University of Sousse. B.P. 40 Street Ceiture, Sahloul III, 4054 Sousse (Tunisia)

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, the Johansen cointegration technique is used to examine the causal relationship between per capita energy consumption (PCEC) and per capita gross domestic product (PCGDP) for Tunisia during the 1971-2004 period. In order to test for Granger causality in the presence of cointegration among the variables, a vector error correction model (VECM) is used instead of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model. Our estimation results indicate that the PCGDP and PCEC for Tunisia are related by one cointegrating vector and that there is a long-run bi-directional causal relationship between the two series and a short-run unidirectional causality from energy to gross domestic product (GDP). The source of causation in the long-run is found to be the error-correction terms in both directions. Hence, an important policy implication resulting from this analysis is that energy can be considered as a limiting factor to GDP growth in Tunisia. Conclusions for Tunisia may also be relevant for a number of countries that have to go through a similar development path of increasing pressure on already scarce energy resources. (author)

  7. Challenges of Globalization: Morocco and Tunisia. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Morocco and Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This publication contains a collection of curriculum projects developed by educators who were participants in the 2001 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Morocco and Tunisia. The 13 curriculum projects in the publication are entitled: "Women in Morocco, Artists and Artisans" (Virginia da Costa); "Cultures of…

  8. Arabs in the New World: Studies on Arab-American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer Y., Ed.; Abraham, Nabeel, Ed.

    This book is a collection of articles and research materials on Arab-Americans. Part one of the book provides an historical overview of Arab-Americans, their reasons for emigration from Greater Syria, and profiles of the two major religious groups, Muslims and Christians, in the United States Arab population. Authors of this section include Alixa…

  9. How Muslim Arab-Israeli Teachers Conceptualize the Israeli-Arab Conflict in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit; Gamal, Eshan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how Muslim Arab-Israeli teachers conceptualize the Israeli-Arab conflict with their students. The findings show that Arab schools are in a constant state of tension between opposing poles of identity and belonging. The teachers emphasize their students' alienation from the Israeli establishment and their lack…

  10. Guiding Digital and Media Literacy Development in Arab Curricula through Understanding Media Uses of Arab Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Jad P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…

  11. Arabic Natural Language Processing System Code Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 This technical note provides a brief description of a Java library for Arabic natural language processing ( NLP ) containing code...for training and applying the Arabic NLP system described in the paper "A Cross-Task Flexible Transition Model for Arabic Tokenization, Affix...processing, NLP , Java, code 14 Stephen C. Tratz (301) 394-2305Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU ii Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. File Overview 1 3

  12. New Trends in Islamic Political Parties in the Arab Spring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Burdah

    2014-12-01

    [Perkembangan mutakhir partai-partai politik Islam di sejumlah negara Arab “Musim Semi” menunjukkan adanya perubahan orientasi dan agenda baru, berupa penegasan kembali komitmen mereka terhadap nilai-nilai demokrasi, penguatan masyarakat sipil, dan adopsi prinsip-prinsip hak asasi manusia. Pada saat yang sama, mereka tampak kurang tertarik kepada agenda-agenda politik Islam lama seperti jihad bagi pendirian negara Islam dan pendirian pemerintahan Islam global di bawah satu khalifah yang tersentralisasi. Hal ini relevan terhadap kasus Partai Keadilan dan Pembangunan (Ḥizb al-‘Adālah wa’l-Tanmiyah di Maroko, Partai Kebebasan dan Keadilan (Ḥizb al-Ḥurriyyah wa’l-‘Adālah di Mesir, dan Partai Kebangkitan (Ḥizb al-Nahḍah di Tunisia. Artikel ini berupaya mengeksplorasi dan menjelaskan fakta baru ini. Berdasarkan kajian pustaka dan wawancara dengan sejumlah petinggi Partai Keadilan dan Pembangunan di Maroko, penulis berkesimpulan bahwa orientasi baru ini terjadi akibat dari gelombang demokratisasi dunia, “angin kencang musim semi” Arab yang begitu kuat, dan dinamika internal partai.

  13. Constructing the “Arab Spring”: News Discourses in Turkish Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Dağtaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Originating in Tunisia and spreading rapidly to Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, and Libya, the recent wave of popular movements that the Western media have dubbed the “Arab Spring” has been closely monitored by the whole world including in Turkey. This country is geographically close to the region and the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP has been active in developing foreign policies in relation to the key countries involved. This paper analyzes the news discourses in the reports published between January 25th and February 25th, 2011, in six Turkish national newspapers. This is the period when upheaval reached its peak in Tahrir Square in Cairo, the most potent symbol of “Arab Spring”. The newspapers sampled fall into two categories, those supporting the AKP government (Star, Zaman, and Sabah and those not supporting the AKP government (Cumhuriyet, Hürriyet, and Taraf. To map the discursive fields employed in the news reports, this paper draws on methods from critical discourse analysis and examines news actors and their quotation patterns, lexicalization, overlexicalization and syntactic preferences.

  14. Gravity Analysis of the Jeffera Basin, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickus, K.; Gabtni, H.; Jallouli, C.

    2004-12-01

    Southern Tunisia consists of two main tectonic provinces: 1) the Saharan Platform and 2) the folded Atlasic domain, separated by the North Saharan Flexure. The Saharan Platform, which contains the Ghadames Basin and the Telemzane Arch, consists of gently dipping Paleozoic strata overlain by Triassic to Cretaceous sediments. The Atlasic domain consists of a thicker sequence of mainly Mesozoic and younger rock with less complete sequences of Paleozoic strata. Within the Atlasic domain are the still actively subsiding Chotts and Jeffera basins. The Jeffera basin, which occurs to the east of the Telemzane Arch contains at least eight kilometers of Paleozoic and younger sediment that were formed during numerous subsidence episodes since Carboniferous time. The Jeffera basin is dominated by tilted fault blocks that were formed during numerous tectonic episodes. Several unpublished seismic reflection profiles and well data exist for the Jeffera basin, however a deep structural analysis of the basin has not been published. We examined the existing gravity data in conjunction with available well and geologic data to determine structural features within the basin. The Bouguer gravity anomaly map shows that the Jeffera basin is dominated by a narrow northwest-trending gravity minimum. However, a more detailed analysis consisting of wavelength filtering and edge enhancements indicate that the structure of the basin is more complicated than indicated by the Bouguer gravity anomaly map. A residual gravity anomaly map indicates that the Jeffera basin consists of at least three and maybe four subbasins. Additionally, the Jeffera Fault marks the boundary between northwest-trending gravity anomalies to its northeast and east-trending anomalies over the Saharan Platform. The above observation is amplified by the construction of the enhanced horizontal derivatives (EHG) of both the complete Bouguer gravity and the residual gravity anomaly maps. The EHG maps highlight the lateral

  15. [Pelvic actinomycosis in Tunisia: five cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelli, Dalenda; Hassini, Abdelwahed; Aloui, Fadhel; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Zouaoui, Béchir; Chelli, Héla; Chanoufi, Badis

    2008-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a rare suppurative disease due to Actinomyces species. These Gram-positive, non-acid fast anaerobic filamentous bacteria are normal inhabitants of the human body, tending to reside in the oropharynx and bowel but are occasionally found in the vagina. Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare bacterial disease in women. Clinical manifestations are various and non specific and may be acute or chronic. No consensus exists for treatment. We reviewed files and identified all five cases of pelvic actinomycosis managed at Obstetrics and Gynaecology department "A" at the Maternity Center of Tunis over an eight-year period (1998-2005). The women's average age was 39.2 years. One patient was menopausal and consulted for bleeding. The other four patients were younger and had all been using an intrauterine device (IUD) for contraception. They presented with acute clinical manifestations. Their main symptom was pelvic pain. Three women had fever, and two presented with urinary tract obstruction. All patients had surgery. A pelvic abscess was found in four cases. Laparoscopic management was possible in only one case. Laparotomy was necessary in the other four. Four women had adnexectomies, two with hysterectomy. Digestive complications occurred in three cases. Actinomycosis was diagnosed only after surgery, by the histological examination. This series confirms the difficulties encountered in the management of pelvic actinomycosis. We review the recent literature and describe the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures currently recommended. The relationship between pelvic actinomycosis and IUDs, the most common method of contraception in Tunisia, is clearly established. Clinical diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis is difficult because the symptoms are non-specific. Laboratory tests can help by showing serious inflammation, however. Imaging findings are also non-specific and may suggest an abscess or an inflammatory or neoplastic process. Interventional radiology, specifically

  16. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  17. Palatalization in educated Cairene Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Youssef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the speech of some educated Cairenes, the coronal stops /t d tˤ dˤ/ acquire a secondary palatal articulation before high front vowels and glides, resulting in [tj] or [dj]. Based on first-hand data, this article provides a detailed phonetic and phonological investigation of this palatalization process in an attempt to fill a descriptive gap in the literature on Cairene Arabic. By examining the full range of triggers, targets, and potential blockers, I demonstrate that this is a phonetic coarticulatory effect, and that it should be distinguished from phonological assimilation. I also explore the hypothesis that this process – characterized as a sound change in progress – has been phonologized in a different sociolect of Cairene Arabic.

  18. PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB : PROBLEMATIKA DAN SOLUSINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Fahrurrozi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some factors influencing teaching and learning of foreign language. In teaching Arabic, for example, linguistic factors, such as Phonology, Grammatical rules, Morphology, and Vocabulary. Non linguistic factor also influences teaching and learning Arabic, for example, teaching aids, teaching method, age and environment. Teaching method in Arabic classroom is one of the important factor. This article discusses how linguistic factor and non linguistic factor influenced Arabic Classroom. DOI: 10.15408/a.v1i2.1137

  19. Suicide among Arab-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Melissa Tracy; Peter Scarborough; Sandro Galea

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arab-American (AA) populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDIN...

  20. The Arab Spring in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Elsa Annaklara; Hansen, Ditte Ingemann

    2013-01-01

    This project contains analysis and discussion of several social movements in Jordan. The uprising in Jordan and demands for more democratization are inspired by the Arab Spring observed in the Middle East. The most highlighted Jordanian social movements being the religious Muslim Brotherhood, the radical Salafi Movement and the newly proclaimed Popular Mobilization. Questions concerning the identification of them, their goals and ways of mobilizing and the hindrances for these movements to mo...

  1. Rule Based Shallow Parser for Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of language processing approaches that compute a basic analysis of sentence structure rather than attempting full syntactic analysis is shallow syntactic parsing. It is an analysis of a sentence which identifies the constituents (noun groups, verb groups, prepositional groups, but does not specify their internal structure, nor their role in the main sentence. The only technique used for Arabic shallow parser is Support Vector Machine (SVM based approach. The problem faced by shallow parser developers is the boundary identification which is applied to ensure the generation of high accuracy system performance. Approach: The specific objective of the research was to identify the entire Noun Phrases (NPs, Verb Phrases (VPs and Prepositional Phrases (PPs boundaries in the Arabic language. This study discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. New rules were proposed to the shallow parser features up to the generation of two levels from full parse-tree. We described an implementation and evaluate the rule-based shallow parser that handles chunking of Arabic sentences. This research was based on a critical analysis of the Arabic sentences architecture. It discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect the start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. Results: The system was tested manually on 70 Arabic sentences which composed of 1776 words, with the length of the sentences between 4-50 words. The result obtained was significantly better than state of the art Arabic published results, which achieved F-scores of 97%. Conclusion: The main achievement includes the development of Arabic shallow parser based on rule-based approaches. Chunking which constitutes the main contribution is achieved on two successive stages that include grouped sequences of

  2. Capital Mobility: An application of Saving-Investment Link for Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhari Dahalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the degree of capital mobility in Tunisia for 1970 to 2009 period, using Feldstein and Horioka (1980 method of savings and investment comovement. We apply ARDL bound test to assess comovement between savings and investment; and to compute the savings retention ratio with FMOLS and DOLS as complements. The results reveal low capital mobility, in contrary to Maminingi (1997 who note perfect capital immobility in Tunisia. Hence, efforts should be made by authorities in Tunisia to evolve policies that will mobilize international capital into Tunisia

  3. UNICEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learning after Hurricane Matthew Innovate for children U-Report Nigeria first country to reach 1 million responders Recent stories Working ... Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos ... ...

  4. Diplomasi RI di Mesir dan Negara-Negara Arab pada Tahun 1947

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    Suranta Abd. Rahman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, the Republic of Indonesia (RI sent a diplomatic mission to seek the international community’s acknowledgement for the nation’s independence. The mission in the Arab nations, particularly in Egypt, was severely challenged by the Netherlands. However, with a spirit of solidarity, the people and government of Egypt supported the struggle and acknowledged RI’s independence, de facto and de jure. Diplomacy was implemented in maintaining RI’s sovereignty which was threatened to be retaken by the Netherlands. Meanwhile, the struggles in military area were maintained to dissipate the Netherlands from Indonesia.

  5. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  6. PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB DI ERA POSMETODE

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    Muhbib Abdul Wahab

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed to answer two essential problems; (1 development map of Arabic learning method from 1990s until today which has been formulated unclearly, and (2 developing Arabic learning in posmethod era by optimilizing teacher’s strategic role in the process of Arabic learning. This article used bibliographic sources from some books and articles in scientific journal about linguistic and Arabic learning. The interpretation data of academician thought and Arabic linguistic experts was done by using historical-critical approach and content analysis for substancial interpretation. B. Kumaravadivelu concept in Beyond Methods: Macrostrategies for Language Teaching (2003 which requires teacher to play three essential roles; pasif technician, reflective practician, and transformative intelectual is very inportant in Arabic learning in posmethod era. The principle of at-tharîqatu ahammu min al-mâddah (method is more important than content can be developed to be main principle “spirit, profesionality and strategic role of language educator is more important in teaching Arabic than the method itself”, since basically there is no most appropriate and ideal method for any goals and situation of Arabic learning.

  7. Modern Arabic Prose Literature: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gassick, Trevor

    This is the preliminary draft of a planned "Introduction to Modern Arabic Prose Literature," the completed text of which "would offer basic biographical and bibliographical impressions, rather than extensive treatments, of the major figures in Arabic prose in the 19th and 20th centuries, along with concise assessments of their ranges of interests…

  8. Linguistic Features of Pidgin Arabic in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds the light on Asian pidgin Arabic, particularly linguistic features of pidgin Arabic in Kuwait. The phonology, syntax and lexicon of the language are described on the basis of interviews conducted with forty Asian informants. The data are discussed in its relation to other studies. Also, the researcher discussed the implication of…

  9. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arrangspan>ed along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  10. The BBC Arabic Service: changing political mediascapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Issawi, F.; Baumann, G.

    2010-01-01

    Launched in 1938 as the BBC's first foreign language radio service, 80 years later, in 2008, the BBC Arabic Service also became the first tri-media platform at the World Service offering news and current affairs not only on radio and on online, but also via a fully fledged TV Channel in Arabic. This

  11. Commitment among Arab Adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Adital Tirosh; Azaiza, Faisal

    1998-01-01

    Examines 662 Arab adolescents' commitments to their own self-development, family, Arab people, and village along with the order in which these commitments are structured. Reveals that the two prevalent patterns of adolescent commitment, individualistic and collectivistic, demonstrate the adolescents' struggle with these value systems and the…

  12. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  13. First detection of Babesia occultans in Hyalomma ticks from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-García, A; M'Ghirbi, Y; Bouattour, A; Hurtado, A

    2011-04-01

    Descriptions of Babesia occultans have previously been restricted to sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we report the finding, for the first time, of this low or non-pathogenic bovine Babesia species in Tunisia, northern Africa. B. occultans DNA was detected by molecular methods in Hyalomma marginatum unfed ticks collected in 3 bioclimatic regions of Tunisia. The near-full-length 18S rRNA gene was sequenced and compared with related sequences retrieved from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that other sequences deposited as Babesia sp. could also correspond to B. occultans, suggesting that this species may have a wide distribution in Mediterranean and Asiatic regions, and not only in sub-Saharan Africa as previously described. A B. occultans-specific Reverse Line Blot (RLB) oligonucleotide probe was designed for future epidemiological studies that would help to clarify this possibility.

  14. Acanthamoeba T4 genotype associated with keratitis infections in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendana, F; Sellami, H; Trabelsi, H; Neji, S; Cheikhrouhou, F; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2013-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infection. We report five cases of AK diagnosed from 2005 to 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology at Habib Bourguiba Sfax Hospital, Tunisia. All were associated with improper care of contact lenses (rinsing of contact lenses with tap water and inappropriate cleaning) and lens storage. The patients displayed different clinical presentations: corneal inflammation, corneal ulceration, and corneal abscess. The diagnosis was made after direct examination, culture, and polymerase chain reaction amplification with specific primers. The genotype classification was based on the highly variable DF3 region in the 18S rRNA gene. This is the first study characterizing Acanthamoeba genotype in Tunisia and North Africa. All Acanthamoeba isolates were associated to the T4 genotype. Three different DF3 sequence types were related to AK infections T4/10, T4/15, and T4/16.

  15. A New Generation of Uprisings – from Tunisia to Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kurnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The uprising in Tunisia, the occupation of public squares in Spain, the Occupy Wall Street movement, the global uprising on 15 October 2011 and the recent widespread demonstrations in Slovenia can be understood as the new generation of uprisings following the eruption of financial crisis. Those multitudinal expressions of indignation and quests for real democracy are expressions of the irreversible crisis of neoliberalism and representative democracy. From an examination of the defining traits of uprisings from Tunisia to Slovenia, one can define basic theoretical and practical dilemmas in the new ways of doing political encounters. These include the relationship between the social and political dimensions of uprisings, the relationship between heterogeneity and forms of political organization, how resistance against financialization prefigures emerging forms of direct democracy, how emerging movements address the issue of direct democracy and minority rights, and what theoretical practices can prevent the attenuation of the discourse of uprisings and enable the free production of enunciations.

  16. Islam and the Arabs in the work of a Maronite scholar in the service of the Catholic church (Abraham Ecchellensis

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    Heyberger, Bernard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As an expert in Arabic documents in the “Republic of Letters”, Abraham Ecchellensis devoted himself in his work to an attempt at synthesis that was characteristic of his time: he tried to reconcile contemporary scholars’ expectations of specialised knowledge both with his Catholic and controversialist commitments and with his status, in his role as a Maronite, as a spokesman for Arabic and even Muslim culture. Ecchellensis provided the public with translations of Arabic Muslim philosophical and scientific texts which he deemed to have drawn on universal “wisdom”. However, a disinterested curiosity concerning Islam could not be publicly advertised and had to be cloaked in the form of anti-Protestant controversy or Catholic apology. In the work of Ecchellensis this stance was accompanied by an expurgation of all Islamic terminology from the Arabic language and by a recourse to the Christian Arabic literature writen during the first centuries of the Hijra.

    [fr] Expert en documents arabes dans la « République des Lettres », Abraham Ecchellensis se livre dans son oeuvre à un essai de synthèse caractéristique de son temps : il tente de concillier l’attente de connaissances des savants de son temps avec son engagement catholique et controversiste, et avec son identification, en tant que maronite, comme porte-parole de la culture arabe, y compris musulmane. Il fournit au public des traductions de textes philosophiques et scientifiques arabes musulmans qui lui paraissent participer d’une « sagesse » universelle. Mais une curiosité désintéressée pour l’islam ne peut s’afficher : elle doit prendre les formes de la controverse anti-protestante ou de l’apologie catholique. Chez Ecchellensis cette posture s’accompagne d’une expurgation de toute terminologie islamique dans la langue arabe, et d’un recours à la littérature arabe chrétienne élaboré aux premiers siècles de l’Hégire.

  17. A novel root based Arabic stemmer

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    Mohammed N. Al-Kabi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stemming algorithms are used in information retrieval systems, indexers, text mining, text classifiers etc., to extract stems or roots of different words, so that words derived from the same stem or root are grouped together. Many stemming algorithms were built in different natural languages. Khoja stemmer is one of the known and widely used Arabic stemmers. In this paper, we introduced a new light and heavy Arabic stemmer. This new stemmer is presented in this study and compared with two well-known Arabic stemmers. Results showed that accuracy of our stemmer is slightly better than the accuracy yielded by each one of those two well-known Arabic stemmers used for evaluation and comparison. Evaluation tests on our novel stemmer yield 75.03% accuracy, while the other two Arabic stemmers yield slightly lower accuracy.

  18. Using Arabic CAPTCHA for Cyber Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bilal; Alghathbar, Khaled S.; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alkelabi, Abdullah M.; Alajaji, Abdulaziz

    Bots are automated programs designed to make auto registrations in online services, resulting in wastage of resources and breach of web security. English based CAPTCHAs are used to prevent bots from abusing these online services. However, English based CAPTCHAs have some inherent flaws and have been broken by bots. In this paper, an Arabic text based CAPTCHA is proposed. The CAPTCHA text image is distorted with background noise. Background noise and dots in the Arabic text makes CAPTCHA hard to be broken by Arabic OCRs. The proposed scheme is useful in Arabic speaking countries and in protecting internet resources. The proposed CAPTCHA scheme is both secure and robust. Experimental results show that background noise is a good defense mechanism against OCR recognizing Arabic text.

  19. RECOGNITION OF HINDI (ARABIC HANDWRITTEN NUMERALS

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    Rawan I. Zaghloul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of handwritten numerals has been one of the most challenging topics in image processing. This is due to its contributions in the automation process in several applications. The aim of this study was to build a classifier that can easily recognize offline handwritten Arabic numerals to support those applications that are deal with Hindi (Arabic numerals. A new algorithm for Hindi (Arabic Numeral Recognition is proposed. The proposed algorithm was developed using MATLAB and tested with a large sample of handwritten numeral datasets for different writers in different ages. Pattern recognition techniques are used to identify Hindi (Arabic handwritten numerals. After testing, high recognition rates were achieved, their ranges from 95% for some numerals and up to 99% for others. The proposed algorithm used a powerful set of features which proved to be effective in the recognition of Hindi (Arabic numerals.

  20. Broad Money Demand and Monetary Policy in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Treichel

    1997-01-01

    The development of empirical foundations to the conduct of monetary policy in Tunisia is the central concern of this paper. Finding stable money demand functions, it broadly corroborates the choice of monetary aggregates as intermediate targets of monetary policy by the Tunisian Central Bank. It finds, however, a lower income elasticity than the one currently applied by the Central Bank and proposes a different methodology for defining monetary growth targets. The paper also finds that both i...

  1. Wage gap between men and women in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jeddi, Hela; Malouche, Dhafer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating wage differences between males and females in Tunisia by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, a technical that isolates wage gap due to characteristics, from wage gap due to discrimination against women. The data used in the analysis is obtained from the Tunisian Population and Employment Survey 2005. It is estimated that, the gender wage gap is about 19% and the results ascertain that the gender wage gap is mostly attributed to discrimination, especially t...

  2. Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  3. Cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered domestic ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, S; Trifi, M; Ben Naceur, S; Bouchhima, T; Lahouar, N; Lamouchi, I; Maâmouri, N; Selmi, R; Dhibi, M; Torgerson, P R

    2013-09-01

    A total of 10,818 domestic ruminants (3913 cattle, 2722 sheep, 3779 goats, 404 dromedaries) slaughtered in various abattoirs in Tunisia between 2003 and 2010 were examined for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts. The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) was 16.42% in sheep, 8.56% in cattle, 5.94% in dromedaries and 2.88% in goats. CE prevalence increased with age according to an asymptotic model and there was evidence of variation in infection pressure depending on the region of Tunisia where the animals were slaughtered. Cattle appeared to have the highest infection pressure of the species examined. The mean intensity of hepatic cysts was higher than that of pulmonary cysts in all species. The highest mean intensity of infection with E. granulosus larvae was observed in cattle (18.14) followed by sheep (9.58), goats (2.31) and dromedaries (2.12). The abundance of infection increased in a linear fashion with age in all animal species. Cyst abundance varied with species of animal and district of Tunisia. Cysts from dromedaries were more fertile (44.44%) than those from sheep (30.25%), goats (30.32%) and cattle (0.95%). The viability of the protoscoleces from fertile cysts from cattle (78.45%) was higher than those from sheep (70.71%) and camels (69.57%). The lowest protoscolex viability was recorded for hydatid cysts from goats (20.21%). This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in all domestic ruminant species, particularly in sheep, throughout Tunisia and emphasizes the need to interrupt parasite transmission by preventive integrated approaches in a CE control programme.

  4. Teaching about Arab Americans: What Social Studies Teachers Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud

    External influences in the universal culture have significantly affected the image of Arab Americans and their children. Although Arab Americans are less visible than other minorities, the anti-Arab perception in the media makes them more visible in a negative way. Based on an ethnographic study investigating the experiences of Arabic-speaking…

  5. Motivation to Teach: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…

  6. The Challenge of Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Ghannem, MD, MSc

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic disease, and particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD, is the major cause of death in most developed countries, despite the downward trend observed during the last three decades. Although CVD is emerging in developing countries, little is known there about comprehensive preventive measures for controlling its expansion.The health care system in Tunisia faces the challenge of increasing rates of CVD risk factors. Epidemiologic studies show high levels of CVD risk factors among Tunisian adults and children. Evidence shows that several risk factors and conditions are commonly associated with major chronic diseases. Integrated actions against selected risk factors (i.e., smoking, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, implemented within the social context, can lead to the reduction of major chronic diseases. These interventions should take place early in childhood.In Tunisia, a much-needed community-based intervention program to control CVD is being planned. This program will promote healthy living, smoke-free air, healthy nutrition, regular physical activity, and supportive living and working environments. Its ultimate goal is to reduce the burden of CVD and its related behaviors. A description of this program and how it will be implemented and assessed in the region of Sousse, Tunisia, is presented.

  7. Evolutionary dynamics of HBV-D7 subgenotype in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Chaouch, Houda; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Taffon, Stefania; Villano, Umbertina; Equestre, Michele; Bruni, Roberto; Marcantonio, Cinzia; Tritarelli, Elena; Cella, Eleonora; Blasi, Aletheia; Aouni, Mahjoub; Letaief, Amel; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the main cause of diseases liver related infecting more than 200 milion persons worldwide. HBV infection shows high level of prevalence in South-East Europe and in Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, a country with an intermediate level endemicity, HbsAg prevalence ranges from 2 to 5%. Most of the HBV isolates from Tunisia were classified as subgenotype D7 whose circulation is restricted to a specific area of North Africa including Maghreb region. In this paper, the phylogeny of HBV-D7 isolated from 38 Tunisian patients was investigated by analyzing the S gene region of HBV. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin of the HBV-D7 in the country. The Tunisian D7 isolates were found to share a common ancestor whose origin was traced back to 1958. Population dynamics indicated that HBV-D7 epidemic in Tunisia grew exponentially from 1960s to 1990s. After that, the curve reached a plateau around the years 2000 likely due to the implementation of the infant vaccination program in 1996. Epidemiological data suggested that the exponential growth phase was likely sustained by intra-familial transmission events occurring during infancy. Further characterization of HBV-D7 isolates should be performed to evaluate, in the post-vaccination era, the emergence of new transmission routes, and to monitor the efficacy of the vaccination program. J. Med. Virol. 89:469-475, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Hemoglobin beta S haplotype in the Kebili region (southern Tunisia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikha, M; Fakhfakh, F; Mseddi, S; Gargouri, J; Ghali, L; Labiadh, Z; Harrabi, M; Souissi, T; Ayadi, H

    1998-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a monogenic hereditary disease characterized by a mutation in the beta globin gene. Five major haplotypes associated with the beta S mutation have been defined: Benin, Bantu, Senegalian, Camerounian, and Arabo-Indian. Previous studies in northern Tunisia showed that sickle cell anemia was of Benin origin in this region. Patients from the south of Tunisia, mainly from the Kebili region, were not previously concerned. In this study, we have determined the beta S haplotype and evaluated phenotypical expression of the disease in 14 patients from this latter region. The use of four restriction endonucleases having polymorphic sites in the beta globin gene showed that all patients had the Benin haplotype, confirming the Benin origin of sickle cell anemia in Tunisia. This haplotype is associated with an heterogeneous expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) with extremes varying from 2.4 to 16.3% and a mean expression rate of 8.16%, which is in accordance with literature data. In spite of the haplotype homogeneity in our patients, clinical heterogeneity was noted. A unique case of alpha-thalassemia could not explain this heterogeneity. In contrast, we found a certain correlation between fetal hemoglobin expression and clinical severity.

  9. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

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    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  10. Transferring the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC Approach and Best Available Techniques (BAT Concepts to Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vázquez Calvo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The principles introduced by the Directive Concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC (currently known as the Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU are innovative and have raised interests in the framework of the literature debate on environmental regulation. Many articles describe and analyze the application of the Directive in European countries, but only a few articles focus on how the interest for the Directive’s principles, including the integrated approach, have reached countries outside the European Union. This paper aims to contribute to this topic, describing the experience of the authors in carrying out an EU-funded project on transferring the IPPC approach and Best Available Techniques (BAT concepts to three Arab countries, i.e., Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. The paper presents the experience referring to two sectors falling within the scope of the IPPC Directive: the textile and dairy sector. The objectives, methodologies, activities and experiences are described and can be used and valorized to integrate the IPPC approach and BAT concepts in the current environmental legislation of the three countries.

  11. Arabic Heritage Language Learners: motivation, expectations, competence, and engagement in learning Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Husseinali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates motivation, outcome expectations, competence and engagement of Arabic heritage learners. Fifty students belonging to two distinct groups participated in this study. The first group is comprised of heritage learners coming from Arabic speaking homes (Arab HLLs while the second group is comprised of non-Arabic speaking Muslims (Muslim HLLs. The study aims to uncover trends amongst Arabic HLLs, therefore, means for the whole group were calculated. In addition to means, t-tests were performed to compare the two groups with regard to motivation, outcome expectations, and competence. Frequencies for engagement items for each group are provided separately. The results indicate that, on the one hand, Arabic HLLs possess a strong identity and community motivations. On the hand, their instrumental or utilitarian motivation is very weak. On the levels of skills, Arabic HLLs are more drawn to study Arabic to improve their communication skills rather than to learn about their heritage culture. In comparison to Muslim HLL, Arab HLLs perceived themselves more competent to achieve speaking proficiency than Muslim HLLs. Muslim HLLs desired to learn more about Islam and Islamic texts than Arab HLLs. The results o this study are discussed in light of classroom instruction and designing of curricula to match the needs of both groups of HLLs.

  12. PROFESIONALISME DOSEN BAHASA ARAB DALAM PENGGUNAAN MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Hanifah

    2013-07-01

    Based on the importance of mastery the learning media for the teachers, and the importance of using media in learning, especially in Arabic learning. the author as lecturer of Arabic at the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science and also as a lecturer of arabic media learning at the Department of Arabic Education (PBA are interested to write and discuss about the professionalism of Arabic lecturer in the use of learning media, with the aim to develop the professionalism of Arabic lecturers while improving the quality of Arabic learning in the faculties of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science, especially in the department of Arabic Language Education, because this article contains the information about how to become a professional Arabic lecturer in selecting, creating and using various types of Arabic learning media.

  13. A gendered approach to the media coverage of the Arab world conflicts: the invasion of Iraq through the eyes of the female journalists of the Spanish public television (TVE)

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Marina Vidal Valiña

    2012-01-01

    The recent revolutions in the Arab countries have once again attracted the attention to a geographic area generally seen by the «Western world» with suspicion and distrust. But before Tunisia, Egypt, Libya or Syria, in 2003, the war in Iraq was considered the most important media conflict of the history. This invasion had apparently a live coverage by thousands of media posted there. In Spain, five women covered the invasion for the public television, TVE. Did they pay especial attention to w...

  14. PENGARUH PERKEMBANGAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN DAN TEKNOLOGI TERHADAP LEKSIKOGRAFI ARAB

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi, Syamsul

    2012-01-01

    Tulisan ini membahas pengaruh perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (iptek) terhadap leksikografi Arab . Kendatipun terfokuskan pada bahasa Arab, karena bahasa Arab itu dipelajari di berbagai negara lewat berbagai lembaga pendidikan, termasuk di perguruan tinggi di Indonesia, pengaruh tersebut dapat dihayati pula oleh para peneliti maupun pecinta dan pemakai bahasa Arab di negeri ini . Pembahasan diharapkan memberikan beberapa informasi, yakni (a) khazanah perkamusan Arab, (b) informasi...

  15. L'enseignement superieur tunisien: Enjeux et avenir (Higher Education in Tunisia: Challenges and Opportunities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report presents findings of a study of higher education in Tunisia. It finds that higher education in Tunisia is a largely effective and well-performing system. However, it notes an expected doubling of enrollment over the next 10 years which will create obstacles that prevent it from playing the role expected of it by a society and economy…

  16. Mortality rates among Arab Americans in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Florence J; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.

  17. Quality of diabetes care in Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlie, Helen D; Herman, William H; Brown, Morton B; Hammad, Adnan; Jaber, Linda A

    2008-02-01

    The quality of care received by Arab American patients with type 2 diabetes residing in a city with a large migrant Arab population has not been examined. Arab American adults with a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes were identified in a rigorous cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study conducted in Dearborn, MI. Quality of diabetes care was determined by assessing adherence to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) clinical practice recommendations. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) provided data for a national comparison. Among the 53 participants, mean age was 59+/-12 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 11.3+/-13.3 years. The ADA goal for an A1c of Arab American subjects studied were treated less aggressively with pharmacologic agents than recommended by the ADA. 26% of the Arab Americans had an A1c>9.5% as compared to 18% of the national population. Arab Americans generally had worse blood pressure control but better lipid control compared to the national sample. This is the first report of the quality of diabetes care in an Arab American population, and demonstrates sub-optimal quality of care according to the ADA clinical practice recommendations.

  18. Migration for employment among the Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, S; Sinclair, C

    1979-10-01

    The large-scale recent migrations from Arab countries for jobs in the Persian Gulf and Libya are examined with analyses of the problems from the perspectives of both the importing and the exporting countries. In 1975 there were more than 2.5 million Arab workers living in Arab states other than their own, about 1/2 of whom were employed. Since that time the numbers have increased by about 9% annually; an estimated 1,570,000 Arab workers were living abroad in early 1979. It is estimated that another 975,000 non-Arab migrant workers were employed within the Arab world in January 1979, a total of over 2,500,000 migrants for employment in the Arab Near East. The sheer volume of this migration for employment and its relative importance within the labor markets of the Arab world, the impact that migration for employment has upon economic development, and the mutual independence among countries that labor exporting and importing brings about have made migrant labor movements a leading issue in the Near East. Focus is on the distribution of wealth in the Near East, population and workforce in the Arab states, economic development of the capital-rich and the capital-poor states, the international transfers of labor, and impacts on the labor-supply countries. The impacts of an emigrant workforce vary considerably with the conditions in the different exporting countries. Some of these effects are highlighted by citing examples from Egypt, Jordan, the Yemen and Sudan.

  19. Mortality Rates Among Arab Americans in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Dallo, Florence J.; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, ...

  20. Arab-American Literature: Origins and Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Suhair Majaj

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Arab-American literature has been in existence in the U.S. for over a century, it has only recently begun to be recognized as part of the ethnic landscape of literary America. However, the last two decades have seen a dramatic increase in publication by Arab-American writers. This literary burgeoning reflects in part the shifting historical, social, and political contexts that have pushed Arab-Americans to the foreground, creating both new spaces for their voices and new urgencies of expression, as well as the flourishing creativity of these writers.

  1. On Multiple Typeface Arabic Script Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmalek Zidouri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a new sub-word segmentation and recognition scheme, which is independent of font size and font type. D ifferent ways of recognition are attempted namely Neural N et, template matching and principal component analysis. Results show that the real problem in Arabic character recognition remains the challenging separation of sub-words into characters. The system is realized in a modularized way. The combination of the different modules forms the basis of a complete Arabic OCR system. A successful preprocessing stage is reported. Unlike Latin based languages, recognition of printed Arabic characters remains an open field of research.

  2. Aeroballistic Parameters of Arab arrows On the Medieval Tract "Arab Archery"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas W. Mitiukov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With a helping of simple mathematical models there was analyzed the ballistic information of the Arab arrow on medieval Arabic treatise "Arab archery". It is shown that there were no any errors on the text and the translation was correct, then, apparently, Arabian heavy arrow had specific design and can no to be in one quiver with the light arrows. Regarding light arrows, then, apparently, they have the typical design with coefficient of drag function cx ≈ 2, and firing was carried out to a maximum range Arabic archer with an elevation angle about 10°.

  3. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  4. Cancer among Arab Americans in the metropolitan Detroit area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kendra L; Kulwicki, Anahid; Weiss, Linda K; Fakhouri, Haifa; Sakr, Wael; Kau, Gregory; Severson, Richard K

    2004-01-01

    Detroit is home to one of the largest populations of Arab Americans outside of the Middle East, yet little is known about the cancer distribution in this ethnic group. The authors of this study created an Arab/Chaldean surname list and matched it with the Detroit SEER Registry to identify cancer cases of probable Arabic descent. We then determined proportional incidence ratios (PIR) for specific cancer sites among metropolitan Detroit Arab Americans as compared to non-Arab Whites, and contrasted the results with Middle Eastern data. Arab/Chaldean men had greater proportions of leukemia (29%), multiple myeloma (46%), liver (64%), kidney (33%), and urinary bladder (26%) cancers. Arab/Chaldean women had greater proportions of leukemia (23%), thyroid (57%), and brain (35%) cancers as compared with non-Arab White men and women. The cancers with significantly increased PIRs in the Detroit Arab/Chaldean population also are frequently diagnosed in Middle Eastern countries.

  5. Developing a New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Gridach, Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop the Arabic morphological automata. The proposed approach has development standardization aspect. It can be exploited by NLP applications such as syntactic and semantic analysis, information retrieval, machine translation and orthographical correction. The proposed approach is compared with Xerox Arabic Analyzer and Smrz Arabic Analyzer.

  6. The Phonetic Nature of Vowels in Modern Standard Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yahya Bani Salameh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the phonetic nature of vowels in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA. Although Arabic is a Semitic language, the speech sound system of Arabic is very comprehensive. Data used for this study were elicited from the standard speech of nine informants who are native speakers of Arabic. The researchers used themselves as informants, they also benefited from three other Jordanians and four educated Yemenis. Considering the alphabets as the written symbols used for transcribing the phones of actual pronunciation, it was found that the pronunciation of many Arabic sounds has gradually diverged from the standard.  The study also discussed several related issues including: The phonetic description of Arabic vowels, classification of Arabic vowels, types of Arabic vowels and distribution of Arabic vowels.

  7. Detection of Plagiarism in Arabic Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Bachir Menai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many language-sensitive tools for detecting plagiarism in natural language documents have been developed, particularly for English. Language-independent tools exist as well, but are considered restrictive as they usually do not take into account specific language features. Detecting plagiarism in Arabic documents is particularly a challenging task because of the complex linguistic structure of Arabic. In this paper, we present a plagiarism detection tool for comparison of Arabic documents to identify potential similarities. The tool is based on a new comparison algorithm that uses heuristics to compare suspect documents at different hierarchical levels to avoid unnecessary comparisons. We evaluate its performance in terms of precision and recall on a large data set of Arabic documents, and show its capability in identifying direct and sophisticated copying, such as sentence reordering and synonym substitution. We also demonstrate its advantages over other plagiarism detection tools, including Turnitin, the well-known language-independent tool.

  8. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    . The “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel” is a grass-root movement of bilingual, bi-national primary schools in which Jewish and Arab children study together. The first school was open in Jerusalem in 1998. Currently there are 4 schools throughout the country The schools’ rational is......This paper deals with the policies and practices employed in the teaching of Arabic and Hebrew at a school belonging to the “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel”. Its focus is on strategies that the school has developed in order to support the acquisition of biliteracy......, that by implementing a curriculum which puts emphasis on the equal presentation and representation of the cultural heritage, religious beliefs, and historical narratives of both communities, equality, understanding, respect, reduction fear & prejudice, would be achieved. The linguistic & cultural goal of bilingualism...

  9. Printed Arabic Character Recognition Using HMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas H.Hassin; Xiang-Long Tang; Jia-Feng Liu; Wei Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Language has a very rich vocabulary.More than 200 million people speak this language as their native speaking,and over 1 billion people use it in several religion-related activities.In this paper a new technique is presented for recognizing printed Arabic characters.After a word is segmented,each character/word is entirely transformed into a feature vector.The features of printed Arabic characters include strokes and bays in various directions,endpoints,intersection points,loops,dots and zigzags.The word skeleton is decomposed into a number of links in orthographic order,and then it is transferred into a sequence of symbols using vector quantization.Single hidden Markov model has been used for recognizing the printed Arabic characters.Experimental results show that the high recognition rate depends on the number of states in each sample.

  10. Arabic Studies’ Progress in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Hanandeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of information retrieval has witnessed tangible progress over the past decades in response to the expanded usage of the internet and the dire need of users to search for massive amounts of digital information. Given the steady increase of Arabic e-content, excellent information retrieval systems must be devised to suit the nature and requirements of the Arabic language. This paper sheds light on the current progress in the field of Arabic information retrieval, identifies the challenges that hinder the progress of this science, and proposes suggestions for further research. This paper uses the descriptive analytical method to examine the reality of Arabic studies in the field of information retrieval and to study the problems that are being faced in this area. Specifically, the previous literature on information retrieval is reviewed by searching the related databases and websites.

  11. The Arab genome: Health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Hatem

    2016-11-01

    The 22 Arab nations have a unique genetic structure, which reflects both conserved and diverse gene pools due to the prevalent endogamous and consanguineous marriage culture and the long history of admixture among different ethnic subcultures descended from the Asian, European, and African continents. Human genome sequencing has enabled large-scale genomic studies of different populations and has become a powerful tool for studying disease predictions and diagnosis. Despite the importance of the Arab genome for better understanding the dynamics of the human genome, discovering rare genetic variations, and studying early human migration out of Africa, it is poorly represented in human genome databases, such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. In this review, I demonstrate the significance of sequencing the Arab genome and setting an Arab genome reference(s) for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of genetic diseases, discovering novel/rare variants, and identifying a meaningful genotype-phenotype correlation for complex diseases.

  12. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  13. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  14. Arab Cultural Influences on Intertemporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    in Western culture as a basis for interpretation of the past, and the tendency of Arab culture to integrate events into an associative gestalt as a...topic of this paper from multiple perspectives, including those of anthropology, sociology, psychology and Arab literature (particularly poetry). We...noted upon in any detail in the available literature with respect to their anthropological or psychological characteristics. Finally, writers on

  15. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S. Hadla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human evaluation of machine translation (MT systems is better than the automatic evaluation, but it is not feasible to be used. The distance or similarity of MT candidate output to a set of reference translations are used by many MT evaluation approaches. This study presents a comparison of effectiveness of two free online machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system to translate Arabic to English. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method. BLEU is used to evaluate translation quality of two free online machine translation systems under consideration. A corpus consists of more than 1000 Arabic sentences with two reference English translations for each Arabic sentence is used in this study. This corpus of Arabic sentences and their English translations consists of 4169 Arabic words, where the number of unique Arabic words is 2539. This corpus is released online to be used by researchers. These Arabic sentences are distributed among four basic sentence functions (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. The experimental results show that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from Arabic to English.

  16. Accurate Arabic Script Language/Dialect Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    dialects. language identification, Arabic, dialect, natural language processing, machine learning 30 Stephen C. Tratz 301-394-1057Unclassified...Arabic, Farsi, Urdu), Cyrillic script (Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian), and Devanagari script ( Hindi , Marathi, Nepali). They use Mechanical Turk to...to 1, which can be a useful feature. The Java port of the LIBLINEAR (Fan et al., 2008) machine learning software package1 is used to train all our

  17. Phonetic complexity and stuttering in Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Feda; Khamaiseh, Zaidan; Howell, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The current study investigated whether phonetic complexity affected stuttering rate in Jordanian Arabic speakers. Speakers were assigned to three age groups (6-11, 12-17 and 18+ years). An Arabic index of phonetic complexity (AIPC) was developed. Each word was given a score based on the number of complex phonetic properties out of a total of nine that it contained in the AIPC. The results showed that stuttering on function words for Jordanian Arabic did not correlate significantly with the AIPC score for any age group. The AIPC scores of content and function-content words correlated positively with stuttering rate for the 6-11 age group alone with the function-content words affecting fluency more severely than did the content words. The AIPC scores of stuttered function, content and stuttered function-content words were higher than those of fluent words. The non-stuttered words had lower AIPC scores than the stuttered corresponding classes. This showed that the higher the AIPC score on stuttered words, the greater the chance for these word categories to be stuttered. The AIPC factors that most affected fluency in Jordanian Arabic were place of articulation, manner of articulation, word length, word shape and consonant length. We conclude that Arabic is similar to other languages with regard to the loci of stuttering, their phonetic complexity and AIPC factors affecting stuttering most. The correlation between phonetic complexity and the order of the AIPC factors are different between Arabic and other languages.

  18. Orientalis dan Peranannya dalam Mempelajari Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustiar Agustiar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientalisme is a knowledge about easterners which is important to we know. Because beside positive values consisting in it also there are negative values. That negative values represent noxious poison in effort paralyse Islam with understanding able to be groggy of clan belief in God of muslimin to al-Qur’an, Rasul, apocalypse and others. Clan of orientalis in general consist of people of Nasrani and Jew having hand in glove with Christian missionary mission and also colonist. They investigate and collect science coming eastward with various target and motiv which they wish. Even among all orientalis in its importance study Arab language there is with aim to be negative that is for the destroy of association of Islam, but there is also with aim to be positive that is devoted x’self solely for science by bearing its masterpieces in Arab language area and its literature. A lot of easting books written by clan of orientalis particularly about Islam concerning with problem of Alqur’an, Al- Hadist , Tarekh and Culture of Islam, Islam law and others. To investigate science above, Arab language is as especial bridge for them. The language of Arab which in advance they study to disclose the sciences to Europe language like Latin language, English, French, Germany , Dutch and others. Their ability study Arab language, making they ready to translate into their language and also write books in Arab language.

  19. Arab Americans in Literature and the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Banerjee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hollywood has a long history of stereotyping the Arab. From The Cafe in Cairo to The Siege, this Arab – invariably male – figures as the religious fundamentalist who sees in terrorism the only way to spread Islam over the entire globe. Having said this, this is not to argue either that Hollywood is ideologically corrupt, or that Arab (Americans are the only ethnic group stereotyped in Hollywood's cultural imagination. Yet while Hollywood’s Orientalism, which is actually based on a fascination with ancient Middle Eastern heritage, reflects a stereotypical depiction of everything Arab, Arab American literature can be seen as the other side of this projection or stereotype. Where Hollywood dramatizes, through the busting of ancient statues for the cause of terrorism, the Arab's disregard for his own culture, novels such as Khaled Hosseini's The Kite Runner and Nada Awar Jarrar's Somewhere, Home set out to preserve precisely a distinct cultural heritage, and go on to celebrate the contemporaneity and complexity of diasporic Afghan and Lebanese experience.

  20. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  1. Haplotype Map of Sickle Cell Anemia in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Imen Moumni; Maha Ben Mustapha; Sarra Sassi; Amine Zorai; Ikbel Ben Mansour; Kais Douzi; Dorra Chouachi; Fethi Mellouli; Mohamed Bejaoui; Salem Abbes

    2014-01-01

    International audience; β-Globin haplotypes are important to establish the ethnic origin and predict the clinical development of sickle cell disease patients (SCD). To determine the chromosomal background of β (S) Tunisian sickle cell patients, in this first study in Tunisia, we have explored four polymorphic regions of β-globin cluster on chromosome 11. It is the 5' region of β-LCR-HS2 site, the intervening sequence II (IVSII) region of two fetal ((G)γ and (A)γ) genes and the 5' region of β-...

  2. [Nematode parasites of birds of the fauna in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J

    1989-01-01

    330 birds of Tunisia were necropsied; they belong to 73 species among 29 families and 13 orders. We so collect 36 species of nematodes from 9 families. The relative importance of these is variable. The best represented are: Capillariidae (6 species), Spiruridae (6 species), Acuariidae (9 species) and Filariidae (6 species). The parasitism by nematodes is not uniform. Among the 330 birds autopsied only 51 were parasited by nematodes (15.45%) among 25 of the examined birds species (34.2%). Among these 25, sixteen (64%) presented only one species of parasitic nematode, six (24%) arboured two, (8%) three and only one, (partridges) presents six species of nematodes.

  3. Saudi Arabic Language and Culture Familiarization Course: Arab Cultural Assimilator, Books 1-5. Reprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Fred E.; And Others

    A five-book programed course in Arab culture is offered for professionals who are about to be stationed in the Middle East. This material is designed to supplement the Defense Language Institute's course in Saudi Arabic. In order to impart awareness of Saudi cultural characteristics, 66 hypothetical situations that might be encountered in…

  4. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  5. ARABIC PROGRAM ON COT KALA LANGSA STREAMING RADIO SEBAGAI STRATEGI BARU PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiauddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language means learn to communicate. The goal of learning Arabic by using communicative approach is to stimulate the student to be able to master both receptive and productive skill. Receptive skills includes listening and reading skill, while productive skills includes speaking and writing skills. The objective of this study is to describe the streaming radio as a strategy in Arabic learning for the student of Arabic Department at Cot Kala Langsa State Islamic Institute. The result at the study shows that the streaming radio strategy gives a good response in conducting the Arabic class. Means that streaming radio can enhance the quality of teaching and learning Arabic at this institute.

  6. Arab gene geography: From population diversities to personalized medical genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmouri, Ghazi O.; Sastry, Konduru S.; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic disorders are not equally distributed over the geography of the Arab region. While a number of disorders have a wide geographical presence encompassing 10 or more Arab countries, almost half of these disorders occur in a single Arab country or population. Nearly, one-third of the genetic disorders in Arabs result from congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, which are also responsible for a significant proportion of neonatal and perinatal deaths in Arab populations. Strikingly, about two-thirds of these diseases in Arab patients follow an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. High fertility rates together with increased consanguineous marriages, generally noticed in Arab populations, tend to increase the rates of genetic and congenital abnormalities. Many of the nearly 500 genes studied in Arab people revealed striking spectra of heterogeneity with many novel and rare mutations causing large arrays of clinical outcomes. In this review we provided an overview of Arab gene geography, and various genetic abnormalities in Arab populations, including disorders of blood, metabolic, circulatory and neoplasm, and also discussed their associated molecules or genes responsible for the cause of these disorders. Although studying Arab-specific genetic disorders resulted in a high value knowledge base, approximately 35% of genetic diseases in Arabs do not have a defined molecular etiology. This is a clear indication that comprehensive research is required in this area to understand the molecular pathologies causing diseases in Arab populations. PMID:25780794

  7. PTS Infrasound portable array in Tunisia: Deployment and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallel, Mohamed; Khemiri, Lotfi; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Pichon, Alexis; Vergoz, Julien

    2014-05-01

    Within the scope of a scientific collaboration between the Tunisian NDC and the PTS an infrasound portable array (I66TN) were deployed in Tunisia for 6 Months starting from 15th of May 2013 till 15th of November 2013. The 4 sites of the portable array were installed in the mountain ranges surrounding the city of Aïn Draham in northwest of Tunisia with an aperture of about 1KM. The installation was done by Dr. Pierrick Mialle, a representative from the PTS, together with a team from the Tunisian NDC. Data retrieval is performed by the Tunisian NDC team on a periodic basis. The Data recorded by I66TN and the data recorded by the IMS Infrasound Station I48TN during the same period were processed. A bulletin of the fusion of the data of the two stations was created with the support of the French NDC. In this poster, we will present the different steps of the deployment of the station I66TN and show the results of the data processing and data fusion.

  8. [Risk of vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, N; Bahri, O; Ben Fredj, N; Boukadida, J; Triki, H

    2010-01-01

    The risk of vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) varies with type of viral endemicity, degree of maternal infection and genomic characteristics of the virus. The aim of this study is to estimate this risk in Tunisia using serological and molecular methods to evaluate HBV replication, to determine viral genotypes and to detect presence of occult hepatitis in 2709 pregnant women. Serological markers were detected by ELISA methods, Genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP and occult hepatitis by nested-PCR. Four percent of women were positive for HBsAg; only 3% of them were also positive for HBeAg. Viral replication, over than 10(3) copies/ml, was detected in 61% of positive HBsAg patients. Three viral genotypes were detected: D (95%), B (3%) and A (3%). Occult hepatitis was detected in 4% of sera with "anti-HBc isolated" profile. In conclusion, the risk of vertical transmission of HBV exists in Tunisia. It increases by frequency of precore mutants, predominance of the genotype previously associated with high levels of replication and possibility of occult hepatitis B. These results show the importance of screening by serological HBV markers systematically during pregnancy with evaluation of viral replication in order to prevent vertical risk by efficient tools.

  9. Childhood linear IgA bullous dermatosis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenani, Nesrine; Mebazaa, Amel; Denguezli, Mohamed; Ghariani, Najet; Sriha, Badreddine; Belajouza, Colandane; Nouira, Rafia

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine the demographic characteristics, the clinical features, the immuno-histological findings and response to treatment of childhood linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) in Tunisia. We collected all the cases of auto-immune bullous diseases of childhood, diagnosed from January 1987 to December 2006. Based on clinical, histological, and immunofluorescent features, we identified 25 cases of LABD. Sixteen male and nine female children with a mean age of 7.5 years were identified. Clinical manifestations were characterized by a vesiculo-bullous eruption in all cases associated with mucous membrane involvement in two cases. Dapsone was the main therapy in 19 cases, associated with systemic corticosteroids in eight cases. Exclusive antibiotic therapy was successful in five cases. Sixteen of those patients had resolution of disease after a mean period of 15 months and eight patients had severe clinical presentation and required a prolonged follow-up. Childhood LABD is the most frequent bullous dermatosis in Tunisia. The majority of our patients responded rapidly to dapsone treatment and were stabilized for long time. Our cases were characterized by a minimal mucosal involvement and favorable outcome. Treatment with antibiotherapy was interesting. Erythromycin and oxacillin may be considered as an alternative therapy.

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of the atmospheric turbidity in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Mohamed; Trabelsi, Amel; Masmoudi, Mohamed; Alfaro, Stephane C.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric turbidity is an important parameter in meteorology, climatology and for providing hindsight on particulate air pollution in local areas. In this work we exploit 1260 direct solar radiation measurements performed in Sfax (Center Tunisia), from March 2015 to February 2016. These measurements were made with a pyrheliometer only when clouds did not obstruct the solar disk. The atmospheric turbidity is quantified by the means of both the Linke's turbidity factor (TLI) and Angström's coefficient (β). Over the year, values of TLI and β are found to vary in the ranges 1-15 and 0-0.7, with the most probable values around 3.5 and 0.05, respectively. However, a marked seasonal pattern is observed for the two turbidity parameters. They achieve their maximum in the spring and summer months, their minimum in winter and autumn appears as a transitional period. The comparison of the results obtained in Sfax with those of three AERONET stations located in north (Carthage), central-north (Ben Salem), and south (Medenine) Tunisia, reveals that this seasonal pattern of the atmospheric turbidity is valid for all the Tunisian territory, and probably beyond. At shorter (hourly) time scales, the diurnal behavior of the turbidity in Sfax is different in the summer months from the one observed during the rest of the year. Indeed, an enhancement of TLI is observed during the day. This is assumedly attributed to the production of secondary aerosols by atmospheric photochemistry.

  11. National politics and ethnic identity in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Paulino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Struggle of Democratie Politics in the Dominican Republic. JONATHAN HARTLYN. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. xxi + 371 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 17.95 Holocaust in the Caribbean: The Slaughter of 25,000 Haitians by Trujillo in One Week. MIGUEL AQUINO. Waterbury CT: Emancipation Press, 1997. xxii +184 pp. (Paper n.p. Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii +161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95 Azücar, Arabes, cocolos y haitianos. ORLANDO INOA. Santo Domingo: Ed. Cole and FLACSO, 1999. 219 pp. (Paper n.p. Over the last few years there has been an increase in the publication of books about the Dominican Republic and Dominicans in the United States. This can be partly attributed to the increase of Dominican communities.1 Moreover, Dominican and Dominican-American writers who underscore the trials and tribulations of the immigrant experience are becoming more visible in the mainstream print.2

  12. Alcohol Use Among Arab Americans: What is the Prevalence?

    OpenAIRE

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Arnetz, Bengt B.; Fakhouri, Monty; Ventimiglia, Matthew J.; Jamil, Hikmet

    2011-01-01

    Information is limited on alcohol use among Arab Americans. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans by reviewing existing surveys using an acculturation model. Secondary data analysis. Nationally, English-speaking immigrant Arab Americans reported lower rates of lifetime alcohol use (50.8%), past month use (26.4%) and binge drinking (10%) than the White majority group. In a state survey, self-identified English-speaking Arab Americans...

  13. SEJARAH PROSA IMAGINATIF (NOVEL) ARAB; DARI KLASIK HINGGA KONTEMPORER

    OpenAIRE

    Sukron Kamil

    2011-01-01

    Though the tradition of classic Arab was not prose, the Arabic fiction prose has developed since the end of Umayya Dinasty. The factors contributing to this development are the Qur’an that contains many stories and translation of fiction from Persian. Started from folklore and then translation, the Arabic fiction developed rapidly, followed by the publishing of short novels. Furthermore, there was a kind of fiction called maqamat.  The Arabic fiction developed in the classic period in the Eas...

  14. Faculty research productivity in six Arab countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George

    2015-10-01

    This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The study revealed a lack of capacity of HEIs to provide quality data, raising issues concerning institutional excellence and transparency. Those data which were available were analysed using a number of statistical methods. The result is that faculty research output in the Arab world is relatively low, confirming the existing notion of a lagging knowledge sector in the region. While traditional scholarship has focused on institutional factors such as budgetary allocation as one prime determinant of research productivity, this study claims that other factors need to be considered in explaining the low output, with broad implications for policy formulation. Such factors include overall satisfaction levels of academic staff, socialisation of faculty staff members into a research climate, and university mission vis-à-vis academic research. Given the distinct paucity of studies on faculty research productivity in HEIs in the Arab region, this study seeks to bridge this gap in the literature by providing original data derived from six Arab countries. The authors aim to provide a basis for further research into this topic.

  15. Arabic in Iraq A Diglossic Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafar Jabbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In some speech communities two distinct varieties of one language are used side by side, each of which serving a different range of social functions. One variety, called High, is used only under formal and public circumstances, while the other one, referred to as Low is used in normal daily-life events. Phonological, semantic and syntactic differences between the two varieties are so drastic that the two varieties are mutually incomprehensible. This sociolinguistic phenomenon is termed "diglossia". It is very common especially in Arabic-speaking countries. One good example is the diglossic situation, held between the Modern Standard Arabic and the Iraqi Colloquial Arabic. The present article aims to illustrate the differences between the two varieties at different linguistics levels, to account for this mutual unintelligibility. To achieve this objective, appropriate data were collected from the two varieties. The linguistic differences were spotted, and categorized according to the Surface Strategy Taxonomy.  The data were analyzed and supported by respective explanations, where necessary. Keywords: Diglossia, Modern Standard Arabic, Iraqi Arabic, High Variety, Low Variety etc.

  16. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries.

  17. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ali Mahmoud T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity.

  18. Helpful Statistics in Recognizing Basic Arabic Phonemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed O.M. Khelifa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of continuous speech is one of the main challenges in the building of automatic speech recognition (ASR systems, especially when it comes to phonetically complex languages such as Arabic. An ASR system seems to be actually in a blocked alley. Nearly all solutions follow the same general model. The previous research focused on enhancing its performance by incorporating supplementary features. This paper is part of ongoing research efforts aimed at developing a high-performance Arabic speech recognition system for learning and teaching purposes. It investigates a statistical analysis of certain distinctive features of the basic Arabic phonemes which seems helpful in enhancing the performance of a baseline HMM-based ASR system. The statistics are collected using a particular Arabic speech database, which involves ten different male speakers and more than eight hours of speech which covers all Arabic phonemes. In HMM modeling framework, the statistics provided are helpful in establishing the appropriate number of HMM states for each phoneme and they can also be utilized as an initial condition for the EM estimation procedure, which generally, accelerates the estimation process and, thus, improves the performance of the system. The obtained findings are presented and possible applications of automatic speech recognition and speaker identification systems are also suggested.

  19. Development and Evaluation of the Arabic Filial Piety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the validity and reliability of a new Arabic Filial Piety scale (AFPS) for use with informal Arab caregivers. Background: Filial piety, a term used to describe a set of family values in relation to parental care. This is the first measure of this construct for use with Arab populations in Israel. Method: A random sample of…

  20. The Arabic Language and National Identity: A Study in Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Yasir

    This study of Arabic culture, language, history, and nationalism provides an inside view of key issues in understanding the Arab world. It combines detailed readings of Arabic nationalist literature, the scholarly literature on nationalism, and sociolinguistics work on language and national identity. Seven chapters focus on the following issues:…

  1. The Internationalization of the Business Administration Curricula in Arab Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Abdel-Rahman

    2006-01-01

    This is a study of the extent of the internationalization of the business administration curricula in Arab universities. It is based on a survey of 110 Arab colleges of business that comprise more than half of the overall population, 35% of whom responded. The study found that Arab colleges of business appear to be only moderately…

  2. Educating the Arab American Child: Implications for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud F.

    This article presents relevant information about Arab American children as a guide for multicultural teachers. Given the alarming impact of cultural conditioning in American society, the previously invisible Arab Americans and their children have become visible in a negative way. Current cultural conditioning does not allow Arabs to see themselves…

  3. At Risk of Prejudice: The Arab American Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikaly, Zeina Azzam

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the stereotypes associated with Arab Americans. States that these stereotypes must be abandoned to stop prejudice against their community. Provides background information on Arab Americans. Discusses the role that educators and counselors have in helping Arab American students deal with prejudice against them. Includes resources on…

  4. Building Arab Americans' Cultural Identity and Acceptance with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Bucher, Katherine T.

    2008-01-01

    Literature can help children develop their own cultural identity, as it helps them understand and appreciate the culture of others. Research shows that in elementary schools some Arab American students are not exposed to stories that represent their culture. In addition, many teachers are not familiar with literature about Arabs or Arab Americans.…

  5. Arab American Students in Public Schools. ERIC Digest, Number 142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews ways to provide Arab Americans with a supportive school environment and all students with an accurate and unbiased education about the Middle East. The school climate will make Arab American students feel more welcome if Arab culture is included in multicultural courses and activities, and if the staff works to eliminate…

  6. Cultural Differences between Arabs and Americans: Individualism-Collectivism Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Richard; Elsayed-Elkhouly, Sayed M.

    1998-01-01

    Cultural differences between Arabs and Americans were investigated using the individualism-collectivism survey of J. Wagner (1995). Arab subjects (n=331) were significantly more collectivist than U.S. subjects (n=102), and within the Arab group, Egyptian subjects (n=224) were significantly more individualistic than Gulf States subjects.…

  7. Correlates of Reading Fluency in Arabic: Diglossic and Orthographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2005-01-01

    Arabic native speaking children are born into a unique linguistic context called diglossia (Ferguson, "word", 14, 47?56, [1959]). In this context, children grow up speaking a Spoken Arabic Vernacular (SAV), which is an exclusively spoken language, but later learn to read another linguistically related form, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA).…

  8. The Problems of Translating Oriental Texts into Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Ma'Abrah, Mohamdd Akash

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the problems and difficulties that face the students of Arabic Language at Mu'tah University when translating oriental texts from English into Arabic in the academic year 2011-2012. The difficulties facing Arabic students when translating oriental texts has never been studied, rising an urgent need to…

  9. An Arabic creole in Africa : the Nubi language of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner

    2003-01-01

    At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble thos

  10. Renaissance arabe et solidarité musulmane dans La Nation arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Claire de Gayffier-Bonneville

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Publiée à Genève de 1930 à 1938, la revue La Nation arabe voulait initialement s'adresser aux intellectuels européens. Les points de vue développés par les deux rédacteurs, Chekib Arslan et Ihsan al-Djabri, montrent toutefois que le lectorat visé était surtout arabe et musulman. Arslan et Djabri sont convaincus de la renaissance de la nation arabe, qu'ils attribuent en grande partie à la politique des puissances européennes dans les États arabes. Les signes de ce réveil sont rapportés, notamment l'intérêt mutuel que les Arabes se portent, la communion des peuples dans la souffrance, l'émergence de personnalités hors du commun. La revue avait une intention militante originale pour l'époque : elle entendait mobiliser les esprits en vue de mener le combat de la renaissance, arabe et musulmane, non seulement contre les puissances occupantes, mais aussi contre le projet sioniste qui menaçait l'intégrité territoriale de la Palestine, voire de la patrie arabe.

  11. Morphological structure in the Arabic mental lexicon: Parallels between standard and dialectal Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D

    2013-12-01

    The Arabic language is acquired by its native speakers both as a regional spoken Arabic dialect, acquired in early childhood as a first language, and as the more formal variety known as Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), typically acquired later in childhood. These varieties of Arabic show a range of linguistic similarities and differences. Since previous psycholinguistic research in Arabic has primarily used MSA, it remains to be established whether the same cognitive properties hold for the dialects. Here we focus on the morphological level, and ask whether roots and word patterns play similar or different roles in MSA and in the regional dialect known as Southern Tunisian Arabic (STA). In two intra-modal auditory-auditory priming experiments, we found similar results with strong priming effects for roots and patterns in both varieties. Despite differences in the timing and nature of the acquisition of MSA and STA, root and word pattern priming was clearly distinguishable from form-based and semantic-based priming in both varieties. The implication of these results for theories of Arabic diglossia and theories of morphological processing are discussed.

  12. Population dynamics of ticks infesting the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Moussi, Nawfel; Jedidi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Sassi, Limam; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-12-01

    A tick population was monitored on 30 camels (Camelus dromedarius) over one year in Kairouan region, Central Tunisia. A total of 1630 ticks was collected and identified resulting in an estimate of different parasitological indicators. The ticks belonged to 2 genera and 5 species: Hyalomma impeltatum (53%) and Hyalomma dromedarii (45%) were the dominant species followed by Hyalomma excavatum (1%), Hyalomma marginatum (0.5%), and Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.5%) (pTunisia.

  13. Studying Arabic as a foreign/second language together with Arab Heritage Language Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhahir, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article reports on my study of the sociocultural-interactive Strategies (SCISs) used by a mixed group of learners of Arabic at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The group consists of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (FLLs) and Arab Heritage Language Learners (AHLLs). FLLs...... questionnaire and qualitative (interviews). The major findings of the study was that the group follows the general patterns of SCISs, to ask, cooperate and communicate, and that AHLLs’ presence only partially increases and promotes the opportunities of sociocultural interaction in the learning environment....

  14. Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Zaki Abdo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition (ArANSLR. It facilitates the communication between the deaf and normal people by recognizing the alphabet and numbers signs of Arabic sign language to text or speech. To achieve this target, the system able to visually recognize gestures from hand image input. The proposed algorithm uses hand geometry and the different shape of a hand in each sign for classifying letters shape by using Hidden Markov Model (HMM. Experiments on real-world datasets showed that the proposed algorithm for Arabic alphabet and numbers sign language recognition is suitability and reliability compared with other competitive algorithms. The experiment results show that the increasing of the gesture recognition rate depends on the increasing of the number of zones by dividing the rectangle surrounding the hand.

  15. An Automatic Collocation Extraction from Arabic Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulgabbar M. Saif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The identification of collocations is very important part in natural language processing applications that require some degree of semantic interpretation such as, machine translation, information retrieval and text summarization. Because of the complexities of Arabic, the collocations undergo some variations such as, morphological, graphical, syntactic variation that constitutes the difficulties of identifying the collocation. Approach: We used the hybrid method for extracting the collocations from Arabic corpus that is based on linguistic information and association measures. Results: This method extracted the bi-gram candidates of Arabic collocation from corpus and evaluated the association measures by using the n-best evaluation method. We reported the precision values for each association measure in each n-best list. Conclusion: The experimental results showed that the log-likelihood ratio is the best association measure that achieved highest precision.

  16. Fault detection system for Arabic language

    CERN Document Server

    Amraoui, Houda

    2012-01-01

    The study of natural language, especially Arabic, and mechanisms for the implementation of automatic processing is a fascinating field of study, with various potential applications. The importance of tools for natural language processing is materialized by the need to have applications that can effectively treat the vast mass of information available nowadays on electronic forms. Among these tools, mainly driven by the necessity of a fast writing in alignment to the actual daily life speed, our interest is on the writing auditors. The morphological and syntactic properties of Arabic make it a difficult language to master, and explain the lack in the processing tools for that language. Among these properties, we can mention: the complex structure of the Arabic word, the agglutinative nature, lack of vocalization, the segmentation of the text, the linguistic richness, etc.

  17. Attitudes towards Bilingual Arab-Hebrew Education in Israel: A Comparative Study of Jewish and Arab Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Shoham, Meyrav; Amara, Muhammad; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; 'Ali, Nohad

    2011-01-01

    This study examines attitudes towards bilingual Jewish-Arab education among Jewish and Arab adults in Israel. The sample consisted of 1014 respondents who participated in a national phone survey in late 2006. Results indicate that Arabs are significantly more supportive of bilingual education in Israel than Jews. Positive attitudes regarding the…

  18. Carry on 50 Years of Traditional Friendship And Open a New Chapter of Cooperation Between CPAFFC and Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai; Lin

    2014-01-01

    <正>Tunisia is located at the northern end of Africa and faces the Mediterranean Sea on the north and the east.In the early 9th century BCE,the Phoenicians built Carthage bordering the Tunisian Gulf,and created the brilliant Carthaginian civilization.Now,Tunisia has become a multicultural country integrating a long civilization.China and Tunisia established diplomatic relations on January 10,1964,and despite being separated by

  19. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in Egypt and the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Karimat

    2009-03-01

    Until the end of the 19th Century Science was not classified into different disciplines. The first woman named in the history of science was Merit Ptah (2700 BC) in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. In the new Egypt the first girl's school started in Cairo in 1873 and the first University in 1908. Only a few girls attended the University at that time, mainly studying the humanities. The first Egyptian woman physicist graduated in 1940 and received her PhD in nuclear physics in the USA. Nowadays the number of women in physics is increasing in all branches of physics, some of them are senior managers and others have been decorated with various prizes. In this talk some statistics will be given to show the percentage of women in physics in relation to other fields of science in Egypt. In Saudi Arabia the first girls' school started in 1964 and the first college for women, which was a section of King Abdul-Aziz University (where education is not mixed), started in 1975. I was the founder of the Physics Department of this women's section. Egyptians have played significant roles in teaching schoolchildren and university students of both sexes in all the Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Kuwait, Yemen, the Gulf States, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. But with respect to Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, our role was limited, since classes are taught in French. Arab women living in the countries located east of Egypt still have many difficulties facing them, needing to overcome many technical, academic, and social problems, while women in the countries located west of Egypt have fewer problems. There were many problems in the early days of education in Egypt but the women of Egypt worked hard to gain the same rights as men and were able to pave the way for all Arab women. I myself met many difficulties in my early days. This talk will also describe the impact of the regional conference on Women in Physics in Africa and Middle East, which was held in Cairo in 2007.

  20. Epidemiology of headache in Arab countries

    OpenAIRE

    Benamer, Hani T. S.; Deleu, Dirk; Grosset, Donald

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of headache in Arab countries was systematically reviewed through Medline identification of four papers reporting headache prevalence in the Arab nations of Qatar, Saudi Arabia (2 papers) and Oman. The prevalence of headache varied from 8 to 12% in Saudi Arabia to 72.5% in Qatar and 83.6% in Oman. Headache was commoner in females and younger people. The prevalence of tension headache was 3.1–9.5% in Saudi Arabia and the 1-year prevalence in Qatar was 11.2%. The migraine preva...

  1. Arab space in the geopolitical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is analysing the geopolitical structure and dynamics of Arab space. Based on structural analysis of social, political, cultural and spatial changes the key-problems and geopolitical features are recognized. Arab space is – more or less – the largest ‘shatter belt’ known by contemporary crises and similar processes in the near past. These are caused by inner and, even more, by outer geopolitical factors in the large regional surrounding. The western economic and military forces are perhaps loosing the role of key-factor in the area. In the near future, Asiatic powers might play a dominant role.

  2. Teaching the Arabic Alphabet to Kindergarteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents initial results regarding writing activities in the context of the ALADDIN project. The goal of the project is to teach Modern Standard Arabic in 5-year-old kindergarten students in Qatar. A total of 18 students, enrolled in the ‘Arabic Class’, participated for 9 weeks...... in the activities of the project. All students were native speakers of the Qatari dialect. Learning activities involved both typical instructional methods, and the use of specifically designed tools for tabletop surface computers. The paper focuses on writing activities and on how the affordances of surface...

  3. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  4. Arabic Interface Analysis Based on Cultural Markers

    CERN Document Server

    Khanum, Mohammadi Akheela; Chaurasia, Mousmi A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the Arabic interface design elements that are largely influenced by the cultural values. Cultural markers are examined in websites from educational, business, and media. Cultural values analysis is based on Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The findings show that there are cultural markers which are largely influenced by the culture and that the Hofstede's score for Arab countries is partially supported by the website design components examined in this study. Moderate support was also found for the long term orientation, for which Hoftsede has no score.

  5. Perbandingan Kualitas Buku Teks Bahasa Arab Tingkat Madrasah Tsanawiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Syamsul Ma’arif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing good Arabic textbooks determines the quality of Arabic learning in the classroom . This paper aims to identify and compare the quality of the Arabic language text books at Islamic junior high school levelsseen from the aspect of content, presentation , language and graphic . The object of research is the book of D Hidayat, Maman Abdul Djalil and A. Syaekhuddin and Hasan Saefullah . The results showed that all three of the Arabic language textbooks have advantages and disadvantages . In general, the Arabic text book work of A. Syaekhuddin and Hasan Saefullah is better than the other two books

  6. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrizal Halim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual Historyis written as a self-criticism addressed to Arab and Muslim intellectuals, especially those who reside in the West. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education. The liberalization of U.S. immigration laws in 1965 for non-European immigrants has even enlarged the number of Arabs and Muslims who have trained in the best institutions in the U.S. By the dawn of the twentieth century, the number of Arab intellectuals who reside in the West is estimated to double, as the result of the emergence of a second generation. However, the large number of educated Arab people does not always fulfill the promise of transformation of the social conditions of the Arab World. Far from being ‘organic intellectuals’, to use Gramsci’s favorite term, who would transform Arab societies from imperialism and Western hegemony, and the impact of dependency on the so called ‘globalization,’ most Arab thinkers in the West as well as the elite in the Arab world have been party to Western capitalist interests which aim to control the Arab World. By no means denigrating the works of Isma‘il Raji al-Faruqi, Edward Said, Ghada Hashem Talhami, Halim Barakat, or the feminist Leila Ahmad, to mention some brilliant Arab intellectuals, most Arab thinkers in the West seem to have forgotten the social conditions of the Arab world that have been in acute crisis since the mid nineteenth century or from the time colonialism stepped into the Arab world. Pseudo modernization—to say that there has never been any modernization as it emerged from the middle class as in Europe, but was initiated mainly by the elites—has kept Arab intellectuals in the West completely in the dark and unable to offer radical solution to the crises of

  7. Civil liberties in Tunisia following the 2011 uprisings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Pérez Beltrán

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the legislative changes made in relation to civil liberties in Tunisia since the 2011 revolts, specifically, those concerned with freedom of association, expression, and regulation of the media and links them to the socio-political context of the country. The paper intends to demonstrate how social and political factors have produced a new legal framework of action that is based on the new constitution, but which also brings intense regulatory development that in many respects breaks with previous legislation, although certain elements of authority inherited from the past have been preserved. Two aspects deserve special consideration: on the one hand these rules maintain certain limitations as means of social control that are not totally consistent with a developed democracy; and, on the other, problems of interpretation, cultural specificity and authoritarian behaviour mean the lack of liberties in such fundamental areas as those analysed are also preserved.

  8. Characteristics of trace elements in aerosols collected in Northern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouz, F.; Masmoudi, M.; Quisefit, J. P.; Medhioub, K.

    In order to investigate the chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols, the sources and variability of atmospheric inputs, aerosols samples were collected during April 2006 and June 2007 in the coastal area of Boumhel, Tunisia. The samples were analysed for thirteen elements including Ca, Fe, Al, Si, Ti, Mg, Mn, K, Na, Cl, S, Zn and Pb using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. All elements measured in the aerosols of Boumhel revealed differences between the two seasons: the concentrations of all elements were the highest in June and the lowest in April due to the importance of meteorological conditions. The cascade impactor provided mass distributions indicate that Al, Fe, Si, Ti, Na, Cl and S are concentrated in coarse particles. The enrichment factors (EFs) of all elements indicate that Al, Fe, Si, Ca and Ti are mainly derived from soil sources. Na, S and Cl are mostly due to sea salts.

  9. Haplotype Map of Sickle Cell Anemia in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Moumni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Globin haplotypes are important to establish the ethnic origin and predict the clinical development of sickle cell disease patients (SCD. To determine the chromosomal background of βS Tunisian sickle cell patients, in this first study in Tunisia, we have explored four polymorphic regions of β-globin cluster on chromosome 11. It is the 5′ region of β-LCR-HS2 site, the intervening sequence II (IVSII region of two fetal (γG and γA genes and the 5′ region of β-globin gene. The results reveal a high molecular diversity of a microsatellite configuration describing the sequences haplotypes. The linkage disequilibrium analysis showed various haplotype combinations giving 22 “extended haplotypes”. These results confirm the utility of the β-globin haplotypes for population studies and contribute to knowledge of the Tunisian gene pool, as well as establishing the role of genetic markers in physiopathology of SCD.

  10. Haplotype map of sickle cell anemia in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumni, Imen; Ben Mustapha, Maha; Sassi, Sarra; Zorai, Amine; Ben Mansour, Ikbel; Douzi, Kais; Chouachi, Dorra; Mellouli, Fethi; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Abbes, Salem

    2014-01-01

    β-Globin haplotypes are important to establish the ethnic origin and predict the clinical development of sickle cell disease patients (SCD). To determine the chromosomal background of β (S) Tunisian sickle cell patients, in this first study in Tunisia, we have explored four polymorphic regions of β-globin cluster on chromosome 11. It is the 5' region of β-LCR-HS2 site, the intervening sequence II (IVSII) region of two fetal ((G)γ and (A)γ) genes and the 5' region of β-globin gene. The results reveal a high molecular diversity of a microsatellite configuration describing the sequences haplotypes. The linkage disequilibrium analysis showed various haplotype combinations giving 22 "extended haplotypes". These results confirm the utility of the β-globin haplotypes for population studies and contribute to knowledge of the Tunisian gene pool, as well as establishing the role of genetic markers in physiopathology of SCD.

  11. -Thalassaemia in Tunisia: some epidemiological and molecular data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. Siala; F. Ouali; T. Messaoud; A. Bibi; S. Fattoum

    2008-12-01

    Unlike the other haemoglobinopathies, few researches have been published concerning -thalassaemia in Tunisia. The aim of the present work is to acquire further data concerning -thalassaemia prevalence and molecular defects spectrum in Tunisia, by collecting and studying several kinds of samples carrying -thalassaemia. The first survey conducted on 529 cord blood samples using cellulose acetate electrophoresis, have displayed the prevalence of 7.38% Hb Bart’s carriers at birth. Molecular analyses were conducted by PCR and DNA sequencing on 20 families’ cases from the above survey carrying the Hb Bart’s at birth and on 10 Hb H diseased patients. The results showed six -globin gene molecular defects and were responsible for -thalassaemia: -3.7, - -MedI, TSaudi, cd23GAG \\to Stop2, Hb Greone Hart: 119CCT \\to TCT1 corresponding to 11 genotypes out of which two are responsible for Hb H disease (--Med/$-$3.7) and (TSaudi/TSaudi) and a newly described polymorphism: +6 → G. The geographical repartition of -thal carriers showed that the $-$3.7 deletion is distributed all over the country, respectively the HphI and TSaudi seem to be more frequent in the central region of the northeast region. The haematological and clinical data showed a moderate phenotype with a late age of diagnosis for Hb H disease. This work had permitted, in addition to an overview on -thalassaemia in the country, the optimization of protocols for -thalassaemia detection in our lab, allowing further investigations concerning phenotype–genotype correlation in sickle cell disease or -thalassaemia.

  12. Celestial Navigation in the USA, Fiji, and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2015-05-01

    Today there are many coastal communities that are home to navigators who use stars for position finding at night; I was, however, unaware of this fact when I began researching celestial navigation practices in 1997. My project focused on three communities: the Moce Islanders of Fiji, the Kerkennah Islanders in Tunisia, and the U.S. Navy officers and students at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. My goal was to answer the question of why people continue to navigate by the stars, but also to understand the role of technology in their navigation practices. Using anthropology techniques of ethnography including participant observation, formal and informal interviews, audio and videotaping, I gathered data over five years at the three communities. I began by learning the details of how they use the stars for navigation. Next, I learned about who did the navigation and where they learned to navigate. I gathered opinions on various navigation aids and instruments, and opinions about the future of using the stars for navigation. I listened to the stories that they told about navigating. In the United States I worked in English, in Fiji, in Fijian and English, and in Tunisia, French and English. For the formal interviews I worked with translators. The navigators use stars for navigating today but the future of their techniques is not certain. Though practiced today, these celestial navigation traditions have undergone and continue to undergo changes. New navigational technologies are part of the stimulation for change, thus 'a meeting of different worlds' is symbolized by peoples encounters with these technologies.

  13. Variability of aerosol optical thickness and atmospheric turbidity in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, M.; Chaabane, M.; Medhioub, K.; Elleuch, F.

    The aerosol optical thickness (AOT) τa computed from the spectral sun photometer in Thala (Tunisia) exhibited variability ranging from approximately 0.03 to greater than 2.0 at 870 nm for March-October 2001. These measurements are compared to the aerosol optical thickness computed in Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso), Banizoumbou (Niger), IMC Oristano (Sardinia) and Rome Tor Vergata (Italy). Analysis of τa data from this observation network suggests that there is a high temporal and spatial variability of τa in the different sites. The Angström wavelength exponent α was found to vary with the magnitude of the aerosol optical thickness, with values as high as 1.5 for very low τa, and values of -0.1 for high τa situations. The relationship between the two parameters τa and α is investigated. Values of the turbidity coefficient β have been determined in Thala (Tunisia) for 8 months in 2001 based on a direct fitting method of the Angström power law expression using sun photometer data. The monthly averaged values of the turbidity coefficient β vary between 0.15 and 0.33. The months of July and October experienced the highest turbidity, while April experienced the lowest aerosol loading on average. The turbidity shows a maximum and minimum values for the Southwest and the Northwest wind directions, respectively. The single scattering albedo ωo for the 870 nm wavelength obtained from solar aureole data in Thala is analysed according to the particles' origin.

  14. Coniacian-Turonian Carbonates of the Miskar Field, offshore Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, I. [Gas Exploration & Prod. Ltd., Reading Berkshire (United Kingdom); Moody, R. [Kingston Univ., Surrey (United Kingdom); Sandman, R. [Hedge End, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    The R1 and R1 Superior Carbonates of the Miskar Field, offshore Tunisia are of Coniacian-Turonian age. These ages are constrained by several biostratigraphic events including a rapid increase in ostracod diversity at the base of the overlying Aleg Formation and the occurrence of several diagnostic benthonic foraminifera including Rotalia algeriana. The indication is that the R1 and R1 Superior Carbonates are the lateral equivalents, in part, of the Douleb Formation which is a known reservoir, onshore Tunisia. During the Coniacian-Turonian the area of the Miskar Field was subject to regional extension with the opening of several major North-South trending fractures. These culminate in the contemporaneous outpouring of submarine serpentinized volcanics during deposition of the R1 Superior/Aleg Formation. The R1 lithologies are deposited in a shallow water regime and consist of rudist buildup and debraic carbonates overlain by lagoonal facies in the North with an increase in beach/sabkha facies to the South. The indication is for a shallowing upward sequence and a general progradation of lithofacies northwards across a tilted block. In contrast the R1 Superior is indicative of a flooding event with relative sea-level changes reflected in variations of both lithofacies and biofacies. Overall the lithofacies are dominated by calcispheric/bioclastic wackestone-packstones probably deposited in a mid-platform setting. The diagenetic history of the R1 is the more complex of the two carbonate sequences reflecting several phases of fluid movement through the constituent lithologies. Original depositional characteristics and subsequent diagenetic meditation result in the development of highly variable reservoir properties.

  15. Fairness in healthcare finance and delivery: what about Tunisia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad; Arfa, Chokri; Ventelou, Bruno; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2014-07-01

    Anecdotal evidence on hidden inequity in health care in North African countries abounds. Yet firm empirical evidence has been harder to come by. This article fills the gap. It presents the first analysis of equity in the healthcare system using the particular case of Tunisia. Analyses are based on an unusually rich source of data taken from the Tunisian HealthCare Utilization and Morbidity Survey. Payments for health care are derived from the total amount of healthcare spending which was incurred by households over the last year. Utilization of health care is measured by the number of physical units of two types of services: outpatient and inpatient. The measurement of need for health care is apprehended through a rich set of ill-health indicators and demographics. Findings are presented and compared at both the aggregate level, using the general summary index approach, and the disaggregate level, using the distribution-free stochastic dominance approach. The overall picture is that direct out-of-pocket payments, which constitute a sizeable share in the current financing mix, emerge to be a progressive means of financing health care overall. Interestingly, however, when statistical testing is applied at the disaggregate level progressivity is retained over the top half of the distribution. Further analyses of the distributions of need for--and utilization of--two types of health care--outpatient and inpatient--reveal that the observed progressivity is rather an outcome of the heavy use, but not need, for health care at the higher income levels. Several policy relevant factors are discussed, and some recommendations are advanced for future reforms of the health care in Tunisia.

  16. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively.

  17. Executive Function Differences Between Bilingual Arabic-English and Monolingual Arabic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than monolinguals, while others showed that monolinguals perform significantly better. Other studies showed no significant differences between both groups, findings which were argued to be due to methodological issues. A total of 50 Arabic monolingual and Arabic-English bilingual children ranging 7-10 years of age participated in the current study. Six executive function tasks, divided into two categories (inhibition of improper response tasks, and behavioral operational control tasks), were administered. Results did not show significant differences for most executive functions.

  18. Is self-rated health a valid measure to use in social inequities and health research? Evidence from the PAPFAM women’s data in six Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahim Sawsan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Some evidence from high-income countries suggests that self-rated health (SRH is not a consistent predictor of objective health across social groups, and that its use may lead to inaccurate estimates of the effects of inequities on health. Given increased interest in studying and monitoring social inequities in health worldwide, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of SRH as a consistent measure of health across socioeconomic categories in six Arab countries. Methods We employed the PAPFAM population-based survey data on women from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the strength of the association between fair/poor SRH and objective health (reporting at least one chronic condition, adjusting for available socio-demographic and health-related variables. Analyses were then stratified by two socioeconomic indicators: education and household economic status. Results The association between SRH and objective health is strong in Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and OPT, but weak in Morocco. The strength of the association between reporting fair/poor health and objective health was not moderated by education or household economic status in any of the six countries. Conclusion As the SRH-objective health association does not vary across social categories, the use of the measure in social inequities in health research is justified. These results should not preclude the need to carry out other validation studies using longitudinal data on men and women, or the need to advocate for improving the quality of morbidity and mortality data in the Arab region.

  19. Obesity-linked diabetes in the Arab world: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyassin, B; Laher, I

    2015-09-08

    The Arab world is experiencing an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes the major pathological factors linking obesity to diabetes, focussing on current epidemiological data related to obese diabetic patients in the Arab world, the etiology of the disease and the genetic determinants of diabetes and obesity. There are alarming data related to the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children of Arab ethnicity. Replication studies identify several genetic variants in Arabs with obesitylinked diabetes. For example, variants of the ADIPOQ gene (the rs266729 single-nucleotide polymorphism) are associated with obesity and diabetes in various Arab countries. Gaps exist in our information about diabetes and obesity in Arab populations in relation to ethnic-specific cut-off points for diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Further genome-wide association studies in obese and diabetic Arab populations could add to our understanding of the pathophysiology, prevention and reversal of this disease.

  20. On the Theoretical Problematic of Arabic Physical Science or why did Arabic Science Fail to Achieve the Copernican Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Ghassib

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Hegelianized version of Althusser’s concept of problematic is used to investigate the underlying theoretical unity and structure of Arabic physical science (physics, astronomy and chemistry. A contradictory triad (associated with Platonism, Aristotelianism and Ptolemaism is identified at the heart of the Arabic project for physical science. This article focuses on the valiant attempts made by leading Arabic scientists to overcome these contradictions without transcending or tearing apart the prevailing problematic. The following question is then addressed: why was Arabic physical science reformist, rather than revolutionary, unlike Renaissance European physical science? An answer is proposed in terms of the history, nature and decline of Arabic rationalism.

  1. On The Theoretical Problematic of Arabic Physical Science Or Why Did Arabic Science Fail To Achieve The Copernican Revolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Ghassib, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    A Hegelian version of the concept of problematic is used to investigate the underlying theoretical unity and structure of Arabic physical science (physics, astronomy and chemistry). A contradictory triad (associated with Platonism, Aristotelian philosophy and Ptolemaic science) is identified at the heart of the Arabic project for physical science. The paper focuses on the valiant attempts made by leading Arabic scientists to overcome these contradictions without transcending or tearing apart the prevailing problematic. The following question is then addressed: why was Arabic physical science reformist, rather than revolutionary, unlike Renaissance European physical science? An answer is proposed in terms of the history, nature and decline of Arabic rationalism.

  2. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  3. THE ROLE OF TRANSLATION FROM ARABIC TO TURKISH IN RECOGNITION OF ARABIC CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfem KURT

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though definitions about translation have changed with developing and changing societies and disc overy of new translation theories, the translation in general refers to transfer of a written text in a language to another language while preserving its semantic content and formal structure in a definite platform. Beyond being a linguistic phenomenon of translation, it is now recognized by many theorists that translation is a complex process that can change the history. For this reason, the translation has an important mission in the social relations and penetrates directly into the target culture because it is an interlingual and intercultural transfer. Accordingly, it gains an important place in this culture. In this context, the Arabic culture, through the translations from Arabic into Turkish, has gained a place in Turkish society and thereby had oppor tunity to introduce its own culture. The aim of this study is to determine cultural transfer in translations made from Arabic to Turkish. In this context, firstly, definition of translation, its scope, fuction and translation - culture transfer relationship was clarified. The study ended with examples through some literary works translated from Arabic to Turkish. This study is a survey research. Firstly, some theoretical information was obtained by reviewing the literature. Later, the relationship between tra nslation - culture transfer was found via examples of translated works from Arabic to Turkish. In this study, only translations of literary works that belong to modern period Arabic literature were taken into consideration, excluding classical period or reli gious literature translations.

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  5. Predictors of Arab American Adolescent Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    This study examined personal, psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental predictors in tobacco use for 1,671 Arab American adolescents. Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was 6.9%. This increased from 1% at age 14 to 14% at age 18. Twenty-nine percent of the youths reported having ever smoked cigarettes. Experimentation with narghile was…

  6. Epidemiology of headache in Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, Hani T S; Deleu, Dirk; Grosset, Donald

    2010-02-01

    The epidemiology of headache in Arab countries was systematically reviewed through Medline identification of four papers reporting headache prevalence in the Arab nations of Qatar, Saudi Arabia (2 papers) and Oman. The prevalence of headache varied from 8 to 12% in Saudi Arabia to 72.5% in Qatar and 83.6% in Oman. Headache was commoner in females and younger people. The prevalence of tension headache was 3.1-9.5% in Saudi Arabia and the 1-year prevalence in Qatar was 11.2%. The migraine prevalence was 2.6-5% in Saudi Arabia and 7.9% in Qatar, while the 1-year migraine prevalence was 10.1% in Oman. The results show a migraine prevalence within that estimated worldwide. However, it is clear that epidemiological data from Arab countries are lacking, and there is disparity in the reported prevalence from Saudi Arabia when compared with its two neighbours, Qatar and Oman. Wider study adopting the same methodology in the six Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait) is needed to examine variations in headache and migraine prevalence.

  7. The Arab World Attempts Third Revival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shaoxian

    2011-01-01

    Many theories have been put forward to explain the civil unrest that erupted across the Middle East and North Africa at the beginningof this year. The author of this paper believes that seen from an historical perspective the unrest was an attempt by the Arab world to stage a third revival.

  8. Kenny-Caffey syndrome: an Arab variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, M A; Farag, T I; Shaltout, A A; Zaki, M; Al-Mazidi, Z; Abulhassan, S J; Al-Torki, N; Quishawi, A; Al Awadi, S A

    1999-01-01

    We describe 2 unrelated Bedouin girls who met the criteria for the diagnosis of Kenny-Caffey syndrome. The girls had some unusual features--microcephaly and psychomotor retardation--that distinguish the Kenny-Caffey syndrome profile in Arab children from the classical Kenny-Caffey syndrome phenotype characterized by macrocephaly and normal intelligence. The 2 girls did not harbor the 22q11 microdeletion (the hallmark of the DiGeorge cluster of diseases) that we previously reported in another Bedouin family with the Kenny-Caffey syndrome (Sabry et al. J Med Genet 1998: 35(1): 31-36). This indicates considerable genetic heterogeneity for this syndrome. We also review previously reported 44 Arab/Bedouin patients with the same profile of hypoparathyroidism, short stature, seizures, mental retardation and microcephaly. Our results suggest that these patients represent an Arab variant of Kenny-Caffey syndrome with characteristic microcephaly and psychomotor retardation. We suggest that all patients with Kenny-Caffey syndrome should be investigated for the 22q11 microdeletion. Other possible genetic causes for the Kenny-Caffey syndrome or its Arab variant include chromosome 10p abnormalities.

  9. Dearborn Forms Elementary Arabic Language Program Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Shereen

    2009-01-01

    The Dearborn Public Schools, with 18,300 students, is located in the Detroit urban area with the largest concentration of Arabic-speaking people in the United States. In order to prepare the students for the 21st century skills and global awareness and in response to parents' requests, the author in collaboration with the school principal and…

  10. Arabic Spelling: Errors, Perceptions, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh, Hezi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated common spelling errors among first language English speakers who study Arabic at the college level. A sample of 63 students (45 males and 18 females) was asked to write texts about a variety of topics and then to answer survey questions regarding their perceptions and strategies. Their writing produced 457 spelling errors,…

  11. After the Spring: Reforming Arab Armies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Arab region, and intercultural communication . She was previously assigned to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Defence College and the...and provides solutions to strategic Army issues affecting the national security community . The Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute...concern topics having strategic implications for the Army, the Department of Defense, and the larger national security community . In addition to its

  12. A Syntactic Study of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal-Eldin, Saad M.

    This syntactic analysis of Egyptian colloquial Arabic is based on the author's dialect which he designates as educated Cairene. This study offers a phonological as well as morphological background for the grammar of this particular dialect. The basic syntactic approach used is immediate constituent analysis. String analysis and transformational…

  13. Transliteration of Arabic : a new suggestion

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Based on the transliteration of the DMG (Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft) we propose some changes to its transliteration so as to linguistically reflect more accurately the Arabic original, make the transliteration more congruent and more apt for electronic data processing.

  14. United Arab Emirates students at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the last two months, CERN played host to more than a hundred young physicists who attended the summer student programme. However, the difference in culture has been more pronounced for some than others: among this year's attendees have been five female theoretical physics and medical physics students from the United Arab Emirates.

  15. Arabic Poetry: Guzzle a Ghazal! [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The Bedouins of ancient Arabia and Persia made poetry a conversational art form, and several poetic forms developed from the participatory nature of tribal poetry. Today in most Arab cultures, people may still experience public storytelling and spontaneous poetry challenges in the streets. The art of turning a rhyme into sly verbal sparring is…

  16. Image Making of Arab Americans: Implications for Teachers in Diverse Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud F.

    Arab Americans are a very diverse group. Misinformation about Arab culture plays a significant role in American perceptions and understandings of Arab American students. Whenever major events occur in the Middle East, Arab Americans become the focus of investigation. However, the Arab American community has remained relatively silent. The media…

  17. Dominican Republic; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, statistical data for the Dominican Republic were presented as real, public, financial, and external sectors. In real sector, GDP by sector at constant prices, savings, investment, consumer price index, petroleum statistics, and so on, were outlined. The public sector summarizes operations of the consolidated public sector, central government, and revenues. A summary of the banking system, claims, interest rates, financial indicators, and reserve requirements were described in t...

  18. Pengajaran Bahasa Arab di Pondok Pesantren Salafiyah Kalimantan Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Language, as the language of Islam religion, and also the language of the Holy Quran, obtaining a privileged position in the heart of Indonesians, especially Muslims. Due to its privileged position, the Arabic language was able to survive from its extinction since its appearance in Indonesia until now. Unfortunately, the privileged position of Arabic language is not directly proportional to its fate in various educational institutions in Indonesia, especially in East Kalimantan. The Arabic language teaching in those institutions faces very complex problems especially the lack of an integrated curriculum that can be relied upon to fulfill the needs of teaching Arabic language to non- Arabs with a better method. The current curriculum is the curriculum that does not have comprehensive programs and is not accompanied with modern teaching methods. While at the Teaching and Learning Activities stage, teaching the Arabic language is not supported by professional and competent teachers. This study aims to analyze and evaluate approaches used in teaching Arabic at some boarding school in East Kalimantan viewed from the perspective of the curriculum and methods of teaching Arabic to non- Arabs.

  19. SEJARAH PROSA IMAGINATIF (NOVEL ARAB; DARI KLASIK HINGGA KONTEMPORER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukron Kamil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Though the tradition of classic Arab was not prose, the Arabic fiction prose has developed since the end of Umayya Dinasty. The factors contributing to this development are the Qur’an that contains many stories and translation of fiction from Persian. Started from folklore and then translation, the Arabic fiction developed rapidly, followed by the publishing of short novels. Furthermore, there was a kind of fiction called maqamat.  The Arabic fiction developed in the classic period in the East of Arab was romantic fiction, while at the West part of Arab the development of classical fiction was marked by the works of romantic fictions by Ibn Al-Syahid and philosophical romantic fiction by Ibn Thufail. In modern era Arabic fiction was characterized with the translated works of Al Thanthawi. Then it was developed further by Al-Manfaluthi, a poet of classic and romantic. Novel Zainab by Husein Haikal indicated the birth of modern novels, followed by Taufik Hakim. Thaha Husein also developed Arabic fiction works that are still read nowadays. However, through Najib Mahfudz’s various works ranging from historical romantic, realist, and philosophical symbolic, the Arabic fiction claimed the world’s acknowledgement. The most recent trend of Arabic fiction is that the metaphysical and inter-textual novels come into light.

  20. Africa - Still a continent in drift in the 21st century?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong'ayo, A.O.O.

    2012-01-01

    The political developments in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya under the burner of Arab spring, the birth of South Sudan as the fifty fourth African state and the recent political problems witnessed in Mali, Sudan, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo and Guin

  1. The Growing Role of Trade as A Development Assistance Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-11

    country category market Bangladesh Crustaceans Federal Republic of Germany Uruguay Parts of footwear Hungary Madagascar Basketware Japan Ecuador...countries: Algeria , Morocco and Tunisia, and Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon. Sudan, Somalia, and Mauritania, also Arab League countries, are in the EEC-ACP

  2. Modeling and sediment study in the watershed Medjerda, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotti, Fatma; Mahé, Gil; Habaieb, Hamadi; Dieulin, Claudine; Hermassi, Taoufik

    2015-04-01

    Water projects have experienced a major expansion in the late 1980s, and we now have sufficient perspective to assess their actual performance and their socio-environmental impacts (Payan, 2007). This study focuses on the great watershed of Tunisia namely Medjerda which has an area of about 23,600 km2. In the main river of Medjerda some dams have been created for water retention: Sidi Salem Dam (the largest in the country), El Aroussia dam, and others on tributaries Mellegue Bouhertma, Siliana, Beni Mtir, Lakhemess and Kasseb. Since the construction of dams, essentially Sidi Salem and Siliana, the Medjerda river has undergone significant changes in morphology. The monitoring of the flow of the major hydrological stations in the pre-estuarine zone downstream from Sidi Salem dam is used to measure the impact of the constructions on hydrological regimes: reduction in average rates, reduction in volumes sold, altered seasonal pattern, and most of all reduction of the sediment transport, which the highest values are related to extreme events. In this context, the balance of sediment monitoring appears indispensable for the quantification of sediment transport at the outlet. Our approach is to calculate a specific flow rate relative to the area of the basin for every structure built in the Medjerda watershed, from the information available on transport and sedimentation rates known, combined with contours of each sub watershed. There are about ten dams spread throughout Medjerda watershed. The methodology is primarily developed for the Mellegue dam because we have at this station a long data set from 1955 until 2005. Other stations will be studied later on. The main objective of this study is to provide a series of annual variation of theoretical contributions. These calculated values will be compared with the actual measured sedimentary series. Two cores in the sediments of the pre-estuarine area are performed to determine past variability in sediment inputs over a time

  3. Arab drama series content analysis from a transnational Arab identity perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Chamieh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scientific contribution in deciphering drama series falls under the discipline of understanding the narratology of distinctive cultures and traditions within specific contexts of certain societies. This article spells out the interferences deployed by the provocations that are induced through the functions of values in modeling societies which are projected through the transmission of media. The proposed operational model consists of providing an à priori design of common Arab values assimilated into an innovative grid analysis code book that has enabled the execution of a systematic and reliable approach to the quantitative content analysis performance. Additionally, a more thorough qualitative content analysis has been implemented in terms of narratolgy where actions have been evaluated based on the grid analysis code book for a clearer perception of Arab values depicted in terms of their context within the Arab drama milieu. This approach has been deployed on four Arab drama series covering the transnational/national and non-divisive/divisive media aspects in the intention of extracting the transmitted values from a common identity perspective for cause of divulging Arab people’s expectancies.

  4. Czech Republic : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Financial reporting and auditing requirements in the Czech Republic are currently in transition from complying with national standards to complying with International Accounting Standards (IAS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the European Union (EU) Directives. By law, the Czech Republic seeks to attain maximum compliance with the EU Fourth and Seventh Directives and the E...

  5. Arabic Speech Recognition System using CMU-Sphinx4

    CERN Document Server

    Satori, H; Chenfour, N

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the creation of an Arabic version of Automated Speech Recognition System (ASR). This system is based on the open source Sphinx-4, from the Carnegie Mellon University. Which is a speech recognition system based on discrete hidden Markov models (HMMs). We investigate the changes that must be made to the model to adapt Arabic voice recognition. Keywords: Speech recognition, Acoustic model, Arabic language, HMMs, CMUSphinx-4, Artificial intelligence.

  6. Urbanization and social change in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-lughod, J

    1983-01-01

    "... This paper represents an exploratory essay that looks at variations (variables) within the Arab region over time and space and that attempts to extract some of the underlying common elements that distinguish present day social change and urbanization in the Arab world." A typology is developed that identifies sub-types of Arab countries on the basis of economic structure. Major categories include heartland/confrontation states, neocolonial dependencies, semi-oil states, and oil-wealthy states.

  7. Dubbing and Redubbing Animation: Disney in the Arab World

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Di Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Distribution of Disney films and TV products in the Arab world has recently undergone a radical change: since the signing of a large-scale agreement between Al Jazeera and Disney, in 2013, most films and TV series are being dubbed, or redubbed, in Modern Standard Arabic. Contrary to the long-standing tradition of dubbing Disney productions using the Egyptian vernacular variety of Arabic, the eminently written, formal language used for administration and classical education has been introduced...

  8. Arabic name authority in the online environment : options and implications

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the efforts for incorporating non-Roman scripts, notably Arabic, in MARC bibliographic and authority records. Arabic name authority records have been handwritten using Arabic script and filed manually in book or card catalogs since the time that it was considered important to preserve this information. After the adoption of typewriters as tools in library cataloging departments, those who only had Latin script typewriters were forced into using transliteration schemes, a...

  9. Assessment of meat quality of local lamb breeds in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Selmi,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, the marketing of lamb is in the majority of farmers after weaning at relatively low weight. Thus, it was deemed necessary to conduct a test of fattening lambs Tunisian landraces (Barbarine (BGQ, fine Tail from the west (QFO Black Thibar (NT and Sicilo-Sarde (SS after weaning to evaluate their growth performance and determine the quality of carcasses and meat. To do so, four uniform lots of lambs (age and weight were conducted simultaneously in two months and fed with oat hay ad libitum supplemented with 300g of concentrate/day/lamb. It was clear from this work that the lambs of the breed Black Thibar had better daily growth (87.5g vs. 64.2; 66.3, 72.6 respectively for the QFO, BGQ and SS, feed efficiency (5.94. The quality of meat (6.89% fat and pieces of the first category (leg, the net and found the square (53.43%. To enjoy optimum production of red meat, it is strongly recommended that fattened lambs after weaning with diets tailored to the farming area where profitability is better and food is available.

  10. Reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, A; Basset, C; Oueslati, F; Brissaud, F

    2001-01-01

    In Tunisia, golf courses are irrigated with secondary treated effluent stored in landscape impoundments. The impact of the conveyance and storage steps on the physical-chemical and biological quality of irrigation water was evaluated on three golf courses over two years. It was found that the water quality varies all along the water route, from the wastewater treatment plant up to the irrigation site: nutrient and bacteria contents decreased along the route in the three cases. This variation depends on the wastewater quality, the length of the pipes conveying water, the number of regulation reservoirs and ponds, the water residence time in pipes, reservoirs and ponds, and the operation of the ponds. The bacteriological quality of irrigation water deteriorates during the irrigation period in the three golf courses as the ponds are operated as continuous flow reactors. The results obtained in this study indicate the inability of golf water supplies, as currently managed, to properly sanitize reclaimed wastewater and meet target quality criteria recommended by WHO (1989) for water intended for recreational use. For a safe reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation, changes in the design and operation of the ponds should be planned or additional treatment steps provided.

  11. A Proposed Arabic Handwritten Text Normalization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Abu-Ain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Text normalization is an important technique in document image analysis and recognition. It consists of many preprocessing stages, which include slope correction, text padding, skew correction, and straight the writing line. In this side, text normalization has an important role in many procedures such as text segmentation, feature extraction and characters recognition. In the present article, a new method for text baseline detection, straightening, and slant correction for Arabic handwritten texts is proposed. The method comprises a set of sequential steps: first components segmentation is done followed by components text thinning; then, the direction features of the skeletons are extracted, and the candidate baseline regions are determined. After that, selection of the correct baseline region is done, and finally, the baselines of all components are aligned with the writing line.  The experiments are conducted on IFN/ENIT benchmark Arabic dataset. The results show that the proposed method has a promising and encouraging performance.

  12. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  13. The Electronic Archiving of Arab News Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Ayub Gigawy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This Research aims to present the electronic archives of Arab news agency websites and their methods of searching for and retrieving information. Also, its aim is to examine all their methods in order to find out which are the best and most practically useful ones. The research refers to the news agencies and the Internet, through the methods that users encounter in these inquires and links which present information. It concentrates on practical ways of searching for news items in both texts and pictures. The research contains tables showing the results. It presents a brief summery for each of Arab news agencies.The research comes to the conclusion that there are many things which need to be considered, and also some suggestions as to how the search for and retrieval of information might be improved

  14. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin

    2008-01-01

    to its English translation and that overall, the English text is the more explicit. Now, does this mean that English generally is more explicit in its use of referring expressions, or is the difference due, rather, to the need of the TL text to be more explicit in order to facilitate the understanding...... with the culture. As a preliminary test of this option, the article compares the explicitness of the referring expressions in an American novel, Sula by Toni Morrison, and its Arabic translation, and in this way the article applies Aziz' method, but instead of going from Arabic to English like Aziz, it goes...... the other way around. The TL text again turns out to be more explicit than the SL text (in fact, much more explicit), thus raising the likelihood that translations (at least across wide culture gaps) tend to be more explicit in their use of referring expressions than their sources are....

  15. The Arabic Diatessaron Project: Digitalizing, Encoding, Lemmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Lancioni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Diatessaron Project (henceforth ADP is an international research project in Digital Humanities that aims to collect, digitalise and encode all known manuscripts of the Arabic Diatessaron (henceforth AD, a text that has been relatively neglected in scholarly research. ADP’s final goal is to provide a number of tools that can enable scholars to effectively query, compare and investigate all known variants of the text that will be encoded as far as possible in compliance with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI guidelines. The paper addresses a number of issues involved in the process of digitalising manuscripts included in the two existing editions (Ciasca 1888 and Marmardji 1935, adding variants in unedited manuscripts, encoding and lemmatising the text. Issues involved in the design of the ADP include presentation of variants, choice of the standard text, applicability of TEI guidelines, automatic translation between different encodings, cross-edition concordances and principles of lemmatisation.

  16. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed.

  17. Molecular characterisation of isoniazid- and rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Kahla, I; Marzouk, M; Henry, M; Bedotto, M; Cohen-Bacrie, S; Ben Selma, W; Boukadida, J; Drancourt, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of our study was to genotypically characterise isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Sousse, Central Tunisia, using DNA sequencing and multispacer sequence typing (MST). The results show that 27/28 (96.4%) and 1/28 (3.6%) INH-resistant isolates yielded respectively the kat G S315T and the inh A - 15C → T mutations. Two-thirds of RMP-resistant isolates yielded the rpo B D516V mutation and one sixth yielded either H526D or S531L mutations. Genotyping analysis revealed the multiclonal spread of drug-resistant isolates in Central Tunisia. Data presented here complete the previously published map of resistant M. tuberculosis isolates and highlight their regional disparity in Tunisia.

  18. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbel H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia. A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed.

  19. A rule-based stemmer for Arabic Gulf dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Abuata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic dialects arewidely used from many years ago instead of Modern Standard Arabic language in many fields. The presence of dialects in any language is a big challenge. Dialects add a new set of variational dimensions in some fields like natural language processing, information retrieval and even in Arabic chatting between different Arab nationals. Spoken dialects have no standard morphological, phonological and lexical like Modern Standard Arabic. Hence, the objective of this paper is to describe a procedure or algorithm by which a stem for the Arabian Gulf dialect can be defined. The algorithm is rule based. Special rules are created to remove the suffixes and prefixes of the dialect words. Also, the algorithm applies rules related to the word size and the relation between adjacent letters. The algorithm was tested for a number of words and given a good correct stem ratio. The algorithm is also compared with two Modern Standard Arabic algorithms. The results showed that Modern Standard Arabic stemmers performed poorly with Arabic Gulf dialect and our algorithm performed poorly when applied for Modern Standard Arabic words.

  20. Discrimination and psychological distress: does Whiteness matter for Arab Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; James, Sherman A; Yamout, Rouham; Baker, Wayne

    2012-12-01

    The white racial category in the U.S. encompasses persons who have Arab ancestry. Arab Americans, however, have always occupied a precarious position in relationship to Whiteness. This study examined differences in reporting racial/ethnic discrimination among Arab Americans. It also investigated whether and how the association between discrimination and psychological distress varies by characteristics that capture an Arab American's proximity to/distance from Whiteness. We used data from the Detroit Arab American Study (2003; n = 1016), which includes measures of discrimination and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress. A series of logistic regression models were specified to test the discrimination-psychological distress association, stratified by five measures that capture Whiteness--subjective racial identification, religion, skin color, ethnic centrality, and residence in the ethnic enclave. Discrimination was more frequently reported by Muslim Arab Americans, those who racially identify as non-white, and who live in the ethnic enclave. Conversely, the association between discrimination and psychological distress was stronger for Christian Arab Americans, those who racially identify as white, who have dark skin color, and who live outside the ethnic enclave. Even though Arab Americans who occupy an identity location close to Whiteness are less subjected to discrimination, they are more negatively affected by it. The findings illuminate the complex pathways through which discrimination associates with psychological distress among 'white' immigrants. Further research on discrimination and health among Arab Americans can help unpack the white racial category and deconstruct Whiteness.

  1. Opinion Mining and Analysis for Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N. Al-Kabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Social media constitutes a major component of Web 2.0 and includes social networks, blogs, forum discussions, micro-blogs, etc. Users of social media generate a huge volume of reviews and comments on daily basis. These reviews and comments reflect the opinions of users about different issues, such as: products, news, entertainments, or sports. Therefore different establishments may need to analyze these reviews and comments. For examples: It is essential for companies to know the pros and cons of their products or services in the eyes of customers. Governments may want In addition to know the attitude of people towards certain decisions, services, etc. Although the manual analysis of textual reviews and comments can be more accurate than the automatic methods, nonetheless, it is time consuming, expensive, and can be In addition subjective. In addition, the huge amount of data contained in social networks can make it impractical to perform analysis manually. This paper focuses on evaluating social content in Arabic language and contexts. Currently, Middle East is an area rich of major political and social reforms. The social media can be a rich source of information to evaluate such contexts. In this research we developed an opinion mining and analysis tool to collect different forms of Arabic language (i.e. Standard or MSA, and colloquial. The tool accepts comments or opinions as input and generates polarity based outputs related to the comments. For example the output can be whether the comment or review is: (subjective or objective, (positive or negative, and (strong or weak. The evaluation of the performance of the developed tool showed that it yields more accurate results when it is applied on domain-based Arabic reviews relative to general-based Arabic reviews.

  2. Gunpowder and Arab Firearms in Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Zaky, A.

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available THERE is no certainty as to the actual date of the invention of gunpowder. The evidence that the Chinese possessed it in ancient times is not conclusive. Among the claimants of discovering gunpowder are Chinese, Indians, Greeks, Arabs, English and Germans. Who first thought of propelling a ball through a metal tube by exploding gunpowder is unknown; anyhow; it certainly was not Monk Berthold Schwartz.

    Consultar resumen en inglés.

  3. BRIGHT PROSPECT FOR CHINA- ARAB OIL COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Now is the perfect time for China and Arab League countries to cooperate more in the oil and gas sector as the development of shale gas in the United States changes the global energy business. The United States produced 180 billion cubic meters of shale gas in 2011, an amount that constituted 34 percent of the coumry's total output of natural gas. As a result, it imported less gas and liquefied natural gas.

  4. Emergency medicine in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Fares, Saleh; Irfan, Furqan B; Corder, Robert F; Al Marzouqi, Μuneer Abdulla; Al Zaabi, Ahmad Hasan; Idrees, Marwa Mubarak; Abbo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been a decade since emergency medicine was recognized as a specialty in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this short time, emergency medicine has established itself and developed rapidly in the UAE. Large, well-equipped emergency departments (EDs) are usually located in government hospitals, some of which function as regional trauma centers. Most of the larger EDs are staffed with medically or surgically trained physicians, with board-certified emergency medicine physicians serving as...

  5. On the Use of Arabic Tweets to Predict Stock Market Changes in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid AlKhatib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social media users nowadays express their opinions and feelings about many event occurring in their lives. For certain users, some of the most important events are the ones related to the financial markets. An interesting research field emerged over the past decade to study the possible relationship between the fluctuation in the financial markets and the online social media. In this research we present a comprehensive study to identify the relation between Arabic financial-related tweets and the change in stock markets using a set of the most active Arab stock indices. The results show that there is a Granger Causality relation between the volume and sentiment of Arabic tweets and the change in some of the stock markets.

  6. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-04-25

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5(th) leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10(th) as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease.

  7. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bisher; Abuyassin; Ismail; Laher

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2 DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2 DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2 DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2 DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2 DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2 DM is problematic as well, since T2 DM has become the 5th leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10 th as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2 DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease.

  8. Islamophobia and Arab and Muslim Women's Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Povey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to compare women’s activism in Diaspora communities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, with some of the experiences of women activists in Western counties such as Australia. This is by no means a definitive account of Arab and Muslim women’s activism in either country but an attempt to raise some questions and provide a framework in order to understand some of the issues facing Arab and Muslim activists today. I believe that it is important to look at these issues in a way that is contextualized in terms of the material circumstances in which women living in Diaspora communities find themselves. In doing so, I hope to reveal the complexity and dynamism of women’s activism and to take on critically, Orientalist, essentialist and racist arguments regarding the nature of Arab and Muslim women’s role in opposing war and neo-liberalism and in the struggle for gender equality. As Edward Said argues, exile forces us to “see things not simply as they are, but as they have come to be that way. Look at situations as contingent, not as inevitable, look at them as a series of historical choices made by men and women, facts of society made by human beings not as natural or God-given, therefore unchangeable, permanent, irreversible.”

  9. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.

  10. On the Theoretical Problematic of Arabic Physical Science or why did Arabic Science Fail to Achieve the Copernican Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hisham Ghassib

    2013-01-01

    A Hegelianized version of Althusser’s concept of problematic is used to investigate the underlying theoretical unity and structure of Arabic physical science (physics, astronomy and chemistry). A contradictory triad (associated with Platonism, Aristotelianism and Ptolemaism) is identified at the heart of the Arabic project for physical science. This article focuses on the valiant attempts made by leading Arabic scientists to overcome these contradictions without transcending or tearing apart ...

  11. [First serological study of the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, M; Belkahia, H; Sayahi, L; Aloui, M; Jemli, M H; Hadj Mohamed, B; Sassi, L; Darghouth, M A; Djaïem, A A; Bayoudh, M; Messadi, L

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius). Sera of 226 healthy dromedaries from three regions of Tunisia (Sidi Bouzid, Bouficha and Douz) were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). The overall infection rate was estimated at 29.2%. The study of risk factors showed that region, age, gender, presence of ticks and types of breeding had no influence on the seroprevalence of A. phagocytophilum. This study indicates for the first time in Tunisia that dromedary may be involved in the natural cycle of A. phagocytophilum.

  12. Choice of the exchange policies in the developments countries: Study of the competitiveness of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benahji Sfaxi Hend

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the Breton Woods system, the increased fluctuations of the exchange rates pushed the developing countries to adopt exchange rate policies to avoid rocking of the balance of payments. Since 1973, Tunisia adopted fixed or intermediary exchange rate policies to support or ameliorate her competitiveness and later to balance her current account. By calculating the real effective exchange rate misalignment, we showed that this country did not achieve her goals and that amelioration of competitiveness occurred only as from the moment when she softened her exchange policies. A policy of floating exchange rate is recommended for Tunisia specially why this country is more and more open. .

  13. A morphological and molecular characterization of vine mealybug populations (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Mansour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Some vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret populations in Tunisian vineyards have been morphologically and genetically characterized. The morphological examination was based on the main distinctive characteristics of species of Planococcus, namely the number and distribution of the multilocular disc pores and tubular ducts on the adult female. This showed the existence of two different vine mealybug populations in Tunisia. Likewise, in the molecular analyses, two separate clades were revealed in the neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree, supporting the morphological studies and suggesting that there are two distinct populations of P. ficus on grapevine in Tunisia.

  14. Syria in the Arab Spring: The integration of Syria’s conflict with the Arab uprisings, 2011–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lynch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available How did Syria’s conflict interact with the broader wave of regional protest known as the Arab Spring? This article uses a unique, complete Twitter dataset of tweets including the word “Syria” in English or Arabic to empirically test how Syria’s conflict was discussed online. The analysis shows a high level of interaction between Syria and other Arab countries through 2011. Other Arab countries experiencing popular protests (“Arab Spring countries” were referenced far more often in 2011 than were Syria’s immediate neighbors, while keyword analysis shows the framing of the conflict in terms of Syria’s “regime” aligned the conflict with other Arab uprisings. In 2012–2013 this changed sharply, with significantly fewer mentions of other Arab countries, particularly Arab Spring countries, more fundraising and political appeals across the Gulf, and growing Islamization. These findings offer one of the first empirical demonstrations of the integration and disintegration of a unified Arab discourse from 2011 to 2013, with significant implications for theories of the diffusion of protest and ideas.

  15. The European Union and neoliberal governmentality: Twinning in Tunisia and Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    İşleyen, B.

    2015-01-01

    As a response to the Arab uprisings that started in 2010, the European Union has emphasised, more determinated than ever, the urgency of inclusive and sustainable socio-economic development in the Arab region. The central objective of this article is to understand the nature and operation of Europea

  16. Reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, reader self-perception, and arabic achievement of Arab-American students learning arabic as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2014-12-01

    The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  17. “We are Arabs:” The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women’s Lived Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity, and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and “We are Arabs.” To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society’s perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society’s honor. “We are Arabs” describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being. PMID:26865811

  18. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools.

  19. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu

    2014-01-01

    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study confirmed…

  20. Mauritanian Arabic. Teacher's Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Raymond C.; And Others

    The teaching guide is designed to accompany a set of instructional materials in Mauritanian Arabic (Hassaniya) for Peace Corps volunteers. It provides information and techniques for language teaching in three volumes: (1) a literacy handbook--a volume of lessons on the Arabic alphabet and script; (2) a communication and culture handbook; and (3) a…

  1. Undergraduate Arab International Students' Adjustment to U.S. Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Rabia, Hazza M.

    2017-01-01

    The adjustment process and issues of 16 Arab international students enrolled at two universities in the Northeast of the United States were examined through this qualitative, exploratory study. The participants were from Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and United Arab Emirates and had been in the US for 2 to 5 years. In-depth…

  2. Arab International Students' Experiences in a U.S. University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Rabia, Hazza M.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory study described the experiences of Arab international students in a U.S. postsecondary institution. This research identified those factors that Arab international students reported as facilitating or obstructing their academic success, promoting or limiting their socialization within the context of their postsecondary…

  3. Proficiency Despite Diglossia: A New Approach for Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, Karin C.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the research literature on diglossia, presents the practicality of Formal Spoken Arabic (FSA) from the training point of view, and gives a brief overview of features of FSA as taught at the Foreign Service Institute that have popularized it for teaching spoken proficiency skills to students of Arabic as a foreign language. (30…

  4. "Good Citizenship" through Bilingual Children Literature: Arabic and Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Sara; Baratz, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research has been to evaluate the contribution of the genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to citizenship education. Since the Israeli society is a multicultural society comprised of both nations, Arabs and Jews who live in conflicted environment, one must regard those textbooks as civic agents. Literature is a…

  5. Predicting Physical Activity in Arab American School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically grounded research on the determinants of Arab American children's physical activity is virtually nonexistent. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) to predict Arab American children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).…

  6. Arab Americans: A Comparative Critical Analysis of Leading Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertsman, Vladimir F.

    2001-01-01

    Examines eight reference sources on Arab Americans to investigate how complete the information is on various facets of Arab American presence, history, community life, heritage preservation, organizations, and the press, concluding that the reference sources complement each other, but taken together, they do not cover the entire multidimensional…

  7. Ambiguous Insiders: An Investigation of Arab American Invisibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Nadine

    2000-01-01

    Explores Arab American invisibility as a central theme in the historical narrative of Arab immigrants and their descendants in North America. Addresses invisibility in terms of their paradoxical positioning within the U.S. racial/ethnic classification system. Argues that four central paradoxes shape their identity, noting that each paradox…

  8. An American Honors Program in the Arab Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yyelland, Byrad

    2012-01-01

    The first Western honors program to be established in the Arab Gulf is offered in Doha, Qatar, on a small satellite campus of an American university. Doha is the capital city of Qatar, a sovereign Arab state physically located on a small peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia in the south and jutting into the Persian Gulf. With a population of only 1.7…

  9. Providing Mental Health Services to Arab Americans: Recommendations and Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Chris D.; Al-Timimi, Nada R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents background information on the cultural sociopathology of the Arab American experience. It discusses how, in order to effectively deliver services, mental health workers need to be aware of their own biases. It explores ways to provide culturally relevant mental health services to Arab Americans. (JDM)

  10. Civil Rights Issues Facing Arab Americans in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    This report is a summary statement of the Michigan Advisory Committee's study on civil rights issues facing Arab American communities in Michigan. It is based on information received by the Committee at a community forum held in Dearborn, Michigan, in 1999. Six sections focus on: (1) "Introduction," including Arab American demographics…

  11. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  12. The Complex Impact of Closeness: Studying Arab Adolescents in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Essa, Rania

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between language and identity in the Israeli conflictual situation, exploring the perceptions of Israeli Arab adolescents in two different contexts: a mixed city and a homogeneous Arab town. Adolescents in the mixed city, although more exposed to Hebrew and to Jewish culture, develop a stronger sense of…

  13. ARABIC-MALAY MACHINE TRANSLATION USING RULE-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jumaa Alsaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic machine translation has been taking place in machine translation projects in recent years. This study concentrates on the translation of Arabic text to its equivalent in Malay language. The problem of this research is the syntactic and morphological differences between Arabic and Malay adjective sentences. The main aim of this study is to design and develop Arabic-Malay machine translation model. First, we analyze the adjective role in the Arabic and Malay languages. Based on this analysis, we identify the transfer bilingual rules form source language to target language so that the translation of source language to target language can be performed by computers successfully. Then, we build and implement a machine translation prototype called AMTS to translate from Arabic to Malay based on rule based approach. The system is evaluated on set of simple Arabic sentences. The techniques used to evaluate the correctness of the system translation are the BLEU metric algorithm and the human judgment. The results of the BLEU algorithm show that the AMTS system performs better than Google in the translation of Arabic sentences into Malay. In addition, the average accuracy given by human judges is 92.3% for our system and 75.3% for Google.

  14. Transforming Arab Economies : The Knowledge and Innovation Road

    OpenAIRE

    Utz, Anuja; Aubert, Jean-Eric

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge has always been central to development. A thousand years ago the Arab civilization led the world in knowledge, prosperity, and development. More generally, the Arab world is currently undergoing a transition on three fronts: 1) a political transition, which seeks to replace authoritarian powers with more democratic ones; 2) a social transition in which equitable programs to prote...

  15. Speech perception test for Arabic-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishon-Rabin, L; Rosenhouse, J

    2000-01-01

    The high incidence of hearing impairment in the Arabic-speaking population in Israel, as well as the use of advanced aural rehabilitation devices, motivated the development of Arabic speech assessment tests for this population. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is to describe features that are unique to the Arabic language and that need to be considered when developing such speech tests. These include Arabic diglossia (i.e., the sharp dichotomy between Literary and Colloquial Arabic), emphatization, and a simple vowel system. The second goal is to describe a new analytic speech test that assesses the perception of significant phonological contrasts in the Colloquial Arabic variety used in Israel. The perception of voicing, place, and manner of articulation, in both initial and final word positions, was tested at four sensation levels in 10 normally-hearing subjects using a binary forced-choice paradigm. Results show a relationship between percent correct and presentation level that is in keeping with articulation curves obtained with Saudi Arabic and English monosyllabic words. Furthermore, different contrasts yielded different articulation curves: emphatization was the easiest to perceive whereas place of articulation was the most difficult. The results can be explained by the specific acoustical features of Arabic.

  16. Printed Arabic Text Recognition using Linear and Nonlinear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic language is one of the most popular languages in the world. Hundreds of millions of people in many countries around the world speak Arabic as their native speaking. However, due to complexity of Arabic language, recognition of printed and handwritten Arabic text remained untouched for a very long time compared with English and Chinese. Although, in the last few years, significant number of researches has been done in recognizing printed and handwritten Arabic text, it stills an open research field due to cursive nature of Arabic script. This paper proposes automatic printed Arabic text recognition technique based on linear and ellipse regression techniques. After collecting all possible forms of each character, unique code is generated to represent each character form. Each code contains a sequence of lines and ellipses. To recognize fonts, a unique list of codes is identified to be used as a fingerprint of font. The proposed technique has been evaluated using over 14000 different Arabic words with different fonts and experimental results show that average recognition rate of the proposed technique is 86%.

  17. Vocabulary Memorization Strategies among Arab Postgraduate English Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaysi, Fouad Hussein; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated vocabulary memorization strategies in the EFL context, but few researches have been conducted on the types of memorization strategies used by the Arab students in Malaysia. Thus, this study investigates the types of vocabulary memorization strategies employed by the Arab students in the Intensive English course at…

  18. Arab Animated Cartoons : Mediating and Negotiating Notions of Identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayfo, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the first critical critical study of animated cartoon production in the Arab world. From the 1930s until the recent spread of online animations, animated cartoon production in the Arab world was the privilege of individuals and institutions with strong links to academic, media and pol

  19. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  20. The Modern Arabic Book : Design as Agent of Cultural Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abi-Fares, H.

    2017-01-01

    Books in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century played an important role in the dissemination of liberal and nationalist ideologies, thus instigating social change in the Arab world. The focus of this study are printed Arabic books where the ideas of modernity in both form and content were

  1. Grammatical Agreement in Classical Arabic and the Modern Dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the historical changes in agreement patterns between Old Arabic and the New Arabic dialects to see whether they support Versteegh's radical hypothesis of pidginization, creolization, and decreolization. The conclusion is reached that the changes are chiefly because of processes of normal transmissions, "drift," and diffusion. (24…

  2. Attitudes of Kuwait University Students towards Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmama, Djilali; Bouhmama, Soumia

    2015-01-01

    This research work endeavors to examine Kuwait University language students' attitude towards Modern Standard Arabic under the spread of English as a dominant language. It attempts also to examine differences between males and females' attitudes towards English as medium of instruction as opposed to Modern Standard Arabic. The undertaken study…

  3. Implicit Referential Meaning with Reference to English Arabic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zughoul, Basem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how English implicit referential meaning is translated into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit referential meanings found in the novel "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The analysis shows that the translation of English implicit referential meaning into Arabic can be…

  4. Forecasting the “Arab Spring” of 2011: Terrorist Incident Data from 2000-2010 Offered No Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the single most predominant questions associated with the so-called “Arab Spring” is whether or not any social research indicators associated with terrorism data are available with predictive value for such profound structural political changes. The underlying aim of this “Research Note” is to take a first pass at the terrorism data and to compare certain terrorism data trends for four countries that experienced successful regime change in 2011, namely Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, to terrorism trends in nine countries where political strains and tensions did not result in full blown regime change. In this essay, those countries include Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, UAE, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. From the start, it should be clear that even though there was non-violent protest in many of these countries, this analysis places singular attention on what both Gurr and Ross and Miller call “oppositional” or “insurgent” terrorism where terrorist assaults are directed at state governments.

  5. An Arabic CCG approach for determining constituent types from Arabic Treebank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. El-taher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Converting a treebank into a CCGbank opens the respective language to the sophisticated tools developed for Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG and enriches cross-linguistic development. The conversion is primarily a three-step process: determining constituents’ types, binarization, and category conversion. Usually, this process involves a preprocessing step to the Treebank of choice for correcting brackets and normalizing tags for any changes that were introduced during the manual annotation, as well as extracting morpho-syntactic information that is necessary for determining constituents’ types. In this article, we describe the required preprocessing step on the Arabic Treebank, as well as how to determine Arabic constituents’ types. We conducted an experiment on parts 1 and 2 of the Penn Arabic Treebank (PATB aimed at converting the PATB into an Arabic CCGbank. The performance of our algorithm when applied to ATB1v2.0 & ATB2v2.0 was 99% identification of head nodes and 100% coverage over the Treebank data.

  6. Meso- and Micro-scale flow modelling in the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Frank, Helmut Paul;

    2003-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installations...

  7. 77 FR 19026 - Designation of Syrian Arab Republic for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... higher drop is expected in 2012. Tourism, which accounted for 6 to 9 percent of Syria's gross domestic... English translation accompanied by photo identification. USCIS will also consider certain forms...

  8. Teacher Incentive Systems, Final Report. Policy Research Initiative: Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…

  9. Sedimentological evolution, diagenesis and hydrocarbon potentiality of late Jurassic carbonates, Eastern Region, Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-anbaawy, M.I.H.; Al-thour, K.A. (Dept. of Geology, Faculty of Science, Cairo Univ., Giza (EG))

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of the lateral and vertical distribution of the lithofacies identified within the Late Jurassic Amran sequence (Thoma Member) in Jabal Al-Balaq area, Marib, Y.A.R., three megafacies were recognized. Proceeding from the shore landwards they are: Ooid bank, including barriers such as reefs and carbonate sand shoals adjacent to the margin of a shallow platform having intertidal to subtidal agitated water, the bank being composed of skeletal packstone, oolitic grainstone and oncolitic packstone; Shelf lagoon, behind the shoal, characterized by less turbulent pelletoidal wackestone, sandy mudstone and algal stromatolite (boundstone); Alluvial coastal plain, including tidal sand flat of the marine shoreline-intertidal area, where cross-bedded sandstone and alluvial fan toe conglomerate were deposited. The apparent small-scale facies variations which are the result of the allocyclic tectonically controlled sea level fluctuations, reflect a complex interfingering of the depositional environments and the resulting rock types. The paragenetic sequence of the post-depositional processes within the siliciclastics inferred is: iron oxide cementation, authigenic growth of mica clays, generation of pressure solution and compaction, and generation of quartz overgrowths. It is indicated that the compaction process followed the neomorphism and cementation within the carbonates.

  10. Yemen Arab Republic - energy situation 1985. Arabische Republik Jemen - Energiewirtschaft 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    The energy situation of Yemen is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments.

  11. Early experience of an interconnected system in the Yemen Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, W.M.; Warham, T.J.

    1987-07-01

    Gives details of a new 132 kV interconnecting power system being built to link existing distribution systems in major cities and a new oil fired power plant at Ras Katenib on the Red Sea coast. During commissioning, the expected loading was not available, and there was also an unexpected shift in demand away from the coast to the interior. Outlines the performance assessment undertaken to overcome the practical problems of commissioning and initial operation of the power system, and also the further analysis needed to tackle anticipated power system problems due to the geographic shift in demand growth. 4 refs.

  12. Yemen Arab Republic - energy situation 1988/89. Jemenitische Arabische Republik - Energiewirtschaft 1988/89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The energy situation of Yemen is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA).

  13. The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    On 13 February 2015, the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science hosted the launch of a special Issue of the journal Mediterranean Politics on The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World: The Impact of the Arab Uprisings. Bringing together academics, NGO...... representatives, journalists, policy makers and students, the event focused on the changing state of aid in the Arab world in the wake of the Arab Uprisings and its significance for the region. With the profound hope that accompanied the democratic revolutions across the Arab world since December 2010...... disconnect between, on the one hand, official expressions of support for political, economic and social transformations in the MENA region and, on the other, the continuity in the management of foreign assistance programmes....

  14. Handwritten Arabic Numeral Recognition using a Multi Layer Perceptron

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Nibaran; Saha, Sudip; Haque, Syed Sahidul

    2010-01-01

    Handwritten numeral recognition is in general a benchmark problem of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. Compared to the problem of printed numeral recognition, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is compounded due to variations in shapes and sizes of handwritten characters. Considering all these, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is addressed under the present work in respect to handwritten Arabic numerals. Arabic is spoken throughout the Arab World and the fifth most popular language in the world slightly before Portuguese and Bengali. For the present work, we have developed a feature set of 88 features is designed to represent samples of handwritten Arabic numerals for this work. It includes 72 shadow and 16 octant features. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier is used here for recognition handwritten Arabic digits represented with the said feature set. On experimentation with a database of 3000 samples, the technique yields an average recognition rate of 94....

  15. Acculturation and polysubstance abuse in Arab-American treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl P; Farrag, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Acculturation to U.S. culture by Latinos and Asian Americans has been associated with increased prevalence of substance abuse. However, little is known about the association between acculturation and substance use among Arab Americans, or more specifically, among Arab-American treatment clients. In 156 Arab-American male treatment clients, we found that higher levels of U.S. acculturation were positively associated with increased prevalence of polysubstance abuse. This first report on a large series of Arab-American clients also found considerable within-group variability. These results can be used to develop treatment plans and work-force training on the importance of U.S. acculturation and variability within Arab Americans.

  16. Naming to empower: lesbianism in the Arab Islamicate world today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    After a brief review of the proliferation of newly coined Arabic words to speak about LGBTQIA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and ally) identities, this article interrogates the facile imitation of Western labels and questions their usefulness in the context of Arab societies and cultures. It demonstrates that the assumptions that underlie the creation of new wordlists overlook and ultimately erase the very rich tradition on alternative sexual practices that has been prominent in the Islamicate world at least since the ninth century. Salvaging this tradition and its accompanying terminology on homosexuality challenges the claim that homosexuality is a Western importation, and renders the recourse to English categories superfluous. Moreover, uncovering the forgotten Arabic cultural material on alternative sexualities offers contemporary Arab gays and lesbians a rich and empowering indigenous heritage, as well as home-grown modes of resistance that are poised to challenge homophobic attitudes and policies in the Arab world, and the hegemony of Western sexual and cultural imperialism.

  17. Arabic and English Consonants: A Phonetic and Phonological Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shariq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to investigate the actual pronunciation of the consonants of Arabic and English with the help of phonetic and phonological tools like manner of the articulation,  point of articulation, and their distribution at different positions in Arabic and English words. A phonetic and phonological analysis of the consonants of Arabic and English can be useful in overcoming the hindrances that confront the Arab EFL learners. The larger aim is to bring about pedagogical changes that can go a long way in improving pronunciation and ensuring the occurrence of desirable learning outcomes. Keywords: Phonetics, Phonology, Pronunciation, Arabic Consonants, English Consonants, Manner of articulation, Point of articulation

  18. FAKTOR DEMOTIVASI PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB DALAM PERSPEKTIF SISWA MADRASAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Muhammad Saepul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation plays important role in language learning. When the language learner’s motivation is decreasing then he is being in a demotivation stage. Several previous studies in reveal that demotivation could diminish the student achievement in language skill. The phenomenon of this demotivation is rising in Arabic language learning in Indonesia’s madrasa. Using qualitative method with short essay from 105 students of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri (MAN Cianjur, this study shows two major factors that cause demotivation in Arabic learning: external and internal. Specific external factors come from: (1 complexity of Arabic language; (2 learning material and method; (3 learning facility and environment; and (4 teacher’s behavior and personality. While internal factor sources are: (1 basic skill and previous learning experience; (2 negative attitude to Arabic subject. These factors need to be considered by teacher and other stakeholder as basic reference to increase student’s motivation in Arabic learning.

  19. Challenges facing the development of the Arabic chatbot

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHagbani, Eman Saad; Khan, Muhammad Badruddin

    2016-07-01

    The future information systems are expected to be more intelligent and will take human queries in natural language as input and answer them promptly. To develop a chatbot or a computer program that can chat with humans in realistic manner to extent that human get impressions that he/she is talking with other human is a challenging task. To make such chatbots, different technologies will work together ranging from artificial intelligence to development of semantic resources. Sophisticated chatbots are developed to perform conversation in number of languages. Arabic chatbots can be helpful in automating many operations and serve people who only know Arabic language. However, the technology for Arabic language is still in its infancy stage due to some challenges surrounding the Arabic language. This paper offers an overview of the chatbot application and the several obstacles and challenges that need to be resolved to develop an effective Arabic chatbot.

  20. Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.; Guarnaccia, V.; Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from tissue

  1. Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.; Guarnaccia, V.; Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from tissue

  2. Effects of environmental conditions on soil salinity and arid region in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ahmed, C.; Ben Rouina, B.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The shortage of water resources of good water quality is becoming an issue in the arid and semi arid regions. for this reason, the use of water resources of marginal quality such as treated wastewater and saline groundwater has become and important consideration, particularly in arid region in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. (Author)

  3. Physical Education in Tunisia: Teachers' Practical Epistemology, Students' Positioning and Gender Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amade-Escot, Chantal; Elandoulsi, Souha; Verscheure, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores gendered student learning in physical education (PE) viewed as a situated emerging process involving a triadic relationship between teacher, student(s) and forms of knowledge that are socioculturally bounded. It concerns gymnastic teaching and learning in Tunisia. It was conducted against the background of the Joint Action…

  4. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  5. Popular and formal Islam, and supralocal relations : the Highlands of Northwestern Tunisia, 1800-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper explores the interplay between local popular Islam and the repeated introduction of formal Islam in Khrumiria, North-western Tunisia, against the background of its social and political structure and the radical changes the latter underwent in the colonial and post-colonial era. The

  6. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program 1992: Morocco and Tunisia. Final Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMIDEAST, Washington, DC.

    The projects described in this document were submitted by U.S. teachers who spent time in Morocco and Tunisia as part of the 1992 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. The following are among the titles of the projects included: "Formal Education in Rural Morocco: Problems and Constraints" (Victoria Baker); "Continuity and Change…

  7. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4 No. 3, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    This report, part of a series of educational bibliographies from the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) and Libya, consists of excerpts from periodicals published in those countries. Each entry is marked to indicate the particular country. The articles are organized under 13 major subjects that include: the structure of educational…

  8. Effects of Fusarium culmorum and water stress on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of water stress on Fusarium foot and root rot in durum wheat were investigated in growth chamber, greenhouse and field tests in Tunisia. In the seedling stage, emergence of six durum wheat cultivars in the growth chamber was significantly reduced by inoculation with Fusarium culmorum and...

  9. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  10. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 8, Number 1, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational topics of interest to North Africans. The majority of the items cited were published in 1974. Citations are categorized by country: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Within these major categories are subtopics…

  11. Scope, Relevance and Challenges of Financing Higher Education: The Case of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdessalem, Tahar

    2011-01-01

    Like other developing countries, Tunisia has allocated increasing levels of resources to education, particularly higher education, over the past few decades, mainly through public funding. From 2005 to 2008, public expenditure on education amounted to around 7.4% of GDP, with 2% allocated to higher education. Recently, however, budgetary…

  12. Prevalence and genetic diversity of piroplasm species in horses and ticks from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-García, Amaia; M'ghirbi, Youmna; Hurtado, Ana; Bouattour, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The genetic diversity and prevalence of Babesia and Theileria species in the equine population of Tunisia were studied using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization on blood samples and unfed adult ticks collected from apparently healthy horses from three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia. Piroplasms were identified in 13 of 104 of the horse blood samples analyzed (12.5%) and five genotype groups were identified: Theileria equi group A (nine animals, 8.7%), group C (one animal, 1.0%) and group D (three animals, 2.9%), and Babesia caballi groups A and B (one animal each). All horses from the semi-arid zone were negative and prevalence in the humid and sub-humid zones were 12.9% and 20.0%, respectively. Three Ixodid tick species (Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma excavatum and Rhipicephalus bursa) were collected from examined horses and equine piroplasms were detected in 10.8% of them. T. equi groups A and D (9.2%), and B. caballi group B (1.6%) were identified in ticks. This work represents the first epidemiological report of equine piroplasmosis in Tunisia. Results showed a high level of diversity within the 18S rRNA gene of equine piroplasm species, and confirmed the presence in Tunisia of two T. equi genetic groups, C and D, only reported before in South Africa and Sudan.

  13. Evaluation of Puccinia carduorum for biological control of Carduus pycnocephalus in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rust fungus Puccinia carduorum is a candidate for biological control of Carduus pycnocephalus in the USA. In Tunisia, rusted C. pycnocephalus has been found in many fields during surveys conducted in the north of the country. The pathogenicity of Puccinia carduorum was evaluated under greenhou...

  14. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 2, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for an annotated bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia cover topics such as the philosophy and theory of education, educational organization, adult education, teacher…

  15. Fulbright-Hayes Seminars Abroad Program, 1993. Morocco and Tunisia. Final Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    America-Mideast Educational and Training Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This collection of Fulbright seminar projects focuses on Morocco and Tunisia. The first project (Ruth Brent) gives a descriptive analysis of images from the perspective of an interior design educator. The second project (Eileen Burchell) explores the theme of continuity and change as it is reflected in the contemporary French literature of the…

  16. Hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 3 in wastewater samples in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béji-Hamza, A; Hassine-Zaafrane, M; Khélifi-Gharbi, H; Della Libera, S; Iaconelli, M; Muscillo, M; Petricca, S; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Aouni, M; La Rosa, G

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E represents an important public-health concern throughout the world. It is one of the leading causes of hepatitis in North Africa, Asia and the Middle East. In Tunisia, the true burden of HEV infection is still unknown. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of hepatitis E virus in Tunisia through the monitoring of urban sewage and to characterize the strains identified using molecular assays. A total of 150 sewage samples (raw and treated) were collected from three wastewater treatment plants located in the regions of Monastir and Mahdia and analyzed by nested RT-PCR using a qualitative assay targeting the methyltransferase gene in ORF1. Of these, only three samples (2 %) were found to be positive for HEV, one belonging to genotype 1 and two to genotype 3. The results of the present study indicate a low level of virus excretion among the Tunisian population. Both genotypes 1 and 3 are circulating in this country, however, possibly causing sporadic infections. The presence of the zoonotic genotype 3, known to be transmitted to humans mainly by swine and demonstrated in Tunisia for the first time in this work, raises the question of possible reservoir species, since pork products are not consumed in this country, pigs are not bred, and wild boar is not endemic. Further studies will be needed to gather information on the occurrence and diversity of HEV strains circulating among humans and animals in Tunisia, and on possible animal reservoirs.

  17. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Ninety-one English language annotations are presented of newspaper articles and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Most of the entries were published during the period October-December 1976. Organized by country, the references cover topics of philosophy and theory of education, teacher training,…

  18. First report of rust caused by Puccinia carduorum on Italian thistle in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus L.), family Asteraceae, is a common weed in rangelands, pasturelands, and cereal crops in Tunisia where it is rapidly spreading and becoming agriculturally important due to its competitive ability. It is also a problematic invasive weed in the western United S...

  19. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 1, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for a bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia are preceded by a section on the Maghreb which deals with the special problems of illiteracy, multilingualism, and rapid…

  20. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 4, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French dating from 1953 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education;…

  1. Selected Bibliography of Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 1, Number 2, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A bibliography with abstracts of 106 items from books and articles covers materials on education in the Maghreb countries of Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and Morocco. Special emphasis is given to the two problems besetting the area's educational system: illiteracy and multilingualism. The entries cover philosophy and theory of education,…

  2. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Numbers 2, 3, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A two volume, 200-item bibliography with English abstracts of books and articles in English and French dating from 1957 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and higher education; and…

  3. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 4, Number 1, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1969 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  4. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  5. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 1, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 130-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English and French provides information on various aspects of education (many of them language-related) in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and French titles are translated into English.…

  6. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.

  7. Rotavirus P[8] Infections in Persons with Secretor and Nonsecretor Phenotypes, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayouni, Siwar; Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; de Rougemont, Alexis; Estienney, Marie; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Aho, Serge; Hamami, Sabeur; Aouni, Mahjoub; Neji-Guediche, Mohamed; Pothier, Pierre; Belliot, Gaël

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether rotavirus infections are linked to secretor status, we studied samples from children in Tunisia with gastroenteritis. We phenotyped saliva for human blood group antigens and tested feces for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 32/114 patients. Secretor genotyping showed that P[8] rotavirus infected secretors and nonsecretors, and infection correlated with presence of Lewis antigen.

  8. Urban Street Signs in the Linguistic Landscape of Tunisia: Tensions in Policy, Representation, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Slim Ben Slimane

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study of linguistic landscape (LL) (Landry & Bourhis, 1997), describes the urban multilingual practices of Tunisia as evidenced by its policy statements, street signage, and local perceptions. Data for this investigation were collected primarily from publicly visible signage in both the capital city (Tunis), and in the suburb (La…

  9. Infant mortality among Arab-Americans: findings from the Arab-American birth outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkton, Darryl W; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Galea, Sandro

    2013-05-01

    Arab-Americans (AAs) have lower risk of preterm birth relative to Non-Arab Whites. This has been attributed to lower likelihood of birth out of wedlock, maternal tobacco use during pregnancy, and foreign maternal birthplace among AAs. We were interested in understanding the roles of these and other demographic factors in the etiology of infant mortality among this group. Using data about all live, singleton births between 1989 and 2005 in the state with the highest proportion of AAs in the US, we calculated infant mortality (death prior to 1 year of life) for AAs and Non-Arab Whites. To clarify the etiology of potential differences in infant mortality, we also assessed infant mortality sub-categories, including neonatal mortality (death prior to 28 days of life) and post-neonatal mortality (death between 28 and 365 days of life). We fit trivariable and multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for explanatory covariates to assess each covariate's contributions to the relation between ethnicity and infant mortality. AAs had a lower infant mortality rate (4.7 per 1,000 live births) than non-Arab Whites (5.6 per 1,000 live births), overall (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.96). In trivariable models, adjusting for marital status, maternal tobacco consumption during pregnancy, and maternal birthplace each separately attenuated the bivariate ethnicity-mortality relation to non-significance. Our findings suggest that lower risk of infant mortality among AAs relative to non-Arab Whites may be explained by differences in demographic characteristics and parental behavioral practices between them.

  10. Letter Position Dyslexia in Arabic: From Form to Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Haddad-Hanna, Manar

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the reading of 11 Arabic-speaking individuals with letter position dyslexia (LPD), and the effect of letter form on their reading errors. LPD is a peripheral dyslexia caused by a selective deficit to letter position encoding in the orthographic-visual analyzer, which results in migration of letters within words, primarily of middle letters. The Arabic orthography is especially interesting for the study of LPD because Arabic letters have different forms in different positions in the word. As a result, some letter position errors require letter form change. We compared the rate of letter migrations that change letter form with migrations that do not change letter form in 10 Arabic-speaking individuals with developmental LPD, and one bilingual Arabic and Hebrew-speaking individual with acquired LPD. The results indicated that the participants made 40% letter position errors in migratable words when the resulting word included the letters in the same form, whereas migrations that changed letter form almost never occurred. The error rate of the Arabic-Hebrew bilingual reader was smaller in Arabic than in Hebrew. However, when only words in which migrations do not change letter form were counted, the rate was similar in Arabic and Hebrew. Hence, whereas orthographies with multiple letter forms for each letter might seem more difficult in some respects, these orthographies are in fact easier to read in some forms of dyslexia. Thus, the diagnosis of LPD in Arabic should consider the effect of letter forms on migration errors, and use only migratable words that do not require letter-form change. The theoretical implications for the reading model are that letter form (of the position-dependent type found in Arabic) is part of the information encoded in the abstract letter identity, and thus affects further word recognition processes, and that there might be a pre-lexical graphemic buffer in which the checking of orthographic well-formedness takes place

  11. Vocabulary Memorization Strategies among Arab Postgraduate English Foreign Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Hussein Al-Qaysi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated vocabulary memorization strategies in the EFL context, but few researches have been conducted on the types of memorization strategies used by the Arab students in Malaysia. Thus, this study investigates the types of vocabulary memorization strategies employed by the Arab students in the Intensive English course at UUM. The aims of the study were to investigate vocabulary memorization strategies used by the Arab students and to examine the most and the least frequent strategies employed by the Arab students in learning and memorizing vocabulary. The samples of the study were 65 postgraduate Arab students from different colleges; COB, CAS and COLGIS at UUM. One instrument was used in this study, which is a questionnaire. The questionnaire was adapted from Li (2004 which is based on Oxford’s taxonomy (2003. The results indicated that the Arab students use different strategies in learning and memorizing vocabulary. Reviewing well strategies were found to be the most preferred strategies in contrast with Employing actions which was found to be as the least category employed by the Arab students. Writing words repeatedly a strategy from Reviewing well category was found to be the most strategy used by the Arab students in the Intensive English course while the Associate sounds of words with similar English from Employing actions category was the least strategy used by them. The findings revealed that Arab students see vocabulary memorization strategies help them in learning the English language and consistent with their cultural and educational background. Keywords:  vocabulary memorization strategies, UUM, Intensive English course, Arab students

  12. Further questions to the historiography of Arabic (but not only Arabic) mathematics from the perspective of Romance abbacus mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Since some years I have been engaged in a close reading of early Italian abbacus books and related material from the Ibero-Provençal orbit and in comparison of this material with Arabic mathematical writings. At the 7th North African Meeting on the History of Arab Mathematics in Marrakesh in 2002 I...

  13. Special Education Use among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel: A Case of Minority Underrepresentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinero, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines disproportionality in special education among Israeli Arabs. Arab children are more likely than Jewish children to be placed in special education. Negev bedouin Arab children, however, are underrepresented in special education. Discusses whether a culture of disability is being fostered among the Arab citizens of Israel and whether…

  14. Governance and health in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-01-25

    Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups.

  15. A gendered approach to the media coverage of the Arab world conflicts: the invasion of Iraq through the eyes of the female journalists of the Spanish public television (TVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Marina Vidal Valiña

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent revolutions in the Arab countries have once again attracted the attention to a geographic area generally seen by the «Western world» with suspicion and distrust. But before Tunisia, Egypt, Libya or Syria, in 2003, the war in Iraq was considered the most important media conflict of the history. This invasion had apparently a live coverage by thousands of media posted there. In Spain, five women covered the invasion for the public television, TVE. Did they pay especial attention to women in their articles? Did they present different patterns comparing with the job of their male counterparts? To sum up: how «gendered» was their coverage?

  16. Hanna David`s Book: The Gifted Arab Child In Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre KOMEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it was examined Hanna David’s Book: The Gifted Arab Child in Israel. The book focuses on Arab gifted children living in Israel. In Israel three Arab groups are living: Muslim, Christian and Druze. This book contains 7 sections. First Section: A Brief History of Education of Arabs In The State of Israel, Second Section: Characteristics of the Arab Gifted Child in Israel, Third Section: Education of the Arab Gifted Child, Fourth Section: Enrichment Programs for the Gifted in the Arab Sector, Fifth section: Description of Various Kinds of Enrichment Program for the Arab Sector, Sixth section: A Minority within a Minority: Gifted Students in the Christian, Druze and Bedouin Sectors, Seventh Section: The talented Arab Girl: Between Tradition and Modernism. In this book, author gives some suggestions to reveal potential of Arab girls. Some of them are; family support, financial aid etc.

  17. A Broad Analysis of the Legal Status of Women in Tunisia%突尼斯妇女法律地位浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    [突尼斯]伊美娜

    2012-01-01

    Tunisian women's rights experience is identified as the forefront of women' s fights in the entire Muslim world. Many well - known experts in gender studies and women organizations consider Tunisian women' s fights as the model of women's rights in Africa and the Arab world. Tunisia is considered as the leading country in terms of women fights protection and achievements among African and Ar- ab countries. Tunisian women' s fights prominent experience comes out from histori- cal, political and social reasons. First, the 19th century reform movement in Tunisia had very big influence on social emancipation and Tunisian intellectuals' ideology. Moreover, the "Kairouan Marriage Contract", as part of the Tunisian mar- riage traditions, has helped with the implementation of monogamy after independ- ence. Second, the Tunisian Government considers women fights protection as one of the most important strategic policies of development. Due to lack of natural re- sources, Tunisia can only rely on human resources development; therefore the Tuni- sian Government considers the protection of women' s legal status as one of the major projects of national development. Third, since the 1980s, Tunisian women' s organ- izations have played an important role in promoting women' s social status. After the political change in 2010, Islamist party' s power is expanding gradually, which is seen as a threat to Tunisian women' s legal status. The author argues that impact of the Islamist party' s expanding power will be very limited; it is Tunisia' s economic and social problems that will form a big challenge for Tunisian women' s social status.%突尼斯在保障妇女权益方面有丰富的经验。在维护妇女法律地位方面,突尼斯是非洲和阿拉伯国家中取得最大成就的国家之一。主要原因有三:第一是历史原因,突尼斯改革运动为社会解放和知识分子的意识形态变化奠定了良好基础。“凯鲁

  18. Culturally Tailored Smoking Cessation for Arab American Male Smokers in Community Settings: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Linda; Corcoran, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is a serious public health problem among Arab Americans with limited English proficiency. The main goal of this study was to develop a culturally-tailored and linguistically-sensitive Arabic-language smoking cessation program. A secondary goal was to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting Arab Americans through a faith-based community organization which serves as a neighborhood social center for the city of Richmond’s Arab Americans. Eight first-generation Arab American men aged 2...

  19. L’internationalisation du roman arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Dalia Khraibani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La littérature arabe est presque invisible dans l’espace littéraire mondiale pour des raisons diverses. Pourtant, des écrivains réussissent à s’imposer sur la scène littéraire internationale et leurs œuvres deviennent des chefs d’œuvre de la littérature mondiale. Parmi ces écrivains, nous citons Tayeb Saleh qui connaît un succès international surtout avec la parution de son second roman "Saison de migration vers le Nord". Notre étude vise à montrer comment ce roman par son contenu et sa forme, occupe une place de choix dans la littérature mondiale. En effet, nous allons examiner le contexte historique de l’émergence du roman qui joue un rôle dans sa diffusion au niveau mondial. L’une des clés de réussite du roman est la technique narrative qui retient l’haleine du lecteur dès la première page. De plus, le roman répond à l’horizon d’attente du lectorat occidental en représentant des images particulières de la société arabo-africaine qui correspondent aux stéréotypes et clichés du public occidental vis-à-vis des Arabes.

  20. LINGKUNGAN ARTIFISIAL DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Habibah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at proving whether artificial language environment affect Arabic language skills and analyzing how the artificial language environment impact the skills. The method used in this research was categorized into a field research which combined both qualitative and quantitative method, or well-known as mixed method. The primary source in this research was taken from the 1st and 2nd grade of senior high madrasah Pondok Pesantren Madinatunnajah Jombang Ciputat, South Tangerang academic year 2015/2016. Moreover, the secondary source was obtained from some literatures in the form of academic journals and books related to this study. The research found that environment-based language learning was more effective and influential on listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills of Arabic language. It was concluded that language skills are not only determined by LAD (Language Acquisition Device, a gifted device to acquire language, but also determined by the environment the learner lived.DOI : 10.15408/a.v3i2.4038

  1. The Egyptian Arab Spring and Political Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El ashkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates and analyzes the phenomenon and concept of political Islam, the reasons of the increased role of the Islamists and their political and reformist tendencies in the light of the Egyptian revolution of Arab Spring, reasons and the main factors that have contributed on their advent into power and their influence in that time, the issue of the application of Islamic Sharia and complex realities about this dilemma. The revolutions of Arab Spring, including the Egyptian revolution, are considered one of the most important and most dangerous events in the XXI century after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, not only in the Middle East but throughout the world because of their impact on peace and global security. The growth of the phenomenon of political Islam and the advent of Islamists into power in Egypt has represented one of the most remarkable features of this sudden revolution. No doubt that the issue of the relationship between Islam and the state's political system raises many confusing questions for many people. In this sense the importance of this study will directly identify the fact that the leadership of Islamists in Egypt is not the implementation of Islamic Sharia but their movements and ideology.

  2. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  3. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bosch Vilarrubias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.

  4. The Enactment of Constituent Power in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Khalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Most modern states have adopted written and rigid constitutions. The existence of a constitution presupposes a constituent power, distinguished from other constituted powers, created by the constitution itself, and a constituent power presupposes the ability of a society to develop its capacity to act as a collective, in order to gain (or regain an active role in the organization of the lives of individuals and their social relationships with one another. For Pan-Arabism defenders, the (Arab nation exists as a cohesive group with its own unique characteristics, deriving from a common language, history and traditions. The ethnic concept of nation initially helped to justify an Arab revolution against other Muslims, but it was unable to distinguish individual Arab peoples or justify territorial Arab states. It was unavoidable then to switch to narrower concept of nation that covers citizens within defined state borders and living under the same laws. Despite the reference to the principle of popular sovereignty in most Arab Constitutions and the increasing attachment to territorially-defined states, there exists wide popular discontent with Arab regimes that continue to legitimize their authority based on Arab or Islamic nationalist discourses. Constitutions may fill the gap of legitimacy crisis in contemporary Arab States. They are a necessary tool for the nation to express its will but also for the individuals and communities within the state to protect themselves from the nation itself and from its expression, the state. Accordingly, there shall be red lines where the people, or their representatives, shall not transgress. Those red lines may be enumerated in a text, with particular legal inviolability that will be difficult (almost impossible to amend without joining a general consensus, that is not the equivalent to unanimity (difficult to obtain nor majority (easy to realize.

  5. Dualism of Spirit-Material in Arabic Islamic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed H. Yaseen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current studies of Arabic Islamic architecture indicates different theoretical bases, whether in its definition or analyses, between different thinkers and researchers, dependable on the cultural, thoughtful and ideological   bases of related references; thus, we can find Arabic Islamic architecture, both in urban planning and architectural point of view, in the light of deferent visions  of: western thinkers, as an artistic forms and compositions, Arab national pioneers, analyzing its components on Arab society values, declined from its establishment of Arab desert and its impact on its rural culture; and radical Muslims thinkers restricting it on certain historical period, trying to reform it according to blocked theoretical rules, giving up its capability to development, sustainability and renewal.19The reason of all these problems is the ambiguity of the comprehensive emphasizes of one the most effective bases of Arabic Islamic architecture, which is the balance between the poles of spirit-material dualism; so that, some thinkers stood on one pole of this dualism, trying to study it through this defect point of view; meanwhile others stand on the other pole; without conscious or preconscious of the other pole, consequently the result of this hard shortage in identifying the bases of Arabic Islamic architecture in most of these studies.This research concludes an example of Arabic Islamic cities, Samarra City, which passed on different ages, lasting from Abbasid age to modern age, reflecting different spiritual and materialistic changes according to change in political, economic, social and cultural regimes; all these indicated by the vital ruins, obviously translating these changes, where it appoints the importance of the  balance between  both poles of this dualism, to illustrate vision of Arabic Islamic City, through these ages.

  6. Introduction to Arabic Speech Recognition Using CMUSphinx System

    CERN Document Server

    Satori, H; Chenfour, N

    2007-01-01

    In this paper Arabic was investigated from the speech recognition problem point of view. We propose a novel approach to build an Arabic Automated Speech Recognition System (ASR). This system is based on the open source CMU Sphinx-4, from the Carnegie Mellon University. CMU Sphinx is a large-vocabulary; speaker-independent, continuous speech recognition system based on discrete Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). We build a model using utilities from the OpenSource CMU Sphinx. We will demonstrate the possible adaptability of this system to Arabic voice recognition.

  7. Syntactic Reordering for Arabic- English Phrase-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Arwa; Omar, Nazlia

    Machine Translation (MT) refers to the use of a machine for performing translation task which converts text or speech in one Natural Language (Source Language (SL)) into another Natural Language (Target Language (TL)). The translation from Arabic to English is difficult task due to the Arabic languages are highly inflectional, rich morphology and relatively free word order. Word ordering plays an important part in the translation process. The paper proposes a transfer-based approach in Arabic to English MT to handle the word ordering problem. Preliminary tested indicate that our system, AE-TBMT is competitive when compared against other approaches from the literature.

  8. PESANTREN TRADISIONAL; AKAR PENYEBARAN ISLAM DAN BAHASA ARAB DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Sony Fauzi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional “pesantren” is the oldest education institution in Indonesia, in which student or santri studies many important materials in Islamic studies such as : Tauhid, Fiqh, and Tasawwuf. Arabic language as the language of the two main references in Islam, Quran and Hadith,  and other classical reference in Islam is also  the main object of study in Pesantren  because of its importance as a means for understanding the references. The Arabic language is studied deeply especially in the aspect of grammar (qawaid. For this reason, pesantren is not only the center of Islamic studies but also the root of Arabic language in Indonesia.

  9. A word level segmentation for off-line Arabic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Segmentation of cursive text has been one of the major problems in Arabic writing. The problem is the shape of the letter which is context sensitive, depending on it' s location within a word. Many text recognition systems recognize text imagery at the character level and assemble words from the recognized characters.Unfortunately this approach does not work with Arabic text. In this paper we describe a new approach to segment Arabic text imagery at a word level, without analyzing individual characters. This approach avoids the problem of individual characters segmentation, and can overcome local errors in character recognition.

  10. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  11. Arabic Phrase-Level Contextual Polarity Recognition to Enhance Sentiment Arabic Lexical Semantic Database Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir E. Abdelrahman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of opinion mining works need lexical resources for opinion which recognize the polarity of words (positive/ negative regardless their contexts which called prior polarity. The word prior polarity may be changed when it is considered in its contexts, for example, positive words may be used in phrases expressing negative sentiments, or vice versa. In this paper, we aim at generating sentiment Arabic lexical semantic database having the word prior coupled with its contextual polarities and the related phrases. To do that, we study first the prior polarity effects of each word using our Sentiment Arabic Lexical Semantic Database on the sentence-level subjectivity and Support Vector Machine classifier. We then use the seminal English two-step contextual polarity phrase-level recognition approach to enhance word polarities within its contexts. Our results achieve significant improvement over baselines.

  12. The semantics of English Borrowings in Arabic Media Language: The case of Arab Gulf States Newspapers

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    Anwar A. H. Al-Athwary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the semantics of English loanwords in Arabic media language (AML. The loanword data are collected from a number of Arab Gulf states newspapers (AGSNs. They  are analyzed semantically from the points of view of semantic change, semantic domains, and the phenomenon of synonymy resulting from lexical borrowing. The semantic analysis has revealed that AML borrowings from English occur in fifteen distinctive semantic domains. Domains that are related to terms of technical and scientific nature are found ranking much higher (9% - 18% than those domains containing nontechnical elements (1% - 8% with the computer and technology category (18% is the most dominant domain. Almost all common mechanisms of semantic change (extension, restriction, amelioration, pejoration, and metaphorical extension are found at work in the context of AML borrowings. The tendency of semantic change in the overwhelming majority of AML borrowings is towards restriction.  Factors like need, semantic similarity, and factors of social and psychological considerations (e.g. prestige, taboo seem to be the potent factors at interplay in semantic change. The first two, i.e. need and semantic similarity, are the most common reasons in most types of semantic change. The problem of synonymy lies in those loanwords that have “Arabic equivalents” in the language. The study claims that this phenomenon could be attributed to the two simultaneous processes of lexical borrowing and?ištiqa:q (the modern efforts of deriving equivalent neologisms.Keywords: loanwords, semantic change, semantic domains, synonymy, Arabic media language

  13. Arab Emirates: Middle East oasis of development; Emirados Arabes: o oasis do desenvolvimento no Oriente Medio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ighor Botti de; Bravo, Rafaela Gomes [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais

    2008-07-01

    The referred article main focus is to illustrate a parameter between the United Arab Emirates development - from its oil historic (including its peek, in the 1970's decade) - and the country preoccupation with the economic diversification, considering that the petroleum natural deposits are finite. Even though they are one of the biggest petroleum holders in the world, the country governors are already worried about the economy's future. The government proposal consists in investing their exorbitant royalties, from the oil industry, in mega constructions and 'futuristic' innovations, mainly in Dubai. According to forecasts made by the division of active and investments management from the Saudi bank National Commercial Bank (in the beginning of the year of 2008) the United Arab Emirates might become the country with the most independence in the oil and gas industry between the Gulf Cooperation Council members and that about 70% of the country's GDP, gross domestic production, will come from the non-hydrocarbon sectors. This means that the United Arab Emirates can be considered as a good example in which refers to the regional economy diversification. (author)

  14. ARABIC TEXT SUMMARIZATION BASED ON LATENT SEMANTIC ANALYSIS TO ENHANCE ARABIC DOCUMENTS CLUSTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Froud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Documents Clustering is an important task for obtaining good results with the traditional Information Retrieval (IR systems especially with the rapid growth of the number of online documents present in Arabic language. Documents clustering aim to automatically group similar documents in one cluster using different similarity/distance measures. This task is often affected by the documents length, useful information on the documents is often accompanied by a large amount of noise, and therefore it is necessary to eliminate this noise while keeping useful information to boost the performance of Documents clustering. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the impact of text summarization using the Latent Semantic Analysis Model on Arabic Documents Clustering in order to solve problems cited above, using five similarity/distance measures: Euclidean Distance, Cosine Similarity, Jaccard Coefficient, Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Averaged Kullback-Leibler Divergence, for two times: without and with stemming. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed approach effectively solves the problems of noisy information and documents length, and thus significantly improve the clustering performance.

  15. Arabic Text Summarization Based on Latent Semantic Analysis to Enhance Arabic Documents Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Froud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Documents Clustering is an important task for obtaining good results with the traditional Information Retrieval (IR systems especially with the rapid growth of the number of online documents present in Arabic language. Documents clustering aim to automatically group similar documents in one cluster using different similarity/distance measures. This task is often affected by the documents length, useful information on the documents is often accompanied by a large amount of noise, and therefore it is necessary to eliminate this noise while keeping useful information to boost the performance of Documents clustering. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the impact of text summarization using the Latent Semantic Analysis Model on Arabic Documents Clustering in order to solve problems cited above, using five similarity/distance measures: Euclidean Distance, Cosine Similarity, Jaccard Coefficient, PearsonCorrelation Coefficient and Averaged Kullback-Leibler Divergence, for two times: without and with stemming. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed approach effectively solves the problems of noisy information and documents length, and thus significantly improve the clustering performance.

  16. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  17. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  18. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  19. An Arabic-English-French Lexicon of the Dialects Spoken in the Chad-Sudan Area, 1. [Lexique des parlers arabes tchado-soudanais, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Laly, Arlette, Comp.

    This lexicon, a preliminary publication of a project dealing with Arabic dialects in the Chad-Sudan area, has been compiled from four earlier lexicons: G. Trenga, "Le bura-maband du Ouadai"; H. Carbou, "Methode pratique pour l'etude de l'arabe parle au Ouaday et a l'Est du Tchad"; G.L. Lethem, "Colloquial Arabic, Shua…

  20. Discourse Analysis of the Political Speeches of the Ousted Arab Presidents during the Arab Spring Revolution Using Halliday and Hasan's Framework of Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Majali, Wala'

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to explore the salient linguistic features of the political speeches of the ousted Arab presidents during the Arab Spring Revolution. The sample of the study is composed of seven political speeches delivered by the ousted Arab presidents during the period from December 2010 to December 2012. Three speeches were delivered by…

  1. [The use of Arabic in the World Health Organization. Part Two].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, A M

    2008-01-01

    In part one of this paper we discussed the use of Arabic as an official and working language in the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and WHO Headquarters. We reviewed the arrangements made to rationalize the Arabic activities in WHO, the development of an authentic Arabic version of the WHO constitution, the impact of WHO restructuring on the Arabic programme and the establishment of the Arab Centre for Medical Literature in Kuwait. In this part we address the developments in Arabic medical terminology, the establishment of the Regional Arabic Programme and the unified WHO Programme of Arabic publications, and last but not least, the production of the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal in English, French and Arabic.

  2. Arabic Literature: Uniterm Indexing System for Storage and Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Abdul

    1987-01-01

    Describes the uniterm system of coordinate indexing and examines its applicability to the indexing of Arabic literature. Unresolved problems in semantics, thesauri development, and standardization are identified and discussed. (CLB)

  3. Internet-Assisted Language Leaming (IALL and Developing Arabic Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Bajwa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of TAFL (Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language ts m great need of pedagogical advancement that responds to the challenges of multiglossia and learner goals. Basic technology, such as the internet, is an untapped resource for such advancement and yet remains an uncomfortable domain for many Arabic language teachers. Resting on the assumption that encouraging students to take an active role outside of the classroom as autonomous learners facilitates and contributes towards proficiency, this paper proposes various ways that the internet can serve as a supplementary learning tool for intermediate and advanced Arabic language learners. It shows how various Arabic websites and other online programs can be pedagogically effective in developing all four proficiency skills: reading, listening, writing and speaking.

  4. Immigrant Arab Americans and alcohol use: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-12-01

    English proficiency is associated with alcohol use in some immigrants groups, but little is known about its association among Arab Americans. Ethnographic work suggests gender, religion, education, and age influence prevalence of alcohol use among Arab Americans. Two years prospective study of recent Iraqi refugees and non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan using bilingual surveys and interviewers. At Time 1, prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 20.5 % with males, Christians, better educated, older, and those with greater proficiency in English more likely to report ever drank. At Time 2, lifetime prevalence of drinking had increased to 34.0 %. In analysis of male new drinkers, risk factors were Christian, older age and greater proficiency in English. This study confirms drinking among recent immigrant Arab Americans varies by subgroups and suggests English proficiency may contribute to the increase in prevalence over time.

  5. Morphology and Spelling in Arabic: Development and Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2017-02-01

    In the current study, two experiments were carried out: the first tested the development of derivational root and word-pattern morphological awareness in Arabic; the second tested morphological processing in Arabic spelling. 143 Arabic native speaking children with normal reading skills in 2nd, 4th and 6th grade participated in the study. The results of the first experiment demonstrated the early emergence of derivational morphological awareness in children, with root awareness emerging earlier than word-pattern awareness. The second experiment supported the implication of morphological processing in spelling words and pseudo words across all grades tested. The results are discussed within a developmental psycholinguistic framework with particular emphasis on the characteristics of the Arabic language and orthography.

  6. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in...). Copies may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and...

  7. Convergent validity of the Arabic scale of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2012-02-01

    To estimate the convergent validity of the Arabic Scale of Mental Health, three convenience separate samples (ns = 162, 168, 138) of volunteer Kuwaiti college students, ages 19 to 32 years, responded anonymously to several scales measuring psychopathology. Analyses showed total ratings for the scale correlated negatively with those of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, Factorial Arabic Neuroticism Scale, Somatic Symptoms Inventory, Arabic Scale of Insomnia, the nine subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-R, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the seven subscales of the General Health Questionnaire. Three separate correlation matrices were subjected to principal components analyses for which a single bipolar factor, Mental health versus psychopathology, was retained in all three matrices. Loadings for the Arabic Scale of Mental Health were -.76, -.64, and -.76. It was concluded that this scale has suitable convergent validity.

  8. arTenTen: Arabic Corpus and Word Sketches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressy Arts

    2014-12-01

    The article also presents the ‘sketch grammar’ (the basis for the word sketches in detail, describes the process of building and processing the corpus, and considers the role of the corpus in additional research on Arabic.

  9. Arabic Keyphrase Extraction using Linguistic knowledge and Machine Learning Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    El-shishtawy, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a supervised learning technique for extracting keyphrases of Arabic documents is presented. The extractor is supplied with linguistic knowledge to enhance its efficiency instead of relying only on statistical information such as term frequency and distance. During analysis, an annotated Arabic corpus is used to extract the required lexical features of the document words. The knowledge also includes syntactic rules based on part of speech tags and allowed word sequences to extract the candidate keyphrases. In this work, the abstract form of Arabic words is used instead of its stem form to represent the candidate terms. The Abstract form hides most of the inflections found in Arabic words. The paper introduces new features of keyphrases based on linguistic knowledge, to capture titles and subtitles of a document. A simple ANOVA test is used to evaluate the validity of selected features. Then, the learning model is built using the LDA - Linear Discriminant Analysis - and training documents. Althou...

  10. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2007-01-01

    The use of referring expressions (proper nouns, noun phrases [NPs] and pronouns) in a target language [TL] text may differ from the source language [SL] text with regard to how explicit they are: One may have a pronoun (less explicit) where the other has a proper noun (more explicit), or one may...... have an indefinite NP (less explicit) where the other has a definite NP (more explicit). But are these differences in any way systematic? In an article in Babel, Yowell Y. Aziz shows that remarkable differences obtain in the explicitness of various referring expressions when an Arabic text is compared...... to its English translation and that overall, the English text is the more explicit. Now, does this mean that English generally is more explicit in its use of referring expressions, or is the difference due, rather, to the need of the TL text to be more explicit in order to facilitate the understanding...

  11. [Measure in Arabic and Middle Age medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R

    1995-01-01

    During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters.

  12. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many industrialized countries, the issue of migration has traditionally raised the question of whether migrant groups fully enjoy citizenship rights. Political debates about models of migration emphasize either the values of cultural diversity or the value of integration into 'host' societies...... to migrants, but also with regard to local populations. In addition to the contested nature of citizenship, migrants' lack of citizenship rights fulfils distinctive functions in what Saskia Sassen calls 'global cities'. This concept links the Arab world with a new phenomenon of globalized migration in which...... the lack of both integration and citizenship is a defining principle. Using these two perspectives, this article examines the relationship between citizenship rights and migration in the Gulf region, drawing on data from the UAE along with Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar....

  13. Benjamin Friedman on Arabs in Israeli literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. van Rooy

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Friedman was working on a thesis for his doctorate at the University of Potchefstroom when he passed away in 1979. He was immensely interested in the way the Israeli Hebrew writers pictured the Arabs in their fiction and had done a massive amount of research when he died. He was therefore unable to complete his research and to present his views in a complete study. He did, however, leave a manuscript which reflected his research and conclusions. This was edited by his family' and the University of Potchefstroom gave recognition to his work by awarding him the degree M.A. posthumously. The writer of this paper added a chapter to Mr . Friedman’s manuscript, summarising his main views on the topic. Menahem D. Rotshtein’s paper on this same subject prompted me to present Benjamin Friedman’s view on this important subject, in aid of further research and discussion.

  14. Contribution to Semantic Analysis of Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Zouaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for determining the adequate sense of Arabic words. For that, we propose an algorithm based on information retrieval measures to identify the context of use that is the closest to the sentence containing the word to be disambiguated. The contexts of use represent a set of sentences that indicates a particular sense of the ambiguous word. These contexts are generated using the words that define the senses of the ambiguous words, the exact string-matching algorithm, and the corpus. We use the measures employed in the domain of information retrieval, Harman, Croft, and Okapi combined to the Lesk algorithm, to assign the correct sense of those proposed.

  15. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghini Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. Results The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. Discussion The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High. Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal

  16. EFEKTIVITAS PENGEMBANGAN RANAH AFEKTIF MELALUI PENGGUNAAN TEKNOLOGI PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohra Yasin

    2013-07-01

    Learning technology is one of the critical success factors in the process of learning the Arabic, including the determinant of the quality of learning. If the Arabic learning quality is low then the output of education in this case is the academic achievement would have lower too and vice versa. If the education output is low then the purpose of learning which includes three domains will be difficult to be realized.

  17. Ethnic inequalities in mortality: the case of Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although nearly 112 million residents of the United States belong to a non-white ethnic group, the literature about differences in health indicators across ethnic groups is limited almost exclusively to Hispanics. Features of the social experience of many ethnic groups including immigration, discrimination, and acculturation may plausibly influence mortality risk. We explored life expectancy and age-adjusted mortality risk of Arab-Americans (AAs, relative to non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan, the state with the largest per capita population of AAs in the US. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were collected about all deaths to AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan between 1990 and 2007, and year 2000 census data were collected for population denominators. We calculated life expectancy, age-adjusted all-cause, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates stratified by ethnicity and gender among AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites. Among AAs, life expectancies among men and women were 2.0 and 1.4 years lower than among non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men and women, respectively. AA men had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men due to infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and homicide. AA women had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White women due to chronic diseases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite better education and higher income, AAs have higher age-adjusted mortality risk than non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites, particularly due to chronic diseases. Features specific to AA culture may explain some of these findings.

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Okur, Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Although there are several studies which focus on the status of corporate social responsibility and sustainability in the Middle East or Arab World, CSR in the United Arab Emirates has not been examined broadly yet. Thus this study set out to fill this gap. To achieve this objective, CSR practices of the 50 largest Emirati companies are investigated based on Whitley’s national business systems approach. Several additional questions are answered in this study, such as which sectors stand out w...

  19. Immigrant workers and language formation: Gulf Pidgin Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei A. AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the oil boom of the 1970s, Saudi Arabia and the countries on the western coast of the Arab Gulf, i.e. Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, and Qatar, have been witnessing both a significant increase in their non-national labour force and considerable urbanization. Most of the immigrant workers come from South and South-East Asia, with smaller number of expatriates from other regions. The overwhelming majority of these foreign workers live and work i...

  20. Dubai and the United Arab Emirates : security threats.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M. Davidson

    2009-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) wealthiest emirate, Abu Dhabi, has built up the UAE Armed Forces in recent decades by procuring some of the finest military hardware available. This has provided the UAE with a strong defence shield and has undoubtedly reduced the threat of foreign invasion. However, the UAE’s hard security capabilities are either insufficient or inappropriate for countering remaining regional threats from Iran or, to a lesser extent, other Arab states. As such, ...

  1. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans.

  2. Critical Survey of the Freely Available Arabic Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghouani, Wajdi

    2017-01-01

    The availability of corpora is a major factor in building natural language processing applications. However, the costs of acquiring corpora can prevent some researchers from going further in their endeavours. The ease of access to freely available corpora is urgent needed in the NLP research community especially for language such as Arabic. Currently, there is not easy was to access to a comprehensive and updated list of freely available Arabic corpora. We present in this paper, the results o...

  3. MARKET CHAIN ANALYSIS OF GUM ARABIC TRADE IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Muga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality, quantity, availability and economics are the key factors that affect the marketing of any product, irrespective of whether it is for domestic, national or international market. The consumer requires the product to be available in time, be of desired quality and quantity. The market of gum arabic is a good example of how the interplay of quality, quantity, availability and economics affect a product market. In Kenya, trade in gum arabic has remained informal due to inadequate marketing arrangements attributed to limited participation of gum arabic collectors in the development of the sector and a non-conducive business environment, which does not favor private sector expansion. This paper looked at the market chains of gum arabic, the stakeholders participating in the management and marketing of A. senegal products and the constraints to gum arabic production and collection within the Kenyan drylands. The results confirmed that the market chain of gum arabic was and is still poorly organized with only one company and a few individual traders being the major buyers. Wildlife related factors and price were the key constraints to gum arabic collection while production was limited by unreliable rainfall due prolonged droughts. Quality of the gum and road network determined the price with different grades attracting different rates per kilogram in different areas. SALTLICK and AWF were the chief stakeholders involved in A. senegal tree resources management. The study has shown that there is willingness of the locals to engage in full time gum collection if ready market can be availed to them. Nevertheless, numerous constraints need to be addressed to make gum arabic collection an attractive venture to the local communities’ key among them being the purchase price.

  4. THE EARLY LYRICS BY ALEXANDER BLOK IN ARABIC TRANSLATIONS

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    A. A. ABDULRAZZAK AHMED

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author discusses the features of the early poetry of Alexander Blok, which found response in the hearts of Arab readers thanks to translations into the Arabic language. The professionalism of translators allowed to reveal the deep hidden meaning in the content of the poems. Many Arab experts translated the poems by Alexander Blok. The first translations of Blok’s poems into the Arabic language were made in the beginning of the 20th century. Arabs, who studied in Europe, translated Blok’s poems from the European languages into Arabic. For example, S. Tewfik translated “The Lady Unknown” (“Neznakomka”, 1906 from the French language, and after that many Arabic specialists translated Blok’s poems: H. Lutfi, the Egyptian writer and translator from Russian, familiarized Arabic readers with the cycle of poetry “The Verses about the Beautiful Lady” (1904, which he titled “The Poet in Love”. Saleh bin Ali Al-Hammadi, Abu Elshaar, Faleh Al- Humrani and Abu-Bark Yussef also translated “The Verses about the Beautiful Lady” and such famous poems as “Cleopatra”, “The Lady Unknown”, “The Twelve”. Moreover, there are several different translations of “The Lady Unknown” and “The Twelve”. The article analyzes the translations of the first Blok’s collection of poems “The Verses about the Beautiful Lady” made by Sabri Tafud in 1985.

  5. International financial institutions and health in Egypt and Tunisia: change or continuity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sharif

    2013-01-01

    The revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia appeared to herald a re-casting of International Monetary Fund and World Bank policy across the region. Public pronouncements by the heads of both institutions in the months following February 2011 acknowledged flaws in their approach to macroeconomic advice, against a background of worsening socioeconomic indicators, widespread youth unemployment, and widening health inequalities. Evidence on the ground, however, suggests continuity rather than change in international financial institution policies in Egypt and Tunisia, notwithstanding the emergence of a powerful new player-the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In the long term, new electoral realities and hardening public opposition in both countries seem likely to force a fundamentally different relationship between regional governments and the major international financial institutions than existed before 2011.

  6. VALORIZATION ABOVEGROUND OF THE EXTRACT OF COMPOST OVINE FOR FERTIGATION OF THE VEGETABLES PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and seasonal pepper. It is clear that such extraction ratio of 1: 5 is effective for plants fertigation of two considered species. In addition, it has been shown that 200 times dilution of the concentrated extract is beneficial for the growth of tomato plants. However, this organic liquid fertilizer with different dilutions applied and in the experimental conditions adopted, wasn’t moderately efficient in stimulating the growth of pepper plants. The importance of this type of compost produced from sheep biomass, widely available in Tunisia, encourage the diversification of its exploitation, which is the object of this preliminary work, deserving more future investigations.

  7. Stockpiles of obsolete pesticides and cleanup priorities: A methodology and application for Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Meisner, Craig; Wheeler, David

    2010-01-01

    Obsolete pesticides have accumulated in almost every developing country or economy in transition over the past several decades. Concerned about the risks these chemicals pose to nearby residents, public health and environmental authorities are eager to reduce health threats by removing and decontaminating stockpile sites. However, there are many sites, cleanup can be costly, and public resources are scarce, so decision makers need to set priorities. Under these conditions, it seems sensible to develop a methodology for prioritizing sites and treating them sequentially, as budgetary resources permit. This paper presents a new methodology that develops a cleanup priority index for 1915 metric tons of obsolete pesticide formulations at 197 stockpile sites in Tunisia. The approach integrates information on populations at risk, their proximity to stockpiles, and the relative toxic hazards of the stockpiles. What emerges from the Tunisia results is a strategy for sequentially addressing all 197 sites to rapidly reduce potential health damage in a cost-effective way.

  8. Association of hepatitis C virus infection and diabetes in central Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoufel Kaabia; Elhem Ben Jazia; Ines Slim; Imen Fodha; Wissem Hachfi; Rafika Gaha; Mabrouk Khalifa; Aoutef Hadj Kilani; Halim Trabelsi; Ahmed Abdelaziz; Fethi Bahri; Amel Letaief

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence in Tunisian patients with diabetes mellitus and in a control group.METHODS:A crosssectional study was conducted to determine the HCV seroprevalence in 1269 patients with diabetes (452 male,817 female) and 1315 non diabetic patients,attending health centers in Sousse,Tunisia.HCV screening was performed in both groups using a fourthgeneration enzyme immunoassay.RESULTS:In the diabetic group,17 (1.3%) were found to be HCVinfected compared with eight (0.6%) in the control group,although the difference was not significant (P=0.057).Quantitative PCR was performed in 20 patients.Eleven patients were positive and showed HCV genotype 1b in all cases.CONCLUSION:Frequency of HCV antibodies was low in patients with diabetes and in the control group in central Tunisia,with no significant difference between the groups.

  9. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa oases (South West of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6 %. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3 % of cattle, 35 % of sheep and 68.4 % of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula was 19.2 % from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  10. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa Oases (south west of Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, H; Hamed, N; Ayadi, A

    2007-09-01

    Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia) after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6%. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3% of cattle, 35% of sheep and 68.4% of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula) was 19.2% from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  11. Plate tectonics and offshore boundary delimitation: Tunisia-Libya case at the International Court of Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Daniel Jean

    1982-03-01

    The first major offshore boundary dispute where plate tectonics constituted a significant argument was recently brought before the International Court of Justice by Libya and Tunisia concerning the delimitation of their continental shelves. Libya placed emphasis on this concept to determine natural prolongation of its land territory under the sea. Tunisia contested use of the entire African continental landmass as a reference unit and views geography, geomorphology and bathymetry as relevant as geology. The Court pronounced that “It is the outcome, not the evolution in the long-distant past, which is of importance.” Moreover, it is the present-day configuration of coasts and seabed that are the main factors, not geology.

  12. FOOD SECURITY IN TUNISIA WITHIN WATER SCARCITY THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE MEAT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna Ouertani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of food and nutrition security in Tunisia, judges its sustainability within water scarcity conditions and free trade areas, with a specific focus on the meat sector. For such purpose, the FAO indicators and Food Balance Sheets, as well as the Global Food Security Index are all analyzed. Virtual water, owed to meat and cereals for animal feed production and trade, was estimated to expect food security sustainability. Results indicated that Tunisian food and nutrition security (FNS has been improved over the years, but its stability remains vulnerable because of the political and economic risks and the dependence of Tunisia on imported cereals for animal feed due to water scarcity. Tunisian agricultural policy, especially in both sectors of cereals and meat, should be readjusted to guarantee food and nutrition sustainability.

  13. Dubbing and Redubbing Animation: Disney in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Di Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of Disney films and TV products in the Arab world has recently undergone a radical change: since the signing of a large-scale agreement between Al Jazeera and Disney, in 2013, most films and TV series are being dubbed, or redubbed, in Modern Standard Arabic. Contrary to the long-standing tradition of dubbing Disney productions using the Egyptian vernacular variety of Arabic, the eminently written, formal language used for administration and classical education has been introduced as a vehicle for animation dialogue. And not without consistent semantic manipulation.  This article seeks to contextualize this recent shift in dubbing animation in the Arab world, with a view to unveiling its underlying dynamics. The role played by Al Jazeera in reshaping media communication and translation across the Arab world and beyond is also considered, in an attempt to grasp the social, political and ultimately ideological implications of its strategies, as well as its power in significantly orienting traditionally imperialist, Western colossi like Disney. A comparative analysis of the original English TV series Aladdin, its Egyptian dubbed version and MSA redubbing follows, providing evidence for this new trend in audiovisual translation aimed at Arabic speakers the world over.

  14. Instances of Quranic Analysis Using Arabic Linguistic Textual Standards

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    Dr. Yahya Toyin MURITALA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight some instances of the Quranic Analysis in reference to the modern rules of linguistic textual standards and study the practical indications of the cohesive devices in the analysis of Quranic Arabic texts. Using the descriptive and analytical methods, the research treats the segments of the devices which are reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction and lexical cohesion as they are all traceable in the classical Arabic works and the interpretations made on the Quranic Arabic Texts. The paper elaborates on the textual analysis in the language of the Glorious Qur’an in terms of its roles in the deduction of Islamic legal rulings. Likewise, it treats the points of similarities and differences between the various Arabic linguistic analyses which constitute Traditional and Modern methods of textual structuring as related to the Qur’an. The study strikes a balance between the two analytical paradigms and widens the scope of understanding the Quranic message in the modern age. It offers insights into the possible Educational development in the learning of Arabic Language for religious purpose. The paper establishes the importance of analytical specimen from such aspects with attention to the rules guiding the interpretation of the Glorious Quran according to the methods and principles of the early scholars of Islamic Sciences. Finally, it concludes with suggestions and recommendations towards the resolution of the challenges faced in the contemporary Arabic Quranic Learning practices.

  15. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulama, Mohannad M. [University of Jordan; Natsheh, Asem M. [University of Jordan; Abandah, Gheith A. [University of Jordan; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  16. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2011-04-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  17. A Preliminary Bibliography of Medieval Arabic Military Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Zaky, A.

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available BEFORE Islam, the Arabs of the Peninsula had their own local system of warfare, that was not of big armies, but of small battles and skirmishes among the tribes. After the death of Muhammad (632, the caliphs established their rule in Arabia, and started their conquests towards Iraq and Persia in the East; and towards Syria, Egypt and North Africa in the West. After the conquest of Spain (711, the Arabs had already built a vast empire extending from the Atlantic shores to the Indus in about one hundred years. While the Arabs began to develop their warfare system, they did not disdain to learn many lessons from the nations they already defeated. Accordingly the Byzantine army served as a model for their land forces. Arab writers and translators began to contribute invaluable treatises on war, archery and chivalry. It is a pity that very few of these have survived, whether Arabic or Persian. Some of the treatises were the translations of books written in Latin, Greek, Persian or Sanskrit. One can say that by the tenth century, the Arabs had an art of war of their own.

    No disponible

  18. Development of the Arabic Version of Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Mohamed; Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Bukhari, Manal; Alharethy, Sami

    2014-08-01

    The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a 25-item self-administered questionnaire. It is a noninvasive tool for measuring the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of people's lives. The purposes of the present study were to develop an Arabic version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the normal Arabic population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This was a prospective study that was carried out at the Communication and Swallowing Disorders Unit, King Saud University. The generated Arabic DHI was administered to 94 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 98 control subjects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Arabic DHI showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Arabic DHI (r = 0.9, p = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (p DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patients and can be used by Arabic language speakers.

  19. ARAB SCHOLARS IN RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES (the Nineteenth - Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Kirillina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalam artikel ini, penulis mendiskusikan perkembangan studi tentang dunia Arab secara khusus dan studi ketimuran secara umum di kalangan intelektual Rusia hingga awal abad ke-20. Lebih jauh, dibahas juga peran akademik orang-orang Arab-Rusia yang telah membuat dunia Timur semakin dikenal di kalangan orang-orang Rusia. Salah satu tokoh utama yang ikut merintis hubungan bagi universitas-universitas di Rusia dengan dunia Arab adalah Shaykh Muhammad Ayya>d al-T|ant\\awy, seorang ulama al-Azhar yang kemudian pindah dan menetap di Rusia pada tahun 1840. Karir T|ant\\awy sebagai profesor studi ketimuran dan kehidupan serta peranannya dalam memperkenalkan Arab-Islam kepada kalangan Rusia lewat berbagai kerja dan tulisannya banyak dibahas dalam artikel ini. Selain T|ant\\awy, tokoh yang tak kalah pentingnya adalah Georgi Murkos, seorang Arab-Kristen dari Damaskus, yang melanjutkan pendidikannya di Universitas Petersburg, kemudian menjadi professor di universitas yang sama dan menjadi salah satu tokoh Arab-Kristen Ortodoks di Rusia.

  20. HYRESS project. Study case of Tunisia. Installation, set-up and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cendagorta, M.; Friend, M.; Lopez-Manzanares, L.; Rodriguez, J. [Poligono Industrial de Granadilla, Tenerife (Spain). Inst. Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables, S.A.; El Khazen, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Maitrise de l' Energie, Tunis (Tunisia); Linares, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the framework of the HYRESS project, a minigrid has been designed and installed at the village of Ksar Ghilene, in southern Tunisia. This project, developed from the perspective of knowledge transfer, will allow the installation of an underground minigrid during the trimester of 2010. STEG, Tunisian national electricity supplier, will finish civil works by May 2010. It is expected to have first results of system behaviour by the end of May or April 2010. (orig.)