WorldWideScience

Sample records for arab republic tunisia

  1. Republic of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L

    1986-01-01

    The north African country of Tunisia (632,387 square miles) consists largely of desert, with some rich farmlands and a rocky transitional zone. Despite the government's family planning efforts, the population grew from 5.6 million in 1975, to 7.2 million in 1985, and, with its 2.4% annual growth rate, is projected to reach 8.1 million by 1990. Tunisia's rural population decreased to 46% in 1985 as workers and their families moved into urban areas. 98% of the population is Arab-Berber; Arabic and French are the offical languages. The age-sex distribution is typical of developing countries; the median age has increased from 16.8 years in 1966 to 19.5 in 1950 and persons over age 60 have increased from 5.1% in 1956 to 6.7% in 1980. Tunisian families average 5.7 persons in rural areas, and 5.4 persons in urban one. Marriages are declining, polygamy is outlawed, and divorce, once easy, is more difficult and declining. At independence in 1956, only 15% of Tunisians were literate, now 85-90% of primary school age children are enrolled and literacy had risen to 53% in 1980. Women, once heavily veiled, now have full rights and access to education. More than 60 thousand new workers compete for the 40,000 new job openings each year. An estimated 7000 laborers found work in Europe in 1984. Women composed only 11% of the 1975 work force, but by 1980, held 20% of jobs, although they were mainly low paying positions. In 1980, 35% of the laborers worked in agriculture, 19% in industry, 17% in service industries, and 10% in construction. Agriculture and tourism have declined in recent years, contributing to social unrest, currency decline, and inflated wages and consumer prices.

  2. Egyptian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are given the principal news concerning petroleum and natural gas in Egyptian Arab Republic. An important discovery of natural gas has been made in Khalda (Egyptian Arab Republic). The discovery well will be temporarily abandoned until it is connected to the egyptian pipeline system. In 1996 the south Khalda will be explored with at least two well drilling. The transit duties by the Suez canal for liquefied natural gas exports have decreased of 35%. The Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company studies a connection project of the trans saudi pipeline with the Suez mediterranean pipeline. The Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation will furnish 2,5 milliards of m3 per year of natural gas to Israel during 20 years. (O.L.). 2 figs

  3. Changing Revolutions, Changing Attention? Comparing Danish Press Coverage of the Arab Spring in Tunisia and Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented attention to the Arab world in Western news media. This paper presents a comparative study of Danish press coverage of the uprisings in Tunisia and Syria during the early months of the Arab Spring (January-March 2011). The study is based on a mixed...

  4. English Teaching Profile: Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…

  5. Health care in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, S

    1988-01-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic has health-care problems similar to other developing countries yet lacks the abundant oil reserves of its Arabian peninsula neighbors to address these problems. An ambitious 5 year health plan developed in 1977 has been impeded by a lack of material and human resources. The infant mortality rate remains one of the highest in the world, schistosomiasis drains the energy of the people, and tuberculosis and malaria remain endemic. Progress is, however, being made in health-care educational programs within Sanaa University and the Health Manpower Institutes to develop the resources of the Yemeni people to meet the health-care needs of their country. PMID:3225123

  6. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  7. Changing Revolutions, Changing Attention? Comparing Danish Press Coverage of the Arab Spring in Tunisia and Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented attention to the Arab world in Western news media. This paper presents a comparative study of Danish press coverage of the uprisings in Tunisia and Syria during the early months of the Arab Spring (January-March 2011. The study is based on a mixed quantitative and qualitative content analysis aimed at identifying patterns of news reporting of the Arab Spring. The investigation looks into whether temporal developments of the Arab revolutions, the level of journalistic presence in the region, and national differences influence Danish press coverage of the Arab Spring. The findings indicate that media coverage of the Arab Spring points in different directions. On the one hand there has been a remarkable increase in media attention to the Middle East in purely quantitative terms. On the other hand the study finds that a number of traditional media patterns persist, not least in relation to media perceptions of Islam and democracy, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the ability to reform the Arab world from the inside.

  8. The path towards universal health coverage in the Arab uprising countries Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; Natafgi, Nabil M; Mataria, Awad; Sabri, Belgacem; Nasher, Jamal; Zeiton, Moez; Ahmad, Shaimaa; Siddiqi, Sameen

    2014-01-25

    The constitutions of many countries in the Arab world clearly highlight the role of governments in guaranteeing provision of health care as a right for all citizens. However, citizens still have inequitable health-care systems. One component of such inequity relates to restricted financial access to health-care services. The recent uprisings in the Arab world, commonly referred to as the Arab spring, created a sociopolitical momentum that should be used to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). At present, many countries of the Arab spring are considering health coverage as a priority in dialogues for new constitutions and national policy agendas. UHC is also the focus of advocacy campaigns of a number of non-governmental organisations and media outlets. As part of the health in the Arab world Series in The Lancet, this report has three overarching objectives. First, we present selected experiences of other countries that had similar social and political changes, and how these events affected their path towards UHC. Second, we present a brief overview of the development of health-care systems in the Arab world with regard to health-care coverage and financing, with a focus on Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Yemen. Third, we aim to integrate historical lessons with present contexts in a roadmap for action that addresses the challenges and opportunities for progression towards UHC.

  9. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  10. Colonial legacy, women's rights and gender-educational inequality in the Arab World with particular reference to Egypt and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Nagwa; Lack, Stephen

    2011-08-01

    One aspect of the call for democracy in the recent Arab region uprisings is the issue of women's rights and gender equality. Three cultural and ideological forces have continued to shape the gender discourse in Arab Muslim-majority societies. They are: "Islamic" teaching and local traditions concerning women's roles in a given society; Western, European colonial perception of women's rights; and finally national gender-related policy reforms. This paper examines the past and present status of women and gender-educational inequality in the Arab world with particular reference to Egypt and Tunisia, prior to and post colonialism. Special attention is given to colonial legacy and its influence on gender and education; to current gender practices in the social sphere with a focus on women's modesty ( hijab); to international policies and national responses with regard to women's rights and finally to female participation in pre-university and higher education. These issues incorporate a discussion of cultural and religious constraints. The paper demonstrates similarities and differences between Egypt's and Tunisia's reform policies towards gender parity. It highlights the confrontation of conservative versus liberal ideologies that occurred in each country with the implementation of its gender-related reform policy.

  11. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  12. A Programme for the Eradication of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly from Algeria, the Libyan and Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco and Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) is the only fruit fly of economic importance affecting a large number of fruits and vegetables in the Maghreb (Algeria, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco and Tunisia). The medfly causes losses of fresh fruit and vegetables in this region of about US $90 million each year. Therefore, eradication of this pest at this time would be very beneficial. Technologies are available to eradicate the medfly which will have no significant negative environmental impacts, and they can be used to accomplish eradication at reasonable cost. This report outlines the procedures available to eradicate the medfly from the Magherb with primary reliance on the use of sterile flies. A large fruit fly rearing facility, of modular design, must be constructed in the Mediterranean Basin and outside the Maghreb to produce and sterilize flies.

  13. Contribution of type 2 diabetes associated loci in the Arabic population from Tunisia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almawi Wassim Y

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have both reproducibly identified several common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs that confer type 2 diabetes (T2D risk in European populations. Our aim was to evaluate the contribution to T2D of five of these established T2D-associated loci in the Arabic population from Tunisia. Methods A case-control design comprising 884 type 2 diabetic patients and 513 control subjects living in the East-Center of Tunisia was used to analyze the contribution to T2D of the following SNPs: E23K in KCNJ11/Kir6.2, K121Q in ENPP1, the -30G/A variant in the pancreatic β-cell specific promoter of Glucokinase, rs7903146 in TCF7L2 encoding transcription factor 7-like2, and rs7923837 in HHEX encoding the homeobox, hematopoietically expressed transcription factor. Results TCF7L2-rs7903146 T allele increased susceptibility to T2D (OR = 1.25 [1.06–1.47], P = 0.006 in our study population. This risk was 56% higher among subjects carrying the TT genotype in comparison to those carrying the CC genotype (OR = 1.56 [1.13–2.16], P = 0.002. No allelic or genotypic association with T2D was detected for the other studied polymorphisms. Conclusion In the Tunisian population, TCF7L2-rs7903146 T allele confers an increased risk of developing T2D as previously reported in the European population and many other ethnic groups. In contrast, none of the other tested SNPs that influence T2D risk in the European population was associated with T2D in the Tunisian Arabic population. An insufficient power to detect minor allelic contributions or genetic heterogeneity of T2D between different ethnic groups can explain these findings.

  14. The Views of Arab Students Regarding Turks, the Ottoman Empire, and the Republic of Turkey: A Case of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Arab and Turkish people lived together for nearly four hundred years under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, during which time both sides inevitably adopted a certain kind of attitude and view toward the other. This study is an attempt to explore Arab people's views toward Turks, the Ottoman Empire, and the Republic of Turkey. Through a case study…

  15. The Impact of Social Networks and Mobile Technologies on the Revolutions in the Arab World—A Study of Egypt and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Maurushat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Revolts in Tunisia and Egypt have led many observers to speak of the “first digital revolution” in the Arab world. Social media sites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are now recognised as the important tools that facilitated the “Jasmine Revolution”. In fact, the willingness of the Mubarak government to block all internet connection in Egypt has demonstrated the concern over the power of new technologies in facilitating political change. The tenacity of the social movements that are still on-going in the Arab world continues to demonstrate the important role that networked technologies—such as the internet, satellite channels and social networking sites—play in revolutions. The revolutions demonstrate an effective use of social media and other network technologies as an organisational tool, and as a means of asserting pressure on current rulers and future governments. Accordingly, this article seeks to expose freedom of expression as a fundamental democratic principle and the internet network as a vehicle driving the demonstrations in the Arab countries of Tunisia and Egypt.

  16. The Impact of Social Networks and Mobile Technologies on the Revolutions in the Arab World—A Study of Egypt and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Alana Maurushat; Mohamed Chawki; Hadeel Al-Alosi; Yassin el Shazly

    2014-01-01

    Revolts in Tunisia and Egypt have led many observers to speak of the “first digital revolution†in the Arab world. Social media sites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are now recognised as the important tools that facilitated the “Jasmine Revolution†. In fact, the willingness of the Mubarak government to block all internet connection in Egypt has demonstrated the concern over the power of new technologies in facilitating political change. The tenacity of the social movements that are sti...

  17. Tunisia Poverty Assessment 2015

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    Tunisia emerges today the only success story of the Arab Spring revolution that swept the Arab world five years ago. This poverty assessment seeks to learn from the pre and post revolution periods with a view of avoiding the repetition of past mistakes in the future. Specifically, it will provide Tunisians with a more detailed and updated diagnostics of poverty, regional disparities, trend...

  18. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  19. Arab Republic of Egypt : Detailed Assessment Report on Anti-Money Laundering and Combatting the Financing of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This assessment of the anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) regime of the Arab Republic of Egypt (Egypt) is based on the Forty Recommendations 2003 and the Nine Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing 2001 of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), andwas prepared using the AML/CFT assessment Methodology 2004, as updated in February 2008. The as...

  20. Colonial Legacy, Women's Rights and Gender-Educational Inequality in the Arab World with Particular Reference to Egypt and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Nagwa; Lack, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    One aspect of the call for democracy in the recent Arab region uprisings is the issue of women's rights and gender equality. Three cultural and ideological forces have continued to shape the gender discourse in Arab Muslim-majority societies. They are: "Islamic" teaching and local traditions concerning women's roles in a given society; Western,…

  1. Humanitarian Medical Response to the Syrian Arab Republic (April 7, 2013 to April 23, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Motara, Feroza; Bham, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    The Syrian Arab Republic is entrenched in a deadly civil war, plunging the country into a state of chaos. With 3.2 million refugees abroad, 7.6 million internally displaced persons, and more than 200,000 killed, humanitarian assistance and international intervention are in dire need. This report outlines the response to the Syrian humanitarian crisis by a South African-based nongovernmental organization (NGO). It describes the experiences of a health care worker, the patient profiles, and the lessons learned in a war zone. Responding to a nation in need is of paramount importance. In order to maximize the benefit conferred, the team should always attempt to implement measures that leave a lasting legacy. PMID:26674667

  2. Building a Data Warehouse for National Social Security Fund of the Republic of Tunisia

    CERN Document Server

    Gouider, Mohamed Salah; 10.5121/ijdms.2010.2207

    2010-01-01

    The amounts of data available to decision makers are increasingly important, given the network availability, low cost storage and diversity of applications. To maximize the potential of these data within the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) in Tunisia, we have built a data warehouse as a multidimensional database, cleaned, homogenized, historicized and consolidated. We used Oracle Warehouse Builder to extract, transform and load the source data into the Data Warehouse, by applying the KDD process. We have implemented the Data Warehouse as an Oracle OLAP. The knowledge extraction has been performed using the Oracle Discoverer tool. This allowed users to take maximum advantage of knowledge as a regular report or as ad hoc queries. We started by implementing the main topic for this public institution, accounting for the movements of insured persons. The great success that has followed the completion of this work has encouraged the NSSF to complete the achievement of other topics of interest within the NSSF. ...

  3. Building a Data Warehouse for National Social Security Fund of the Republic of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Salah GOUIDER

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of data available to decision makers are increasingly important, given the networkavailability, low cost storage and diversity of applications. To maximize the potential of these data withinthe National Social Security Fund (NSSF in Tunisia, we have built a data warehouse as amultidimensional database, cleaned, homogenized, historicized and consolidated. We used OracleWarehouse Builder to extract, transform and load the source data into the Data Warehouse, by applyingthe KDD process. We have implemented the Data Warehouse as an Oracle OLAP. The knowledgeextraction has been performed using the Oracle Discoverer tool. This allowed users to take maximumadvantage of knowledge as a regular report or as ad hoc queries. We started by implementing the maintopic for this public institution, accounting for the movements of insured persons. The great success thathas followed the completion of this work has encouraged the NSSF to complete the achievement of othertopics of interest within the NSSF. We suggest in the near future to use Multidimensional Data Mining toextract hidden knowledge and that are not predictable by the OLAP.

  4. Republic of Tunisia : Information and Communications Technology Contribution to Growth and Employment Generation, Volume 1. Policy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This policy note is the first of two volumes, drafted in conjunction with a more detailed technical report. It was prepared in response to a request by the Government of Tunisia for Bank assistance to formulate an ICT development strategy, in accordance with the targets set in the Government of Tunisia's 10th development plan. The policy note highlights current constraints to ICT sector de...

  5. Organ transplantation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Matri, Aziz; Ben Abdallah, Taieb

    2015-04-01

    Kidney transplants were first performed in Tunisia in 1986, and transplants soon extended to other organs including the heart, liver, and pancreas. Live-related donor and deceased-donor kidney transplants were both began in the summer of 1986. An organ procurement and transplant law was passed in March 1991, and the National Centre for Advancement of Organ Transplantation was created in 1995. The number of transplantation units has increased to 7 throughout the country, and the yearly transplant number has progressively increased to 139 in 2010, including 20% from deceased kidney donors. Despite these gains, the need continues to grow. Heart transplants began in January 1993, and Tunisia and Jordan are currently the only Arab countries where it is practiced. However, only 16 patients have received a heart transplant as of 2004, and the number of recipients has decreased in the past 10 years. Liver transplants are rare in other Arab countries, but began in Tunisia in January 1998. Over 10 years, 38 patients benefited from this procedure. After a few years of stagnation, the number of liver transplants is increasing. While all types of transplantation are needed, kidney transplantation is a priority in Tunisia. The target is to perform 400 transplants annually, which would require a long-term strategy to provide full financial coverage using the National Health Insurance Funds in both the public and private sectors.

  6. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  7. The Arab Geologists' Association(AGA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WissamS.Al-Hashimi

    2004-01-01

    The Arab Geologists Association (AGA) is a non-governmental pan-Arab geological organization founded in 1975 by geological commissions, i.e., geologists unions, geological societies, representing nine Arab countries, namely, Egypt, Palestine, Morocco, Jordan,Libya, Sudan, Lebanon, Tunisia and Iraq. Organizations of geologists in Syria and Yemen joined the Association shortly after.

  8. The Role of Education and Training in Enhancing Labour Productivity in Arab Countries in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…

  9. Syria divides the Arab left

    OpenAIRE

    Dot-Pouillard, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The violence deepens and spreads. Yet unlike Egypt and Tunisia, the Syrian revolt has not had unanimous support from the Arab left. There is a split between those who sympathise with the protestors' demands and those who fear foreign interference, both political and military

  10. Journalism's Rewriting of History in Reporting the Arab Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    and circumstances that put Tunisia and Egypt on the Danish media’s agenda in the year before the Arab revolutions as a starting point. The central point of this comparison is to convey how journalism, while describing contemporary events of The Arab Spring, at the same time rewrites its own prior commentary...

  11. Preliminary lead isotope investigations of brine from the Red Sea, Galena from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and galena from United Arab Republic (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevaux, M.H.; Doe, B.R.; Brown, G.F.

    1967-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead in Red Sea chloride brine containing 0.5 ppm Pb is found to be similar to that of some Cenozoic ore leads such as galena at Rabigh in Saudi Arabia that may have formed during mineralization accompanying Tertiary rifting. Bir Ranga galena in Miocene sediments from United Arab Republic (Egypt) is also isotopically similar to lead in Red Sea brine. The chlorine brine must be considered a possible mineralizing fluid. Lead isotopes show promise for use in mineral prospect evaluation in that galena from Samrah is isotopically similar to that from Mahd adh Dhahab, which has been the only ore producer in Saudi Arabia since 1945. Drilling at Samrah does indicate a possible economic mineralization. The lead isotope data coupled with available geologic knowledge and geochronometry are used to tentatively divide the ore prospects of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia into relative categories of mineralization age. Two Mesozoic and Cenozoic mineralizations are distinguished on the basis of a 207Pb/204Pb difference; an early Paleozoic mineralization grouping is outlined; and a late Precambrian mineralization period is suggested. ?? 1967.

  12. Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged < 18 years (51 males, 83 females). Low serum ferritin (< 12 ng/dL) was present in 17.9% of children (21.7% in females and 11.8% in males). Low haemoglobin (Hb) correlated significantly with a low serum ferritin. Only 1 child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.

  13. Safety aspects of the FMPP (Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant) setup constructed by INVAP in the Arabic Republic of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FMPP is a fuel plates manufacturing plant for test reactors. This facility was designed, constructed in El Cairo and turned-key handled by INVAP SE to the Arabian Republic of Egypt. In this project, CNEA participated in the transference of technology, elaboration of documents, training of Egyptian personnel and technical services during the setup of the facility in El Cairo. These tasks were undertaken by UPMP (Uranium Powder Manufacturing Plant) and ECRI (Research Reactors Fuel Elements Plant) personnel. Both plants in CNEA served as a FMPP design basis. During the setup of the facility a fuel element with natural uranium was firstly manufactured and then another one using uranium with 20% enrichment. In this paper the responses of the system regarding safety, after finishing the first two stages of manufacturing, are analyzed and evaluated. (author)

  14. Petroleum geology of Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burollet, P.F. (CIFEG, Paris (France)); Ferjami, A.B.; Mejri, F. (ETAP, Tunis (Tunisia))

    1990-05-01

    Recent discoveries and important oil shows have proven the existence of hydrocarbons in newly identified depocenters and reservoirs. In general, except for some areas around the producing fields, Tunisia is largely underdrilled. The national company ETAP has decided to release data and to publish a synthesis on the petroleum geology of Tunisia. The geology of Tunisia provides a fine example of the contrast between Alpine folding, which typifies northern Tunisia and the African craton area of the Saharan part. Eastern Tunisia corresponds to an unstable platform forming plains or low hills and extending eastwards to the shallow Pelagian Sea. There are a wide variety of basins: central and northern Tunisia represents a front basin the Saharan Ghadames basin or the Chott trough are sag basins; the Gulf of Gabes was formed as a distension margin the Gulf of Hammamet is a composite basin and several transversal grabens cut across the country, including offshore, and are rift-type basins. All these features are known to be oil prolific throughout the world. Two large fields and many modest-size pools are known in Tunisia. Oil and gas fields in the surrounding countries, namely the Saharan fields of Algeria and Libya the large Bouri field offshore Tripolitania and discoveries in the Italian part of the Straits of Sicily, suggest a corresponding potential in Tunisia. Exposed paleogeographic and structural maps, balanced sections, and examples of fields and traps will support an optimistic evaluation of the future oil exploration in Tunisia.

  15. CAFA Delegation of Local Officials and Entrepreneurs Visits Libya and Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYue

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the Council for the Promotion of Overseas Investment of Libya and the Agency for the Promotion of Foreign Investment of Tunisia, a China-Arab Friendship Association (CAFA) delegation of local officials and entrepreneurs headed by Ye Rongbao, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Zhejiang Provincial People's Congress, paid a goodwill visit to Libya and Tunisia from September 17 to 26, 2003. The delegation was organized and sentby the CPAFFC.

  16. Plant diversity in different bioclimatic zones in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana You

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Tunisia, located in northern Africa, faces various environmental challenges caused by anthropogenic practices such as overgrazing, deforestation, and desertification. The conversion of natural ecosystems is the major cause of plant biodiversity loss. Tunisia can be divided into three main climatic zones as follows: a northern Mediterranean climate zone, a central steppe climate zone, and a southern desert climate zone. Because of this great environmental diversity, there are distinctive vegetation and various genetic resources in Tunisia. This research was conducted to investigate plant biodiversity within the various bioclimatic zones and to characterize useful plant resources in Tunisia. We investigated native, medicinal and aromatic, desert, and soil erosion control plant species.

  17. On the (Im)Possibility of Democratic Citizenship Education in the Arab and Muslim World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    The euphoria of the recent Arab Spring that was initiated in northern African countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya and spilled over to Bahrain, Yemen and Syria brings into question as to whether democratic citizenship education or more pertinently, education for democratic citizenship can successfully be cultivated in most of the Arab and…

  18. Tunisia cours complementaire (Tunisia Complementary Course).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps (Thailand).

    The instructional materials in French are designed for use by language trainers of Peace Corps volunteers serving in francophone Tunisia, to supplement situational language and grammar instruction. A brief introductory section offers strategies for teaching verb tenses. The diverse materials that follow include lists of situational questions in…

  19. Creative Industries: Case Studies from Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes and explains empirically the economic performance of four key creative industries (the book publishing, music sound recording, film production and software industries) in five Arab countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon). Using the Porter (Diamond) model as its theoretical background, a survey was conducted in the years 2002-03 among 242 experts, covering firm representatives, industry and government experts. The results were incorporated into five nat...

  20. Arab oil and gas directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference book is the only oil and gas encyclopedia in the world providing detailed country surveys on the oil and gas industry in the Arab countries and Iran. It provides thorough country reports and detailed statistics on oil and gas exploration, production, transport, refining and petrochemicals, as well as on development projects in all countries in the Middle East and North Africa: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Separate chapters cover OPEC and OAPEC, as well as world oil and gas statistics. It includes 53 maps and 268 tables and graphs, and 2420 addresses and contact names

  1. L'algue alimentaire Spirulina sp. Découverte de lacs naturels à Wadi el Natroun en République Arabe d'Egypte Spirulina Sp. Food Alga. Discovery of Natural Lakes At Wadi El Natrun in the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdin El Sherif S. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bien que connue depuis les temps les plus anciens, la dépression de Wadi el Natroun n'avait jamais été prospectée autrement que pour sa richesse en sels minéraux. C'est en 1977 que les auteurs, cherchant à savoir s'il existait des lacs naturels à Spirulines en République Arabe d'Égypte, découvrirent dans la dépression de Wadi el Natroun certains lacs comme Abou Gobara et El Khadra où croissaient spontanément les algues spirulines. Le climat du site, l'origine et la composition des eaux, ainsi que la concentration en algues, ont été étudiés afin d'estimer la productivité du site en vue d'une éventuelle exploitation industrielle. L'exploitation de ces lacs permettrait de mettre en valeur le site de Wadi el Natroun par la production d'une substance très riche en protéine pour l'alimentation humaine dont à tant besoin la République Arabe d'Égypte. Even though it has been known from olden days, the depression of Wadi el Natrun had never been prospected other than for its wealth of mineral salts. It was in 1977 that the authors began searching for natural lakes with Spirulina algae in the Arab Republic of Egypt and, in the depression of Wadi el Natrun, discovered varions lakes such as Abu Gobara and El Khadra where Spirulina algae grew in a natural state. The climate of the site, the original and composition of the water as well as the algae concentration were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of the site for eventual industrial exploitation. The exploitation of these lakes would give value to the Wadi el Natrun site by producing a very protein-rich substance for human nourishment which the Arab Republic of Egypt needs so badly.

  2. Tunisia Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    Tunisia has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is animportant component of efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders’ decision making needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weakn...

  3. Electricity demand in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the global electricity demand in Tunisia as a function of gross domestic product in constant price, the degree of urbanization, the average annual temperature, and the real electricity price per Kwh. This demand will be examined employing annual data over a period spanning almost thirty one years from 1976 to 2006. A long run relationship between the variables under consideration is determined using the Vector Autoregressive Regression. The empirical results suggest that the electricity demand in Tunisia is sensitive to its past value, any changes in gross domestic product and electricity price. The electricity price effects have a negative impact on long-run electricity consumption. However, the gross domestic product and the past value of electricity consumption have a positive effect. Moreover, the causality test reveals a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption. Our empirical findings are effective to policy makers to maintain the electricity consumption in Tunisia by using the appropriate strategy. - Highlights: ► This paper examined the electricity demand in Tunisia in the long-run. ► The empirical analysis revealed that in the long-run the electricity demand is affected by changes in its past value, GDP in constant price and real electricity price. ► There is a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption, that is to say, that the electricity price causes the consumption. ► Those results suggest that a pricing policy can be an effective instrument to rationalize the electricity consumption in Tunisia in the long-run.

  4. Seismotectonics context of Tunisia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrouni, Nejib; Bouaziz, Samir; Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Attafi, Khereddine; Rebai, Noamen

    2013-04-01

    In Tunisia, the seismicity appears low to moderate with magnitude, from Mw 2-5.6. Some earthquakes are regularly experienced by the population and locally cause damage and very significant surface effects as indicated by the data of seismic activity since about 1000 years (in IMN Catalog). On the other hand, the historical sources (Roman then Arabic) give evidence of the strong seismic activities. The study of historical manuscripts showed the existence of strong earthquakes that can be devastating, as was the case of the 410 AD Utica earthquake, that of Kairouan in 854 and also the historic earthquake of 856 that devastated the city of Tunis (Catalogue INM). In Tunisia, the spatial distribution of recent earthquakes epicenters seismically suggests that the main activity occurred in Northwestern Atlas, Southern Atlas, Eastern and Pelagic platform and Tunis surroundings. In addition, we distinguish active zone where late Quaternary surface related deformations (Faults, flexures, uplift) have been evidenced. This work results from a compilation of seismotectonic features, active faults, historical seismic catalog, recent seismic events and geological information collected in Quaternary deposits. We have chosen to represent several types of historical and recent deformations. Numerous data from multiscalar approachs contributed to this work providing good opportunities to clarify the Present day Kinematic model within the North African margin. We propose to treat the active deformation based on observations and new investigations in the field to be able to develop new databases for detailed studies of recent tectonics, seismo-tectonic, historical seismicity, ruptures and surface effects in selected risky areas. The regional stress states reconstructed in recent geological outcrops show a correlation with seismic activity. The mechanism of most Tunisia earthquakes combined with the existing tectonic and structural information and reconstruction of the Quaternary stress

  5. Turkey's Kurdish Question: Changing Domestics and Regional Dynamics through the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Kayhan Pusane, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, international developments have always influenced Turkey's Kurdish question in general and the country's struggle with the PKK in particular. Arab Spring, which started in Tunisia in 2010 and quickly spread to several countries of the Middle East and North Africa, also significantly shaped the various decisions of the PKK, as well as Turkey's policies to resolve the Kurdish Question in recent years. This paper examines how the Arab Spring has influenced domestic and regional ...

  6. THE ROOTS OF REGRESSION IN THE ARAB WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Del Roio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the popular mobilization that placed below the existing dictatorship in Tunisia the media spread the term “Arab spring” for the series of events that followed. You can tell now how different events and with many vectors, which manifest themselves almost all the armed conflict which undermines Syria. However, the objective of this text is to provide a broad overview to suggest the explanation of strong retroactive process present in the Arab world, even with the presence of micro regions of incredible wealth.

  7. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries, Angola, Iran, Gabon and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and markets trends, trade and contracts, petroleum and natural gas exploration in Gabon, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Egypt and Sudan. Algeria and Portugal have signed a contract for natural gas supply of 2.1 Gm3

  8. A Comparative Assessment of Higher Education Financing in Six Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Araby, Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the policies for financing higher education in six Arab countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia. It assesses the adequacy of spending on higher education, the efficiency with which resources are utilized, and the equity implications of resource allocations. Based on six detailed case studies, this…

  9. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS: objectives, design, methodology and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS. The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS.Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Amman (Jordan, Mosel (Iraq, Muscat (Oman, Tunisia (Tunisia and Kenitra (Morocco. Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits.Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will

  10. The Arabic Revolt: Context, Perspectives and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Mandelc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss three interrelated topics, framed within discourses of individual and collective human rights, right of self-determination, democratic processes, people`s uprisings, and geopolitical (imbalances. First, we are interested in the situation of Western Sahara and the 37 years of ongoing Moroccan occupation; we refer to this country as Africa’s last colony. Discussion leads us to reflection of the political strategies of Sahrawis to achieve their national liberation, one of them being Gdeim Izik camp, understood by some relevant authors as the beginning of the »Arab spring«. The »Arab spring« is the second focus of our discussion. We offer a timetable and stress the context of events from the Western Sahara attempt in Gdeim Izik, popular uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen that ended in the resignations of their leaders and governments, civil wars in Syria and Libya, to bigger and smaller protests and their consequences in Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco, Mauretania, Algeria, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon and Djibouti. We try to offer a deconstruction and reconstruction of the »Arab spring«. In the third part, we discuss the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and the perspectives for solution. The conclusion reflects on the strategic, social and political implications of the »Arab spring«, the role and response of the international community, and the new global wave of resistance against political and financial elites.

  11. The Effect of Exports and Imports on Economic Growth in the Arab Countries: A Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    HAMDAN, Bader S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The study focused on the effect exports and imports on economic growth in the Arab countries during the period 1995 to 2013. The study used panel data approach in 17 countries: (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Tunisia, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Egypt, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco, Yemen and Palestine). The study used panel data approach by E views program. The study found that the effect exports and imports have positive effect of economic g...

  12. Arab satellite broadcasting, identity and arab youth

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis challenges a major theme found in Arab public discourse on youth, that the latter's consumption of television is passive in nature. Much discussion on Arab youth presupposes that the consequences of television for culture and identity are straight forward; that young people are merely passively absorbing materials that are offered. Contesting comments in Arab discourse on youth that to date have relied on unsystematic observation, this study adopts qualitative and quantitative res...

  13. Epidemiological profile of common haemoglobinopathies in Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamy, Hanan A; Al-Allawi, Nasir A S

    2013-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathies including the thalassemias and sickle cell disease are known to be prevalent inherited disorders in most Arab countries with varying prevalence rates and molecular characterisation. β-thalassemia is encountered in polymorphic frequencies in almost all Arab countries with carrier rates of 1-11 % and a varying number of mutations. The most widespread mutation in Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Tunisia and Algeria is the IVS-I-110 (G>A). In the Eastern Arabian Peninsula, the Asian Indian mutations (IVS-I-5 (G>C), codons 8/9 (+G) and IVS-I (-25 bp del)) are more common. The α-thalassemias are encountered in the majority of Arab countries in frequencies ranging from 1 to 58 % with the highest frequencies reported from Gulf countries. The (-α(3.7)) mutation is the most frequent followed by the non-deletional α2 polyadenylation signal mutation (AATAAA>AATAAG) and the α2 IVS1 5-bp deletion. The rates of sickle cell trait in Arab countries range from 0.3 to 30 %, with the Benin, the Arab-Indian and the Bantu haplotypes constituting the bulk of the haplotypes, leading to two major phenotypes; a mild one associated with the Arab-Indian and a severe one with the Benin and Bantu haplotypes. Public health approaches targeting prevention of haemoglobinopathies in Arab countries include newborn screening for sickle cell disease, and premarital screening for carriers of β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. These services are still patchy and inadequate in many Arab countries recommending the upgrade of these services with strengthening of the education and training of health care providers and raising public awareness on the feasibility of prevention and care for haemoglobinopathies. PMID:23224852

  14. Arabs in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐长贵

    2004-01-01

    In the eyes of many people in the United States, Arab-Americans are an invisible part of the population. Though Arab-Americans as a community have made great contributions to American society in the fields from literature to politics to medicine, many Americans know very little about Americans of Arab descent(血统).

  15. Arabic Words Stemming Approach Using Arabic Wordnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hamid Kreaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The big growth of the Arabic internet content in the last years has raised up the need for an effective stemming techniques for Arabic language. Arabic stemming algorithms can be ranked, according to three category, as root-based approach (ex. Khoja; stem-based approach (ex. Larkey; and statistical approach (ex. N-Garm. However, no stemming of this language is perfect: The existing stemmers have a low efficiency. In this paper, we introduce a new stemming technique for Arabic words that also solve the problem of the plural form of irregular nouns in Arabic language, which called broken plural. The proposed stem extractor provides very accurate results in comparisons with other algorithms.Consequently the search effectiveness improved.

  16. Arab Republic of Egypt : Gender assessment 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this policy note is to examine the gender dimension of the Egyptian labor market, with a focus on identifying the scope for policies to improve female labor force participation. An update to the Egypt gender assessment report of 2003, it is envisioned as a contribution to programmatic work on gender and inclusion in Egypt, helping build evidence which can inform policy aim...

  17. The Arab Awakening and US counterterrorism in the Greater Middle East: A missed opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Lilli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 'In 2011, the Arab Awakening offered an opportunity to the Obama administration to advance the US interest to counter terrorism in the Greater Middle East without compromising its commitment to the promotion of democracy. As of early 2015, however, with the exception of still-hopeful Tunisia, democracy has not made any significant progress in Middle Eastern countries. Additionally, old and new regional extremist groups have become increasingly active. How did the Obama administration miss the opportunity offered by the Arab Awakening? What actions could the United States take to reverse current unfavorable trends and advance US policies of counterterrorism and democratization in the region?'''

  18. Governance and Government in the Arab Spring Hybridity: Reflections from Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Stel

    2013-01-01

    The international community increasingly accepts that peace, security and development are decisively shaped by ‘good’ governance and institutions (World Bank (WB) 2011; Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 2008). This observation is only reinforced by current developments in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) presented as the Arab Spring.2 Dynamics in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen and Syria have nothing so much in common as their mix of socio-economic dilapidation...

  19. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given

  20. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940-2015: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliya Alia Malek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks which resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75% and Egypt (20%, resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbours and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. In contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976, was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Y. pestis from the Arab Maghreb.

  1. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940-2015: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  2. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940–2015: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  3. 78 FR 29700 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... also Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, the People's Republic of China and... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates.\\1\\ This...

  4. Firm Perceptions in Post-Revolutionary Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, Djibrilla Adamou

    2013-01-01

    Through steady structural reforms and good macroeconomic management, Tunisia has been successful in sustaining growth. The country enjoyed a 4.8 percentage average annual growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) over most of the 2000`s, placing the country among the leading performers in the region. Most of the growth was driven by private enterprises in the export sectors. Tunisia did bette...

  5. Understanding of Arab Spring with Chaos Theory - Uprising or Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkalın, Şuay Nilhan; Bölücek, Cemal Alpgiray

    `Arab Spring' can be considered as one of the most remarkable events in the history of world politics. On December 18, 2010, a Tunisian young protestor burned himself in a public square of the city. This event triggered probably one of the most chaotic and long term uprisings in the Middle East. From the day of its initiation until the present, `Arab Spring' in the Middle East created unstable political situation and several uprisings. In this chapter, we will first give general information about chaos theory, and then we will examine the `butterfly effect' created by the Tunisian young protestor and process of Arab Spring in the Middle East regarding its extend and form in those countries within the framework of chaos theory. For the first part of this chapter, the spark created by the Tunisian young protestor and its effects can be analyzed under `butterfly effect' perspective within chaos theory, arguing whether the events followed each other consecutively or randomly. The question is whether the incidents following each other have reasonable links of causality to one another, or the events defining the phenomena known as `Arab Spring' have no predictable reasons and outcomes regardless of the regional, social and political differences. The events caused the collapse of the regimes in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya; they had very serious outcomes.

  6. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  7. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  8. Arabic Short Text Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Omer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Text compression permits representing a document by using less space. This is useful not only to save disk space, but more importantly, to save disk transfer and network transmission time. With the continues increase in the number of Arabic short text messages sent by mobile phones, the use of a suitable compression scheme would allow users to use more characters than the default value specified by the provider. The development of an efficient compression scheme to compress short Arabic texts is not a straight forward task. Approach: This study combined the benefits of pre-processing, entropy reduction through splitting files and hybrid dynamic coding: A new technique proposed in this study that uses the fact that Arabic texts have single case letters. Experimental tests had been performed on short Arabic texts and a comparison with the well known plain Huffman compression was made to measure the performance of the proposed schema for Arabic short text. Results: The proposed schema can achieve a compression ratio around 4.6 bits byte-1 for very short Arabic text sequences of 15 bytes and around 4 bits byte-1 for 50 bytes text sequences, using only 8 Kbytes overhead of memory. Conclusion: Furthermore, a reasonable compression ratio can be achieved using less than 0.4 KB of memory overhead. We recommended the use of proposed schema to compress small Arabic text with recourses limited.

  9. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMA AL-OMARI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  10. Strategy to combat obesity and to promote physical activity in Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O Musaiger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al Hazzaa2, Aayed Al-Qahtani3, Jalila Elati4, Jasem Ramadan5, Nebal A AboulElla6, Najat Mokhtar7, Hashem A Kilani81Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2,3King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, 4National Institute of Nutrition, Tunisia; 5University of Kuwait, Kuwait; 6National Nutrition Institute, Egypt; 7Ibn Tofail University, Morocco; 8Sultan Qaboos University, OmanAbstract: Obesity has become a major public health problem in the Arab countries, creating a health and economic burden on these countries’ government services. There is an urgent need to develop a strategy for prevention and control of obesity. The third Arab Conference on Obesity and Physical Activity was held in Bahrain in January 2010, and proposed the Strategy to Combat Obesity and Promote Physical Activity in Arab Countries. This strategy provides useful guidelines for each Arab country to prepare its own strategy or plan of action to prevent and control obesity. The strategy focused on expected outcomes, objectives, indicators to measure the objectives, and action needs for 9 target areas: child-care centers for preschool children, schools, primary health care, secondary care, food companies, food preparation institutes, media, public benefit organizations, and the workplace. Follow-up and future developments of this strategy were also included.Keywords: obesity, physical activity, strategy, Arab countries

  11. Synonymy in Jordanian Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ibrahim Salameh Alomoush

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of synonymy in Jordanian Arabic. It has been assumed that synonymy in Jordanian Arabic has partial rather than complete synonymy. This means that the abundance of Jordanian Arabic in synonyms can be attributed to a number of explanations, namely dialectical variations, the speaker’s attitude, and origin of words. The data for this study come from two main sources: written and spoken material. In accordance with the established literature on the semantics of synonymy, we have classified the corpus of the study on the basis of these parameters. The main findings reveal that total synonymy is hard to find in Jordanian Arabic, supporting the argument of many linguistic studies for the existence of partial rather than total synonymy in a language. Keywords: dialectical variations, evaluative meaning, origin of words, semantics, synonyms

  12. Performance économique de l’industrie du droit d’auteur dans certains pays arabes

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes and explains empirically the economic performance of four key copyright-based industries (the book publishing, music sound recording, film production and software industries) in five Arab countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon). Using the Porter (Diamond) model as its theoretical background, a survey was conducted in the years 2002-03 among 242 experts, covering firm representatives, industry and government experts. The results were incorporated into five n...

  13. Pediatric versus adult kidney transplantation activity in Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the current activity of pediatric versus adult kidney transplantation activity in the Arab world. A questionnaire was mailed to all kidney transplant centers in Arab countries to collect data on the kidney transplant activity in a recent single year. Three thousand three hundred and nine kidney transplants were performed in one year, with a transplant rate of 9.5 per million populations (PMP; 298 were performed for children with a pediatric kidney transplant (PKT rate of 0.87 PMP, which is much lower than that of developed countries where it mostly ranges from 5 to 10. The pediatric share of all transplants is 9%, which is twice as high as that of European children. Kidney transplant programs in most Arab countries rely exclusively on living donors as there is a severe shortage of deceased donors. 93.5% of all transplants, combined adult and pediatric, were from living donors. Deceased transplant activity in Arab countries accounts for 14-31% of all transplants in the three countries with deceased donor programs. Of the 212 adult and pediatric transplants that were performed from deceased donors in eight countries, only 29 cases were for pediatric recipients. Deceased PKT is available in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, Tunisia and Kuwait. Surprisingly, the PKT share was not better in the countries with higher overall kidney transplant rate and or in those where deceased transplant was available. PKT is still inactive in most Arab countries and mostly relies on living donors. The lack of well-developed deceased donor programs is the main issue to be addressed.

  14. Seismotectonics and seismic Hazard map of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Kadri, Ali; Zargouni, Fouad; Ghanmi, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    One natural hazard in Tunisia is caused by earthquakes and one way to measure the shaking risk is the probabilistic seismic-hazard map. The study of seismic hazard and risk assessment in Tunisia started in 1990 within the framework of the National Program for Assessment of Earthquake Risk. Because earthquakes are random events characterized by specific uncertainties, we used a probabilistic method to build the seismic hazard map of Tunisia. Probabilities were derived from the available seismic data and from results of neotectonic, geophysical and geological studies on the main active domains of Tunisia. This map displays earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across Tunisia and it is used in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessment and other public management activities. The product is a seismotectonic map of Tunisia summarizing the available datasets (e.g., active fault, focal mechanism, instrumental and historical seismicity, peak ground acceleration). In addition, we elaborate some thematic seismic hazard maps that represent an important tool for the social and economic development.

  15. Performing Arabness in Arab American Stand-up Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Selim Yasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the dramatic art of stand-up comedy. It locates Arab American stand-up comedy within a broader American humorous tradition and investigates the way Arab American performers use this art to negotiate and (reconstruct their identity. The main question in this article is the way Arab American stand-up comedians define their relationship to the Arab and the western worlds in the process of establishing their Arab American identity. Three humor theories - the relief theory, the incongruity theory, and the superiority theory - are deployed in the study to examine the representation of Arabness in selected Arab American performances. The study argues that Arab American comics minstrelize their own diasporic origin through reinscribing a range of orientalizing practices in order to claim their Americanness.

  16. Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch-El Alaoui, Lalla Khadija

    2005-01-01

    Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations, explores the US mainstream discourse on the Arabs in the 1990s in different cultural texts: academic, popular and media, including Hollywood. The project investigates how these representational practices participate in the reconfiguration of American public opinion vis-à-vis the Arabs. It also focuses on the ways in which the various discourses that produce or even invent the "Other" are undeniably li...

  17. Arab Education Going Medieval: Sanitizing Western Representation in Arab Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Imed

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the events of September 11, 2000, debate about Arab education as the new apparatus for religious fanaticism used by Arab extremist groups to entice hate and violence against the West took prominence in Western discourse. Considerable ink was spilled confusing hostile narratives in Arab curricula and the metaphors of identity…

  18. Benchmarking the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in Arab world by utilizing bibliometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Shaher H; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman E; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    Rapid population growth, worsening of the climate, and severity of freshwater scarcity are global challenges. In Arab world countries, where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, the recycling of industrial wastewater could improve the efficiency of freshwater use. The benchmarking of scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world is an initiative that could support in shaping up and improving future research activities. This study assesses the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world. A total of 2032 documents related to industrial wastewater were retrieved from 152 journals indexed in the Scopus databases; this represents 3.6 % of the global research output. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 70. The total number of citations, at the time of data analysis, was 34,296 with an average citation of 16.88 per document. Egypt, with a total publications of 655 (32.2 %), was ranked the first among the Arab countries followed by Saudi Arabia 300 (14.7 %) and Tunisia 297 (14.6 %). Egypt also had the highest h-index, assumed with Saudi Arabia, the first place in collaboration with other countries. Seven hundred fifteen (35.2 %) documents with 66 countries in Arab/non-Arab country collaborations were identified. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from France 239 (11.7 %), followed by the USA 127 (6.2 %). The top active journal was Desalination 126 (6.2 %), and the most productive institution was the National Research Center, Egypt 169 (8.3 %), followed by the King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia 75 (3.7 %). Environmental Science was the most prevalent field of interest 930 (45.8 %). Despite the promising indicators, there is a need to close the gap in research between the Arab world and the other nations. Optimizing the investments and developing regional experiences are key factors to promote the scientific research.

  19. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  20. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    herself strategically cites these discourses in her self-fashioning to claim her own subject position as a white Arab and American woman during the 1950s. She argues that, while most Arab American authors at this time avoid a serious Arab ethnic affiliation, Rosemary Hakim already proudly uses...

  1. Echinococcosis in Tunisia: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorowski, Meghan M; Carabin, Hélène; Kilani, Mohamed; Bensalah, Afif

    2005-04-01

    Echinococcus granulosus infection is a preventable zoonosis of human and veterinary public health importance in Tunisia. We aimed to comprehensively quantify human and animal echinococcosis losses in Tunisia. Itemized cost menus were developed for the health of both domestic animals and humans, and for productivity monetary losses. The incidence and prevalence of the disease in all species were obtained from national and personal reports. The domestic animal and human costs of echinococcosis in Tunisia were estimated using age-stratified rates and losses, productivity losses (including those not formally employed) and Monte Carlo sampling to represent the uncertainty inherent in some epidemiological and economic values. Echinococcosis in Tunisia causes significant direct and indirect losses in both humans and animals of approximately US dollars 10-19 million annually. These estimates are based on numerous methodological improvements over previous studies and are of considerable consequence relative to Tunisia's US dollars 21.2 billion gross domestic product. A cost-benefit analysis of control programmes using the methodological advances presented here and regional comparison to other endemic diseases is warranted. These may provide information to assist policy decision-makers in prioritizing the allocation of scarce resources. PMID:15708386

  2. Review of alien marine macrophytes in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. SGHAIER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the list of alien marine macrophytes introduced into Tunisia was updated in the light of available data and new observations. A total of 27 alien marine macrophytes have been recorded so far from Tunisia: 18 Rhodophyta, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Chlorophyta and 1 Magnoliophyta. For each species, the locality (-ies, the year (or period and the source of the first observation in Tunisia are given. The distribution and the status (casual, cryptogenic, established or questionable of species in Tunisia were evaluated and, where appropriate, discussed. Among them, Hypnea cornuta is reported for the first time from Tunisia. Fourteen alien marine macrophytes are established, whereas seven cryptogenic and two casual species require further investigation. Eleven species are considered as invasive or potentially invasive in the Mediterranean Sea: Acrothamnion preissii, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis Indo-Pacific lineage, Hypnea cornuta, Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa chemnitzia, C. cylindracea, C. taxifolia, Codium fragile subsp. fragile and Halophila stipulacea. Finally, the case of four questionable species is also discussed.

  3. Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Monirul Islam, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    This volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society (TJS 2014) held at Gammarth, Republic of Tunisia on November 28-30, 2014. The TJS 2014 is based on the network of the Tunisia-Japan Symposium on Science, Society and Technology (TJASSST) which has been regularly organized since 2000. The symposium was focused on the technological developments of energy and materials for the realization of sustainable society. To generate technological breakthrough and innovation, it seems to be effective to discuss with various fields of researchers such as solid-state physicists, chemists, surface scientists, process engineers and so on. In this symposium, there were as many as 109 attendees from a wide variety of research fields. The technical session consisted of 106 contributed presentations including 3 plenary talks and 7 key-note talks. We hope the Conference Series and publications like this volume will contribute to the progress in research and development in the field of energy and material sciences for sustainable society and in its turn contribute to the creation of cultural life and peaceful society.

  4. External debt and economic growth in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhafidh Samir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the external debt effect on economic growth in Tunisia. Our empirical methodology is based on the autoregressive distributed lag approach. We find that in the long- as well as in the short-run, external debt had a negative effect on growth over the 1970-2010 period. The longrun effect was slightly higher in the period before the Ben Ali’s presidency than in the period after. However, during his period, the external debt short-run effect was the double of that observed during the period before. These results suggest that an external debt reduction should favor economic growth in Tunisia.

  5. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    A TEACHING MANUAL FOR AN ELEMENTARY (FIRST LEVEL) COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE IS PRESENTED. THE COURSE USES AN AUDIOLINGUAL-TO-GRAPHIC APPROACH OF INSTRUCTION, DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR PARTS. THE FIRST PART EMPHASIZES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL SKILLS IN PREREADING INSTRUCTIONAL EXERCISES. PART TWO CONSISTS OF A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE…

  6. Arabic medicine and nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, G

    1994-01-01

    During the Dark Ages following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Arabic world was instrumental in fostering the development of the sciences, including medicine. The quest for original manuscripts and their translation into Arabic reached its climax in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, and the dissemination of the compiled texts was facilitated by the introduction of paper from the East. Foremost among the Arabic physicians were Rhazes, Avicenna, Haly Abbas and Albucasis, who lived during the period 950-1050 AD. Their writings not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of these earlier writers. The urine was studied and the function and diseases of the kidneys described. Despite the fact that experimentation on the human body was prohibited by religion, some anatomic dissection and observation seems to have been undertaken, and the pulmonary circulation was described by Ibn Nafis. Anatomic illustrations began to appear in Arabic texts, though they did not have the detail and artistic merit of those of Vesalius. PMID:7847454

  7. 78 FR 77649 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from Brazil, the People's Republic of China and... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United...

  8. Bibliometric analysis of nutrition and dietetics research activity in Arab countries using ISI Web of Science database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2014-01-01

    Reducing nutrition-related health problems in Arab countries requires an understanding of the performance of Arab countries in the field of nutrition and dietetics research. Assessment of research activity from a particular country or region could be achieved through bibliometric analysis. This study was carried out to investigate research activity in "nutrition and dietetics" in Arab countries. Original and review articles published from Arab countries in "nutrition and dietetics" Web of Science category up until 2012 were retrieved and analyzed using the ISI Web of Science database. The total number of documents published in "nutrition and dietetics" category from Arab countries was 2062. This constitutes 1% of worldwide research activity in the field. Annual research productivity showed a significant increase after 2005. Approximately 60% of published documents originated from three Arab countries, particularly Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia. However, Kuwait has the highest research productivity per million inhabitants. Main research areas of published documents were in "Food Science/Technology" and "Chemistry" which constituted 75% of published documents compared with 25% for worldwide documents in nutrition and dietetics. A total of 329 (15.96%) nutrition - related diabetes or obesity or cancer documents were published from Arab countries compared with 21% for worldwide published documents. Interest in nutrition and dietetics research is relatively recent in Arab countries. Focus of nutrition research is mainly toward food technology and chemistry with lesser activity toward nutrition-related health research. International cooperation in nutrition research will definitely help Arab researchers in implementing nutrition research that will lead to better national policies regarding nutrition.

  9. Design and Experimental Investigation for Improving the High Frequency Radio Communication Links between Benghazi-Libya and Sfax-Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousef Ahmed Abou-Hussein

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have experimentally planned to replicate the positive results of the application of ionospheric prediction method to design and improve the high frequency (HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Sfax-Tunisia. The central radio propagation laboratory (CRPL method of ionospheric prediction of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS in U.S.A was used in the calculations of the optimal working frequencies for reliable HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Sfax-Tunisia. The results were drawn in the form of curves by using the computer. The computer was used to measure the received signal level variation of a frequency 17.500 Megahertz (MHz, which was transmitted with a power of 100 Kilowatt (KW from the Tunis Republic Broadcasting station in SFAX city, directed to the east region. The measurements were taken during daytime's for winter (December, January& February and summer (June, July & August seasons.

  10. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  11. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  12. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PURE ARABIAN BREEDING IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čačić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pure arab breeding in the Republic of Croatia has very long tradition. Till the 18th century organized breeding was implemented only in bishop Stud Farm Đakovo. Afterwards pure arab breeding was implemented in many private Stud Farms mostly located in Slavonian and Srijem region. Pure arab, traditional arab and araber (arabrasse population of horses make together arabian breeding in the Republic of Croatia. Numerical strength of these three populations has increasing trend through out the years. First imports which were ground for foundation of pure arab breeding in Croatia realized in year 1991. Today, population of pure arab breeding count 37 head, from which 28 is imported and 9 born in Croatia. Pedigree depth in 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 generation show average coefficient of inbreeding of 1.899%, 3.15%, 4.413%, 5.434%, 6.243%, 6.974% and 7.552%. According to genealogy in all pedigree depths, coefficient of inbreeding was higher (P < 0.01 in imported arab horses than in those born in Croatia.

  13. Arabic Script and the Rise of Arabic Calligraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Ali A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a concise coherent literature review of the Arabic Language script system as one of the oldest living Semitic languages in the world. The article discusses in depth firstly, Arabic script as a phonemic sound-based writing system of twenty eight, right to left cursive script where letterforms shaped by their…

  14. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    AN ELEMENTARY COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE WAS DEVELOPED. THIS REPORT IS THE TEXT FOR PART 3 AND PART 4 OF THAT COURSE. (FOR INFORMATION ON THE FIRST TWO PARTS AND SOME DETAIL ON THE OVERALL NATURE OF THE COURSE, REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 860 AND ED 003 861.) PART 3 COMPRISES A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE ARABIC ALPHABET AND THE…

  15. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  16. How Arabs Read Roman Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Mick; Meara, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Shows that native-speaking Arabic readers produce search functions that are radically different from the search functions of readers whose script uses the Roman alphabet (RAs). The processes used by Arabic readers are more akin to the processes used by RAs when searching arrays of shapes. (Author/LMO)

  17. Management of Water Demand in Arab Countries Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Shayboub Ali Mahmoud

    2014-03-01

    some Arabs countries such as(Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, KSA and UAE.

  18. The Arab Spring: A Simple Compartmental Model for the Dynamics of a Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, John

    2012-01-01

    The self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi on December 17, 2011 in the small Tunisian city of Sidi Bouzid, set off a sequence of events culminating in the revolutions of the Arab Spring. It is widely believed that the Internet and social media played a critical role in the growth and success of protests that led to the downfall of the regimes in Egypt and Tunisia. However, the precise mechanisms by which these new media affected the course of events remain unclear. We introduce a simple compartmental model for the dynamics of a revolution in a dictatorial regime such as Tunisia or Egypt which takes into account the role of the Internet and social media. An elementary mathematical analysis of the model identifies four main parameter regions: stable police state, meta-stable police state, unstable police state, and failed state. We illustrate how these regions capture, at least qualitatively, a wide range of scenarios observed in the context of revolutionary movements by considering the revolutions in Tunisia and ...

  19. Patients’ attitude towards bedside teaching in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Salah, Arwa; El Mhamdi, Sana; Bouanene, Ines; Sriha, Asma; Soltani, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess patient' reaction towards bedside teaching at the University Hospital of Monastir (Tunisia) and to identify the factors that may influence it. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during December 2012 at the University Hospital of Monastir. Each department, except the psychiatric department and the intensive care units, was visited in one day. All inpatients present on the day of the study were interviewed by four trained female nurses using a structured question...

  20. Inflation, inflation uncertainty and output in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Hachicha, Ahmed; Lean Hooi Hooi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between inflation, inflation uncertainty and output in Tunisia using real and nominal data. GARCH-in-mean model with lagged variance equation is employed for the analysis. The result shows that inflation uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on the level of inflation only in the real term. Moreover, inflation uncertainty Granger-causes inflation and economic growth respectively. These results have important implications for the monetary pol...

  1. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  2. Guide to OCR for Arabic scripts

    CERN Document Server

    Märgner, Volker

    2012-01-01

    The first book of its kind, specifically devoted to the emerging field of OCR for Arabic Scripts Presents state-of-the-art research from an international selection of pre-eminent authorities in the field Describes numerous applications of Arabic script recognition technology, from historical Arabic manuscripts to online Arabic recognition

  3. Moriscos and Arabic studies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiegers, Gerard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay studies the contribution of Moriscos to Arabic studies. It concludes that the contributions of Moriscos in the Iberian peninsula remained modest. Some contributed actively to the knowledge of Arabic through their Arabic-Islamic learning. I show that the Mudejar convert known as Juan Andrés, who wrote one of the most influential treatises against Islam, was indeed a canon of the cathedral of Granada. I briefly discuss the contribution of Moriscos to the translations and interpretations of the Lead Books and studied their post-expulssion contribution to Arabic and Islamic studies. The last part focuses on the Dutch Republic, where, as a result of historical circumstances and contingent factors such as personal relations, Moriscos played an important role. Here, in addition to the study of the Arabic language itself, the physical sciences played a noteworthy role. This, I suggest, can be connected to the broad scope of the emergence of Arabic studies in Europe, which incorporated both the physical sciences and religion and philosophy, and an interest in North Africa itself because of developments in the physical sciences, including their application in daily life.

    Este artículo analiza la aportación de los moriscos a los estudios árabes, concluyendo que ésta fue modesta en la Península Ibérica. Algunos moriscos contribuyeron de forma activa al conocimiento del árabe a través de sus estudios sobre temas árabo-islámicos. Se demuesttra que el converso mudéjar conocido como Juan Andrés, autor de uno de los más influyentes tratados contra el Islam, fue un canónigo de la Catedral de Granada. Se aborda brevemente la cuestión de la contribución de los moriscos a la traducción e interpretación de los Libros Plúmbeos y se estudia su contribucción, con posterioridad a la expulsión, a los estudios árabes e islámicos. La última parte del trabajo se centra en Holanda (República de los Siete Países Bajos Unidos

  4. Long Memory Properties in Return and Volatility: An Application of the Impact of Arab Spring in Turkey Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cevik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring which began on 17 December 2010 with the civil rebellions, revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests in the Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain and Syria. The Arab Spring not only created a domino effect between Arabic countries but also it reflected a significant influence on the financial markets all over the world. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the Arab Spring in Turkey Financial Market in consideration of long memory. Long memory can be defined as the persistence of the unexpected shocks on the underlying has long lasting effects. Modeling long memory in stock returns and volatility has also attracted great deal of attention from finance literature recently. Existence of long memory is determined both for the returns and volatility of the time series by using different methods. Existence of long memory can be tested by Rescaled Range Statistics (R/S, Geweke and Porter-Hudak (GPH Model and Gaussian Semi Parametric (GSP Method. In consequence of these tests, if the stock returns have long memory affect then respectively Fractionally Integrated Autoregressive Moving Average Model (ARFIMA and the Fractionally Integrated Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (FIGARCH model are used to detect the long memory in respectively return and volatility. In this study, the impact of the Arab Spring is investigated by modeled the long memory in Istanbul Stock Exchange using ISE 30 index prices in between December 17, 2010 and April 02, 2012.

  5. Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Elmahdy, Mohamed; Minker, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech describes approaches to improve automatic speech recognition for dialectal Arabic. Since speech resources for dialectal Arabic speech recognition are very sparse, the authors describe how existing Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) speech data can be applied to dialectal Arabic speech recognition, while assuming that MSA is always a second language for all Arabic speakers. In this book, Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) has been chosen as a typical Arabic dialect. ECA is the first ranked Arabic dialect in terms of number of speakers, and a high quality ECA speech corpus with accurate phonetic transcription has been collected. MSA acoustic models were trained using news broadcast speech. In order to cross-lingually use MSA in dialectal Arabic speech recognition, the authors have normalized the phoneme sets for MSA and ECA. After this normalization, they have applied state-of-the-art acoustic model adaptation techniques like Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR) and M...

  6. The Arabic Language Level of Candidates for Malaysia Religion High Certificate (MRHC): Reading and Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Muhamad; Hazwan Abdul Rahman; Azman Che Mat

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia Religion High Certificate (STAM) examination is a Malaysian student’s eligibility to study in the Middle East. STAM was introduced in 2000 as a result of a Memorandum of Understanding Cultural Agreement between the Governments of Malaysia and the Arab Republic of Egypt in November 1999. But many STAM graduates who took the language test at the university had failed to get the level of qualification and had to take Arabic classes at the language center before pursuing studies at the u...

  7. LANGUAGE USES VS. LANGUAGE POLICY: SOUTH SUDAN AND JUBA ARABIC IN THE POST-INDEPENDENCE ERA

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, Stefano; Tosco°, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    The paper summarizes the language and educational policy of the Republic of South Sudan against the backdrop of a sociolinguistic survey conducted in Juba, South Sudan, in the months of July-August 2013, and aiming at a better understanding of the role, uses and beliefs surrounding the use of Juba Arabic, an Arabic-based pidgincreole widely used in Juba and in a wide part of the newly independent country. The results highlight the fact that, although the government of the newly independent co...

  8. Investment Climate Assessment : Enterprises' Perception in Post Revolution Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Located in the heart of the North African coastline, adjacent to vital shipping channels connecting Europe and Asia, Tunisia has long been a regional economic influence in the Middle East and North Africa. Although socialist policies dominated the Tunisian economy throughout the latter half of the 20th century, Tunisia has re-focused its economic strategy on key indicators such as foreign ...

  9. Automatic Translation of Arabic Sign to Arabic Text (ATASAT) System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmoty M.Ahmed; Reda Abo Alez; Muhammad Taha; Gamal Tharwat

    2016-01-01

    Sign language continues to be the preferred tool of communication between the deaf and the hearing-impaired. It is a well-structured code by h and gesture, where every gesture has a specific meaning, In this paper has goal to develop a system for automatic translation of Arabic Sign Language. To Arabic Text (ATASAT) System this system is acts as a translator among deaf and dumb with normal people to enhance their commun ication, the...

  10. Middle East and North Africa Economic Developments and Prospects, October 2012 : Looking Ahead After a Year in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Republic of Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and the Republic of Yemen are recovering after a period of economic growth decelerations accompanying the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011. Economic recovery was relatively quick, with industrial production recovering in a matter of months and, in the cases of Egypt and Tunisia, the growth dips of 2011 were smaller than the average growth declines observed around the year of transition during past transitions to democracy. Importantly, the growth decele...

  11. Arab oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review explains the situation of petroleum products and gas in Arab countries. Several kinds of difficulties are exposed: too many projects, concurrence of other producers like Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Norway, Russian Federation, will be rude. New exporters (Iran, Venezuela, Nigeria, even Alaska) will appear and will want a part of market and western countries will probably diversify their tradesmen. An other point is that producers overestimate future growth of worldwide demand or underestimate the impact of more expansive gas price on this demand. Inversely if this one is too low, several projects, would not be profitable. The last point is in the concurrence between gas and petroleum products, which needs a consistent policy

  12. Coastal tourism and climate change in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henia, Latifa; Hlaoui, Zouhaier; Alouane, Tahar

    2014-05-01

    Tunisia is a major tourist destination on the southern shore of the Mediterranean. The tourism sector occupies an important place in the Tunisian economy with 816 hotels, 229,873 beds and a more than six million tourists at the end of the first decade of the 21th century, i.e. , more than half of the population. It offers a large number of direct and indirect jobs: One out of five people work in the tourism sector. The 1960s tourism boom was caused by a number of factors including long days of sunshine, 1,300 km of sandy coast, and a location close to Europe. Tunisian tourism is fundamentally based on two natural determinants: the sun and the sea. The coastline accounts for 95% of tourism investments and functional beds. The high season extends from April to October and it records 73% of nonresident tourists. This results in a homogenous growth of the "product" and its "consumers". This standardization is an important factor in the vulnerability of the Tunisian tourism to climate change. Global warming may affect the comfort level of the swimming season as well as its structure. An estimation of air and water temperature evolution near the Tunisian coasts was conducted under the CLIM-RUN project "Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean Region: Responding to User Needs" funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7). The University of Tunis research unit "GREVACHOT", project partner in charge of the case study of Tunisian tourism, has made the study of comfort indices of the present climate. This paper presents: - The climate comfort indices for seaside tourism in Tunisia, - The approach and results of the future evolution of air and water temperatures by the Tunisian coasts, - The future evolution of climate seaside comfort indices of Tunisia as well as the evolution of the swimming season in relation to global warming.

  13. Benchmarking the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in Arab world by utilizing bibliometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Shaher H; Al-Rawajfeh, Aiman E; Shaheen, Hafez Q; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    Rapid population growth, worsening of the climate, and severity of freshwater scarcity are global challenges. In Arab world countries, where water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, the recycling of industrial wastewater could improve the efficiency of freshwater use. The benchmarking of scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world is an initiative that could support in shaping up and improving future research activities. This study assesses the scientific output of industrial wastewater research in the Arab world. A total of 2032 documents related to industrial wastewater were retrieved from 152 journals indexed in the Scopus databases; this represents 3.6 % of the global research output. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 70. The total number of citations, at the time of data analysis, was 34,296 with an average citation of 16.88 per document. Egypt, with a total publications of 655 (32.2 %), was ranked the first among the Arab countries followed by Saudi Arabia 300 (14.7 %) and Tunisia 297 (14.6 %). Egypt also had the highest h-index, assumed with Saudi Arabia, the first place in collaboration with other countries. Seven hundred fifteen (35.2 %) documents with 66 countries in Arab/non-Arab country collaborations were identified. Arab researchers collaborated mostly with researchers from France 239 (11.7 %), followed by the USA 127 (6.2 %). The top active journal was Desalination 126 (6.2 %), and the most productive institution was the National Research Center, Egypt 169 (8.3 %), followed by the King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia 75 (3.7 %). Environmental Science was the most prevalent field of interest 930 (45.8 %). Despite the promising indicators, there is a need to close the gap in research between the Arab world and the other nations. Optimizing the investments and developing regional experiences are key factors to promote the scientific research. PMID:26996912

  14. Virtual water balance estimation in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambouli, Talel; Benalaya, Abdallah; Ghezal, Lamia; Ali, Chebil; Hammami, Rifka; Souissi, Asma

    2015-04-01

    The water in Tunisia is limited and unevenly distributed in the different regions, especially in arid zones. In fact, the annual rainfall average varies from less than 100 mm in the extreme South to over 1500 mm in the extreme North of the country. Currently, the conventional potential of water resources of the country is estimated about 4.84 billion m³ / year of which 2.7 billion cubic meters / year of surface water and 2.14 billion cubic meters / year of groundwater, characterizing a structural shortage for water safety in Tunisia (under 500m3/inhabitant/year). With over than 80% of water volumes have been mobilized for agriculture. The virtual water concept, defined by Allan (1997), as the amount of water needed to generate a product of both natural and artificial origin, this concept establish a similarity between product marketing and water trade. Given the influence of water in food production, virtual water studies focus generally on food products. At a global scale, the influence of these product's markets with water management was not seen. Influence has appreciated only by analyzing water-scarce countries, but at the detail level, should be increased, as most studies consider a country as a single geographical point, leading to considerable inaccuracies. The main objective of this work is the virtual water balance estimation of strategic crops in Tunisia (both irrigated and dry crops) to determine their influence on the water resources management and to establish patterns for improving it. The virtual water balance was performed basing on farmer's surveys, crop and meteorological data, irrigation management and regional statistics. Results show that the majority of farmers realize a waste of the irrigation water especially at the vegetable crops and fruit trees. Thus, a good control of the cultural package may result in lower quantities of water used by crops while ensuring good production with a suitable economic profitability. Then, the virtual water

  15. External Debt and Economic Growth in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasfi Fkili Wahiba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the effect of external debt on economic growth; we used the debt service as percentage of exports and debt indicators in the first and second degree. The econometric estimation showed that the sign of the coefficient of debt is positive and the debt squared is negative, and beyond a certain stock, the impact of debt on growth becomes negative and Tunisia must control its debts as additional increases will have adverse impacts on the economic performance of the country. Therefore, the borrowing should remain a necessity in cases of extreme emergency, not a solution to all economic problems experienced by the country.

  16. Founder mutations in Tunisia: implications for diagnosis in North Africa and Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romdhane Lilia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tunisia is a North African country of 10 million inhabitants. The native background population is Berber. However, throughout its history, Tunisia has been the site of invasions and migratory waves of allogenic populations and ethnic groups such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans and French. Like neighbouring and Middle Eastern countries, the Tunisian population shows a relatively high rate of consanguinity and endogamy that favor expression of recessive genetic disorders at relatively high rates. Many factors could contribute to the recurrence of monogenic morbid trait expression. Among them, founder mutations that arise in one ancestral individual and diffuse through generations in isolated communities. Method We report here on founder mutations in the Tunisian population by a systematic review of all available data from PubMed, other sources of the scientific literature as well as unpublished data from our research laboratory. Results We identified two different classes of founder mutations. The first includes founder mutations so far reported only among Tunisians that are responsible for 30 genetic diseases. The second group represents founder haplotypes described in 51 inherited conditions that occur among Tunisians and are also shared with other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Several heavily disabilitating diseases are caused by recessive founder mutations. They include, among others, neuromuscular diseases such as congenital muscular dystrophy and spastic paraglegia and also severe genodermatoses such as dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and xeroderma pigmentosa. Conclusion This report provides informations on founder mutations for 73 genetic diseases either specific to Tunisians or shared by other populations. Taking into account the relatively high number and frequency of genetic diseases in the region and the limited resources, screening for these founder mutations should provide a rapid

  17. NORM Facilities: NORM Decontamination Facility (Syrian Arab Republic). Appendix IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a great number of industrial, mining, or manufacturing facilities globally that use or process NORM, being a substance that naturally contains one or more radioactive isotopes. NORM is present at varying concentrations in the Earth’s crust. Some of the processes conducted at facilities that handle NORM concentrate one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclides, resulting in waste that contains a higher radioactive concentration than occurs naturally. This results in the requirement that the facilities be decommissioned and sites be remediated. The typical process operations for NORM generation involve the extraction, purification, filtration, smelting or pipeline transport of virtually any material of geologic origin. In general, NORM is categorized as being either ‘discrete’ or ‘diffuse’. Discrete NORM is usually a small amount of waste material that can contains a relatively high concentration of NORM. Examples of discrete NORM include: — Radium painted watch dials; — Aircraft instrument panels. Activities associated with enhanced levels of NORM can contaminate the environment and pose a risk to human health. Handling, storage, transport, and the use of NORM contaminated equipment or waste media without controls can lead to the spread of NORM contamination and result in contamination of areas of land, resulting in potential exposure of the public; thus the need for NORM facilities to be decommissioned properly. The areas affected by the facilities’ processes should also be remediated

  18. Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in the Czech Republic for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  19. Effective Arabic Stemmer Based Hybrid Approach for Arabic Text Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryeme Hadni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Text pre-processing of Arabic Language is a challenge and crucial stage in Text Categorization (TCparticularly and Text Mining (TM generally. Stemming algorithms can be employed in Arabic text pre-processing to reduces words to their stems/or root.Arabic stemming algorithms can be ranked, accordingto three category, as root-based approach (ex. Khoja; stem-based approach (ex. Larkey; and statisticalapproach (ex. N-Garm.However, no stemming of this language is perfect: The existing stemmers have asmall efficiency.In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy ofstemming and therefore the accuracy of our proposedTC system, an efficient hybrid method is proposed for stemming Arabic text. The effectiveness of theaforementioned four methods was evaluated and compared in term of the F-measure of the Naïve Bayesianclassifier and the Support Vector Machine classifier used in our TC system. The proposed stemmingalgorithm was found to supersede the other stemmingones: The obtained results illustrate that using theproposed stemmer enhances greatly the performance of Arabic Text Categorization

  20. Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    The population of the Dominican Republic was estimated at 6.4 million in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. The infant mortality rate is 96/1000, and life expectancy is 60 years. The literacy level is 68%. The gross domestic product (GDP) in the Dominican Republic in 1986 was US$5.59 billion, with a real annual growth rate of 1.3% and a per capita GDP of $873. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 45%; industry and commerce, 21% services, 14%; and government, 20%. The Dominican economy entered a recovery period in 1986, and expenditures were cut to create savings for a massive public investment program. This fiscal spending has created a domestically-led growth of the Dominican economy and increased purchasing power among the poor. However, it remains for the government to come to terms with fiscal and monetary imbalances so that a more sustainable, noninflationary growth of the Dominican economy is ensured. Since 1966, the Dominican Republic has been a representative democracy whose national powers are divided among independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches. PMID:12177938

  1. Functional or Anaphoric Control in Jordanian Arabic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haq, Fawwaz Al-Abed

    1992-01-01

    Discusses functional and anaphoric control in complex sentences (sentences with more than one verb) in Jordanian Arabic within the framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar. It is argued that Jordanian Arabic utilizes anaphoric rather that functional control. (18 references) (JL)

  2. Contrastive Linguistic English Phonology Vs. Arabic Phonology

    OpenAIRE

    Mona M. Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Phonology is a wide area of study in any language specially English &Arabic Language, it needs books to cover every single part of these languages. This review paper aims at providing Arab learners and English learners with stem footnotes of these two languages in area of phonology, to ease their learning of English and Arabic languages as foreign or second language, this review paper provide learners with the main differences and rules of English and Arabic languages alphabets that the resea...

  3. Arabic Heritage Language Learners: motivation, expectations, competence, and engagement in learning Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan Husseinali

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates motivation, outcome expectations, competence and engagement of Arabic heritage learners. Fifty students belonging to two distinct groups participated in this study. The first group is comprised of heritage learners coming from Arabic speaking homes (Arab HLLs) while the second group is comprised of non-Arabic speaking Muslims (Muslim HLLs). The study aims to uncover trends amongst Arabic HLLs, therefore, means for the whole group were calculated. In addition to means, ...

  4. Cystinuria in Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in molecular biology have provided new insights into the pathophysiology and genetics of cystinuria. It is expected that future development will be based on molecular and gene therapy. Until then, the therapy in cystinuric patients remains a difficult task and the goal should be the prevention of recurrences. This can be achieved by full compliance with medical regimens that result in significantly reduced urinary cystine excretion and good long term prognosis in most patients. Such measures include urinary alkalinization with potassium citrate, modest reduction of dietary sodium and maintenance of a daily urinary volume of about three liters to prevent stone recurrence in adult cystinuric patients. The use of life-long pharmacological agents with disulfide chelators should be reserved for patients who fail the general conservative therapy. Invasive surgery should be used only minimally so as to preserve renal anatomy and function. However, repeated episodes of obstructive urotherapy, frequently complicated by infection may eventually result in the need for nephrectomy, and are significantly associated with development of chronic renal failure. In Arab World we lack properly designed epidemiological studies on renal stone-disease in general, and the cystine stone in particular. We recommend a multi-center study to determine the incidence of the disease and a molecular genetic analysis of cystinuric patients and their relatives, to determine the different mutations in our population and the types of the disease both the homozygotes and the heterozygotes. (author)

  5. Labialization in Cairene Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper investigates certain morphological categories in Cairene Arabic where the contrast between the short high vowels [i] and [u] is neutralized. The understanding of these neutralizations has direct consequences on the featural composition of different classes of segments. The analysis is formulated in the framework of the Parallel Structures Model of feature geometry, first introduced in Morén (2003, 2006, 2007 and further developed in work at CASTL. Assuming that features are language-specific but also articulatorily based, I motivate feature specifications for each participating segment and offer a straightforward autosegmental analysis of the distribution. The proposed analysis fits neatly into a constraint-based model and supports the growing body of literature claiming that representations are important even to optimality-theoretic analyses.

  6. Topical Structure in Arabic-English Interlanguage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ahmed

    A study compared the topical structure (TS) of Arabic and English in order to determine whether Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer potential differences between Arabic and English in their English writing, or whether they use an altogether different TS indicative of developmental factors. Four sets of data were compared…

  7. Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Wali A.; Hodge, Carlton T., Ed.

    The first section of this companion volume to "Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part I" (AL 002 041) presents the Arabic script version of the pre-drills in Lessons IA-IIB in that volume. The second and major section comprises 20 lessons consisting of pre-drills, texts, notes, and questions. All material in this volume appears in Arabic script…

  8. FONOLOGI DAN MORFOLOGI BAHASA ARAB 'AMIYAH MESIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Arabic language, it is divided into two, namely Arabic fushhâ and ‘âmiyah. Arabic fushhâ used as a written language, and Arabic ‘âmiyah used as a spoken language. In daily activities, Arab people used Arabic ‘âmiyah more frequently. This is due to a fairly high level of formality that is owned by Arabic fushhâ, that should be in the spoken language is communicative, consultative, relaxed and intimate, both in term of morphological and syntactical. In the Egyptian Arabic occur in phonological and morphological differences were deemed difficult for students who only learn Arabic fushhâ. The difficulty that arises due to the ignorance of students to the differences that occur between Arabic fushhâ and Egyptian dialect. With an understanding of phonological and morphological of Arabic ‘âmiyah expected that the students of Arabic language or people who have learned fushhâ can understand-at least a few understanding-spoken language so that communication will run smoothly.

  9. Business Culture Differences in Communication between Finland and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jemaiel, Karima

    2013-01-01

    The topic for this thesis is the business culture differences in communication between Finland and Tunisia. The business world is increasingly international which means that the business men and women should acknowledge the cultural differences which they are facing when conducting business in a foreign culture. The objective of this thesis was to identify business culture differences between Finland and Tunisia. By identifying the culture differences this thesis was able to find answers...

  10. An empirical analysis of energy demand in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Besma Talbi; Duc Khuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of real energy prices on the consumption of different energy sources in Tunisia. We estimate the short-run and long-run energy demand elasticities over the period 1980-2004, where energy demand is specified by a simple partial adjustment model. Our results show that energy demand in Tunisia is generally sensitive to the income level and real prices of energy products. Moreover, the price elasticity and income elasticity differ across energy sources. These find...

  11. BAHASA ARAB DAN INFERIORITAS WANITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syofian Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic is one of - or perhaps only - among the most gender biased language. Symbols in the Arabic language is authentic evidence of how clearly illustrated the superiority of men over women, especially in matters i'rab (grammatical and signs. As seen from the difference dhamir (pronoun between men and women, the difference 'adad (number between men and women, and the form of words mu'rab (change and mabni (does not change between men and women and so on. Keywords : Arabic languange, Women and superiorityCopyright © 2012 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v2i1.47

  12. The Hindu-Arabic numerals

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David Eugene

    2004-01-01

    The numbers that we call Arabic are so familiar throughout Europe and the Americas that it can be difficult to realize that their general acceptance in commercial transactions is a matter of only the last four centuries and they still remain unknown in parts of the world.In this volume, one of the earliest texts to trace the origin and development of our number system, two distinguished mathematicians collaborated to bring together many fragmentary narrations to produce a concise history of Hindu-Arabic numerals. Clearly and succinctly, they recount the labors of scholars who have studied the

  13. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2016-01-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  14. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  15. Reading Arabic : legibility studies for the Arabic script

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahine, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    What is the cost of visual complexity? This dissertation sets out to determine the effect of the complexity of word formation on the legibility of Arabic and the role that vocalization plays in reading. This is carried out via a holistic approach to legibility research that combines the visual cultu

  16. Automatic Translation of Arabic Sign to Arabic Text (ATASAT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoty M.Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sign language continues to be the preferred tool of communication between the deaf and the hearing-impaired. It is a well-structured code by h and gesture, where every gesture has a specific meaning, In this paper has goal to develop a system for automatic translation of Arabic Sign Language. To Arabic Text (ATASAT System this system is acts as a translator among deaf and dumb with normal people to enhance their commun ication, the proposed System consists of five main stages Video and Images capture, Video an d images processing, Hand Signs Construction, Classification finally Text transform ation and interpretation, this system depends on building a two datasets image features for Arabi c sign language gestures alphabets from two resources: Arabic Sign Language dictionary and gest ures from different signer's human, also using gesture recognition techniques, which allows the user to interact with the outside world. This system offers a novel technique of hand detect ion is proposed which detect and extract hand gestures of Arabic Sign from Image or video, i n this paper we use a set of appropriate features in step hand sign construction and class ification of based on different classification algorithms such as KNN, MLP, C4.5, VFI and SMO and compare these results to get better classifier.

  17. Health information in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabbagh, Dina; Alsharif, Khlood; Househ, Mowafa S

    2013-01-01

    Availability of online health information in the Arab world is growing rapidly, as well as the demand for it. Today, the Arab health consumer is searching for health information that is in Arabic and is culturally relevant. The purpose of this paper is to document the various initiatives around the development of online health information in the Arab world. The paper highlights the status of online health information in Arab counties with a specific focus on Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive search of both academic and gray literature was conducted in October 2012. Google Scholar, PubMed, the Google search engines were searched. Results show that there has been an increase in the number of health information websites being created in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan and the United Arab Emirates. Examples of some these initiatives are discussed. Future challenges to the growth of health information content in the Arab world are also discussed. PMID:23823454

  18. Research on psychosocial aspects of asthma in the Arab world: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Anas J; Al Khateeb, Jamal M

    2015-01-01

    The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma has long been recognized. This paper offers a review of research published in the English language related to psychosocial aspects of bronchial asthma in Arab countries. Several databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, ERIC, and PsychInfo) were searched using the following keywords: bronchial asthma, Arab countries, Algiers, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine (West Bank, Gaza), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Sudan, Somalia; United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Thirty-two studies were conducted in 9 Arab countries. Almost all studies found were published in the last fourteen years with an apparent increasing rate in the last five years. In descending order, these studies addressed: knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma, quality of life, behavioral and emotional problems and factors related to academic achievement. The main results of the studies reviewed were: (a) physicians', school staff's, and parents' knowledge of and attitudes toward asthma were generally unsatisfactory, (b) in-service asthma education programs significantly impacted parent and staff knowledge and attitudes, and asthma management practices, (c) quality of life in children and adolescents was significantly adversely affected by asthma, (d) asthma was a common cause of school absenteeism, and had a significant negative impact on academic achievement of students, and (e) students with asthma had significantly higher rates of behavioral and emotional difficulties compared to students without asthma. The paper concludes with a discussion about the implications of these results and a call for further research in this area.

  19. Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairy Abusyairi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Up to day, the materials of Arabic teaching that are developed and used widely in Indonesia in general are the teaching materials used in the madrassah in the Middle East. If the teaching material is the result of the development of amounts not so much. While the demands for innovation and the development of Arabic language teaching materials, today continues to roll, in line with the dynamics of the development of science and technology. Besides that , the demand for Arabic teaching materials that use Indonesian as the language develops in most introductory students, especially those with a general educational background. Thus, one needs to have a competence of teachers in performing their duties is developing instructional materials. Development of teaching materials a teacher is important for learning more effective, efficient, and does not deviate from the competency achieved. Arabic teaching materials can be developed through the following steps : a analysis, b design, c the writing and preparation of the material, d evaluation, e revision.

  20. United Arab Emirates Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders’ decision making needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the ...

  1. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC, VOLUME 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    AN ELEMENTARY COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE WAS DEVELOPED. THIS REPORT IS THE TEXT FOR THE FIRST TWO PARTS OF THAT COURSE. (FOR INFORMATION ON OTHER PARTS, REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 860 AND ED 003 862.) THE COURSE USES THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD FOR TEACHING WHICH ATTEMPTS TO FAMILIARIZE THE STUDENT WITH ORAL SKILLS OF A LANGUAGE BEFORE…

  2. Trip Report United Arab Emirates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A

    2004-10-06

    Keith Nakanishi and Arthur Rodgers traveled to the United Arab Emirates in February, 2004 to continue an on-going technical collaboration with UAE University and to service the two temporary LLNL seismic stations. Nakanishi and Rodgers then participated in the Gulf Seismic Forum, which was organized by LLNL and sponsored by the University of Sharjah.

  3. Ripples From The Arab World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Turmoil in the Middle East sparks global economic concerns The massive upheavals sweeping the Arab world started on January 14 this year when Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled abroad after protesters demanded he step down as thecountry’s leader.Egyptian President Hosni

  4. Radon in elementary schools in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon measurements were carried out in 30 elementary schools in Tunis, the capital city of Tunisia, during the winter months of December 2008 to early March 2009. Two classrooms, one each from ground floor and first floor were chosen from each school making a total of 60 classrooms. In some of the classrooms, two detectors (open and closed) were used to measure the concentrations of radon as well as radon and its progeny to allow the calculations of the equilibrium factors. Nuclear track detectors type LR-115 (Kodalpha) were used for the measurements. The results show that the radon concentration levels are low in the range of 6-169 Bq m-3 with a mean value of 26.9 Bq m-3. The annual effective dose was found to vary between 0.025-0.715 mSv y-1 for teachers while the range for pupils was from 0.019-0.525 mSv y-1. These values are within the ICRP recommended values. (authors)

  5. Guiding Digital and Media Literacy Development in Arab Curricula through Understanding Media Uses of Arab Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Jad P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…

  6. Arab Americans in Literature and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mita Banerjee

    2008-01-01

    Hollywood has a long history of stereotyping the Arab. From The Cafe in Cairo to The Siege, this Arab – invariably male – figures as the religious fundamentalist who sees in terrorism the only way to spread Islam over the entire globe. Having said this, this is not to argue either that Hollywood is ideologically corrupt, or that Arab (Americans) are the only ethnic group stereotyped in Hollywood's cultural imagination. Yet while Hollywood’s Orientalism, which is actually based on a fascinati...

  7. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  8. Energy planning in the Arab world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafei, A.N.

    1979-09-01

    Efficient use of energy is of interest to the energy-surplus regions as well as the energy-deficit regions. Similarly, concern about energy conservation is not confined to the industrially developed regions of the world. This article discusses energy planning from the Arab point of view. A framework for Arab energy modeling is first described. Then the application of a computer model - that of Mesarovic and Pestel - to Arab energy-planning needs is discussed and some of the results are presented. Finally, current priorities in Arab energy-modeling studies are outlined. The Appendix surveys some existing models which address regional and international energy problems.

  9. Arabic Sentiment Analysis: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Assiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most social media commentary in the Arabic language space is made using unstructured non-grammatical slang Arabic language, presenting complex challenges for sentiment analysis and opinion extraction of online commentary and micro blogging data in this important domain. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the important research works in the field of Arabic sentiment analysis. An in-depth qualitative analysis of the various features of the research works is carried out and a summary of objective findings is presented. We used smoothness analysis to evaluate the percentage error in the performance scores reported in the studies from their linearly-projected values (smoothness which is an estimate of the influence of the different approaches used by the authors on the performance scores obtained. To solve a bounding issue with the data as it was reported, we modified existing logarithmic smoothing technique and applied it to pre-process the performance scores before the analysis. Our results from the analysis have been reported and interpreted for the various performance parameters: accuracy, precision, recall and F-score.

  10. New Trends in Islamic Political Parties in the Arab Spring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Burdah

    2014-12-01

    [Perkembangan mutakhir partai-partai politik Islam di sejumlah negara Arab “Musim Semi” menunjukkan adanya perubahan orientasi dan agenda baru, berupa penegasan kembali komitmen mereka terhadap nilai-nilai demokrasi, penguatan masyarakat sipil, dan adopsi prinsip-prinsip hak asasi manusia. Pada saat yang sama, mereka tampak kurang tertarik kepada agenda-agenda politik Islam lama seperti jihad bagi pendirian negara Islam dan pendirian pemerintahan Islam global di bawah satu khalifah yang tersentralisasi. Hal ini relevan terhadap kasus Partai Keadilan dan Pembangunan (Ḥizb al-‘Adālah wa’l-Tanmiyah di Maroko, Partai Kebebasan dan Keadilan (Ḥizb al-Ḥurriyyah wa’l-‘Adālah di Mesir, dan Partai Kebangkitan (Ḥizb al-Nahḍah di Tunisia. Artikel ini berupaya mengeksplorasi dan menjelaskan fakta baru ini. Berdasarkan kajian pustaka dan wawancara dengan sejumlah petinggi Partai Keadilan dan Pembangunan di Maroko, penulis berkesimpulan bahwa orientasi baru ini terjadi akibat dari gelombang demokratisasi dunia, “angin kencang musim semi” Arab yang begitu kuat, dan dinamika internal partai.

  11. Economical and Technical Feasibility Study of Nuclear Desalination for the Skhira Site in Tunisia: Project Tundesal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing concern, in the Arab countries, about increasing demand for water while the natural supply is limited. The situation is exacerbated by a rapidly increasing population and a lower rainfall. Desalination technologies can be used to supplement potable water from brackish and sea water, the latter being plentiful in the region. The sea water desalination is an extremely interesting option for Tunisia considering its proximity to the Mediterranean, the growth of this industry and the deceasing costs of the water produced by desalination. It's however important to investigate the usefulness and best adapted technology for the specific case of our country. A study was carried out in this direction which aims to provide a choice of technical and economical options relating to the possible deployment of an integrated system of nuclear desalination, producing at the same time electricity and desalted water, by 2020. This project aims to present a first economic evaluation of the integrated systems of desalination under the specific conditions of Tunisia. Its main objective is to elaborate and study the optimal scenarios for electricity and water production in order to satisfy, by 2020, water needs for the population of Sfax-Gabes region in the south of and to reinforce the country electrical resources. The whole of the study is divided into four tasks, the pre-dimensioning of the nuclear reactors and desalination processes, the coupling of nuclear reactors to selected desalination processes, the safety impact that coupled systems may have on the nuclear power plant and the economic evaluation of the integrated systems of nuclear desalination. The nuclear option was found to be very competitive and even becomes more economical for a 15% increase in current gas prices. In this case three nuclear options are economically very interesting: two modules of Gas-Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), producing each 280 MWe, three modules of PBMR reactor

  12. Rule Based Shallow Parser for Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of language processing approaches that compute a basic analysis of sentence structure rather than attempting full syntactic analysis is shallow syntactic parsing. It is an analysis of a sentence which identifies the constituents (noun groups, verb groups, prepositional groups, but does not specify their internal structure, nor their role in the main sentence. The only technique used for Arabic shallow parser is Support Vector Machine (SVM based approach. The problem faced by shallow parser developers is the boundary identification which is applied to ensure the generation of high accuracy system performance. Approach: The specific objective of the research was to identify the entire Noun Phrases (NPs, Verb Phrases (VPs and Prepositional Phrases (PPs boundaries in the Arabic language. This study discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. New rules were proposed to the shallow parser features up to the generation of two levels from full parse-tree. We described an implementation and evaluate the rule-based shallow parser that handles chunking of Arabic sentences. This research was based on a critical analysis of the Arabic sentences architecture. It discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect the start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. Results: The system was tested manually on 70 Arabic sentences which composed of 1776 words, with the length of the sentences between 4-50 words. The result obtained was significantly better than state of the art Arabic published results, which achieved F-scores of 97%. Conclusion: The main achievement includes the development of Arabic shallow parser based on rule-based approaches. Chunking which constitutes the main contribution is achieved on two successive stages that include grouped sequences of

  13. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  14. The Integration of Arab Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Naser I Abumustafa

    2006-01-01

    Naser I. Abumustafa presents a review of the functions, regulations, and definitions of Arab emerging stock markets, identifying the barriers and solutions to potential integration of Arab stock markets. Development (2006) 49, 81–85. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1100249

  15. Teaching the Arabic Alphabet to Kindergarteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents initial results regarding writing activities in the context of the ALADDIN project. The goal of the project is to teach Modern Standard Arabic in 5-year-old kindergarten students in Qatar. A total of 18 students, enrolled in the ‘Arabic Class’, participated for 9 weeks...

  16. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arrangspan>ed along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  17. Linguistic Features of Pidgin Arabic in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds the light on Asian pidgin Arabic, particularly linguistic features of pidgin Arabic in Kuwait. The phonology, syntax and lexicon of the language are described on the basis of interviews conducted with forty Asian informants. The data are discussed in its relation to other studies. Also, the researcher discussed the implication of…

  18. PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT OF LITERARY ARABIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-ANI, SALMAN H.; SHAMMAS, JACOB Y.

    THIS WORKBOOK IS DESIGNED TO INTRODUCE THE SOUND SYSTEM AND WRITING SYSTEM OF LITERARY ARABIC. THE MATERIAL IS LINGUISTICALLY ORIENTED, BASED ON A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND ARABIC. ACCOMPANYING TAPES FOR EACH UNIT PROVIDE THE STUDENT WITH PRACTICE IN LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION. READING, WRITING, AND HOMEWORK EXERCISES…

  19. PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB DI ERA POSMETODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhbib Abdul Wahab

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed to answer two essential problems; (1 development map of Arabic learning method from 1990s until today which has been formulated unclearly, and (2 developing Arabic learning in posmethod era by optimilizing teacher’s strategic role in the process of Arabic learning. This article used bibliographic sources from some books and articles in scientific journal about linguistic and Arabic learning. The interpretation data of academician thought and Arabic linguistic experts was done by using historical-critical approach and content analysis for substancial interpretation. B. Kumaravadivelu concept in Beyond Methods: Macrostrategies for Language Teaching (2003 which requires teacher to play three essential roles; pasif technician, reflective practician, and transformative intelectual is very inportant in Arabic learning in posmethod era. The principle of at-tharîqatu ahammu min al-mâddah (method is more important than content can be developed to be main principle “spirit, profesionality and strategic role of language educator is more important in teaching Arabic than the method itself”, since basically there is no most appropriate and ideal method for any goals and situation of Arabic learning.

  20. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  1. The water footprint of Tunisia from an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Krol, Maarten S.; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper quantifies and analyses the water footprint of Tunisia at national and sub-national level, assessing green, blue and grey water footprints for the period 1996–2005. It also assesses economic water and land productivities related to crop production for irrigated and rain-fed agriculture, a

  2. Popular Islam in Tunisia : a regional cults analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, Kees

    1990-01-01

    This study is about cults in northwestern Tunisia. A cult is defined as a religious grouping which exhibits several distinctive characteristics: the number of participants is limited, exclusivism is absent, the beliefs and practices are biased on one or several specific supernatural beings, and it i

  3. Taylor rule and the conduct of monetary policy in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Lajnaf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the failure of monetary targeting theory in the eighties, several authors have proposed alternatives. The Taylor rule is commonly accepted in recent years for the determination of interest rates in order to achieve the final goal of the central bank. The present study tends to lead an analysis of the compatibility of behavior of central bank of Tunisia (CBT in the monetary policy conduct with the Taylor rule. The results obtained from quarterly data ranging from 1997 to 2011 showed that the original Taylor rule has a low explicative power of the monetary authorities' behavior in Tunisia. The proposed forward-looking rule describes plausibly interest rates dynamics. In this rule, the money market rate (MMR is dependent on its past level, the output gap between current and potential output, the deviation of expected inflation from the implicit target, the differential of money market rate between Tunisia and the euro area and the inflation differential between Tunisia and France. Therefore, the Tunisian monetary policy can follow a rule based on two main aggregates taken as targets, whose names are inflation and economic growth. The reaction function can be considered as a proposal for a new reform of the monetary policy of the Central Bank.

  4. Trading Up : How Tunisia Used ICT to Facilitate Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Although trade liberalization can create jobs and raise incomes, these benefits are easily undermined if excessive costs and delays hinder trade transactions - reducing a country's export competitiveness. This note shows how Tunisia embraced information and communications technology (ICT) to facilitate trade - cutting costs, saving time, and increasing international competitiveness. It also ...

  5. Radiological Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers used in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need of control of natural radioactivity in the environment and the radiological impact of the use of chemical fertilizers has led us in this work to measure the natural radioactivity of the phosphate fertilizers in Tunisia. The distribution of various radionuclides during their manufacturing process of fertilizers is also part of this work.

  6. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the policies and practices employed in the teaching of Arabic and Hebrew at a school belonging to the “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel”. Its focus is on strategies that the school has developed in order to support the acquisition of biliteracy...... was perceived as a bi-product that would come about as a result of the equal amount of time and resources allocated to both Arabic and Hebrew in the curriculum. However, there are a number of challenges such as the hegemony and dominance of Hebrew, the imbalance in knowledge of the two languages among...... the teaching stuff and the parents population (the Jewish teachers and parents have little or no knowledge of Arabic while the Arab teachers and parents are virtually bilinguals), the absence of bilingual teacher-training programs and lack of bilingual teaching materials production, that have to be addressed...

  7. Using Arabic CAPTCHA for Cyber Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bilal; Alghathbar, Khaled S.; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alkelabi, Abdullah M.; Alajaji, Abdulaziz

    Bots are automated programs designed to make auto registrations in online services, resulting in wastage of resources and breach of web security. English based CAPTCHAs are used to prevent bots from abusing these online services. However, English based CAPTCHAs have some inherent flaws and have been broken by bots. In this paper, an Arabic text based CAPTCHA is proposed. The CAPTCHA text image is distorted with background noise. Background noise and dots in the Arabic text makes CAPTCHA hard to be broken by Arabic OCRs. The proposed scheme is useful in Arabic speaking countries and in protecting internet resources. The proposed CAPTCHA scheme is both secure and robust. Experimental results show that background noise is a good defense mechanism against OCR recognizing Arabic text.

  8. RECOGNITION OF HINDI (ARABIC HANDWRITTEN NUMERALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan I. Zaghloul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of handwritten numerals has been one of the most challenging topics in image processing. This is due to its contributions in the automation process in several applications. The aim of this study was to build a classifier that can easily recognize offline handwritten Arabic numerals to support those applications that are deal with Hindi (Arabic numerals. A new algorithm for Hindi (Arabic Numeral Recognition is proposed. The proposed algorithm was developed using MATLAB and tested with a large sample of handwritten numeral datasets for different writers in different ages. Pattern recognition techniques are used to identify Hindi (Arabic handwritten numerals. After testing, high recognition rates were achieved, their ranges from 95% for some numerals and up to 99% for others. The proposed algorithm used a powerful set of features which proved to be effective in the recognition of Hindi (Arabic numerals.

  9. Text Organization and Transfer: The Case of Arab ESL Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ahmed

    1994-01-01

    Explored the hypothesis that Arab learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) transfer Arabic text organization features into their English writing by examining essays written by 30 Arab ESL students and 30 non-Arab ESL students. The results indicated little evidence of transfer in either group. Implications for further research are discussed.…

  10. Motivation to Teach: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…

  11. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  12. Soil property estimates for Tunisia derived from SOTER and WISE (SOTWIS-Tunisia, ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    This datasets describes a harmonized set of soil property estimates for Tunisia. It has been derived from the 1:1 million scale Soil and Terrain Database for the country (SOTER_TN, ver. 1.0) and the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database, using standardized taxonomy-based pedotransfer (taxotransfer) proce

  13. Arabic Heritage Language Learners: motivation, expectations, competence, and engagement in learning Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Husseinali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates motivation, outcome expectations, competence and engagement of Arabic heritage learners. Fifty students belonging to two distinct groups participated in this study. The first group is comprised of heritage learners coming from Arabic speaking homes (Arab HLLs while the second group is comprised of non-Arabic speaking Muslims (Muslim HLLs. The study aims to uncover trends amongst Arabic HLLs, therefore, means for the whole group were calculated. In addition to means, t-tests were performed to compare the two groups with regard to motivation, outcome expectations, and competence. Frequencies for engagement items for each group are provided separately. The results indicate that, on the one hand, Arabic HLLs possess a strong identity and community motivations. On the hand, their instrumental or utilitarian motivation is very weak. On the levels of skills, Arabic HLLs are more drawn to study Arabic to improve their communication skills rather than to learn about their heritage culture. In comparison to Muslim HLL, Arab HLLs perceived themselves more competent to achieve speaking proficiency than Muslim HLLs. Muslim HLLs desired to learn more about Islam and Islamic texts than Arab HLLs. The results o this study are discussed in light of classroom instruction and designing of curricula to match the needs of both groups of HLLs.

  14. Islam and the Arabs in the work of a Maronite scholar in the service of the Catholic church (Abraham Ecchellensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyberger, Bernard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As an expert in Arabic documents in the “Republic of Letters”, Abraham Ecchellensis devoted himself in his work to an attempt at synthesis that was characteristic of his time: he tried to reconcile contemporary scholars’ expectations of specialised knowledge both with his Catholic and controversialist commitments and with his status, in his role as a Maronite, as a spokesman for Arabic and even Muslim culture. Ecchellensis provided the public with translations of Arabic Muslim philosophical and scientific texts which he deemed to have drawn on universal “wisdom”. However, a disinterested curiosity concerning Islam could not be publicly advertised and had to be cloaked in the form of anti-Protestant controversy or Catholic apology. In the work of Ecchellensis this stance was accompanied by an expurgation of all Islamic terminology from the Arabic language and by a recourse to the Christian Arabic literature writen during the first centuries of the Hijra.

    [fr] Expert en documents arabes dans la « République des Lettres », Abraham Ecchellensis se livre dans son oeuvre à un essai de synthèse caractéristique de son temps : il tente de concillier l’attente de connaissances des savants de son temps avec son engagement catholique et controversiste, et avec son identification, en tant que maronite, comme porte-parole de la culture arabe, y compris musulmane. Il fournit au public des traductions de textes philosophiques et scientifiques arabes musulmans qui lui paraissent participer d’une « sagesse » universelle. Mais une curiosité désintéressée pour l’islam ne peut s’afficher : elle doit prendre les formes de la controverse anti-protestante ou de l’apologie catholique. Chez Ecchellensis cette posture s’accompagne d’une expurgation de toute terminologie islamique dans la langue arabe, et d’un recours à la littérature arabe chrétienne élaboré aux premiers siècles de l’Hégire.

  15. The identity and witness of Arab pre-Islamic Arab Christianity: The Arabic language and the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Grafton

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that Arab Christianity has had a unique place in the history of World Christianity. Rooted in a biblical witness, the origins and history of Arab Christianity have been largely forgotten or ignored. This is not primarily as a result of the fact that the Arab Christian historical legacy has been overcome by Islam. Rather, unlike other early Christian communities, the Bible was never translated into the vernacular of the Arabs. By the 7th century the language of the Qur’an became the primary standard of the Arabic language, which then became the written religious text of the Arabs. This article will explore the identity and witness of the Christian presence in Arabia and claims that the development of an Arabic Bible provides a unique counter-example to what most missiologists have assumed as the basis for the spread of the Christian faith as a result of the translation of the Christian scriptures into a vernacular.

  16. Gravity Analysis of the Jeffera Basin, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickus, K.; Gabtni, H.; Jallouli, C.

    2004-12-01

    Southern Tunisia consists of two main tectonic provinces: 1) the Saharan Platform and 2) the folded Atlasic domain, separated by the North Saharan Flexure. The Saharan Platform, which contains the Ghadames Basin and the Telemzane Arch, consists of gently dipping Paleozoic strata overlain by Triassic to Cretaceous sediments. The Atlasic domain consists of a thicker sequence of mainly Mesozoic and younger rock with less complete sequences of Paleozoic strata. Within the Atlasic domain are the still actively subsiding Chotts and Jeffera basins. The Jeffera basin, which occurs to the east of the Telemzane Arch contains at least eight kilometers of Paleozoic and younger sediment that were formed during numerous subsidence episodes since Carboniferous time. The Jeffera basin is dominated by tilted fault blocks that were formed during numerous tectonic episodes. Several unpublished seismic reflection profiles and well data exist for the Jeffera basin, however a deep structural analysis of the basin has not been published. We examined the existing gravity data in conjunction with available well and geologic data to determine structural features within the basin. The Bouguer gravity anomaly map shows that the Jeffera basin is dominated by a narrow northwest-trending gravity minimum. However, a more detailed analysis consisting of wavelength filtering and edge enhancements indicate that the structure of the basin is more complicated than indicated by the Bouguer gravity anomaly map. A residual gravity anomaly map indicates that the Jeffera basin consists of at least three and maybe four subbasins. Additionally, the Jeffera Fault marks the boundary between northwest-trending gravity anomalies to its northeast and east-trending anomalies over the Saharan Platform. The above observation is amplified by the construction of the enhanced horizontal derivatives (EHG) of both the complete Bouguer gravity and the residual gravity anomaly maps. The EHG maps highlight the lateral

  17. PROFESIONALISME DOSEN BAHASA ARAB DALAM PENGGUNAAN MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Hanifah

    2013-07-01

    Based on the importance of mastery the learning media for the teachers, and the importance of using media in learning, especially in Arabic learning. the author as lecturer of Arabic at the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science and also as a lecturer of arabic media learning at the Department of Arabic Education (PBA are interested to write and discuss about the professionalism of Arabic lecturer in the use of learning media, with the aim to develop the professionalism of Arabic lecturers while improving the quality of Arabic learning in the faculties of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science, especially in the department of Arabic Language Education, because this article contains the information about how to become a professional Arabic lecturer in selecting, creating and using various types of Arabic learning media.

  18. Capital Mobility: An application of Saving-Investment Link for Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhari Dahalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the degree of capital mobility in Tunisia for 1970 to 2009 period, using Feldstein and Horioka (1980 method of savings and investment comovement. We apply ARDL bound test to assess comovement between savings and investment; and to compute the savings retention ratio with FMOLS and DOLS as complements. The results reveal low capital mobility, in contrary to Maminingi (1997 who note perfect capital immobility in Tunisia. Hence, efforts should be made by authorities in Tunisia to evolve policies that will mobilize international capital into Tunisia

  19. Aeroballistic Parameters of Arab arrows On the Medieval Tract "Arab Archery"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas W. Mitiukov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With a helping of simple mathematical models there was analyzed the ballistic information of the Arab arrow on medieval Arabic treatise "Arab archery". It is shown that there were no any errors on the text and the translation was correct, then, apparently, Arabian heavy arrow had specific design and can no to be in one quiver with the light arrows. Regarding light arrows, then, apparently, they have the typical design with coefficient of drag function cx ≈ 2, and firing was carried out to a maximum range Arabic archer with an elevation angle about 10°.

  20. UNICEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learning after Hurricane Matthew Innovate for children U-Report Nigeria first country to reach 1 million responders Recent stories Working ... Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos ... ...

  1. A New Generation of Uprisings – from Tunisia to Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kurnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The uprising in Tunisia, the occupation of public squares in Spain, the Occupy Wall Street movement, the global uprising on 15 October 2011 and the recent widespread demonstrations in Slovenia can be understood as the new generation of uprisings following the eruption of financial crisis. Those multitudinal expressions of indignation and quests for real democracy are expressions of the irreversible crisis of neoliberalism and representative democracy. From an examination of the defining traits of uprisings from Tunisia to Slovenia, one can define basic theoretical and practical dilemmas in the new ways of doing political encounters. These include the relationship between the social and political dimensions of uprisings, the relationship between heterogeneity and forms of political organization, how resistance against financialization prefigures emerging forms of direct democracy, how emerging movements address the issue of direct democracy and minority rights, and what theoretical practices can prevent the attenuation of the discourse of uprisings and enable the free production of enunciations.

  2. Developing a New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Gridach, Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop the Arabic morphological automata. The proposed approach has development standardization aspect. It can be exploited by NLP applications such as syntactic and semantic analysis, information retrieval, machine translation and orthographical correction. The proposed approach is compared with Xerox Arabic Analyzer and Smrz Arabic Analyzer.

  3. The Phonetic Nature of Vowels in Modern Standard Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yahya Bani Salameh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the phonetic nature of vowels in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA. Although Arabic is a Semitic language, the speech sound system of Arabic is very comprehensive. Data used for this study were elicited from the standard speech of nine informants who are native speakers of Arabic. The researchers used themselves as informants, they also benefited from three other Jordanians and four educated Yemenis. Considering the alphabets as the written symbols used for transcribing the phones of actual pronunciation, it was found that the pronunciation of many Arabic sounds has gradually diverged from the standard.  The study also discussed several related issues including: The phonetic description of Arabic vowels, classification of Arabic vowels, types of Arabic vowels and distribution of Arabic vowels.

  4. Printed Arabic Character Recognition Using HMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas H.Hassin; Xiang-Long Tang; Jia-Feng Liu; Wei Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Language has a very rich vocabulary.More than 200 million people speak this language as their native speaking,and over 1 billion people use it in several religion-related activities.In this paper a new technique is presented for recognizing printed Arabic characters.After a word is segmented,each character/word is entirely transformed into a feature vector.The features of printed Arabic characters include strokes and bays in various directions,endpoints,intersection points,loops,dots and zigzags.The word skeleton is decomposed into a number of links in orthographic order,and then it is transferred into a sequence of symbols using vector quantization.Single hidden Markov model has been used for recognizing the printed Arabic characters.Experimental results show that the high recognition rate depends on the number of states in each sample.

  5. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  6. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation. PMID:15301318

  7. The Arab genome: Health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Hatem

    2016-11-01

    The 22 Arab nations have a unique genetic structure, which reflects both conserved and diverse gene pools due to the prevalent endogamous and consanguineous marriage culture and the long history of admixture among different ethnic subcultures descended from the Asian, European, and African continents. Human genome sequencing has enabled large-scale genomic studies of different populations and has become a powerful tool for studying disease predictions and diagnosis. Despite the importance of the Arab genome for better understanding the dynamics of the human genome, discovering rare genetic variations, and studying early human migration out of Africa, it is poorly represented in human genome databases, such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. In this review, I demonstrate the significance of sequencing the Arab genome and setting an Arab genome reference(s) for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of genetic diseases, discovering novel/rare variants, and identifying a meaningful genotype-phenotype correlation for complex diseases.

  8. Detection of Plagiarism in Arabic Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Bachir Menai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many language-sensitive tools for detecting plagiarism in natural language documents have been developed, particularly for English. Language-independent tools exist as well, but are considered restrictive as they usually do not take into account specific language features. Detecting plagiarism in Arabic documents is particularly a challenging task because of the complex linguistic structure of Arabic. In this paper, we present a plagiarism detection tool for comparison of Arabic documents to identify potential similarities. The tool is based on a new comparison algorithm that uses heuristics to compare suspect documents at different hierarchical levels to avoid unnecessary comparisons. We evaluate its performance in terms of precision and recall on a large data set of Arabic documents, and show its capability in identifying direct and sophisticated copying, such as sentence reordering and synonym substitution. We also demonstrate its advantages over other plagiarism detection tools, including Turnitin, the well-known language-independent tool.

  9. Syllable Structure in Rumthawi Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser N. AlBzour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating some phonological aspects of syllable structure in Rumthawi Arabic, a Levantine variety spoken in the northern region of Jordan. It basically sheds light on the OT constraint interaction that determines the surfacing onsets and codas of syllables in this dialect. The scope of this paper is more specifically confined to examining the optimal candidates that surface when the definite article morpheme is prefixed. It thus proves that OT constraints in RA interact in an interestingly distinctive way that triggers divergence and sometimes convergence with other dialects due to the parametrical ranking of these constraints in this dialect unlike some other dialects. It is hoped that this humble endeavor will give insight to many interested researchers to deeply investigate various phonological aspects of this dialect.Keywords: optimality, syllable structure, onset, coda, epenthesis, constraints, faithfulness, markedness

  10. The Macroeconomic Social Accounting Matrix of Tunisia in 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Haykel Hadj Salem

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows the characteristics of the macroeconomic Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) of Tunisia in 1996. It is established that the SAM is one of the data bases of the Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Models. These last years, the researchers have intensified the use of the SAM within the framework of the modelling of CGE within their work. The SAM is regarded as the general data base because it contains the whole relationship between the economic agents of a given economy, including ...

  11. Innovation in Tunisia: Empirical Analysis for Industrial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Moez El Elj

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article, is to analyze the effects of factors external and internal to the firms on innovation in Tunisia, and how these effects vary according some specificities of the firms, such as the opening of capital to foreign companies. The analysis is based on a sample of 543 manufacturing firms, taken from the Tunisian Survey of Technological Innovation conducted in 2005 by the Tunisian Ministry of Scientific Research, Technology and Skills Development. The results indicate that th...

  12. [Compulsory admission to hospital in Tunisia: a necessary evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, Faten; Lahmar, Aymen; Beji, Rami; Dridi, Anis; Fadhel M'rad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the legislation governing compulsory admission to hospital in Tunisia is interesting for two reasons. The country's 2011 revolution notably brought about major changes to the legislative framework, from constitutional through to ordinary laws. At the same time, the current trend for globalisation is also affecting legislation: international laws, treaties and UN charters are imposed on the laws of individual countries. This article looks at how Tunisian law governing compulsory admission to hospital has had to evolve. PMID:26143219

  13. Labor Market Dynamics in Tunisia: The Issue of Youth Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Stampini, Marco; Verdier-Chouchane, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of the youth labor market in Tunisia using unique labor force survey data from 2005 to 2007 that include a longitudinal component. It first shows that sustained economic growth will reduce youth unemployment over the next few years. Second, forecasts indicate that the growth of private sector services has the highest potential to reduce youth unemployment. Third, the analysis of labor market characteristics reveals that young graduates experience long unemploy...

  14. Water chemistry characteristics in small reservoirs of semiarid Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaingomanana, Nathalie

    1999-01-01

    The variation of water quality in 24 small reservoirs of semiarid Tunisia was studied in relation to catchment and hydrological context duing two successive and contrasting hydrological years. Measured salinities generally satisfied the various uses. Three geochemical groups were identified based on the water quality during the inflow period. Calcium sulphate water types charachterize reservoirs located in Zeroud and Merguellil catchments. They have the greatest dissolved salt contents and an...

  15. Water chemistry of small reservoir catchments in central Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Montoroi, Jean-Pierre; GRUNBERGER, OLIVIER; Nasri, S

    1999-01-01

    Numerous small hill reservoirs have been constructed in Tunisia since the early 1990's. The water chemistry of a representative small reservoir catchment was investigated to elucidate water-soil-rock interactions. The groundwater and surface water of the calcareous and marly watershed were characterizes by field chemical investigations and pedological observations. The reservoir water was alkaline, with a low concentration, highly oxygenated and weakly carbonated while the groundwater was neu...

  16. [Compulsory admission to hospital in Tunisia: a necessary evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, Faten; Lahmar, Aymen; Beji, Rami; Dridi, Anis; Fadhel M'rad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the legislation governing compulsory admission to hospital in Tunisia is interesting for two reasons. The country's 2011 revolution notably brought about major changes to the legislative framework, from constitutional through to ordinary laws. At the same time, the current trend for globalisation is also affecting legislation: international laws, treaties and UN charters are imposed on the laws of individual countries. This article looks at how Tunisian law governing compulsory admission to hospital has had to evolve.

  17. STRATEGI PENGELOLAAN KOMPONEN PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    OpenAIRE

    Fathur Rohman

    2014-01-01

    In the field of education, teaching management is one of the most important parts to ensure the success and the effectiveness of teaching. This article aims to describe the application of teaching management in the field of Arabic language teaching. The results presented in this article is that there are some aspects that need to manage in the field of teaching Arabic language, those are: curriculum, teaching materials, students, teachers, evaluation, teaching methods, and teaching purposes.

  18. Autosomal recessive diseases among Palestinian Arabs.

    OpenAIRE

    Zlotogora, J

    1997-01-01

    As a consequence of the high consanguinity rate among the Palestinian Arabs, many recessive disorders are present with a relatively high frequency. In a survey of 2000 different Palestinian Arab families who visited our genetic clinic, in 601 an autosomal recessive disease was diagnosed or strongly suspected. The distribution of these disorders was not uniform and some disorders, such as Krabbe disease, were found at high frequency in only a small part of the population. For some other disord...

  19. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S. Hadla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human evaluation of machine translation (MT systems is better than the automatic evaluation, but it is not feasible to be used. The distance or similarity of MT candidate output to a set of reference translations are used by many MT evaluation approaches. This study presents a comparison of effectiveness of two free online machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system to translate Arabic to English. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method. BLEU is used to evaluate translation quality of two free online machine translation systems under consideration. A corpus consists of more than 1000 Arabic sentences with two reference English translations for each Arabic sentence is used in this study. This corpus of Arabic sentences and their English translations consists of 4169 Arabic words, where the number of unique Arabic words is 2539. This corpus is released online to be used by researchers. These Arabic sentences are distributed among four basic sentence functions (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. The experimental results show that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from Arabic to English.

  20. Digital Arabs : Representation in video games

    OpenAIRE

    Šisler, Vít

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article presents the ways in which Muslims and Arabs are represented and represent themselves in video games. First, it analyses how various genres of European and American video games have constructed the Arab or Muslim Other. Within these games, it demonstrates how the diverse ethnic and religious identities of the Islamic world have been flattened out and reconstructed into a series of soci...

  1. An Arabic framework for dyslexia training tools

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rowais, Fadwa; Wald, Mike; Wills, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Language features and cultural factors play key roles in the difficulties associated with dyslexia. Thus, addressing the combination of these elements is essential to obtain better coverage of dyslexia issues and a deeper understanding of the needs of Arabic speakers with dyslexia. There is a great deal of progress yet to be achieved in the area of Arabic dyslexia, as little is published about manifestation of dyslexia in this language. This paper presents a framework to integrate the linguis...

  2. Politics and Arab women mobilization in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élisabeth Marteu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Divided between a Palestinian identity, largely proclaimed, and a gender consciousness, currently in the process of being reformulated, the political citizenship of Arab or Palestinian women citizens of Israel must be apprehended by taking into consideration this double referent of identity. The process of formation of a “gendered” identity in this ethnic minority, already torn between an Israeli citizenship and an Arab nationality, must not be underestimated. Constituting today nearly 18 % o...

  3. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  4. The lithostratigraphy of Miocene series from Tunisia, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannaï-Tayech, Beya

    2009-06-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the Miocene is a rather particular tectonic, eustatic and climatic epoch. In Tunisia, the complex distribution of the sedimentary sequences has been controlled by the interaction of these factors. These sequences are composed mostly of silici-clastic packages filling usually rim-syncline, graben and half-graben basins. In the absence of a solid biostratigraphic framework, the dating and correlation of certain formations are not yet clearly perceived. In spite of the availability of some elements of dating (planktonic foraminifera, vertebrates), the solution remains as a whole unclear. The question thus remains as to the significance of the frequency and occurrence of discontinuities, and consequently of those hiatuses between Miocene Formations. Thus, in the light of the recent palynologic, sedimentological and vertebrate biostratigraphical data, a new reading of the paleogeography and paleoenvironment of the Miocene from Tunisia is essential. In this work, the results of multi-field studies supported by the compilation of the literature, enable sensible discussion of the proposed ages, analyze the depositional environments, and concomitantly support correlations between the Miocene Formations recognized to the South-East of the Eastern Dorsale of Tunisia. It is demonstrated that the Beglia and Saouaf Formations are partially equivalent rather than being superposed, as it has been previously surmised. A new, marine formation, the "Kef Ettir Formation", is also proposed.

  5. The Challenge of Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Ghannem, MD, MSc

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic disease, and particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD, is the major cause of death in most developed countries, despite the downward trend observed during the last three decades. Although CVD is emerging in developing countries, little is known there about comprehensive preventive measures for controlling its expansion.The health care system in Tunisia faces the challenge of increasing rates of CVD risk factors. Epidemiologic studies show high levels of CVD risk factors among Tunisian adults and children. Evidence shows that several risk factors and conditions are commonly associated with major chronic diseases. Integrated actions against selected risk factors (i.e., smoking, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, implemented within the social context, can lead to the reduction of major chronic diseases. These interventions should take place early in childhood.In Tunisia, a much-needed community-based intervention program to control CVD is being planned. This program will promote healthy living, smoke-free air, healthy nutrition, regular physical activity, and supportive living and working environments. Its ultimate goal is to reduce the burden of CVD and its related behaviors. A description of this program and how it will be implemented and assessed in the region of Sousse, Tunisia, is presented.

  6. Asymmetric central bank preferences and inflation rate in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen KOBBI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article fits into the new strand of literature related to the asymmetric central bank preferences and its effect on the inflation dynamic. In reality, the central banker preferences are more likely to be asymmetric. Central banker can be, for various reasons, more averse toward deviations from target with one sign more than deviations from target with the other sign. The interaction of asymmetric central bank preferences with uncertainty arising from the volatility of inflation and output may affect the inflation movements. This paper aims to check the hypothesis that asymmetric central bank preferences are able to explain inflation rate for the case of Tunisia and to understand Central Bank of Tunisia preferences toward inflation rate and output during the period ranging from 1993 to 2010. We refer to a standard monetary model that includes asymmetric loss function and a linear supply curve which acts as a constraint on the central bank behavior. The results show that the inflation rate depends on the output gap and on the conditional variance of inflation and provide evidence for asymmetric central bank preferences. The Central Bank of Tunisia seems to be more averse to high inflation which is consistent with its ultimate goal explicitly announced to preserve price stability.

  7. Arab Americans in Literature and the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Banerjee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hollywood has a long history of stereotyping the Arab. From The Cafe in Cairo to The Siege, this Arab – invariably male – figures as the religious fundamentalist who sees in terrorism the only way to spread Islam over the entire globe. Having said this, this is not to argue either that Hollywood is ideologically corrupt, or that Arab (Americans are the only ethnic group stereotyped in Hollywood's cultural imagination. Yet while Hollywood’s Orientalism, which is actually based on a fascination with ancient Middle Eastern heritage, reflects a stereotypical depiction of everything Arab, Arab American literature can be seen as the other side of this projection or stereotype. Where Hollywood dramatizes, through the busting of ancient statues for the cause of terrorism, the Arab's disregard for his own culture, novels such as Khaled Hosseini's The Kite Runner and Nada Awar Jarrar's Somewhere, Home set out to preserve precisely a distinct cultural heritage, and go on to celebrate the contemporaneity and complexity of diasporic Afghan and Lebanese experience.

  8. Orientalis dan Peranannya dalam Mempelajari Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustiar Agustiar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientalisme is a knowledge about easterners which is important to we know. Because beside positive values consisting in it also there are negative values. That negative values represent noxious poison in effort paralyse Islam with understanding able to be groggy of clan belief in God of muslimin to al-Qur’an, Rasul, apocalypse and others. Clan of orientalis in general consist of people of Nasrani and Jew having hand in glove with Christian missionary mission and also colonist. They investigate and collect science coming eastward with various target and motiv which they wish. Even among all orientalis in its importance study Arab language there is with aim to be negative that is for the destroy of association of Islam, but there is also with aim to be positive that is devoted x’self solely for science by bearing its masterpieces in Arab language area and its literature. A lot of easting books written by clan of orientalis particularly about Islam concerning with problem of Alqur’an, Al- Hadist , Tarekh and Culture of Islam, Islam law and others. To investigate science above, Arab language is as especial bridge for them. The language of Arab which in advance they study to disclose the sciences to Europe language like Latin language, English, French, Germany , Dutch and others. Their ability study Arab language, making they ready to translate into their language and also write books in Arab language.

  9. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF HIJAB CONCEPT IN ARAB HOUSE PASAR KLIWON SURAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Ria Hapsari Putri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The research was motivated by the existence of the Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon which is a heteroginity settlement, composed of Arab,   Javanese and Chinese with the Arab community is larger than the Chinese community. The multicultural life happens at Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon  will directly affect the process of inter-ethnic interaction. Islam is a way of life in the Arab culture. The house of arab is an islamic architecture product which applies hijab and estimate...

  11. Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Bou-Habib, Chadi; Kebede, Ephraim

    2016-01-01

    The high level of exports and their product and market concentration exposes the Democratic Republic of Congo to the economic fluctuations of the country's trade partners. This paper uses the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development trade data set to analyze the Democratic Republic of Congo's export patterns for the period 1960-2014. The data confirm that the country's exports re...

  12. ARABIC PROGRAM ON COT KALA LANGSA STREAMING RADIO SEBAGAI STRATEGI BARU PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiauddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language means learn to communicate. The goal of learning Arabic by using communicative approach is to stimulate the student to be able to master both receptive and productive skill. Receptive skills includes listening and reading skill, while productive skills includes speaking and writing skills. The objective of this study is to describe the streaming radio as a strategy in Arabic learning for the student of Arabic Department at Cot Kala Langsa State Islamic Institute. The result at the study shows that the streaming radio strategy gives a good response in conducting the Arabic class. Means that streaming radio can enhance the quality of teaching and learning Arabic at this institute.

  13. Arab gene geography: From population diversities to personalized medical genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmouri, Ghazi O.; Sastry, Konduru S.; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic disorders are not equally distributed over the geography of the Arab region. While a number of disorders have a wide geographical presence encompassing 10 or more Arab countries, almost half of these disorders occur in a single Arab country or population. Nearly, one-third of the genetic disorders in Arabs result from congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, which are also responsible for a significant proportion of neonatal and perinatal deaths in Arab populations. Strikingly, about two-thirds of these diseases in Arab patients follow an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. High fertility rates together with increased consanguineous marriages, generally noticed in Arab populations, tend to increase the rates of genetic and congenital abnormalities. Many of the nearly 500 genes studied in Arab people revealed striking spectra of heterogeneity with many novel and rare mutations causing large arrays of clinical outcomes. In this review we provided an overview of Arab gene geography, and various genetic abnormalities in Arab populations, including disorders of blood, metabolic, circulatory and neoplasm, and also discussed their associated molecules or genes responsible for the cause of these disorders. Although studying Arab-specific genetic disorders resulted in a high value knowledge base, approximately 35% of genetic diseases in Arabs do not have a defined molecular etiology. This is a clear indication that comprehensive research is required in this area to understand the molecular pathologies causing diseases in Arab populations. PMID:25780794

  14. Does Financial Development Increase Energy Consumption? Role of Industrialization and Urbanization in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Shahbaz; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship among energy consumption, financial development, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia from 1971-2008. The autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests are employed for the analysis. The result confirms the existence of long-run relationship between energy consumption, economic growth, financial development, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia. Moreover, financial dev...

  15. Joint Arab project for building of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently many Arab countries have expressed their interest in adopting nuclear power for electricity generation and seawater desalination in their energy strategies and hence sought assistance from IAEA and Arab Atomic Energy Agency. The Council of the League of Arab States at the summit level encouraged member states to develop peaceful use of atomic energy in different aspects of development, especially in energy generation and to establish a cooperative Arab program in this field. The burden of infrastructure can be reduced significantly if an Arab country forms a sharing partnership with other Arab countries. The sharing can be between two or more Arab states. It can include physical facilities, common programmes and knowledge, which will reflect in economic benefits. The sharing can also contribute in a significant manner to harmonization of codes and standards in general and regulatory framework in particular. This article outlines the major direct benefits of joint nuclear Arab programme to build a Nuclear Power Plants. (author)

  16. UTILIZATION OF GUM ARABIC FOR INDUSTRIES AND HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Eqbal Dauqan; Aminah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Gum Arabic, a natural polysaccharide derived from exudates of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees, is a commonly used food hydrocolloid. The highlight of this study was to review the utilization of gum Arabic for industries and human health. Gum Arabic has a unique combination of excellent emulsifying properties and low solution viscosity. These properties make gum Arabic very useful in several industries but especially in the food industry where it is used as a flavor and stabilizer of cit...

  17. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

    OpenAIRE

    Fachrizal Halim

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual Historyis written as a self-criticism addressed to Arab and Muslim intellectuals, especially those who reside in the West. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education. The liberalization of U.S. immigration laws in 1965 for non-European immigrants has ...

  18. Aux marges du monde arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des migrations contemporaines des Érythréens vers le Yémen au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix permet d’observer les transformations des dynamiques régionales à l’œuvre dans le monde arabe. Les migrations sont un phénomène sensible aux différents aspects (politiques, économiques, culturels, géographiques de l’intégration régionale. Celle si est envisagée dans cet article à travers une approche doublement marginale : -la marginalité géographique de l’Érythrée arabo-africaine et du Yémen, économi­quement isolé dans la péninsule Arabique, -l’étude des migrations formelles et informelles, élément souvent marginal dans l’étude des institutions et des échanges qui constituent un système régional intégré. Cette étude est fondée sur une série d’entretiens menés au Yémen entre février et avril 2002 auprès des administrations yéménites et de la population érythréenne.

  19. Water Security in Arab Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water scarcity issues are critical to all Nations and always been discussed at the highest levels of dialogue in organizations and governmental and international bodies. Saving water constitutes the centerpiece of most contemporary societies, given the increasing in population and scarcity of water year after year, in addition to climate change such as drought and desertification and increasing environmental pollution. All of this may lead in the future to war. Water resources has become one of the biggest challenges for future plans of the world in general and Arab region in particular. Although the volume of water on earth is estimated at about 1.5 billion cubic kilometers, but most of it (97%) is salt water found in oceans, seas and lakes . Only 3% fresh water is distributed in a manner not in conformity with the requirements of our needs. This study aims to use environmental and radioactive isotope technology to identify sources of groundwater wells and also use modern mathematical models to determine the ages of these sources. All of this leads to develop a complete and integrated system to keep the sources from depletion or pollution and develop optimal strategies for water system in desert and semi-desert States. (author)

  20. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ali Mahmoud T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity.

  1. Faculty research productivity in six Arab countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George

    2015-10-01

    This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The study revealed a lack of capacity of HEIs to provide quality data, raising issues concerning institutional excellence and transparency. Those data which were available were analysed using a number of statistical methods. The result is that faculty research output in the Arab world is relatively low, confirming the existing notion of a lagging knowledge sector in the region. While traditional scholarship has focused on institutional factors such as budgetary allocation as one prime determinant of research productivity, this study claims that other factors need to be considered in explaining the low output, with broad implications for policy formulation. Such factors include overall satisfaction levels of academic staff, socialisation of faculty staff members into a research climate, and university mission vis-à-vis academic research. Given the distinct paucity of studies on faculty research productivity in HEIs in the Arab region, this study seeks to bridge this gap in the literature by providing original data derived from six Arab countries. The authors aim to provide a basis for further research into this topic.

  2. Cross-Language Phonetic Interference: Arabic to English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, James Emil; Port, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Compares phonetic implementation of the stop-voicing contrast produced in Arabic by Saudi Arabians and by both Americans and Saudis in English. Saudis used temporal aspects of voicing in Arabic while speaking English. This caused few communication problems, with the exception of the phoneme (p), which has no Arabic counterpart. (Author/PJM)

  3. Development and Evaluation of the Arabic Filial Piety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the validity and reliability of a new Arabic Filial Piety scale (AFPS) for use with informal Arab caregivers. Background: Filial piety, a term used to describe a set of family values in relation to parental care. This is the first measure of this construct for use with Arab populations in Israel. Method: A random sample of…

  4. An Arabic creole in Africa : the Nubi language of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellens, Inneke Hilda Werner

    2003-01-01

    At present, about 25,000 Nubi live scattered over the towns of Uganda and Kenya. Their language, Nubi, has been called an Arabic creole. Nubi is Arabic, since about 90% of its vocabulary is of Arabic nature. It is termed a creole, since many of its structural and developmental features resemble thos

  5. The Internationalization of the Business Administration Curricula in Arab Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Abdel-Rahman

    2006-01-01

    This is a study of the extent of the internationalization of the business administration curricula in Arab universities. It is based on a survey of 110 Arab colleges of business that comprise more than half of the overall population, 35% of whom responded. The study found that Arab colleges of business appear to be only moderately…

  6. The Linguistic Affiliation Constraint and Phoneme Recognition in Diglossic Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Levin, Iris; Hende, Nareman; Ziv, Margalit

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the phoneme's linguistic affiliation (Standard Arabic versus Spoken Arabic) on phoneme recognition among five-year-old Arabic native speaking kindergarteners (N=60). Using a picture selection task of words beginning with the same phoneme, and through careful manipulation of the phonological properties of target…

  7. Role of Information Technology in Digitizing Arabic Manuscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Hafizy Zohayr

    2007-01-01

    A research about using the information technology tools in digitizing the Arabic manuscripts; it begins with a brief history about the Arabic manuscripts; then it discusses using automation systems in manuscripts processing, then it shows the Arab experiments in digitizing manuscripts in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, and finally talks about requirements of digitizing process.

  8. The Intonation of Topic and Focus: Zaar (Nigeria), Tamasheq (Niger), Juba Arabic (South Sudan) and Tripoli Arabic (Libya)

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Bernard; Lux, Cécile; Manfredi, Stefano; Pereira, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    International audience A follow-up of the CorpAfroAs project, this paper presents a typologically-oriented study of the intonation of Topic and Focus in four Afroasiatic languages (Zaar, Tamasheq, Juba Arabic and Tripoli Arabic), in relation to their phonological and information structures. The different prosodic systems represented in the study - i.e. the demarcative accent system of Berber, the lexical stress system of Tripoli Arabic; the pitch accent system of Juba Arabic; and the tone ...

  9. Studying Arabic as a foreign/second language together with Arab Heritage Language Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhahir, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article reports on my study of the sociocultural-interactive Strategies (SCISs) used by a mixed group of learners of Arabic at University of Southern Denmark (SDU). The group consists of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (FLLs) and Arab Heritage Language Learners (AHLLs). FLLs...... questionnaire and qualitative (interviews). The major findings of the study was that the group follows the general patterns of SCISs, to ask, cooperate and communicate, and that AHLLs’ presence only partially increases and promotes the opportunities of sociocultural interaction in the learning environment....

  10. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  11. Fault detection system for Arabic language

    CERN Document Server

    Amraoui, Houda

    2012-01-01

    The study of natural language, especially Arabic, and mechanisms for the implementation of automatic processing is a fascinating field of study, with various potential applications. The importance of tools for natural language processing is materialized by the need to have applications that can effectively treat the vast mass of information available nowadays on electronic forms. Among these tools, mainly driven by the necessity of a fast writing in alignment to the actual daily life speed, our interest is on the writing auditors. The morphological and syntactic properties of Arabic make it a difficult language to master, and explain the lack in the processing tools for that language. Among these properties, we can mention: the complex structure of the Arabic word, the agglutinative nature, lack of vocalization, the segmentation of the text, the linguistic richness, etc.

  12. Writing arabic numerals in an agraphic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delazer, M; Denes, G

    1998-09-01

    We report on the writing of Arabic numerals in a patient whose alphabetical script was restricted to graphemic jargon (Schonauer & Denes, 1994). The analysis of writing errors in Arabic script over three testing sessions (4, 10, and 13 months after stroke) confirmed the separate processing of syntactic and lexical information in number production proposed by current models. The changing error pattern over time reflected some difficulties observed in developmental studies on the acquisition of Arabic numeral writing. Errors were mostly of the syntactic type and (at a certain stage) were based on the verbal form of the numerals. As reported in neuropsychological (Noel & Seron, 1995) and developmental (Power & Dal Martello, 1990; Seron & Fayol, 1994) studies, sum relations were more difficult to transcode than product relations within complex numerals. PMID:9710492

  13. Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Zaki Abdo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition (ArANSLR. It facilitates the communication between the deaf and normal people by recognizing the alphabet and numbers signs of Arabic sign language to text or speech. To achieve this target, the system able to visually recognize gestures from hand image input. The proposed algorithm uses hand geometry and the different shape of a hand in each sign for classifying letters shape by using Hidden Markov Model (HMM. Experiments on real-world datasets showed that the proposed algorithm for Arabic alphabet and numbers sign language recognition is suitability and reliability compared with other competitive algorithms. The experiment results show that the increasing of the gesture recognition rate depends on the increasing of the number of zones by dividing the rectangle surrounding the hand.

  14. Analysis of the Decomposition of Energy Intensity in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Ben Hammamia; Ahlem Dakhlaoui; Abdessalem Abbassi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are interested in the analysis of energy intensity by the Fisher Ideal Index method, a method belonging to the approach of the Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), in order to highlight the effectswhich contribute to its reduction. The use of this method allowed us to decompose the variation of energy intensity in Tunisia for the period 1990-2008 into two effects: one effect due to the structural change of the economy and another arising from energy efficiency. We show that...

  15. Citizenship and migration in Arab Gulf monarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sater, J.

    2014-01-01

    , whereas fear and security concerns are often embedded in more populist debates. In the Arab Gulf region, as in many other regions, such as East Asia, this debate has taken distinctively different shapes, partially because the concept of citizenship remains a contested notion not just with regard to...... migrants, but also with regard to local populations. In addition to the contested nature of citizenship, migrants' lack of citizenship rights fulfils distinctive functions in what Saskia Sassen calls 'global cities'. This concept links the Arab world with a new phenomenon of globalized migration in which...

  16. Arabic Interface Analysis Based on Cultural Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Akheela Khanum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the Arabic interface design elements that are largely influenced by the cultural values. Cultural markers are examined in websites from educational, business, and media. Cultural values analysis is based on Geert Hofstedes cultural dimensions. The findings show that there are cultural markers which are largely influenced by the culture and that the Hofstedes score for Arab countries is partially supported by the website design components examined in this study. Moderate support was also found for the long term orientation, for which Hoftsede has no score.

  17. Arab space in the geopolitical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is analysing the geopolitical structure and dynamics of Arab space. Based on structural analysis of social, political, cultural and spatial changes the key-problems and geopolitical features are recognized. Arab space is – more or less – the largest ‘shatter belt’ known by contemporary crises and similar processes in the near past. These are caused by inner and, even more, by outer geopolitical factors in the large regional surrounding. The western economic and military forces are perhaps loosing the role of key-factor in the area. In the near future, Asiatic powers might play a dominant role.

  18. Arabic Interface Analysis Based on Cultural Markers

    CERN Document Server

    Khanum, Mohammadi Akheela; Chaurasia, Mousmi A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the Arabic interface design elements that are largely influenced by the cultural values. Cultural markers are examined in websites from educational, business, and media. Cultural values analysis is based on Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The findings show that there are cultural markers which are largely influenced by the culture and that the Hofstede's score for Arab countries is partially supported by the website design components examined in this study. Moderate support was also found for the long term orientation, for which Hoftsede has no score.

  19. Epidemiology of headache in Arab countries

    OpenAIRE

    Benamer, Hani T. S.; Deleu, Dirk; Grosset, Donald

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of headache in Arab countries was systematically reviewed through Medline identification of four papers reporting headache prevalence in the Arab nations of Qatar, Saudi Arabia (2 papers) and Oman. The prevalence of headache varied from 8 to 12% in Saudi Arabia to 72.5% in Qatar and 83.6% in Oman. Headache was commoner in females and younger people. The prevalence of tension headache was 3.1–9.5% in Saudi Arabia and the 1-year prevalence in Qatar was 11.2%. The migraine preva...

  20. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrizal Halim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual Historyis written as a self-criticism addressed to Arab and Muslim intellectuals, especially those who reside in the West. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education. The liberalization of U.S. immigration laws in 1965 for non-European immigrants has even enlarged the number of Arabs and Muslims who have trained in the best institutions in the U.S. By the dawn of the twentieth century, the number of Arab intellectuals who reside in the West is estimated to double, as the result of the emergence of a second generation. However, the large number of educated Arab people does not always fulfill the promise of transformation of the social conditions of the Arab World. Far from being ‘organic intellectuals’, to use Gramsci’s favorite term, who would transform Arab societies from imperialism and Western hegemony, and the impact of dependency on the so called ‘globalization,’ most Arab thinkers in the West as well as the elite in the Arab world have been party to Western capitalist interests which aim to control the Arab World. By no means denigrating the works of Isma‘il Raji al-Faruqi, Edward Said, Ghada Hashem Talhami, Halim Barakat, or the feminist Leila Ahmad, to mention some brilliant Arab intellectuals, most Arab thinkers in the West seem to have forgotten the social conditions of the Arab world that have been in acute crisis since the mid nineteenth century or from the time colonialism stepped into the Arab world. Pseudo modernization—to say that there has never been any modernization as it emerged from the middle class as in Europe, but was initiated mainly by the elites—has kept Arab intellectuals in the West completely in the dark and unable to offer radical solution to the crises of

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF HIJAB CONCEPT IN ARAB HOUSE PASAR KLIWON SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Hapsari Putri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was motivated by the existence of the Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon which is a heteroginity settlement, composed of Arab,   Javanese and Chinese with the Arab community is larger than the Chinese community. The multicultural life happens at Arab settlement in Pasar Kliwon  will directly affect the process of inter-ethnic interaction. Islam is a way of life in the Arab culture. The house of arab is an islamic architecture product which applies hijab and estimated retained. Therefore, in this study will be assessed the extent of the implementation of the hijab in Arab house in Pasar Kliwon. This study used the rationalistic paradigm and purposive sampling method of data collection which Arab house aged over 50 years. Analysis of the data using the parameters: (1 the physical hijab is permanent physical elements (walls, doors, windows and mashrabbiya and non permanent physical elements (furniture and plants and (2 non physical hijab is non physical elements (behavioral or user activity .The results showed that the concept of hijab in Arab house in Pasar Kliwon is symbolized by: (1 the physical hijab is spatial zone that separates public and private space, and (2 non physical hijab is behavior or etiquette of visiting the implementing Islamic culture. Keywords:  : islamic architecture, arab house, hijab     Abstrak Penelitian ini dimotivasi oleh kehadiran perkampungan Arab di Pasar Kliwon yang merupakan permukiman yang heterogen, terdiri dari Arab, Jawa, dan Cina dengan komunitas Arab lebih besar daripada komunitas Cina. Kehidupan multikultural yang terjadi di permukiman Arab di Pasar Kliwon akan secara langsung mempengaruhi proses  interaksi  antar  etnis.  Islam  merupakan  jalan  hidup  budaya Arab.  Rumah Arab  merupakan  produk arsitektur Islam yang mengaplikasikan hijab dan perhitungan pertahanan. Karena itulah dalam tulisan ini akan diperkirakan luasnya implementasi hijab pada rumah Arab di Pasar

  2. Perbandingan Kualitas Buku Teks Bahasa Arab Tingkat Madrasah Tsanawiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Syamsul Ma’arif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing good Arabic textbooks determines the quality of Arabic learning in the classroom . This paper aims to identify and compare the quality of the Arabic language text books at Islamic junior high school levelsseen from the aspect of content, presentation , language and graphic . The object of research is the book of D Hidayat, Maman Abdul Djalil and A. Syaekhuddin and Hasan Saefullah . The results showed that all three of the Arabic language textbooks have advantages and disadvantages . In general, the Arabic text book work of A. Syaekhuddin and Hasan Saefullah is better than the other two books

  3. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in Egypt and the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Karimat

    2009-03-01

    Until the end of the 19th Century Science was not classified into different disciplines. The first woman named in the history of science was Merit Ptah (2700 BC) in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. In the new Egypt the first girl's school started in Cairo in 1873 and the first University in 1908. Only a few girls attended the University at that time, mainly studying the humanities. The first Egyptian woman physicist graduated in 1940 and received her PhD in nuclear physics in the USA. Nowadays the number of women in physics is increasing in all branches of physics, some of them are senior managers and others have been decorated with various prizes. In this talk some statistics will be given to show the percentage of women in physics in relation to other fields of science in Egypt. In Saudi Arabia the first girls' school started in 1964 and the first college for women, which was a section of King Abdul-Aziz University (where education is not mixed), started in 1975. I was the founder of the Physics Department of this women's section. Egyptians have played significant roles in teaching schoolchildren and university students of both sexes in all the Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Kuwait, Yemen, the Gulf States, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. But with respect to Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, our role was limited, since classes are taught in French. Arab women living in the countries located east of Egypt still have many difficulties facing them, needing to overcome many technical, academic, and social problems, while women in the countries located west of Egypt have fewer problems. There were many problems in the early days of education in Egypt but the women of Egypt worked hard to gain the same rights as men and were able to pave the way for all Arab women. I myself met many difficulties in my early days. This talk will also describe the impact of the regional conference on Women in Physics in Africa and Middle East, which was held in Cairo in 2007.

  4. GUADALUPIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM DJEBEL TEBAGA DE MEDENINE, SOUTH TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINCENZO VERNA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a Guadalupian brachiopod fauna from units III to V of the shallow water carbonate succession cropping out at Djebel Tebaga de Medenine, South Tunisia. The fauna comprises 29 taxa of the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida and Terebratulida, whose distribution is consistent with the Wordian-Capitanian age suggested by the associated fusulinids and conodonts. Most of the brachiopod taxa are pedicle attached genera or cemented ones and thus were permanently attached, and only two were free living concavo-convex semi-infaunal genera; this indicates that they were mostly living in high energy environmental settings, where the settling strategies require firm attachment to the substrate at shallow depth under the influence of fair-weather waves. The brachiopods from South Tunisia are very similar to the fauna from the allochthonous limestones of Pietra di Salomone, Rupe del Passo di Burgio and Rocca di San Benedetto of Sosio Valley, Sicily, Italy, a fauna which is also dominated by cemented and pediculate taxa. Both regions were located at palaeoequatorial latitudes in the western termination of the Tethyan Gulf during Middle Permian time. 

  5. PTS Infrasound portable array in Tunisia: Deployment and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallel, Mohamed; Khemiri, Lotfi; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Pichon, Alexis; Vergoz, Julien

    2014-05-01

    Within the scope of a scientific collaboration between the Tunisian NDC and the PTS an infrasound portable array (I66TN) were deployed in Tunisia for 6 Months starting from 15th of May 2013 till 15th of November 2013. The 4 sites of the portable array were installed in the mountain ranges surrounding the city of Aïn Draham in northwest of Tunisia with an aperture of about 1KM. The installation was done by Dr. Pierrick Mialle, a representative from the PTS, together with a team from the Tunisian NDC. Data retrieval is performed by the Tunisian NDC team on a periodic basis. The Data recorded by I66TN and the data recorded by the IMS Infrasound Station I48TN during the same period were processed. A bulletin of the fusion of the data of the two stations was created with the support of the French NDC. In this poster, we will present the different steps of the deployment of the station I66TN and show the results of the data processing and data fusion.

  6. State and prospects of food irradiation in tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunisia is a country with a high vocational agricultural orientation. It continues to promote production and gives incentives to construct storage and processing installations in order to meet the food demand of the growing population. This policy is part of a global development program aimed at reaching a food security system. This system is based not only on increasing production but also on the improvement of the storage and processing capacities existing in the country, whether modern or traditional, taking in consideration the food commodities and the region concerned. Food preservation by irradiation is an alternative to improve and reinforce our food security system, since it is considered as a way to protect commodities from spoilages and also to promote shelf life and improve hygienic qualities. The products which are concerned by decreasing losses are mainly potatoes, onions garlic, dates, nuts, etc. Hygiene improvement will concern poultry products for our growing tourist business. And, shelf extension concerns our exports of sea product to the european community. Within this scope the government of tunisia has submitted a proposal to install a pilot unit to carry out preliminary work toward the introduction of an industrial unit. The international atomic energy agency has accepted the proposal and is looking for funds for the implementation. The government has recently pledged 60.000 tunisian dinars to do the required engineering studies of the unit. 4 tabs

  7. On the Theoretical Problematic of Arabic Physical Science or why did Arabic Science Fail to Achieve the Copernican Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Ghassib

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Hegelianized version of Althusser’s concept of problematic is used to investigate the underlying theoretical unity and structure of Arabic physical science (physics, astronomy and chemistry. A contradictory triad (associated with Platonism, Aristotelianism and Ptolemaism is identified at the heart of the Arabic project for physical science. This article focuses on the valiant attempts made by leading Arabic scientists to overcome these contradictions without transcending or tearing apart the prevailing problematic. The following question is then addressed: why was Arabic physical science reformist, rather than revolutionary, unlike Renaissance European physical science? An answer is proposed in terms of the history, nature and decline of Arabic rationalism.

  8. On The Theoretical Problematic of Arabic Physical Science Or Why Did Arabic Science Fail To Achieve The Copernican Revolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Ghassib, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    A Hegelian version of the concept of problematic is used to investigate the underlying theoretical unity and structure of Arabic physical science (physics, astronomy and chemistry). A contradictory triad (associated with Platonism, Aristotelian philosophy and Ptolemaic science) is identified at the heart of the Arabic project for physical science. The paper focuses on the valiant attempts made by leading Arabic scientists to overcome these contradictions without transcending or tearing apart the prevailing problematic. The following question is then addressed: why was Arabic physical science reformist, rather than revolutionary, unlike Renaissance European physical science? An answer is proposed in terms of the history, nature and decline of Arabic rationalism.

  9. Automatic Arabic Hand Written Text Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Jannoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the decent development of the pattern recognition science applications in the last decade of the twentieth century and this century, text recognition remains one of the most important problems in pattern recognition. To the best of our knowledge, little work has been done in the area of Arabic text recognition compared with those for Latin, Chins and Japanese text. The main difficulty encountered when dealing with Arabic text is the cursive nature of Arabic writing in both printed and handwritten forms. An Automatic Arabic Hand-Written Text Recognition (AHTR System is proposed. An efficient segmentation stage is required in order to divide a cursive word or sub-word into its constituting characters. After a word has been extracted from the scanned image, it is thinned and its base line is calculated by analysis of horizontal density histogram. The pattern is then followed through the base line and the segmentation points are detected. Thus after the segmentation stage, the cursive word is represented by a sequence of isolated characters. The recognition problem thus reduces to that of classifying each character. A set of features extracted from each individual characters. A minimum distance classifier is used. Some approaches are used for processing the characters and post processing added to enhance the results. Recognized characters will be appended directly to a word file which is editable form.

  10. Arabic Spelling: Errors, Perceptions, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh, Hezi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated common spelling errors among first language English speakers who study Arabic at the college level. A sample of 63 students (45 males and 18 females) was asked to write texts about a variety of topics and then to answer survey questions regarding their perceptions and strategies. Their writing produced 457 spelling errors,…

  11. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  12. Epidemiology of headache in Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, Hani T S; Deleu, Dirk; Grosset, Donald

    2010-02-01

    The epidemiology of headache in Arab countries was systematically reviewed through Medline identification of four papers reporting headache prevalence in the Arab nations of Qatar, Saudi Arabia (2 papers) and Oman. The prevalence of headache varied from 8 to 12% in Saudi Arabia to 72.5% in Qatar and 83.6% in Oman. Headache was commoner in females and younger people. The prevalence of tension headache was 3.1-9.5% in Saudi Arabia and the 1-year prevalence in Qatar was 11.2%. The migraine prevalence was 2.6-5% in Saudi Arabia and 7.9% in Qatar, while the 1-year migraine prevalence was 10.1% in Oman. The results show a migraine prevalence within that estimated worldwide. However, it is clear that epidemiological data from Arab countries are lacking, and there is disparity in the reported prevalence from Saudi Arabia when compared with its two neighbours, Qatar and Oman. Wider study adopting the same methodology in the six Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait) is needed to examine variations in headache and migraine prevalence.

  13. Special Education in Arab Countries: Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…

  14. Arabic Phonology: An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Salman H.

    This book presents an acoustical and physiological Investigation of contemporary standard Arabic as spoken in Iraq. Spectrograms and X-ray sound films are used to perform the analysis for the study. With this equipment, the author considers the vowels, consonants, pharyngealized consonants, pharyngeals and glottals, duration, gemination, and…

  15. United Arab Emirates students at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the last two months, CERN played host to more than a hundred young physicists who attended the summer student programme. However, the difference in culture has been more pronounced for some than others: among this year's attendees have been five female theoretical physics and medical physics students from the United Arab Emirates.

  16. Arabic Poetry: Guzzle a Ghazal! [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The Bedouins of ancient Arabia and Persia made poetry a conversational art form, and several poetic forms developed from the participatory nature of tribal poetry. Today in most Arab cultures, people may still experience public storytelling and spontaneous poetry challenges in the streets. The art of turning a rhyme into sly verbal sparring is…

  17. United Arab Emirates : Student Assessment 2013

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component to improving education quality and learning outcomes as it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders decision making needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths ...

  18. Arabic Text Classification Using Support Vector Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharib, Tarek Fouad; Habib, Mena Badieh; Fayed, Zaki Taha; Zhu, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Text classification (TC) is the process of classifying documents into a predefined set of categories based on their content. Arabic language is highly inflectional and derivational language which makes text mining a complex task. In this paper we applied the Support Vector Machines (SVM) model in cl

  19. Is self-rated health a valid measure to use in social inequities and health research? Evidence from the PAPFAM women’s data in six Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahim Sawsan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Some evidence from high-income countries suggests that self-rated health (SRH is not a consistent predictor of objective health across social groups, and that its use may lead to inaccurate estimates of the effects of inequities on health. Given increased interest in studying and monitoring social inequities in health worldwide, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of SRH as a consistent measure of health across socioeconomic categories in six Arab countries. Methods We employed the PAPFAM population-based survey data on women from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the strength of the association between fair/poor SRH and objective health (reporting at least one chronic condition, adjusting for available socio-demographic and health-related variables. Analyses were then stratified by two socioeconomic indicators: education and household economic status. Results The association between SRH and objective health is strong in Algeria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Syria, and OPT, but weak in Morocco. The strength of the association between reporting fair/poor health and objective health was not moderated by education or household economic status in any of the six countries. Conclusion As the SRH-objective health association does not vary across social categories, the use of the measure in social inequities in health research is justified. These results should not preclude the need to carry out other validation studies using longitudinal data on men and women, or the need to advocate for improving the quality of morbidity and mortality data in the Arab region.

  20. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries. PMID:26577192

  1. National politics and ethnic identity in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Paulino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Struggle of Democratie Politics in the Dominican Republic. JONATHAN HARTLYN. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. xxi + 371 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 17.95 Holocaust in the Caribbean: The Slaughter of 25,000 Haitians by Trujillo in One Week. MIGUEL AQUINO. Waterbury CT: Emancipation Press, 1997. xxii +184 pp. (Paper n.p. Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii +161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95 Azücar, Arabes, cocolos y haitianos. ORLANDO INOA. Santo Domingo: Ed. Cole and FLACSO, 1999. 219 pp. (Paper n.p. Over the last few years there has been an increase in the publication of books about the Dominican Republic and Dominicans in the United States. This can be partly attributed to the increase of Dominican communities.1 Moreover, Dominican and Dominican-American writers who underscore the trials and tribulations of the immigrant experience are becoming more visible in the mainstream print.2

  2. Pengajaran Bahasa Arab di Pondok Pesantren Salafiyah Kalimantan Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Language, as the language of Islam religion, and also the language of the Holy Quran, obtaining a privileged position in the heart of Indonesians, especially Muslims. Due to its privileged position, the Arabic language was able to survive from its extinction since its appearance in Indonesia until now. Unfortunately, the privileged position of Arabic language is not directly proportional to its fate in various educational institutions in Indonesia, especially in East Kalimantan. The Arabic language teaching in those institutions faces very complex problems especially the lack of an integrated curriculum that can be relied upon to fulfill the needs of teaching Arabic language to non- Arabs with a better method. The current curriculum is the curriculum that does not have comprehensive programs and is not accompanied with modern teaching methods. While at the Teaching and Learning Activities stage, teaching the Arabic language is not supported by professional and competent teachers. This study aims to analyze and evaluate approaches used in teaching Arabic at some boarding school in East Kalimantan viewed from the perspective of the curriculum and methods of teaching Arabic to non- Arabs.

  3. Gli investimenti stranieri nel Nord Africa in prospettiva storica : il caso della Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Loreti, Alessio

    2001-01-01

    The research aims at an analysis of foreign investment in North Africa in historical perspective with particular reference to the trend of foreign direct investment in the manufacturing industry in Tunisia. The historical reasons that determine foreign investment in Tunisia will be considered in the first part of the study and relate mainly to the economic structure of the pre-colonial period and the experience of colonialism. In the central part of the research will be considered in the econ...

  4. Marginal Value of Irrigation Water in Wheat Production Systems of Central Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Frija, Aymen; Chebil, Ali; Cheikh M'Hamed, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on the economics of agricultural water management in Tunisia report a low water productivity of some presently widely cultivated crops such as durum wheat. The objective of this study is to estimate water productivity and marginal value of irrigation water applied to durum wheat in central Tunisia, region of Kairouan. We develop a production function, in which the irrigation revenue of farmers per hectare is expressed in terms of the used water volume in addition to other produ...

  5. Haplotype Map of Sickle Cell Anemia in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Moumni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Globin haplotypes are important to establish the ethnic origin and predict the clinical development of sickle cell disease patients (SCD. To determine the chromosomal background of βS Tunisian sickle cell patients, in this first study in Tunisia, we have explored four polymorphic regions of β-globin cluster on chromosome 11. It is the 5′ region of β-LCR-HS2 site, the intervening sequence II (IVSII region of two fetal (γG and γA genes and the 5′ region of β-globin gene. The results reveal a high molecular diversity of a microsatellite configuration describing the sequences haplotypes. The linkage disequilibrium analysis showed various haplotype combinations giving 22 “extended haplotypes”. These results confirm the utility of the β-globin haplotypes for population studies and contribute to knowledge of the Tunisian gene pool, as well as establishing the role of genetic markers in physiopathology of SCD.

  6. Haplotype map of sickle cell anemia in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumni, Imen; Ben Mustapha, Maha; Sassi, Sarra; Zorai, Amine; Ben Mansour, Ikbel; Douzi, Kais; Chouachi, Dorra; Mellouli, Fethi; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Abbes, Salem

    2014-01-01

    β-Globin haplotypes are important to establish the ethnic origin and predict the clinical development of sickle cell disease patients (SCD). To determine the chromosomal background of β (S) Tunisian sickle cell patients, in this first study in Tunisia, we have explored four polymorphic regions of β-globin cluster on chromosome 11. It is the 5' region of β-LCR-HS2 site, the intervening sequence II (IVSII) region of two fetal ((G)γ and (A)γ) genes and the 5' region of β-globin gene. The results reveal a high molecular diversity of a microsatellite configuration describing the sequences haplotypes. The linkage disequilibrium analysis showed various haplotype combinations giving 22 "extended haplotypes". These results confirm the utility of the β-globin haplotypes for population studies and contribute to knowledge of the Tunisian gene pool, as well as establishing the role of genetic markers in physiopathology of SCD. PMID:25197158

  7. Civil liberties in Tunisia following the 2011 uprisings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Pérez Beltrán

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the legislative changes made in relation to civil liberties in Tunisia since the 2011 revolts, specifically, those concerned with freedom of association, expression, and regulation of the media and links them to the socio-political context of the country. The paper intends to demonstrate how social and political factors have produced a new legal framework of action that is based on the new constitution, but which also brings intense regulatory development that in many respects breaks with previous legislation, although certain elements of authority inherited from the past have been preserved. Two aspects deserve special consideration: on the one hand these rules maintain certain limitations as means of social control that are not totally consistent with a developed democracy; and, on the other, problems of interpretation, cultural specificity and authoritarian behaviour mean the lack of liberties in such fundamental areas as those analysed are also preserved.

  8. Candida dubliniensis: first identification in Sfax Hospital, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlif, M; Sellami, H; Sellami, A; Chelly, H; Makni, F; Bouaziz, M; Ayadi, A

    2009-03-01

    Candida dubliniensis, a newly described fungal pathogen associated mainly to immunocompromised host's infection, is phenotypically closely related to C. albicans. In this study, we report for the first time, isolation and identification, in Tunisia, of 14 isolates of C. dubliniensis from 12 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients hospitalised in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Habib Bourguiba Sfax Hospital. Our study was firstly based on the failure to grow at 45 degrees C. This presumptive identification was completed by other tests: chlamydospore production, culture on Candiselect4 (Bio-Rad) and the commercial test Bichro-Dubli fumouze, which specifically identify C. dubliniensis. The confirmation of the discrimination between both species was performed by PCR, targeting the hyphal wall protein (HWP1) gene. The recovery of C. dublinensis by routine laboratory diagnosis is recommended for elucidating the epidemiology of this novel pathogen. PMID:18522698

  9. Study of polonium-210 in tobacco in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonium-210 is a radio-isotopes natural α emitter, it cans be found in tobacco with a significant range. The high activity of 210Po in tobacco and cigarettes causes the absorption of a high dose of alpha radiation that caused probably lung cancer, the objective of this study is to estimate the activity of 210Po in tobacco matrix. Thirteen samples of cigarettes consumed in tunisia were experimented to determine the activity of this radionuclide. The PIPS, a silicon semiconductor, is used as on α spectrometry detector for the detection of 210Po in all of our samples. The final results showed a high radioactivity of 210Po from 11.77 to 25.31 mBq/g. We conclude that the effective annual average is estimated at 106.53 μSv / year.

  10. Auditing the quality of immunization data in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahed, Mohamed Kouni; Bellali, Hedia; Alaya, Nissaf Ben; Mrabet, Ali; Mahmoudi, Belgacem

    2013-01-01

    Objective To carry out a data quality audit for the consistency and quality of immunization monitoring in Kasserine governorate in Tunisia, where immunization coverage rates more than 100%, negative dropout and conflicting coverage rates had been reported. Methods In a randomly selected sample of 12 primary health care facilities in 2 districts all files used to record immunization data were checked to verify the accuracy of the reported 3rd dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine during a calendar year. Results The results found frequent over-reporting or under-reporting of doses being administrated in all health facilities. The regional verification factor was estimated as 85% and quality index was 55%. Conclusions Data quality audit provides a effective tool for self-assessment implementation and developing a critical analysis of the quality of routine immunization data at all levels of health service.

  11. Variability of aerosol optical thickness and atmospheric turbidity in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, M.; Chaabane, M.; Medhioub, K.; Elleuch, F.

    The aerosol optical thickness (AOT) τa computed from the spectral sun photometer in Thala (Tunisia) exhibited variability ranging from approximately 0.03 to greater than 2.0 at 870 nm for March-October 2001. These measurements are compared to the aerosol optical thickness computed in Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso), Banizoumbou (Niger), IMC Oristano (Sardinia) and Rome Tor Vergata (Italy). Analysis of τa data from this observation network suggests that there is a high temporal and spatial variability of τa in the different sites. The Angström wavelength exponent α was found to vary with the magnitude of the aerosol optical thickness, with values as high as 1.5 for very low τa, and values of -0.1 for high τa situations. The relationship between the two parameters τa and α is investigated. Values of the turbidity coefficient β have been determined in Thala (Tunisia) for 8 months in 2001 based on a direct fitting method of the Angström power law expression using sun photometer data. The monthly averaged values of the turbidity coefficient β vary between 0.15 and 0.33. The months of July and October experienced the highest turbidity, while April experienced the lowest aerosol loading on average. The turbidity shows a maximum and minimum values for the Southwest and the Northwest wind directions, respectively. The single scattering albedo ωo for the 870 nm wavelength obtained from solar aureole data in Thala is analysed according to the particles' origin.

  12. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826

  13. Celestial Navigation in the USA, Fiji, and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2015-05-01

    Today there are many coastal communities that are home to navigators who use stars for position finding at night; I was, however, unaware of this fact when I began researching celestial navigation practices in 1997. My project focused on three communities: the Moce Islanders of Fiji, the Kerkennah Islanders in Tunisia, and the U.S. Navy officers and students at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. My goal was to answer the question of why people continue to navigate by the stars, but also to understand the role of technology in their navigation practices. Using anthropology techniques of ethnography including participant observation, formal and informal interviews, audio and videotaping, I gathered data over five years at the three communities. I began by learning the details of how they use the stars for navigation. Next, I learned about who did the navigation and where they learned to navigate. I gathered opinions on various navigation aids and instruments, and opinions about the future of using the stars for navigation. I listened to the stories that they told about navigating. In the United States I worked in English, in Fiji, in Fijian and English, and in Tunisia, French and English. For the formal interviews I worked with translators. The navigators use stars for navigating today but the future of their techniques is not certain. Though practiced today, these celestial navigation traditions have undergone and continue to undergo changes. New navigational technologies are part of the stimulation for change, thus 'a meeting of different worlds' is symbolized by peoples encounters with these technologies.

  14. -Thalassaemia in Tunisia: some epidemiological and molecular data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. Siala; F. Ouali; T. Messaoud; A. Bibi; S. Fattoum

    2008-12-01

    Unlike the other haemoglobinopathies, few researches have been published concerning -thalassaemia in Tunisia. The aim of the present work is to acquire further data concerning -thalassaemia prevalence and molecular defects spectrum in Tunisia, by collecting and studying several kinds of samples carrying -thalassaemia. The first survey conducted on 529 cord blood samples using cellulose acetate electrophoresis, have displayed the prevalence of 7.38% Hb Bart’s carriers at birth. Molecular analyses were conducted by PCR and DNA sequencing on 20 families’ cases from the above survey carrying the Hb Bart’s at birth and on 10 Hb H diseased patients. The results showed six -globin gene molecular defects and were responsible for -thalassaemia: -3.7, - -MedI, TSaudi, cd23GAG \\to Stop2, Hb Greone Hart: 119CCT \\to TCT1 corresponding to 11 genotypes out of which two are responsible for Hb H disease (--Med/$-$3.7) and (TSaudi/TSaudi) and a newly described polymorphism: +6 → G. The geographical repartition of -thal carriers showed that the $-$3.7 deletion is distributed all over the country, respectively the HphI and TSaudi seem to be more frequent in the central region of the northeast region. The haematological and clinical data showed a moderate phenotype with a late age of diagnosis for Hb H disease. This work had permitted, in addition to an overview on -thalassaemia in the country, the optimization of protocols for -thalassaemia detection in our lab, allowing further investigations concerning phenotype–genotype correlation in sickle cell disease or -thalassaemia.

  15. Coniacian-Turonian Carbonates of the Miskar Field, offshore Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, I. [Gas Exploration & Prod. Ltd., Reading Berkshire (United Kingdom); Moody, R. [Kingston Univ., Surrey (United Kingdom); Sandman, R. [Hedge End, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    The R1 and R1 Superior Carbonates of the Miskar Field, offshore Tunisia are of Coniacian-Turonian age. These ages are constrained by several biostratigraphic events including a rapid increase in ostracod diversity at the base of the overlying Aleg Formation and the occurrence of several diagnostic benthonic foraminifera including Rotalia algeriana. The indication is that the R1 and R1 Superior Carbonates are the lateral equivalents, in part, of the Douleb Formation which is a known reservoir, onshore Tunisia. During the Coniacian-Turonian the area of the Miskar Field was subject to regional extension with the opening of several major North-South trending fractures. These culminate in the contemporaneous outpouring of submarine serpentinized volcanics during deposition of the R1 Superior/Aleg Formation. The R1 lithologies are deposited in a shallow water regime and consist of rudist buildup and debraic carbonates overlain by lagoonal facies in the North with an increase in beach/sabkha facies to the South. The indication is for a shallowing upward sequence and a general progradation of lithofacies northwards across a tilted block. In contrast the R1 Superior is indicative of a flooding event with relative sea-level changes reflected in variations of both lithofacies and biofacies. Overall the lithofacies are dominated by calcispheric/bioclastic wackestone-packstones probably deposited in a mid-platform setting. The diagenetic history of the R1 is the more complex of the two carbonate sequences reflecting several phases of fluid movement through the constituent lithologies. Original depositional characteristics and subsequent diagenetic meditation result in the development of highly variable reservoir properties.

  16. A grammar of Hadari Arabic: a contrastive-typological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Bahri, Khaled Waleed

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides a synchronic morphosyntactic description of the Hadari dialect, a variety of Gulf Arabic spoken in Kuwait, and presents a current documentation of this rapidly changing, under documented spoken dialect of Arabic. The description covers the basic morphology and syntax of Hadari, focusing mainly on the syntax. The description refers to Modern Standard Arabic both as a point of comparison and a point of reference when describing the spoken dialect’s morphology and syntax. Th...

  17. [Cultural heritage and audiovisual creation in the Arab world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, M

    1979-01-01

    Audiovisual creation is facing in Arab countries problems arising from the use of imported techniques in order to reconstitute or transform their own reality. Arab audiovisual producers see this technique as an easy and efficient way to reproduce reality or construct conventionally an artificial universe. Sometimes, audiovisuals have an absolute suggestion power; sometimes, these techniques are faced with total incredulity. From a diffusion point of view, audiovisuals in the Arab world have a very specific status. The effects of television, studied by western researchers in their cultural environment, are not reproduced in the same fashion in the Arab cultural world. In the Arab world, the word very often still competes successfully with the picture, even after the appearance and adoption of mass media. Finally, one must mention a very interesting situation resulting from a linguistic phenomenon which is specific to the Arab world: the existence of 2 communication languages, one noble but little used, the other dialectical but popular. In all Arab countries, the News, the most political program, is broadcasted in the classical language, despite the danger of meaning distortion in the least educated public. The reason is probably that the classical Arab language enjoys a sacred status. Arab audiovisuals are facing several obstacles to their total and autonomous realization. The contribution of the Arab audiovisual producers is relatively modest, compared to some other areas of cultural creation. Arab film-making is looking more and more for the cooperation of contemporary writers. Contemporary literature is a considerable source for the renewal of Arab audiovisual expression. A relationship between film and popular cultural heritage could be very usefully established in both directions. Audiovisuals should treat popular cultural manifestations as a global social fact on several significant levels. PMID:12261391

  18. Fourth China-Arab Friendship Conference Held in Yinchuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Fourth China-Arab Friendship Conference (CAFC) with the theme of "promoting cooperation through friendship and pursuing development through exchanges", jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the China-Arab Friendship Association (CAFA) and the League of Arab States (LAS) and hosted by the People’s Government of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,was held in Yinchuan from September 13 to 14, 2012.Before the opening ceremony,Vice Premier Li Keqiang met

  19. The Arab activity in uranium exploration and recovery: pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second part of a paper given during the third Arab energy conference held in Algeria, 4 - 9 May, 1985. Information concerning uranium resources and exploration in some Arab Countries such as Algeria, Morocco, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Lybia is presented. In addition to that, uranium content in phosphate rocks in the world and specially in Arab Countries is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Arabic name authority in the online environment : options and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Speirs Plettner, Martha

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the efforts for incorporating non-Roman scripts, notably Arabic, in MARC bibliographic and authority records. Arabic name authority records have been handwritten using Arabic script and filed manually in book or card catalogs since the time that it was considered important to preserve this information. After the adoption of typewriters as tools in library cataloging departments, those who only had Latin script typewriters were forced into using transliteration schemes, a...

  1. The Electronic Archiving of Arab News Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Ayub Gigawy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This Research aims to present the electronic archives of Arab news agency websites and their methods of searching for and retrieving information. Also, its aim is to examine all their methods in order to find out which are the best and most practically useful ones. The research refers to the news agencies and the Internet, through the methods that users encounter in these inquires and links which present information. It concentrates on practical ways of searching for news items in both texts and pictures. The research contains tables showing the results. It presents a brief summery for each of Arab news agencies.The research comes to the conclusion that there are many things which need to be considered, and also some suggestions as to how the search for and retrieval of information might be improved

  2. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  3. Combinatorial Classification for Chunking Arabic Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriel Ben Fraj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Text parsing has always benefited from special attention since the first applications of natural languageprocessing (NLP. The problem gets worse for the Arabic language because of its specific features thatmake it quite different and even more ambiguous than other natural languages when processed. In thispaper, we discuss a new approach for chunking Arabic texts based on a combinatorial classificationprocess. It is a modular chunker that identifies the chunk heads using a combinatorial binary classificationbefore recognizing their types based on the parts-of-speech of the chunk heads, already identified. For theexperimentation, we use over than 2300 words as training data. The evaluation of the chunker consists oftwo steps and gives results that we consider very satisfactory (average accuracy of 89,60% for theclassification step and 80,46% for the full chunking process.

  4. Combinatorial Classification for Chunking Arabic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Ben Fraj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Text parsing has always benefited from special attention since the first applications of natural language processing (NLP. The problem gets worse for the Arabic language because of its specific features that make it quite different and even more ambiguous than other natural languages when processed. In this paper, we discuss a new approach for chunking Arabic texts based on a combinatorial classification process. It is a modular chunker that identifies the chunk heads using a combinatorial binary classification before recognizing their types based on the parts-of-speech of the chunk heads, already identified. For the experimentation, we use over than 2300 words as training data. The evaluation of the chunker consists of two steps and gives results that we consider very satisfactory (average accuracy of 89,60% for the classification step and 80,46% for the full chunking process.

  5. Arabic Word Recognition by Classifiers and Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadir Farah; Labiba Souici; Mokhtar Sellami

    2005-01-01

    Given the number and variety of methods used for handwriting recognition, it has been shown that there is no single method that can be called the "best". In recent years, the combination of different classifiers and the use of contextual information have become major areas of interest in improving recognition results. This paper addresses a case study on the combination of multiple classifiers and the integration of syntactic level information for the recognition of handwritten Arabic literal amounts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time either of these methods has been applied to Arabic word recognition. Using three individual classifiers with high level global features, we performed word recognition experiments. A parallel combination method was tested for all possible configuration cases of the three chosen classifiers. A syntactic analyzer makes a final decision on the candidate words generated by the best configuration scheme.The effectiveness of contextual knowledge integration in our application is confirmed by the obtained results.

  6. A rule-based stemmer for Arabic Gulf dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Abuata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic dialects arewidely used from many years ago instead of Modern Standard Arabic language in many fields. The presence of dialects in any language is a big challenge. Dialects add a new set of variational dimensions in some fields like natural language processing, information retrieval and even in Arabic chatting between different Arab nationals. Spoken dialects have no standard morphological, phonological and lexical like Modern Standard Arabic. Hence, the objective of this paper is to describe a procedure or algorithm by which a stem for the Arabian Gulf dialect can be defined. The algorithm is rule based. Special rules are created to remove the suffixes and prefixes of the dialect words. Also, the algorithm applies rules related to the word size and the relation between adjacent letters. The algorithm was tested for a number of words and given a good correct stem ratio. The algorithm is also compared with two Modern Standard Arabic algorithms. The results showed that Modern Standard Arabic stemmers performed poorly with Arabic Gulf dialect and our algorithm performed poorly when applied for Modern Standard Arabic words.

  7. Chinese-Arab Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese-Arab cooperation in the field of nuclear energy launched during the second Conference of Chinese-Arab cooperation in the field of energy, which was held in Khartoum during the period of 26 to 28 January 2010, where a meeting was held between the Arab Atomic Energy Agency and the Chinese Nuclear National Committee in the framework of activating the memorandum of understanding between the League of Arab States and the Chinese National Energy Authority, which is responsible of the cooperation with the Arab countries wishing to enter the nuclear option within their strategies to diverse their sources of energy and promote their nuclear infrastructure, as well as help the Arab Atomic Energy Agency in the implementation of the Arab strategy for peaceful uses of atomic energy until the year 2020 and find a mechanism for the Arab-Chinese cooperation in the field of nuclear energy. The Arab Atomic Energy Agency also proposed programs over the coming years in the fields of energy planning, nuclear safety, selection of sites, exploring of uranium, emergency preparedness and response and management of radioactive reactors.

  8. Energy Subsidies in the Arab World

    OpenAIRE

    Fattouh, Bassam; El-Katiri, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The policy of maintaining tight control of domestic energy prices has characterized the political and economic environment in most Arab countries, together with many other parts of the world, for decades. The objectives behind such a policy range from overall welfare objectives such as expanding energy access and protecting poor households’ incomes; to economic development objectives such as fostering industrial growth and smoothing domestic consumption; and to politi- cal considerations, inc...

  9. Gunpowder and Arab Firearms in Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Zaky, A.

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available THERE is no certainty as to the actual date of the invention of gunpowder. The evidence that the Chinese possessed it in ancient times is not conclusive. Among the claimants of discovering gunpowder are Chinese, Indians, Greeks, Arabs, English and Germans. Who first thought of propelling a ball through a metal tube by exploding gunpowder is unknown; anyhow; it certainly was not Monk Berthold Schwartz.

    Consultar resumen en inglés.

  10. Managing instability after the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    December 11-13, 2012 Washington, D.C. - CCMR's Collaborative and Adaptive Security Initiative (CASI) convened officials from the armed forces, government civilian agencies, inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, think tanks and academic institutions to a workshop discussing the political, social and security implications of the regional transition commonly referred to as the "Arab Spring". By exploring the challenges faced by the region during this transition, part...

  11. BRIGHT PROSPECT FOR CHINA- ARAB OIL COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Now is the perfect time for China and Arab League countries to cooperate more in the oil and gas sector as the development of shale gas in the United States changes the global energy business. The United States produced 180 billion cubic meters of shale gas in 2011, an amount that constituted 34 percent of the coumry's total output of natural gas. As a result, it imported less gas and liquefied natural gas.

  12. Narrating Normal: Arabs, Queers, Neoliberal Spectatorship

    OpenAIRE

    Boucai, Marc Barry

    2013-01-01

    Queer and Arab, as both social movements and signifiers of cultural difference, have shared surprisingly similar historical trajectories within American culture and politics since the late 1960's. The historical parallels become especially relevant to this project with the arrival of the 1990's, when the United States witnessed the roughly simultaneous consolidation of (1) identity politics and (2) a multicultural ideal in which difference is at once defining and irrelevant. Like other racial...

  13. Les Arabes de l'autre rive

    OpenAIRE

    Montigny, Anie

    2005-01-01

    Au Qatar, l'identification de la société globale repose sur son origine arabe, mais la population établit une discrimination selon les lieux d'origine : l'Arabie ou l'Iran. Ce clivage schématique fait référence aux hommes de statut libre par opposition à ceux qui, dans la société traditionnelle, ne l'étaient pas : les esclaves.

  14. Writer Identification of Arabic Handwritten Digits

    OpenAIRE

    Awaida, Sameh; Mahmoud, Sabri

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the identification of Arabic handwritten digits. In addition to digit identifiability, the paper presents digit recognition. The digit image is divided into grids based on the distribution of the black pixels in the image. Several types of features are extracted (viz. gradient, curvature, density, horizontal and vertical run lengths, stroke, and concavity features) from the grid segments. K-Nearest Neighbor and Nearest Mean classifiers are used. A database of 70000 of Ara...

  15. Perceptual Recognition of Arabic Literal Amounts

    OpenAIRE

    Labiba Souici Meslati; Mokhtar Sellami

    2012-01-01

    Since humans are the best readers, one of the most promising trends in automatic handwriting recognition is to get inspiration from psychological reading models. The underlying idea is to derive benefits from studies of human reading, in order to build efficient automatic reading systems. In this context, we propose a human reading inspired system for the recognition of Arabic handwritten literalamounts. Our approach is based on the McClelland and Rumelhart's neural model called IAM, which is...

  16. Emergency medicine in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Fares, Saleh; Irfan, Furqan B; Corder, Robert F; Al Marzouqi, Μuneer Abdulla; Al Zaabi, Ahmad Hasan; Idrees, Marwa Mubarak; Abbo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been a decade since emergency medicine was recognized as a specialty in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this short time, emergency medicine has established itself and developed rapidly in the UAE. Large, well-equipped emergency departments (EDs) are usually located in government hospitals, some of which function as regional trauma centers. Most of the larger EDs are staffed with medically or surgically trained physicians, with board-certified emergency medicine physicians serving as...

  17. Offering and hospitality in Arabic and English

    OpenAIRE

    Grainger, Karen; Kerkam, Z; Mansor, F; Mills, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the conventional linguistic practices involved in everyday hospitality situations. We compare offers in Arabic and English and, rather than focusing on the differences between the ways interactants in these two cultures make offers, we challenge the notion that offering is in essence differently handled in the two languages. We argue instead that we should focus just as much on the similarities between the ways offers are made, since no two cultural/linguistic groups are d...

  18. Contribution to Semantic Analysis of Arabic Language

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Zouaghi; Mounir Zrigui; Georges Antoniadis; Laroussi Merhbene

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new approach for determining the adequate sense of Arabic words. For that, we propose an algorithm based on information retrieval measures to identify the context of use that is the closest to the sentence containing the word to be disambiguated. The contexts of use represent a set of sentences that indicates a particular sense of the ambiguous word. These contexts are generated using the words that define the senses of the ambiguous words, the exact string-matching algorithm, an...

  19. United Arab Emirates; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This staff report on United Arab Emirates 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights economic policies and development. Against a backdrop of political stability, confidence has further increased, tourism has been firm, demand from expatriates from the broader region has increased, and capital inflows have strengthened amid high global liquidity. The real estate sector, which had been impaired since the 2009 crisis, has stabilized in Abu Dhabi and has started to recover in Dubai. Dubai aims to b...

  20. On the Use of Arabic Tweets to Predict Stock Market Changes in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid AlKhatib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social media users nowadays express their opinions and feelings about many event occurring in their lives. For certain users, some of the most important events are the ones related to the financial markets. An interesting research field emerged over the past decade to study the possible relationship between the fluctuation in the financial markets and the online social media. In this research we present a comprehensive study to identify the relation between Arabic financial-related tweets and the change in stock markets using a set of the most active Arab stock indices. The results show that there is a Granger Causality relation between the volume and sentiment of Arabic tweets and the change in some of the stock markets.

  1. Arabic writer identification based on diacritic's features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliki, Makki; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    Natural languages like Arabic, Kurdish, Farsi (Persian), Urdu, and any other similar languages have many features, which make them different from other languages like Latin's script. One of these important features is diacritics. These diacritics are classified as: compulsory like dots which are used to identify/differentiate letters, and optional like short vowels which are used to emphasis consonants. Most indigenous and well trained writers often do not use all or some of these second class of diacritics, and expert readers can infer their presence within the context of the writer text. In this paper, we investigate the use of diacritics shapes and other characteristic as parameters of feature vectors for Arabic writer identification/verification. Segmentation techniques are used to extract the diacritics-based feature vectors from examples of Arabic handwritten text. The results of evaluation test will be presented, which has been carried out on an in-house database of 50 writers. Also the viability of using diacritics for writer recognition will be demonstrated.

  2. Islamophobia and Arab and Muslim Women's Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Povey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to compare women’s activism in Diaspora communities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, with some of the experiences of women activists in Western counties such as Australia. This is by no means a definitive account of Arab and Muslim women’s activism in either country but an attempt to raise some questions and provide a framework in order to understand some of the issues facing Arab and Muslim activists today. I believe that it is important to look at these issues in a way that is contextualized in terms of the material circumstances in which women living in Diaspora communities find themselves. In doing so, I hope to reveal the complexity and dynamism of women’s activism and to take on critically, Orientalist, essentialist and racist arguments regarding the nature of Arab and Muslim women’s role in opposing war and neo-liberalism and in the struggle for gender equality. As Edward Said argues, exile forces us to “see things not simply as they are, but as they have come to be that way. Look at situations as contingent, not as inevitable, look at them as a series of historical choices made by men and women, facts of society made by human beings not as natural or God-given, therefore unchangeable, permanent, irreversible.”

  3. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  4. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future. PMID:25770651

  5. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.

  6. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-04-25

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5(th) leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10(th) as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease.

  7. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-04-25

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5(th) leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10(th) as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease. PMID:27114755

  8. Efforts of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences to Enhance Nuclear Security in the Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crucial contribution of educational institutions in confronting terrorism is parallel to the role played by security apparatus in its combat. This confirms the central role of universities, institutions of academic and professional training, security research organizations and sanctuaries of worship in the overall confrontation against terrorism. Unique among these universities is Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS) which has made tremendous contributions to fight against crime and terrorism through its academic endeavors. NAUSS was established in 1978 as an Arab institution specialized in security sciences to fulfill the needs of the Arab law enforcement agencies for an academic institution that promotes research in security sciences, offers graduate education programs and conduct short-term training courses, which should contribute to the prevention and control of crimes in the Arab world. NAUSS is a regional organization providing education and training in all security disciplines to students from all the 22 Arab countries. This paper will discuss the efforts made by NAUSS to enhance the nuclear security in the Arab countries. NAUSS and the IAEA organized several workshops, forums and training courses which aimed to explore and improve the nuclear security culture and awareness. In addition, NAUSS incorporates an introductory course in nuclear security into the existing graduate studies security sciences program. In collaboration with the Office of Nuclear Security, NAUSS launched a post-graduate degree programme focused on nuclear security based on IAEA guidance documents (NSS no. 12) and being used to reach the region in support of nuclear security education. This degree is currently being enhanced through integration of instructional materials from the Master of Science in Nuclear Security degree framework developed for the IAEA and the global education community by the International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN). (author)

  9. Reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, reader self-perception, and arabic achievement of Arab-American students learning arabic as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2014-12-01

    The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  10. Africa - Still a continent in drift in the 21st century?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong'ayo, A.O.O.

    2012-01-01

    The political developments in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya under the burner of Arab spring, the birth of South Sudan as the fifty fourth African state and the recent political problems witnessed in Mali, Sudan, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo and Guin

  11. Kyrgyz Republic : Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the Kyrgyz Republic joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment s...

  12. Azerbaijan Republic; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Azerbaijan Republic reports that the government has made substantial progress in dealing with energy-related subsidies. The domestic market for oil products has been tightly regulated by the government since Azerbaijan gained independence. Azerbaijan is largely self-sufficient in oil products because of its substantial endowment of exhaustible mineral deposits and existing refining capacity. Although Azerbaijan is self-sufficient in oil products, it needs to impo...

  13. Modeling and sediment study in the watershed Medjerda, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotti, Fatma; Mahé, Gil; Habaieb, Hamadi; Dieulin, Claudine; Hermassi, Taoufik

    2015-04-01

    Water projects have experienced a major expansion in the late 1980s, and we now have sufficient perspective to assess their actual performance and their socio-environmental impacts (Payan, 2007). This study focuses on the great watershed of Tunisia namely Medjerda which has an area of about 23,600 km2. In the main river of Medjerda some dams have been created for water retention: Sidi Salem Dam (the largest in the country), El Aroussia dam, and others on tributaries Mellegue Bouhertma, Siliana, Beni Mtir, Lakhemess and Kasseb. Since the construction of dams, essentially Sidi Salem and Siliana, the Medjerda river has undergone significant changes in morphology. The monitoring of the flow of the major hydrological stations in the pre-estuarine zone downstream from Sidi Salem dam is used to measure the impact of the constructions on hydrological regimes: reduction in average rates, reduction in volumes sold, altered seasonal pattern, and most of all reduction of the sediment transport, which the highest values are related to extreme events. In this context, the balance of sediment monitoring appears indispensable for the quantification of sediment transport at the outlet. Our approach is to calculate a specific flow rate relative to the area of the basin for every structure built in the Medjerda watershed, from the information available on transport and sedimentation rates known, combined with contours of each sub watershed. There are about ten dams spread throughout Medjerda watershed. The methodology is primarily developed for the Mellegue dam because we have at this station a long data set from 1955 until 2005. Other stations will be studied later on. The main objective of this study is to provide a series of annual variation of theoretical contributions. These calculated values will be compared with the actual measured sedimentary series. Two cores in the sediments of the pre-estuarine area are performed to determine past variability in sediment inputs over a time

  14. MODEL PEMBELAJARAN DISKOVERI SEBAGAI STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erta Mahyudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching strategy is very important in Arabic Classroom. It covers design and dimension. One of the model in the instructional design is discovery learning. In teaching Arabic language discovery model called guided discovery. In this model the exposure of linguistic material is given firstly, and followed by the rule of language.

  15. Morphological Structures in Visual Word Recognition: The Case of Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Awwad, Jasmin (Shalhoub)

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the function within lexical access of the main morphemic units from which most Arabic words are assembled, namely roots and word patterns. The present study focused on the derivation of nouns, in particular, whether the lexical representation of Arabic words reflects their morphological structure and whether recognition of a…

  16. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  17. Validity and Reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamra, Rana A.; Al-Jazi, Aya B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Token Test for Children (2nd edition) (TTFC) is a measure for assessing receptive language. In this study we describe the translation process, validity and reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children (A-TTFC). Aims: The aim of this study is to translate, validate and establish the reliability of the Arabic Token Test for…

  18. Predicting Physical Activity in Arab American School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically grounded research on the determinants of Arab American children's physical activity is virtually nonexistent. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) to predict Arab American children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).…

  19. Mauritanian Arabic. Teacher's Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Raymond C.; And Others

    The teaching guide is designed to accompany a set of instructional materials in Mauritanian Arabic (Hassaniya) for Peace Corps volunteers. It provides information and techniques for language teaching in three volumes: (1) a literacy handbook--a volume of lessons on the Arabic alphabet and script; (2) a communication and culture handbook; and (3) a…

  20. Arabic Women and English Language Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkarni, Ream

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to interview Arabic women students at Spring International Language Center to record their perceptions, rationale, goals, stories, and opinions about learning English in a U.S. language school. This research was conducted to understand the purposes and goals of Arabic women who come to the United Stated to study the…

  1. Attitudes of Kuwait University Students towards Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmama, Djilali; Bouhmama, Soumia

    2015-01-01

    This research work endeavors to examine Kuwait University language students' attitude towards Modern Standard Arabic under the spread of English as a dominant language. It attempts also to examine differences between males and females' attitudes towards English as medium of instruction as opposed to Modern Standard Arabic. The undertaken study…

  2. Modern Standard Arabic: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XX: Comprehension Drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The last of 20 volumes of lessons designed for use in a full-time, intensive training program in Arabic is presented. The 128 lessons in this volume contain various types of comprehension drills. Lessons 14-128 are completely in Arabic. (AMH)

  3. Implicit Referential Meaning with Reference to English Arabic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zughoul, Basem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how English implicit referential meaning is translated into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit referential meanings found in the novel "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The analysis shows that the translation of English implicit referential meaning into Arabic can be…

  4. A Basic Course of Literary Arabic. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Salman H.; Shammas, Jacob Y.

    The material presented in this workbook, which is in preliminary form under revision, has been designed to introduce the basic aspects of the morphology and syntax of literary Arabic. It is intended to be used with and as a continuation of "The Phonology and Script of Literary Arabic," by the same authors. (See ED 012 912.) These two volumes,…

  5. Arab Animated Cartoons : Mediating and Negotiating Notions of Identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayfo, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is the first critical critical study of animated cartoon production in the Arab world. From the 1930s until the recent spread of online animations, animated cartoon production in the Arab world was the privilege of individuals and institutions with strong links to academic, media and pol

  6. What Has Happened to Arabs? Identity and Face Management Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zidjaly, Najma

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I draw on contemporary theorizing on the concept of face (e.g., Ting-Toomey 1994, 2004; Tracy 2008) and research on Islamic and Arabic cultures and linguistic strategies (e.g., Beeman 1986; Hegland 1998; Wilce 2005; Al Zidjaly 2006) to explore the role that the Internet plays in enabling Muslim Arabs to manage or save their…

  7. The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    On 13 February 2015, the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science hosted the launch of a special Issue of the journal Mediterranean Politics on The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World: The Impact of the Arab Uprisings. Bringing together academics, NGO...

  8. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu

    2014-01-01

    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study…

  9. An Arabic CCG approach for determining constituent types from Arabic Treebank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. El-taher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Converting a treebank into a CCGbank opens the respective language to the sophisticated tools developed for Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG and enriches cross-linguistic development. The conversion is primarily a three-step process: determining constituents’ types, binarization, and category conversion. Usually, this process involves a preprocessing step to the Treebank of choice for correcting brackets and normalizing tags for any changes that were introduced during the manual annotation, as well as extracting morpho-syntactic information that is necessary for determining constituents’ types. In this article, we describe the required preprocessing step on the Arabic Treebank, as well as how to determine Arabic constituents’ types. We conducted an experiment on parts 1 and 2 of the Penn Arabic Treebank (PATB aimed at converting the PATB into an Arabic CCGbank. The performance of our algorithm when applied to ATB1v2.0 & ATB2v2.0 was 99% identification of head nodes and 100% coverage over the Treebank data.

  10. FAKTOR DEMOTIVASI PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB DALAM PERSPEKTIF SISWA MADRASAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Muhammad Saepul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation plays important role in language learning. When the language learner’s motivation is decreasing then he is being in a demotivation stage. Several previous studies in reveal that demotivation could diminish the student achievement in language skill. The phenomenon of this demotivation is rising in Arabic language learning in Indonesia’s madrasa. Using qualitative method with short essay from 105 students of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri (MAN Cianjur, this study shows two major factors that cause demotivation in Arabic learning: external and internal. Specific external factors come from: (1 complexity of Arabic language; (2 learning material and method; (3 learning facility and environment; and (4 teacher’s behavior and personality. While internal factor sources are: (1 basic skill and previous learning experience; (2 negative attitude to Arabic subject. These factors need to be considered by teacher and other stakeholder as basic reference to increase student’s motivation in Arabic learning.

  11. Handwritten Arabic Numeral Recognition using a Multi Layer Perceptron

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Nibaran; Saha, Sudip; Haque, Syed Sahidul

    2010-01-01

    Handwritten numeral recognition is in general a benchmark problem of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. Compared to the problem of printed numeral recognition, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is compounded due to variations in shapes and sizes of handwritten characters. Considering all these, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is addressed under the present work in respect to handwritten Arabic numerals. Arabic is spoken throughout the Arab World and the fifth most popular language in the world slightly before Portuguese and Bengali. For the present work, we have developed a feature set of 88 features is designed to represent samples of handwritten Arabic numerals for this work. It includes 72 shadow and 16 octant features. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier is used here for recognition handwritten Arabic digits represented with the said feature set. On experimentation with a database of 3000 samples, the technique yields an average recognition rate of 94....

  12. Gum Arabic as a Cause of Occupational Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Viinanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria.

  13. Acculturation and polysubstance abuse in Arab-American treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl P; Farrag, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Acculturation to U.S. culture by Latinos and Asian Americans has been associated with increased prevalence of substance abuse. However, little is known about the association between acculturation and substance use among Arab Americans, or more specifically, among Arab-American treatment clients. In 156 Arab-American male treatment clients, we found that higher levels of U.S. acculturation were positively associated with increased prevalence of polysubstance abuse. This first report on a large series of Arab-American clients also found considerable within-group variability. These results can be used to develop treatment plans and work-force training on the importance of U.S. acculturation and variability within Arab Americans.

  14. The Arab Uprisings and Euro-Mediterranean Security: The Regional Security Agenda of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schima Viktoria Labitsch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Arab uprisings led to profound changes in the political landscape of the Southern Mediterranean, and came at a time of staggering Euro-Mediterranean relations. With prevailing turmoil and violence in Europe’s closest proximity, the Euromed relationship – heavily dominated by security objectives and concerns in the past – is facing new social, political and economic challenges. This work analyses what challenges have made it onto the security agenda of the European Union in response to the uprisings in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt between December 2010 and 2013. It does so by analysing the discourse of three institutions: the European Commission, the European Council and the Council of Ministers. Accordingly, it argues that security in the Euro-Mediterranean context may be analysed in the framework of the wider constructivist Copenhagen school of security studies, treating threats as politically constructed in the process of securitization. It emphasizes the different degrees of institutional involvement in framing the regional security agenda, and the vast application of security logic to migration and mobility as well as its absence in areas of biological and chemical weapons, extremism and weapons of mass destruction. This work’s final argument is that whilst the overall level of securitization throughout the three years remains low and partially inconsistent with the security priorities before 2010, the EU exhibited a particularly strong regional focus on Libya as well as a thematic one on migration and external borders.

  15. Special Education Use among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel: A Case of Minority Underrepresentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinero, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines disproportionality in special education among Israeli Arabs. Arab children are more likely than Jewish children to be placed in special education. Negev bedouin Arab children, however, are underrepresented in special education. Discusses whether a culture of disability is being fostered among the Arab citizens of Israel and whether…

  16. Water ethics perspectives in the Arab Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water ethics has only recently emerged in academic and development arenas as an independent field of professional discussion. Concerns over water conservation and adequate access to basic needs of water and sanitation pose a difficult ethical dilemma that should be addressed based on societal and ethical frame works. Issues such as water allocation and pricing, privatization of various water services and efficient water management need to be contested within an ethical framework according to principles of equity and social justice. This paper presents the basic concepts of water ethics, as well as water ethics perspectives and applications within the framework of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in the Arab Region, which suffers from one of the fastest growing water deficits in the world. The deteriorating status of the water resources situation in Arab Region is no longer tolerable due to the high costs in terms of negative environmental consequences and deteriorating livelihoods of poor populations associated with lack of access to clean water and sanitation. Nevertheless, most of the national efforts for IWRM implementation in the Region have been dominated by neo-liberal economic policies stressing privatization of various water services; cost recovery through different pricing and tariffication schemes; as well as sectoral water (re)allocation. However, many negative impacts due to the shift to neo-liberal market-led economies have been surfaced throughout the developing world in the past decade and a half, especially with respect to the increased levels of poverty and worsening environmental degradation. It is, therefore, critical to adopt IWRM approaches in the region within an ethical framework that takes full consideration of all social implications regarding the poor, and that could be used as a means to achieve water-related international goals of poverty reduction. Finally, the paper also shows that there is no contradiction between Islamic

  17. Governance and health in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-01-25

    Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups.

  18. Assessment of meat quality of local lamb breeds in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Selmi,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, the marketing of lamb is in the majority of farmers after weaning at relatively low weight. Thus, it was deemed necessary to conduct a test of fattening lambs Tunisian landraces (Barbarine (BGQ, fine Tail from the west (QFO Black Thibar (NT and Sicilo-Sarde (SS after weaning to evaluate their growth performance and determine the quality of carcasses and meat. To do so, four uniform lots of lambs (age and weight were conducted simultaneously in two months and fed with oat hay ad libitum supplemented with 300g of concentrate/day/lamb. It was clear from this work that the lambs of the breed Black Thibar had better daily growth (87.5g vs. 64.2; 66.3, 72.6 respectively for the QFO, BGQ and SS, feed efficiency (5.94. The quality of meat (6.89% fat and pieces of the first category (leg, the net and found the square (53.43%. To enjoy optimum production of red meat, it is strongly recommended that fattened lambs after weaning with diets tailored to the farming area where profitability is better and food is available.

  19. Participatory rural appraisal in smallholder dairy systems in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhis, J; Saaidane, F; Laamouri, M; Ben Hamida, K; Mabrouk, W; Slimane, N

    2007-12-01

    Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out by a multidisciplinary team on a total of 60 smallholder dairy farms in three different geographical areas of Tunisia. Farms with less than three cows were excluded. Those participating had between three and 10 cows. Average milk production ranged between 8 and 32 litres per cow per day. 70% or over of milk produced was sold off the farms. Average intercalving intervals--measured from month of calving only--ranged from 12.9 months to 19. Age at first calving varied from two to nearly three years. Most work was done by the families. PRA revealed that the farmers in all three regions perceived unbalanced nutrition, which included availability of forages, to be the most important constraint, followed by poor reproductive efficiency. Reseeding with new species was instituted for grazing and hay. Farmers from the different regions were taken on exchange visits to see how these approaches worked. Training in reproductive management and milking hygiene was introduced. Seasonal ration formulation depending on local forage analysis was instituted. Two farms are participating in a programme of evaluation of olive oil extraction by-product as a ruminant feed. Partial budget analysis of these interventions will be carried out. PMID:18265871

  20. Sousse, Tunisia: tumultuous history and high Y-STR diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Zemni, Ramzi; Grinberg, Sagy; Herrera, Rene J; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, 17 Y-chromosomal STR (Y-STR) loci were typed in 218 unrelated males from Sousse, Central-East Tunisia, to evaluate forensic and population genetic applications of the data. A total of 154 different haplotypes were identified, 127 (82.5%) of which were unique, with the most frequent haplotype occurring in 14 individuals (6.4%). The locus diversity ranged from 0.2050 at DYS392 to 0.8760 at DYS385. The haplotype diversity at the 17-loci resolution was calculated to be 0.9916, while the corresponding values for the extended (11 loci) and minimal (9 loci) haplotypes were estimated at 0.9735 and 0.9710, respectively. Comparison with 29 regional and global populations using correspondence analysis, neighbor joining (NJ) tree, and Rst genetic distance revealed that the Sousse population is highly diverse. This finding is consistent with historical data. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate a distinct genetic substructure among Tunisian populations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the 17 Y-STRs analyzed are highly informative for individual identification, parentage analysis, and population genetic studies. PMID:23160959

  1. Emergence of OXA-204 β-lactamase in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Karama; Mansour, Wejdène; Khalifa, Anis Ben Haj; Mastouri, Maha; Aouni, Mahjoub; Mammeri, Hedi

    2015-08-01

    A retrospective epidemiological survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of carbapenemase producers among enterobacterial clinical isolates recovered in the center of maternity and neonatology of Monastir (Tunisia). PCR screening identified 1 OXA-48 and 2 OXA-204 producers, which coexpressed the CTX-M-15 or the CMY-4 β-lactamases. PCR mapping showed that the bla(OXA-48) gene was carried by a Tn1999.2 transposon, whereas the bla(OXA-204) gene was part of the Tn2016 transposon-like structure. The OXA-48- or OXA-204-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and the OXA-204-expressing Escherichia coli clinical isolate belonged to the widespread sequence types ST11, ST101, and ST617, respectively. The OXA-204 enzyme, which is a point derivative of the OXA-48 carbapenemase, had hitherto been reported in 2013 from K. pneumoniae isolate. Our study shows for the first time the dissemination of this resistance marker in E. coli strain. The coproduction of OXA-204 with CTX-M-15 and CMY-4 enzymes may potentiate the risk of multiresistance and may enhance the risk of dissemination. PMID:26001616

  2. Arabic Speech Pathology Therapy Computer Aided System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Benselama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns a computer aided pathological speech therapy program, based on speech models such as the hidden Markov model and artificial intelligence networks, in order to help persons, suffering from language pathologies, follow a correction learning process, with different interactive feedbacks, aiming to evaluate the degree of evolution of the illness or the therapy. We dealt with the Arabic occlusive sigmatism as a prime approach, which is the inability to pronounce the[s] or [∫]. Results obtained are satisfying and the therapy program is prepared, for autonomous use by patients, for deep analysis and verifications.

  3. Forecasting the “Arab Spring” of 2011: Terrorist Incident Data from 2000-2010 Offered No Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the single most predominant questions associated with the so-called “Arab Spring” is whether or not any social research indicators associated with terrorism data are available with predictive value for such profound structural political changes. The underlying aim of this “Research Note” is to take a first pass at the terrorism data and to compare certain terrorism data trends for four countries that experienced successful regime change in 2011, namely Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, to terrorism trends in nine countries where political strains and tensions did not result in full blown regime change. In this essay, those countries include Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, UAE, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. From the start, it should be clear that even though there was non-violent protest in many of these countries, this analysis places singular attention on what both Gurr and Ross and Miller call “oppositional” or “insurgent” terrorism where terrorist assaults are directed at state governments.

  4. First survey on ecological host range of aphid pathogenic fungi (Phylum Entomophthoromycota) in Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben Fekih, Ibtissem; Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir;

    2015-01-01

    Summary. The natural occurrence of fungal pathogens of aphids and their ecological host range was investigated in Tunisia from 2009 to 2012. The survey focused on aphid infesting different crops and weeds and included 10 different aphid species. Samples were collected from eight agricultural crops...... (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) and Neozygites fresenii (Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae). The occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi depended on the sampling area, the bioclimatic zone, and aphid species. P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana were the predominant pathogens infecting a wide range of aphid species whereas...... C. obscurus and N. fresenii were sporadically present on a limited number of aphid species. This study is the first survey on ecological host range of entomophthoralean fungi in Tunisia, and the first documentation of C. obscurus and N. fresenii to occur in Tunisia and Maghreb Region....

  5. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbel H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia. A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed.

  6. Further questions to the historiography of Arabic (but not only Arabic) mathematics from the perspective of Romance abbacus mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    which, if applied to Arabic material, might enable us to say more about the links between the Romance abbacus tradition and Arabic mu a¯mala¯t  teaching. Here I investigate a number of problem types and techniques which turn up in some but not necessarily in all of the following source types: - Romance......Since some years I have been engaged in a close reading of early Italian abbacus books and related material from the Ibero-Provençal orbit and in comparison of this material with Arabic mathematical writings. At the 7th North African Meeting on the History of Arab Mathematics in Marrakesh in 2002 I...... abbacus writings, - Byzantine writings of abbacus type, - Arabic mathematical writings of various kinds, - Sanskrit mathematical writings, in order to display the intricacies of the links between these - intricacies which force us to become aware of the shortcomings of our current knowledge, and hence...

  7. Hanna David`s Book: The Gifted Arab Child In Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre KOMEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it was examined Hanna David’s Book: The Gifted Arab Child in Israel. The book focuses on Arab gifted children living in Israel. In Israel three Arab groups are living: Muslim, Christian and Druze. This book contains 7 sections. First Section: A Brief History of Education of Arabs In The State of Israel, Second Section: Characteristics of the Arab Gifted Child in Israel, Third Section: Education of the Arab Gifted Child, Fourth Section: Enrichment Programs for the Gifted in the Arab Sector, Fifth section: Description of Various Kinds of Enrichment Program for the Arab Sector, Sixth section: A Minority within a Minority: Gifted Students in the Christian, Druze and Bedouin Sectors, Seventh Section: The talented Arab Girl: Between Tradition and Modernism. In this book, author gives some suggestions to reveal potential of Arab girls. Some of them are; family support, financial aid etc.

  8. Korea, Republic of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Korea started its nuclear activities when it joined the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957. In 1958 the Atomic Energy Law was enacted and the government established the Office of Atomic Energy in 1959. Its first research reactor was made critical in 1962, and commercial NPP operation began in 1978. From the middle of 1980s, The Republic of Korea launched its self-reliance programme for nuclear power, developing its own reactors, OPR-1000, which are in operation, and APR-1400 which is under construction. Han-Yang University and Seoul National University opened nuclear engineering courses in 1958 and 1959 respectively. Since then, the number of universities offering nuclear engineering courses increased gradually, amounting to seven. The universities have supplied key manpower for the Korean nuclear power programmes. In parallel, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) opened its Nuclear Training Centre in 1967, to support manpower development for the nuclear power programmes. Along with the progress of power programmes, a number of training centres have been created specializing in nuclear power operation, nuclear power maintenance, nuclear safety, etc. Nuclear human resource development in the Republic of Korea began with the establishment of a nuclear engineering department in two universities in the late 1950s. Then, the government awarded scholarships to more than 200 scientists for their study of nuclear energy abroad (1958-1962), as seeds for the future development of nuclear technology. In the 1960s, Korean nuclear education and training dealt with basic nuclear technology such as the utilization of radioisotopes and radiation protection. In the 1970s, education and training was oriented to basic nuclear power technology using the TRIGA Mark II research reactor at KAERI for personnel from the nuclear power project. This was expanded to include education and training in conventional fossil fuel power plants, and oversee on

  9. A morphological and molecular characterization of vine mealybug populations (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Mansour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Some vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret populations in Tunisian vineyards have been morphologically and genetically characterized. The morphological examination was based on the main distinctive characteristics of species of Planococcus, namely the number and distribution of the multilocular disc pores and tubular ducts on the adult female. This showed the existence of two different vine mealybug populations in Tunisia. Likewise, in the molecular analyses, two separate clades were revealed in the neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree, supporting the morphological studies and suggesting that there are two distinct populations of P. ficus on grapevine in Tunisia.

  10. Czech Republic : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Financial reporting and auditing requirements in the Czech Republic are currently in transition from complying with national standards to complying with International Accounting Standards (IAS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the European Union (EU) Directives. By law, the Czech Republic seeks to attain maximum compliance with the EU Fourth and Seventh Directives and the E...

  11. Testing Legal Boundaries within Arab Media Hubs: Reporting, Law and Politics in Three Media Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysiek, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic transformation of the Arab world raises important questions about the character of structural alterations within Arab regimes. This transition has effected several changes in the legal sphere of Arab media. Rejecting the paradigm of the Arab world’s democratization, this article argues for the Arab regimes’ ability to adjust to globalization trends without a substantial loss of power. Based on empirical evidence, the legal aspects that govern media organizations within free media zo...

  12. Prevalence, incidence, and epidemiological features of poliomyelitis in the Yemen Arab Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hajar, M. M.; Zeid, A. S.; Saif, M. A.; Parvez, M. A.; Steinglass, R. C.; Crain, S.

    1983-01-01

    There is a lack of reliable information on the extent of the poliomyelitis problem in developing countries, although the disease is thought to be more of a threat in urban than in rural areas. The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) began operations in Yemen in 1977, and it was considered appropriate to try to establish the prevalence of residual paralysis due to poliomyelitis in children aged 5-13 years, in order to estimate the annual incidence of clinical cases of the disease, and to ...

  13. Meso- and Micro-scale flow modelling in the Gulf of Suez, Arab Republic of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Frank, Helmut Paul;

    2003-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 10-year wind resource assessment programme in the Gulf of Suez are presented. The primary purpose has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity producing wind-turbine installations...

  14. 77 FR 19026 - Designation of Syrian Arab Republic for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ..., including guidance on the application process and additional information on eligibility, please visit the... shrunk by 2 to 4 percent in 2011, and a higher drop is expected in 2012. Tourism, which accounted for 6... guidance and that new fee waiver request is denied, you cannot re-file again. Note: Alternatively, you...

  15. Teacher Incentive Systems, Final Report. Policy Research Initiative: Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…

  16. Nuclear techniques used in prospecting for gold in the Arab Republic of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the consumption of gold increases, location of new mines and re-evaluation of ancient mines are needed to satisfy the future demand for ore. This has called for the development and adoption of nuclear methods for determining the concentration of gold in ores for prospecting and mining purposes. Thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied to ore samples from some gold mines that had been exploited in the Pharaonic times. Attempts to determine gold in the Barramiya Deposit area indicate that the epithermal activation technique can be applied almost non-destructively. (author)

  17. The Egyptian Arab Spring and Political Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El ashkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates and analyzes the phenomenon and concept of political Islam, the reasons of the increased role of the Islamists and their political and reformist tendencies in the light of the Egyptian revolution of Arab Spring, reasons and the main factors that have contributed on their advent into power and their influence in that time, the issue of the application of Islamic Sharia and complex realities about this dilemma. The revolutions of Arab Spring, including the Egyptian revolution, are considered one of the most important and most dangerous events in the XXI century after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, not only in the Middle East but throughout the world because of their impact on peace and global security. The growth of the phenomenon of political Islam and the advent of Islamists into power in Egypt has represented one of the most remarkable features of this sudden revolution. No doubt that the issue of the relationship between Islam and the state's political system raises many confusing questions for many people. In this sense the importance of this study will directly identify the fact that the leadership of Islamists in Egypt is not the implementation of Islamic Sharia but their movements and ideology.

  18. Diacritic Oriented Arabic Information Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Saleh Aloufi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic language support in search engines and operating systems is improved in recentyears. Searching in the Internet is reliable and can be compared to the excellent support forseveral other languages, including English. However, for text with diacritics there are somelimitations. For this reason, most Information retrieval (IR systems remove diacritics from textand ignore it for its complexity. Searching text with diacritics is important for some kinds ofdocuments, such as those of religious books, some newspapers and children stories. Thisresearch shows the design and development of the system that overcome the problem. Theproposed system considers diacritics. The proposed system includes the design complexity inthe retrieving algorithm rather than the information repository, which is database in this study.Also, this study analyses the results and the performance. Results are promising andperformance analysis shows methods to enhance design and increase the performance. Theproposed system can be integrated in search engines, text editors and any informationretrieval system that include Arabic text. Performance analysis of the proposed system showsthat this system is reliable. The proposed system is applied on database of Hadeeth, which isreligious book includes the prophet action and statements. The system can be applied in anykind of data repository.

  19. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  20. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bosch Vilarrubias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.

  1. The Enactment of Constituent Power in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Khalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Most modern states have adopted written and rigid constitutions. The existence of a constitution presupposes a constituent power, distinguished from other constituted powers, created by the constitution itself, and a constituent power presupposes the ability of a society to develop its capacity to act as a collective, in order to gain (or regain an active role in the organization of the lives of individuals and their social relationships with one another. For Pan-Arabism defenders, the (Arab nation exists as a cohesive group with its own unique characteristics, deriving from a common language, history and traditions. The ethnic concept of nation initially helped to justify an Arab revolution against other Muslims, but it was unable to distinguish individual Arab peoples or justify territorial Arab states. It was unavoidable then to switch to narrower concept of nation that covers citizens within defined state borders and living under the same laws. Despite the reference to the principle of popular sovereignty in most Arab Constitutions and the increasing attachment to territorially-defined states, there exists wide popular discontent with Arab regimes that continue to legitimize their authority based on Arab or Islamic nationalist discourses. Constitutions may fill the gap of legitimacy crisis in contemporary Arab States. They are a necessary tool for the nation to express its will but also for the individuals and communities within the state to protect themselves from the nation itself and from its expression, the state. Accordingly, there shall be red lines where the people, or their representatives, shall not transgress. Those red lines may be enumerated in a text, with particular legal inviolability that will be difficult (almost impossible to amend without joining a general consensus, that is not the equivalent to unanimity (difficult to obtain nor majority (easy to realize.

  2. English to Arabic Machine Translation Based on Reordring Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan A. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of Machine Translation (MT is set accurate translation by implement a system to achieve similar result with human translates as in case the translating English to Arabic. The translation is a creative process which involves interpretation of the text that given by the translator. In addition, the translation depends on the purpose for which it meant according to context, as well as the text context includes different size and types of sentences. In addition, English words order in target language is not the same order as the Arabic source language, so the translation from English to Arabic definitely needs effort to synchronize words between English and Arabic that based on matching rules grammar between both languages. Approach: This study focuses on the existing Context Free Grammar (CFG format as well as identifying the Part Of Speech (POS for single words and reordering the CFG for reorder purpose of English structure to Arabic structure and validate the reorder CFG constructed by the algorithm. Reordering algorithm is a system for translating structured English sentence in text to structure Arabic sentence in text that runs compatibly with English/Arabic interface. English dictionary is used to translate single word consist of only word categories (POS and Bi-lingual dictionary is used to translate single word consist of only word meaning relative to categories in approach format. Results: The domain area include twenty (20 abstracts containing ninety five (95 sentences have been tested in order to verify the authenticity of computer translation algorithm and the result were compared with human translation. The results obtain shows that the reordering rules is 81.855% accuracy on a translation from English Language to Arabic using an abstract from the European Psychiatry Journal. Conclusion: Based on the achieved results, we have managed to perform the syntactic reordering within an English sentence in text

  3. Isotopes to Study the coastal aquifer plain, Cap Bon, Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study area is located in the northeastern part of Tunisia about 60 km south of the Tunis city. It is bounded by the Gulf of Haematite in the East, Djebel Sidi Aberahmane in the West, The town of Nabeul in the south and the area of the town Kelibia in the north. The landscape is a coastal plain slightly sloping (3%) towards the sea. The groundwater of the Oriental coast aquifer system occurs mainly at two levels, a shallow aquifer up to depths of about 50 m whose reservoir is consisted by sediments of the Plio quaternary and a deep aquifer between about 150 and 400 m located in the sand stone formations of Miocene of the anticline of Djebel Sidi Abderrahmene. The climate of the region is semi-arid to sub-humid and of Mediterranean type. There are no perennial rivers in this region; but intense storms occasionally cause surface runoff, which is discharged by the oueds. The study is related to a technical cooperation project with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, aimed at the use of isotope techniques to study the seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifers of Cap Bon in Tunisia. In this regard, a better understanding of the recharge and flow regime as well as the origin or salinity of the groundwater was required. To reach this goal, isotope and geochemical investigations were carried out. Water samples were taken from wells, boreholes from deep and shallow aquifer of the Oriental coastal aquifer located between Beni Khiar in the south and Kelibia in the north. The samples were analysed for their chemical and isotopic compositions (18O, 2H, 3H, 13C, 14C, 34S). In the following, the results of these analyses are presented and discussed in terms of the recharge and flow regime of the groundwater and the origin and evolution of its salinity. The results of geochemical and isotopic studies have shown that the groundwater is very eterogeneous and suggest the aquifer is replenished by recent water coming from direct infiltration from rain. At

  4. Energy Poverty in the Arab World: The Case of Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    El-Katiri, Laura; Fattouh, Bassam

    2011-01-01

    While much of the emphasis of the literature on energy poverty is on the prevalence of the phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, little has been written about energy poverty in the Arab world. Traditionally having being seen as one of the world’s most energy rich regions, the Arab world has in recent years often been overlooked as a region which suffers severely from energy poverty itself. In 2002, about 65 million people in the Arab world had no access to electricity, and an addi...

  5. Women on the Arab labour market. Option becoming reality

    OpenAIRE

    Górak-Sosnowska, Katarzyna

    2004-01-01

    The key potential of Arab economies, currently rather turning into their curse, is the human capital. According to the Arab Human Development Report 2002 there are approximately 6 million entrants yearly to the Arab labour market (UNDP 2002: 10) and the labour force is expected to grow in the next 10 years to 3,4% yearly―twice as much as in other developing regions (World Bank 2003: 3). The ‘demographic gift’―the growing number of labour force and decreasing dependency ratio, might lead to ec...

  6. The Impact of the Fracking Boom on Arab Oil Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the impact of the U.S. fracking boom on U.S. oil imports, on Arab oil exports, and on the global price of crude oil. First, I investigate the extent to which this oil boom has caused Arab oil exports to the United States to decline since late 2008. Second, I examine to what extent increased U.S. exports of refined products made from domestically produced crude oil have caused Arab oil exports to the rest of the world to decline. Third, the article ...

  7. The Arab-Americans: a demographic and cultural profile

    OpenAIRE

    Le Goff, Kristy D.

    1996-01-01

    After the passage of the 1965 immigration and Naturalization Act, for the first time in U.S. history, the United States acquired a large group of immigrants from Arab Muslim countries. This immigration is so recent that relatively little is known about it. This thesis is a demographic and cultural examination of the Arab community in America. It asks, who the Arab-Americans are, where they come from, where they go in America, how they are assimilating, and how they organize and act socially, ...

  8. Arab regional systems of innovation: characteristics and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the definition of systems of innovation used in the literature to discuss the systems of innovation in the Arab region. We explain that the two common characteristics of poor Arab regional systems of innovation is apparent from both the poor subsystems of education, S&T and R&D and ICT institutions across the Arab countries and the heavy concentration of R&D activities within both public and universities sectors and v...

  9. Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae of human leishmaniosis sites in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghrab J.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the phlebotomine sandfly populations in Tunisian leishmaniosis foci, an entomological survey was carried out through three entomological seasons (2002-2003-2004 in 19 visceral and cutaneous leishmaniosis areas, located in six bioclimatic zones. Sandfly collections were based on light and sticky traps placed around human leishmaniosis cases. 8,722 phlebotomine sandflies belonging to 12 species were collected. The dominance of subgenus Larroussius species in northern foci, Phlebotomus papatasi in south-western foci and their co-dominance in the centre of the country is in accordance with the distribution of Leishmania infantum and L. major in Tunisia. The low density found in the historical zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniosis focus of Metlaoui in the south-west may indicate the high competence of the local populations. Studied phlebotomine settlements have showed a low specific diversity in most of the studied sites. In L. infantum areas, the dominant species were respectively: P. perfiliewi in the cutaneous leishmaniosis site of the humid bioclimatic stage, P. perniciosus in the cutaneous and visceral leishmaniosis foci of semi-arid and arid bioclimatic stages and P. longicuspis in the visceral leishmaniosis focus of saharan bioclimate. In the zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniosis foci, P. papatasi was a dominant species. In the well-known southeastern foci of cutaneous leishmaniosis due to L. killicki, P. sergenti was a dominant species with P. perniciosus. In the central emerging foci of L. killicki, P. perniciosus was a dominant species in some sites whereas it was very rare in others. In these sites, the subgenus Paraphlebotomus was always present with a higher abundance of P. alexandri than P. sergenti.

  10. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools.

  11. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools. PMID:15217744

  12. Tunisia; Request for a Stand-By Arrangement: Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    Tunisia’s macroeconomic situation has recovered from the post-revolution trough, but fiscal and external buffers have been eroded. Prudent management of monetary policy is crucial for short-term macroeconomic stabilization goals and to build external buffers. The challenges arise from social and economic disparities and high youth unemployment. The economic reform agenda appropriately aims at addressing these challenges through short-term stabilization goals while laying the foundations for...

  13. 77 FR 40790 - Republic of Tunisia Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... 11, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Haven Cruz-Hubbard, Office of General Counsel, U.S. Agency... obligation it may have under an Eligible Note to indemnify and hold harmless a Noteholder from taxes or governmental charges or any expense arising out of taxes or any other governmental charges relating to...

  14. ArabicTutor: a Multimedia m-Learning Platform for Learning Arabic Spelling and Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Erradi, A.; Al-kailani, Lubna; Almerekhi, Hind; Nahia, Sajeda

    2012-01-01

    Internet-enabled Mobile devices are increasingly used for enhancing the learning experience particularly for language learning. They can be exploited to allow learners to access and interact with multimedia learning resources from anywhere and at any time while offering an enhanced user experience. There are many systems for English learning such as SpellingCity.com. However there aren’t many such mobile learning tools for Arabic. In this context, this paper addresses the need to leverage mob...

  15. The semantics of English Borrowings in Arabic Media Language: The case of Arab Gulf States Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. H. Al-Athwary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the semantics of English loanwords in Arabic media language (AML. The loanword data are collected from a number of Arab Gulf states newspapers (AGSNs. They  are analyzed semantically from the points of view of semantic change, semantic domains, and the phenomenon of synonymy resulting from lexical borrowing. The semantic analysis has revealed that AML borrowings from English occur in fifteen distinctive semantic domains. Domains that are related to terms of technical and scientific nature are found ranking much higher (9% - 18% than those domains containing nontechnical elements (1% - 8% with the computer and technology category (18% is the most dominant domain. Almost all common mechanisms of semantic change (extension, restriction, amelioration, pejoration, and metaphorical extension are found at work in the context of AML borrowings. The tendency of semantic change in the overwhelming majority of AML borrowings is towards restriction.  Factors like need, semantic similarity, and factors of social and psychological considerations (e.g. prestige, taboo seem to be the potent factors at interplay in semantic change. The first two, i.e. need and semantic similarity, are the most common reasons in most types of semantic change. The problem of synonymy lies in those loanwords that have “Arabic equivalents” in the language. The study claims that this phenomenon could be attributed to the two simultaneous processes of lexical borrowing and?ištiqa:q (the modern efforts of deriving equivalent neologisms.Keywords: loanwords, semantic change, semantic domains, synonymy, Arabic media language

  16. Economic Performance Of the Arabic Book Translation Industry in Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge has always been at the heart of economic growth and development. It is disseminated chiefly through the different stages of education, R&D, the mass media and the translation industry. In Arab countries there has been a widespread impression that there is a low level of translation activities, which in turn has led to a low output of the translation industry in those countries. This paper addresses this issue; its overall objectives are (1) to describe the economic performance of th...

  17. Arab Emirates: Middle East oasis of development; Emirados Arabes: o oasis do desenvolvimento no Oriente Medio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ighor Botti de; Bravo, Rafaela Gomes [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais

    2008-07-01

    The referred article main focus is to illustrate a parameter between the United Arab Emirates development - from its oil historic (including its peek, in the 1970's decade) - and the country preoccupation with the economic diversification, considering that the petroleum natural deposits are finite. Even though they are one of the biggest petroleum holders in the world, the country governors are already worried about the economy's future. The government proposal consists in investing their exorbitant royalties, from the oil industry, in mega constructions and 'futuristic' innovations, mainly in Dubai. According to forecasts made by the division of active and investments management from the Saudi bank National Commercial Bank (in the beginning of the year of 2008) the United Arab Emirates might become the country with the most independence in the oil and gas industry between the Gulf Cooperation Council members and that about 70% of the country's GDP, gross domestic production, will come from the non-hydrocarbon sectors. This means that the United Arab Emirates can be considered as a good example in which refers to the regional economy diversification. (author)

  18. Arab Spring vs. Zero Problems Policy Impact of the Arab Spring on Trade Expansion of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Sorhun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Turkey has historically concentrated its trade with the European Union (EU it has diversified its trade markets with the neighbouring regions and different group of countries during the last decade. Among them, Arab countries have come into prominence. Especially, following the “zero problems with neighbours” policy (ZPN, pursued by Turkey since 2002, the trade volume with the Middle Eastern neighbours has increased faster than that with its traditional partners. Nevertheless so called “Arab Spring” has started to manifest its effects on this trend. It deteriorates not only the economies of the concerned countries but also Turkey’s trade expansion. This paper aims: (i to test through a gravity model the positive impacts of the ZPN policy and the negative impact of the Arab Spring on the trade expansion with the Spring Countries; and (ii to reveal the positive impact of the policy change and the negative impact of the uprising movements on the realization of trade potential by Turkey in the Spring Countries.

  19. Arabic Text Summarization Based on Latent Semantic Analysis to Enhance Arabic Documents Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Froud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Documents Clustering is an important task for obtaining good results with the traditional Information Retrieval (IR systems especially with the rapid growth of the number of online documents present in Arabic language. Documents clustering aim to automatically group similar documents in one cluster using different similarity/distance measures. This task is often affected by the documents length, useful information on the documents is often accompanied by a large amount of noise, and therefore it is necessary to eliminate this noise while keeping useful information to boost the performance of Documents clustering. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the impact of text summarization using the Latent Semantic Analysis Model on Arabic Documents Clustering in order to solve problems cited above, using five similarity/distance measures: Euclidean Distance, Cosine Similarity, Jaccard Coefficient, PearsonCorrelation Coefficient and Averaged Kullback-Leibler Divergence, for two times: without and with stemming. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed approach effectively solves the problems of noisy information and documents length, and thus significantly improve the clustering performance.

  20. ARABIC TEXT SUMMARIZATION BASED ON LATENT SEMANTIC ANALYSIS TO ENHANCE ARABIC DOCUMENTS CLUSTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Froud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Documents Clustering is an important task for obtaining good results with the traditional Information Retrieval (IR systems especially with the rapid growth of the number of online documents present in Arabic language. Documents clustering aim to automatically group similar documents in one cluster using different similarity/distance measures. This task is often affected by the documents length, useful information on the documents is often accompanied by a large amount of noise, and therefore it is necessary to eliminate this noise while keeping useful information to boost the performance of Documents clustering. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the impact of text summarization using the Latent Semantic Analysis Model on Arabic Documents Clustering in order to solve problems cited above, using five similarity/distance measures: Euclidean Distance, Cosine Similarity, Jaccard Coefficient, Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Averaged Kullback-Leibler Divergence, for two times: without and with stemming. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed approach effectively solves the problems of noisy information and documents length, and thus significantly improve the clustering performance.

  1. Popular and formal Islam, and supralocal relations : the Highlands of Northwestern Tunisia, 1800-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper explores the interplay between local popular Islam and the repeated introduction of formal Islam in Khrumiria, North-western Tunisia, against the background of its social and political structure and the radical changes the latter underwent in the colonial and post-colonial era. The

  2. Entrepreneurship Training and Self-Employment among University Graduates : Evidence from a Randomized Trial In Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Premand, Patrick; Brodmann, Stefanie; Almeida, Rita K.; Grun, Rebekka; Barouni, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    In economies characterized by low labor demand and high rates of youth unemployment, entrepreneurship training has the potential to enable youth to gain skills and create their own jobs. This paper presents experimental evidence on a new entrepreneurship track that provides business training and personalized coaching to university students in Tunisia. Undergraduates in the final year of li...

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis and Epidemic History of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 in Tunisia, North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhi, Mouna; Ghedira, Kais; Chouikha, Anissa; Djebbi, Ahlem; Cheikh, Imed; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Sadraoui, Amel; Hammami, Walid; Azouz, Msaddek; Ben Mami, Nabil; Triki, Henda

    2016-01-01

    HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2) has a worldwide distribution with prevalence rates that vary from country to country. High genetic diversity and long-term endemicity were suggested in West African countries. A global dispersal of HCV-2 would have occurred during the 20th century, especially in European countries. In Tunisia, genotype 2 was the second prevalent genotype after genotype 1 and most isolates belong to subtypes 2c and 2k. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on the NS5B genomic sequences of 113 Tunisian HCV isolates from subtypes 2c and 2k were carried out. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin and the spread of these subtypes circulating in Tunisia. Phylogenetic analyses of HCV-2c sequences suggest the absence of country-specific or time-specific variants. In contrast, the phylogenetic grouping of HCV-2k sequences shows the existence of two major genetic clusters that may represent two distinct circulating variants. Coalescent analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of Tunisian HCV-2c around 1886 (1869-1902) before the introduction of HCV-2k in 1901 (1867-1931). Our findings suggest that the introduction of HCV-2c in Tunisia is possibly a result of population movements between Tunisia and European population following the French colonization. PMID:27100294

  4. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  5. Scope, Relevance and Challenges of Financing Higher Education: The Case of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdessalem, Tahar

    2011-01-01

    Like other developing countries, Tunisia has allocated increasing levels of resources to education, particularly higher education, over the past few decades, mainly through public funding. From 2005 to 2008, public expenditure on education amounted to around 7.4% of GDP, with 2% allocated to higher education. Recently, however, budgetary…

  6. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.

  7. Corps de la Paix Tunisie: Cours de situation (Peace Corps Tunisia: Situation Course).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps (Tunisia).

    This guide, entirely in French, is designed for language training of Peace Corps workers in Tunisia and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 25 theme-based lessons, each containing a situational dialogue, vocabulary, and exercises. The exercises focus more on new vocabulary and its usage than on systematic grammar…

  8. First report of rust caused by Puccinia carduorum on Italian thistle in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus L.), family Asteraceae, is a common weed in rangelands, pasturelands, and cereal crops in Tunisia where it is rapidly spreading and becoming agriculturally important due to its competitive ability. It is also a problematic invasive weed in the western United S...

  9. Urban Street Signs in the Linguistic Landscape of Tunisia: Tensions in Policy, Representation, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Slim Ben Slimane

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study of linguistic landscape (LL) (Landry & Bourhis, 1997), describes the urban multilingual practices of Tunisia as evidenced by its policy statements, street signage, and local perceptions. Data for this investigation were collected primarily from publicly visible signage in both the capital city (Tunis), and in the suburb (La…

  10. High-school Students’ Beliefs about Learning English and Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Meshkat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a comparative study exploring Iranian high-school students’ beliefs about learning English and Arabic. Horwitz’s (1987 Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI was used to collect data from 540 high-school students. One-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to analyze the data. The MANOVA results revealed significant differences (F (5, 533 = 47.72, P =.000 between students’ beliefs about learning English and Arabic in four categories of the BALLI: foreign language aptitude, the nature of language learning, learning and communication strategies, and motivation and expectations. Students’ beliefs about the difficulty of learning English and Arabic were not significantly different. The findings might be influential in developing and designing more effective language teaching programs in high-school context.Keywords: Foreign language learning, Beliefs about language learning, BALLI, High-school students, Arabic

  11. Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidan, A A; Jalab, Hamid A; Alanazi, Hamdan O; Alnaqeib, Rami

    2010-01-01

    The ambition of a character recognition system is to transform a text document typed on paper into a digital format that can be manipulated by word processor software Unlike other languages, Arabic has unique features, while other language doesn't have, from this language these are seven or eight language such as ordo, jewie and Persian writing, Arabic has twenty eight letters, each of which can be linked in three different ways or separated depending on the case. The difficulty of the Arabic handwriting recognition is that, the accuracy of the character recognition which affects on the accuracy of the word recognition, in additional there is also two or three from for each character, the suggested solution by using artificial neural network can solve the problem and overcome the difficulty of Arabic handwriting recognition.

  12. Immigrant Arab Americans and alcohol use: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-12-01

    English proficiency is associated with alcohol use in some immigrants groups, but little is known about its association among Arab Americans. Ethnographic work suggests gender, religion, education, and age influence prevalence of alcohol use among Arab Americans. Two years prospective study of recent Iraqi refugees and non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan using bilingual surveys and interviewers. At Time 1, prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 20.5 % with males, Christians, better educated, older, and those with greater proficiency in English more likely to report ever drank. At Time 2, lifetime prevalence of drinking had increased to 34.0 %. In analysis of male new drinkers, risk factors were Christian, older age and greater proficiency in English. This study confirms drinking among recent immigrant Arab Americans varies by subgroups and suggests English proficiency may contribute to the increase in prevalence over time.

  13. arTenTen: Arabic Corpus and Word Sketches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressy Arts

    2014-12-01

    The article also presents the ‘sketch grammar’ (the basis for the word sketches in detail, describes the process of building and processing the corpus, and considers the role of the corpus in additional research on Arabic.

  14. [Measure in Arabic and Middle Age medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R

    1995-01-01

    During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters.

  15. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin

    2008-01-01

    to its English translation and that overall, the English text is the more explicit. Now, does this mean that English generally is more explicit in its use of referring expressions, or is the difference due, rather, to the need of the TL text to be more explicit in order to facilitate the understanding......The use of referring expressions (proper nouns, noun phrases [NPs] and pronouns) in a target language [TL] text may differ from the source language [SL] text with regard to how explicit they are: One may have a pronoun (less explicit) where the other has a proper noun (more explicit), or one may...... have an indefinite NP (less explicit) where the other has a definite NP (more explicit). But are these differences in any way systematic? In an article in Babel, Yowell Y. Aziz shows that remarkable differences obtain in the explicitness of various referring expressions when an Arabic text is compared...

  16. Reference in English-Arabic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2007-01-01

    to its English translation and that overall, the English text is the more explicit. Now, does this mean that English generally is more explicit in its use of referring expressions, or is the difference due, rather, to the need of the TL text to be more explicit in order to facilitate the understanding......The use of referring expressions (proper nouns, noun phrases [NPs] and pronouns) in a target language [TL] text may differ from the source language [SL] text with regard to how explicit they are: One may have a pronoun (less explicit) where the other has a proper noun (more explicit), or one may...... have an indefinite NP (less explicit) where the other has a definite NP (more explicit). But are these differences in any way systematic? In an article in Babel, Yowell Y. Aziz shows that remarkable differences obtain in the explicitness of various referring expressions when an Arabic text is compared...

  17. Semantic Extraction of Arabic Multiword Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Meghawry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A considerable interest has been given to Multiword Expression (MWEs identification and treatment. The identification of MWEs affects the q uality of results of different tasks heavily used in natural language processing (NLP such as p arsing and generation. Different approaches for MWEs identification have been applie d such as statistical methods which employed as an inexpensive and language independent way of finding co-occurrence patterns. Another approach relays on linguistic methods for i dentification, which employ information such as part of speech (POS filters and lexical al ignment between languages is also used and produced more targeted candidate lists. This paper presents a framework for extracting Arabic MWEs (nominal or verbal MWEs for bi-gram using hyb rid approach. The proposed approach starts with applying statistical method and then ut ilizes linguistic rules in order to enhance the results by extracting only patterns that match rele vant language rule. The proposed hybrid approach outperforms other traditional approaches.

  18. [Measure in Arabic and Middle Age medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R

    1995-01-01

    During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters. PMID:11640512

  19. Contribution to Semantic Analysis of Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Zouaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for determining the adequate sense of Arabic words. For that, we propose an algorithm based on information retrieval measures to identify the context of use that is the closest to the sentence containing the word to be disambiguated. The contexts of use represent a set of sentences that indicates a particular sense of the ambiguous word. These contexts are generated using the words that define the senses of the ambiguous words, the exact string-matching algorithm, and the corpus. We use the measures employed in the domain of information retrieval, Harman, Croft, and Okapi combined to the Lesk algorithm, to assign the correct sense of those proposed.

  20. Nuclear power in Czech and Slovak Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power in Czech and Slovak Republics has been described. Nuclear power plants contribute 28% to the whole energy production (12.1 TWh in Czech republic and 11.7 in Slovak Republic). The Czech and Slovak Republics' nuclear power generation programme assumes to build in these Republics further nuclear power stations with higher efficiency and better safety parameters. 12 figs, 5 tabs

  1. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghini Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. Results The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. Discussion The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High. Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal

  2. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  3. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

    OpenAIRE

    Serghini Mansour; Boutayeb Abdesslam

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare t...

  4. Market Power versus Efficient-Structure in Arab GCC Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Muharrami, Saeed; Matthews, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of the Arab GCC banking industry in the context of the Structure-Conduct-Performance hypothesis in the period 1993-2002. The paper uses panel estimation differentiating between bank fixed effects and country fixed effects. It examines the Relative-Market-Power and the Efficient-Structure hypotheses differentiating between the two by employing a non-parametric measure of technical efficiency, and finds that the banking industry in the Arab GCC countries is ...

  5. Evaluating English to Arabic Machine Translation Using BLEU

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed N. Al-Kabi; Taghreed M. Hailat; Emad M. Al-Shawakfa; Izzat M. AlSmadi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare the effectiveness of two popular machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system) used to translate English sentences into Arabic relative to the effectiveness of English to Arabic human translation. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU) method, which was adopted and implemented to achieve the main goal of this study. BLEU meth...

  6. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  7. Arabic Instructors' Attitudes on Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Gokcora; Evrim Eveyik-Aydin

    2004-01-01

    This is a study on Arabic instructors' perceptions on some aspects of communicative language teaching. The data were gathered through an attitude scale and some focus group and one-on-one interviews in a major foreign language institute involving 96 Arabic instructors. The survey included a) the significance of grammar; b) error correction; c) pair and group work; and d) student and teacher roles dimensions of communicative language teaching. Discussion of the survey resu...

  8. Ethnic inequalities in mortality: the case of Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although nearly 112 million residents of the United States belong to a non-white ethnic group, the literature about differences in health indicators across ethnic groups is limited almost exclusively to Hispanics. Features of the social experience of many ethnic groups including immigration, discrimination, and acculturation may plausibly influence mortality risk. We explored life expectancy and age-adjusted mortality risk of Arab-Americans (AAs, relative to non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan, the state with the largest per capita population of AAs in the US. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were collected about all deaths to AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites in Michigan between 1990 and 2007, and year 2000 census data were collected for population denominators. We calculated life expectancy, age-adjusted all-cause, cause-specific, and age-specific mortality rates stratified by ethnicity and gender among AAs and non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites. Among AAs, life expectancies among men and women were 2.0 and 1.4 years lower than among non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men and women, respectively. AA men had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White men due to infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and homicide. AA women had higher mortality than non-Arab and non-Hispanic White women due to chronic diseases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite better education and higher income, AAs have higher age-adjusted mortality risk than non-Arab and non-Hispanic Whites, particularly due to chronic diseases. Features specific to AA culture may explain some of these findings.

  9. Validation of the Arabic version of the asthma control test

    OpenAIRE

    Lababidi H; Hijaoui A; Zarzour M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Asthma control test (ACT) has been devised to assess the degree of asthma control in out-patients setting. The aim of this study is to validate the Arabic version of ACT. Materials and Methods: Patients completed the Arabic version of ACT during regular visit to one of two asthma specialists. Spirometry was obtained. The asthma specialist rated asthma control using a 5-point scale and indicated modification in management as step up, same or step down of asthma treatment. Results:...

  10. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  11. Regional systems of innovation in the Arab region

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the definition of systems of innovation used in the literature to examine the existence, characteristics and implications of the regional systems of innovation in the Arab region. We examine three hypotheses, that the regional systems of innovation exist but are characterized by serious weaknesses in the Arab region compared with other world regions, that the structure of the economy has a significant effect in the pe...

  12. Immigrant workers and language formation: Gulf Pidgin Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei A. AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the oil boom of the 1970s, Saudi Arabia and the countries on the western coast of the Arab Gulf, i.e. Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, and Qatar, have been witnessing both a significant increase in their non-national labour force and considerable urbanization. Most of the immigrant workers come from South and South-East Asia, with smaller number of expatriates from other regions. The overwhelming majority of these foreign workers live and work i...

  13. A Broad Analysis of the Legal Status of Women in Tunisia%突尼斯妇女法律地位浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    [突尼斯]伊美娜

    2012-01-01

    Tunisian women's rights experience is identified as the forefront of women' s fights in the entire Muslim world. Many well - known experts in gender studies and women organizations consider Tunisian women' s fights as the model of women's rights in Africa and the Arab world. Tunisia is considered as the leading country in terms of women fights protection and achievements among African and Ar- ab countries. Tunisian women' s fights prominent experience comes out from histori- cal, political and social reasons. First, the 19th century reform movement in Tunisia had very big influence on social emancipation and Tunisian intellectuals' ideology. Moreover, the "Kairouan Marriage Contract", as part of the Tunisian mar- riage traditions, has helped with the implementation of monogamy after independ- ence. Second, the Tunisian Government considers women fights protection as one of the most important strategic policies of development. Due to lack of natural re- sources, Tunisia can only rely on human resources development; therefore the Tuni- sian Government considers the protection of women' s legal status as one of the major projects of national development. Third, since the 1980s, Tunisian women' s organ- izations have played an important role in promoting women' s social status. After the political change in 2010, Islamist party' s power is expanding gradually, which is seen as a threat to Tunisian women' s legal status. The author argues that impact of the Islamist party' s expanding power will be very limited; it is Tunisia' s economic and social problems that will form a big challenge for Tunisian women' s social status.%突尼斯在保障妇女权益方面有丰富的经验。在维护妇女法律地位方面,突尼斯是非洲和阿拉伯国家中取得最大成就的国家之一。主要原因有三:第一是历史原因,突尼斯改革运动为社会解放和知识分子的意识形态变化奠定了良好基础。“凯鲁

  14. Experiments on Automatic Recognition of Nonnative Arabic Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selouani Sid-Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic recognition of foreign-accented Arabic speech is a challenging task since it involves a large number of nonnative accents. As well, the nonnative speech data available for training are generally insufficient. Moreover, as compared to other languages, the Arabic language has sparked a relatively small number of research efforts. In this paper, we are concerned with the problem of nonnative speech in a speaker independent, large-vocabulary speech recognition system for modern standard Arabic (MSA. We analyze some major differences at the phonetic level in order to determine which phonemes have a significant part in the recognition performance for both native and nonnative speakers. Special attention is given to specific Arabic phonemes. The performance of an HMM-based Arabic speech recognition system is analyzed with respect to speaker gender and its native origin. The WestPoint modern standard Arabic database from the language data consortium (LDC and the hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK are used throughout all experiments. Our study shows that the best performance in the overall phoneme recognition is obtained when nonnative speakers are involved in both training and testing phases. This is not the case when a language model and phonetic lattice networks are incorporated in the system. At the phonetic level, the results show that female nonnative speakers perform better than nonnative male speakers, and that emphatic phonemes yield a significant decrease in performance when they are uttered by both male and female nonnative speakers.

  15. Development of the Arabic Version of Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Mohamed; Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Bukhari, Manal; Alharethy, Sami

    2014-08-01

    The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a 25-item self-administered questionnaire. It is a noninvasive tool for measuring the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of people's lives. The purposes of the present study were to develop an Arabic version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the normal Arabic population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This was a prospective study that was carried out at the Communication and Swallowing Disorders Unit, King Saud University. The generated Arabic DHI was administered to 94 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 98 control subjects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Arabic DHI showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Arabic DHI (r = 0.9, p = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (p DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patients and can be used by Arabic language speakers.

  16. Mobile Arabchat: An Arabic Mobile-Based Conversational Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hijjawi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The conversation automation/simulation between a user and machine evolved during the last years. A number of research-based systems known as conversational agents has been developed to address this challenge. A conversational Agent is a program that attempts to simulate conversations between the human and machine. Few of these programs targeted the mobile-based users to handle the conversations between them and a mobile device through an embodied spoken character. Wireless communication has been rapidly extended with the expansion of mobile services. Therefore, this paper discusses the proposing and developing a framework of a mobile-based conversational agent called Mobile ArabChat to handle the Arabic conversations between the Arab users and mobile device. To best of our knowledge, there are no such applications that address this challenge for Arab mobile-based users. An Android based application was developed in this paper, and it has been tested and evaluated in a large real environment. Evaluation results show that the Mobile ArabChat works properly, and there is a need for such a system for Arab users.

  17. Computer Crime and Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Glykner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with computer crime in Czech Republic considering the legal point of view. It makes the reader familiar with development of cyber crime in the world and especially in Czech Republic. It deeply describes czech legal framework of fighting computer crime and its international context. This description contains examples of particular crimes and articles of law that apply to them. The paper also describes institutions that are engaged in combating this crime. Afterwards ...

  18. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies; Les Etats-Unis et les monarchie arabes du Golfe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kechichian, J.A

    1999-07-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  19. Communities of Practice in an Arabic Culture: Wenger’s Model and the United Arab Emirates Implications for Online Learning

    OpenAIRE

    LAMONTAGNE, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Communities of Practice in an Arabic Culture: Wenger’s Model and the United Arab Emirates Implications for Online Learning Mark LAMONTAGNE, M.Ed. Canadore College Ontorio, CANADA ABSTRACT With the advent of globalization and the proliferation of online learning, the creation of culturally sensitive online learning environments takes on increasing importance. Online education provides new opportunities for learners from different cultural backgrounds to come tog...

  20. Microgeographical distribution of two chromosomal races of house mice in Tunisia: pattern and origin of habitat partitioning.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Chatti; Ganem, G.; Benzekri, K; Catalan, J.; Britton-davidian, J; Saïd, K

    1999-01-01

    Two chromosomal races of the house mouse occur in Tunisia, a standard morph (40St) found all over the country, and a derived morph (22Rb) occurring only in central Tunisia. In this region, habitat partitioning between the two morphs was investigated by a microgeographical analysis of their distribution, assessing habitat characteristics and demographic parameters. Results showed that the 22Rb mice always occurred in the oldest sections of towns (medinas), often extending to more recent surrou...

  1. First Report on Natural Infection of Phlebotomus sergenti with Leishmania Promastigotes in the Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus in Southeastern Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Tabbabi, Ahmed; Bousslimi, Nadia; Rhim, Adel; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2011-01-01

    During September 2010, 133 female sand flies were caught inside houses of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the focus for this disease in southeastern Tunisia and subsequently dissected. One specimen was positive for Leishmania protozoa. This sand fly species was identified as Phlebotomus sergenti, and the parasite was identified as L. tropica. This is the first report of P. sergenti involvement in transmission of L. tropica in Tunisia.

  2. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire in Arab Gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-07-01

    Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring self-reported driving style and investigating the relationship between driving behaviour and accident involvement. In spite of the fact that Arab Gulf countries have a higher road accident fatality rate compared to European countries and USA, the DBQ has not been used in Arab countries so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ, then to examine the relationships between the factors of the DBQ and accident involvement, and finally to compare DBQ scores between the two gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, 1110 Qatari (263 females and 847 males) and 1286 UAE drivers (294 females and 992 males) filled a survey questionnaire including the DBQ and background information. The results showed that UAE drivers scored higher on almost all DBQ items than Qatari drivers. Surprisingly, only very small differences between men and women on the DBQ item scores were found in UAE. Factor analysis resulted in four factors, which were named as errors, pushing-speeding violations, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations. However, there were a number of differences in the factor structure of the DBQ in UAE and Qatar when compared to the theoretical four-factor structure of the DBQ. Reliabilities of some subscales were also questionably lower than in the original British data. Logistic regression analyses showed that errors, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations predicted accident involvement in Qatar but not in UAE after controlling the effect of the demographic variables (age, sex, and annual mileage).

  3. Word Use and Placement Associating Arabs and Arab-Americans with Terrorism in the American Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bizri, Siwar

    2007-01-01

    Terrorism and conflict is ongoing, and in todayâ s world it appears to be increasing, however, numerous people have blamed the swell in violence on specific sources. In regards to September 11 and similar terrorist incidents, for example, it is quite easy for the media, as well as other sources, to place responsibility in the hands of a specific group or religion. In this case, Islam, Arabs or the Middle East region seems to be connected to these violent incidents. The reality of the situ...

  4. BAHASA ARAB SEBAGAI BAHASA KEDUA (KAJIAN TEORETIS PEMEROLEHAN BAHASA ARAB PADA SISWA NON-NATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Habibi Syahid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the issue of language acquisition is interesting. Acquisition as an unconscious process is important when someone acquire a language. It contrasted with learning, which is a conscious process. The process of language acquisition and language learning influences by some factors. The process of language acquisition can be viewed from the perspectives of psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic, and neurolinguistic. From neurolinguistics perspective examines the nervous system in the human brain has an important role the process of acquiring a foreign language; includes external and internal factors of the human environment. This article discusses the process of Arabic language acquisition for non-native students.

  5. Digital Vernaculars: An Investigation of Najdi Arabic in Multilingual Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Alothman, Ebtesam Saleh

    2012-01-01

    The present study is conducted within the borders of multilingual Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) . It aims at investigating the orthographic representation of Najdi Arabic in Internet Relay Chat (IRC). Along with this basic purpose, the study examines the communicative functions of multilingual practices in representing Najdi Arabic online. These practices include code-switching between languages (English-Arabic) and script-switching between scripts (Arabic-Roman). In addition, it is w...

  6. PLATFORM OF TRANSCRIPTION THE OLD ARABIC MANUSCRIPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine EL MAKHFI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The old manuscripts kept in libraries are a part of the richest cultural heritage and legacy of civilizations. Digitalization is a solution for the preservation of this cultural and historical heritage, which is very difficult to handle for users. On the other hand, restriction of access to national heritage manuscript is related to the concern to preserve the manuscripts physically manipulated which contribute to their accelerated degradation, takinginto consideration these limitations on access while ensuring preservation of original manuscripts, the solution widely adopted is based partly on the digitization of this heritage manuscript, and partly on the development of management platforms and diffusion of this wealth of knowledge digitized. We propose in this paper a platform of transcription and establishment by annotating images of manuscripts, these annotations are respecting a XML model. The search in the images of a handwritten document, the rich functionality, intuitive user interface, portability, extensibility and the powerful of the XML technology all make the platform of transcription and establishment an ideal explorer for a specialists and readers of ancient Arabic manuscripts.

  7. Sentiment Analyzer for Arabic Comments System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Dine Ali Hamouda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, the number of users of social network is increasing. Millions of users share opinions on different aspects of life every day. Therefore social network are rich sources of data for opinion mining and sentiment analysis. Also users have become more interested in following news pages on Facebook. Several posts; political for example, have thousands of users’ comments that agree/disagree with the post content. Such comments can be a good indicator for the community opinion about the post content. For politicians, marketers, decision makers …, it is required to make sentiment analysis to know the percentage of users agree, disagree and neutral respect to a post. This raised the need to analyze theusers’ comments in Facebook. We focused on Arabic Facebook news pages for the task of sentiment analysis. We developed a corpus for sentiment analysis and opinion mining purposes. Then, we used different machine learning algorithms – decision tree, support vector machines, and naive bayes - to develop sentiment analyzer. The performance of the system using each technique was evaluated and compared with others.

  8. Hybrid Method for Tagging Arabic Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina Tlili-Guiassa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many natural language expressions are ambiguous and need to draw on other sources of information to be interpreted. Interpretation of the word ﺗﻌﺎون to be considered as a noun or a verb depends on the presence of contextual cues. This study proposes a hybrid method of based- rules and a machine learning method for tagging Arabic words. So this method is based firstly on rules (that considered the post-position, ending of a word and patterns and then the anomaly is corrected by adopting a memory-based learning method (MBL. The memory based learning is an efficient method to integrate various sources of information and handling exceptional data in natural language processing tasks. Secondly checking the exceptional cases of rules and more information is made available to the learner for treating those exceptional cases. To evaluate the proposed method a number of experiments has been run and in order, to improve the importance of the various information in learning.

  9. Addressing the repressed needs of the Arabic client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, M

    1997-01-01

    In comparison to families in Western society, the traditional Arabic family plays a relatively greater role in providing support for adult progeny. This serves to condition adult offspring to continue to comply with the will and values of the family. Therefore, in exchange for familial support, Arabic individuals learn to repress authentic needs and emotions, and within that process they relinquish the need for self-actualization. Arabic society discourages individualism and opposes self-actualization by means of simultaneous punishment and moralization. Thus, there is a relatively greater development of the social value system (or superego) and comparatively less development of the self (or ego). In comparison to Western society, Arabic individuals continue to experience greater oppression during adulthood. Given these cultural differences, the processes of reliving and activating repressed needs and emotions, which ultimately serves to promote self-actualization, will transform intrapsychic conflicts into interpersonal and social ones. Thus, personal actions typically encouraged during Western psychotherapy are likely to produce significant social oppression. Indeed, promoting awareness of repressed needs and emotions often leads the Arabic client to become more helpless, because such wishes will rarely be socially sanctioned or satisfactorily fulfilled. Therefore, when addressing repressed needs and emotions in psychotherapy, ego strength, cultural identity, and degree of strictness of the client's family of origin must be considered. PMID:9231529

  10. Modernist Arabic Literature and the Clash of Civilizations Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddiq Mohammad Gohor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the incorporation of western and Christian traditions, assimilated from western culture and literature in contemporary texts, written by Muslim/Arab poets and addressed to predominantly Muslim communities, in order to disrupt the clash of civilizations narrative and underline the attempt of post WWII Arab poets, led by Badr Shaker Al-Sayyab, to be engaged into trans-cultural dialogues with western masters particularly T.S Eliot. The paper argues that Arab poets, from ex-colonized countries, attempted to build bridges with the West by construction of a poetics that takes as its core the cultural/religious traditions of the European colonizers. Unlike writers from the ex-colonies, in Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean and the West Indies who reconstruct western texts in order to subvert them, post WWII Arab poets integrated the religious heritage of what is traditionally categorized as an alien/hostile civilization into the Arab-Islamic literary canon.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Arab Heritage Activity Card Sort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Razan; Holm, Margo B

    2013-03-01

    The Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable assessment tool that was created to assess Participation. It has been translated to several languages and adapted to different international cultures. The most recent version of this tool is the Arabic Heritage Activity Card Sort (A-ACS). The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Arabic version in Jordanian adults. Forty three Jordanian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 62 healthy adults were recruited to test the psychometric properties of the tool. The A-ACS correlated moderately with the participation index of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p scores of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p score on the Arabic version of the self-report Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills (r = 0.581, p Card Sort is a valid and reliable tool for Arabic-speaking occupational therapists to use when assessing participation in Jordanian patients with MS or healthy adults. Limitations of this study include using only one diagnostic group from Jordan and examining only the Recovery and Community Versions of the tool. Future studies are needed to examine further psychometric properties for patients with different diagnoses and from different countries in the Arabic region for all three versions of the A-ACS.

  12. Novel Moment Features Extraction for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheith Abandah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Offline recognition of handwritten Arabic text awaits accurate recognition solutions. Most of the Arabic letters have secondary components that are important in recognizing these letters. However these components have large writing variations. We targeted enhancing the feature extraction stage in recognizing handwritten Arabic text. Approach: In this study, we proposed a novel feature extraction approach of handwritten Arabic letters. Pre-segmented letters were first partitioned into main body and secondary components. Then moment features were extracted from the whole letter as well as from the main body and the secondary components. Using multi-objective genetic algorithm, efficient feature subsets were selected. Finally, various feature subsets were evaluated according to their classification error using an SVM classifier. Results: The proposed approach improved the classification error in all cases studied. For example, the improvements of 20-feature subsets of normalized central moments and Zernike moments were 15 and 10%, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Extracting and selecting statistical features from handwritten Arabic letters, their main bodies and their secondary components provided feature subsets that give higher recognition accuracies compared to the subsets of the whole letters alone.

  13. Building an Arabic Sentiment Lexicon Using Semi-supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz H.H. Mahyoub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis is the process of determining a predefined sentiment from text written in a natural language with respect to the entity to which it is referring. A number of lexical resources are available to facilitate this task in English. One such resource is the SentiWordNet, which assigns sentiment scores to words found in the English WordNet. In this paper, we present an Arabic sentiment lexicon that assigns sentiment scores to the words found in the Arabic WordNet. Starting from a small seed list of positive and negative words, we used semi-supervised learning to propagate the scores in the Arabic WordNet by exploiting the synset relations. Our algorithm assigned a positive sentiment score to more than 800, a negative score to more than 600 and a neutral score to more than 6000 words in the Arabic WordNet. The lexicon was evaluated by incorporating it into a machine learning-based classifier. The experiments were conducted on several Arabic sentiment corpora, and we were able to achieve a 96% classification accuracy.

  14. Alcohol use among Arab Americans: what is the prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Arnetz, Bengt B; Fakhouri, Monty; Ventimiglia, Matthew J; Jamil, Hikmet

    2011-08-01

    Information is limited on alcohol use among Arab Americans. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans by reviewing existing surveys using an acculturation model. Secondary data analysis. Nationally, English-speaking immigrant Arab Americans reported lower rates of lifetime alcohol use (50.8%), past month use (26.4%) and binge drinking (10%) than the White majority group. In a state survey, self-identified English-speaking Arab Americans were less likely to report past month use (45.6%) than the White majority group but reported similar rate of binge drinking (17.0%). Locally, lifetime drinking was reported by 46.2% of the immigrants but only 13.4% of refugees fleeing war. Few databases are available to estimate alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans; the limited data suggest a drinking pattern consistent with acculturation. However, the potential influence of other factors is unknown and needs to be investigated.

  15. Struktur Nalar Arab-Islam Menurut Abid al-Jabiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faisol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Al-Jabiri’s thought renewal project focuses on epistemological critics on scientific traditional framework of Arab-Islam. This is done by analyzing sociopolitical background of the formulation process and structure of Arab-Islam’s logical reasoning, and the entire structural working mechanism of Arab’s logical reasoning. According to Al-Jabiri, Arab’s logical reasoning can be classified into three, i.e. bayani, Irfani and burhani. Bayani is a pure Arab’s logical reasoning as it is motivated by cognitive factor to interpret religious texts. Irfani becomes an alternative epistemology for bayani in providing convincing conclusions. While Burhani, is logical reasoning based on rationality. However, even though the Arab’s logical reasoning could be distinguished into those three, Al-Jabiri observes the domination of bayani on others, thus, the text and traditional authorities are always dominating Arab-Islam civilization. Consequently, Arabic Civilization is not creative-productive or poor in concepts and theories. The solution AlJabiri proposes is to apply critism spirit that have been developed in AndalusiaMaghrib, i.e. empirical rationale presented by Ibn Hazm and Al-Syatibi in Fiqh, Ibnu Ruysd in Philosophy, Ibnu Khaldun in sociology, and Ibn Madha alQurthubi in Arabic grammatical renewal.

  16. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  17. VALORIZATION ABOVEGROUND OF THE EXTRACT OF COMPOST OVINE FOR FERTIGATION OF THE VEGETABLES PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and seasonal pepper. It is clear that such extraction ratio of 1: 5 is effective for plants fertigation of two considered species. In addition, it has been shown that 200 times dilution of the concentrated extract is beneficial for the growth of tomato plants. However, this organic liquid fertilizer with different dilutions applied and in the experimental conditions adopted, wasn’t moderately efficient in stimulating the growth of pepper plants. The importance of this type of compost produced from sheep biomass, widely available in Tunisia, encourage the diversification of its exploitation, which is the object of this preliminary work, deserving more future investigations.

  18. VALORIZATION ABOVEGROUND OF THE EXTRACT OF COMPOST OVINE FOR FERTIGATION OF THE VEGETABLES PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and seasonal pepper. It is clear that such extraction ratio of 1: 5 is effective for plants fertigation of two considered species. In addition, it has been shown that 200 times dilution of the concentrated extract is beneficial for the growth of tomato plants. However, this organic liquid fertilizer with different dilutions applied and in the experimental conditions adopted, wasn’t moderately efficient in stimulating the growth of pepper plants. The importance of this type of compost produced from sheep biomass, widely available in Tunisia, encourage the diversification of its exploitation, which is the object of this preliminary work, deserving more future investigations.

  19. International financial institutions and health in Egypt and Tunisia: change or continuity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sharif

    2013-01-01

    The revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia appeared to herald a re-casting of International Monetary Fund and World Bank policy across the region. Public pronouncements by the heads of both institutions in the months following February 2011 acknowledged flaws in their approach to macroeconomic advice, against a background of worsening socioeconomic indicators, widespread youth unemployment, and widening health inequalities. Evidence on the ground, however, suggests continuity rather than change in international financial institution policies in Egypt and Tunisia, notwithstanding the emergence of a powerful new player-the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In the long term, new electoral realities and hardening public opposition in both countries seem likely to force a fundamentally different relationship between regional governments and the major international financial institutions than existed before 2011. PMID:23527454

  20. FOOD SECURITY IN TUNISIA WITHIN WATER SCARCITY THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE MEAT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna Ouertani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of food and nutrition security in Tunisia, judges its sustainability within water scarcity conditions and free trade areas, with a specific focus on the meat sector. For such purpose, the FAO indicators and Food Balance Sheets, as well as the Global Food Security Index are all analyzed. Virtual water, owed to meat and cereals for animal feed production and trade, was estimated to expect food security sustainability. Results indicated that Tunisian food and nutrition security (FNS has been improved over the years, but its stability remains vulnerable because of the political and economic risks and the dependence of Tunisia on imported cereals for animal feed due to water scarcity. Tunisian agricultural policy, especially in both sectors of cereals and meat, should be readjusted to guarantee food and nutrition sustainability.

  1. Association of hepatitis C virus infection and diabetes in central Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoufel Kaabia; Elhem Ben Jazia; Ines Slim; Imen Fodha; Wissem Hachfi; Rafika Gaha; Mabrouk Khalifa; Aoutef Hadj Kilani; Halim Trabelsi; Ahmed Abdelaziz; Fethi Bahri; Amel Letaief

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence in Tunisian patients with diabetes mellitus and in a control group.METHODS:A crosssectional study was conducted to determine the HCV seroprevalence in 1269 patients with diabetes (452 male,817 female) and 1315 non diabetic patients,attending health centers in Sousse,Tunisia.HCV screening was performed in both groups using a fourthgeneration enzyme immunoassay.RESULTS:In the diabetic group,17 (1.3%) were found to be HCVinfected compared with eight (0.6%) in the control group,although the difference was not significant (P=0.057).Quantitative PCR was performed in 20 patients.Eleven patients were positive and showed HCV genotype 1b in all cases.CONCLUSION:Frequency of HCV antibodies was low in patients with diabetes and in the control group in central Tunisia,with no significant difference between the groups.

  2. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa oases (South West of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6 %. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3 % of cattle, 35 % of sheep and 68.4 % of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula was 19.2 % from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  3. Plate tectonics and offshore boundary delimitation: Tunisia-Libya case at the International Court of Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Daniel Jean

    1982-03-01

    The first major offshore boundary dispute where plate tectonics constituted a significant argument was recently brought before the International Court of Justice by Libya and Tunisia concerning the delimitation of their continental shelves. Libya placed emphasis on this concept to determine natural prolongation of its land territory under the sea. Tunisia contested use of the entire African continental landmass as a reference unit and views geography, geomorphology and bathymetry as relevant as geology. The Court pronounced that “It is the outcome, not the evolution in the long-distant past, which is of importance.” Moreover, it is the present-day configuration of coasts and seabed that are the main factors, not geology.

  4. The Usability of SEEQ in Quality Evaluation of Arabic Secondary Education in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Muslim, M.; Arifin, Zamri

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the quality of Arabic education in Malaysia needs to be conducted on a continuous basis to achieve the objectives of Arabic education. Student Evaluation of Education Quality (SEEQ) was proposed as one of the evaluation instruments of the quality of Arabic education. This study aimed to evaluate the usability of SEEQ in the context…

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility: Challenges and Prospects for Development in Arab countries

    OpenAIRE

    Elasrag, Hussein

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibilities and problems for Establishment of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Arab countries. The paper explores the nature and concept of CSR, particularly the Arab initiatives. As well as studying the activation of the corporate social responsibility role in the economic and social development of Arab countries.

  6. Race, Politics, and Arab American Youth: Shifting Frameworks for Conceptualizing Educational Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu

    2006-01-01

    Educators concerned with creating equitable school environments for Arab American students must focus on how contemporary global and national politics shape the lives of these youth and their families. Arab immigrants and Arab American citizens alike experience specific forms of racial oppression that hold implications for school curricula,…

  7. State and directions of improvement of external commercial relations of Azerbaijan with the Arab countries

    OpenAIRE

    Latifa Nasibova

    2015-01-01

    In this article the condition of external trade turnover and external commercial relations of Azerbaijan with the Arab countries based on different statistic data are analysed; the role and place of the Arab countries in external commercial relations of Azerbaijan are defined and the recommendations for the improvement of external commercial relations of Azerbaijan with the Arab countries are provided.

  8. A Characterization of the Language of Iftah ya Simsim: Sociolinguistic and Educational Implications for Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Absi, Samir

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the Arabic version of "Sesame Street" addresses the choice of a simplified modern standard usage as the series' language, definition of this language variety in terms of its distinguishing linguistic characteristics, and the implications of this choice for the future of Arabic and Arabic language instruction. (Author/MSE)

  9. Toward common working tools: Arab League Documentation and Information Centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of Arab common working tools in information handling has been one of the priorities of Arab League Documentation and Information Centre (ALDOC). Problems arising from the processing of Arabic language have been progressively settled. The Tunisian experience in the elimination of transliteration is worth mentioning. (author). 17 refs

  10. Mother-Tongue Interference in the Acquisition of English Articles by L1 Arabic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyab, Rana Abid

    2016-01-01

    Native speakers of Arabic face a number of problems in their attempt to acquire the English language. One of these problems is encountered in their attempt to use English articles. According to earlier studies, learning English articles by students whose mother-tongue is Arabic is one of the most frequent and significant difficulties Arab learners…

  11. Working with Arab American Families: Culturally Competent Practice for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of Arab descent residing within the United States currently number between 1.2 million and 3.9 million. These families are characterized by considerable diversity depending upon their nationality, religion, and extent of acculturation to both Western and Arab cultures. More recently, Arab families have immigrated to the United States…

  12. De-Arabization of the Bedouin: A Study of an Inevitable Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonah, Yossi; Abu-Saad, Ismael; Kaplan, Avi

    2004-01-01

    This paper offers an assessment of the efforts to de-Arabize the Bedouin Arab youth of the Negev. We show that despite the extensive efforts to achieve this goal, they have become pronouncedly alienated from the State of Israel, and are increasingly perceiving themselves as an integral part of Israel's Palestinian Arab national minority. The…

  13. Examining Social Perceptions between Arab and Jewish Children through Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…

  14. Role of the Arab Universities in Labour Education: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

    Current and future prospects for workers' education in the Arab region, the relationship between Arab universities and workers' education, and the role of workers and their trade unions are discussed. In addition, examples of university activity in workers' education programs of some non-Arab countries are described. Although the climate is right…

  15. Ancient Levantine Arabic: A Reconstruction Based on the Earliest Sources and the Modern Dialects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jallad, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the history and development of Arabic is greatly challenged by the dearth of sources. Most scholars who have undertaken this task in the past have relied almost exclusively on data from the Arabic grammatical tradition. These sources claimed that Arabic originated as the language of the Bedouin of the central and southern…

  16. The impact of oil prices on economic activity in administrated price structure: the case of Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Necibi, Thameur; Issaoui, Fakhri

    2013-01-01

    This article has for a core objective the handling of the established relation between oil price variation and certain macroeconomic variables, in this particular case GDP, RMM, CPI, Ex-factory price. The study in Tunisia is based on quarterly and monthly data from the period going from 2000 to 2011 revealed three important facts. First, it showed at the level of the quarterly analysis that the Tunisian authority succeeded in limiting the effect of crude oil price shock, it was approved throu...

  17. FOOD SECURITY IN TUNISIA WITHIN WATER SCARCITY THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE MEAT SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Emna Ouertani

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of food and nutrition security in Tunisia, judges its sustainability within water scarcity conditions and free trade areas, with a specific focus on the meat sector. For such purpose, the FAO indicators and Food Balance Sheets, as well as the Global Food Security Index are all analyzed. Virtual water, owed to meat and cereals for animal feed production and trade, was estimated to expect food security sustainability. Results indicated that Tunis...

  18. Recognition of sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) of the Messioua bank (south of Tunisia)

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrouk, S; Ben Mustapha, K.; M.S. ROMDHANE; El Abed, A.

    2005-01-01

    This study is registered within the scope of contribution to the inventory of sponges in Tunisia. An exploration of a traditional sponge fishing zone, the Messioua bank (30 MN in the east of Zarzis) allowed us to study sponge systematic in this area. In total 51samples were collected from 16 stations, which the depth is ranging between 21 and 33 meters and 29 species were identified.

  19. Serotype Distribution, Antibiotic Resistance and Clonality of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Immunocompromised Patients in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Raddaoui, Anis; Simões, Alexandra S.; Baaboura, Rekaya; Félix, Sofia; Achour, Wafa; Ben Othman, Tarek; Béjaoui, Mohamed; Sá-Leão, Raquel; Ben Hassen, Assia

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumococcal disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally, has higher incidence among young children, the elderly and the immunocompromised of all ages. In Tunisia, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are not included in the national immunization program. Also, few studies have described the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in this country and, in particular, no molecular typing studies have been performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate serotype distribution, ...

  20. Assessment of diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer cases at two cancer centers in Egypt and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Schairer, Catherine; Soliman, Amr S; Omar, Sherif; Khaled, Hussein; Eissa, Saad; Ayed, Farhat Ben; Khalafallah, Samir; Ayoub, Wided Ben; Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Merajver, Sofia; Swain, Sandra M; Gail, Mitchell; Brown, Linda Morris

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is largely clinical and therefore inherently somewhat subjective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnosis of IBC at two centers in North Africa where a higher proportion of breast cancer is diagnosed as IBC than in the United States (U.S.). Physicians prospectively enrolled suspected IBC cases at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) – Cairo, Egypt, and the Institut Salah Azaiz (ISA), Tunisia, recorded extent and duration of si...

  1. Working Paper 123 - Labor Market Dynamics in Tunisia: The Issue of Youth Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Stampini; Audrey Chouchane

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of the youth labor market in Tunisia using unique labor force survey data from 2005 to 2007 that include a longitudinal component. It first shows that sustained economic growth will reduce youth unemployment over the next few years. Second, forecasts indicate that the growth of private sector services has the highest potential to reduce youth unemployment. Third, the analysis of labor market characteristics reveals that young graduates experience long unemploy...

  2. AquaFej : a simulation game for planning water management : an experiment in central Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bars, Marjorie; Le Grusse, P.; Albouchi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Until the 2000s, water resources in Tunisia were managed solely by government bodies without any consultation with water users. At the local level, Commissariats Régionaux de Développement Agricole [Regional Agricultural Development Committees (CRDAs)], which represented the government bodies, managed water resources. The Tunisian Government then decided to involve farmers in the local management of water resources by creating Agricultural Development Associations (GDAs). Water resource manag...

  3. Antistress Effects of the Ethanolic Extract from Cymbopogon schoenanthus Growing Wild in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Ben Othman; Junkyu Han; Abdelfatteh El Omri; Riadh Ksouri; Mohamed Neffati; Hiroko Isoda

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antistress properties of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (CSEE), growing wild in the southern part of Tunisia. The effect of extracts on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Its effect on stress-induced in ICR mice was exposed to force swim and tail suspension, in concordance with heat shock protein expression (HSP27 and HSP90), corticosterone, and catecholamine neurotransmitters level. Our results demons...

  4. Hydrological impact of water and soil conservation works in the Merguellil catchment of central Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Lacombe, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leduc, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The Merguellil catchment (1183 km(2)), whose runoff is a major water resource for the Kairouan area in semi-arid Tunisia, was equipped with water and soil conservation works (WSCW) during the 1990s, mainly to reduce soil erosion and sitting of the downstream El Haouareb dam. The spatial configuration of the hydro-meteorological station network makes it possible to characterize the catchment-scale hydrological impact of the WSCW. The catchment is subdivided into two parts, the upper subcatchme...

  5. Evidence of titanosauriforms and rebbachisaurids (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Federico; Cau, Andrea; Hassine, Mohsen

    2014-02-01

    Isolated sauropod remains including vertebrae and a humerus from the Aïn El Guettar Formation (Albian, Early Cretaceous) of Tunisia are described. Vertebrae include a slightly procoelous anterior caudal vertebra, amphicoelous middle caudal vertebrae, and strongly procoelous distal caudal vertebrae. The humerus has an anteroposteriorly compressed shaft, robust deltopectoral crest restricted laterally and prominent condyles bounding a distinct distal fossa. The morphological characters present in the specimens suggests that isolated remains can be referred to at least two distinct sauropod taxa.

  6. Expanding the Technology Acceptance Model to Examine Internet Banking Adoption in Tunisia Country

    OpenAIRE

    Wadie Nasri; Charfeddine Lanouar; Anis Allagui

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to empirically examine the factors that affect the adoption of Internet banking in Tunisia. In order to explain the factors, this paper extends the “Technology Acceptance Model†by adding additional external factors such as security and privacy, self efficacy, social influence, and awareness of services and its benefits. The findings of the study suggests that the security and privacy, self efficacy, social influence, and awareness of services and its benefits have signific...

  7. Introducing management principles into the supply and distribution of medicines in Tunisia.

    OpenAIRE

    Garraoui, A.; Le Feuvre, P; Ledoux, M.

    1999-01-01

    A number of strategies have been proposed by various organizations and governments for rationalizing the use of drugs in developing countries. Such strategies include the use of essential drug lists, generic prescribing, and training in rational prescribing. None of these require doctors to become actively involved in the management of the drug supply to their health centres. In 1997, in the Kasserine region of Tunisia, the regional health authorities piloted a radically different strategy. T...

  8. Excessive carbohydrate intake in pregnancy and neonatal obesity: study in Cap Bon, Tunisia.

    OpenAIRE

    De Schampheleire, I.; Parent, M A; Chatteur, C

    1980-01-01

    A high incidence (over 20%) of obesity was found in 250 neonates living in a rural area of Tunisia, by using weight and ponderal index per gestational age as the nutritional index. Maternal diabetes was probably excluded. Two surveys on nutritional habits--one on the general population and the other on pregnant women--showed a tendency to consume a high carbohydrate and low protein diet. The effect of a badly balanced maternal diet on the fetus is discussed.

  9. The environment of south-central Tunisia as observed on Landsat scene 206/036

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolier, M.J.; Schultejann, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    One Landsat image in south-central Tunisia was analyzed to demonstrate the application of remote-sensing technology to regional development. A preliminary analysis included I) major landscape features; 2) gypsum-encrusted soils; and 3) phosphate-bearing beds exposed in the Gafsa mining district. The products specifically used for this report include: 1) A false-color composite (FCC), which had been linearly stretched to enhance contrast, and to which a modulation transfer function correction (a high-pass filter 3 pixels by 3 pixels wide) had been applied to enhance fine topographic relief. 2) A sinusoidally stretched false-color composite, on which mappable gypsum-encrusted soils and saline soils are detectable in greater detail than on the existing soil map of Tunisia at 1:500,000 scale. 3) A sinusoidally stretched band-ratio false-color composite, from which a thematic map of most phosphate-bearing beds in the Gafsa mining district was prepared. Recommendations for future Landsat image interpretation in Tunisia are offered.

  10. Energy assessment of the first wind farm section of Sidi Daoud, Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Amar, F. [Preparatory Institute for Engineering Studies of Sfax (Tunisia); Network and Electric Machines Research Unit, INSAT (Tunisia); Elamouri, M. [Preparatory Institute for Engineering Studies of Sfax (Tunisia); Dhifaoui, R. [Network and Electric Machines Research Unit, INSAT (Tunisia)

    2008-10-15

    Tunisia is one of the Mediterranean countries having windy enough areas, in particular along the coasts. During the past years, Tunisia has embarked upon wind energy programs. The first wind farm in Tunisia was brought into service in January 2000 in the region of Sidi Daoud: it is the first section of the farm that consists of 32 aerogenerators (Made AE-32) of 10.56 MW capacity. In the present study, the wind energy potential of the Sidi Daoud site is statistically analyzed based on 5-year measured hourly time-series wind-speed data (2000-2004). Weibull and Rayleigh parameters at a height of 30 m have been estimated and used to describe the distribution and behavior of annual wind speeds and their frequencies at site. Also, the usable and recoverable energies have been calculated, which are used to determine the energetic and aerodynamic characteristics of aerogenerator Made AE-32 installed on site. The monthly and annual values of use factor (UF) of the first section of Sidi Daoud wind farm have been estimated. (author)

  11. Spatio-temporal evolution of shoreline changes along the coast between sousse- Monastir (Eastearn of Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, S.; Ben Amor, R.; Gueddari, M.

    2009-04-01

    Spatio-temporal evolution of shoreline Changes along the coast between Sousse-Monastir (Eastern of Tunisia). Safa Fathallah*, Rim Ben Amor and Moncef Gueddari Unit of Research of Geochemistry and Environmental Geology. Faculty of Science of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 2092. (*) Corresponding author: safa_fathallah@yahoo.fr The coast of Sousse-Monastir in eastern of Tunisia, has undergone great changes, due to natural and anthropic factors. Increasing human use, the construction of two ports and coastal urbanization (hotels and industries) has accelerated the erosion process. The coastal defense structures (breakwaters and enrockment), built to protect the most eroded zone are efficient, but eroded zones appeared in the southern part of breakwaters. Recent and historic aerial photography was used to estimate, observe, and analyze past shoreline and bathymetric positions and trends involving shore evolution for Sousse-Monastir coast. All of the photographs were calibrated and mosaicked by Arc Map Gis 9.1, the years used are 1925, 1962, 1988, 1996, and 2001 for shoreline change analysis and 1884 and 2001 for bathymetric changes. The analyze of this photographs show that the zone located at the south of breakwater are mostly eroded with high speed process (2m/year). Another zone appears as eroded at the south part of Hamdoun River, with 1,5m/year erosion speed . Keywords: Shoreline evolution, defense structures, Sousse-Monastir coast, Tunisia.

  12. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012.

  13. Foraminiferal assemblages behavior at the Messinian-Pliocene boundary in Eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaloul, Nadia; Rim, Temami; Razgallah, Saloua

    2014-05-01

    The microfaunal study of several boreholes drilled in Eastern Tunisia (western edge of the Mediterranean pelagian platform) has allowed the characterization of the Miocene-Pliocene boundary which has been previously well studied elsewhere in the Mediterranean basins but is still to be more understood within the Tunisian Mediterranean margin. Analyses of vertical and lateral evolution of benthonic and planktonic foraminifera between five boreholes belonging to the Gulf of Hammamet (Eastern Tunisia) revealed three distinctive palaeo-ecological depositional environments. - During the lower Messinian, benthonic foraminifera are abundant and show a great diversity in genus and species. They indicate marine settings with normal salinity and good oxygenation. Sub-reefal environment characterize this shallow water limestone platform; - The Upper Messinian is characterized by a general extinction of foraminifera (only few euryhalin organisms remain at the base of these series). This event corresponds to the Messinian salinity crisis and to the accumulation of evaporites in the Mediterranean basins. In the offshore of Eastern Tunisia, gypsum and anhydrites are deposited in a lagoonal environment and had a negative effect on the biological life. - During the Pliocene, limestones and clays overlay an erosional surface corresponding to the top of the Messinian deposits. This unconformity indicates the beginning of the Pliocene transgression which has led to a high diversity in planktonic and benthonic foraminifera. This new assemblage indicates open marine conditions.

  14. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea occurring on olives in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rramzi Mansour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey performed in 2009 within 52 Tunisian olive groves, located in 17 different olive-growing sites, revealed the occurrence of six scale insects on olives. The identified species were: the armoured scales Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, Lepidosaphes ulmi (L., and Parlatoria oleae (Colvée, the soft scales Saissetia oleae (Olivier and Filippia follicularis (Targioni Tozzetti and the mealybug species Peliococcus cycliger (Leonardi. The soft scale F. follicularis is a new record for the Tunisian insect fauna. A mong these species, S. oleae was the predominant scale insect occurring throughout olive groves of northeastern Tunisia, whereas the mealybug P. cycliger was by far the most abundant species within olives groves of the Northwest region of Tunisia. However, P. oleae was the least abundant species, being present in only one olive-growing site in northeastern Tunisia. L arvae of the noctuid moth Eublemma scitula (Rambur were reported feeding on S. oleae and the coccinellid Chilocorus bipustulatus L . was found feeding on both S. oleae and A. nerii. The two hymenopteran species Scutellista cyanea Motschulsky and Metaphycus spp. were recorded as the main parasitoids of S. oleae.

  15. The scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha of Tunisia: taxonomy, distribution and habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrine Akkari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides a review of the composition, distribution and habitat preferences of the scolopendromorph centipedes of Tunisia. Five (sub-genera and 8 (sub-species have hitherto been reported from the country, of which two are of uncertain status. After a study of significant amount of new material collected in the period 2003-2008, 6 species, namely Scolopendra canidens Newport, 1844, S. morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Cormocephalus gervaisianus (C.L. Koch, 1841, Otostigmus spinicaudus (Newport, 1844, Cryptops punicus Silvestri, 1896 and C. trisulcatus Brölemann, 1902, were found in the country. New illustrations and, where appropriate, brief descriptions of the species are given, along with an identification key for the Tunisian scolopendromorphs. Cryptops anomalans Newport 1844, Scolopendra oraniensis Lucas, 1846 and S. cingulata Latreille, 1829 are excluded from the country’s list since all previous records are most likely based on misidentifications. Cryptops trisulcatus and C. punicus are recorded for the first time from Tunisia and Libya, respectively. The taxonomic position of C. punicus is discussed and the species is transferred from the subgenus Trigonocryptops to Cryptops. Scolopendra morsitans scopoliana is synonymised under S. morsitans. S. canidens, O. spinicaudus and C. punicus are well adapted to arid and semidesert biotopes and have much wider ranges compared to the other three species which are restricted to the northern, more humid parts of the country. S. canidens is the only myriapod in Tunisia found in a pure sandy desert.

  16. Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia. An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodha, Mouez [Paris School of Economics and CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Maison des Sciences Economiques, 106-112 Bd de l' Hopital, 75647 Paris (France); Zaghdoud, Oussama [CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne and Department of Economics, High School of Economic and Commercial Sciences of Tunis, 4 Rue Abou Zakaria El Hafsi, 1089 Montfleury (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions for a small and open developing country, Tunisia, during the period 1961-2004. The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, using time series data and cointegration analysis. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are used as the environmental indicators, and GDP as the economic indicator. Our results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between the per capita emissions of two pollutants and the per capita GDP. An inverted U relationship between SO{sub 2} emissions and GDP has been found, with income turning point approximately equals to 1200 (constant 2000 prices) or to 3700 (in PPP, constant 2000 prices). However, a monotonically increasing relationship with GDP is found more appropriate for CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, the causality results show that the relationship between income and pollution in Tunisia is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa, both in the short-run and long-run. This implies that an emission reduction policies and more investment in pollution abatement expense will not hurt economic growth. It could be a feasible policy tool for Tunisia to achieve its sustainable growth in the long-run. (author)

  17. Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodha, Mouez, E-mail: fodha@univ-paris1.f [Paris School of Economics and CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Maison des Sciences Economiques, 106-112 Bd de l' Hopital, 75647 Paris (France); Zaghdoud, Oussama [CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne and Department of Economics, High School of Economic and Commercial Sciences of Tunis, 4 Rue Abou Zakaria El Hafsi, 1089 Montfleury (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions for a small and open developing country, Tunisia, during the period 1961-2004. The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, using time series data and cointegration analysis. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are used as the environmental indicators, and GDP as the economic indicator. Our results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between the per capita emissions of two pollutants and the per capita GDP. An inverted U relationship between SO{sub 2} emissions and GDP has been found, with income turning point approximately equals to $1200 (constant 2000 prices) or to $3700 (in PPP, constant 2000 prices). However, a monotonically increasing relationship with GDP is found more appropriate for CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, the causality results show that the relationship between income and pollution in Tunisia is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa, both in the short-run and long-run. This implies that an emission reduction policies and more investment in pollution abatement expense will not hurt economic growth. It could be a feasible policy tool for Tunisia to achieve its sustainable growth in the long-run.

  18. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012. PMID:25107992

  19. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasfi Fares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181 and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38, were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May–June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia.

  20. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Fares; Dowall, Stuart; Ghabbari, Tayssir; Bosworth, Andrew; Chakroun, Mohamed; Varghese, Anitha; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Znazen, Abir; Hewson, Roger; Zhioua, Elyes; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv) is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May–June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia. PMID:26956221

  1. The role of natural gas consumption and trade in Tunisia's output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the impact of natural gas consumption, real gross fixed capital formation and trade on the real GDP in the case of Tunisia over the period 1980–2010. We use an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to test for cointegration between the variables. The Toda–Yamamoto approach is then used to test for causality. Our findings indicate the existence of a long-term relationship between the variables. Natural gas consumption, real gross fixed capital formation and trade add in economic growth. Natural gas consumption, real gross fixed capital formation and real trade cause real GDP in Tunisia. These findings open up new insights for policymakers to formulate a comprehensive energy policy to sustain economic growth in the long-term. - Highlights: • We study how gas consumption, fixed capital formation and trade affect GDP in Tunisia. • We use auto-regressive distributed lag bounds testing approach and causality tests. • Gas consumption, real gross fixed capital formation and trade add in economic growth

  2. Evaluating English to Arabic Machine Translation Using BLEU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N. Al-Kabi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the effectiveness of two popular machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system used to translate English sentences into Arabic relative to the effectiveness of English to Arabic human translation. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method, which was adopted and implemented to achieve the main goal of this study. BLEU method is based on the assumptions of automated measures that depend on matching machine translators' output to human reference translations; the higher the score, the closer the translation to the human translation will be. Well known English sayings in addition to manually collected sentences from different Internet web sites were used for evaluation purposes. The results of this study have showed that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from English to Arabic.

  3. Medicine Among New Immigrants and Arab Minorities in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Seymour

    1965-01-01

    The reaction to modern medicine and the general health of the new immigrants and Arab populations of Israel are described. The material was gathered during a threemonth visit to Israel where the author participated in the medical care of these persons. While these peoples still share many of the traditional medical superstitions and practices, the new immigrants have progressed much more during the 16 years of Israel's existence. At present over 99% of Jewish women give birth in hospital, whereas only 65% of Israeli Arabs do. The infant mortality rate among the Jews in 1963 was about 21 deaths per 1000 live births, about one-half the rate for Arabs. The importance of understanding the cultural background and social conflicts of these people as a preliminary to the provision of proper medical care is stressed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14285305

  4. Semantic Feature Based Arabic Opinion Mining Using Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Alkadri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available with the increase of opinionated reviews on the web, automatically analyzing and extracting knowledge from those reviews is very important. However, it is a challenging task to be done manually. Opinion mining is a text mining discipline that automatically performs such a task. Most researches done in this field were focused on English texts with very limited researches on Arabic language. This scarcity is because there are a lot of obstacles in Arabic. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel semantic feature-based opinion mining framework for Arabic reviews. This framework utilizes the semantic of ontologies and lexicons in the identification of opinion features and their polarity. Experiments showed that the proposed framework achieved a good level of performance compared with manually collected test data.

  5. USING AUTOMATED LEXICAL RESOURCES IN ARABIC SENTENCE SUBJECTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Mobarz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A common point in almost any work on Sentiment analysis is the need to identify which elements of language (words contribute to express the subjectivity in text. Collecting of these elements (sentiment words regardless the context with their polarities (positive/negative is called sentiment lexical resources or subjective lexicon. In this paper, we investigate the method for generating Sentiment Arabic lexical Semantic Database by using lexicon based approach. Also, we study the prior polarity effects of each word using our Sentiment Arabic Lexical Semantic Database on the sentence-level subjectivity and multiple machine learning algorithms. The experiments were conducted on MPQA corpus containing subjective and objective sentences of Arabic language, and we were able to achieve 76.1 % classification accuracy.

  6. ARABIC TEXT CATEGORIZATION ALGORITHM USING VECTOR EVALUATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Odeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Text categorization is the process of grouping documents into categories based on their contents. This process is important to make information retrieval easier, and it became more important due to the huge textual information available online. The main problem in text categorization is how to improve the classification accuracy. Although Arabic text categorization is a new promising field, there are a few researches in this field. This paper proposes a new method for Arabic text categorization using vector evaluation. The proposed method uses a categorized Arabic documents corpus, and then the weights of the tested document's words are calculated to determine the document keywords which will be compared with the keywords of the corpus categorizes to determine the tested document's best category.

  7. Violence among Arab elementary school pupils in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Alsana, Wisam; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Greenbaum, Charles W

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of violence in primary schools attended by Arab children in Israel and the relationship between such exposure and violent behavior among these children. Participants are 388 Arab children (aged 10 to 12 years) living in three localities in Israel. The research focuses on three of the child's roles in relation to violence: witness, victim, and perpetrator. An adapted Arabic translation of the Violence Exposure Scale-Revised is administered to children in group settings. The children report more exposure to moderate levels than to severe levels of violence. Boys are exposed to more violence as victims, and witness and perpetrate more violence than girls do. Multiple regression analysis shows that the experience of being a victim predicts violent behavior in the children, above the effects of age and gender. The limitations of the study and its implications for future research and theory development are discussed.

  8. Automatic extraction of ontological relations from Arabic text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G.H. Al Zamil

    2014-12-01

    The proposed methodology has been designed to analyze Arabic text using lexical semantic patterns of the Arabic language according to a set of features. Next, the features have been abstracted and enriched with formal descriptions for the purpose of generalizing the resulted rules. The rules, then, have formulated a classifier that accepts Arabic text, analyzes it, and then displays related concepts labeled with its designated relationship. Moreover, to resolve the ambiguity of homonyms, a set of machine translation, text mining, and part of speech tagging algorithms have been reused. We performed extensive experiments to measure the effectiveness of our proposed tools. The results indicate that our proposed methodology is promising for automating the process of extracting ontological relations.

  9. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  10. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  11. OLAWSDS:An Online Arabic Web Spam Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N. Al-Kabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For marketing purposes, Some Websites designers and administrators use illegal Search Engine Optimization (SEO techniques to optimize the ranking of their Web pages and mislead the search engines. Some Arabic Web pages use both content and link features, to increase artificially the rank of their Web pages in the Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs. This study represents an enhancement to previous work in this field. It includes the design and implementation of an online Arabic Web spam detection system, based on algorithms and mathematical foundations, which can detect the Arabic content and link web spam depending on the tree of the spam detection conditions, beside depending on the user’s feedback through a custom Web browser. The users can participate in making the decision about any Web page, through their feedbacks, so they judge if the Arabic Web pages in the browser are relevant for their particular queries or not. The proposed system uses the extracted content and link features from Arabic Web pages to determine whether to label each Web page as a spam or as a non-spam. This system also attempts to learn from the user’s feedback to enhance automatically its performance. Statistical analysis is adopted in this study to evaluate the proposed system. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software is used to evaluate this new system which considers the users feedbacks as dependent variables, while Arabic content and links features on the other hand are considered independent variables. The statistical analysis with the SPSS is used to apply a variety of tests, such as the test of the analysis of variance (ANOVA. ANOVA is used to show the relationships between the dependent and independent variables in the dataset, which leads to solving problems and building intelligent decisions and results.

  12. Towards an Analysis of the Discourse of Arabic Song: A Case Study--Umm Kulthoum's Song "AlAtlal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Gameel Abdelmageed

    2015-01-01

    Arabic song has always played an important role in the life of Arabs. It reflects cultural attitudes and influences them. However, this major expressive discourse has been almost completely neglected in Arabic literary and critical studies. For this reason, this paper focuses on Arabic song, in the hope that my study will encourage other scholars…

  13. Arab women's breast cancer screening practices: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Khater, Al-Hareth Al; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith; Al-Meer, Nabila; Malik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Jong, Floor Christie-de

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

  14. Unifying linguistic annotations and ontologies for the Arabic Quran

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, N.; Aldhubayi, L; Al-Khalifa, H; Alqassem, Z; Atwell, ES; Dukes, K; Sawalha, M; Sharaf, M

    2012-01-01

    The WACL’2 Second Workshop on Arabic Corpus Linguistics was held in conjunction with the Corpus Linguistics 2013 conference. Following on from the successful first WACL in 2011, as well as the related LRE-REL event in 2012, WACL-2 again took place at Lancaster University. The aim of this series of workshops is to create a venue for exploring progress in the field of research into the Arabic language using corpora, from across the many areas of corpus linguistics and computational linguistics ...

  15. The tenth Arab conference on peaceful uses of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference includes the paper presented at the tenth Arab conference of the peaceful uses of Nuclear Atomic Energy that is organized by AAEA (Arab Atomic Energy Agency) in cooperation with Iraqi Ministry of Science and Technology and Kurdistan government , held in Erbil (Iraq) from 12-16 December 2010. This conference consists of three volumes covering the following concepts: Analysis and Material Improvement, Soil fertility, Water Recourse Management, Nuclear Medicine and Biological Irradiation, Isotopes Production, Improvement of Plant and Animal Production, Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities, Radioactive Waste Management, Nuclear Safety and Security of Radiation Protection, Pest Control and Food Irradiation Processing

  16. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Quaisi Audi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration, and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.

  17. Binge drinking among Arab/Chaldeans: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Owens, Darlene; Said, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with young Arab/Chaldeans (N = 82) from different ethno-religious groups (Chaldeans, Orthodox Christians, and Muslims) to explore the potential risk and the protective factors associated with the high level of binge (or episodic heavy) drinking among Arab/Chaldeans reported by general population surveys. Most of the participants were aware of and knowledgeable about the problem in their community. Themes identified as contributory factors consistent across ethno-religious groups included the availability of alcohol, the importance of family, conformity to group behavior, and social reasons. Differences included the context for drinking and gender roles. These findings can be used to tailor culturally appropriate interventions.

  18. The Global Financial Crisis and the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane; Loewe, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the impact of the global financial crisis on Europe, Asia and the Americas but only little on the Arab states. This article makes an early attempt to take stock of recent developments in the Arab world and offers a systematic approach to disentangle the various inter-link...... been hit by the decline in energy prices, but most of them have also mastered the crisis well thanks to substantial financial reserves. The situation is more critical however for Dubai, Iraq and Yemen....

  19. Identification of arabic word from bilingual text using character features

    CERN Document Server

    Haboubi, Sofiene; Amiri, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the language of the script is an important stage in the process of recognition of the writing. There are several works in this research area, which treat various languages. Most of the used methods are global or statistical. In this present paper, we study the possibility of using the features of scripts to identify the language. The identification of the language of the script by characteristics returns the identification in the case of multilingual documents less difficult. We present by this work, a study on the possibility of using the structural features to identify the Arabic language from an Arabic / Latin text.

  20. Female gene pools of Berber and Arab neighboring communities in central Tunisia: microstructure of mtDNA variation in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherni, Lotfi; Loueslati, Besma Yaacoubi; Pereira, Luísa; Ennafaâ, Hajer; Amorim, António; El Gaaied, Amel Ben Ammar

    2005-02-01

    North African populations are considered genetically closer to Eurasians than to sub-Saharans. However, they display a considerably high mtDNA heterogeneity among them, namely in the frequencies of the U6, East African, and sub-Saharan haplogroups. In this study, we describe and compare the female gene pools of two neighboring Tunisian populations, Kesra (Berber) and Zriba (non-Berber), which have contrasting historical backgrounds. Both populations presented lower diversity values than those observed for other North African populations, and they were the only populations not showing significant negative Fu's F(S) values. Kesra displayed a much higher proportion of typical sub-Saharan haplotypes (49%, including 4.2% of M1 haplogroup) than Zriba (8%). With respect to U6 sequences, frequencies were low (2% in Kesra and 8% in Zriba), and all belonged to the subhaplogroup U6a. An analysis of these data in the context of North Africa reveals that the emerging picture is complex, because Zriba would match the profile of a Berber Moroccan population, whereas Kesra, which shows twice the frequency of sub-Saharan lineages normally observed in northern coastal populations, would match a western Saharan population except for the low U6 frequency. The North African patchy mtDNA landscape has no parallel in other regions of the world and increasing the number of sampled populations has not been accompanied by any substantial increase in our understanding of its phylogeography. Available data up to now rely on sampling small, scattered populations, although they are carefully characterized in terms of their ethnic, linguistic, and historical backgrounds. It is therefore doubtful that this picture truly represents the complex historical demography of the region rather than being just the result of the type of samplings performed so far.