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Sample records for aqueous two-phase extraction

  1. Enzyme mass-transfer coefficient in aqueous two-phase systems using static mixer extraction column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, K; Alamshahi, M

    2002-09-01

    Recent technical advances in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have made this a sound technique for the extraction of biomacromolecules. The extraction of alpha-amylase was investigated using aqueous two-phase systems formed by sodium sulphate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) in water in a 47-mm inner diameter spray column packed with three types of static mixers. The effects of dispersed-phase flow rate, phase composition, column height and diameter were studied. The extraction column was operated in a semi-batch manner. It was found that the hold-up and volumetric mass transfer coefficients increased with an increase in dispersed (PEG-rich) phase velocity and decreased with increasing phase composition. Empirical correlations were developed for fractional dispersed-phase hold-up and volumetric mass transfer coefficients.

  2. Extraction of Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride in Aqueous Two-phase System of Acetone and Ammonium Sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is an efficient implement for separation of various substrates, and extracted by an aqueous two-phase system has been successful ly applied in the downstream processing of various biological compounds. In this research, the extraction of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) was carried out in an aqueous two-phase system containing acetone and ammonium sulfate solution, which partitioned the antibiotic to the upper phase. The effects of some parameters on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl were studied in detail, including temperature, the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution, the concentrations of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ and OTC-HCl. The results showed that the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution and the concentration of OTC-HCl in feed had significant effects on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl, but the effects of temperature on the extraction of OTC-HCl was not obvious. (author)

  3. Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction of Polyphenols Using a Microchannel System – Process Optimization and Intensification

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    Ivana Rukavina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are one of the most numerous and widespread groups of compounds in the plant world. Nowadays, organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, acetone, dimethylformamide, ethyl acetate and diethylether are mainly used for the extraction of polyphenols. These solvents require special process conditions and special care in the disposal of the used solvents. In this paper, the extraction of polyphenols from the model solution was performed using the aqueous two-phase system which contains 80.90 % water and represents low burden on the environment. The aqueous solution of gallic acid (GA was used as a model solution of polyphenols. The extraction was performed in the aqueous two-phase system containing PEG6000/H2O/(NH42SO4 in a macroextractor (V=10 mL and microextractor (V=14 ƒμL. The influence of the process parameters, the concentration of gallic acid, pH and composition of the aqueous two-phase system was investigated in order to maximize the partition coefficient. The method of multifactor experimental planning was used to optimize the extraction process and the results were statistically analysed using the evolutionary operation method (EVOP. Optimal operating conditions of the extraction process were pH=6.50, γGA=4.50 g/L, the mass fraction of polyethylene glycol (PEG wPEG=0.1037 g/g and the mass fraction of ammonium sulphate (AMS wAMS=0.0925 g/g. Under these conditions the maximal partition coefficient of K=5.54 and the extraction efficiency of E=89.11 % were achieved and successfully applied for total phenol extraction from white wine in the macro- and microextractor. Approximately the same partition coefficients and extraction efficiency were achieved in the microextractor within a 60-fold shorter residence time.

  4. Simultaneous Extraction, Enrichment and Removal of Dyes from Aqueous Solutions Using a Magnetic Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase System

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    Shuanggen Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic aqueous micellar two-phase system (MAMTPS has the advantages combined of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE and aqueous micellar two-phase system (AMTPS. Thus, MAMTPS based on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs and a nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 (TX-114 was developed for the extraction, enrichment and removal of three dyes (Congo red, methyl blue, and methyl violet from aqueous solutions in this study. The MNPs Fe3O4@NH2 was screened as the optimal MNPs benefiting the extraction. Then, the influencing factors of MNPs amount, TX-114 concentration, vibration time, and extraction temperature were investigated in detail. The results showed that the extraction efficiencies of three dyes almost reached 100% using MAMTPS under the optimal conditions; MAMTPS had higher extraction ability than the individual MSPE or AMTPS. Thus, MAMTPS had the advantages of simple operation, high extraction ability, easy recycling of MNPs, and short phase-separation time, which showspotential for use in the extraction and analysis of contaminants from water samples.

  5. Aqueous two-phase extraction as a platform in the biomanufacturing industry: economical and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, P A J; Azevedo, A M; Sommerfeld, S; Bäcker, W; Aires-Barros, M R

    2011-01-01

    The biotech industry is, nowadays, facing unparalleled challenges due to the enhanced demand for biotechnology-based human therapeutic products, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This has led companies to improve substantially their upstream processes, with the yield of monoclonals increasing to titers never seen before. The downstream processes have, however, been overlooked, leading to a production bottleneck. Although chromatography remains the workhorse of most purification processes, several limitations, such as low capacity, scale-related packing problems, low chemical and proteolytic stability and resins' high cost, have arisen. Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) has been successfully revisited as a valuable alternative for the capture of antibodies. One of the important remaining questions for this technology to be adopted by the biotech industries is, now, how it compares to the currently established platforms in terms of costs and environmental impact. In this report, the economical and environmental sustainability of the aqueous two-phase extraction process is evaluated and compared to the currently established protein A affinity chromatography. Accordingly, the ATPE process was shown to be considerably advantageous in terms of process economics, especially when processing high titer cell culture supernatants. This alternative process is able to purify continuously the same amount of mAbs reducing the annual operating costs from 14.4 to 8.5 million (US$/kg) when cell culture supernatants with mAb titers higher than 2.5 g/L are processed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasound-Assisted Aqueous Two-Phase System for Extraction and Enrichment of Zanthoxylum armatum Lignans

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    Tao Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the study, an aqueous two phase system (ATPS coupled with ultrasound was employed to extract lignans from Zanthoxylum armatum. Three standard lignans, namely (−-fargesin, sesamin and L-asarinin, were used as marker compounds, and extraction was optimized and projected by response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN. The optimal condition for ATPS with 20% n-propanol and 24% (NH42SO4 coupled with ultrasonic-assisted extraction including a solvent to solid ratio of 15:1, a temperature of 40 °C, and a treatment time of 55 min was obtained. Under the condition, the yield of (−-fargesin increased 15.12%, and the purities of (−-fargesin, sesamin and L-asarinin reached 2.222%, 1.066%, and 1.583%, with an increase of 44.38%, 25.70%, and 26.34% compared to those extracted with 95% ethanol, respectively. Coefficient of the determined (0.9855 and mean squared error (0.0018 of ANN model suggested good fitness and generalization of the ANN. Taken together, the results showed that ultrasonic-assisted ATPS can be a suitable method for extraction and enrichment of lignans from Z. armatum.

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Aqueous Two-Phase System for Extraction and Enrichment of Zanthoxylum armatum Lignans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Su, Dan; Huang, Yan; Wang, Ya; Li, Yong-Hui

    2015-08-20

    In the study, an aqueous two phase system (ATPS) coupled with ultrasound was employed to extract lignans from Zanthoxylum armatum. Three standard lignans, namely (-)-fargesin, sesamin and L-asarinin, were used as marker compounds, and extraction was optimized and projected by response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). The optimal condition for ATPS with 20% n-propanol and 24% (NH4)2SO4 coupled with ultrasonic-assisted extraction including a solvent to solid ratio of 15:1, a temperature of 40 °C, and a treatment time of 55 min was obtained. Under the condition, the yield of (-)-fargesin increased 15.12%, and the purities of (-)-fargesin, sesamin and L-asarinin reached 2.222%, 1.066%, and 1.583%, with an increase of 44.38%, 25.70%, and 26.34% compared to those extracted with 95% ethanol, respectively. Coefficient of the determined (0.9855) and mean squared error (0.0018) of ANN model suggested good fitness and generalization of the ANN. Taken together, the results showed that ultrasonic-assisted ATPS can be a suitable method for extraction and enrichment of lignans from Z. armatum.

  8. Liquid-liquid extraction of enzymes by affinity aqueous two-phase systems

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    Xu Yan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available From analytical to commercial scale, aqueous two-phase systems have their application in the purification, characterization and study of biomaterials. In order to improve the selectivity of the systems, the biospecific affinity ligands were introduced. In the affinity partitioning aqueous two-phase system, have many enzymes been purified. This review discusses the partitioning of some enzymes in the affinity aqueous two-phase systems in regard to the different ligands, including reactive dyes, metal ions and other ligands. Some integration of aqueous two-phase system with other techniques for more effective purification of enzymes are also presented.Tanto em escala de laboratório como industrial, os sistemas de duas fases aquosas podem ser utilizados para a purificação, caracterização e estudos de biomateriais. Para aumentar a seletividade desse sistema, ligantes de afinidade bioespecíficos podem ser utilizados. No sistema de duas fases aquosas por afinidade, muitas enzimas podem ser purificadas. Neste artigo de revisão, a partição de algumas enzimas por esse tipo de afinidade, utilizando diferentes ligantes como corantes e íons metálicos, são discutidas. Além disso, a integração desse sistema de duas fases aquosas com outras técnicas de purificação estão sendo apresentados, com o objetivo mostrar a melhoria da eficiência do processo.

  9. Novel polymer-polymer conjugates for recovery of lactic acid by aqueous two-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, J; Kozlowski, A; Harris, J M; Tjerneld, F; Hahn-Hägerdal, B

    1999-01-01

    A new family of polymer conjugates is proposed to overcome constraints in the applicability of aqueous two-phase systems for the recovery of lactic acid. Polyethylene glycol-polyethylenimine (PEI) conjugates and ethylene oxide propylene oxide-PEI (EOPO-PEI) conjugates were synthesized. Aqueous two-phase systems were generated when the conjugates were mixed with fractionated dextran or crude hydrolyzed starch. With 2% phosphate buffer in the systems, phase diagrams with critical points of 3.9% EOPO-PEI-3.8% dextran (DEX) and 3.5% EOPO-PEI-7.9% crude starch were obtained. The phase separation temperature of 10% EOPO-PEI solutions titrated with lactic acid to pH 6 was 35 degrees C at 5% phosphate, and increased linearly to 63 degrees C at 2% phosphate. Lactic acid partitioned to the top conjugate-rich phase of the new aqueous two-phase systems. In particular, the lactic acid partition coefficient was 2.1 in 10% EOPO-PEI-8% DEX systems containing 2% phosphate. In the same systems, the partitioning of the lactic acid bacterium, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, was 0.45. The partitioning of propionic, succinic, and citric acids was also determined in the new aqueous two-phase systems. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Extraction of peptide tagged cutinase in detergent-based aqueous two-phase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenbrock, A.; Selber, K.; Egmond, M.R.; Kula, M.-R.

    2010-01-01

    Detergent-based aqueous two-phase systems have the advantage to require only one auxiliary chemical to induce phase separation above the cloud point. In a systematic study the efficiency of tryptophan-rich peptide tags was investigated to enhance the partitioning of an enzyme to the detergent-rich

  11. Extraction and separation of proteins by ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Yuzhi; Zeng, Qun; Ding, Xueqin; Chen, Jing

    2013-11-07

    A satisfactory protocol of protein extraction and separation has been established based on the ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (IL-ATPS) for the purification of bioactive substances. Compared with the effects of eight different ionic liquids, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([omim][Br]) was selected as the suitable ionic liquid. Based on the single-factor experiment, an initial serial investigative test was used to identify the optimal conditions of the extraction. Owing to their different isoelectric points, bovine serum albumin (BSA), hemoglobin (Hb) and lysozyme (Lys) were used to determine the effect of pH value on the protein extraction. Trypsin (Try) was used to confirm the protein activity. The linearity for analyzing BSA, Hb, Try and Lys was in the concentration range of 0.05-1.00 mg ml(-1), 0.025-1 mg ml(-1), 0.01-1.00 mg ml(-1) and 0.01-1.00 mg ml(-1), respectively, with a correlation coefficient of between 0.9985 and 0.9999. Limits of detection (LODs) were 16.47-7.02 μg ml(-1) and RSDs of inter-day stability were less than 2.9%. Repeatability and precision were respectively lower than 5.3% and 1.1%. Under the optimum conditions, the average recoveries of BSA, Hb, Try and Lys were 90.5%, 94.5%, 92.7% and 93.8% and the obtained RSDs were 1.19%, 1.23%, 1.34% and 1.04%, respectively. According to UV spectra, conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, the cluster phenomenon originating from IL itself or combined with protein was evaluated. As the driving forces which are involved in the partitioning of protein between the IL-rich phase and the phosphate phase, the cluster phenomenon could, in principle, be applied to a variety of different samples and exhibited potential value.

  12. Isolation of High-Purity Extracellular Vesicles by Extracting Proteins Using Aqueous Two-Phase System.

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    Jongmin Kim

    Full Text Available We present a simple and rapid method to isolate extracellular vesicles (EVs by using a polyethylene glycol/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. This system isolated more than ~75% of melanoma-derived EVs from a mixture of EVs and serum proteins. To increase the purity of EVs, a batch procedure was combined as additional steps to remove protein contaminants, and removed more than ~95% of the protein contaminants. We also performed RT-PCR and western blotting to verify the diagnostic applicability of the isolated EVs, and detected mRNA derived from melanoma cells and CD81 in isolated EVs.

  13. Hypoglycaemic activity of saponin fraction extracted from Momordica charantia in PEG/salt aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chuncho; Hui, Qiusha; Wang, Yingzi

    2008-01-01

    Momordica charantia (family, Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as karela or bitter melon (Japanese name 'Tsurureishi'), is used as a folk medicine in China, the Indian subcontinent and South America. In Chinese traditional medicine, the plant is usually used as a hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic agent. The hypoglycaemic activity of saponin fraction (SF) extracted from M. charantia in PEG/salt aqueous two-phase systems was studied in this article. Alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic mice were used in the study. The blood glucose, insulin secretion, glycogen synthesis and the body weight of the mice were analysed. At the same time, the sugar tolerance of the normal mice was also determined. After the mice were administered (i.g.) with SF (500 mg kg(-1)), the blood glucose of alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic mice decreased (p charantia in an aqueous two-phase extraction system induced significant hypoglycaemic activity in hyperglycaemic and normal mice.

  14. Amine-based aqueous polymers for the simultaneous titration and extraction of lactic acid in aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, J; Varelas, V; Tjerneld, F; Hahn-Hägerdal, B

    1998-06-26

    The partitioning of 10% (w/w) lactic acid in ethylene oxide propylene oxide (EOPO) random copolymers and dextran T500 aqueous two-phase systems was studied. An analysis of variance design was applied to investigate the effect of pH, polymer concentration, and addition of polyethyleneimine to the aqueous two-phase systems. The lowest lactate partition coefficient of 0.09 was obtained at pH 6 in the systems containing 7.2% (w/w) polyethyleneimine. The use of polyethyleneimine as titrating base during the fermentative production of lactic acid was evaluated in batch fermentations with 100 g/l glucose. Yield and productivity of polyethyleneimine titrated fermentations compared with those obtained in fermentations titrated with NaOH and KOH.

  15. Extraction of americium of different oxidation states in two-phase aqueous system based on polyethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Frenkel', V.Ya.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Shkinev, V.M.; Spivakov, B.Ya.; Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Americium extraction in different oxidation states in two-phase aqueous system based on polyethylene glycol is investigated. Conditions for quantitative extraction of americium (3) and americium (5) from ammonium sulfate solutions within pH=3-5 interval in the presence of arsenazo 3 are found. Composition of the produced americium complexes with reagent is determined; americium (3) interacts with arsenazo 3 in ammonium sulfate solutions with the formation of MeR and Me 2 R composition complexes. Absorption spectrum characteristics of americium (3) and- (5) complexes with arsenazo 3 in ammonium sulfate solutions and extracts based polyethylene glycol aqueous solutions are given. Molar extinction coefficients of americium complexes with arsenazo (3) in these solutions are determined

  16. Extraction of amylase from fermentation broth in poly (Ethylene Glycol salt aqueous two-phase system

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    Raquel Pedrosa Bezerra

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the partition of amylase from Bacillus subtilis in a minimal medium at 37 ºC and 110 rpm. Enzyme recovery was carried out in aqueous two-phase system PEG-Phosphate salt were carried out. The best purification factor (5.4 was obtained in system PEG 1000 (16.7% w/w with potassium phosphate (14.8% w/w, at pH 6.0, resulting in a recovery of 45.2% activity enzymatic in the salt-rich phase.Enzimas amilolíticas têm sido amplamente investigadas com a finalidade de melhorar os processos industriais para a degradação do amido. Foi determinado que a extração da enzima em sistema bifásico aquosos é um método aplicável para separação e purificação de biomoléculas em misturas. Vários sistemas compostos de soluções aquosas de polietilenoglicol e fosfato foram avaliados. Estudos de produção em meio mínimo suplementado, à 37ºC, com uma velocidade de agitação de 110rpm e recuperação da amilase a partir do Bacillus subtilis em sistema bifásico aquoso PEG-fosfato foram avaliados. O melhor fator de purificação (5.4 foi obtido no sistema PEG 1000 (16.7% w/w com fosfato de potássio (14.8% w/w, a pH 6.0, resultando na recuperação da atividade enzimática de 45.2% na fase rica em sal.

  17. Phase behavior of aqueous two-phase systems of cationic and anionic surfactants and their application to theanine extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Junwei; Wang, Yan; Peng, Qijun [Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China)

    2013-06-15

    Phase behavior of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) containing cationic (SDS) and anionic (CTAB) surfactants and its application to theanine extraction was studied. Results indicated the ATPS could form under the certain SDS/CTAB molar ratio; there was a reasonable consistency between the conductivity and the formation region of ATPS, and the viscosity was higher in the formation region of ATPS. Additionally, the phase ratio increased with increase of CATB concentration, and the interfacial film between the top phase and the bottom phase was resilient. Moreover, the theanine extraction with ATPS was realized in the waste liquid of tea polyphenol production (WLTPP), and the partition coefficient of theanine decreased with increase of WLTPP concentration, whereas the extraction rate of theanine increased. The partition coefficient decreased with increasing SDS/CTAB molar ratio, and the extraction rate of theanine increased with increase of SDS/CTAB molar ratio.

  18. Aqueous two-phase extraction combined with chromatography: new strategies for preparative separation and purification of capsaicin from capsicum oleoresin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pei-Pei; Lu, Yan-Min; Tan, Cong-Ping; Liang, Yan; Cui, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin was preparatively separated and purified from capsicum oleoresin with a new method combined with aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and chromatography. Screening experiments of ATPE systems containing salts and hydrophilic alcohols showed that potassium carbonate/ethanol system was the most suitable system for capsaicin recovery among the systems considered. Response surface methodology was used to determine an optimized aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of capsaicin from capsaicin oleoresin. In a 20 % (w/w) ethanol/22.3 % (w/w) potassium carbonate system, 85.4 % of the capsaicin was recovered in the top ethanol-rich phase while most oil and capsanthin ester were removed in the interphase. The capsaicinoid extract was then subjected to two chromatographic steps using D101 macroporous resin and inexpensive SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin first applied for the purification of capsaicin. After simple optimization of loading/elution conditions for D101 macroporous resin chromatography and SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin chromatography, the purities of capsaicin were improved from 7 to 85 %. In the two chromatography processes, the recoveries of capsaicin were 93 and 80 % respectively; the productivities of capsaicin were 1.86 and 4.2 (g capsaicin/L resin) per day respectively. It is worth mentioning that a by-product of capsaicin production was also obtained with a high purity (90 %).

  19. Extraction of metal ions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-inorganic salt two-phase systems in the presence of inorganic extractants: correlation between extraction behaviour and stability constants of extracted species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgariu, Laura; Bulgariu, Dumitru

    2008-07-04

    The use of aqueous polyethylene glycol-inorganic salt two-phase systems for the extraction of metal ions has a great potential due to their durability, non-toxicity and relative low cost. The aqueous phases can be easily separated by centrifugation, and the operation is possible in a range of experimental conditions. The experimental results have shown that for a given aqueous two-phase system, the extraction behaviour of metal ions in presence of inorganic extractants is mainly dependent on the stability of extracted species. In this paper we review our results obtained at metal ion extraction using inorganic extractants and discuss three major types of extraction behaviours.

  20. Extraction and separation of tungsten (VI) from aqueous media with Triton X-100-ammonium sulfate-water aqueous two-phase system without any extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Zhang; Tichang Sun; Tieqiang Lu; Chunhuan Yan

    2016-11-25

    An aqueous two-phase system composed of Triton X-100-(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -H 2 O was proposed for extraction and separation of tungsten(VI) from aqueous solution without using any extractant. The effects of aqueous pH, concentration of ammonium sulfate, Triton X-100 and tungsten, extracting temperature on the extraction of tungsten were investigated. The extraction of tungsten has remarkable relationship with aqueous pH and are to above 90% at pH=1.0-3.0 under studied pH range (pH=1.0-7.0) and increases gradually with increasing Triton X-100 concentration, but decreases slightly with increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. The extraction percentage of tungsten is hardly relevant to temperature but its distribution coefficient linearly increases with increasing temperature within 303.15-343.15K. The distribution coefficient of tungsten increases with the increase of initial tungsten concentration (0.1-3%) and temperature (303.15 K-333.15K). The solubilization capacity of tungsten in Triton X-100 micellar phase is independent of temperature. FT-IR analysis reveals that there is no evident interaction between polytungstate anion and ether oxygen unit in Triton X-100, and DLS analysis indicates that zeta potential of Triton X-100 micellar phase have a little change from positive to negative after extracting tungsten. Based on the above-mentioned results, it can be deduced that polytungstate anions are solubilized in hydrophilic outer shell of Triton X-100 micelles by electrostatic attraction depending on its relatively high hydrophobic nature. The stripping of tungsten is mainly influenced by temperature and can be easily achieved to 95% in single stage stripping. The tungsten (VI) is separated out from solution containing Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Cr(III) and Mn(II) under the suitable conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The extraction of Zn(II in aqueous PEG (1550 – (NH42SO4 two-phase system using Cl– ions as extracting agent

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    DUMITRU BULGARIU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Zn(II in an aqueous PEG (1550 – (NH42SO4 two-phase system as a function of several experimental parameters was studied. PEG-based aqueous two-phase systems are composed of two immiscible phases: a polymer-rich phase and a salt-rich phase, which can be used for extraction experiments. In the absence of a suitable extracting agent, for the system consisting of a mixture of equal volumes of 40 mass% PEG and 40 mass% (NH42SO4 aqueous solutions, Zn(II remained predominantly in the salt-rich phase. Variation of the pH of the salt stock solution did not change very much the extraction efficiency. By adding chloride ions, an enhancement of the Zn(II extraction was observed. The Zn(II extraction efficiency in presence of Cl- depends on the acidity of the salt stock solution and on the concentration of chloride ions added into the system.

  2. Integration of Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction as Cell Harvest and Capture Operation in the Manufacturing Process of Monoclonal Antibodies

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    Axel Schmidt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantial improvements have been made to cell culturing processes (e.g., higher product titer in recent years by raising cell densities and optimizing cultivation time. However, this has been accompanied by an increase in product-related impurities and therefore greater challenges in subsequent clarification and capture operations. Considering the paradigm shift towards the design of continuously operating dedicated plants at smaller scales—with or without disposable technology—for treating smaller patient populations due to new indications or personalized medicine approaches, the rising need for new, innovative strategies for both clarification and capture technology becomes evident. Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE is now considered to be a feasible unit operation, e.g., for the capture of monoclonal antibodies or recombinant proteins. However, most of the published work so far investigates the applicability of ATPE in antibody-manufacturing processes at the lab-scale and for the most part, only during the capture step. This work shows the integration of ATPE as a combined harvest and capture step into a downstream process. Additionally, a model is applied that allows early prediction of settler dimensions with high prediction accuracy. Finally, a reliable process development concept, which guides through the necessary steps, starting from the definition of the separation task to the final stages of integration and scale-up, is presented.

  3. Cd(II extraction in PEG (1550–(NH42SO4 aqueous two-phase systems using halide extractants

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    LAURA BULGARIU

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Cd(II was studied in an aqueous PEG–(NH42SO4 two-phase system, formed from a water-soluble polymer (poly(ethylene glycol, PEG and an inorganic salt ((NH42SO4, in the presence of halide ions. In the absence of a suitable extracting agent, Cd(II remains predominantly in the salt-rich phase of the extraction system. By addition of halide ions as extractants, Cd(II is extracted into the PEG-rich phase due to the formation of cadmium halide species. The efficiency of the extractants increased in the order: Cl– < Br– < I–. From the distribution coefficients determined as a function of the concentration of the halide ions, the compositions of the extracted species were assumed and the “conditional” extractions constants calculated. The experimental results indicate that the extractability of Cd(II in such extraction systems depends on the type of Cd(II halide species (which is mainly determined by the acidity of salt stock solution and of their stability.

  4. Use of two-phase aqueous systems based on water-soluble polymers in thin-layer and extraction chromatography for recovery and separtion of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Shkinev, V.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility has been demonstrated of using two-phase aqueous systems based on water-soluble polymers, polyethylene glycol and dextran sulfate, in thin-layer and extraction chromatography for recovery and separation of actinides. A convenient method has been proposed for continuous recovery of 239 Np from 243 Am, originating from differences in sorption of tri- and pentavalent actinides from sulfate solutions containing potassium phosphotungstate by silica gel impregnated with polyethylene glycol. New plates for thin-layer chromatography using water-soluble polymers have been developed. These plates were used to study behavior of americium in various oxidation states in thin sorbent layers

  5. Determination of Sudan I-IV in candy using ionic liquid/anionic surfactant aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Liu, Zhongling; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Yong

    2015-04-15

    Ionic liquid/anionic surfactant aqueous two-phase system was developed and applied for the extraction of Sudan I-IV. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the determination of the analytes. The aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was formed in the present of C4[MIM]BF4, sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate and (NH4)2SO4. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as volume of ionic liquid, amount of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate, ionic strength, pH value of system, extraction time and temperature were investigated. The limits of detection for Sudan I, II, III and IV were 5.45, 4.66, 3.68, 4.20 μg kg(-1), respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of candy samples, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 82.3% to 112.1% and relative standard deviations were lower than 7.41%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside from Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. with Further Purification by an Aqueous Two-Phase System

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    Zhi-Jian Tan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a two-step extraction methodology of ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (IL-UAE and ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system (IL-ATPS was developed for the extraction and purification of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG from flaxseed. In the IL-UAE step, several kinds of ILs were investigated as the extractants, to identify the IL that affords the optimum extraction yield. The extraction conditions such as IL concentration, ultrasonic irradiation time, and liquid–solid ratio were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. In the IL-ATPS step, ATPS formed by adding kosmotropic salts to the IL extract was used for further separation and purification of SDG. The most influential parameters (type and concentration of salt, temperature, and pH were investigated to obtain the optimum extraction efficiency. The maximum extraction efficiency was 93.35% under the optimal conditions of 45.86% (w/w IL and 8.27% (w/w Na2SO4 at 22 °C and pH 11.0. Thus, the combination of IL-UAE and IL-ATPS makes up a simple and effective methodology for the extraction and purification of SDG. This process is also expected to be highly useful for the extraction and purification of bioactive compounds from other important medicinal plants.

  7. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase system extraction of polyphenolic compounds from Aronia melanocarpa pomace by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Yang; Qiu, Yang; Ren, Hui; Ju, Dong-Hu; Jia, Hong-Lei

    2017-03-16

    Aronia melanocarpa berries are abundant in polyphenolic compounds. After juice production, the pomace of pressed berries still contains a substantial amount of polyphenolic compounds. For efficient utilization of A. melanocarpa berries and the enhancement of polyphenolic compound yields in Aronia melanocarpa pomace (AMP), total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) from AMP were extracted, using ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase system (UAE-ATPS) extraction method. First, the influences of ammonium sulfate concentration, ethanol-water ratio, ultrasonic time, and ultrasonic power on TP and TF yields were investigated. On this basis, process variables such as ammonium sulfate concentration (0.30-0.35 g mL -1 ), ethanol-water ratio (0.6-0.8), ultrasonic time (40-60 min), and ultrasonic power (175-225 W) were further optimized by implementing Box-Benhnken design with response surface methodology. The experimental results showed that optimal extraction conditions of TP from AMP were as follows: ammonium sulfate concentration of 0.324 g mL -1 , ethanol-water ratio of 0.69, ultrasonic time of 52 min, and ultrasonic power of 200 W. Meanwhile, ammonium sulfate concentration of 0.320 g mL -1 , ethanol-water ratio of 0.71, ultrasonic time of 50 min, and ultrasonic power of 200 W were determined as optimum extraction conditions of TF in AMP. Experimental validation was performed, where TP and TF yields reached 68.15 ± 1.04 and 11.67 ± 0.63 mg g -1 , respectively. Close agreement was found between experimental and predicted values. Overall, the present results demonstrated that ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase system extraction method was successfully used to extract total phenolics and flavonoids in A. melanocarpa pomace.

  8. Comparative study of hollow-fiber liquid-phase micro-extraction and an aqueous two-phase system for determination of phytohormones in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, She Ying; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Penghui H; Hu, Qing; Huang, Ting Lin

    2012-06-01

    Two methods, hollow-fiber liquid-phase micro-extraction (HF-LPME) and an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), have been systematically optimized and compared for extraction and determination of phytohormones in soil by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects on extraction of conditions including solvent type and volume, extraction time, temperature, and amount of salt were evaluated. It was shown that ATPS was superior to HF-LPME for determination of paclobutrazol and uniconazole under the optimum conditions. The limits of detection (LODs) of ATPS were 0.002 μg g(-1) for uniconazole and 0.01 μg g(-1) for paclobutrazol, whereas LODs of HF-LPME were 0.005 μg g(-1) and 0.03 μg g(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) and recovery were in the range 1.7-5.3 % and 86-102 %, respectively, for ATPS and 6.7-7.9 % and 40-60 % for HF-LPME. In addition, the advantages of ATPS were shorter extraction time, suitable for simultaneous pretreatment of batches of samples, and higher extraction capacity. ATPS was therefore applied to the determination of paclobutrazol and uniconazole in real soil samples. Uniconazole was detected in all the samples analyzed whereas paclobutrazol was not found.

  9. Extraction and Purification of Quercitrin, Hyperoside, Rutin, and Afzelin from Zanthoxylum Bungeanum Maxim Leaves Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fengyuan; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Dongmei; Deng, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based on ethanol/NaH2 PO4 was developed for the extraction and purification of quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim leaves. These 4 flavonoids were 1st extracted from dried Z. bungeanum leaves using a 60% ethanol solution and subsequently added to the ATPS for further purification. The partition behavior of the 4 flavonoids in ATPS was investigated. The optimal ATPS conditions were: 29% (w/w) NaH2 PO4 , 25% (w/w) ethanol concentration, 1% (w/w) added amount of leaf extracts, no pH adjustment, and repeated 1 h extractions at 25 °C. Under the optimal conditions for the 10 g ATPS, the absolute recovery of quercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and afzelin reached 90.3%, 83.5%, 92.3%, and 89.1%, respectively. Compared to the 60% ethanol extracts, the content of quercitrin (44.8 mg/g), hyperoside (65.6 mg/g), rutin (56.4 mg/g), and afzelin (6.84 mg/g) in the extracts increased by 49.9%, 38.8%, 45.6%, and 36.8% respectively. The extracts after ATPS also exhibited stronger antioxidant activities, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl IC50 value (10.5 μg/mL) decreased by 41.8%, and the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt value (966 μmol Trolox/g) and ferric reducing power value (619 μmol Trolox/g) increased by 29.8% and 53.7%, respectively. Furthermore, scale-up experiments indicated that a larger scale experiment was feasible for the purification of the 4 flavonoids. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Application of an aqueous two-phase micellar system to extract bromelain from pineapple (Ananas comosus) peel waste and analysis of bromelain stability in cosmetic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spir, Lívia Genovez; Ataide, Janaína Artem; De Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Moriel, Patrícia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; De Borba Gurpilhares, Daniela; Silveira, Edgar; Pessoa, Adalberto; Tambourgi, Elias Basile

    2015-01-01

    Bromelain is a set of proteolytic enzymes found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) tissues such as stem, fruit and leaves. Because of its proteolytic activity, bromelain has potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The present study focused on the recovery of bromelain from pineapple peel by liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase micellar systems (ATPMS), using Triton X-114 (TX-114) and McIlvaine buffer, in the absence and presence of electrolytes CaCl2 and KI; the cloud points of the generated extraction systems were studied by plotting binodal curves. Based on the cloud points, three temperatures were selected for extraction: 30, 33, and 36°C for systems in the absence of salts; 40, 43, and 46°C in the presence of KI; 24, 27, and 30°C in the presence of CaCl2 . Total protein and enzymatic activities were analyzed to monitor bromelain. Employing the ATPMS chosen for extraction (0.5 M KI with 3% TX-114, at pH 6.0, at 40°C), the bromelain extract stability was assessed after incorporation into three cosmetic bases: an anhydrous gel, a cream, and a cream-gel formulation. The cream-gel formulation presented as the most appropriate base to convey bromelain, and its optimal storage conditions were found to be 4.0 ± 0.5°C. The selected ATPMS enabled the extraction of a biomolecule with high added value from waste lined-up in a cosmetic formulation, allowing for exploration of further cosmetic potential. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. An Aqueous Two-Phase System for the Concentration and Extraction of Proteins from the Interface for Detection Using the Lateral-Flow Immunoassay.

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    Ricky Y T Chiu

    Full Text Available The paper-based immunoassay for point-of-care diagnostics is widely used due to its low cost and portability over traditional lab-based assays. Lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA is the most well-established paper-based assay since it is rapid and easy to use. However, the disadvantage of LFA is its lack of sensitivity in some cases where a large sample volume is required, limiting its use as a diagnostic tool. To improve the sensitivity of LFA, we previously reported on the concentration of analytes into one of the two bulk phases of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS prior to detection. In this study, we preserved the advantages of LFA while significantly improving upon our previous proof-of-concept studies by employing a novel approach of concentrating gold nanoparticles, a common LFA colorimetric indicator. By conjugating specific antibodies and polymers to the surfaces of the particles, these gold nanoprobes (GNPs were able to capture target proteins in the sample and subsequently be concentrated within 10 min at the interface of an ATPS solution comprised of polyethylene glycol, potassium phosphate, and phosphate-buffered saline. These GNPs were then extracted and applied directly to LFA. By combining this prior ATPS interface extraction with LFA, the detection limit of LFA for a model protein was improved by 100-fold from 1 ng/μL to 0.01 ng/μL. Additionally, we examined the behavior of the ATPS system in fetal bovine serum and synthetic urine to more closely approach real-world applications. Despite using more complex matrices, ATPS interface extraction still improved the detection limit by 100-fold within 15 to 25 min, demonstrating the system's potential to be applied to patient samples.

  12. An Aqueous Two-Phase System for the Concentration and Extraction of Proteins from the Interface for Detection Using the Lateral-Flow Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ricky Y T; Thach, Alison V; Wu, Chloe M; Wu, Benjamin M; Kamei, Daniel T

    2015-01-01

    The paper-based immunoassay for point-of-care diagnostics is widely used due to its low cost and portability over traditional lab-based assays. Lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) is the most well-established paper-based assay since it is rapid and easy to use. However, the disadvantage of LFA is its lack of sensitivity in some cases where a large sample volume is required, limiting its use as a diagnostic tool. To improve the sensitivity of LFA, we previously reported on the concentration of analytes into one of the two bulk phases of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) prior to detection. In this study, we preserved the advantages of LFA while significantly improving upon our previous proof-of-concept studies by employing a novel approach of concentrating gold nanoparticles, a common LFA colorimetric indicator. By conjugating specific antibodies and polymers to the surfaces of the particles, these gold nanoprobes (GNPs) were able to capture target proteins in the sample and subsequently be concentrated within 10 min at the interface of an ATPS solution comprised of polyethylene glycol, potassium phosphate, and phosphate-buffered saline. These GNPs were then extracted and applied directly to LFA. By combining this prior ATPS interface extraction with LFA, the detection limit of LFA for a model protein was improved by 100-fold from 1 ng/μL to 0.01 ng/μL. Additionally, we examined the behavior of the ATPS system in fetal bovine serum and synthetic urine to more closely approach real-world applications. Despite using more complex matrices, ATPS interface extraction still improved the detection limit by 100-fold within 15 to 25 min, demonstrating the system's potential to be applied to patient samples.

  13. A simple method for point-of-need extraction, concentration and rapid multi-mycotoxin immunodetection in feeds using aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ruben R G; Azevedo, Ana M; Fernandes, Pedro; Chu, Virginia; Conde, João P; Aires-Barros, M Raquel

    2017-08-18

    The rapid detection of mycotoxins in feed samples is becoming an increasingly relevant challenge for the food production sector, in order to effectively enforce current regulations and assure food and feed safety. To achieve rapid mycotoxin detection, several biosensing strategies have been published, many reaching assay times of the order of a few minutes. However, the vast majority of these rely on sample preparation based on volatile organic solvents, often comprising complex multi-step procedures and devoid of clean-up and/or concentration effects. Here, a novel sample preparation methodology based on a green, non-toxic and inexpensive polyethylene glycol-sodium citrate aqueous two-phase system is reported, providing single-step extraction and concentration of three target mycotoxins within 20min: aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON). With point-of-need applications in mind, the extraction procedure was optimized and validated using a rapid multi-toxin microfluidic competitive immunoassay. The assay was successfully tested with spiked complex solid matrices including corn, soy, chickpea and sunflower-based feeds and limits of detection of 4.6ngg -1 ±15.8%, 24.1ngg -1 ±8.1% and 129.7ngg -1 ±53.1% (±CV) were obtained in corn for AFB1, OTA and DON, respectively. These sensitivities are fit-for-purpose at the required regulatory and recommended limits for animal feed, providing an effective and safe semi-quantitative mycotoxin analysis that can be performed in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Extraction of ascorbate oxidase from Cucurbita maxima by continuous process in perforated rotating disc contactor using aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, T S; Marques, P P; Porto, C S; Moreira, K A; Lima-Filho, J L; Converti, A; Pessoa, A; Porto, A L F

    2010-02-01

    The ascorbate oxidase is the enzyme used to determine the content of ascorbic acid in the pharmaceutical and food industries and clinics analyses. The techniques currently used for the purification of this enzyme raise its production cost. Thus, the development of alternative processes and with the potential to reduce costs is interesting. The application of aqueous two-phase system is proposed as an alternative to purification because it enables good separation of biomolecules. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions to continuously pre-purify the enzyme ascorbate oxidase by an aqueous two-phase system (PEG/citrate) using rotating column provided with perforated discs. Under the best conditions (20,000 g/mol PEG molar mass, 10% PEG concentration, and 25% citrate concentration), the system showed satisfactory results (partition coefficient, 3.35; separation efficiency, 54.98%; and purification factor, 1.46) and proved suitable for the pre-purification of ascorbate oxidase in continuous process.

  15. Two-phase aqueous micellar systems: an alternative method for protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel-Yagui C. O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase aqueous micellar systems can be exploited in separation science for the extraction/purification of desired biomolecules. This article reviews recent experimental and theoretical work by Blankschtein and co-workers on the use of two-phase aqueous micellar systems for the separation of hydrophilic proteins. The experimental partitioning behavior of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD in two-phase aqueous micellar systems is also reviewed and new results are presented. Specifically, we discuss very recent work on the purification of G6PD using: i a two-phase aqueous micellar system composed of the nonionic surfactant n-decyl tetra(ethylene oxide (C10E4, and (ii a two-phase aqueous mixed micellar system composed of C10E4 and the cationic surfactant decyltrimethylammonium bromide (C10TAB. Our results indicate that the two-phase aqueous mixed (C10E4/C10TAB micellar system can improve significantly the partitioning behavior of G6PD relative to that observed in the two-phase aqueous C10E4 micellar system.

  16. Ionic liquid and aqueous two-phase extraction based on salting-out coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan-Jie; Jin, Yong-Ri; Wang, Xiao-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Li, Xu-Wen

    2015-09-01

    A method of ionic liquid salt aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the analysis of seven rare ginsenosides including Rg6 , F4 , 20(S)-Rg3 , 20(R)-Rg3 , Rk3 , Rk1 , and Rg5 in Xue-Sai-Tong injection. The injection was mixed with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution, and a mixture was obtained. With the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dipotassium phosphate into the mixture, the aqueous two-phase mixture was formed after ultrasonic treatment and centrifuged. Rare ginsenosides were extracted into the upper phase. To obtain a high extraction factors, various influences were considered systematically, such as the volume of ionic liquid, the category and amount of salts, the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the pH value of system, and the time of ultrasonic treatment. Under the optimal condition, rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection were enriched and detected, the recoveries of seven rare ginsenosides ranged from 90.05 to 112.55%, while relative standard deviations were lower than 2.50%. The developed method was reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in the injections. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Aqueous Two Phase System Assisted Self-Assembled PLGA Microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeredla, Nitish; Kojima, Taisuke; Yang, Yi; Takayama, Shuichi; Kanapathipillai, Mathumai

    2016-06-01

    Here, we produce poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based microparticles with varying morphologies, and temperature responsive properties utilizing a Pluronic F127/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) assisted self-assembly. The PLGA polymer, when emulsified in Pluronic F127/dextran ATPS, forms unique microparticle structures due to ATPS guided-self assembly. Depending on the PLGA concentration, the particles either formed a core-shell or a composite microparticle structure. The microparticles facilitate the simultaneous incorporation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules, due to their amphiphilic macromolecule composition. Further, due to the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) properties of Pluronic F127, the particles exhibit temperature responsiveness. The ATPS based microparticle formation demonstrated in this study, serves as a novel platform for PLGA/polymer based tunable micro/nano particle and polymersome development. The unique properties may be useful in applications such as theranostics, synthesis of complex structure particles, bioreaction/mineralization at the two-phase interface, and bioseparations.

  18. Aqueous Two-Phase Systems formed by Biocompatible and Biodegradable Polysaccharides and Acetonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Cardoso, Gustavo; Souza, Isabela Nascimento; Pereira, Matheus M.; Freire, Mara G.; Soares, Cleide Mara Faria; Lima, Álvaro Silva

    2015-01-01

    In this work, it is shown that novel aqueous two-phase systems can be formed by the combination of acetonitrile and polysaccharides, namely dextran. Several ternary phase diagrams were determined at 25 °C for the systems composed of water + acetonitrile + dextran. The effect of the dextran molecular weight (6,000, 40,000 and 100,000 g.mol−1) was ascertained toward their ability to undergo liquid-liquid demixing. An increase in the dextran molecular weight favors the phase separation. Furthermore, the effect of temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C) was evaluated for the system constituted by the dextran of higher molecular weight. Lower temperatures are favorable for phase separation since lower amounts of dextran and acetonitrile are required for the creation of aqueous two-phase systems. In general, acetonitrile is enriched in the top phase while dextran is majorly concentrated in the bottom phase. The applicability of this new type of two-phase systems as liquid-liquid extraction approaches was also evaluated by the study of the partition behavior of a well-known antioxidant – vanillin - and used here as a model biomolecule. The optimized conditions led to an extraction efficiency of vanillin of 95% at the acetonitrile-rich phase. PMID:25729320

  19. Purification of Active Myrosinase from Plants by Aqueous Two-Phase Counter-Current Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kristina L.; Ito, Yoichiro; Ramarathnam, Aarthi; Holtzclaw, W. David; Fahey, Jed W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C. 3.2.1.147), is a plant enzyme of increasing interest and importance to the biomedical community. Myrosinase catalyses the formation of isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (frombroccoli) and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (from moringa), which are potent inducers of the cytoprotective phase-2 response in humans, by hydrolysis of their abundant glucosinolate (β-thioglucoside N-hydroxysulphate) precursors. Objective To develop an aqueous two-phase counter-current chromatography (CCC) system for the rapid, three-step purification of catalytically active myrosinase. Methods A high-concentration potassium phosphate and polyethylene glycol biphasic aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is used with a newly developed CCC configuration that utilises spiral-wound, flat-twisted tubing (with an ovoid cross-section). Results Making the initial crude plant extract directly in the ATPS and injecting only the lower phase permitted highly selective partitioning of the myrosinase complex before a short chromatography on a spiral disk CCC. Optimum phase retention and separation of myrosinase from other plant proteins afforded a 60-fold purification. Conclusion Catalytically active myrosinase is purified from 3-day broccoli sprouts, 7-day daikon sprouts, mustard seeds and the leaves of field-grown moringa trees, in a CCC system that is predictably scalable. PMID:25130502

  20. Reversible, on-demand generation of aqueous two-phase microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick; Retterer, Scott Thomas; Boreyko, Jonathan Barton; Mruetusatorn, Prachya

    2017-08-15

    The present invention provides methods of on-demand, reversible generation of aqueous two-phase microdroplets core-shell microbeads, microparticle preparations comprising the core-shell microbeads, and drug delivery formulation comprising the microparticle preparations. Because these aqueous microdroplets have volumes comparable to those of cells, they provide an approach to mimicking the dynamic microcompartmentation of biomaterial that naturally occurs within the cytoplasm of cells. Hence, the present methods generate femtoliter aqueous two-phase droplets within a microfluidic oil channel using gated pressure pulses to generate individual, stationary two-phase microdroplets with a well-defined time zero for carrying out controlled and sequential phase transformations over time. Reversible phase transitions between single-phase, two-phase, and core-shell microbead states are obtained via evaporation-induced dehydration and water rehydration.

  1. Dual affinity method for plasmid DNA purification in aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, H S C; Hine, A V; Brocchini, S; Slater, N K H; Marcos, J C

    2010-02-26

    The DNA binding fusion protein, LacI-His6-GFP, together with the conjugate PEG-IDA-Cu(II) (10 kDa) was evaluated as a dual affinity system for the pUC19 plasmid extraction from an alkaline bacterial cell lysate in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/dextran (DEX) aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). In a PEG 600-DEX 40 ATPS containing 0.273 nmol of LacI fusion protein and 0.14% (w/w) of the functionalised PEG-IDA-Cu(II), more than 72% of the plasmid DNA partitioned to the PEG phase, without RNA or genomic DNA contamination as evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis. In a second extraction stage, the elution of pDNA from the LacI binding complex proved difficult using either dextran or phosphate buffer as second phase, though more than 75% of the overall protein was removed in both systems. A maximum recovery of approximately 27% of the pCU19 plasmid was achieved using the PEG-dextran system as a second extraction system, with 80-90% of pDNA partitioning to the bottom phase. This represents about 7.4 microg of pDNA extracted per 1 mL of pUC19 desalted lysate. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Differentiation of surface properties of chlorococcalean algae by means of aqueous two phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Burczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal cells belonging to various strains of Chlorococcales (Chlorophyta have been partitioned in aqueous two-phase systems containing ionogenic polymers, DEAE-dextran or SDS-dextran, at various pH values. Strain-specific differences of partition type which have been found in the phase systems used can be useful for distinguishing of algal cells.

  3. Partitioning behavior of laccase from Lentinus polychrous Lev in aqueous two phase systems

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    Karnika Ratanapongleka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an aqueous two phase system (ATPS composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG and potassiumphosphate was employed to purify laccase produced by Lentinus polychrous. The assessments of system parameters such asmolecular weight of the PEG, PEG concentration, phosphate salt, system pH, and neutral salt (NaCl concentration on laccasepartitioning and purification were investigated. The enzyme preferentially partitioned in the top polymer-rich phase in alltested systems. Desirable conditions for partitioning were found in the system having polyethylene glycol of intermediatemolecular weight 4,000. This work revealed that the extraction efficiency was not much affected by PEG concentration. TheNaCl addition decreased greatly the partition coefficient of laccase. The optimal system was obtained at pH 7.0, containing12% w/w PEG 4,000 and 16% w/w potassium phosphate with enzyme partition coefficient of 88.30, purification factor of 3.01-fold, and 99.08% yield of enzyme activity in the top phase. Overall, the results obtained in this study revealed that ATPSscould be potentially useful technique for a first step purification of laccase from L. polychrous.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations on aqueous two-phase systems - Single PEG-molecules in solution

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    Oelmeier Stefan A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations are a promising tool to generate molecular understanding of processes related to the purification of proteins. Polyethylene glycols (PEG of various length are commonly used in the production and purification of proteins. The molecular mechanisms behind PEG driven precipitation, aqueous two-phase formation or the effects of PEGylation are however still poorly understood. Results In this paper, we ran MD simulations of single PEG molecules of variable length in explicitly simulated water. The resulting structures are in good agreement with experimentally determined 3D structures of PEG. The increase in surface hydrophobicity of PEG of longer chain length could be explained on an atomic scale. PEG-water interactions as well as aqueous two-phase formation in the presence of PO4 were found to be correlated to PEG surface hydrophobicity. Conclusions We were able to show that the taken MD simulation approach is capable of generating both structural data as well as molecule descriptors in agreement with experimental data. Thus, we are confident of having a good in silico representation of PEG.

  5. Production of pectinases by Polyporus squamosus in aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antov, M G.; Pericin, D M.

    2001-03-08

    The ability of Polyporus squamosus to grow and produce pectinases in an aqueous two-phase medium composed of polyethylene glycol and crude dextran is reported. Fungal growth was restricted to the bottom phase leaving the top phase cell free. Amounts of produced biomass and endo and exo-pectinase activities were superior or equal to those obtained in homogeneous medium. The partition coefficient for the endo-pectinase was 1.52 followed by a top phase yield of 70.86%. Although the phase system composition favours partition of a greater part of exo-pectinase activity to the bottom phase (K(exo) was 0.6 and yield in top phase 48.56%) the partitioned activity in the top phase was equal to that produced in homogeneous cultivation.

  6. Polyethyleneglycol molecular mass and polydispersivity effect on protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picó, Guillermo; Romanini, Diana; Nerli, Bibiana; Farruggia, Beatriz

    2006-01-18

    The partitioning of model proteins (bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, trypsin and lysozyme) was assayed in aqueous two-phase systems formed by a salt (potassium phosphate, sodium sulfate and ammonium sulfate) and a mixture of two polyethyleneglycols of different molecular mass. The ratio between the PEG masses in the mixtures was changed in order to obtain different polymer average molecular mass. The effect of polymer molecular mass and polydispersivity on the protein partition coefficient was studied. The relationship between the logarithm of the protein partition coefficient and the average molecular mass of the phase-forming polymer was found to depend on the polyethyleneglycol molecular mass, the salt type in the bottom phase and the molecular weight of the partitioned protein. The polymer polydispersivity proved to be a very useful tool to increase the separation between two proteins having similar isoelectrical point.

  7. Aqueous Two-Phase Systems: A New Approach for the Determination of Brilliant Blue FCF in Water and Food Samples

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    Sabah Shiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, and more sensitive spectrophotometric procedure has been developed for the determination of brilliant blue FCF in water and food samples by an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. In this method, adequate amount of polyethylene glycol/ sodium carbonate (PEG-4000/Na2CO3 was added to aqueous solution for formation of a homogeneous solution. To the mixture solution, suitable amount of Na2CO3 was added, the mixture solution was shaken until the salt was dissolved, and then it was separated into two clear phases easily and rapidly. The target analyte in the water sample was extracted into the polyethylene glycol phase. After extraction, measuring the absorbance at 634 nm was done. The effects of different parameters such as polyethylene glycol (type and concentration, pH, salt (type and amount, centrifuge time, and temperature on the ATPS of dye was investigated and optimum conditions were established. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.25–750 ng/mL for brilliant blue FCF under optimum conditions. Detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3Sb was 0.12 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD for 400 ng/mL was 3.14%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of brilliant blue FCF in spiked samples with satisfactory results. The relative recovery was between 96.0 and 102.2%.

  8. Separation and Enrichment of Lectin from Zihua Snap-Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds by PEG 600–Ammonium Sulfate Aqueous Two-Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A fast and efficient method based on a polyethylene glycol (PEG 600/(NH42SO4 aqueous two-phase system for extracting lectin from Zihua snap-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was established. According to a Box–Behnken design (BBD, involving four factors at three levels each subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and response surface analysis, the protein recovery and the purification factor of lectin in the top phase were used as the response values of the variance analysis to acquire the multivariate quadratic regression model. SDS–PAGE electrophoresis and the hemagglutination test were used to detect the distribution of lectin in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. The obtained data indicated that lectin was preferentially partitioned into the PEG-rich phase, and the ATPS, composed of 15% (NH42SO4 (w/w, 18% PEG 600 (w/w, 0.4 g/5 g NaCl and 1 mL crude extract, showed good selectivity for lectin when the pH value was 7.5. Under the optimal conditions, most of the lectin was assigned to the top phase in the ATPS, and the hemagglutination activity of the purified lectin in the top phase was 3.08 times that of the crude extract. Consequently, the PEG 600/(NH42SO4 aqueous two-phase system was an effective method for separating and enriching lectin directly from the crude extract of Zihua snap-bean seeds.

  9. Isolation of a lipase-producing Trichosporon spp and enzyme extraction by two-phase aqueous system Isolamento de Trichosporon spp produtor de lipase e extração enzimática pelo sistema bifásico aquoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A lipase-producing yeast strain isolated from crude cheese and identified as Trichosporon spp produced 7.3 U/mL (59.3 U/µg after 72h of cultivation. Lipase showed optimum activity at pH 7.0-8.0 and 45-50ºC. Extraction by the two-phase aqueous system (PEG-phosphate salts showed an elevated recuperation (99.8% of enzymatic activity in the PEG phase.Uma levedura produtora de lipase isolada de queijo coalho e identificada como Trichosporon spp produziu 7,3 U/mL (59,3 U/µg após 72h de cultivo. A lipase mostrou atividade ótima em pH 7,0-8,0 e temperatura ótima entre 45-50ºC. Extração pelo sistema PEG - sais de fosfato apresentou 99,8% de recuperação da atividade enzimática na fase PEG.

  10. The effect of sulphates on partitioning of pectinases in aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various sulphate salts on the partitioning of endo-pectinase and exo-pectinase in aqueous two-phase systems, composed of polyethylene glycol and dextran, was studied. Presence of ammonium sulphate and sodium sulphate at concentration 15 mmol/l in the system polyethylene glycol 4000/crude dextran, at tie-line length 7.44%, increased partition coefficient of endo-pectinase 1.25 and 1.2 fold, respectively. Ammonium sulphate at 15 mmol/l and sodium sulphate at 5 mmol/l enhanced partition coefficient for exo-pectinase for about 60% in comparison to the system without salts. Addition of magnesium and sodium sulphate to a final concentration of 0.3 mmol/l in the system containing polyethylene glycol 6000/dextran 500 000, at tie-line length 6.26%, increased the partition coefficient of endo activity for 95% and 32%, respectively. Both salts at the same concentration increased partition coefficient of exo activity 1.5 and 3 times, respectively, in comparison to the system without salts.

  11. Aqueous two-phase system purification for superoxide dismutase induced by menadione from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakcıoğlu, Berna; Tongul, Burcu; Tarhan, Leman

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, the partitioning behavior of menadione-induced superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), an antioxidant enzyme that has various applications in the medical and cosmetic industries, from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been characterized on different types of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) (poly(ethylene glycol)/polypropylene glycol (PEG/PPG)-dextran, PEG-salt and PPG-salt). PEG-salt combinations were found most optimal systems for the purification of SOD. The best partition conditions were found using the PEG-3350 24% and K 2 HPO 4 5% (w/w) with pH 7.0 at 25 °C. The partition coefficient of total SOD activity and total protein concentration observed in this system were 0.17 and 6.65, respectively, with the recovery percentage as 78.90% in the bottom phase and 13.17% in the top phase. The highest purification fold for SOD from P. chrysosporium was found as 6.04 in the bottom phase of PEG 3350%24 - K 2 HPO 4 %5 (w/w) system with pH 7.0. SOD purified from P. chrysosporium was determined to be a homodimer in its native state with a molecular weight of 60  ± 4 kDa. Consequently, simple and only one step PEG-salt ATPS system was developed for SOD purification from P. chrysosporium.

  12. An efficient aqueous two phase systems using dual inorganic electrolytes to separate 1,3-propanediol from the fermented broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Narisetty; Pandey, Ashok; Binod, Parameswaran

    2018-04-01

    An aqueous two phase extraction using K 2 CO 3 :K 2 HPO 4 /Isoproponal was investigated for the recovery of 1,3-propanediol from the fermented broth. Initially, the concentration of K 2 CO 3 on phase formation, the partition co-efficient and recovery of 1,3-PDO was evaluated with a optimum salt concentration of 60%. Later the partition co-efficient was improved using dual inorganic salts, K 2 CO 3 and K 2 HPO 4 with an optimum concentration of 45% and 15% respectively. Using Central Composite Design, pH and temperature on partition and recovery of 1,3-PDO was evaluated. With the optimized physical conditions and inorganic salts concentration, ATPS extraction was carried out in synthetic solution as well as fermented broth resulting in maximum 1,3-PDO partition co-efficient value of 42.46 and 56.93 and recovery yield of 97.69 and 98.27% respectively. A fair partition was observed with organic acids and 1,3-PDO, with removal of lactic acid and acetic acid up to 93.29 and 90.42% respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Liquid-liquid equilibrium of water + PEG 8000 + magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems at 35°C: experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Castro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems is a highly efficient technique for separation and purification of biomolecules due to the mild properties of both liquid phases. Reliable data on the phase behavior of these systems are essential for the design and operation of new separation processes; several authors reported phase diagrams for polymer-polymer systems, but data on polymer-salt systems are still relatively scarce. In this work, experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data on water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + magnesium sulfate and water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems were obtained at 35°C. Both equilibrium phases were analyzed by lyophilization and ashing. Experimental results were correlated with a mass-fraction-based NRTL activity coefficient model. New interaction parameters were estimated with the Simplex method. The mean deviations between the experimental and calculated compositions in both equilibrium phases is about 2%.

  14. Refolding of laccase from Trametes versicolor using aqueous two phase systems: Effect of different additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Trasviña, Calef; Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; González-Valdez, José; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2017-07-21

    Protein refolding is a strategy used to obtain active forms of proteins from inclusion bodies. On its part, laccase is an enzyme with potential for different biotechnological applications but there are few reports regarding its refolding which in many cases is considered inefficient due to the poor obtained refolding yields. Aqueous Two-Phase Systems (ATPS) have been used for the refolding of proteins getting acceptable recovery percentages since PEG presents capacity to avoid protein aggregation. In this work, 48 PEG-phosphate ATPS were analyzed to study the impact of different parameters (i.e. tie line length (TLL), volume ratio (V R ) and PEG molecular weight) upon the recovery and refolding of laccase. Additionally, since laccase is a metalloprotein, the use of additives (individually and in mixture) was studied with the aim of favoring refolding. Results showed that laccase presents a high affinity for the PEG-rich phase obtaining recovery values of up to 90%. Such affinity increases with increasing TLL and decreases when PEG molecular weight and V R increase. In denatured state, this PEG-rich phase affinity decreases drastically. However, the use of additives such as l-cysteine, glutathione oxidized, cysteamine and Cu +2 was critical in improving refolding yield values up to 100%. The best conditions for the refolding of laccase were obtained using the PEG 400gmol -1 , TLL 45% w/w, V R 3 ATPS and a mixture of 2.5mM cysteamine with 1mM Cu +2 . To our knowledge, this is the first time that the use of additives and the behavior of the mixture of such additives to enhance refolding performance in ATPS is reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of storage cell wall polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds and the formation of aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, T T; Rodrigues, N R; Serra, G E; Panegassi, V R; Buckeridge, M S

    1996-05-17

    Cell wall storage polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds of Dimorphandra mollis, Schizolobium parahybum (galactomannans), Copaifera langsdorffii, Hymenaea courbaril (xyloglucans) and the galactan from cotyledons of the Mediterranean species Lupinus angustifolius were extracted and their apparent molecular masses were determined by high-performance size exclusion chromatography analysis. They were, to a large degree, polydisperse, showing molecular masses that varied from 100,000 to 2,000,000. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, 1500, 4000, 6000 and 8000), sodium citrate and dextran (73,000, 60,000-90,000, 505,000 and 2,000,000) were used for investigating phase formation with the seed polysaccharides. Galactomannans and xyloglucans demonstrated phase formation with sodium citrate concentrations lower than 30%, as well as dextrans and polyethylene glycol, and formed gels in the presence of high concentrations of sodium citrate (above 30%). Galactan did not promote phase formation with any of the reagents used. On the basis of the results obtained, the possibility of using legume seed polysaccharides for the partitioning and purification of polysaccharide enzymes in aqueous two-phase systems is suggested.

  16. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed processed by two-phase solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Junfeng; Yun Zhi; Shi Haixian

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the preparation of biodiesel from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process of cottonseed showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL extraction solvent mixture and methanol/petroleum ether volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 30 deg. C, extraction time 30 min. Under the extraction conditions, the extraction rate of cottonseed oil could achieve 98.3%, the free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents of cottonseed oil were reduced to 0.20% and 0.037%, respectively, which met the requirement of alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The free gossypol (FG) content in cottonseed meal produced from two-phase solvent extraction could reduce to 0.014% which was far below the FAO standard. And the nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal protein feed resources. After the TSE process of cottonseed, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-petroleum ether solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide (CaO) as the solid base catalyst. The influences of weight ratio of petroleum ether to cottonseed oil, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, alkali catalyst amount and reaction time on cottonseed oil conversion were respectively investigated by mono-factor experiments. The conversion of cottonseed oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could achieve 98.6% with 3:1 petroleum ether/oil weight ratio, 65 deg. C reaction temperature, 9:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 4% (catalyst/oil weight ratio, w/w) solid base catalyst amount and 3 h reaction time. The properties of FAME product prepared from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel.

  17. Aqueous two-phase partition applied to the isolation of plasma membranes and Golgi apparatus from cultured mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Partitioning in dextran-poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG) aqueous-aqueous phase systems represents a mature technology with many applications to separations of cells and to the preparation of membranes from mammalian cells. Most applications to membrane isolation and purification have focused on plasma membranes, plasma membrane domains and separation of right side-out and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. The method exploits a combination of membrane properties, including charge and hydrophobicity. Purification is based upon differential distributions of the constituents in a sample between the two principal compartments of the two phases (upper and lower) and at the interface. The order of affinity of animal cell membranes for the upper phase is: endoplasmic reticulum Salt concentrations and temperature affect partitioning behavior and must be precisely standardized. In some cases, it is more fortuitous to combine aqueous two-phase partition with other procedures to obtain a more highly purified preparation. A procedure is described for preparation of Golgi apparatus from transformed mammalian cells that combines aqueous two-phase partition and centrifugation. Also described is a periodic NADH oxidase, a new enzyme marker for right side-out plasma membrane vesicles not requiring detergent disruptions for measurement of activity.

  18. Preparation of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Junfeng; Shi, Haixian; Yun, Zhi

    2010-09-01

    In the present work the preparation of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL of extraction solvent mixture and methanol/n-hexane volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 35 degrees C, extraction time 30 min. Further, the effect of methanol recycling on the TSE process was also investigated. After TSE process, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-n-hexane solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide as the catalyst. The conversion could achieve 98% with 3:1 n-hexane/oil weight ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 7:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 1.1% alkali catalyst concentration and 120 min reaction time. The properties of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) product prepared from Jatropha curcas L. oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel anaerobic two-phase system for biohydrogen production and in situ extraction of organic acid byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2015-06-01

    Owing to CO2-free emission, hydrogen is considered as a potential green alternative of fossil fuels. Water is the major emission of hydrogen combustion process and gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is nearly three times more than that of gasoline and diesel fuel. Biological hydrogen production, therefore, has commercial significance; especially, when it is produced from low-cost industrial waste-based feedstock. Light independent anaerobic fermentation is simple and mostly studied method of biohydrogen production. During hydrogen production by this method, a range of organic acid byproducts are produced. Accumulation of these byproducts is inhibitory for hydrogen production as it may result in process termination due to sharp decrease in medium pH or by possible metabolic shift. For the first time, therefore, a two-phase anaerobic bioreactor system has been reported for biohydrogen production which involves in situ extraction of different organic acids. Among different solvents, based on biocompatibility oleyl alcohol has been chosen as the organic phase of the two-phase system. An organic:aqueous phase ratio of 1:50 has been found to be optimum for hydrogen production. The strategy was capable of increasing the hydrogen production from 1.48 to 11.65 mmol/L-medium.

  20. Separation of curcuminoids using ionic liquid based aqueous two-phase system coupled with in situ dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yang; Gao, Mingcen; Wang, Xueying; Song, Rusheng; Lu, Jun; Chen, Xuwei

    2016-01-01

    An aqueous two-phase extraction system (ATPS) combined with an in situ dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method using imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) for the separation of curcuminoids is developed. The influence of structure of IL, the type of metathesis reagents, and the back extraction agents on the extraction efficiency is investigated. 2.0mg of curcuminoids are extracted by an IL ATPS composed of 0.4g 1,3-diethylimidazolium iodine (EeimI), 0.6g potassium hydrogen phosphate, 1.0g water. Then the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide lithium (LiNTf2) aqueous solution is added to the EeimI-rich phase of the ATPS. The water-immiscible ionic liquids, 1,3-diethylimidazole bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (EeimNTf2), forms by the metathesis reaction. The in situ DLLME is triggered simultaneously and further purifies the curcuminoids. 92% of EeimI transforms into EeimNTf2 and thus the Eeim(+) cation is used for twice in this method. Finally, 0.1mol/L NaOH aqueous solution is used as the back extraction reagent. The curcuminoids precipitate is achieved with 93% of recovery when the aqueous solution is adjusted to pH 3.0. This ATPS-DLLME method is successfully applied to the separation of curcuminoids from Curcuma Longa (0.96±0.02% of extraction yield, a purity of >51% with respect to the total dry mass of the product). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancing the lateral-flow immunoassay for detection of proteins using an aqueous two-phase micellar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Foad; Le, Alexander M; Nafisi, Parsa M; Wu, Benjamin M; Kamei, Daniel T

    2012-10-01

    The lateral-flow (immuno)assay (LFA) has been widely investigated for the detection of molecular, macromolecular, and particle targets at the point-of-need due to its ease of use, rapid processing, and minimal power and laboratory equipment requirements. However, for some analytes, such as certain proteins, the detection limit of LFA is inferior to lab-based assays, such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and needs to be improved. One solution for improving the detection limit of LFA is to concentrate the target protein in a solution prior to the detection step. In this study, a novel approach was used in the context of an aqueous two-phase micellar system comprised of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 to concentrate a model protein, namely transferrin, prior to LFA. Proteins have been shown to partition, or distribute, fairly evenly between the two phases of an aqueous two-phase system, which in turn results in their limited concentration in one of the two phases. Therefore, larger colloidal gold particles decorated with antibodies for transferrin were used in the concentration step to bind to transferrin and aid its partitioning into the top, micelle-poor phase. By manipulating the volume ratio of the two coexisting micellar phases and combining the concentration step with LFA, the transferrin detection limit of LFA was improved by tenfold from 0.5 to 0.05 μg/mL in a predictive manner. In addition to enhancing the sensitivity of LFA, this universal concentration method could also be used to improve other detection assays.

  2. Thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibrium for water + poly(Ethylene glycol + salt aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.G. Sé

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The NRTL (nonrandom, two-liquid model, expressed in mass fraction instead of mole fraction, was used to correlate liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous two-phase polymer-salt solutions. New interaction energy parameters for this model were determined using reported data on the water + poly(ethylene glycol + salt systems, with different molecular masses for PEG and the salts potassium phosphate, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate and magnesium sulfate. The correlation of liquid-liquid equilibrium is quite satisfactory.

  3. aqueous root extract on spermatogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spermatogenic activity similar to that of the whole plant which was shown previously to inhibit spermatogenesis. Methods: T. officinale aqueous extract was prepared by soaking 100 g of dried materials in 1 L distilled water for two days at 45 oC. Fifty adult ...

  4. Microbial side-chain cleavage of phytosterols by mycobacteria in vegetable oil/aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang-Guang; Guan, Yi-Xin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-09-01

    Microbial side-chain cleavage of natural sterols to 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) by Mycobacteria has received much attention in pharmaceutical industry, while low yield of the reaction owing to the strong hydrophobicity of sterols is a tough problem to be solved urgently. Eight kinds of vegetable oils, i.e., sunflower, peanut, corn, olive, linseed, walnut, grape seed, and rice oil, were used to construct oil/aqueous biphasic systems in the biotransformation of phytosterols by Mycobacterium sp. MB 3683 cells. The results indicated that vegetable oils are suitable for phytosterol biotransformation. Specially, the yield of AD carried out in sunflower biphasic system (phase ratio of 1:9, oil to aqueous) was greatly increased to 84.8 % with 10 g/L feeding concentration after 120-h transformation at 30 °C and 200 rpm. Distribution coefficients of AD in different oil/aqueous systems were also determined. Because vegetable oils are of low cost and because of their eco-friendly characters, there is a great potential for the application of oil/aqueous two-phase systems in bacteria whole cell biocatalysis.

  5. Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Nimas M S; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates was studied using bench-scale bioreactors. The cultures with biochar additions were placed in 100ml reactors and incubated at 35°C and pH 5 for hydrogen production. The residual cultures were then used for methane production, incubated at 35°C and pH 7. Daily yields of hydrogen and methane and weekly yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured. The hydrogen and methane production potentials, rate and lag phases of the two phases were analysed using the Gompertz model. The results showed that biochar addition increased the maximum production rates of hydrogen by 32.5% and methane 41.6%, improved hydrogen yield by 31.0% and methane 10.0%, and shortened the lag phases in the two phases by 36.0% and 41.0%, respectively. Biochar addition also enhanced VFA generation during hydrogen production and VFA degradation in methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of aqueous two-phase systems for purification of hyaluronic acid produced by metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Vivek; Puvendran, Kirubhakaran; Guru, Bharath Raja; Jayaraman, Guhan

    2016-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid has a wide range of biomedical applications and its commercial value is highly dependent on its purity and molecular weight. This study highlights the utility of aqueous two-phase separation as a primary recovery step for hyaluronic acid and for removal of major protein impurities from fermentation broths. Metabolically engineered cultures of a lactate dehydrogenase mutant strain of Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis NZ9020) were used to produce high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. The cell-free fermentation broth was partially purified using a polyethylene glycol/potassium phosphate system, resulting in nearly 100% recovery of hyaluronic acid in the salt-rich bottom phase in all the aqueous two-phase separation experiments. These experiments were optimized for maximum removal of protein impurities in the polyethylene glycol rich top phase. The removal of protein impurities resulted in substantial reduction of membrane fouling in the subsequent diafiltration process, carried out with a 300 kDa polyether sulfone membrane. This step resulted in considerable purification of hyaluronic acid, without any loss in recovery and molecular weight. Diafiltration was followed by an adsorption step to remove minor impurities and achieve nearly 100% purity. The final hyaluronic acid product was characterized by Fourier-transform IR and NMR spectroscopy, confirming its purity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An investigation of two-phase flow instability using wavelet signal extraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhi; Yang Ruichang; Cao Xuewu; Yang Yanhua

    2004-01-01

    When the oscillation periods of the instability of two-phase flow are sought with traditional methods of signal analysis, generally the Fourier transform must be employed and then the oscillation periods will be gotten at the location of the local maximum amplitude of frequency transform. However, Fourier transform will be difficult to clearly analyze the unsteady signals especially when the signals include many peaks and the noise interference is not generated by white noise in many areas of practical engineering like the oscillation of the instability of two-phase flow. The most effective solving method for the difficulty of Fourier transform is to analyze the signals directly in time domain. Wavelet analysis is able to search out the periods from time domain directly. It also has more excellent local characteristics than Fourier analysis in the both of time and frequency domains. In this paper, not only is a direct detecting method of the oscillation periods successfully applied based on the wavelet signal extraction techniques, but also the oscillation of density wave type of TYPE I is found as a kind of oscillations with a high-frequency harmonization

  8. Basicity determination for neutral phosphorus organic extragents by NMR 31P-method in two-phase systems, and quantitative interrelations of acido-basic extractive properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskorin, B.N.; Yakshin, V.V.; Meshcheryakov, N.M.; Yagodin, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to the method for determination of basicity of neutral organophosphorus compounds of XGZP=0 type (X, G, Z=C 4 H 9 , C 8 H 17 , C 6 H 5 ). The method is based on change of chemical shift of phosphorus-31 nuclei in two-phase extraction system depending on acidity function H O , H A , H PO . It is shown that the method can be used for evaluation and forecasting of phosphine oxide ability in the processes of UO 2 SO 4 solvent extraction from aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid

  9. Design of functional guanidinium ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems for the efficient purification of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xueqin; Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn; Zeng, Qun; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of novel cationic functional hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids and anionic functional tetraalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized. • Functional guanidinium ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems have been first designed for the purification of protein. • Mechanisms and performances of the process were researched. • Simple, green, safety and presents better purified ability than ordinary process. • A potential efficient platform for protein purification and related studies. - Abstract: A series of novel cationic functional hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids and anionic functional tetraalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been devised and synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids (ILs) were confirmed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and the production yields were all above 90%. Functional guanidinium ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems (FGIL-ATPSs) have been first designed with these functional guanidinium ILs and phosphate solution for the purification of protein. After phase separation, proteins had transferred into the IL-rich phase and the concentrations of proteins were determined by measuring the absorbance at 278 nm using an ultra violet visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometer. The advantages of FGIL-ATPSs were compared with ordinary ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs). The proposed FGIL-ATPS has been applied to purify lysozyme, trypsin, ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin. Single factor experiments were used to research the effects of the process, such as the amount of ionic liquid (IL), the concentration of salt solution, temperature and the amount of protein. The purification efficiency reaches to 97.05%. The secondary structure of protein during the experimental process was observed upon investigation using UV–vis spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared

  10. Treatment of phenol in synthetic saline wastewater by solvent extraction and two-phase membrane biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Ruey-Shin; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Ya-Han

    2009-05-15

    Phenol in synthetic saline (100gL(-1) NaCl) and acidic (pH 3) wastewater was treated by a hybrid solvent extraction and two-phase membrane biodegradation process at 30 degrees C. Kerosene was adopted to be the organic solvent because it was biocompatible and had a suitable partition coefficient for phenol. Phenol in water was first extracted by kerosene in a batch stirred vessel and the loaded solvent was passed through the lumen of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow-fiber membrane contactor; in the meantime, Pseudomonas putida BCRC 14365 in mineral salt medium was flowed across the shell, to which tetrasodium phyophosphate (1gL(-1)) was added as a dispersing agent. The effect of the initial phenol level in wastewater (110-2400mgL(-1)) on phenol removal and cell growth was experimentally studied. At a cell concentration of 0.023gL(-1), it was shown that the removal of phenol from saline wastewater was more efficient at a level of 2000mgL(-1) when 0.02-m(2) membrane module was used. The effects of bigger membrane module size (0.19m(2) area) and higher initial cell concentration (0.092-0.23gL(-1)) on the performance of such a hybrid process for the treatment of higher-level phenol in saline wastewater was also evaluated and discussed.

  11. Determination of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in Food Samples by Combining Ionic Liquid-Based Aqueous Two-Phase System with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ou; Zhu, Xiashi; Feng, Yanli; Ma, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    We proposed a simple and effective method, by coupling ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), for the analysis of determining tartrazine and sunset yellow in food samples. Under the optimized conditions, IL-ATPSs generated an extraction efficiency of 99% for both analytes, which could then be directly analyzed by HPLC without further treatment. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 0.01–50.0 μg/mL for both Ta and SY. The limits of detection were 5.2 ng/mL for Ta and 6.9 ng/mL for SY. This method proves successful for the separation/analysis of tartrazine and sunset yellow in soft drink sample, candy sample, and instant powder drink and leads to consistent results as obtained from the Chinese national standard method. PMID:25538857

  12. Determination of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in Food Samples by Combining Ionic Liquid-Based Aqueous Two-Phase System with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Sha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a simple and effective method, by coupling ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, for the analysis of determining tartrazine and sunset yellow in food samples. Under the optimized conditions, IL-ATPSs generated an extraction efficiency of 99% for both analytes, which could then be directly analyzed by HPLC without further treatment. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 0.01–50.0 μg/mL for both Ta and SY. The limits of detection were 5.2 ng/mL for Ta and 6.9 ng/mL for SY. This method proves successful for the separation/analysis of tartrazine and sunset yellow in soft drink sample, candy sample, and instant powder drink and leads to consistent results as obtained from the Chinese national standard method.

  13. Determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine in food samples by combining ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ou; Zhu, Xiashi; Feng, Yanli; Ma, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    We proposed a simple and effective method, by coupling ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), for the analysis of determining tartrazine and sunset yellow in food samples. Under the optimized conditions, IL-ATPSs generated an extraction efficiency of 99% for both analytes, which could then be directly analyzed by HPLC without further treatment. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 0.01-50.0 μg/mL for both Ta and SY. The limits of detection were 5.2 ng/mL for Ta and 6.9 ng/mL for SY. This method proves successful for the separation/analysis of tartrazine and sunset yellow in soft drink sample, candy sample, and instant powder drink and leads to consistent results as obtained from the Chinese national standard method.

  14. Aqueous two-phase system patterning of detection antibody solutions for cross-reaction-free multiplex ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, John P.; White, Joshua B.; Simon, Arlyne B.; Tsuei, Michael; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-05-01

    Accurate disease diagnosis, patient stratification and biomarker validation require the analysis of multiple biomarkers. This paper describes cross-reactivity-free multiplexing of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to confine detection antibodies at specific locations in fully aqueous environments. Antibody cross-reactions are eliminated because the detection antibody solutions are co-localized only to corresponding surface-immobilized capture antibody spots. This multiplexing technique is validated using plasma samples from allogeneic bone marrow recipients. Patients with acute graft versus host disease (GVHD), a common and serious condition associated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, display higher mean concentrations for four multiplexed biomarkers (HGF, elafin, ST2 and TNFR1) relative to healthy donors and transplant patients without GVHD. The antibody co-localization capability of this technology is particularly useful when using inherently cross-reactive reagents such as polyclonal antibodies, although monoclonal antibody cross-reactivity can also be reduced. Because ATPS-ELISA adapts readily available antibody reagents, plate materials and detection instruments, it should be easily transferable into other research and clinical settings.

  15. Using an aqueous two-phase polymer-salt system to rapidly concentrate viruses for improving the detection limit of the lateral-flow immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Erik; Yamanishi, Cameron D; Chiu, Ricky Y T; Wu, Benjamin M; Kamei, Daniel T

    2014-12-01

    The development of point-of-need (PON) diagnostics for viruses has the potential to prevent pandemics and protects against biological warfare threats. Here we discuss the approach of using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to concentrate biomolecules prior to the lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) for improved viral detection. In this paper, we developed a rapid PON detection assay as an extension to our previous proof-of-concept studies which used a micellar ATPS. We present our investigation of a more rapid polymer-salt ATPS that can drastically improve the assay time, and show that the phase containing the concentrated biomolecule can be extracted prior to macroscopic phase separation equilibrium without affecting the measured biomolecule concentration in that phase. We could therefore significantly decrease the time of the diagnostic assay with an early extraction time of just 30 min. Using this rapid ATPS, the model virus bacteriophage M13 was concentrated between approximately 2 and 10-fold by altering the volume ratio between the two phases. As the extracted virus-rich phase contained a high salt concentration which destabilized the colloidal gold indicator used in LFA, we decorated the gold nanoprobes with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to provide steric stabilization, and used these nanoprobes to demonstrate a 10-fold improvement in the LFA detection limit. Lastly, a MATLAB script was used to quantify the LFA results with and without the pre-concentration step. This approach of combining a rapid ATPS with LFA has great potential for PON applications, especially as greater concentration-fold improvements can be achieved by further varying the volume ratio. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2499-2507. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Characterization of aqueous two phase systems by combining lab-on-a-chip technology with robotic liquid handling stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Sven; Schwab, Marie-Luise; Hoffmann, Marc; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2014-11-07

    Over the last decade, the use of design of experiment approaches in combination with fully automated high throughput (HTP) compatible screenings supported by robotic liquid handling stations (LHS), adequate fast analytics and data processing has been developed in the biopharmaceutical industry into a strategy of high throughput process development (HTPD) resulting in lower experimental effort, sample reduction and an overall higher degree of process optimization. Apart from HTP technologies, lab-on-a-chip technology has experienced an enormous growth in the last years and allows further reduction of sample consumption. A combination of LHS and lab-on-a-chip technology is highly desirable and realized in the present work to characterize aqueous two phase systems with respect to tie lines. In particular, a new high throughput compatible approach for the characterization of aqueous two phase systems regarding tie lines by exploiting differences in phase densities is presented. Densities were measured by a standalone micro fluidic liquid density sensor, which was integrated into a liquid handling station by means of a developed generic Tip2World interface. This combination of liquid handling stations and lab-on-a-chip technology enables fast, fully automated, and highly accurate density measurements. The presented approach was used to determine the phase diagram of ATPSs composed of potassium phosphate (pH 7) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 300, 400, 600 and 1000 Da respectively in the presence and in the absence of 3% (w/w) sodium chloride. Considering the whole ATPS characterization process, two complete ATPSs could be characterized within 24h, including four runs per ATPS for binodal curve determination (less than 45 min/run), and tie line determination (less than 45 min/run for ATPS preparation and 8h for density determination), which can be performed fully automated over night without requiring man power. The presented methodology provides

  17. Entropy feature extraction on flow pattern of gas/liquid two-phase flow based on cross-section measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J; Dong, F; Xu, Y Y

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the fundamental of cross-section measurement system based on Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT). The measured data of four flow regimes of the gas/liquid two-phase flow in horizontal pipe flow are obtained by an ERT system. For the measured data, five entropies are extracted to analyze the experimental data according to the different flow regimes, and the analysis method is examined and compared in three different perspectives. The results indicate that three different perspectives of entropy-based feature extraction are sensitive to the flow pattern transition in gas/liquid two-phase flow. By analyzing the results of three different perspectives with the changes of gas/liquid two-phase flow parameters, the dynamic structures of gas/liquid two-phase flow is obtained, and they also provide an efficient supplementary to reveal the flow pattern transition mechanism of gas/liquid two-phase flow. Comparison of the three different methods of feature extraction shows that the appropriate entropy should be used for the identification and prediction of flow regimes.

  18. Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates Matrixmetalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases expressions in Dengue virus-infected cells: implications for prevention of vascular permeability.

  19. Tube Radial Distribution Flow Separation in a Microchannel Using an Ionic Liquid Aqueous Two-Phase System Based on Phase Separation Multi-Phase Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Kosuke; Shihata, Yoshinori; Matsushita, Takahiro; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems were delivered into a capillary tube to achieve tube radial distribution flow (TRDF) or annular flow in a microspace. The phase diagram, viscosity of the phases, and TRDF image of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and NaOH system were examined. The TRDF was formed with inner ionic liquid-rich and outer ionic liquid-poor phases in the capillary tube. The phase configuration was explained using the viscous dissipation principle. We also examined the distribution of rhodamine B in a three-branched microchannel on a microchip with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems for the first time.

  20. Separation of active laccases from Pleurotus sapidus culture supernatant using aqueous two-phase systems in centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienheer, C; Prinz, A; Zeiner, T; Merz, J

    2015-10-01

    For the production of bio active compounds, e.g., active enzymes or antibodies, a conserved purification process with a minimum loss of active compounds is necessary. In centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), the separation effect is based on the different distribution of the components to be separated between two immiscible liquid phases. Thereby, one liquid phase is kept stationary in chambers by a centrifugal field and the mobile phase is pumped through via connecting ducts. Aqueous two phase systems (ATPS) are known to provide benign conditions for biochemical products and seem to be promising when used in CPC for purification tasks. However, it is not known if active biochemical compounds can "survive" the conditions in a CPC where strong shear forces can occur due to the two-phasic flow under centrifugal forces. Therefore, this aspect has been faced within this study by the separation of active laccases from a fermentation broth of Pleurotus sapidus. After selecting a suitable ATPS and operating conditions, the activity yield was calculated and the preservation of the active enzymes could be observed. Therefore, CPC could be shown as potentially suitable for the purification of bio-active compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  2. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salabat, Alireza; Sadeghi, Rahmat; Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani; Jamehbozorg, Bahman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. → Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. → Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H 2 O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na 2 HPO 4 ) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o , ΔS o and ΔG o ) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na 3 PO 4 are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  3. Experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibrium and protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems containing biodegradable salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Brenda; Malpiedi, Luciana Pellegrini; Tubío, Gisela; Nerli, Bibiana; Alcântara Pessôa Filho, Pedro de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Binodal data of systems (water + polyethyleneglycol + sodium) succinate are reported. ► Pitzer model describes the phase equilibrium of systems formed by polyethyleneglycol and biodegradable salts satisfactorily. ► This simple thermodynamic framework was able to predict the partitioning behaviour of model proteins acceptably well. - Abstract: Phase diagrams of sustainable aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) formed by polyethyleneglycols (PEGs) of different average molar masses (4000, 6000, and 8000) and sodium succinate are reported in this work. Partition coefficients (Kps) of seven model proteins: bovine serum albumin, catalase, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-amylase, lysozyme, pepsin, urease and trypsin were experimentally determined in these systems and in ATPSs formed by the former PEGs and other biodegradable sodium salts: citrate and tartrate. An extension of Pitzer model comprising long and short-range term contributions to the excess Gibbs free energy was used to describe the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium. Comparison between experimental and calculated tie line data showed mean deviations always lower than 3%, thus indicating a good correlation. The partition coefficients were modeled by using the same thermodynamic approach. Predicted and experimental partition coefficients correlated quite successfully. Mean deviations were found to be lower than the experimental uncertainty for most of the assayed proteins.

  4. Purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis in aqueous two-phase systems using an experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Silva Antelo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was purified in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS of polyethylene glycol (PEG/potassium phosphate, varying the molar mass of the PEG. Results using a full factorial design showed that an increase in the concentration of salt and decrease in the concentration of PEG caused an increment in the purification factor for all the ATPS studied. Optimization of the conditions of the purification was studied using a central composite rotatable design for each molar mass of PEG. The ATPS composed of 7% (w/w PEG 1500 or 4% (w/w PEG 8000 (g/gmol and 23 or 22.5% (w/w of phosphate resulted a purification factor of 1.6-fold for C-phycocyanin, with total and 57% recovery, respectively. Process conditions were optimized for the purification factor for the system with PEG 1500. The ATPS with 4% (w/w PEG 4000 or 4% (w/w PEG 6000 and 21% (w/w phosphate resulted purification factors of 2.1 and 2.2-fold, recovering 100% and 73.5%, respectively of C-phycocyanin in the top phase.

  5. Bioethanol production from corn stover using aqueous ammonia pretreatment and two-phase simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (TPSSF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P

    2010-08-01

    An integrated bioconversion process was developed to convert corn stover derived pentose and hexose to ethanol effectively. In this study, corn stover was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), which retained glucan ( approximately 100%) and xylan (>80%) in the solids. The pretreated carbohydrates-rich corn stover was converted to ethanol via two-phase simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (TPSSF). This single-reactor process employed sequential simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), i.e. pentose conversion using recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 in the first phase, followed by hexose conversion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A in the second phase. In the first phase, 88% of xylan digestibility was achieved through the synergistic action of xylanase and endo-glucanase with minimal glucan hydrolysis (10.5%). Overall, the TPSSF using 12-h SAA-treated corn stover resulted in the highest ethanol concentration (22.3g/L), which was equivalent to 84% of the theoretical ethanol yield based on the total carbohydrates (glucan+xylan) in the untreated corn stover. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation of a Aspergillus niger lipase from a solid culture medium with aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Analía; Imelio, Natalia; Picó, Guillermo; Romanini, Diana; Farruggia, Beatriz

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this work is to find the best conditions to isolate lipase from a solid culture medium of Aspergillus niger NRRL3 strains using aqueous two-phase systems formed with polyethylene glycol and potassium phosphate or polyethylene glycol and sodium citrate. We studied the partitioning of a commercial lyophilizate from A. niger. Also, the lipase enzymatic activity was studied in all the phases of the systems and the results indicate that citrate anion increases lipase activity. An analysis by fluorescence spectroscopy of the interaction between lipase and the bottom and top phases of the systems shows that the protein tryptophan-environments are modified by the presence of PEG and salts. Separation of the enzyme from the rest of the proteins that make up the lyophilized was achieved with good yield and separation factor by ATPS formed by PEG 1000/Pi at pH 7, PEG 2000/Ci at pH 5.2 and PEG 4000/Ci at pH 5.2. The above mentioned systems were used in order to isolate extracellular lipase from a strain of A. niger in submerged culture and solid culture. The best system for solid culture, with high purification factor (30.50), is the PEG 4000/Ci at pH 5.2. The enzyme was produced in a solid culture medium whose production is simple and recovered in a phase poor in polymer, bottom phase. An additional advantage is that the citrate produces less pollution than the phosphate. This methodology could be used as a first step for the isolation of the extracellular lipase from A. niger. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Process Integration for the Disruption of Candida guilliermondii Cultivated in Rice Straw Hydrolysate and Recovery of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase by Aqueous Two-Phase Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpilhares, Daniela B; Pessoa, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês C

    2015-07-01

    Remaining cells of Candida guilliermondii cultivated in hemicellulose-based fermentation medium were used as intracellular protein source. Recovery of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was attained in conventional aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) was compared with integrated process involving mechanical disruption of cells followed by ATPS. Influences of polyethylene glycol molar mass (M PEG) and tie line lengths (TLL) on purification factor (PF), yields in top (Y T ) and bottom (Y B ) phases and partition coefficient (K) were evaluated. First scheme resulted in 65.9 % enzyme yield and PF of 2.16 in salt-enriched phase with clarified homogenate (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %); Y B of 75.2 % and PF B of 2.9 with unclarified homogenate (M PEG 1000 g mol(-1), TLL 35 %). The highest PF value of integrated process was 2.26 in bottom phase (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %). In order to optimize this response, a quadratic model was predicted for the response PFB for process integration. Maximum response achieved was PFB = 3.3 (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %). Enzyme characterization showed G6P Michaelis-Menten constant (K M ) equal 0.07-0.05, NADP(+) K M 0.02-1.98 and optimum temperature 70 °C, before and after recovery. Overall, our data confirmed feasibility of disruption/extraction integration for single-step purification of intracellular proteins from remaining yeast cells.

  8. Application of non-aqueous solvents to batteries. I Physicochemical properties of propionitrile/water two-phase solvent relevant to zinc-bromine batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P.; White, K.; Parker, A. J.

    1983-11-01

    The properties of bromine/propionitrile solution are investigated with a view to its use as an electrolyte in zinc-bromine batteries which use circulating electrolyte. The solution, which forms a two-phase system with water, has higher conductivity than the oils formed by complexation of bromine with organic salts such as N,N-methoxymethyl methylpiperidinium bromide and N,N-ethyl methylmorpholinium bromide. The activity of bromine in the aqueous phase of the bromine-propionitrile/water, two-phase system is very low; thus, coulombic efficiencies greater than 85 percent are achieved. Zinc-bromine batteries containing this solvent system show good charge/discharge characteristics.

  9. The UNIFAC-NRF activity coefficient model based on group contribution for partitioning of proteins in aqueous two phase (polymer + salt) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghtalab, Ali [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University, P.O. Box: 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: haghtala@modares.ac.ir; Mokhtarani, Babak [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University, P.O. Box: 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-03-01

    The group contribution model, UNIFAC-NRF, was applied for correlation of partition coefficient of proteins. This model was already developed for aqueous two phase of (polymer + salt) systems. The protein molecules were divided into some patches assumed to have interaction with the other species in aqueous (polymer + salt) systems. The binary interaction parameters were used for prediction of protein partitioning in aqueous two phase systems. These parameters were obtained by correlating the binary electrolyte solution and ternary aqueous two phase systems. The results of UNIFAC-NRF model are in a very good agreement with the experimental data for partitioning of lysozyme in both (PEG + K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} + water) and (PEG + Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + water) systems at different pHs. The comparison of the results, which were obtained by both UNIFAC-NRF and the VERS models, shows that the present group contribution model can correlate the partitioning of protein in ATPS better than the VERS model.

  10. Development of a Front Tracking Method for Two-Phase Micromixing of Incompressible Viscous Fluids with Interfacial Tension in Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yijie [ORNL; Lim, Hyun-Kyung [ORNL; de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Navamita, Ray [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Wang, Shuqiang [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Glimm, James G [ORNL; Li, Xiao-lin [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Jiao, Xiangmin [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This progress report describes the development of a front tracking method for the solution of the governing equations of motion for two-phase micromixing of incompressible, viscous, liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes. The ability to compute the detailed local interfacial structure of the mixture allows characterization of the statistical properties of the two-phase mixture in terms of droplets, filaments, and other structures which emerge as a dispersed phase embedded into a continuous phase. Such a statistical picture provides the information needed for building a consistent coarsened model applicable to the entire mixing device. Coarsening is an undertaking for a future mathematical development and is outside the scope of the present work. We present here a method for accurate simulation of the micromixing dynamics of an aqueous and an organic phase exposed to intense centrifugal force and shearing stress. The onset of mixing is the result of the combination of the classical Rayleigh- Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. A mixing environment that emulates a sector of the annular mixing zone of a centrifugal contactor is used for the mathematical domain. The domain is small enough to allow for resolution of the individual interfacial structures and large enough to allow for an analysis of their statistical distribution of sizes and shapes. A set of accurate algorithms for this application requires an advanced front tracking approach constrained by the incompressibility condition. This research is aimed at designing and implementing these algorithms. We demonstrate verification and convergence results for one-phase and unmixed, two-phase flows. In addition we report on preliminary results for mixed, two-phase flow for realistic operating flow parameters.

  11. Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract and its influence on antioxidant system in black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings and mortality rate of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) adults.

  12. Immunostimulating Effect of Aqueous Extract of Amphypterygium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunostimulating Effect of Aqueous Extract of Amphypterygium Adstringens on Immune Cellular Response in Immunosuppressed Mice. ... agent in lymphoma bearing mice and we demonstrated evidence to support the traditionally use of cuachalalate in conditions in which the immune system is depressed.

  13. Study on two phase flow characteristics in annular pulsed extraction column with different ratio of annular width to column diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Wei; Dai Youyuan; Wang Jiading

    1994-01-01

    Annular pulsed extraction column can successfully provide large throughput and can be made critically safe for fuel reprocessing. This investigation is to study the two phase flow characteristics in annular pulsed extraction column with four different annular width. 30% TBP (in kerosene)-water is used (water as continuous phase). Results show that modified Pratt correlation is valid under the experimental operation conditions for the annular pulsed extraction column. The characteristic velocity U K decreased with the increase of energy input and increased with the increase of the ratio of annular width to column diameter. Flooding velocity correlation is suggested. The deviation of the calculated values from the experimental data is within +20% for four annular width in a pulsed extraction column

  14. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  15. [Phase transfer catalyzed bioconversion of penicillin G to 6-APA by immobilized penicillin acylase in recyclable aqueous two-phase systems with light/pH sensitive copolymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ke-ming; Cao, Xue-jun; Su, Jin; Ma, Li; Zhuang, Ying-ping; Chu, Ju; Zhang, Si-liang

    2008-03-01

    Immobilized penicillin acylase was used for bioconversion of penicillin PG into 6-APA in aqueous two-phase systems consisting of a light-sensitive polymer PNBC and a pH-sensitive polymer PADB. Partition coefficients of 6-APA was found to be about 5.78 in the presence of 1% NaCl. Enzyme kinetics showed that the reaction reached equilibrium at roughly 7 h. The 6-APA mole yields were 85.3% (pH 7.8, 20 degrees C), with about 20% increment as compared with the reaction of single aqueous phase buffer. The partition coefficient of PG (Na) varied scarcely, while that of the product, 6-APA and phenylacetic acid (PA) significantly varied due to Donnan effect of the phase systems and hydrophobicity of the products. The variation of the partition coefficients of the products also affected the bioconversion yield of the products. In the aqueous two-phase systems, the substrate, PG, the products of 6-APA and PA were biased in the top phase, while immobilized penicillin acylase at completely partitioned at the bottom. The substrate and PG entered the bottom phase, where it was catalyzed into 6-APA and PA and entered the top phase. Inhibition of the substrate and products was removed to result in improvement of the product yield, and the immobilized enzyme showed higher efficiency than the immobilized cells and occupied smaller volume. Compared with the free enzyme, immobilized enzyme had greater stability, longer life-time, and was completely partitioned in the bottom phase and recycle. Bioconversion in two-phase systems using immobilized penicillin acylase showed outstanding advantage. The light-sensitive copolymer forming aqueous two-phase systems could be recovered by laser radiation at 488 nm or filtered 450 nm light, while pH-sensitive polymer PADB could be recovered at the isoelectric point (pH 4.1). The recovery of the two copolymers was between 95% and 99%.

  16. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-17

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  17. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL, (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases and a crude load of 25% (w/w at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  18. A Simple Approach to Characterize Gas-Aqueous Liquid Two-phase Flow Configuration Based on Discrete Solid-Liquid Contact Electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Donghyeon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-10-14

    In this study, we first suggest a simple approach to characterize configuration of gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow based on discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, which is a newly defined concept as a sequential process of solid-liquid contact and successive detachment of the contact liquid from the solid surface. This approach exhibits several advantages such as simple operation, precise measurement, and cost-effectiveness. By using electric potential that is spontaneously generated by discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, the configurations of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow such as size of a gas slug and flow rate are precisely characterized. According to the experimental and numerical analyses on parameters that affect electric potential, gas slugs have been verified to behave similarly to point electric charges when the measuring point of the electric potential is far enough from the gas slug. In addition, the configuration of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase microfluidic system with multiple gas slugs is also characterized by using the presented approach. For a proof-of-concept demonstration of using the proposed approach in a self-triggered sensor, a gas slug detector with a counter system is developed to show its practicality and applicability.

  19. Diffusion-based process for carbon dioxide uptake and isoprene emission in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors by photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Fiona K; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis for the generation of fuels and chemicals from cyanobacteria and microalgae offers the promise of a single host organism acting both as photocatalyst and processor, performing sunlight absorption and utilization, as well as CO(2) assimilation and conversion into product. However, there is a need to develop methods for generating, sequestering, and trapping such bio-products in an efficient and cost-effective manner that is suitable for industrial scale-up and exploitation. A sealed gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor was designed and applied for the photosynthetic generation of volatile isoprene (C(5)H(8)) hydrocarbons, which operates on the principle of spontaneous diffusion of CO(2) from the gaseous headspace into the microalgal or cyanobacterial-containing aqueous phase, followed by photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation and isoprene production by the transgenic microorganisms. Volatile isoprene hydrocarbons were emitted from the aqueous phase and were sequestered into the gaseous headspace. Periodic replacement (flushing) of the isoprene (C(5)H(8)) and oxygen (O(2)) content of the gaseous headspace with CO(2) allowed for the simultaneous harvesting of the photoproducts and replenishment of the CO(2) supply in the gaseous headspace. Reduction in practice of the gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactor is offered in this work with a fed-batch and a semi-continuous culturing system using Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 heterologously expressing the Pueraria montana (kudzu) isoprene synthase (IspS) gene. Constitutive isoprene production was observed over 192 h of experimentation, coupled with cyanobacterial biomass accumulation. The diffusion-based process in gaseous/aqueous two-phase photobioreactors has the potential to be applied to other high-value photosynthetically derived volatile molecules, emanating from a variety of photosynthetic microorganisms. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An artificial intelligence based improved classification of two-phase flow patterns with feature extracted from acquired images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, C; Pappa, N

    2017-05-01

    Flow pattern recognition is necessary to select design equations for finding operating details of the process and to perform computational simulations. Visual image processing can be used to automate the interpretation of patterns in two-phase flow. In this paper, an attempt has been made to improve the classification accuracy of the flow pattern of gas/ liquid two- phase flow using fuzzy logic and Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The videos of six different types of flow patterns namely, annular flow, bubble flow, churn flow, plug flow, slug flow and stratified flow are recorded for a period and converted to 2D images for processing. The textural and shape features extracted using image processing are applied as inputs to various classification schemes namely fuzzy logic, SVM and SVM with PCA in order to identify the type of flow pattern. The results obtained are compared and it is observed that SVM with features reduced using PCA gives the better classification accuracy and computationally less intensive than other two existing schemes. This study results cover industrial application needs including oil and gas and any other gas-liquid two-phase flows. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surfactant assisted pulsed two-phase electromembrane extraction followed by GC analysis for quantification of basic drugs in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Pegah; Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny; Moazami, Hamid Reza; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-01-05

    In this work, a simple and efficient surfactant assisted pulsed two-phase electromembrane extraction (SA-PEME) procedure combined with gas chromatography (GC) has been developed for the determination of alfentanil, sufentanil and methadone in various samples. It has been found that the addition of anionic surfactant causes the accumulation of the cationic analytes at the SLM/solution interface resulting in an easier transfer of the analytes into the organic phase. The method was accomplished with 1-octanol as the acceptor phase and supported liquid membrane (SLM) by means of an 80 V pulsed electrical driving force and the extraction time of 20 min. The model analytes were extracted from 3.0 mL sample solution (pH 4.0) containing 0.02% w/v surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The duty cycle of 92% and frequency of 0.357 Hz gave the best performance. Extraction recoveries in the range of 70.5-95.2% and satisfactory repeatability (7.6samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aqueous ethanolic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cochlospermum planchonii has numerous therapeutic benefits and is widely used in folklore medicine of many African countries. This study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous ethanolic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii root on sperm characteristics of albino rats. Animals were assigned into four groups ...

  3. Combined Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Tetracarpidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effect of combined treatment of aqueous extracts of Tetracarpidium conophorum (TCE) nuts and Vernonia ... The symptoms of diabetes include weight loss, polydisia (increased thirst), polyuria, ... from consuming as snacks, some studies on the plants have revealed that there is good ...

  4. Chelate-Modified Fenton Reaction for the Degradation of Trichloroethylene in Aqueous and Two-Phase Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Scott [Univ of KY, dept of chemical and materials engineering; lynch, Andrew [Univ of KY, dept of chemical and materials engineering; Bachas, Leonidas [Univ of KY, Dept of Chemistry; hampson, Steve [Univ of KY Center for Applied Energy Research - KY Research Consortium of Energy and Environment; Ormsbee, Lindelle [Univ of KY Center for Applied Energy Research - KY Research Consortium of Energy and Environment; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar [Univ of KY, dept of chemical and materials engineering

    2008-06-01

    The Standard Fenton reaction has been used for In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) of toxic organics in groundwater. However, it requires low pH operating conditions, and thus has limitations for in situ applications. In addition, hydroxyl radicals are rapidly consumed by hydroxyl scavengers found in the subsurface. These problems are alleviated through the chelate-modified Fenton (hydroxyl radical) reaction, which includes the addition of nontoxic chelate (L) such as citrate or gluconic acid. This chelate allows the reaction to take place at bear neutral pH and control hydrogen peroxide consumption by binding to Fe(II), forming an FeL complex. The chelate also binds to Fe(III), preventing its precipitation as ferric hydroxide and thus prevents problems associated with injection well plugging. The rate of TCE dechlorination in chelate-modified Fenton systems is a function of pH, H2O2 concentration, and FE:L ratio. The primary objective of this research is to model and apply this process to the destruction of trichloroethylene (TCE) present in both the aqueous and organic (in the form of droplets) phases. Experimentation proved the chelate-modified Fenton reaction effectively dechlorinates TCE in both the aqueous and organic phases at near-neutral pH. Other focuses of this work include determining the effect of [L]:[Fe] ratios on H2O2 and TCE degradation as well as reusability of the FE citrate solution under repeated H2O2 injections. Generalized models were developed to predict the concentration of TCE in the aqueous phase and TCE droplet radius as a function of time using established hydroxyl radial kinetics and mass transfer relationships.

  5. Liquid-Liquid Equilibria of Aqueous Two-phase Systems Containing Polyethylene Glycol 4000 and Two Different Salts of Ammonium

    OpenAIRE

    G. Khayati; A. Daghbandan, H. Gilvari and N. Pheyz-Sani

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey on phase diagrams and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) data of the aqueous PEG4000 - (NH4)2HPO4 and PEG4000 - (NH4)2SO4 systems experimentally at 298.15 K. The salting-out effect was also discussed on the basis of the Gibbs free energy of hydration of ions. The experimental binodal data were satisfactorily correlated with the Merchuk equation. Tie line compositions were correlated using the Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft equations, and the parameters have also r...

  6. Aqueous two-phase systems for extractive enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Mussatto, Solange I.

    (cellobiose and glucose). This effect is even more pronounced in hydrolysis containing high solid content (15-20% or higher water-insoluble solids – WIS), which is desired in order to obtain hydrolysates containing high total reducing sugar concentration and reduced water usage1. The aim of this project....... The achievement of the project’s goal can lead to, but not limited to, three consequences: enhancement of sugarcane mills productivity; reduction of fossil fuels usage, which can accelerate the energetic independence in many countries; and contribution to a more sustainable economy. This paper will present...

  7. Aqueous Extract of Cnidnscntus ctcenitifolius [Chuyu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WI 34 in Id?-F19. Semen Chnructeristics unel H't2lEt"t'lt'.'t1'D|CtgiCfl| Parameters of West Fttrieu Dwuri Bucks Treeted with. Aqueous Extract of Cnidnscntus ctcenitifolius [Chuyu]. -'-'l'."'.|5.."L§."!"|.!t1"|.-.'-'!_'=;=1l!.*=t.*.“l.~J Edit. ... t12.fi'i' 11.02}. and seeund 'WPT {V1.85 :t: tt.3'J]. T09. It can he eunetuded that administration.

  8. Pectinases in Aqueous Extracts of Ditylenchus dipsaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, R M; Mai, W F

    1971-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of a population of Ditylenchus dipsaci isolated from onion and maintained monoxenically on onion callus contained endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) and endo-pectinmethyltranseliminase (endo-PMTE). In viscometric tests pH 4.2 and 4.0 were optimal for degradation of sodium polypectate and pectin N.F., respectively, by endo-PG. Endo-PMTE reduced viscosity of pectin N.F. optimally at pH 8.5 or above. Activity was dependent on CaCl. Pectinmethylesterase activity was not detected in water, NaCl, or sucrose extracts of these nematodes. The extracts macerated potato tuber tissue, onion cotyledonary tissue, and strips of onion epidermis from the ventral surface of onion bulb scales at pH 4.2, 5.3, and 6.2. Pectin could not be localized with hydroxylamine-ferric chloride reagent in macerated tissues treated for 24 hr with active extract.

  9. Affinity partitioning of a Cellulomonas fimi beta-mannanase with a mannan-binding module in galactomannan/starch aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antov, Mirjana; Anderson, Lars; Andersson, Alexandra; Tjerneld, Folke; Stålbrand, Henrik

    2006-08-04

    A new approach in affinity separations was studied by partitioning of Cellulomonas fimi beta-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78) containing a mannan-binding module in galactomannan/hydroxypropyl starch aqueous two-phase system. Comparison was made with a truncated version of C. fimi beta-mannanase which lacked the mannan-binding module. Results showed that affinity partitioning of the beta-mannanase was achieved due to biospecificity of the mannan-binding module towards the top phase containing galactomannan. Experiments were conducted at pH 8 to prevent enzyme degradation of the phase containing galactomannan. Removal of the top phase polymer was accomplished by beta-mannanase degradation allowed by shifting to the optimal pH 6. In the combination with the genetic fusion of any given protein to the mannan-binding module, the results envision a general procedure for primary affinity recovery of such fusion proteins.

  10. The synthesis of surface-glycosylated porous monolithic column via aqueous two-phase graft copolymerization and its application in capillary-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiyue; He, Haiqin; Shu, Yan; Li, Yuxin; Yang, Zihui; Chen, Yingzhuang; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo

    2016-12-01

    A facile, flexible process was developed for the preparation of surface-glycosylated porous monolithic columns via aqueous two-phase graft copolymerization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and water-soluble dextran (dextran sulfate). The formation of poly(PEGDA) porous skeletons and surface glycosylation were achieved via a one-step process without pre-modification of the dextran. The synthesis conditions were thoroughly optimized. The optimal monolithic column exhibited a large dry state surface area (greater than 400m 2 /g), and it was evaluated as a hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase. A typical HILIC mechanism was observed at high organic solvent content (≥65% acetonitrile). In addition, the resulting monolithic column demonstrated the potential use in analysis of complex biological sample and enviroment water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microextraction in a tetrabutylammonium bromide/ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase system and electrohydrodynamic generation of a micro-droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Soo; Choi, Young Hoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2007-08-31

    Microextraction of methyl orange in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) formed by dissolving tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) and ammonium sulfate (AS) is reported. Methyl orange was transported from the AS-rich phase to TBAB-rich phase across the interface of the two immiscible phases. The electrohydrodynamic effect on the shape of the interface of two immiscible flows was also observed by applying dc voltage at the T-junction of the microchannel and the generation of a droplet of AS-rich phase was observed when the potential difference between positive and negative electrodes exceeds a threshold voltage. The minimum voltage necessary for the droplet generation depends on pH due to the degree of dissociation and charge accumulation.

  12. Effect of repeated administration of aqueous extract of Enantia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of repeated administration of aqueous extract of Enantia chloranta stem bark on selected enzyme activities of rat liver. ... The aqueous extract of Enantia chloranta stem bark has brought about alterations in the concentration of the enzymes and this may affect the functions of these enzymes. Key words: Aqueous ...

  13. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of Moringa oleifera oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Michael H; Ezeh, Onyinye; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determined ranges, the use of pH 4.5, moisture/kernel ratio of 8:1 (w/w), and 300stroke/min shaking speed at 40°C for 1h incubation time resulted in highest oil recovery of approximately 70% (goil/g solvent-extracted oil). These optimized parameters also result in a very thin emulsion layer, indicating minute amount of emulsion formed. Zero oil recovery with thick emulsion were observed when the used aqueous phase was re-utilized for another AEE process. The findings suggest that the critical selection of AEE parameters is key to high oil recovery with minimum emulsion formation thereby lowering the load on the de-emulsification step. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of tridax procumbens on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cardiovascular effects of aqueous extract from the leaf of Tridax procumbens were investigated on anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rat. The intravenous administration of 3, 6, and 9mg/Kg of the aqueous extract caused significant decreases in the mean arterial blood pressure in a dose-related manner; i.e. the extract ...

  15. Effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratissimum on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypoglycemic effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratisimum was investigated in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. A single administration of the extract at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was done. The aqueous extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg significantly lowered blood glucose level ...

  16. Effects of aqueous crude extract of Securidaca longipedunculata on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extracts of Securidaca longipedunculata were investigated in vitro and in vivo in rats and rabbits. This study compares primarily the pharmacological actions of the root, stem and leaf extracts. The aqueous extracts (leaves, stem and root) of Securidaca longipedunculata were found to produce dose dependent ...

  17. Optimization of serine protease purification from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel in polyethylene glycol/dextran aqueous two phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000-12,000 g·mol(-1)), tie line length (-3.42-35.27%), NaCl (-2.5-11.5%) and pH (4.5-10.5) on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2) purification factor (14.37) and yield (97.3%) of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol(-1) of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing.

  18. Properties of hydrodynamic J-type countercurrent chromatography for protein separation using aqueous two-phase systems: With special reference to constructing conical columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianjian; Li, Shifei; Zhao, Yuqing; Guan, Yue Hugh; Deng, Li; Deng, Qiuyun

    2017-05-26

    Protein separation using hydrodynamic countercurrent chromatography (CCC), where low backpressure is inherent, is more challenging, more time consuming and more costly when compared with separating small molecules. The most hopeful approach is to rationally design suitable columns for already commercialized J-type CCC machinery. By comparing 3 column geometries (3D helix, 2D spiral and 3D cone), we firstly constructed the mechanical model tailored to the conical column on J-type CCC using aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) on protein separation. Aimed at mechanistically understanding hydrodynamic CCC, we then developed a semi-quantitative model to account for contributions of both hydrodynamic and hydrostatic forces to stationary phase retention, and have subsequently compared the modelling outcomes with experimental results. We practiced a methodology to delineate both phase mixing and stationary phase retention before committing to physically constructing CCC columns. Following theoretical analyses, we finally constructed conical columns for J-type CCC. Using model proteins (myoglobin and lysozyme) and with 2 ATPSs containing PEG1000 and phosphate, sound protein separation has been achieved (resolution reaches 1.5-2.0 and stationary phase retention also exceeds 40%) for the selected ATPSs and under a varied level of sample volumes and loadings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  20. Redefinition of working aqueous two-phase systems: a generic description for prediction of the effective phase chemical composition for process control and biorecovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Pitchaivelu; Ling, Tau Chuan; Walker, Simon; Lyddiatt, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have been widely adopted for the combined purpose of solid liquid separation, and recovery and purification of bioproducts such as proteins, viruses and organelles from biological feedstocks and fermentation broth. However, in spite of potential advantages over other techniques applied to concentrated biological feedstocks, ATPS have been applied at process scale only by a few industries and research establishments. ATPS are sensitive to loading with modest to extreme quantities of biological feedstock due to the contribution of that material to phase formation in combination with the conventional phase-forming chemicals. This causes problem associated with the definition and manipulation of loaded working systems, which may be addresses as in the present study with the aid of distribution analysis of radiolabel led analytes (DARA) in representative process samples. The present study focussed on establishing a generic description for characterising ATPS loaded with biological feedstocks and the redefinition of the biological feedstock loaded system composition in terms of phase forming chemical equivalents. This evaluation will be useful to achieve ATPS process implementation where phase recycle/reuse is adopted without compromise to process operations and consistent protein recovery performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel aqueous two phase assisted platform for efficient removal of process related impurities associated with E. coli based biotherapeutic protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambure, Rahul; Sharma, Rohit; Gupta, Darpan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2013-09-13

    This article presents a variant of aqueous two phase system (ATPS) as a tool for selective removal of process related impurities associated with Escherichia coli, namely host cell proteins and nucleic acids. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) expressed in E. coli has been selected as a model protein for the study. While achieving effective removal of host cell impurities as per the regulatory requirement for recombinant therapeutics, high product recovery has been achieved by adopting a novel strategy involving resolubilization of interfacial GCSF precipitate. This has been done such that the structural and biological activity of the product is retained. Exhaustive analysis of structural as well as functional integrity of resolubilized GCSF has been carried out using advanced analytical and in vitro bioassay tools. Product recovery of 99.5% has been achieved with the concentration of host cell proteins less than 100ppm and of nucleic acids below 10ng/ml. We think that the proposed platform can enable use of ATPS as a more economical alternative to process chromatography in industrial biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel using a PEG/salt-based Aqueous Two Phase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2011-10-10

    An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000-10,000), potassium phosphate composition (12-20%, w/w), system pH (6-9), and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0-8%, w/w) on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficient of the enzyme was decreased by increasing the PEG molecular weight. Additionally, the phase composition showed a significant effect on purification factor and yield of the enzyme. Optimum conditions for purification of pectinase from mango peel were achieved in a 14% PEG 4000-14% potassium phosphate system using 3% (w/w) NaCl addition at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor of pectinase was increased to 13.2 with a high yield of (97.6%). Thus, this study proves that ATPS can be an inexpensive and effective method for partitioning of pectinase from mango peel.

  3. Production of flavour ketones in aqueous-organic two-phase systems by using free and microencapsulated fungal spores as biocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park; Holland; Khan; Vulfson

    2000-02-01

    The formation of 2-alkanones by free and microencapsulated P. roquefortii spores in an aqueous-organic two-phase system was investigated by using substrates supplied as a solution in decane. It was shown that the spores remained catalytically active after entrapment within permeable polyamide microcapsules and readily catalyzed the formation of 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-undecanone from short-chain alkyl esters of hexanoic, octanoic, and lauric acid, respectively, with the rate of reaction being markedly dependent on the type and concentration of the ester substrate used. In general, the optimal concentration of the esters in decane was found to be much higher than that of the respective fatty acid substrates and, in the case of alkyl dodecanoates, the biotransformation could be carried out efficiently even in the absence of added solvent. Further analysis revealed a significant difference in the reaction rates observed with free and microencapsulated spores at 0.5 but not at 3.0 M methyl dodecanoate, suggesting that at high substrate concentrations the biotransformation was no longer limited by mass transfer.

  4. The influence of molecular weight of polyethylene glycol on separation and purification of pectinases from Penicillium cyclopium in aqueous two-phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the possibility of the partitioning and purification of pectinases from Penicillium cyclopium by their partitioning in polymer/polymer and polymer/salt aqueous two-phase systems was investigated. In the system with 10% (w/w polyethylene glycol 1500/5% (w/w dextran 500 000/85% (w/w crude enzyme, the highest values for partitioning parameters were achieved - the partition coefficient was 2.11, followed by the top phase yield of 85.68% and purification factor 1.28 for the endo-pectinase activity. The partition coefficient, yield in the top phase and purification factor for the exo-pectinase activity in the same system were 1.89, 84.28% and 3.82, respectively. In the system with 10% (w/w polyethylene glycol 6000/15% (w/w (NH42SO4/75% (w/w crude enzyme purification factor 37.85 for exo-pectinase, and 19.52 for endo-pectinase in the bottom phase were obtained.

  5. A Novel Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Sorbitol for Purification of Pectinase Enzyme from Psidium guajava and Recycling Phase Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  6. Evaluation of aqueous methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... aqueous and ethylacetate fractions were evaluated for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid- induced ... The aqueous methanolic extract and its aqueous fraction exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity ... The study revealed that S. bicolor leaf base contains analgesic components which ...

  7. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  8. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems

  9. Influence of the feed pipe position of an industrial scale two-phase decanter on extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Brunetti, Lucio; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Catalano, Pasquale; Bianchi, Biagio

    2018-02-10

    Nowadays, olive oil extraction is basically achieved by means of two-phase decanters, which allow a reduction of water consumption and the leaching of phenolic compounds. Despite this, most of the working settings derive from studies carried out on three-phase decanters. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of two-phase decanter feed pipe position (FP) on the extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. Three different positions were considered: at 825 mm (FP1), 610 mm (FP2) and 520 mm (FP3) from the outlet of the oily phase. Position FP3 allowed the highest oil recovery (up to 10%), the lowest percentage of oil in the olive pomace and, in general, a regular trend in terms of oil extraction efficiency. However, the oily must that came out of the decanter was not completely clean in terms of residual content of solid sediment and water. The feeding position partially affected the profile of antioxidant compounds. In two-phase decanters, loading the olive paste close to the outlet of the oily phase is recommended to increase the extraction efficiency without jeopardizing the chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western part of Nigeria for the treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa was investigated for its phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity. The extract was found to contain carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, ...

  11. An integrated practical implementation of continuous aqueous two-phase systems for the recovery of human IgG: From the microdevice to a multistage bench-scale mixer-settler device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Saloma, Edith; Vâzquez-Villegas, Patricia; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Aguilar, Oscar

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) are a liquid-liquid extraction technology with clear process benefits; however, its lack of industrial embracement is still a challenge to overcome. Antibodies are a potential product to be recovered by ATPS in a commercial context. The objective of this work is to present a more integral approach of the different isolated strategies that have arisen in order to enable a practical, generic implementation of ATPS, using human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as experimental model. A microfluidic device is used for ATPS parameters preselection for product recovery. ATPS were continuously operated in a mixer-settler device in one stage, multistage and multistage with recirculation configuration. Single-stage pure IgG extraction with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350-phophates ATPS within continuous operation allowed a 65% recovery. Further implementation of a multistage platform promoted a higher particle partitioning reaching a 90% recovery. The processing of IgG from a cell supernatant culture harvest in a multistage system with top phase recirculation resulted in 78% IgG recovery in bottom phase. This work conjugates three not widely spread methodologies for ATPS: microfluidics, continuous and multistage operation. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. International Conference on Partitioning in Aqueous Two-Phase Systems: Advances in Separation in Biochenistry, Cell Biology and Biotechnology (7th) Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on 2-7 June 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-27

    Indianapolis, IN 46223 and D. James Morrd, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy , Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 Endosomes were...AQUEOUS TWO- PHASE PARTITIONING AND PREPARATIVE FREE-FLOW ELECTROPHORESIS D. James Morrd, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy , Purdue

  13. The Effect of Aqueous Root Extract of Watherian Indica on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It consists of a well-defined mixture of flavonoids, saponins, sugars, alkaloids and mucilage. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments of the aqueous extract were done. The study to determine the in vivo effect of aqueous root extract of the shrub was on the gastrointestinal transit in conscious rats. In the in vivo experiment, fasted ...

  14. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of the aqueous extract of Tithonia diversifolia leaves on semen characteristics and spermatozoa morphology Wistar rats. The rats were divided into three groups (A, B and C) and treated daily with 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg of the aqueous extract of Tithonia ...

  15. Herbicidal effects of aqueous extracts of three Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of three Chenopodium species; Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium murale L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides were evaluated on wild oat (Avena fatua L.), one of the problematic weeds of wheat. Among the aqueous extracts of 0, 2, 4 and 6% (w/v) employed in bioassays, 6% ...

  16. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  17. Achillea millefolium Aqueous Extract does not Impair Recognition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium on recognition memory in mice. Methods: Male mice (35) were used. The aqueous extract of A. millefolium was prepared using a Soxhlet apparatus and injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 50, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg daily for 20 days.

  18. Optimization of aqueous extraction process to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the reduction in phytic acid after aqueous extraction of substrates was validated after high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) characterization study. The results suggest that aqueous extraction process can be used efficiently for reducing the endogenous anti-nutritional factors from substrates eventually ...

  19. Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to investigate diuretic effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of the dried seeds of Lepidium sativum in normal rats. Method: Aqueous and methanol extracts of L. sativum seeds were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg p.o. Hydrochlorothiazide ...

  20. The effects of aqueous root extract of Senna italica subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous root extracts of Senna italica subsp. arachoides on the feeding performance of adults of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes in three consecutive infestations of rabbits were studied under laboratory conditions. Rabbits were divided into treatment group (n = 3), fed aqueous root extracts and rabbit pellets ...

  1. Trypanocidal activity of the aqueous leave extract of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the trypanocidal activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of young Holarrhena africana. The trypanocidal activity was evaluated by treatment of mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei at the peak of infection. The aqueous extract was administered intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days with varied ...

  2. Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000–12,000 g·mol−1, tie line length (−3.42–35.27%, NaCl (−2.5–11.5% and pH (4.5–10.5 on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2 purification factor (14.37 and yield (97.3% of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol−1 of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing.

  3. Response surface methodology optimization of partitioning of xylanase form Aspergillus Niger by metal affinity polymer-salt aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Mohamad Ali; Rahimpour, Farshad; Taran, Mojtaba

    2017-09-15

    Aqueous two phase affinity partitioning system using metal ligands was applied for partitioning and purification of xylanase produced by Aspergillus Niger. To minimization the number of experiments for the design parameters and develop predictive models for optimization of the purification process, response surface methodology (RSM) with a face-centered central composite design (CCF) has been used. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 was activated using epichlorohydrin, covalently linked to iminodiacetic acid (IDA), and the specific metal ligand Cu was attached to the polyethylene glycol-iminodiacetic acid (PEG-IDA). The influence of some experimental variables such as PEG (10-18%w/w), sodium sulfate (8-12%), PEG-IDA-Cu 2+ concentration (0-50% w/w of total PEG), pH of system (4-8) and crude enzyme loading (6-18%w/w) on xylanase and total protein partitioning coefficient, enzyme yield and enzyme specific activity were systematically evaluated. Two optimal point with high enzyme partitioning factor 10.97 and yield 79.95 (including 10% PEG, 12% Na 2 SO 4 , 50% ligand, pH 8 and 6% crude enzyme loading) and high specific activity in top phase 42.21 (including 14.73% PEG, 8.02% Na 2 SO 4 , 28.43% ligand, pH 7.7 and 6.08% crude enzyme loading) were attained. The adequacy of the RSM models was verified by a good agreement between experimental and predicted results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of aqueous extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. fruit on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted on the effect of the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. in hypercholesterolaemic rats. The plant material was Soxhlet-extracted with distilled water and the extract was concentrated in vacuo with a yield of 15.34 % /w. The extract was stored in a specimen bottle at room temperature ...

  6. Phytochemical Composition And Effect Of Aqueous Extract Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical Composition And Effect Of Aqueous Extract Of Struchium sparganophora (L) On Cockroach Crude Extract – Induced Airway Inflammatory ... Similarly, mean percentages of neutrophils, lymphyocytes, and eosinophils in cockroach crude extract-induced rats administered with S. sparganophora crude extract ...

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol and Aqueous Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Sensitivity tests for antimicrobial properties/activities of the leaf extracts were determined using Agar well ... Penicillium notatum and Candida albicans) were found to be sensitive to both extracts. Methanol extract ... microbial diseases is justified. Keywords: E. coccinea, Aqueous and Methanol extracts, Antimicrobial activity.

  8. Copper Extraction from Aqueous Solution by Pentaerythrityl Tetrabenzylamine

    OpenAIRE

    KARA, Derya

    2001-01-01

    The extraction of copper(II) from the aqueous phase with pentaerythrityl tetrabenzylamine (PETBA), which was synthesized from pentaerythrityl tetrabromide and benzyl amine, was studied. The influences of ionic strength, extraction time, pH and temperature were evaluated. The extraction results showed that the ionic strength had no effect on extraction efficiency and that the extraction equilibrium was established in a few minutes. The extraction percentage was independent of pH up ...

  9. Antioxidant activity of organic extracts from aqueous infusions of sage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsingou, Triantafillia Christina; Petrakis, Nicolaos; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Salifoglou, Athanasios

    2003-11-05

    The antioxidant activity of aqueous infusions of sage emerges from specific components present in that herb. In an attempt to investigate the chemical nature and properties of these components, four organic solvent extracts from aqueous infusions of sage were examined. HPLC analyses of these extracts led to the separation of a number of components, of which four were identified and quantified through the use of standard compounds of known chromatographic HPLC profiles. These compounds are the diterpenes carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol and the hydroxycinnamic acid caffeic acid. The antioxidant activity and polyphenol content were determined in the four organic solvent extracts and the left-over aqueous fraction. Both polyphenolic and nonpolyphenolic substances present in the extracts arise as significant contributors to the observed antioxidant activity of the derived extracts and thus sage itself. In this sense, they reflect the antioxidant potential of the aqueous infusions of sage toward reactive oxygen species generated through variable mechanisms of iron-promoted oxidative processes.

  10. Effect of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber Officinale on blood cholesterol and glucose levels of rats. ... Subsequently, group 3 rats were given 0.8 ml/kg body weight of H. sabdarffa extract, while those in group 4 were given 0.2 ml Z. officinale extract/kg body weight. Rats in group 5 were given 1 ml of H.

  11. Haematological effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa petals on some haematological parameters. The extract was administered orally in doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mg/kg body weight to normal Wistar rats for 21 days. The results showed that the extract decreased significantly (p ...

  12. Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Gloriosa superba Linn (Langli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reference (oxytocin) and the extract produced dosedependent contractions but the extract had no effect on heart parameters and blood pressure. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Gloriosa superba showed oxytocic activity and early abortifacient activity which may be due to the presence of alkaloids such as colchicine.

  13. Larvicidal effects of paw paw ( Carica papaya ) aqueous extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of local sourcing for control of malaria in Nigeria, the larvicidal effect of Carica papaya extract against larvae of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes and the rate of decay of the extract in aqueous solution was investigated. The leaf extract was found to achieve a 100% mortality rate of the Anopheles mosquito larvae at ...

  14. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Combretum Micranthum g. don ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Combretum micranthum were studied on gastro intestinal smooth muscle of rodents. The extract was screened using isolated rabbit jejunum, guinea pig ileum and rat uterus. The extract produced relaxation of isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum. The relaxation of guinea pig ...

  15. Blood glucose lowering effect of aqueous extract of Graptophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the claimed anti-diabetic property of the aqueous extract of Graptophyllum pictum leaf and to establish an effective dose for the extract. It also attempted to unravel if the extract could be acutely toxic to mice. The anti-diabetic study was carried out on alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

  16. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activities of aqueous extracts of ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiarrhoeal activities of Aqueous extract of Occimum. Gratissimum leaves in rats were evaluated. These studies were carried out to determine the folkoric medicinal values of the plant leaves. Extraction of crude extract was done using standard method. LD50 was determined using the Locke Dietrich Method.

  17. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... smooth muscles, we investigated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of the plant on the contractile responses of isolated tracheal rings. Guinea pigs were grouped into non-sensitized, ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized, OA-sensitized but 200 mg/kg/day x 21 extract-treated, and OA-sensitized but 400 mg/kg/day x 21 extract-treated.

  18. Larvaecidal effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) against the larvae of Anopheles mosquito was investigated. Exposure of the larvae to undiluted extracts of seed oil, leaf and bark for 12 hours led to 100, 98, and 48% mortality, respectively. Dilution of these extracts also resulted in mortality of the larvae.

  19. Biochemical and Histological effects of Aqueous extract of Cyperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    on the liver in experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rats.Aqueous ... with the aqueous extract of Cyperus esculentus attenuated both the biochemical effects and ... Studies have shown that tiger nuts have a high energy nutrient such as glucose oleic acid, starch, fats, sugars and proteins (Kim et al., 2007). They are rich in.

  20. Aqueous Bark Extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum : A Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous Bark Extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum : A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Streptozotocin- Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) Rats. ... Methods: The animals were divided into three groups (n = 6). of normal rats; streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; and diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg of the aqueous ...

  1. Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Eucalyptus Globulus, Citrus Sinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus), Citrus sinensis (Sweet orange) and Musa sapientium (Banana) on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus was investigated in the laboratory. There were four treatments namely aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus, Orange, Banana, ...

  2. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdarrifa calyx alleviates anemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdarrifa calyx alleviates anemia and organ damage in Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats. IA Umar, E Daikwo, NG Maryoms, A Gidado, LB Buratai, FS Saka, MA Ibrahim ...

  3. [Analgesic activity of the aqueous extract from Ximenia Americana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Tianga Yaya; Traore, F; Sakande, J

    2009-04-01

    Pharmacological studies were conducted with the aqueous extract of the bark of the stem of Ximenia americana Linne (Olacaceae) on experimental animals, evaluating the analgesic activities. In the analgesic test, the aqueous extract elicited an inhibitory intensity on the acetic acid-induced writhing response and on the late phase of the formalin test, but possessed only a weak effect on the tail-flick response and on the early phase of the formalin test.

  4. Effects of Increasing Aqueous Root Extract of Moringa oleifera on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical effects of aqueous extract of root on sperm production of White albino rats were investigated. The rats were divided into five treatment dose levels; 0 (5.0 ml saline); 5.0; 10.0; 15.0 and 20.0 mls consisting five (5) animals per treatment and administered orally for 10 days using aqueous extract of Moringa ...

  5. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  6. Stability of Rosmarinic Acid in Aqueous Extracts from Different Lamiaceae Species after in vitro Digestion with Human Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Zorić, Zoran; Markić, Joško; Pedisić, Sandra; Bučević-Popović, Viljemka; Generalić-Mekinić, Ivana; Grebenar, Katarina; Kulišić-Bilušić, Tea

    2016-01-01

    The present study compares the gastrointestinal stability of rosmarinic acid in aqueous extracts of thyme, winter savory and lemon balm with the stability of pure rosmarinic acid. The stability of rosmarinic acid was detected after two-phase in vitro digestion process (gastric and duodenal) with human gastrointestinal enzymes. The concentration of rosmarinic acid in undigested and digested samples was detected using HPLC-DAD. Results showed that gastrointestinal stability of pure rosmarinic a...

  7. Single- and two-phase flow simulation based on equivalent pore network extracted from micro-CT images of sandstone core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui; Liu, Jianjun; Cui, Mengmeng

    2016-01-01

    Due to the intricate structure of porous rocks, relationships between porosity or saturation and petrophysical transport properties classically used for reservoir evaluation and recovery strategies are either very complex or nonexistent. Thus, the pore network model extracted from the natural porous media is emphasized as a breakthrough to predict the fluid transport properties in the complex micro pore structure. This paper presents a modified method of extracting the equivalent pore network model from the three-dimensional micro computed tomography images based on the maximum ball algorithm. The partition of pore and throat are improved to avoid tremendous memory usage when extracting the equivalent pore network model. The porosity calculated by the extracted pore network model agrees well with the original sandstone sample. Instead of the Poiseuille's law used in the original work, the Lattice-Boltzmann method is employed to simulate the single- and two- phase flow in the extracted pore network. Good agreements are acquired on relative permeability saturation curves of the simulation against the experiment results.

  8. Partial purification of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by aqueous two-phase poly(ethyleneglycol/phosphate systems Purificação parcial de glucose-6-fosfato desidrogenase por sistemas de duas fases aquosas poli (etilenoglicol/fosfato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Zanella Ribeiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH is an important enzyme used in biochemical and medical studies and in several analytical methods that have industrial and commercial application. This work evaluated the extraction of G6PDH in aqueous two-phase system (ATPS of poly(ethyleneglycol (PEG/phosphate buffer, using as enzyme source a medium prepared through commercial baker's yeast disruption. Firstly, the effects of PEG molar mass on the enzyme partition and of homogenization and rest on the system equilibrium were investigated. Afterwards, several ATPS were prepared using statistical analysis (2² factorial design. The results, including kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the G6PDH activity, showed partial purification of this enzyme in ATPS composed of 17.5% (w/w PEG400 and 15.0% (w/w phosphate. A high enzymatic recovery value (97.7%, a high partition coefficient (351, and an acceptable purification factor (2.28 times higher than in cell homogenate were attained from the top phase. So, it was possible to attain an effective enzyme pre-purification by separating some contaminants with a simple method such as liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS.Glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6PDH é uma importante enzima usada em estudos bioquímicos e médicos, bem como em diversos métodos analíticos com aplicação comercial e industrial. Neste trabalho foi avaliado a extração da G6PDH em sistemas de duas fases aquosas (ATPS constituídos por poli(etilenoglicol (PEG/tampão fosfato, usando como fonte de enzima um meio preparado por rompimento de leveduras de panificação comercial. Inicialmente foram investigados os efeitos da massa molar do PEG na partição da enzima e da homogeneização e repouso no equilíbrio do sistema. Na sequência, diversos ATPS foram preparados usando análise estatística (planejamento fatorial 2². Os resultados, incluindo parâmetros cinéticos e termodinâmicos para a atividade da G6PDH

  9. Antifertility Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Carica Papaya (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of short term administration of the aqueous extract of Carica Papaya (Linn.) seeds on ovulation and the estrous cycle of adult cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats. Three oral doses of the extract (50mg/kg; 100mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight) were administered once a day in two independent ...

  10. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum ...

  11. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Summary: We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and ...

  12. Effects Of Vitex doniana (Sweet) stem bark aqueous extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Vitex doniana (sweet), black plum, stem bark aqueous extract alone on vital parameters (temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate), and sleeping time as well as the effects of the extract on the same parameters before and after ketamine anaesthesia in rabbits were investigated. Twenty rabbits were randomly ...

  13. Aqueous and ethanol leaf-extracts of Piliostigma thonningii (Schum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... system depression and act as anxiolytics. While some alkaloids stimulate, others depress the central nervous system. The present data (Figure 1B) have shown that the ethanol extract is superior to the aqueous extract in stimulating locomotor activity and suggests that the active compounds may be more ...

  14. Effects of aqueous extracts of Zanthoxylum macrophylla roots on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood viscosity studies indicated a decrease in viscosity of the HbSS blood by the aqueous extract and this reduction was significantly different (p<0.05) from that for HbAA and HbAS bloods. The plant extract also showed pronounced reversion of 2% sodium metabisulphite-induced sickling, an effect also observed with ...

  15. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Combretum sericeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced fluid accumulation and decreased markedly gastrointestinal transit. The intraperitoneal LD50 of the extract was found to be 177.48 mg/kg in mice. A preliminary phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of C. sericeum roots revealed the presence of tannins,.

  16. Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous extracts of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum and calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa on intestinal transit were determined in experimental rats The leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were oven dried and then pulverized. The dried calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were also pulverized. 10% extracts of both ...

  17. Potency of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess the potency of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis (KS) against liver diseases, serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assayed in rats treated with two (2) different doses of the extract after the induction of liver damage in the ...

  18. The effect of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Sorrel) calyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Sorrel) calyces on heamatological profile and organ pathological changes in Trypanasoma congolense – infected ... Consumption of the extract significantly (p<0.01) retarded the rate of weight gain in both healthy and infected rats; even though the feed-intake was not ...

  19. Herbicidal effects of aqueous extracts of three Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-07

    Apr 7, 2011 ... root extract of Sorghum halepense stimulated seedling shoot length of Parthenium hysterophorus. Similar effects of the aqueous extracts of Inula grantioides Boiss. and. Capsicum annuum L. on seedling growth of test species have also been demonstrated against various test species by Shaukat et al.

  20. Phytochemical constituents and effects of aqueous root-bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extract of the leaves, stem-bark and root-bark of Ficus sycomorus were screened for chemical constituents and effects on muscle relaxation, local anaesthetic and sleeping time on 20 wister rats (138.7 - 143.9g ± 22.4 ) and one rabbit (1300 g ± 0.00). The extract contained tannins, alkaloids, reducing compounds, ...

  1. Sub-Acute Hepatoxicity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub–acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), ...

  2. THE EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    and testicular morphology of male Wistar rats was investigated. Thirty five rats were divided into seven groups ... extract of B. diffusa produced adverse effects in semen and testicular morphology of the rats. Key words: B. ... cancer chemopreventive properties (Rawat et al., 2008; Pari et al.,. 2008). In rats, aqueous extract of ...

  3. The effect of pesticides and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... using any of these aqueous extracts to control these insect pests. Methodology and results: the ... extract were used for tomato foliar treatment (neem and jatropha seeds 80 and 50g/L, neem leaves 67 g/L). The treatments of tomato plant ... taxonomic point of view, it is complex and comprises at least 24 ...

  4. Nephrocurative effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the curative effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia papyrifera on acetaminophen-induced kidney damage. Three different doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) of the extract were administered daily to the different groups of rats for two-and four-week periods after inducing kidney damage using ...

  5. Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous root extract plays an important role in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and treated. Aqueous root extract of S. miltiorrhiza was introduced intraperitoneally to the treated group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan rating scale (BBB) was used to ... extract has therapeutic potential for the treatment of neuronal degeneration following SCI. ..... effects of Lycium barbarum Lynn on protecting retinal.

  6. Modulatory effect of Morinda lucida aqueous stem bark extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulatory effect of Morinda lucida aqueous stem bark extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ... 8th day of oral extract treatments while the blood samples for the lipid assays of were obtained directly from heart chambers through cardiac puncture on the 8th day after an overnight fasting.

  7. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Felicia muricata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... The effect of the aqueous extract of Felicia muricata leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight in. Wistar rats was evaluated for 14 days. The extract caused significant increase in white blood cell (WBC) while it decreased the large unstained cells (LUC). The red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume ...

  8. Evaluation of Aqueous Extracted Moringa Leaf Meal as a Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduction in growth (Richter et al., 2003). However,. Makkar and Becker (1996; 1997) showed that significant amounts of anti-nutritional factors, particularly saponins can be removed through solvent and aqueous extractions. Using solvent extracted. MLM, the inclusion level could be tripled to 33% without significant effect ...

  9. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Oxalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats and on small muscle intestinal transit. At orally administrated doses of 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg of body weight, the two plant extracts significantly (p<0.05) prolonged ...

  10. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Combretum sericeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Combretum sericeum roots was evaluated in rats. Studies were carried out on castor oil induced diarrhea, gastrointestinal motility and castor oil induced fluid accumulation. The extract (25 and 50 mg/kg) causes a dose dependent protection against castor oil induced diarrhea ...

  11. Antimicrobial activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids in both the methanol and aqueous extracts. The antimicrobial activity result showed that the methanol extract significantly (P < 0.01) demonstrated antibacterial action against B. subtilis ...

  12. Phytochemical Composition and the Effects of Aqueous Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical composition of the tigernut tuber was determined and the effects of its aqueous extract on haematological and biochemical parameters were determined in rats administered different concentrations of the extract. The presence of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, resins, tannins, sterols, and saponins ...

  13. Efficacy of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Chromolaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otarigho Benson

    The molluscicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Chromolaena odorata were investigated on adult, one week old juveniles and 3 to 4 days old egg-masses of Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Ten adults each were exposed to a serial dilution of 40, 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480 ppm distilled water extracts ...

  14. Effects of aqueous extract of Triplochiton scleroxylon on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... caused significant decrease (P < 0.05) in plasma glucose concentrations obtained on the 13th through. 15th day of administration to the test rabbits. Aqueous extract of T. scleroxylon ... funnel under suction to eliminate particles. The filtered extract was transferred to clean jerry cans and stored at -21°C until ...

  15. Organic high ionic strength aqueous two-phase solvent system series for separation of ultra-polar compounds by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yun; Liu, Gang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Existing two-phase solvent systems for high-speed countercurrent chromatography cover the separation of hydrophobic to moderately polar compounds, but often fail to provide suitable partition coefficient values for highly polar compounds such as sulfonic acids, catecholamines and zwitter ions. The present paper introduces a new solvent series which can be applied for the separation of these polar compounds. It is composed of 1-butanol, ethanol, saturated ammonium sulfate and water at various volume ratios and consists of a series of 10 steps which are arranged according to the polarity of the solvent system so that the two-phase solvent system with suitable K values for the target compound(s) can be found in a few steps. Each solvent system gives proper volume ratio and high density difference between the two phases to provide a satisfactory level of retention of the stationary phase in the spiral column assembly. The method is validated by partition coefficient measurement of four typical polar compounds including methyl green (basic dye), tartrazine (sulfonic acid), tyrosine (zwitter ion) and epinephrine (a catecholamine), all of which show low partition coefficient values in the polar 1-butanol-water system. The capability of the method is demonstrated by separation of three catecholamines. PMID:22033108

  16. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  17. Allelopathic effects of Clinopodium menthifolium and Salvia sclarea aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šućur Jovana T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary plant biomolecules are the main agents in biochemical inter­actions between plants and the environment. It is possible to distinguish the role of secondary biomolecules in allelopathic (plant-plant activity, plant-insect, plant-microbe, plant-herbivore and others. These interactions can significantly affect the productivity of agricultural crops. Application of allelochemicals into agricultural practice may reduce the use of herbicides. Effect of Salvia sclarea L. and Clinopodium menthifolium (Host aqueous extracts on lipid peroxidation process, as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L. and soybean (Glycine max L. seedlings were examined 24 h, 72 h and 120 h after the treatment. The third aim was to evaluate effectiveness of aqueous extract as contact toxicant against Rhyzopertha dominica. Our results showed that S. sclarea aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in roots of Jimson weed seedlings 24 h after the treatment. Furthermore, both tested concentrations of C. menthifolium aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in Jimson weed roots 72 h and 120 h after the treatment. It was observed that S. sclarea aqueous extract showed toxic effect against R. dominica, with high mortality rate (above 95%.

  18. Phytochemicals Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Annona muricata Aqueous Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosniza Razali; Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Arapoc, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Annona Muricata belongs to the family Annonaceae which is known to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory and many other bio activities. Leaves, twig, fruit and seed of A. muricata were collected from Suhan Biotech and dried. Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared for the preliminary screening of phytochemicals and aqueous extracts of A. muricata were evaluated for total phenolic, scavenging assay (DPPH; 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and cytotoxic activities. Phytochemicals screening of leaves extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoid, reducing sugar, carbohydrate and anthocyanins. While for twig extracts it revealed the presence of coumarine. Antra quinones, terpenoid, flavonoid, reducing sugar, lipids and coumarine were found in fruit and seed extracts. The total phenolic content was found to be 2.372±0.922 μg GAE/ g, 85.85±6.23 μg GAE/ g, 53.56±8.39 μg GAE/ g and 54.67±13.33 μg GAE/ g for leaves, twig, fruit and seed respectively. On the other hand, all extract have showed IC 50 value more than 500 μg/ mL in DPPH scavenging assay. Cytotoxic evaluation of all extracts against HTB43, MCF-7 and MDAMB231 cell lines showed IC 50 value more than 250 μg/ mL. In conclusion, the results showed that aqueous extract of A.muricata was inappropriate as anticancer agen (author)

  19. Safety and tolerability of a dried aqueous spearmint extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasrado, Joanne A; Nieman, Kristin M; Fonseca, Brenda A; Sanoshy, Kristen D; Schild, Arianne L; Herrlinger, Kelli A

    2017-06-01

    Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and spearmint extracts are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use as flavoring in beverages, pharmaceuticals, and confectionaries. Studies of spearmint extracts in humans and animals have reported conflicting results with respect to toxicity. Since the chemical composition of these extracts was not reported and the spearmint source material was different, the relevance of these existing data to evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of a dried aqueous spearmint extract standardized to rosmarinic acid is not clear. Hence, the safety and tolerability of the dried aqueous spearmint extract was evaluated as part of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults with age-associated memory impairment. Ingestion of both 600 and 900 mg/day for 90 days had no effect on plasma levels of follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or thyroid stimulating hormone, or other safety parameters including vital signs, plasma chemistry or whole blood hematology values. Additionally, there were no reported severe adverse events, no significant between-group differences in the number of subjects reporting adverse effects and the adverse events reported could not be attributed to ingestion of the extract. These results therefore show that ingestion of the aqueous dried spearmint extract is safe and well-tolerated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. On extraction of ruthenium chelate compounds from diluted aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brukhertzajfer, Kh.; Kokh, Kh.

    1975-01-01

    Ruthenium(84) extraction from diluted aqueous solutions has been investigated with the use of the di-n-buthyl phosphoric and di-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acids, acetyl acetone and tenoyl-tri-fluoroacetone taken as extraction agents and benzene, toluene and chloroform as solvents. The data on kinetics of the ruthenium(4) complexes formation are given. The results of the experiments point out the possibility of the quantitative ruthenium complexes separation. Ruthenium compound extractivity can be influenced by means of selecting the solvent, the type and concentration of the extraction agents

  1. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimer, Marwan S M; Wahbee, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    Symphytum officinale (comfrey) is a medicinal plant commonly used in decoction and to treat ailments. It protects the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation. UV irradiation may induce variable effects on the constituents of herbal extracts and thereby may limit or improve the advantages of using these extracts as medicinal supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of UV radiations including UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C on the constituents of S. officinale aqueous and alcoholic extracts. Comfrey extracts (1% w/v) were prepared using distilled water, ethanol, and methanol. They were exposed to wavelengths of UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C for 10 min. The principal peak on the UV-spectroscopy scanning, the flavonoids, reducing power, and the allantoin levels were determined before and after irradiation. UV irradiation reduces the magnitude of the principle peak at 355 nm wavelength of the aqueous infusion and methanol extracts. It improves the levels of flavonoids and reducing power of the aqueous extracts and increases the levels of allanotoin in aqueous and methanol extracts. UV-radiation enhances the yields of active ingredient of comfrey extracted with methanol, whereas improves the flavonoids, reducing power, and allantoin levels of comfrey extracted by the aqueous infusion method. UV-radiation reduces the levels of flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin when the comfrey extracted by alcohols.

  2. Effects of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum on hematological parameters of Wister rats was studied. Twenty five rats with weight ranging between 100-160g were used. The rats were divided into five groups; with group one as the control group. Increasing doses (0.2, 0.4,0.8, 1.6g kg-1 body weight) of the extract ...

  3. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan S.M. Al-Nimer

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: UV-radiation enhances the yields of active ingredient, of comfrey extracted with methanol whereas improves the flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin levels of comfrey extracted by the aqueous infusion method. UV-radiation reduces the levels of flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin when the comfrey extracted by alcohols [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 280-283

  4. chemical composition of clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking into account that plant extracts should be an alternative source for insect control, additional aim was also to .... detector-DAD. The phenolic acids were separated on a ZORBAX SB-Aq (5 μm particle size: 4.6 x 250 mm, Agilent) column and the other phenolic compounds on a ZORBAX SB-C18 (5 μm particle size: 3.0 x ...

  5. antibacterial activities of the volatile oil and aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile oil of Murraya keonigii was active against Staphylococcus epidemidis, S. aureus, and Streptococcus specie while the aqueous extract was not active. Key Words: Murraya koenigii, Rutaceae, antibacterial activity. Nig. J. Nat. Prod. And Med. Vol.2 1998: 44-45 ...

  6. Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous root extract plays an important role in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the degradation of neurons at the site of injury in the spinal cord was reduced in the treated group compared to the untreated group. Treatment with S. miltiorrhiza aqueous root extract also significantly increased the expression of platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) mRNA (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These ...

  7. Some Pharmacological Studies Of Aqueous Extract Of Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was set out to identify the pharmacological basis for the laxative effect of leaves of Euphorbia heterophylla as well as identify its other pharmacological properties: Material/ Methods: Effect of aqueous extract of the leaves was tested on isolated guinea pig ileum and isolated pregnant rat uterus using organ bath ...

  8. Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces on the haematological profile of normal male albino rats was investigated for 28 days using standard methods. The rats were divided into five groups comprising of the control group, I; which received equal volume of distilled water and four treatment groups, II, III, ...

  9. Acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... A study was conducted to investigate the acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Ano- geissus leiocarpus using conventional methods. The result of the oral acute toxicity study revealed no death with doses up to 3200 mg/kg body weight. However, the rats showed signs of depression and.

  10. Novel antibacterial activity of Terfizia claveryi aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... 1999; Lancaster and Swart, 1998). In Gulf countries,. Truffle is used in the form of flour or juice for curing various infections in folk medicine. Numerous studies have been reported in the past, focusing on antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of. Asparagus racemosus1, Asphodelust enuifolius, Balanites.

  11. Antihypertensive Activity of Aqueous-Methanol Extract of Berberis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the hypotensive potential of Berberis orthobotrys Bien Ex Aitch (Family: Berberidaceae) in both normotensive and hypertensive rats. Methods: Aqueous-methanol (70:30) extract of Berberis orthobotrys at doses of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg was evaluated for its effect on blood pressure and heart rate ...

  12. Aqueous Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa Suppresses LPS-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    plant used worldwide. Aqueous extract of O. diffusa (AEOD) has especially been used in ... this plant species - are as effective as antibiotics, and anti-cancer, liver protection and transaminase-degrading agents ..... chalcone analog from Alpinia conchigera. J. Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 316: 271–278. 8. Islam MS, Akhtar M, ...

  13. In vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Zanthoxylum macrophylla roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Zanthoxylum macrophylla roots on the activities of three ATPases (Na+, K+- ; Ca2+- ; and Mg2+-ATPases) were investigated in membrane preparations from human erythrocytes of HbAA, HbAS and HbSS bloods. The activities of these membrane-bound enzymes were determined in ...

  14. Antiproliferative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.B. Minari

    2016-02-01

    breast cancer in rats treated with 50 mg/. g b wt of aqueous leaf extract of M. pruriens is shown in Plate. 5. This reveals the presence of hyperplasia of serous and muci- nous glands while the presence of DMBA-induced atrophy ...

  15. Protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... The protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) against potassium bromate induced tissue damage was investigated in rat tissues (brain, kidney, stomach, spleen, heart and liver). The rats were divided into ... diethylnitrosamine in the liver (Tanaka et al., 1993), 4- nitroquinone-1-oxide in ...

  16. Aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves reduces blood sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Telfairia Occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) were studied on some haematological indices, sperm parameters and blood glucose in male albino rats. The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first part, twelve (12) male rats were divided into two groups of six (6) rats each.

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of Brysocarpus coccineus (Connaraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of aqueous extract of Brysocarpus coccineus (Connaracea) on oxidative stress biomarkers in isoniazid induced oxidative stress in adult male Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 36), weighing 80g-150g were divided into six groups of six rats each and treated as follows: Group ...

  18. Protective effects of aqueous extract of cinnamon on diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder with multi-systemic adverse effects on the body. Cinnamon is atraditional folk herbsused for treatment of diseases and was popularas an embalming agent. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Cinnamon for its protective ...

  19. Antiglycemic effect of Hunteria umbellata aqueous extract on alloxan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the possible anti-glycaemic effects of Hunteria umbellata leave and root aqueous extracts on alloxan induced diabetic rats. The albino rats were 18 males and 18 females divided into 6 groups of 3 rats per gender. Groups 1and 2 were normal control for male and female, groups 3 and 4 were ...

  20. Effect of Intragastric Administration of Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale on gastric acid secretion was tested in rats. Twenty (20) Wistar albino rats were used for the gastric acid assay experiment. The rats were divided into 2 groups of 10 each. Gastric acid output was determined by continuous perfusion of rat stomach in urethane ...

  1. Protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) against potassium bromate induced tissue damage was investigated in rat tissues (brain, kidney, stomach, spleen, heart and liver). The rats were divided into four groups. Group A was administered with 0.25 M sucrose only (base line control), Group B with ...

  2. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), a known male reproductive toxicant induces it effects majorly through oxidative stress. Citrullus lanatus fruit is widely consumed for its high medicinal values and antioxidant capacities. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit (AECL) on reproductive functions ...

  3. Aloe arborescens aqueous gel extract alters the activities of key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the antidiabetic activity and the possible mechanisms of action of aqueous extract of Aloe arborescens leaf gel (AALGEt) on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 12 h fasted rats by intraperitoneal injection of 140 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Blood glucose ...

  4. Anti-obesity potentials of aqueous and methanol extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is currently a global epidemic. Conventional treatments have not been very satisfactory to patients, warranting a search for alternative therapeutic options that are natural, safe and affordable. This study therefore investigated the anti-obesity potentials of aqueous and methanol extracts of Vernonia ...

  5. Chemical and antimicrobial analysis of husk fiber aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical and antimicrobial analysis of husk fiber aqueous extract from Cocos nucifera L. Davi Oliveira e Silva, Gabriel Rocha Martins, Antônio Jorge Ribeiro da Silva, Daniela Sales Alviano, Rodrigo Pires Nascimento, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho Kaplan, Celuta Sales Alviano ...

  6. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of aqueous ethanol extract of Thesium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thesiumviride Hill (Santalaceae) is a sub-shrub hemiparasite that grows up to 45cm tall and widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa. It is used in treatment of ulcer and jaundice. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous ethanol extract of the whole plant by using standard phytochemical methods.

  7. The larvicidal efficacy of aqueous extracts of Striga hermonthica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that S. hermonthica and M. scaber contain larvicidal properties that could be developed and used as natural larvicidal, for mosquito control. Keywords: Striga hermonthica, Mitracarpus scaber, mosquito larvae, aqueous extracts, Culex quinquefasciatus. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 32 [1] March ...

  8. Effects of aqueous extracts of Mucuna sloanei (Fabaceae) seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucuna sloanei is a legume used as a soup thickener by communities in some parts of Africa countries. The effect of aqueous seed extract of M. sloanei on the haematological profile of normal albino rats was investigated for 28 days using standard methods. The results show no overall dose dependent significant difference ...

  9. effect of aqueous extract of alligator pepper (zingiberaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Key words: Gestational weight gain, Aqueous Extract, Intra-peritoneal injection, Alligator Pepper,. Nutrition. Introduction. In a study on Gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcome in obese .... A transparent plastic dish was placed on a top loading balance. The meter of the top loading balance was then reset at zero. All.

  10. Total lipid profile with aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. on the total lipid profile: total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) on hypercholesterolaemic rats. Total serum cholesterol ...

  11. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT (CRUDE) OF LEAVES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude aqueous extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina on blood glucose, serum albumin and cholesterol levels on alloxan induced diabetic albino rats was investigated. Blood glucose, serum albumin and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced. From 296.75 ± 9.0mg/dl to 179.0 ± 7.3mg/dl for blood glucose; ...

  12. Effects of sub acute oral administration of aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates the effects of sub acute oral administration (28 days) of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum stem bark on the body weight and haematological indices of rats. Treatments were administered by oral gavage once daily for a total of 28 days. The first group (control) received distilled water (5 ...

  13. Analgesic properties of Capraria biflora leaves aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, S L; Muro, L V; Sacerio, A L; Peña, A R; Okwei, S N

    2003-12-01

    The analgesic properties of dried leaves of Capraria biflora were investigated. The aqueous extract (50-200 mg kg(-1)) produced moderate inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. At the same doses, a better analgesic effect was observed on the hot plate test.

  14. Development of an Aqueous Palm Oil Extraction System | Owolarafe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discovery and Innovation ... Continuous attempts have been made to re-examine the aqueous extraction of palm oil (through pit technology) and device a means of improving the technology particularly for the small-scale ... The factors considered were fruit sterilization time, variety of fruit and processing technology.

  15. Spasmolytic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mixture from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spasmolytic properties of the aqueous extract of Aframomum melegueta (K Schum) and Citrus aurantifolia (Christm and Panzer) (AMCA) mixture were tested on isolated rat trachea. Inhibition of the contraction was observed the in presence of the AMCA (EC 50 = 1.80 ± 0.48 mg/mL) after a pre contraction of the trachea ...

  16. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Euphorbia hirta on Haematological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This finding perhaps justifies the widespread use of the plant in the treatment of several diseases all over the world and may also be used for the treatment of diseases in animals. However, caution should be taken with doses > 500mg/kg as these may induce anaemia. Keywords: Aqueous extract, toxicity, rats, Euphorbia ...

  17. Effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces on anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces on anaemia-induced and normal wistar albino rats were investigated using standard protocols. The haematological parameters which include haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Red Blood Cell count and White Blood ...

  18. Antidiabetic Efficacy of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Amla ( Emblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antidiabetic potential of Emblica officinalis, Gaertn on diabetic rats. Methods: The study investigated the anti-hyperglycemic potential of the aqueous fruit extract of amla (E. officianalis, for eleven weeks in streptozotocin-induced diabetic obese rats. The study utilized forty eight rats divided into four ...

  19. Achillea millefolium Aqueous Extract does not Impair Recognition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium on recognition memory in mice. Methods: Male ... the novel object recognition test (NORT) in a dark room which entailed measurement of the distance travelled during trial .... mainly destroy integrative and cognitive abilities. [10]. A. millefolium is ...

  20. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the fate of ciprofloxacin, after concomitant administration with the aqueous leaf extract of Carica papaya, which herbal practitioners in Nigeria have found helpful in the treatment of painful crisis in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients. Method: Thirteen rabbits were fasted for 12 h and given by oral route ...

  1. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Sempervivum tectorum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Sempervivum tectorum L ( Crassulaceae ) on Aluminium-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Blood. ... Results: Aluminium (Al) exposure increased, compared to control group, the level of blood Al (293.64 %, p 0.05), glutathione ...

  2. Neuropharmacological profile of aqueous extract of Anaphe venata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of Anaphe larva had been reported to cause seasonal ataxia and impaired consciousness. Therefore this study examined the neuropharmacological and mechanism(s) of action of aqueous extract of Anaphe venata in rats. Behavioural effects namely rearing, stretching, sniffing and ataxia were determined ...

  3. Comparative and Interactive Studies of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the comparative effects of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Lamiaceae), vitamin C and vitamin E on the basal serum phosphatases- alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total acid phosphatase (ACPT) and prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) of the male guinea-pig.

  4. Safety and hypoglycaemic properties of aqueous leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The claim by Nigerian traditional herbal medicine practitioners that Ocimum gratissimum leaves have antidiabetic properties was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin and graded doses of the aqueous leaf extract were administered orally to the experimentally diabetic rats for 28 days.

  5. Effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum and Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Garcinia kola on blood glucose concentration, lipid profile and liver enzymes activities of wistar albino rats was investigated. The study was carried out using fourty four (44) wistar albino rats, divided into eleven (11) groups with four (4) rats in each groups. The rats ...

  6. Effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. aqueous leaf extracts on follicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the effect of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extracts on follicle stimulating hormone and serum cholesterol in Wistar rats. Thirty six (36) mature Wistar rats (20 male and 16 female rats) were used. The male rats were grouped into four groups with five animals each, while the female animals were grouped ...

  7. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Nutmeg on Hyperglycaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Effect of Aqueous Extract of Nutmeg on. Hyperglycaemia, Hyperlipidaemia and Cardiac. Histology Associated with Isoproterenol-induced. Myocardial Infarction in Rats. Mohammed Abdul Kareem*, Gadhamsetty Saayi Krushna,. Shaik Althaf Hussain and Kodidhela Lakshmi Devi. Department of Biochemistry, S.K. University, ...

  8. Effects of Cajanus cajan aqueous leaf extract on serum Amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Cajanus cajan on the concentration of Na+, K+, Cl-, and HCO3- and the activities of amino transferases (ALT and AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the serum of physiologically normal rats. Two different doses ...

  9. THE EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    spermatogenesis (Orth, 1993). A dose dependent decrease in the weights of the epididymes, seminal vesicles and the testes with associated degeneration of the germinal epithelia and spermiostasis were also observed in this study. This result is consistent with a study evaluating sub- chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of ...

  10. Antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... The antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha stem bark at varying concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/ml was investigated by measuring the zones of inhibition produced after incubation on nutrient agar. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella ...

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  12. Some of the Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cnidoscolous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment for numerous ailments ranging from its ability to strengthen fingernails and darken gray hair to curing alcoholism, insomnia, gout, and scorpion stings. This study was to elucidate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius commonly used as food supplement on the kidney and liver of Sprague ...

  13. Determination of 90Sr from aqueous solutions using SPE extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulanska, S.; Rajec, P.; Matel, L.

    2008-01-01

    Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) is widely used technique for the isolation and concentration of analytes from liquid samples to achieve increased sensitivity in the analytical process. Three commercial sorbents produced by three different manufacturers were tested. 3M Empore TM Strontium Rad Disks, Sr resin and AnaLig Sr-01 were used to efficiently isolate strontium from aqueous samples. (authors)

  14. Diuretic Activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn Crude Aqueous Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diuretic activity and acute toxicity profile of the crude aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspera using animal models. Methods: Albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups (six animals in each group). The control group received normal saline (10 ml/kg), the reference group received ...

  15. The Comparative Effects of Aqueous Extract of Tetracarpidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening and the effects of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of T. conophorum on the biochemical parameters of male Guinea pigs were investigated. The Biochemical parameters were assayed using Randox Diagnostic kits, Phenophthalin and colorimetric methods. The phytochemical screening was ...

  16. Aqueous extracts effects of seeds of Thevetia peruviana and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate, the impact of aqueous extracts of seeds of “yellow oleander” Thevetia peruviana (AETP), Azadirachta indica (AEAI) “neem” and Ridomil Gold Plus 66WP in black pod disease in Cameroon during two consecutive years. Methodology and results: A completely randomize ...

  17. Spasmolytic Activity of the Aqueous Root Extract of Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum incanum L. (Solanaceae) is an annual herb that is used in the traditional medicine of Ethiopia for treating stomach and intestinal disorders. The spasmolytic activity of aqueous root extract of S. incanum was assessed on contractions of isolated guinea pig ileum, induced by acetylcholine, and compared with the ...

  18. Aqueous Extract of Ipomoea batatas Reduces Food Intake in Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    help in weight management in the long run. Potato, a common starchy tuber in our environment is believed to contain substances that can help maintain and increases short‑term satiety. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of the aqueous extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [IB]) on food intake in male ...

  19. Antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha stem bark at varying concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/ml was investigated by measuring the zones of inhibition produced after incubation on nutrient agar. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhymurium and ...

  20. Effect of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... 1Department of physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Nigeria. ... Cholesterol is the major sterol in the human body. It is a structural .... (9th edition), pp. 239-240. Herunsalee J, Suthisisang C (2005). Antioxidant effect aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.

  1. Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina Del ) and sniper 1000EC (2,3 dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) using the Alium cepa ... 96 hours and EC50 values at 95% confidence interval was determined from a plot of root length against sample concentrations using Microsoft Excel software.

  2. Protective activity of the stem bark aqueous extract of Musanga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoprotective activities and the mechanisms of actions of Musanga cecropioides stem bark aqueous extract (MCW) were investigated on acute hepatocellular injuries induced by intraperitoneal (IP) carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (20% CCl4/olive oil, 1.5 mL/kg) and 800 mg/kg/IP of acetaminophen (APAP) in normal ...

  3. Efficacy of aqueous leaf extracts of negro coffee ( Cassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-year rain-fed field trials to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous leaf extracts of Cassia occidentalis and Cymbopogon citratus at different levels in the management of nematode pests of okra was conducted. The levels of treatments used were 25, 50, 75 and 100 %, where 0% served as control. The experimental design ...

  4. Anti- trypanocidal potentials of Aqueous and Ethanolic leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera is a pan-tropical species that is reputed to possess a number of nutritional and medicinal properties. Aqueous and Ethanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera leaves were screened for in-vivo curative activities against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T.b. brucei) which is pathogenic to many animals and has a ...

  5. Protective Role of Artemisia Afra Aqueous Extract on Tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in antioxidant capacity in the body as a result of oxidative stress play an important role in the development of diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. on antioxidant defense systems in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin–induced ...

  6. effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of cassia occidentalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    sodium, chloride and bicarbonate levels in the rats orally administered with 30 mg/kg for 1 – 2 weeks were compared with control rats . However, there was significant increase (P<0.01) in serum potassium levels at 3rd and 4th weeks of experiment. Oral administration of aqueous extract of C. occidentalis seeds at a daily ...

  7. Consumption of aqueous extract of raw Aloe Vera leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-five juvenile tilapia and 30 weanling albino rats exposed to water containing 50, 100 and 150ppm of aqueous extract of Aloe Vera leaves for 96 hours and 28 days, respectively were used for this study. Fifteen tilapia and 10 rats exposed to clean water (0 ppm A. vera) served as controls. Clinical signs, mortality, gross ...

  8. Platelet Response To Methanolic And Aqueous Extracts Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eczema drug) in some Eastern parts of Nigeria is used locally to arrest bleeding in the event of an injury. The extracts (aqueous and methanolic) were administered orally to albino wistar rats. Platelet count, bleeding and clotting times were ...

  9. Tolerance study of aqueous extract of Mitracarpus scaber in rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was to evaluate the cardiac safety of Mitracarpus scaber (Rubiaceae) in rabbit. In this study, different batches of rabbits were injected with increasing doses of aqueous extract of Mitracarpus scaber (encoded) and changes in the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate deshydrogenase ...

  10. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Unpolished Dark Purple Glutinous Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidative and memory-enhancing effects of aqueous extract of unpolished Thai rice strain of Luem Pua (LP) in SK-N-SH cells and scopolamine-induced memory deficit in mice. Methods: In SK-N-SH cells, viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide ...

  11. Synergistic effect of aqueous extract of Telfaria occidentalis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Resistance to most antimalarial drugs has encouraged the use of herbal preparations along with prescribed orthodox drugs. Objective: this study investigated effect of co-administration of aqueous extract of T. occidentalis leaves, commonly used as antimalarial and haematinic agent in Nigeria, and ...

  12. Antidiabetic Efficacy of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Amla (Emblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University, Riyadh. A voucher specimen (voucher no. 2981) of the fruit was deposited in the herbarium of the Faculty of Science, King Saud. University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. For the preparation of the aqueous fruit extract,. 100 g of the dried amla fruits were ground in an electrical grinder and soaked in 500 ml distilled.

  13. aqueous leaf extract of rothmannia longiflora improves basal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    E-mail: ikpidanielewa@yahoo.com. Summary: This study evaluated the action of aqueous leaf extract of Rothmannia longiflora on basal metabolic .... Animals and Induction of Diabetes. Fifteen male rats of Wistar strain weighing .... lipids have a higher concentration of energy than do carbohydrates. Therefore in their ...

  14. Pretreatment of albino rats with aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The effect of the aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leaf on hepatic lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and total antioxidant status was studied in chronic alcohol-induced liver damage. Method: Alcohol-induced liver toxicity was created by oral administration of 40% alcohol solution (v/v, 1ml/100g) to rats for ...

  15. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus amarus Leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implantation and pregnancy were assessed. AEPA reduced the time frame for implantation in the treated rats and caused abortion of pregnant rats. Although the aqueous extract of phyllanthus amarus reduces the time frame for implantation, its abortificent effect does not support the traditional claim that it can treat sterility.

  16. Anticancer activity of aqueous myrrh extract alone and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the impact of an aqueous myrrh extract on the proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Methods: First, 100 g of ground myrrh resin was boiled in 1000 mL of distilled water for 30 min. Different components of the decoction were identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and ...

  17. Aqueous Root Extract in Loperamide- Induced Constipated Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioidies Planch. (Sapindaceae) against loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats. Methods: Constipation was induced by oral administration of loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight). The constipated rats were orally treated daily either with 50 ...

  18. Histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum (Alliaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum , (garlic) is a popular medicinal plant and a member of the Alliaceae family used for treatments of various ailments. The study was aimed at investigating the histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulb on the lungs, an organ of the mononuclear phagocyte system using adult Wistar Rats.

  19. Effect of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Momordica charantia (bitter melon) has been used extensively in herbal medicine as remedy for many disease conditions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) aqueous leaf extract on serum fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile (total cholesterol TC, triglyceride TAG, ...

  20. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders. Methods and Results: In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plateinduced thermal stimulation in mice, ...

  1. Aqueous root extract of Dicoma anomala Sond ameliorates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective potentials of the aqueous root extract of Dicoma anomala (AQRED) against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial damage in Wistar rats. Methods: Myocardial damage was induced in Wistar rats by isoproterenol (60 mg/kg body weight, b.w.) Various concentrations (125, 250, and 500 ...

  2. Effect of Calitropis Procera Aqueous Root Extract Against CCL4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR

    ABSTRACT. The hepatocurative effect of aqueous root extract of Calitropis Procera on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits was studied in groups of rabbit and the levels of liver enzymes; aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum concentrations of total ...

  3. In Vitro Antimicrobial Studies of Plait Aqueous Extracts of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants have been used by man to treat various kinds of infections without scientfic pror of their efficacy. The Antimicrobial activities of aqueous extracts of four Nigerian medicinal plants namely: Solanum americanum, Euphorbia hirta, Cassia occidentalis and Telfaria occidentalis were investigated against a wide ...

  4. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of carmona microphylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Carmona microphylla (Lam.) G. Don. (CAE) in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The lipid-lowering effect of CAE was investigated in oleic acid (OA)-induced steatosis in HepG2 liver cells, as well as in high-fat diet (HFD)- and triton WR-1339 ...

  5. Histological Effects Aqueous Extract of Allium sativum (Alliaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Allium sativum , commonly known as garlic is a member of the Alliaceae family and it is one of the earliest known medicinal plant. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulb on selected organs (bone marrow and spleen) of the mononuclear phagocyte ...

  6. the effect of aqueous seed extract of trigonella foenum graecum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    The effect of oral administration of an aqueous extract of the seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum in various dose (300-900 mgkg-1 body ... Its leaves are used as contraceptive and also for their cooling properties (Chopra et al., 1985), the ... such as loss of appetite, depression or loss of weight. Blood parameter estimations.

  7. Hypoglycaemic effect of Allium sativum (aqueous extract) on normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of Allium Sativum (ASEt) in normal and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats. Hyperglycaemia was induced in the animals by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate dissolved in sterile normal saline in a dose of 150mg/kg body ...

  8. Histological effects aqueous extract of Allium sativum (Alliaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum , commonly known as garlic is a member of the Alliaceae family and it is one of the earliest known medicinal plant. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulb on selected organs (bone marrow and spleen) of the mononuclear phagocyte system using ...

  9. Antipsychotic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of antipsychotic efect of the aqueous stem bark extract of Amblygonocarpus andongensis was carried out on amphetamine induced psychosis in 42 Wister albino rats weighingbetween 105 and 3052g using two indices feeding and locomotor activity. Twelve out of the 42 rats were divided into two groups; six per ...

  10. Partition of proteins in aqueous two-phase systems based on Cashew-nut tree gum and poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Asfora Sarubbo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of two proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA and trypsin was studied in an aqueous poly(ethylene glycol(PEG- Cashew-nut tree gum system. The phase diagram was provided for Cashew-nut tree gum and PEG molecular weight of 1500 at two different temperatures. The influence of several parameters including concentrations of polymers, pH, salt addition and temperature on the partitioning of these proteins were investigated.. The results of this research demonstrated the importance of the protein characteristics for partitioning in aqueous biphasic system.A partição de duas proteínas, albumina de soro bovino (BSA e tripsina foi estudada no sistema bifásico aquoso Polietileno glicol(PEG - Goma do cajueiro. O diagrama de fases foi estabelecido para a Goma do Cajueiro e para PEG de peso molecular 1500 em duas diferentes temperaturas. A influência de vários parâmetros na partição destas proteínas, incluindo concentração dos polímeros, pH, adição de sal e temperatura foi investigada. Os resultados desta pesquisa demonstraram a importância das características da proteína na partição em sistemas bifásicos aquosos.

  11. Partitioning behavior of silica-coated nanoparticles in aqueous micellar two-phase systems: evidence for an adsorption-driven mechanism from QCM-D and ATR-FTIR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ingo; Morhardt, Christian; Heissler, Stefan; Franzreb, Matthias

    2012-11-13

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and total organic carbon detection (TOC) are employed to examine the cause of the differences in the partitioning of silica-coated nanoparticles in an aqueous micellar two-phase system based on nonionic surfactant Eumulgin ES. The particles partition into the micelle-rich phase at pH 3 and into the micelle-poor phase at pH 7. Our results clearly show that the nonionic surfactants are adsorbed to the silica surface at pH 3. Above the critical temperature, a stable surfactant bilayer forms on the silica surface. At pH 7, the surfactants do not adsorb to the particle surface; a surfactant-loaded particle is therefore drawn to the micelle-rich phase but otherwise repelled from it. These results suggest that the partitioning in aqueous micellar two-phase systems is mainly driven by hydrogen bonds formed between the surfactants and the component to be partitioned.

  12. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Calamus rotang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are a number of medicinal plant products which has been used to treat various immunological diseases. Out of these medicinal plants, Calamus rotang has shown several medicinal properties including anti-viral, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Normally, the roots of C. rotang are used in various ailments to cure piles, burning sensation, cough, leprosy and bleeding disorder and also it was used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, our group were investigated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of C. rotang root in human whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine (HBsAg as an antigen. Materials and Methods: Variable doses of root aqueous extract (0.5 – 30 mg/ml, 100 µl was administered to human whole blood and PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen (HBsAg; 20 µg/ml, 10 µl as specific antigen in order to estimate the total blood counts in human whole blood and nitric oxide production and CD14 FITC surface marker from human PBMC. Results: Overall, the results showed that roots aqueous extract of C. rotang showed remarkable increase in the number of blood counts in human whole blood at lower doses (0.5 mg/ml. In addition, root aqueous extract of C. rotang also showed the same pattern in case of nitric oxide production and estimation of CD14 FITC surface marker in human PBMC. Conclusion: Altogether, the results suggest that root aqueous extract of C. rotang showed immunomodulatory activity.

  13. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less

  14. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  15. Effective extractants for the extraction of lithium from aqueous solutions containing sodium and potassium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkina, G.A.; Zanina, A.S.; Shergina, S.I.; Sokolov, I.E.; Kotlyarevskii, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction power of newly obtained pure methoxy-1,3-diketones in diluents and in their mixtures with electron-donating additives during the extraction of lithium from aqueous solutions containing sodium and potassium was investigated. High separation factors were obtained; no appreciable amounts of sodium and potassium were found in the extract after total extraction of the lithium. 9 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jiménez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW, are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE and solid phase extraction (SPE methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid.

  17. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Herrera, S.; Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Ferez, A.

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW), are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW) were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW) were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid. [es

  18. Novel method for investigation of two-phase flow in liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using an aqueous H 2O 2 solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewer, T.; Beckmann, T.; Dohle, H.; Mergel, J.; Stolten, D.

    One major issue in the development of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is the management of the evolving CO 2 gas bubbles in the flow fields. These bubbles influence the flow distribution and therefore the power density of a cell. In this paper, a novel method for in situ production of bubbles in a test cell made of perspex is presented. The method is based on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution (H 2O 2) to oxygen and water in aqueous media at the presence of a catalyst. By using an appropriate H 2O 2-concentration, the gas evolution rate can be set to same order of magnitude as in real direct methanol fuel cells. This approach allows the simulation of the flow distribution in DMFC by simple low-cost hardware. As no current conducting parts are needed, the whole dummy cell can be made of perspex to ensure a complete visibility of the flow. In a perspex flow cell with an active area of 600 cm 2, the flow homogeneity as a function of gas evolution rate, flow field and manifold design was investigated. Experiments show that splayed manifolds have a superior performance concerning flow uniformity compared to other designs. The use of grid structures as a flow field gives good bubble transport at all investigated current densities.

  19. Antimicrobial properties of coconut husk aqueous extract on cariogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Cyriac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The husk fibers of coconut (Cocos nucifera are reported to be used by people of rural areas of South India for daily cleaning their teeth. As the beneficial effects of this plant material, with respect to antimicrobial properties against common cariogenic bacteria, are not scientifically proven, the present study was conducted. Materials and Methods: The husk of coconut was collected and aqueous extract was prepared and antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus were performed by agar well diffusion method. The values obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. Results: Aqueous extract of coconut husk showed a concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity against different tested organisms with zone of inhibition ranging from 4.44 to 15.33 mms. However, the efficacy was less in comparison to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Inhibitory action against cariogenic bacteria exhibited by aqueous extract of coconut husk indicate presence of highly effective active compounds in these extracts, which can be identified and incorporated into modern oral care systems for controlling dental caries.

  20. Hepatoxicity of aqueous extract and fractionated methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... changes in liver tissues were related in a dose-dependent manner to methanol extract of aerial parts. Phytolacca americana concentrations. Doses of 50, 100 mg/kg caused significant (P < 0.05) histo- pathological changes. Keywords: Phytolacca americana, Liver perfusion, Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, ...

  1. Antioxidant status of dog aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros P.S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 µM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.

  2. Immunosuppressive activity of an aqueous Viola tricolor herbal extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, Roland; Koehbach, Johannes; Fedchuk, Halyna; Sauer, Barbara; Huber, Roman; Gruber, Christian W; Gründemann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Heartsease (Viola tricolor L.), a member of the Violaceae family, has a long history as a medicinal plant and has been documented in the Pharmacopoeia of Europe. Due to its anti-inflammatory properties it is regarded as a traditional remedy against skin diseases, for example for the treatment of scabs, itching, ulcers, eczema or psoriasis, and it is also used in the treatment of inflammation of the lungs and chest such as bronchitis or asthma. Because T-cells play an important role in the pathological process of inflammatory diseases we investigated the effect of an aqueous Viola extract on lymphocyte functions and explored the 'active' principle of the extract using bioactivity-guided fractionation. An aqueous Viola extract was prepared by C18 solid-phase extraction. Effects on proliferation of activated lymphocytes (using the cell membrane permeable fluorescein dye CFSE), apoptosis and necrosis (using annexin V and propidium iodide staining), interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression (using fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies) and IL-2 cytokine secretion (using an ELISA-based bead array system) were measured by flow cytometry. Influence on lymphocyte polyfunctionality was characterized by Viola extract-induced production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, as well as its influence on lymphocyte degranulation activity. Fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract were performed by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry. The aqueous Viola extract inhibited proliferation of activated lymphocytes by reducing IL-2 cytokine secretion without affecting IL-2 receptor expression. Similarly, effector functions were affected as indicated by the reduction of IFN-γ and TNF-α production; degranulation capacity of activated lymphocytes remained unaffected. Bioassay-guided fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract led to identification of circular plant peptides, so called cyclotides, as bioactive components. An aqueous Viola extract contains bioactive cyclotides, which

  3. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A. Taher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders.In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract did not exhibit anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw oedema.These findings indicate that Mentha piperita has a potential analgesic effect that may possibly have mediated centrally and peripherally, as well as providing a pharmacological evidence for its traditional use as a pain reliever.

  4. Effects of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2008-04-29

    Apr 29, 2008 ... The effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum on hematological parameters of Wister rats was studied. Twenty five rats with weight ranging between 100-160g were used. The rats were divided into five groups; with group one as the control group. Increasing doses (0.2, 0.4,. 0.8, 1.6g kg-1 body ...

  5. Modulatory Effect of Morinda lucida Aqueous Stem Bark Extract on

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Modulatory Effect of Morinda lucida Aqueous Stem Bark. Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Alloxan-Induced. Diabetic Rats. *Adeneye A.A1, Olagunju J.A2,3, Olatunji B.H3, Balogun A.F3, Akinyele B.S3,. Ayodele M.O3. 1Department of Pharmacology and 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic ...

  6. Evaluation of aqueous methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Normal saline (20 ml/kg i.p.) was given to rats in group one to serve as negative control. The aqueous-methanolic extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. i.p.) was given to rats in groups two, three and four, respectively. Acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg i.p.) was administered to group five rats. 30 min post treatment, ...

  7. Larvicidal effects of aqueous extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (desert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of aqueous extracts of the fruit pulp, seed kernel, roots, bark, and leaves of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllacea) against the larvae of the Culex pipens mosquito was investigated. Early fourth instars larvae of C. pipiens mosquitoes were exposed, for up to three days, to a dilution of 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and ...

  8. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Lukman Adewale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute and of repeated doses (sub-acute administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity.

  9. Inhibition of lentivirus replication by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauck Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various members of the mint family have been used historically in Chinese and Native American medicine. Many of these same family members, including Prunella vulgaris, have been reported to have anti-viral activities. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of P. vulgaris, water and ethanol extractions were tested for their ability to inhibit equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV replication. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent anti-lentiviral activity against virus in cell lines as well as in primary cell cultures with little to no cellular cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that the extracts were effective when added during the first four h of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting the virion itself or early entry events. Further analysis revealed that the extracts did not destroy EIAV virion integrity, but prevented viral particles from binding to the surface of permissive cells. Modest levels of anti-EIAV activity were also detected when the cells were treated with the extracts prior to infection, indicating that anti-EIAV botanical constituents could interact with both viral particles and permissive cells to interfere with infectivity. Size fractionation of the extract demonstrated that eight of the nine fractions generated from aqueous extracts displayed anti-viral activity. Separation of ethanol soluble and insoluble compounds in the eight active fractions revealed that ethanol-soluble constituents were responsible for the anti-viral activity in one fraction whereas ethanol-insoluble constituents were important for the anti-viral activity in two of the other fractions. In three of the five fractions that lost activity upon sub-fractionation, anti-viral activity was restored upon reconstitution of the fractions, indicating that synergistic anti-viral activity is present in several

  10. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  11. Choleretic and antispasmodic effects of Lippia integrifolia aqueous extract

    OpenAIRE

    Gorzalczany, Susana; Sülsen, Valeria; Redko, Flavia; Vescina, Cristina; Muschietti, Liliana; Martino, Virginia; Acevedo, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Lippia integrifolia has been assayed for its choleretic and antispasmodic effects. Doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg administered orally in rats significantly increased the bile flow and the bile acid output. The extract also showed a significant reduction of the contractions induced by acetylcholine, CaCl2 and KCl on isolated rat jejunum. The total caffeoyl quinic acids derivatives content, expressed as chlorogenic acid was 0.10% w/v by spectrophotome...

  12. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Properties of Anacardium humile Aqueous Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio A. Urzêda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antihyperglycemic effects of several plant extracts and herbal formulations which are used as antidiabetic formulations have been described and confirmed to date. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Anacardium humile. Although the treatment of diabetic animals with A. humile did not alter body weight significantly, a reduction of the other evaluated parameters was observed. Animals treated with A. humile did not show variation of insulin levels, possibly triggered by a mechanism of blood glucose reduction. Levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase decreased in treated animals, suggesting a protective effect on liver. Levels of cholesterol were also reduced, indicating the efficacy of the extract in reestablishing the balance of nutrients. Moreover, a kidney protection may have been achieved due to the partial reestablishment of blood glucose homeostasis, while no nephrotoxicity could be detected for A. humile. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of A. humile extracts in the treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, A. humile aqueous extract, popularly known and used by diabetic patients, induced an improvement in the biochemical parameters evaluated during and following treatment of diabetic rats. Thus, a better characterization of the medicinal potential of this plant will be able to provide a better understanding of its mechanisms of action in these pathological processes.

  13. Pectinases partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems: an integration of the systems poly(ethylene glycol/crude dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/ammonium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANA N. PEJIN

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of pectinases in the poly(ethylene glucol4000/ammonium sulpohate system was studied and also its application for enzymes extraction from the top phase of the poly(ethylene glucol4000/crude dextran system. Almost complete one-sided partition of endo-pectinase and exo-pectinase to the bottom phase of the polymer/salt system was achieved at a tie-line length of 37.16 %. The concentration factors were 1.73 and 3.25, respectively. The highest total endo- and exo-pectinase yields (72.41 % and 69.46 %, respectively were obtained by integration of the polymer/polymer system at a tie-line of 8.61 % and a high phase volume ratio and the polymer/salt system at a tie-line of 30.23 % and a low phase volume ratio. Integration of the partitioning at a high tie-line length in the polymer/polimer and a low tie-line length in the polymer/salt system resulted in a total concentration factor of 1.5 and a purification of 1.66 fold for exo-pectinase. The addition of phosphate to this integrated system improved the total concentration factor and purification fold of the activity to 1.73 and 2.14, respectively.

  14. Uranium, thorium and rare earth extraction and separation process by processing their chloride aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabot, J.L.; Leveque, A.

    1983-01-01

    The different steps of the process are the following: uranium and iron extraction by a neutral organic phosphorus compound and thorium and rare earth recovery in an aqueous solution, iron recovery in acid aqueous phase, concentration of the thorium and rare earth aqueous solution followed by thorium extraction with a organic phosphorus compound and rare earth recovery in the aqueous phase, thorium recovery in acid aqueous phase [fr

  15. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces to Control Aichi Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects.

  16. Cardiovascular receptor binding affinity of aqueous extracts from Allium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencini, Cristina; Franchi, Gian Gabriele; Micheli, Lucia

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether the antihypertensive effect of garlic could to be associated to interactions with adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors involved in regulating blood pressure and to compare these data with those obtained from wild Allium species. The aqueous extracts of bulbs or leaves of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Allium neapolitanum Cyr., Allium subhirsutum L., and Allium roseum L. were tested for their in vitro affinity for the adrenergic (alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1) and beta(2)) and dopaminergic (D(1) and D(2)) receptors by radioligand binding assays. Interesting results were shown by bulbs extracts of A. neapolitanum and A. subhirsutum with higher affinities for the beta(2) receptors and by bulbs extract of A. roseum for D(2) receptors. The known antihypertensive activity of Allium sativum cannot be correlated with binding to receptors involved in blood pressure regulation. However, aqueous extracts of the wild-type species of Allium show much higher affinities, warranting further explorations.

  17. Non-aqueous heavy oil extraction from oil sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George [National Nuclear Security Administration (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Kansas City plant operated by Honeywell has a long history of working with DOE NNSA on engineering and manufacturing services supporting national security requirements. The plant has developed a non-aqueous method for heavy oil extraction from oil sands. This method is environmentally friendly as it does not use any external body of water, which would normally be contaminated in the conventional method. It is a 2 phase process consisting of terpene, limonene or alpha pinene, and carbon dioxide. The CO2 and terpene phases are both closed loop systems which minimizes material loss. The limonene and alpha pinene are both naturally derived solvents that come from citrus sources or pine trees respectively. Carbon dioxide is an excellent co-solvent with terpene. There is also a possibility for heat loss recovery during the distillation phase. This process produces clean dry sand. Laboratory tests have concluded that this using non-aqueous liquids process works effectively.

  18. Vascular effects of aqueous extract of Chamaemelum nobile: in vitro pharmacological studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeggwagh, Naoufel Ali; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the in vitro vasorelaxant effect of C. nobile aqueous extract. We use aortic ring isolated from Wistar rats and aqueous C. nobile extract at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/ml. Incubation of aqueous C. nobile extract for 30 minutes produced a significant shift of the dose-response curve to norepinephrine (NE) (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) (p nobile extract possesses in vitro vasorelaxant effect.

  19. Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Both the cold aqueous extract (FRC) and the hot aqueous extract (FRH) exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. FRH showed significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.001) cholinesterase inhibitory activity compared to FRC; however, both the extracts did not show 50% inhibition of AChE at the doses tested (200...

  20. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Nimer, Marwan S. M.; Wahbee, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Symphytum officinale (comfrey) is a medicinal plant commonly used in decoction and to treat ailments. It protects the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation. UV irradiation may induce variable effects on the constituents of herbal extracts and thereby may limit or improve the advantages of using these extracts as medicinal supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of UV radiations including UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C on the constituents of S. officinale aqueous and alcoholic extrac...

  1. Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium Using Sorbaria sorbifolia Aqueous Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Prabha Dubey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous plant leaves extract (PLE of an abundant shrub, Sorbaria sorbifolia, was explored for the reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI, to trivalent chromium, Cr(III. The effect of contact time, pH, PLE quantity, ionic strength, hardness, temperature and effective initial Cr(VI ion concentration were tested; Cr(VI reduction followed the pseudo-first order rate kinetics and maximum reduction was observed at pH 2. Significantly, Cr(VI reduction efficacies varied from 97 to 66% over the pH range of 2 to 10, which bodes well for PLE to be used for the reduction of Cr(VI also at a higher pH. PLE-mediated Cr(VI reduction displays considerable efficiency at various ionic strengths; however, hardness strongly affects the reduction ability. Higher temperature significantly enhances the Cr(VI reduction. This study reveals the potential use of PLE as a green reducing agent in aqueous extract for the efficient reduction of Cr(VI to Cr(III.

  2. Applications of FETAX: Use in aqueous soil extract testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L.; Norton, D.; Blakely, N.

    1993-01-01

    Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) testing of a series of diverse hazardous waste site soil samples was performed to evaluate the efficacy of FETAX as a rapid development toxicity screening tool. Soil samples were collected from six different hazardous waste sites, three from eastern and three from western Washington state. The type of waste site samples studied based on the contaminants identified included: heavy metals (2), creosote, petroleum products (2), and chlorinated pesticide contaminated sites. Three to five samples from each site representing baseline and increasing levels of contamination were collected. Aqueous extracts of the soil samples were prepared and used for FETAX studies. Samples collected from the creosote and petroleum product contaminated sites induced greater levels of embryolethal effects, although embryonic malformation was also observed. The metal contaminated sites induced greater levels of embryonic malformation, but induced little embryolethality. The chlorinated pesticide contaminated site samples caused moderate levels of embryonic deformities, but failed to induce embryolethal effects. Results from these studies suggested that FETAX was sensitive enough to detect low levels of developmental toxicants, but robust enough to be suitable for aqueous soil extract testing

  3. Transient two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.Y.

    1974-01-01

    The following papers related to two-phase flow are summarized: current assumptions made in two-phase flow modeling; two-phase unsteady blowdown from pipes, flow pattern in Laval nozzle and two-phase flow dynamics; dependence of radial heat and momentum diffusion; transient behavior of the liquid film around the expanding gas slug in a vertical tube; flooding phenomena in BWR fuel bundles; and transient effects in bubble two-phase flow. (U.S.)

  4. Optimization of aqueous pectin extraction from Citrus medica peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasandide, Bahare; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Zeinab E; Hosseini, Seyed Saeid

    2017-12-15

    In this study, the effect of aqueous extraction conditions (temperature of 70-90°C, time of 60-180min, and liquid/solid ratio (LSR) of 20-40v/w) on the yield and degree of esterification (DE) of Citrus medica peel pectin was studied using a Box-Behnken design. The highest production yield of pectin (21.85±0.35%) was obtained at temperature of 90°C, extraction time of 180min and LSR of 40v/w as optimum extraction conditions which was close to the predicted value (24.13%). In these extraction conditions, the DE and the emulsifying activity were 77.2 and 46.5%, respectively. Also, the emulsions were 90.30 and 90% stable at 4°C, and 83.87 and 83.50% at 25°C after 1 and 30days, respectively. The determination of flow behavior showed that the pectin solutions had a Newtonian behavior at low concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0%w/v), while in higher concentration (2.0%w/v), the pseudoplastic flow behavior became dominant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quaternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria of aqueous two-phase polyethylene glycol, poly-N-vinylcaprolactam, and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}: Experimental and the generalized Flory-Huggins theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroutan, Masumeh [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Enghelab Ave., Tehran 14155-6455 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: foroutan@khayam.ut.ac.ir; Zarrabi, Mona [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Enghelab Ave., Tehran 14155-6455 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    A quaternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium study was performed to focus attention on the interaction parameters between poly-N-vinylcaprolactam (PVCL) and poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) as well as between other species. At first, the new experimental data of (liquid + liquid) equilibria for aqueous two-phase systems containing PEG, KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, and PVCL at T = 303.15 K have been determined. Then the Flory-Huggins theory with two electrostatic terms (the Debye-Huckel and the Pitzer-Debye-Huckel equations) has been generalized to correlate the phase behavior of the quaternary system. Good agreement has been found between experimental and calculated data from both models especially from the Pitzer-Debye-Huckel equation. Also an effort was done to compare the effect of temperature as well as addition of PVCL on the binodal curves of PEG, KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, and water. The effect of the type of salt on the binodals has been also studied, and the salting out power of the salts has been determined.

  6. A novel aqueous two phase system composed of a thermo-separating polymer and an organic solvent for purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Zohdi, Nor Khanani

    2014-05-22

    The purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel for the first time was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of a thermo-separating copolymer and an organic solvent. The effectiveness of different parameters such as molecular weight of the thermo-separating ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) copolymer and type and concentration of organic solvent on the partitioning behavior of amylase was investigated. In addition, the effects of phase components, volume ratio (VR), pH and crude load of purification factor and yield of amylase were evaluated to achieve the optimum partition conditions of the enzyme. In the novel ATPS method, the enzyme was satisfactorily partitioned into the polymer-rich top phase in the system composed of 30% (w/w) EOPO 2500 and 15% (w/w) 2-propanol, at a volume ratio of 1.94 and with a crude load scale of 25% (w/w) at pH 5.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step of the ATPS process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 96.6% and copolymer was also recovered and recycled at a rate above 97%, making the method was more economical than the traditional ATPS method.

  7. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of a Thermo-Separating Polymer and an Organic Solvent for Purification of Thermo-Acidic Amylase Enzyme from Red Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel for the first time was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS consisting of a thermo-separating copolymer and an organic solvent. The effectiveness of different parameters such as molecular weight of the thermo-separating ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO copolymer and type and concentration of organic solvent on the partitioning behavior of amylase was investigated. In addition, the effects of phase components, volume ratio (VR, pH and crude load of purification factor and yield of amylase were evaluated to achieve the optimum partition conditions of the enzyme. In the novel ATPS method, the enzyme was satisfactorily partitioned into the polymer-rich top phase in the system composed of 30% (w/w EOPO 2500 and 15% (w/w 2-propanol, at a volume ratio of 1.94 and with a crude load scale of 25% (w/w at pH 5.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step of the ATPS process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 96.6% and copolymer was also recovered and recycled at a rate above 97%, making the method was more economical than the traditional ATPS method.

  8. Liver function test abnormalities in users of aqueous kava extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; Bailie, Ross S; Currie, Bart

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic toxicity from manufactured herbal remedies that contain kava lactones has been reported in Europe, North America, and Australia. There is no evidence for serious liver damage in kava-using populations in Pacific Island societies or in Indigenous Australians who have used aqueous kava extracts. This article presents evidence that liver function changes in users of aqueous kava extracts appear to be reversible. Data from one Arnhem Land community [Northern Territory (NT), Australia] with 340 indigenous people older than 15 years of age in 2000 are used. This study was a cross-sectional study with 98 participants, 36 of whom had never used kava. Among 62 kava users, 23 had discontinued kava at least 1 year before the study. Continuing users had not used kava for 1 to 2 months (n = 10) or 1 to 2 weeks previously (n = 15). Some (n = 14) had used kava within the previous 24 hr. Liver function tests were compared across these groups, taking into account differences due to age, sex, alcohol, and other substance use. The average quantity of kava powder consumed was 118 g/week, and median duration of use was 12 years (range, 1-18 years). Kava usage levels were less than one-half of those found in previous studies. More recent kava use was independently associated with higher levels of liver enzymes gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (p < 0.001) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p < 0.001), but not with alanine aminotransferase or bilirubin, which were not elevated. In those who were not heavy alcohol users, only those who used kava within the previous 24 hr showed GGT levels higher than nonusers (p < 0.001), whereas higher ALP levels occurred only in those who last used kava 1 to 2 weeks (p = 0.015) and 24 hr previously (p = 0.005). Liver function changes in users of aqueous kava extracts at these moderate levels of consumption appear to be reversible and begin to return to baseline after 1 to 2 weeks abstinence from kava. No evidence for irreversible liver damage has

  9. A promising peptide antibiotic from Terfezia claveryi aqueous extract against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakat, S; Al-Fakhiri, S; Sallal, A-K

    2004-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts, as well as partially purified proteins extracted from Terfezia claveryi aqueous extract were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. A 5% aqueous extract inhibited the growth of S. aureus by 66.4%, while a methanolic extract was ineffective. Partial protein purification of the aqueous extract using ammonium sulphate precipitation revealed that antimicrobial activity was within the third fraction. This fraction was then subjected to gel filtration using Sephadex G-100. Two peaks were obtained. Peak one possessed higher antimicrobial activity. This peak was then subjected to ion exchange chromatography using DEAE Sephadex. Only peak 4 from the six peaks obtained showed a slight antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activities of the aqueous extract and the fractions that showed antimicrobial activity were compared with reference antibiotics. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of a Plectranthus saccatus aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira F

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a disease with high prevalence in developed countries, resulting from the deposition of uric acid crystals in various locations, particularly at the joints. The pharmacotherapeutic approach to chronic gout essentially consists of administration of uric acid-lowering agents. The main mechanism of action of these agents is the inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO, the enzyme responsible for the formation of uric acid. The therapeutic alternatives available for this purpose are limited, thus justifying the interest of the discovery of potential new uric acidlowering drugs. In this regard, an aqueous extract of the plant Plectranthus saccatus has been studied for its ability to inhibit XO. The composition of the extract was determined by HPLC and rosmarinic acid was identified as the major constituent. Both the extract and rosmarinic acid have demonstrated the ability to inhibit the production of uric acid by interfering with XO activity. The results obtained herein support the continuation of the study of their uric acid-lowering properties in cell-based and in vivo models to further explore their potential in gout therapy.

  11. Extraction of silver(I) from aqueous solutions in the absence and presence of copper(II) with a methimazole-based ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna-González, Juan M; Torriero, Angel A J; Siriwardana, Amal I; Burgar, Iko M; Bond, Alan M

    2011-08-21

    The ionic liquid (IL) 2-butylthiolonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide, [mimSBu][NTf(2)], facilitates the efficient extraction of silver(I) from aqueous media via interaction with both the cation and anion components of the IL. Studies with a conventional aqueous-IL two phase system as well as microextraction of silver(I) by a thick IL film adhered to an electrode monitored in situ by cyclic voltammetry, established that [mimSBu][NTf(2)] can extract electroactive silver(I) ions from an aqueous solution. The pH of the aqueous phase decreases upon addition of [mimSBu](+), which is attributed to partial release of the hydrogen attached to the N(3) nitrogen atom of the imidazolium ring. The presence of silver(I) further increase the acidity of the aqueous phase as a consequence of coordination with the IL cation component. Voltammetric and (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques have been used to establish the nature of the silver(I) complexes extracted, and show that the form of interaction with the IL differs from that outlined previously for the extraction of copper(II). Insights on the competition established when silver(I) is extracted in the presence of copper(II) are provided. Finally, it is noted that metallic silver can be directly electrodeposited at the electrode surface after extraction of silver(I) into [mimSBu][NTf(2)] and that back extraction of silver(I) into aqueous media is achieved by addition of an acidic aqueous solution.

  12. Response Surface Methodology Modelling of an Aqueous Two-Phase System for Purification of Protease from Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031 under Solid State Fermentation and Its Biochemical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaal M. Alhelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031 synthesizes different types of extracellular proteases. The objective of this study is to optimize polyethylene glycol (PEG/citrate based on an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS and Response Surface Methodology (RSM to purify protease from Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031. The effects of different PEG molecular weights (1500–10,000 g/mol, PEG concentration (9%–20%, concentrations of NaCl (0%–10% and the citrate buffer (8%–16% on protease were also studied. The best protease purification could be achieved under the conditions of 9.0% (w/w PEG 8000, 5.2% NaCl, and 15.9% sodium citrate concentration, which resulted in a one-sided protease partitioning for the bottom phase with a partition coefficient of 0.2, a 6.8-fold protease purification factor, and a yield of 93%. The response surface models displayed a significant (p ≤ 0.05 response which was fit for the variables that were studied as well as a high coefficient of determination (R2. Similarly, the predicted and observed values displayed no significant (p > 0.05 differences. In addition, our enzyme characterization study revealed that Penicillium candidum (PCA 1/TT031 produced a slight neutral protease with a molecular weight between 100 and 140 kDa. The optimal activity of the purified enzyme occurred at a pH of 6.0 and at a temperature of 50 °C. The stability between different pH and temperature ranges along with the effect of chemical metal ions and inhibitors were also studied. Our results reveal that the purified enzyme could be used in the dairy industry such as in accelerated cheese ripening.

  13. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of phaseolus vulgaris pods in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuaigel, Mohammad Faisal; Seif, Mosaad A; Albuali, Hamad Waleed; Alharbi, Omar; Alhawash, Amer

    2017-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the reduction potential of aqueous extract of casing of pods of phaseolus vulgaris in blood glucose and lipids levels among hyperglycemic streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats. Oral administration of 150mg/kg of aqueous oral administration of aqueous pod extract of phaseolus vulgaris to diabetic rats for 40days resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose (pphaseolus vulgaris and glibenclamide reduced the blood levels of glucose and lipids. In addition, aqueous extract of phaseolus vulgaris pods was more effective than glibenclamide in reducing blood glucose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro antileishmanial activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Leishmania major

    OpenAIRE

    Nosratabadi, Seyyed Jafar; Sharifi, Iraj; Sharififar, Fariba; Bamorovat, Mehdi; Daneshvar, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Pentavalent antimony compounds are expensive, toxic and drug resistance is prevalent, whereas the plant extract derivatives are safe. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the promastigotes of Leishmania major was evaluated. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of E. camaldulensis leaves were prepared. The compounds were dried and powdered. Serial dilutions of the extracts and control drugs in phosphate buffer solution were prepared....

  15. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  16. In vitro evaluation of the effect of aqueous extracts of Agave sisalana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the effects of aqueous extracts of Agave sisalana (sisal) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) on mycelial growth and conidia production of Pyricularia oryzae, causal agent of Rice Blast. Methodology and Results: The plants aqueous extracts were used at concentrations 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5;1; 2; ...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Litchi chinensis and Nephelium lappaceum aqueous seed extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Ramesa Shafi; Al-daihan, Sooad

    2014-01-01

    Seeds aqueous extracts from Litchi chinensis and Nephelium lappaceum were investigated for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method and protein profile. Both seed aqueous extracts show moderate inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, both gram positive including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacilllus subtillis and gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Overall analysis of the antibacterial activity of tested samples revealed ...

  18. Some in vivo and in vitro studies of the aqueous leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus muellerianus (5–30 mg/kg, ip) was found to induce behavioural sedation/sleep in young chicks (2-day old) resulting in ... The results of these studies showed that the aqueous extract of Phyllanthus muellerianus possesses pharmacological properties that bear relevance to its ...

  19. Effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pleurotus tuber regium on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Wistar rats were grouped and each group administered with aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pleurotus tuber regium respectively for a period of 14 days and blood samples obtained for complete blood count (CBC) using the Abacus Junior Haematology Analyser (S/N 111325). The rats fed with aqueous extracts ...

  20. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta indica Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medication is commonly employed in treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf (A. indica) is commonly used in treatment of malaria by Nigerians. Most often, aqueous extract of A. indica leaf is taken in combination with chloroquine in order to cure malaria infection without ...

  1. HYPOTENSIVE AND CARDIOINHIBOTORY EFFECTS OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CELERY (APIUM GRAVEOLENS, APIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pavlović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae investigated on the mean blood pressure of anaesthetized rabbits and contractility of isolated atria of the rats. In our experiments were used rabbits and Wistar albino rats. The effects of extracts (0.5-15 mg/kg on blood pressure were recorded directly from the carotid artery. Rat isolated atria was mounted in 10 ml tissue bath. An equilibrium period of 30 min was given before the application of the extracts (0.02-0.75 mg/ml. In anesthetized rabbit, intravenous administration of aqueous extracts induced least hypotensive effects (14.35±2.94%, while the ethanol extract caused the greatest fall in the blood pressure (45.79±10.86%. Hypotensive effects of the extracts were partially blocked by atropine (0.3 mg/kg, an unselective muscarinic receptor antagonist. In isolated rat atria both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of celery, exhibit a negative chronotropic and an inotropic action. Aqueous extract decreased rate of contractions for 12.88±2.74% and amplitude for 8.73±0.89%. Ethanol extract inhibited rate of the atria contractions for 34.26±5.69%, and amplitude for 25.40±3.61%. Pretreatment of the atria with atropine (1μM partially blocked inhibitory response of aqueous and ethanol extracts. Ethanol extract of celery exhibited significantly greater hypotensive and cardio-depressant activities then aqueous extract (p<0.05. These data suggest that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery caused the hypotensive, negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which could partially be mediated possibly via stimulation of muscarinic receptors. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract was significant comparing to aqueous extract of celery.

  2. Induction of laccases in Trametes versicolor by aqueous wood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Brandt; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Tinoco, Raunel; Rojas-Trejo, Sonia; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2014-01-01

    The induction of laccase isoforms in Trametes versicolor HEMIM-9 by aqueous extracts (AE) from softwood and hardwood was studied. Samples of sawdust of Pinus sp., Cedrela sp., and Quercus sp. were boiled in water to obtain AE. Different volumes of each AE were added to fungal cultures to determine the amount of AE needed for the induction experiments. Laccase activity was assayed every 24 h for 15 days. The addition of each AE (50 to 150 μl) to the fungal cultures increased laccase production compared to the control (0.42 ± 0.01 U ml(-1)). The highest laccase activities detected were 1.92 ± 0.15 U ml(-1) (pine), 1.87 ± 0.26 U ml(-1) (cedar), and 1.56 ± 0.34 U ml(-1) (oak); laccase productivities were also significantly increased. Larger volumes of any AE inhibited mycelial growth. Electrophoretic analysis revealed two laccase bands (lcc1 and lcc2) for all the treatments. However, when lcc2 was analyzed by isoelectric focusing, inducer-dependent isoform patterns composed of three (pine AE), four (oak AE), and six laccase bands (cedar AE) were observed. Thus, AE from softwood and hardwood had induction effects in T. versicolor HEMIM-9, as indicated by the increase in laccase activity and different isoform patterns. All of the enzymatic extracts were able to decolorize the dye Orange II. Dye decolorization was mainly influenced by pH. The optimum pH for decolorization was pH 5 (85%), followed by pH 7 (50%) and pH 3 (15%). No significant differences in the dye decolorizing capacity were detected between the control and the differentially induced laccase extracts (oak, pine and cedar). This could be due to the catalytic activities of isoforms with pI 5.4 and 5.8, which were detected under all induction conditions.

  3. Analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The analgesic activity of crude aqueous extract of the root bark of Zanthoxylum xanthozyloides was studied in mice and rats with the view to verifying the claim in folklore medicine that the extract has analgesic activity. Method: The extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction and rotatory evaporation, followed by ...

  4. Extraction distribution of microamounts of strontium in the two-phase water-NH4Cl-15-crown-5-nitrobenzene-ammonium dicarbollylcobaltate system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaňura, P.; Makrlík, E.; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2003), s. 108-111 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919; CEZ:MSM 230000009; CEZ:MSM 223400008 Keywords : Strontium * extraction * dicarbollylcobaltate Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.226, year: 2003

  5. Two-phase flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    General hypothesis used to simplify the equations, describing two-phase flows, are considered. Two-component and one-component models of two-phase flow, as well as Zuber and Findlay model for actual volumetric steam content, and Wallis model, describing the given phase rates, are presented. The conclusion is made, that the two-component model, in which values averaged in time are included, is applicable for the solving of three-dimensional tasks for unsteady two-phase flow. At the same time, using the two-component model, including values, averaged in space only one-dimensional tasks for unsteady two-phase flow can be solved

  6. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract pro...

  7. In vitro antileishmanial activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratabadi, Seyyed Jafar; Sharifi, Iraj; Sharififar, Fariba; Bamorovat, Mehdi; Daneshvar, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Pentavalent antimony compounds are expensive, toxic and drug resistance is prevalent, whereas the plant extract derivatives are safe. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the promastigotes of Leishmania major was evaluated. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of E. camaldulensis leaves were prepared. The compounds were dried and powdered. Serial dilutions of the extracts and control drugs in phosphate buffer solution were prepared. The stationary phase promastigotes of L. major were incubated to the methanolic and aqueous extractions in vitro. Tartar emetic was used as the positive control drug. After 72 h of incubation the activity of the extracts was measured, using MTT method. The IC50 values (50 % inhibitory concentration) were 586.2 ± 47.6 and 1,108.6 ± 51.9 μg/ml for methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively, whereas it was 32.5 ± 6.8 μg/ml for tartar emetic. The results indicated that the methanolic extract was more effective than aqueous extract, although there was no significant difference. The extracts were less effective as compared to the control drug. Further investigation is required to evaluate these extracts on clinical stage in macrophage-amastigote model.

  8. Antinociceptive properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Wandji, Bibiane Aimee; Piegang, Basile Nganmegne; Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit

    2015-11-04

    Aqueous maceration from the stem barks of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) is taken orally in the central Africa for the management of various ailments, including pain. This work was carried out to evaluate in mice, the antinociceptive effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of P. macrocarpus. The chemical composition of the aqueous and methanol extracts prepared as cold macerations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LCMS). The antinociceptive effects of these extracts administered orally at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were evaluated using behavioral pain model induced by acetic acid, formalin, hot-plate, capsaicin and glutamate. The rotarod test was also performed at the same doses. The oral acute toxicity of both extracts was studied at the doses of 800, 1600, 3200 and 6400 mg/kg in mice. The LCMS analysis revealed the presence of ellagic acid as the major constituent in the methanol extract. Both extracts of P. macrocarpus significantly and dose dependently reduced the time and number of writhing induced by acetic acid. They also significantly inhibited the two phases of formalin-induced pain. These effects were significantly inhibited by a pretreatment with naloxone, except for the analgesic activity of the methanol extract at the earlier phase. In addition, nociception induced by hot plate, intraplantar injection of capsaicin or glutamate was significantly inhibited by both extracts. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity. These results demonstrate that aqueous and methanol extracts of P. macrocarpus are none toxic substances with good central and peripheral antinociceptive effects that are at least partially due to the presence of ellagic acid. These extracts may induce their antinociceptive effect by interfering with opioid, capsaicin and excitatory amino acid pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  10. Biological Activities of Aqueous and Organic Extracts from Tropical Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Turk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on screening tests of 66 extracts obtained from 35 marine sponge species from the Caribbean Sea (Curaçao and from eight species from the Great Barrier Reef (Lizard Island. Extracts were prepared in aqueous and organic solvents and were tested for hemolytic, hemagglutinating, antibacterial and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities, as well as their ability to inhibit or activate cell protein phosphatase 1 (PP1. The most interesting activities were obtained from extracts of Ircinia felix, Pandaros acanthifolium, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Verongula rigida and Neofibularia nolitangere. Aqueous and organic extracts of I. felix and V. rigida showed strong antibacterial activity. Topsentia aqueous and some organic extracts were strongly hemolytic, as were all organic extracts from I. felix. The strongest hemolytic activity was observed in aqueous extracts from P. acanthifolium. Organic extracts of N. nolitangere and I. felix inhibited PP1. The aqueous extract from Myrmekioderma styx possessed the strongest hemagglutinating activity, whilst AChE inhibiting activity was found only in a few sponges and was generally weak, except in the methanolic extract of T. ophiraphidites.

  11. On physical distribution of extractants and extracted compounds between aqueous solutions and diluent of different nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskij, L.V.; Mezhov, Eh.A.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    Using as an example tri-n-butylammonium nitrate, ''physical'' distribution of amine salts between nitrate aqueous solutions and diluents of different nature is investigated. It follows from the results obtained, that extraction constants, of tri-n-butylammonium nitrate Ksub(ex) in p-xylol, o-xylol, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene and o-dichlorobenzene equal respectively 0.045+-0.008, 0.07+-0.02, 0.14+-0.04, 0.45+-0.05, 3.0+-0.1 and 3.8+-0.3; the constant of ion pair association (C 4 H 9 ) 3 NH + NO 3 - in aqueous phase constitutes 0.5+-0.2; theconstants of ''physical'' distribution P 0 of amine nitrateinto above-mentioned diluents are evaluated respectively as 0.09, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 6, 8. During (C 4 H 9 ) 3 NHNO 3 amine salt extraction, as well as in the case of ''physical'' distribution of other compounds, the linear increase in lg P 0 with the increase in BP* parameter of diluentis observed i.e. lg P 0 =*A+*BBP*, where *a, *B-empiric coefficients, BP*-''effect of diluent'' parameter. At that, due to high palarity of amine salt the sensitivity coefficient to BP* change is considerably higher (*B=2), than for free trialkylamines (*B=0.3), or relatively low-polarity extragents, tributylphosphate for example (*B=0.5)

  12. The effect of dominant ions on solvent extraction of lithium ion from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvianto, Gregorius Rionugroho; Jeong, Sang-Gu; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Solvent extraction of lithium ion using kerosene as solvent is proposed. The extraction of lithium ion using various mixed extractants of β-diketone and neutral ligand in kerosene was performed to find the optimum extractant combination. Considering the extraction efficiency, the optimum extractant combination was 0.02 M TTA and 0.04M TOPO. For the development of lithium extraction from seawater, the effects of dominant ions in seawater were examined in various extraction conditions. The extraction efficiencies generally decreased with the concentration of dominant metallic ions and increased with pH of the aqueous solutions, but Cl - ion showed only minor effect on the efficiency, even up to its concentration in seawater. Except for Mg 2+ ion, more than 70% of lithium ions could be extracted at pH 10.6 from aqueous solutions with a dominant ion at its concentration in seawater

  13. Study of aqueous extract of three medicinal plants on cell membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of three medicinal plants, Artemisia dracunculus L, Cuminum cyminum L and Heracleum persicum Desf, which contain saponins on biological membrane. Also in this study, some of their physicochemical properties were studied. At the first step, the aqueous ...

  14. Effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on serum lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bo; Wang, Wencheng; Gao, Hui; Cai, Shanglang; Wang, Chunbo

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify potential genes that may be involved in lipid metabolism in rats after treatment with aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L (burdock). Methods Rats were randomly divided into six groups: (i) control (standard diet); (ii) model group (high-fat diet only); (iii) high-fat diet and low-dose aqueous burdock root extract (2 g/kg); (iv) high-fat diet and moderate-dose aqueous burdock root extract (4 g/kg); (v) high-fat diet and high-dose aqueous burdock root extract (8 g/kg); and (vi) a positive control group exposed to a high-fat diet and simvastatin (10 mg/kg). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis was performed to find the potential candidate genes involved in the modulation of blood lipids by treatment with aqueous burdock root extract. Results Burdock root extract reduced body weight and cholesterol levels in rats. KEGG analysis revealed 113 genes that were involved in metabolic pathways. Of these, 27 potential genes associated with blood lipid metabolism were identified. Conclusions Aqueous extract of burdock root reduced body weight and cholesterol in rats, possibly by modulating the differential expression of genes.

  15. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  16. Efficient Removal of Ruthenium Byproducts from Olefin Metathesis Products by Simple Aqueous Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Simple aqueous extraction removed ruthenium byproducts efficiently from ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions catalyzed by a PEG-supported N-heterocyclic carbene-based ruthenium complex. PMID:17428062

  17. Application of Moringa Peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant for Phenol removal from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, Moringa peregrina seed extract, with respect to its high efficacy, can be used as an effective, efficient, and inexpensive coagulant in removing phenol from aqueous environments.

  18. Anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from Moroccan thyme varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Khouya

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: All aqueous extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity and are rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid but they act differently in the process of inflammatory and coagulation studied. This study shows great variability of biological activities in thyme varieties.

  19. Annona muricata aqueous extract suppresses T47D breast cancer cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Fidianingsih

    2015-12-01

    The proliferative inhibition of soursop leaves against T47D breast cancer cells is higher than that of soursop fruits and seeds. Annona muricata fruit, seed, and leaf aqueous extracts were less toxic than tamoxifen

  20. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Eddouks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa (CS possess antidiabetic effect, he present study aims to reveal the possible  mechanism of action of CS in diabetic mice.Materials and Methods: Both single and repeated oral administrations of aqueous extract of CS were performed in multi-low dose streptozotocin-induced (MLDS diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used in association with the endogenous glucose production (perfusion rate of 3-3H glucose to evaluate the effect of CS aqueous extract on insulin sensitivity.Results: Our study showed that aqueous extract of CS possess a potent hypoglycaemic activity in MLDS diabetic mice. Furthermore, the analysis perfusion of 3-3H glucose demonstrated  the parallel decrease of basal endogenous glucose production (EGP with the hypoglycaemic activity. EGP was lower in CS-Treated group when compared to the control group (p

  1. The Inhibitory Action of Aqueous Garlic Extract on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work reports the antibacterial effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract on certain pathogenic Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pneumonia and Streptococcus faecalis, and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ...

  2. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus SPP. against parthenium hysterophorus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, A.; Shah, M.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus species viz. E citriodora Hook and E. camaldulensis Dehnh. Against the germination and seeding growth of alien aggressive weed parthenium hysterophorus L. The experiment was conducted in department of Mycology and plant Pathology in 2006. Aqueous leaf extracts of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (w/v) of the two aforementioned Eucalyptus species were employed in the present study. Extracts of 2-8% concentration of both the Eucalyptus species significantly suppressed germination of the target weed species. A 10% extract of both the species completely arrested the germination. Aqueous extracts also reduced the root and shoot length of parthenium. Effect of extracts on seedling biomass was insignificant. (author)

  3. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Daphne Sue Yen; Er, Hui Meng; Chen, Yu Sui

    2009-12-10

    Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) is a weed commonly found in tropical countries and has been used traditionally for asthma, bronchitis and conjunctivitis. However, one of the constituents in this plant, quercetin, was previously reported to be mutagenic. This work aimed to determine the level of quercetin in the aqueous and methanol plant extracts and to investigate the mutagenic effects of quercetin and the extracts in the Ames test utilising the mutant Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. The antimutagenic activity of Euphorbia hirta aqueous and methanol extracts was also studied in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. HPLC analyses showed that quercetin and rutin, a glycosidic form of quercetin, were present in the acid-hydrolysed methanol extract and non-hydrolysed methanol extract respectively. The quercetin concentration was negligible in both non-hydrolysed and acid-hydrolysed aqueous extracts. The total phenolic contents in Euphorbia hirta were determined to be 268 and 93 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively. Quercetin (25 microg/mL) was found to be strongly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. However, both the aqueous and methanol extracts did not demonstrate any mutagenic properties when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains at concentrations up to 100 microg/mL in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. In the absence of S-9 metabolic activation, both the extracts were unable to inhibit the mutagenicity of the known mutagen, 2-nitrofluorene, in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts at 100 microg/mL and methanol extracts at 10 and 100 microg/mL exhibited strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene, a known mutagen, in the presence of S-9 metabolic activating enzymes. The results indicated that these extracts could modulate the xenobiotic metabolising

  4. A mutagenicity and cytotoxicity study of limonium effusum aqueous extracts by Allium, Ames and MTT tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Y; Ozata, A; Konuk, M; Akyil, D; Liman, R

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays plants or plant extracts have become very important for alternative medicine. Plants and their extracts have many therapeutical advantages but some of them are potentially toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic. Root, stem and leafparts of Limonium effusum were used in this study and this species is an endemic species for Turkey. Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of root, stem and leaf aqueous extracts were observed with Allium, Ames and MTT tests. Allium root growth inhibition test and mitotic index studies showed that aqueous extracts have dose-dependent toxic effects. Chromosome aberration studies indicated that especially sticky chromosome, anaphase-telophase disorder and laggard chromosome anomalies were highly observed. Ames test performed with Limonium effusum root aqueous extracts, showed weak mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain with S9. MTT test based on mitochondrial activity indicated that most of the aqueous extracts have cytotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine the possible mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of L. effusum aqueous extracts by using bacterial, plant and mammalian cells. This research showed that some low concentrations of the L. effusum extracts have inhibited cytotoxic effects but high concentrations have induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand only a weak mutagenic activity was identified by Ames test with TA98 S9(+).

  5. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of fractionated Euphorbia hirta aqueous extract on rabbit synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jocelyn; Er, Hui Meng; Mohamed, Shar Mariam; Chen, Yu Sui

    2015-01-01

    Euphorbia hirta has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. This study was carried out to determine the prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) inhibition activity of the fractions of the E. hirta aqueous extract on rabbit synovial fibroblast cells (HIG-82). E. hirta aqueous extract was fractionated into five fractions (fractions A, B, C, D, and E) by reversed phase flash chromatography. Rabbit synovial fibroblast cells (HIG-82) were activated with phorbol myristate acetate and treated with the fractions. The amount of PGE 2 released into the medium was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fraction A (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/ml) had the greatest PGE 2 inhibitory effect among the five fractions, and showed a greater extent of PGE 2 inhibition compared to the aqueous extract. In contrast, Fraction E had the greatest stimulatory effect on PGE 2 release. Fraction A of the aqueous extract inhibited the production of PGE 2 from activated HIG-82 cells to a greater extent than the crude aqueous extract. Bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory activity are likely to be concentrated in Fraction A of E. hirta aqueous extract.

  6. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  7. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn ( Zea mays) in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn ( Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to ( a) copulating male rats and ( b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity.

  8. [Optimize aqueous extract protocol for Yugubao formula by orthogonal experiment design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li; Jin, Xiao-Dong; Li, Qing-Nan; Lu, Li

    2017-01-01

    To determine the optimum aqueous extract protocol for Yugubao traditional Chinese medicines formula by using orthogonal experiment design. Through serum pharmacology research, L9(34) orthogonal design with single factor investigation was used to optimize the aqueous extract protocol for Yugubao formula. The effect of water extraction on activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in osteoblast was referred as the evaluation index for investigating four factors: water consumption (A), heating time (B), soaking time (C), and number of decocting (D), analyzing the optimum extraction conditions, and verifying the effectiveness of this process. The optimum aqueous extract protocol for Yugubao was as follows: adding 8 times water into Chinese medical materials, heating for 60 min, soaking for 30 min, and decocting for 1 time. The drug serum of this aqueous extract of Yugubao could significantly up-regulate the osteogenic genes expression. The optimum aqueous extract protocol for Yugubao formula was established in this experiment, providing evidence for the development and utilization of Yugubao traditional Chinese medicines formula. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. [Effectiveness of aqueous extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants against tomato grey mould in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Manal; Aourach, Mohammed; El Boukari, Mohammed; Barrijal, Said; Essalmani, Haiat

    2017-08-01

    Grey mould is a major disease threatening the Moroccan tomato; this disease is often controlled by fungicides. However, the latter are a real danger to human health and environment. Thus, this study is part of the research of harmless alternatives such extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants (Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Melissa officinalis). In this study, the extracts of four medicinal and aromatic plants were tested for their antifungal potency in vitro and in vivo in order to select the most effective. The results show that, in vitro, the Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extracts all possess significant antifungal activity, whereas Melissa officinalis shows the least effective. Also in vivo only the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus proves most effective against B. cinerea on tomato fruit. The test of the plants confirms that aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are most effective, while the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis and Lavandula officinalis always seem to be the least effective. Therefore, the aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are the most envisaged for the biological control of grey mould. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Aqueous and Ethanolic Valeriana officinalis Extracts Change the Binding of Ligands to Glutamate Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Cordero-Hernández, José M.; González-Medina, Giselle; Ramos-Vélez, Igmeris; Berríos-Cartagena, Nairimer; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A.; Ortíz, José G.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of two valerian extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic) were investigated through [3H]Glutamate ([3H]Glu) and [3H]Fluorowillardine ([3H]FW) receptor binding assays using rat synaptic membranes in presence of different receptor ligands. In addition, the extract stability was monitored spectrophotometrically. Both extracts demonstrated interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). However, the extracts displayed considerable differences in receptor selectivity. The hydroalcoholic extract selectively interacted with quisqualic acid (QA), group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) ligand, while the aqueous extract did not alter the binding of QA. The stability of the extracts was examined during several weeks. Freshly prepared extract inhibited 38–60% of [3H]FW binding (AMPA). After 10 days, the aqueous extract inhibited 85% of [3H]FW binding while the hydroalcoholic extract markedly potentiated (200%) [3H]FW binding to AMPA receptors. Thus, our results showed that factors such as extraction solvent and extract stability determine the selectivity for glutamate receptor (GluR) interactions. PMID:21151614

  11. Stability of Rosmarinic Acid in Aqueous Extracts from Different Lamiaceae Species after in vitro Digestion with Human Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Zorić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares the gastrointestinal stability of rosmarinic acid in aqueous extracts of thyme, winter savory and lemon balm with the stability of pure rosmarinic acid. The stability of rosmarinic acid was detected after two-phase in vitro digestion process (gastric and duodenal with human gastrointestinal enzymes. The concentration of rosmarinic acid in undigested and digested samples was detected using HPLC-DAD. Results showed that gastrointestinal stability of pure rosmarinic acid was significantly higher than that of rosmarinic acid from plant extracts after both gastric and intestinal phases of digestion. Among plant extracts, rosmarinic acid was the most stable in lemon balm after gastric (14.10 % and intestinal digestion phases (6.5 %. The temperature (37 °C and slightly alkaline medium (pH=7.5 did not aff ect the stability of rosmarinic acid, while acid medium (pH=2.5 significantly decreased its stability (≥50 %. In addition, the stability rate of rosmarinic acid is influenced by the concentration of human gastrointestinal juices.

  12. Effect of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Xylopia Aethiopica on Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    received 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight of. Xylopia Aethiopica extract respectively p.o once daily. Extract preparation. Dried fruit material of Xylopia Aethiopicawas purchased from Watt market, Calabar, Nigeria and authenticated at the Department of Botany,. University of Calabar, Nigeria. The dried crude extract was ...

  13. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... especially during difficult labour. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo effects of leaf extracts of S. mombin on reproductive performance of female rats. Methods: Acute toxicity test of the plant extract was carried out in rats of both sexes. The anticonceptive and abortifacient activity of the extract ...

  14. Alleloppathic effects and insecticidal activity of the aqueous extract of Satureja montana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šućur Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic insecticides, herbicides and other pesticides has negative effects on the environment and on human and animal health. Therefore scientists are turning towards natural pesticides such as active components of plant extracts. Effect of two concentrations (0.1% and 0.2% of Satureja montana L. aqueous extract on lipid peroxidation process, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, PPX and CAT in leaves and roots of pepper and black nightshade seedlings were examined 24, 72 and 120h after the treatment. Our results showed that higher concentration of S. montana aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in black nightshade roots. Furthermore, significant increases of pyrogallol and guaiacol peroxidase were detected in black nightshade leaves treated with 0.2% S. montana aqueous extract. The second aim was to evaluate effectiveness of aqueous extract as contact toxicant against whitefly. It was observed that aqueous extract with concentration of 0.2% showed toxic effect with 68.33% mortality after 96h.

  15. Enhanced Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activity of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Sargassum incisifolium Aqueous Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmola, Mokone; Roes-Hill, Marilize Le; Durrell, Kim; Bolton, John J; Sibuyi, Nicole; Meyer, Mervin E; Beukes, Denzil R; Antunes, Edith

    2016-12-02

    A detailed, methodical approach was used to synthesise silver and gold nanoparticles using two differently prepared aqueous extracts of the brown algae Sargassum incisifolium . The efficiency of the extracts in producing nanoparticles were compared to commercially available brown algal fucoidans, a major constituent of brown algal aqueous extracts. The nanoparticles were characterised using TEM, XRD and UV/Vis spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The rate of nanoparticle formation was assessed using UV/Vis spectroscopy and related to the size, shape and morphology of the nanoparticles as revealed by TEM. The antioxidant, reducing power and total polyphenolic contents of the aqueous extracts and fucoidans were determined, revealing that the aqueous extracts with the highest contents produced smaller, spherical, more monodisperse nanoparticles at a faster rate. The nanoparticles were assessed against two gram-negative bacteria, two gram-positive bacteria and one yeast strain. In contrast to the literature, the silver nanoparticles produced using the aqueous extracts were particularly toxic to Gram-negative bacteria, while the gold nanoparticles lacked activity. The cytotoxic activity of the nanoparticles was also evaluated against cancerous (HT-29, MCF-7) and non-cancerous (MCF-12a) cell lines. The silver nanoparticles displayed selectivity, since the MCF-12a cell line was found to be resistant to the nanoparticles, while the cancerous HT-29 cell line was found to be sensitive (10% viability). The gold nanoparticles displayed negligible toxicity.

  16. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Simran; Vats, Manisha; Aggarwal, Sushma; Sardana, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM) overdose induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total Bilirubin (TB) was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner. PMID:24459387

  17. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  18. Antifertility effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asparagus africanus is claimed to have use in reproductive related health problems in some areas of Ethiopia. Objective: To study the potential antifertility effect of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves and roots of Asparagus africanus in rats. Methods: Water and ethanol extracts were given by ...

  19. Comparative Analysis of Cleistanthus collinus Aqueous Leaf Extract and Fractions for its Antibacterial Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaraj Elangomathavan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug resistance property of disease causing pathogens is a serious issue in the field of medicine and so further attempts to search for new antimicrobial agents from plant source is the need of the hour. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the preliminary phytochemicals and investigate the antibacterial potential of Cleistanthus collinus (Euphorbiaceae aqueous extract and fractions. Materials and Methods: C. collinus plant leaf material was dried and the hot aqueous extract was prepared. All the fractions obtained from serial and direct extraction methods were subjected to the preliminary phytochemical screening and characterization. Antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of C. collinus crude aqueous extract and its fractions were analyzed against selected pathogens. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening, UV-Vis spectrum analysis clearly differentiate crude leaf extract and fractions. Among the tested plant extract and fractions, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions showed profound antibacterial activity. Serial fraction of hexane showed higher antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae (21 - 40 mm zone of inhibition and MICs 36.5 - 70.5 μg. V. cholerae was highly susceptible to all the fractions and extract of C. collinus. Conclusions: Aqueous extract and its serial fractions of C. collinus exhibited bactericidal activity against tested pathogens. This study confirms the presence of promising Phyto-constituents in C. collinus leaf material which could be exploited for the further pharmacological studies to develop a drug to control the infectious disease causing pathogens.

  20. Anti-ulcerant Activity of an Aqueous Fruit Extract of Musa x para ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contractile effect of histamine on the isolated guinea-pig ileum was significantly inhibited (P ≤ 0.001) by Mepyramine and the extract. The aque-ous fruit extract of Musa x paradisiaca has anti-ulcerant property in ICR mice and possibly works as an antagonist to histamine receptors. Keywords: Ulcer, traditional medicine, ...

  1. In vivo activity of stem bark aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... Aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae) stem bark was used to treat trypanosomiasis in rats in vivo and changes in levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were studied. The treatment involved oral infusion of the crude extract at 60 mg/kg body weight ...

  2. Effect of inutero exposure to an aqueous extract of hibicus sabdariffa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In folk medicine, extracts of Hibiscus Sabdariffa (HS) are used in the treatment of several complaints including high blood pressure, liver diseases and fever. To the best of our knowledge, no documented evidence exists on the effect of inutero exposure to an aqueous extract of HS on postnatal growth. The purpose of the ...

  3. Sperm quality of male rats treated with aqueous extract of Enantia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha were studied on sperm motility, viability and counts in adult albino rats. Oral administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract daily for a week caused dose-dependent changes in the sperm motility and viability without a significant change in the sperm counts.

  4. Anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-vibrio potentials of acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and determine its relevance in the treatment of vibrios infection. Methods: The agar-well diffusion method was used for screening the extracts for their anti-vibrio activity. Broth micro-dilution assay was used to ...

  5. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, M; Sallal, A-K; Darmani, H

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an extract of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) on the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and the adhesion of this bacterium to human buccal epithelial cells. Different concentrations of an aqueous extract of thyme were prepared and the effects investigated on growth of S. mutans. Furthermore, the effect of these extracts on adhesion of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells was also investigated and compared with the effects of chlorhexidine digluconate. The data revealed that exposure of S. mutans to thyme extract showed a time and concentration-dependent decrease in bacterial viability. The greatest effect was observed when S. mutans had been exposed to 20% thyme extract for a period of 48 h which resulted in 96% inhibition of bacterial growth. Furthermore, the adhesion of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells was also reduced when either buccal epithelial cells or S. mutans had been pre-incubated with different concentrations of aqueous thyme extracts (83-98% and 75-89% inhibition respectively). There was also greater reduction in the adherence of bacterial cells to buccal epithelial cells after mouth rinsing with 20% aqueous thyme extract compared to rinsing with chlorhexidine digluconate (45% and 89% inhibition of bacterial adhesion respectively). The diminished adherence of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells after exposure to various concentrations of aqueous thyme extract as well as the antimicrobial properties of this plant may have clinical relevance.

  6. Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the aqueous leaf extract of D. guineense caused a significant (P< 0.001) reduction in the number of stools and frequency of diarrhoea in castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. The extract produced significant (P< 0.01) inhibition of intestinal transit with the dose of 400 mg/kg having the highest effect.

  7. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Kola Nut (Cola Nitida Rubra) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    The soxhlet apparatus was then set up and left for 72 hours. The extracted solution was taken to the oven for concentration to dryness at a regulated temperature of. 400 and left for 6 days. With this a powdery product was obtained, from which aqueous extract of 8mg/kg body weight was prepared. Animals: Adult male rats ...

  8. Gastro-protective potential of aqueous stem bark extract of Albyzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione, malondialdehyde levels, pH, volume and total output of the gastric acid were not significantly altered. Addition of the extract to 0.1 N HCl elicited very little variation in pH suggesting a lack of neutralizing ability. The aqueous extract of Albizia zygia possesses anti-ulcer properties that may be due to cytoprotective ...

  9. Cytogenetic effects of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plant paico (chenopodium multifidum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A; Gurni, A; Nigro López, M; López, P; Gratti, A; van Baren, C; Ferraro, G; Carballo, M

    2000-01-01

    The cytogenetic effects of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium multifidum L. (Paico) were determined by addition of the extracts and fractions to human lymphocyte cultures. Toxicity was evaluated by analysis of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), mitotic (MI) and replication (RI) indexes. The results showed an increase in CA frequency in cultures exposed to infusion decoction, no modification in the CPK values either in the decoction or in the infusion, and a decrease in the MI of lymphocyte cultures exposed to the decoction. These results suggested genotoxic effects of "Paico" aqueous extracts.

  10. Extraction of molybdenum by the di-n-butyl 2.2.N.hydroxyhexanamide (tri-n-butylacetohydroxamic acid) from aqueous acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landesman, C.

    1991-11-01

    The design of a new industrial process for the production of the fission product 99 Mo, led to study of the extraction of 99 Mo(VI) by the tri-n-butylacetohydroxamic acid (TBAH). Due to the large affinity of TBAH for Mo(VI), the study was conducted with unusual experimental conditions : the concentrations of the extracting molecule and metallic ion were very low, typically CTBAH = 10 -5 M and CMo(VI) = 10 -8 M. The overall extraction system was described using a mathematical model quite simple, which, in particular, takes into account all the Mo(VI) species present in the aqueous phase. When the extractions were carried out from a perchloric acid medium, two different extraction mechanisms of Mo(VI) were identified : for C HC10 4 3 , the extraction of Mo(VI) corresponds to a cationic exchange, whereas for C HC10 4 > 3 mol/dm 3 , a neutral Mo(VI) compound is extracted. Moreover it was found that the extracting system Mo(VI)/TBAH is extremely sensitive to the temperature. It is thus possible to change the way of the transfer of Mo(VI) between the two phases, by control of the temperature of the mixture : the extraction is carried out at room temperature and the back-extraction at elevated temperature

  11. Postprandial glycaemia and inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by aqueous extract from Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindis, F; González-Andrade, M; González-Trujano, M E; Estrada-Soto, S; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic properties of the aqueous extract from the leaves and stems of Coriandrum sativum L. were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats, and on α-glucosidase activity from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to validate its use in folk medicine. In in vivo experiments rats were administered with the aqueous extract of the plant at 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, to observe the effect on oral sucrose tolerance test. The aqueous extract exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic activity at the three tested doses. In vitro experiments with α-glucosidase exhibited a competitive-type inhibition. These results confirm the antidiabetic properties of the extract of C. sativum L., probably by the inhibition of α-glucosidase in the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract from Remirea maritima (Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, A S; Oliveira, I D; Guimarães, A G; Quintans, J S S; Prata, A P N; Gelain, D P; Venceslau, E M; Santos, J P A; Quintans, L J; Bonjardim, L R; Barison, A; Campos, F R; Santos, A D C; Nogueira, P C L; Costa, E V; Moraes, V R S; Araújo, A A S

    2013-01-09

    Remirea maritima Aubl., popularly known as "capim-da-praia", is popularly employed in the treatment of diarrhea, kidney disease, fever, and for analgesic and anti-inflammatory purposes through the preparation of teas. Few studies have focused on the chemical composition and its biological properties. This work evaluated the antinocipetive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract from Remirea maritima Aubl. as well as the isolation and identification of the chemical compounds. Compounds were isolated from aqueous extract of Remirea maritima through preparative HPLC and the structures were identified by means of NMR and MS analysis. The tests for antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, along with motor coordination test (Rota rod), were performed over the aqueous extract. The phytochemical investigation of aqueous extract of Remirea maritima resulted in the isolation of three flavone glycosides. The structures of these compounds were determined by means of MS and 1D and 2D NMR data as vitexin-2″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, isovitexin-2″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide. Acute pretreatment with aqueous extract (100, 200 or 400mg/kg, i.p.) caused a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the number of abdominal writhes. In the formalin test, higher doses significantly inhibited the late (inflammatory pain) phase of formalin-induced licking (p<0.05 or 0.001). In the hot plate test, there was no significant difference in nociceptive behavior, discarding the possible central effect of the aqueous extract. In the rota rod test, it was verified that the aqueous extract in all concentration evaluated does not alter the motor coordination of mice, such antinociceptive results were unlikely to be caused by motor abnormality. In the peritonitis test, induced by carrageenan, the treatment with aqueous extract produced a significant reduction in leukocyte migration in all concentration evaluated. Additionally, a

  13. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Imatomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf extracts at 5 and 10% (g mL-1 were tested on the germination and growth of Euphorbia heterophylla, Echinochloa crus-galli and Ipomoea grandifolia and compared with the herbicide oxyfluorfen and distilled water (control. The most extracts caused pronounced delays in seed germination and inhibited the growth of seedlings of E. heterophylla; I. grandifolia and E. crus-galli, with the last target species had no growth shoot inhibited by the extracts. In this study, the potential and efficiency of the tested aqueous leaf extracts were evident because they were more phytotoxic to the weeds than the herbicide. Thus, the aqueous extracts of leaves from Myrtaceae species show potential for the isolation of active compounds that can be used for the production of natural herbicides in the future.

  14. Aqueous enzyme assisted oil extraction from oilseeds and emulsion de-emulsifying methods: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Mike; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory, safety, and environmental issues have prompted the development of aqueousenzymatic extraction (AEE) for extracting components from oil-bearing materials. The emulsion resulting from AEE requires de-emulsification to separate the oil; when enzymes are used for this purpose, the method is known as aqueous enzymatic emulsion de-emulsification (AEED). In general, enzyme assisted oil extraction is known to yield oil\\ud having highly favourable characteristics. This review covers techno...

  15. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was evaluated. Pure catechin (CS) and a previously LC-MS characterized grape seed phenolic extract (PE) were evaluated as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli and Brevibacterium linens on solid and in liquid culture media ...

  16. The Effect Of The Aqueous Extract Of Kohautia Grandiflora On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase (P<0.05) in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP and Albumin in rats administered with 500mg/kg of paracetamol and 300mg/kg of the extract respectively. Pre-treatment of the animals with the extract caused a decrease in the levels of these enzymes. Histopathological assessments of the liver sections of rats administered ...

  17. Extractability of Potassium from Some Organic Manures in Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pH, time and concentration on the extractability of potassium from five types of organic manures (cow dung, local chickens, duck and commercial chickens, faeces on bedded and unbedded floor) were studied. Experiments were conducted in water at 40oC. Cumulative extraction curves of potassium resulting ...

  18. Anthelminthic efficacy of aqueous extracts of Garcina kola seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the 100mg/ml concentration of each extract, the reduction in egg hatch was comparable to those obtained with various dilutions of levamisole and albendazole both of which showed 100% reduction in egg hatch. The extracts therefore showed promise for use as possible anthelminthic for the regular treatment and control ...

  19. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These data suggest that this extract may have a depressant effect on the central nervous system, a sedative effect, and may induce a decrease in plasma prostaglandin levels. Also, this extract, at high doses, may induce injury to liver, spleen and lungs, loss of appetite, and anaemic conditions. Keywords: Allium sativum ...

  20. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of a Tolypocladium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolypocladium sp. Ts-1 was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild Cordyceps sinensis, one of the best known traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. The antioxidant activities of hot-water extracts from cultured mycelia of Tolypocladium sp. were assessed in different in vitro systems. The extracts showed ...

  1. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of a Tolypocladium sp. fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Tolypocladium sp. Ts-1 was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild Cordyceps sinensis, one of the best known traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. The antioxidant activities of hot-water extracts from cultured mycelia of Tolypocladium sp. were assessed in different in vitro systems. The extracts ...

  2. Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Ageratum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, histological studies revealed that the extract caused dose-dependent lesions, resulting in hepatorenal changes correlated with a high level of transaminases activity and hyperleukocytosis at 800 mg/kg dose level. The hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations were also high in all groups treated with the extract.

  3. "Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of essential oil, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum Willd leaves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamal-Herrera, Isabel O; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi M; Escalante-Réndiz, Diana Y; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Azamar-Barrios, José A

    2018-02-08

    Ocimum micranthum Willd is a plant used in traditional medicine practiced in the region of the Yucatan peninsula. In particular, it is used for the treatment of cutaneous infections and wound healing, however there are currently no existing scientific studies that support these applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and the in vitro proliferative activity (on healthy mammalian cell lines) of the essential oil and extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of this plant. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was determined using the microdilution technique. The in vitro proliferative activity of human fibroblast (hFB) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells treated with these extracts was evaluated using the MTT test. The hFB cell line was also evaluated using Trypan Blue assay. Candida albicans was more susceptible to the ethanolic extract and the aqueous extract (MIC value of 5 μL/mL and 80 μL/mL respectively). In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MIC of the aqueous and ethanolic extract was 125 μL/mL. The aqueous extract showed a significant (p essential oil and extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves are sufficient to cause an antiproliferative effect on the hFB cell line but do not produce an antimicrobial effect against the microorganisms evaluated. More studies are necessary to improve understanding of the mechanism of action of the compounds implicated in the bioactivities shown by the crude extracts.

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of aqueous ethanol extract of Cestrum nocturnum against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imran Qadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activities of Cestrum nocturnum (Queen of Night was evaluated against the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the mice. Aqueous ethanol (30:70 extract of plant was obtained by maceration. Results showed that aqueous ethanol extract of C. nocturnum (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05 hepatoprotective activities against paracetamol induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice. Histopathalogical studied of liver further supported the hepatoprotective effects of C. notrunum. Phyto-chemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and volatile oils. Most of the flavonoids have hepatoprotective activity. Therefore, the hepatoprotective activity of C. nocturnum may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic components. It was concluded from the present study that aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of C. nocturnum has hepatoprotective activity against the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino mice.

  5. Two-phase flow instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, B.; Emmerling, R.; Fischer, C.; Gaul, H.P.; Umminger, K.

    1992-01-01

    A careful measurement of the relevant two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many thermohydraulic processes. Especially in the nuclear safety research where accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental setups and predicted by complex computer code systems a reliable tow-phase instrumentation is substantial for the connection between analysis and experiment. Ambitious development programs have been carried out in many institutions and countries to promote two-phase instrumentation. Advantages as well as limitations of some of these systems will be discussed in the paper. In the last 10 - 15 years good progress has been made. However there are still goals for further developments and there is still the fact that in many cases - measured data taken from large experimental facilities cannot be compared directly to the parameters calculated by the codes. Careful comparison and interpretation of both calculated and measured results by experienced researchers will be the key for the thermohydraulic understanding of complex two-phase phenomena also in the future. (authors). 19 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs

  6. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Evangeline E; Pulwale, Anubha V; Patil, Gauri A; Moghe, Alpana S

    2016-01-01

    Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed relatively less potential to stimulate cells but had prominent cytotoxic

  7. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Evangeline E.; Pulwale, Anubha V.; Patil, Gauri A.; Moghe, Alpana S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. Objective: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Materials and Methods: Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Results: Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion: A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract

  8. Antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of aqueous extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the extracts were active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger, but relatively inactive against the others; and contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and carbohydrate. Separation of the constituents by thin layer chromatography was attempted.

  9. Relaxant effects of the aqueous leaf extract of cassia occidentailis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C.O.) were investigated in rat aortic rings with or without intact endothelium. The extract inhibited contraction elicited by noradrenaline (NA) and Potassium Chloride (KCI) dose dependently. It also relaxed aortic rings precontracted with 10-7 M ...

  10. Pharmaceutical Characterization of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of this preformulation study indicates that the powdered extract of Bridelia ferruginea possesses properties that make it suitable for its formulation into standard solid dosage forms. Keywords: Herbal medicines, Bridelia ferruginea, Preformulation studies, Micromeritic properties, Wet granulation.

  11. Antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous extract of phyllantus amarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) suppression of P berghei parasites via a repository action. This effect was comparable to the effects of pyrimethamine a standard repository agent. In established infection, the extract at all doses administered, was found to significantly ...

  12. [Pedaliaceae] secondary root aqueous extract on isolated gastro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cervicis and oesophagus muscle homogenates for colorimetric anticholinesterase determination, Harpagophytum procumbens (HPE, 10–1000 μg/ml) was found to possess anticholinesterase activity. In this regard, however, the plant's extract was ...

  13. Extraction of lithium ion from alkaline aqueous media by a liquid surfactant membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinugasa, Takumi; Ono, Yuri; Kawamura, Yuko; Watanabe, Kunio; Takeuchi, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction of lithium ion from aqueous alkaline media by a liquid surfactant membrane was performed using a mixture of LIX54 and TOPO as the extractant. Stripping of lithium from the kerosene solution to the acid solution was suppressed with increasing content of polyamine (ECA) surfactant. The extraction rate of lithium by the liquid membrane could be interpreted taking account of an interfacial resistance due to ECA. It was confirmed that swelling of the (W/O) emulsion drops by water permeation through the liquid membrane is evaluated in terms of a change in osmotic pressure gradient between the external and internal aqueous phases during the lithium extraction. In the present operation, the extraction ratio of Li + from the external feed and the uptake into the internal phase reached as high as 95%. (author)

  14. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives  To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida . Methods  By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida ( Candida albicans ; Candida krusei ; Candida glabrata ; and Candida tropicalis ), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results  There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non- Candida albicans ( Candida krusei ; Candida glabrata ; and Candida tropicalis ). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant ( p  Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  15. Optimization of Variables for Aqueous Extraction of Gum from Grewia mollis Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Panyoo Akdowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grewia gum is a polysaccharide derived from the inner stem bark of the edible plant Grewia mollis. Juss (family Tiliaceae. It is a savanna shrub that grows wildly but is usually cultivated in Nigeria and Northern part of Cameroon. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extraction conditions on the extraction yield and physicochemical properties of the Grewia mollis. The studied aqueous extraction variables were water/powder (W/P ratio (10 : 1–80 : 1 w/p, temperature (25.0–85.0∘C, time (1–3 h, and pH (4.0–10.0. The results indicated that the aqueous extraction variables exhibited the least significant (P<0.05 effect on the yield and the viscosity of the gum. The result shows that the ratio of extraction is the main factor affecting the extraction of gum. The optimized extraction condition for higher viscosity was at the powder/water ratio of 1 : 55.4, pH of 7, time of 1 h, and temperature of 50∘C. However, the optimized extraction condition for higher yield was at the powder/water ratio of 1 : 80, pH of 4, time of 3 h, and temperature of 73∘C.

  16. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Annona muricata (Annonaceae), aqueous extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Ngueguim Tsofack; Benoit, Massa Zibi; Jonas, Kouamouo; Alexandra, Tchuidjang; Désiré, Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul; Pierre, Kamtchouing; Théophile, Dimo

    2014-02-03

    The leaves of Annona muricata are used in Cameroon to manage diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antioxidant activities and the potential toxicity of aqueous extract of Annona muricata in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of Annona muricata aqueous extract (100mg/kg or 200mg/kg) was studied in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In long term treatment, 2 weeks after streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, animals received plant extract during 28 consecutive days. For a protective effect, extract was administered 3 days prior to streptozotocin exposure and animals were observed 2 weeks without treatment. The plant extract was not effective in normal rats. In diabetic rats, single administration of the extract significantly reduced blood glucose levels by 75% and 58.22% respectively at the dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg as compared to the initial value. Treatment of normal rats 3 days prior to diabetes induction showed that, Annona muricata extract has no effect within 72h following STZ injection. However, after 14 days post-treatment, the extract at the dose of 100mg/kg significantly reduced blood glucose levels as compared with initial value and diabetic control rats. Immunohistochemical staining of pancreatic β-cells of diabetic rats treated with the dose of 100mg/kg expressed strong staining for β-cell compared to diabetic control. In a long-term study daily administration of Annona muricata aqueous extract for 28 days to diabetic rats, reduced blood glucose levels, serum creatinine, MDA, AST, ALT activity, and nitrite levels LDL-cholesterol. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, SOD, and CAT activity contents were restored. These different results show that the antidiabetic activity of Annona muricata aqueous extract can be explained by its hypolipidaemic effect, its antioxidant and protective action on pancreatic β-cells, which in turn improve glucose metabolism. © 2013

  17. Eco-friendly synthesis of Graphene using the aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jannathul Firdhouse

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An eco-friendly process of reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius under refluxing method is herein reported. The colour change of the graphene oxide (GO solution from brown to black was noted during the reduction of graphene oxide. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of reduced graphene oxide (AKRGO. The crystallite size of nanographene was confirmed by XRD analysis and Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectral analysis revealed the reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius. The morphology of the synthesized graphene was examined by SEM analysis.

  18. The Content in Bioactive Compounds of Different Brewers' Spent Grain Aqueous Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca FARCAS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade by-products of food and beverage processing have attracted much attention due to their functionality and potential as food ingredients. Brewers’ spent grain is the major by-product of the brewing industry representing a valuable source of bioactive ingredients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extraction time and temperature on the efficiency of water as solvent for the extraction of bioactive compounds from brewers’ spent grain (BSG. In terms of extraction efficiency, the results from polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity, showed that the best extraction parameters for aqueous extracts are 90⁰C and 60 minutes. In comparison with the control, the best extraction method generated 87% of the phenolics and 43.46% of the flavonoids obtained by a methanol extraction. The preliminary results for the aqueous extracts showed that water can be used as extraction solvent, but a higher extraction time and temperature are needed in order to have a content in bioactive compounds similar to that of methanolic extracts. The obtained values for polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity, emphasize the importance and the opportunities of the reuse of this agro-industrial waste.

  19. Some aspects of synergistic extraction of actinides and lanthanides from mixed aqueous-organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Subramanian, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of the synergistic extraction and separation of actinides and lanthanides from mixed aqueous-organic solutions (polar media) have been reviewed. Notable recent developments as well as its current status in solvent extraction systems where the aqueous acidic phase contains an organic solvent which is completely miscible with water, are presented briefly. In general, extraction increases in the presence of an organic component. The less polar the additive, the higher is the tendency to form neutral metal complexes which ultimately brings about an increase in the extraction. In a polar media, synergism has mostly been observed, though antagonism is not uncommon. An attempt has been made to classify the factors that play an important role in polar phase extractions. Also, their influence particularly on the extractability of actinides and lanthanides is discussed. The discussion is limited to the factors affecting the extraction equilibria, effect of dielectric constant of the polar medium, solvation of the extracting agent and to the composition and stability of the metal complex in the organic phase. Hydroxyl (OHsup(-)) bearing organic additives, e.g. alcohols, and solvents not containing the hydroxyl group such as acetone, dimethylsulphoxide, tetrahydrofuran, amides and acetonitrile etc. are the two major classes of organic additives considered in these studies. Generally, synergistic effect in extraction of the ion-association (TBP, TOPO, sulphoxides etc.) or anion exchange (amines etc.) type is relatively more pronounced compared to other extractions. A tabular summary concerning extraction of actinides and lanthanides from polar media is appended for ready reference. (author)

  20. Quantifying hydrogen-deuterium exchange of meteoritic dicarboxylic acids during aqueous extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.; Huang, Y.

    2003-03-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios of organic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites provide critical information about their origins and evolutionary history. However, because many of these compounds are obtained by aqueous extraction, the degree of hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange that occurs during the process needs to be quantitatively evaluated. This study uses compound- specific hydrogen isotopic analysis to quantify the H/D exchange during aqueous extraction. Three common meteoritic dicarboxylic acids (succinic, glutaric, and 2-methyl glutaric acids) were refluxed under conditions simulating the extraction process. Changes in D values of the dicarboxylic acids were measured following the reflux experiments. A pseudo-first order rate law was used to model the H/D exchange rates which were then used to calculate the isotope exchange resulting from aqueous extraction. The degree of H/D exchange varies as a result of differences in molecular structure, the alkalinity of the extraction solution and presence/absence of meteorite powder. However, our model indicates that succinic, glutaric, and 2-methyl glutaric acids with a D of 1800 would experience isotope changes of 38, 10, and 6, respectively during the extraction process. Therefore, the overall change in D values of the dicarboxylic acids during the aqueous extraction process is negligible. We also demonstrate that H/D exchange occurs on the chiral -carbon in 2-methyl glutaric acid. The results suggest that the racemic mixture of 2-methyl glutaric acid in the Tagish Lake meteorite could result from post-synthesis aqueous alteration. The approach employed in this study can also be used to quantify H/D exchange for other important meteoritic compounds such as amino acids.

  1. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of noni in dilutent for ram semen cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lauren Costa Nascimento

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. is a fruit consumed worldwide because of its nutritional and therapeutic properties resulting from the large amount of phenolic compounds, which has aroused interest of the scientific community. In order to identify new natural sources of antioxidants, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of noni in diluent for ram semen cryopreservation. A completely randomized design consisting of four treatments and three repetitions per treatment was used. The treatments differed in terms of the concentration of the aqueous extract of noni added to the diluent: control, no addition of the extract, and three concentrations (24, 72, and 120 µg/mL. The physical and chemical variables of the mature fruit were evaluated: total acidity (8.78, pH (4.12, and soluble solids (8.18%. The vitamin C content was 309.42 mg per 100 g fresh matter. The aqueous extract of noni was also evaluated regarding the quantity of total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity. The aqueous extract contained a moderate amount of phenolic compounds (47.96 ± 1.95 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract. The concentrations of the aqueous extract of 72 and 120 µg/mL in diluent used for semen cryopreservation inhibited lipid peroxidation by 21.75% and 51.32%, respectively. There was no positive effect of the lowest concentration (24 µg/mL. The antioxidant activity index of noni was 33.33, corresponding to very strong antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract of noni exhibits very strong antioxidant activity and its addition to the diluent for semen cryopreservation at a concentration of 72 µg/mL is able to inhibit lipid peroxidation.

  2. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachad Alnamer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS. In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route, compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP, and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia.

  3. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia.

  4. Study on acute ulcerous pain in rats treated with aqueous root extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbolagun Temitope Adeoye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer and analgesic effects of the aqueous root extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens (L. cyanescens since the plant is said to have medicinal properties. Methods: The filtrate of the aqueous root extract of the plant (100 mg/mL was used to evaluate for antiulcer activity in 20 rats divided into five groups of four rats each, which were Groups A, B, and C that received 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg doses respectively, while Group D was served as negative control and animals of Group E received 20 mg/kg dose of ranitidine. Indomethacin at a dose of 15 mg/kg was used to induce ulcer on the day of sacrifice. For acetic writhing test (antinociception, same design was used except that Group E received 100 mg/kg dose of acetyl salicylic acid as standard drug. Abdominal contractions were induced in the animals by intraperitoneal administration of 10 mL/kg of 0.6% of acetic acid. Results: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens at all doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/ kg showed significant (P < 0.05 decrease in ulcer parameters compared with the negative control. The extract also produced a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in the number of writhing reflexes in treated rats compared with negative control. Conclusions: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens exhibited both antiulcer and analgesic effects justifying folklore claim for the health benefits of this plant.

  5. Use of Cistus aqueous extracts as botanical fungicides in the control of Citrus sour rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, H; Boubaker, H; Askarne, L; Cherifi, K; Lakhtar, H; Msanda, F; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of aqueous extracts obtained from eight Cistus plant species against the development of Geotrichum citri-aurantii, the causal agent of citrus sour rot. The results demonstrate the in vitro effectiveness of all tested Cistus species aqueous extracts against G. citri-aurantii, the inhibition of mycelial growth ranged between 80 and 100%. Furthermore, Cistus aqueous extracts totally inhibited germination of G. citri-aurantii arthrospores at a concentration of 5 mg/mL. Among the plant species tested, C. laurifolius, C. salviifolius, C. monspeliensis, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius displayed the best fungistatic activity since the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was extracts of C. populifolius and C. creticus compared to 100% in the control. Disease severity was lowered to 3.74, 4.47 and 5.13% when fruits were treated with C. creticus, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius aqueous extracts, respectively. Using such these biopesticides in a replacement for synthetic fungicides or in combination with other established disease management practices could help control citrus postharvest decay in a more sustainable and eco-friendly way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Extraction and characterisation of aqueous organic acids from natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.; Moody, P.M.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from large volumes of groundwater associated with the Broubster and Needle's Eye natural analogue sites, and the BGS research site at Drigg in Cumbria. Extractions were performed by both batchwise extraction and radial flow chromatography using DEAE-cellulose. Retained humic substances were eluted using NaOH and separated into humic and fulvic components by acidification to pH 1. After separation the humic component was purified by repetitive precipitation and dissolution whilst the fulvic component was purified by absorption chromatography. The resulting humic substances were shown to be of high purity with respect to metallic elements, with less than 1% of available sites being occupied. During elution the association of trace elements with humic substances was monitored and a high degree of association between humic substances, U and the Rare Earth Elements was noted. (author)

  7. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products 99 Tc, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995's successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium

  8. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoy Joe-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mint family (Lamiaceae produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., sage (Salvia spp., peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., basil (Ocimum spp. and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1.

  9. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Umeda Grisi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce and Allium cepa L. (onion, as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml of distilled water, resulting in a concentration of 10.0%. Distilled water was added in order to obtain dilutions of 7.5%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. The extraction was carried out with young leaves (in powder form and organic solvents of various polarities. We fractioned the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. The phytotoxic potential of the aqueous extract of young leaves S. saponaria varied according to the receiving species and the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. The ethyl acetate extract, specifically fraction 6 (57-70, had the greatest inhibitory effect on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles, indicating that the compounds responsible for the phytotoxic effect reside within this fraction.

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of Satureja hortensis on gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalantari Mianaji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric ulcer includes benign mucosal and sub-mucosal lesions in the stomach wall. Gastrointestinal ulcers particularly stomach ulcer can be due to increased acid secretion. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Satureja hortensis on gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid in rats. Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 60 female wistar rats weighing 200-250 g in the Biology Research Center of Zanjan, 2014. The rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, sham, 50mg/kg Satureja extract, and 80 mg/kg Satureja extract. Rats were operated after 24 hours fasting and gastric ulcers were induced by luminal application of 0.12 ml acetic acid solution (60%. On the first, fourth, seventh, tenth, and fourteenth days after oral administration of the Satureja hortensis extract, the stomach was excised (the rats related to any special day had received the extract separately and the ulcer size was measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Findings: Using the aqueous extract of Satureja hortensis resulted in significant ulcer healing in both intervention groups. Mean neutrophil, macrophage, and fibroblast count on the seventh, tenth and 14th day of intervention was significantly decreased in the intervention groups compared to the fourth day and compared to the control and sham groups. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that the aqueous extract of Satureja hortensisis has significant healing effect on gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid.

  11. AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF PLANTS IN Colletotrichum gloeosporioides INHIBITION IN VITRO AND IN POSTHARVEST GUAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO HENRIQUE ALVES DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant aqueous extracts in the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. & Sacc. the causal agent of guava anthracnose in, was evaluated in vitro with 1, 2 and 3% aqueous ex- tracts of Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, Ocimum gratissimum, Syzygium aromaticum. The experiment was installed in a complete randomized desing in a 3x4 factorial scheme (doses x extracts. For the evaluation, it was calculated the percentage of fungal inhibition. The experiment in vivo was conducted by applying Syzy- gium aromaticum and Azadirachta indica aqueous extract at 2 and 3%, respectively, in three different storage conditions: refrigerated with and without plastic film (PVC, and at ambient conditions. The experiment was installed in a completely randomized design, in a 2x3 factorial scheme (extracts x storage conditions. We evaluated the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. Syzygium aromati- cum extract at 2% provided 100% of fungal mycelial growth inhibition, and Azadirachta indica extract at the highest dosage (3% inhibited 20.22%. In fruits, there was not significant statistical difference between the ef- fect of extracts on the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. In relation to the storage conditions, the ones with plastic film and refrigerated differed from the other conditions obtain- ing better external appearance and less severity of disease, lower loss of weight and higher Brix degrees.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts from four plants on bacterial isolates from periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbia, Leila; Chikhi-Chorfi, Nassima; Betatache, Ilhem; Pham-Huy, Chuong; Zenia, Selma; Mameri, Nabil; Drouiche, Nadjib; Lounici, Hakim

    2017-05-01

    Four aqueous extracts of different plant organs are the following: Artemisia herba-alba, Opuntia ficus-indica, Camellia sinensis and Phlomis crinita were evaluated against two bacterial strains: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which are implicated in periodontal diseases. By using a disc method, these plant extracts demonstrated powerful bacterial activity against these Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the four plant extracts varied between 0.03 and 590.82 mg/ml for the microbes. Another assay using commercial antibiotics and antibacterials as positive controls was also conducted. Values obtained after statistical analysis of inhibition diameters of all plant extracts demonstrated that for P. gingivalis, the aqueous extracts of A. herba-alba and O. ficus-indica were most effective, followed by those of C. sinensis and P. crinita. For P. intermedia, aqueous extracts of O. ficus-indica and C. sinensis appeared to be more efficient with significantly different (P > 0.05) inhibition diameters, followed by those of O. ficus-indica and P. crinita. In summary, the statistical results reveal that these plant extracts exert stronger antibacterial activity on P. intermedia germ as compared to P. gingivalis.

  13. Effects Of Aqueous Leaf Extract Of Vernonia Amygdalina On Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, the significant reduction in bood glucose and serum triglyceride level observed in this study may help in alleviating some of the complications associated with diabetic conditions. Keywords: Vernonia amygdalina, Leaf extract, Blood glucose, Serum triglyceride, Diabetic rats. Animal Research International Vol.

  14. The effects of (ethanolic, methanolic, and aqueous) extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Considering the increasing demand for applying medicinal plants in the medical treatment, this study aimed to investigatethe effect of cinnamon and thyme extracts alone and in comparison with clotrimazole ointment on the Candida albicans yeast in laboratory condition. Materials and Methods: ...

  15. The effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the fourteenth day of administration of herbal extract and the aortae harvested and processed histologically using haematoxylin and eosin staining technique. Tissue sections revealed that A. cordifolia is capable of inducing elastogenesis in the aorta. This attribute of the herb may be beneficial in increasing elastic recoil of ...

  16. Analgesic activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) inhibition of pain in the acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion, tail flick and the formalin (second phase) tests. The extract (400mg/kg) gave a significantly (p<0.05) higher inhibition than acetylsalicylic acid, ASA, (100mg/kg; p.o) in the ...

  17. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... treatment of fever, stiffness, onchocerciasis, sore throat, ... Liver. None. None. None. Lungs. Congestion. Congestion. Congestion. Spleen. None. None. None. Plant extraction. Two hundred (200) grams of the powdered bark was soaked in ... liver, and heart were obtained for histopathological studies.

  18. The safety of using the aqueous extract of Ranunculus multifidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marizvikuru

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... extract of G. perpensa per os for 14 consecutive days. Observations for physiological and behavioural changes ..... terminal to calcium (Tricarico et al., 2006). It could also be that the toxic compounds induced ..... cell-derived prostaglandin E2 inhibits monocyte function by interfering with CCR5 and Mac-1.

  19. Effect of Carica papaya (Linn) aqueous leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flowers of C. papaya are used in the treatment of jaundice. [personal communication] and inner bark used for sore throat [10]. The extract of unripe fruit and ..... parts. Food Chem. 1999; 64: 39-44. 14. Perrone RD, Madias NE, Levey AS. Serum creatinine as an index of renal function; New insight into old concept. Clin Chem.

  20. Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Aqueous Extract of Pistia Stratiotes Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.19 mmol/L, 18.57 mmol/L and 27.27±2.37 mmol/L) between urea concentration of group 1, 2 and 3 before and after the administration of the extract. Serum creatinine concentration was found to be 108.51±3.21 mmol/L in controls, before the ...

  1. Toxicological evaluation of aqueous extracts of Hermannia incana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Animal grouping and extract administration. Twenty, male Wistar rats were completely randomized into four groups of 5 and were orally administered as follows: Group A. (control) was administered with 0.5 ml of distilled water while groups B, C and D were given 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight.

  2. Acute toxicity effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the intraperitoneal route, the rats showed dose-dependent signs of toxicity ranging from inappetence, depression, unsteady gait, tremors, and respiratory distress to death. The I/P LD50 was 1400 mg/kg body weight. No gross changes were observed in the organs of rats that died following extract administration.

  3. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of tridax procumbens on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extract- 3mg/Kg did not cause any significant change in the heart rate. The hypotensive and the bradycardiac effects were immediate. The hypotensive effect of Tridax procumbens was inhibited by the pretreatment of the animal with atropine sulfate (1mg/kg). These results therefore seem to support the claim that the leaves ...

  4. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six . Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days ...

  5. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Garlic ( Allium Sativum ) on Testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , coupled with its nutritional uses as tenderizer and spices. Folklore medicine also refers to its use in the treatment of some diseases. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of the A. sativum extract on male reproductive system has not been ...

  6. Synergistic effect of aqueous extract of Telfaria occidentalis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan,. Ibadan ... T. occidentalis leaves is used locally in Nigeria as .... extract alone, CA were administered artesunate alone, while CN were given only water serving as negative control. Tail snips was used to prepare thin blood films.

  7. Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of aqueous leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The repository effect of the test substances produced a significant difference (p< 0.05) suppression of parasitaemia, but C. equistifolia failed to prove any repository effect as the parasitaemia level increased to 12.40± 1.91 than the control 11.67±1.56. The test extracts did not prevent body weight loss associated with malaria ...

  8. Larvicidal effects of aqueous extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (desert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2002), in order to find a method of biological control of mosquitoes; very few studies were done about the larvicidal effect of saponin-rich plants (Pelah et al.,. 2002). However, most of the studies focused on organic solvent extracts. Taking the bioactivity of saponin compounds into consideration, and the presence of.

  9. The effect of aqueous extract of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, average weight, ...

  10. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Vernonia amygdalina L. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the use of Vernonia amygdalina del. extract to control fungi associated with groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L) seeds. Aspergillus niger van Tiegh, A. flavus link ex fries, Cercospora arachidicola Hori, Phoma exigua desm., Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Fusarium oxysporium schl., ...

  11. Physicochemical Analysis of the Aqueous Extracts of Six Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copper, present at 0.16 - 0.58 mg/100g, was the lowest occurring microelement while calcium content was highest, at 41 - 216 mg/100g. The level of lead, a heavy metal, was 0.05 - 0.22 mg/100g. Conclusion: The results confirm that the extracts require no special handling, possess characteristics that would allow their ...

  12. Efficacy of Aqueous Extract of Lemon Grass ( Andropogon citratus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to determine the effects of lemon grass, Andropogon citratus L. extract on the rootknot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) of okra was conducted. Phytochemical analyses of the bioactive ingredients in lemon grass were carried out to determine the chemical compounds with nematicidal activities present in lemon ...

  13. Sub-Chronic Administration of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stem bark of Ficus sycomorus is used traditionally for cure of fungal infection, jaundice and dysentery in some parts of northern Nigeria. The leaves of Ficus sycomorus were collected, dried and extracted to screen for some phytochemicals and study its effect on liver and kidney functions in experimental rats.

  14. Protective role of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... of electron on the electron transport chain. There is a dose-dependent relationship between lipid peroxidation induced by potassium bromate and the protection offered by the extract of H. sabdariffa. REFERENCES. Alli MB, Salih M (1991). Investigation of the antispasmodic potential of. Hibiscus sabdariffa ...

  15. Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Gloriosa superba Linn (Langli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Gloriosa superba (AL) root on the female reproductive system of rat. ... Oxytocin was used as the uterotonic reference standard. The effect of the extract on cardiovascular parameters was also evaluated. Results: Phytochemical analysis shows presence of flavonoids, tannins, .... 2 females to 1 male) and the vaginal smear.

  16. Analgesic effect of the aqueous seed extract of Persea Americana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana, Mill (Lauraceae) is one of the medicinal plants used in Nigeria for pain relief. Based on its ethnomedicinal use in pain management, the seed of the plant was extracted with distilled water and screened for analgesic activity. The analgesic screening was done in mice using four models: acetic ...

  17. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Sempervivum tectorum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plant,material was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Animal grouping. The rats were randomly divided into five groups treated as shown: Group I (C, control i.e., tap water containing 50 µg/L Al); Group II (Al) – 1 mg/L Al as aluminium sulphate (AS); Group III. (1mg/L AS + 8 % S. tectorum extract; Group IV.

  18. Antipyretic and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the scientific basis for the use of Acacia nilotica root extract for treatment of fever and pain in traditional medical practice. Anti-Pyretic study was carried out using Brewerʼs yeast suspension to induce pyrexia. The hot plate, tail immersion and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were the ...

  19. Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Entandrophragma utile Bark on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adjunct therapy is needed for patients with compromised gastrointestinal mucosa due to necessary aspirin usage against cardiovascular disorders. We tested the Nigerian bark extract of Entandrophragma utile on gastric acid secretion (GA) and peptic activity (PA). Rats were ligated at the pylorus for collection of gastric ...

  20. Hepatoprotective Effect of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Andrographis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacology, 54:555-563. Norhaida, A.H. (1994). The effect of different fractions of Andrographis paniculata extract on blood glucose level in diabetic rats. (Bachelor of. Science Project Report). Department of Biology,. UPM Malaysia, Malaysia. OECD (2001). Acute Oral Toxicity – Up – and - Down –. Procedure (UDP).

  1. Anti-diabetic activity of aqueous extract of Cochlospermum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restlessness, respiratory distress, diarrhoea and convulsion in the untreated diabetic rats were reduced in the extract and glibenclamide treated animals. The trace amount of blood ketones and urine sugar in the untreated diabetic rats disappeared in the other treatment groups except in the 25 mg/kg b. w. where there was ...

  2. Investigation of poly-herbal aqueous extract for potential anti-ulcer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous polyherbal extract of betel, clove, fennel and black catechu was evaluated for gastro-protective (antiulcer activity in rats using the aspirin and ethanol induced ulcer models. Efficacy was assessed by determination of ulcer index and percentage of ulcer protection.  Antioxidant activity of extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging procedure. Oral administration of the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg and (500 mg/kg showed dose dependent antiulcer activity and protected gastric lesions by about 65 to 75% respectively compared to standard drug Omeprazole (98%. The findings suggest that the polyherbal extract have significant gastro-protective activity.                                                                   

  3. Camptosorus sibiricus rupr aqueous extract prevents lung tumorigenesis via dual effects against ROS and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shugui; Ou, Rilan; Wang, Wensheng; Ji, Liyan; Gao, Hui; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Liu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Hongming; Liu, Zhongqiu; Wu, Peng; Lu, Linlin

    2017-12-16

    Camptosorus sibiricus Rupr (CSR) is a widely used herbal medicine with antivasculitis, antitrauma, and antitumor effects. However, the effect of CSR aqueous extract on B[a]P-initiated tumorigenesis and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Moreover, the compounds in CSR aqueous extract need to be identified and structurally characterized. We aim to investigate the chemopreventive effect of CSR and the underlying molecular mechanism. A B[a]P-stimulated normal cell model (BEAS.2B) and lung adenocarcinoma animal model were established on A/J mice. In B[a]P-treated BEAS.2B cells, the protective effects of CSR aqueous extract on B[a]P-induced DNA damage and ROS production were evaluated through flow cytometry, Western blot, real-time quantitative PCR, single-cell gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescence. Moreover, a model of B[a]P-initiated lung adenocarcinoma was established on A/J mice to determine the chemopreventive effect of CSR in vivo. The underlying mechanism was analyzed via immunohistochemistry and microscopy. Furthermore, the new compounds in CSR aqueous extract were isolated and structurally characterized using IR, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. CSR effectively suppressed ROS production by re-activating Nrf2-mediated reductases HO-1 and NQO-1. Simultaneously, CSR attenuated the DNA damage of BEAS.2B cells in the presence of B[a]P. Moreover, CSR at 1.5 and 3 g/kg significantly suppressed tumorigenesis with tumor inhibition ratios of 36.65% and 65.80%, respectively. The tumor volume, tumor size, and multiplicity of B[a]P-induced lung adenocarcinoma were effectively decreased by CSR in vivo. After extracting and identifying the compounds in CSR aqueous extract, three new triterpene saponins were isolated and characterized structurally. CSR aqueous extract prevents lung tumorigenesis by exerting dual effects against ROS and DNA damage, suggesting that CSR is a novel and effective agent for B[a]P-induced carcinogenesis. Moreover, by isolating

  4. Effectiveness of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze against diarrhea-inducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mallmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leaves and roots of Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae have been used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea, skin diseases, blennorrhagia, dyspepsia, parasitic worms and malaria. The aim of study was to characterize the chemical profiles of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and roots of A. australe, and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against diarrhea-inducing bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella dysenteriae and Yersinia enterocolitica, as well as their cytotoxic properties. Aqueous leaf extracts were obtained by infusion, while aqueous root extracts were obtained by decoction. The hydroalcoholic leaf and root extracts were prepared by maceration in 90% ethanol for 3 days. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using standard techniques and cytotoxicity was evaluated using Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO-K1. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the extracts. Although root extracts were not effective against E. faecalis, leaf extracts at concentrations of 20 mg/mL exhibited bactericidal activities against this microorganism. The hydroalcoholic root extract was unique in presenting a bactericidal effect against S. dysenteriae. None of the extracts showed bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities against Y. enterocolitica. The results presented herein demonstrate that the Gram-positive E. faecalis and the Gram-negative S. dysenteriae were susceptible to A. australe extracts, although bacteriostatic/bactericidal activities were only observed at concentrations considered too high for clinical application. Our results support the ethnopharmacological use of A. australe in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly diarrhea caused by infectious bacteria, although further studies are required to determine the anti-diarrhea effects and the toxicities of the extracts in vivo.

  5. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pimpinella anisum L. Seed Aqueous Extract and Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Akhlaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum was used for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by bio reduction of an aqueous solution of silver nitrate. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX. The increase in absorption at 420 nm was used for recording the formation of a colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles. The binding properties of the capped Ag nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract of P. anisum were analyzed by FTIR. XRD studies revealed that most of the nanoparticles were cubic and face centered cubic in shape. SEM analysis showed the size and shape of silver nanoparticles and EDAX confirmed the presence of silver. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed DPPH free radical scavenging activity.

  6. Radiolysis aspects of the aqueous self-cooled blanket concept and the problem of tritium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Snykers, M.; DeRegge, P.; Embrechts, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB) concept, an aqueous 6 Li solution in a metallic structure is used as a fusion reactor shielding-breeding blanket. Radiolysis effects could be very important for the design and the use of an ASCB. Although many aspects of the radiation chemistry of water and dilute aqueous solutions are now reasonably well understood, it is not possible to predict the radiochemical behaviour of the concentrated candidate ASCB solutions quantitatively. However, by means of a worst case calculation for a possible ASCB for the Next European Torus (NET) it is shown that even with an important rate of water decomposition the ASCB concept is still workable. Gas bubbles and explosive mixtures can be avoided by increasing the pressure in the neutron irradiated zone and by extracting and/or recombining the radiolytically produced hydrogen and oxygen. This could require an additional inert gas loop, which could also be used as part of the tritium extraction installation

  7. Effect of different aqueous extracts of garlic on some electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the effect of fresh and dried aqueous extracts of garlic (cold and hot) on Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3- and urea levels of rats were carried-out. Animals were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each. Groups I and II were treated with fresh cold and hot extract respectively, while groups III and IV received dried cold and hot ...

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Rheedia longifolia Planch & Triana

    OpenAIRE

    Frutuoso, Valber da Silva; Monteiro, Márcia Magalhães; Amendoeira, Fábio Coelho; Almeida, Andressa Luiza Figueiredo; Nascimento, Diogo Dibo do; Bérenger, Ana Luiza Rangel; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel; Bozza, Patrícia T; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C

    2007-01-01

    Rheedia longifolia Planch et Triana belongs to the Clusiaceae family. This plant is widely distributed in Brazil, but its chemical and pharmacological properties have not yet been studied. We report here that leaves aqueous extract of R. longifolia (LAE) shows analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Oral or intraperitoneal administration of this extract dose-dependently inhibited the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid in mice. The analgesic effect and the duration of action were ...

  9. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of carmona microphylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in hamsters fed a high fat-diet. PLoS One 2013; 8: e61922. 9. Zhao H, Lv F, Meng W, Dang H, Sun Z, Chen Y, Dai R,. Deng Y, Wu C. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of flavone-rich. Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. (Iridaceae) leaf extract in ICR mice fed high-Fat Diet. Trop J Pham Res 2014;. 13: 1653-1658. 10. Wu C, Zhang X, ...

  10. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous-methanol extract of Artemisia vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Anwarul Hassan; Yaeesh, Sheikh; Jamal, Qamar; Ghayur, M Nabeel

    2005-02-01

    The effect of a crude extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris (Av.Cr) was investigated against D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced hepatitis in mice. Co-administration of D-GalN (700 mg[sol ]kg) and LPS (1 microg[sol ]kg) significantly (p Artemisia vulgaris for various liver disorders. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Gastrointestinal Activity of the Aqueous Extract of a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained showed that the extract (10-50mg/kg) produced a dose dependent and significant (p<0.05) decrease in propulsion, in both normal and castor oil-induced intestinal transit, in mice. This effect was neither antagonized by yohimbine (1mg/kg s.c) nor isosorbide dinitrate (IDN, 150mg/kg, oral). It produced a ...

  12. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A.; Moyer, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process for the removal of the fission products Tc-99, Sr-90, and Cs-137 from alkaline tank wastes, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands upon FY 1995's successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from at sign e tank-waste solutions. This process has in fact already been extended to include the capability of removing both Tc and Sr simultaneously. In this form, the process has been given the name SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing Tc, Sr, and Cs together. Such a system could potentially simplify and improve fission-product removal from tank waste. In addition, it would possess the advantages already inherent in our Tc solvent-extraction process: No required feed adjustment, economical water stripping, low consumption of materials, and low waste volume

  13. Evaluation of aqueous leaf extracts of two antifungal plants for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of aqueous leaf extracts of two antifungal plants for the control of powdery mildew on infested exotic peas (Pisum sativum L). AA Bem, AO Olutade. Abstract. No Abstract. Plant Products Research Journal Vol. 10, 2006: 40-42. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  14. Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L) Kuntze in Mice. Chung-Shih Chen, Mei-Lin Wang, Rosa Huang Liu, Shih-Pin Chen, Tsong-Ming Lu, Wei-Yu Tsai, Chien-Fu Huang, Chi-Chiang Yang, Yew-Min Tzeng ...

  15. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Zoology University of Ekpoma, Edo state were used for this study. They were weighed at intervals of five days before and after the experiment. They were randomly divided into four groups (A. – D) of two rabbits each. The chloroquine and aqueous extract of A. indica leaf was administered to the animals orally ...

  16. Anti-diabetic Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-diabetic potential of aqueous extracts of leaves of both Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina were investigated in rabbits. Ten female rabbits were grouped into five groups (1-5) of two rabbits each. Group 1 is the control. Groups (2-5) was alloxan induced diabetic. Group 3 was then treated with 200mg/kg ...

  17. Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Allium Sativum Linn on the Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This decrease was therefore dose-dependent and when expressed as percentage range from 20.16% to 62.61%. The above results suggest that an aqueous extract of Allium sativum decreases intestinal motility in rabbits. KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, garlic, intestinal motility. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical ...

  18. aqueous plant extracts for control of groundnut leaf spot in burkina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Treatments with aqueous extracts of L. multiflora and Z. mucronata recorded the best disease control. The disease scores of these ... has confirmed that plants tested significantly control leaf spot diseases of groundnut. Key Words: Arachis ..... Integrated pests and disease management. Eds. Mukerji Rajeev ...

  19. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  20. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange of Meteoritic Dicarboxylic Acids During Aqueous Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.; Huang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the extent of hydrogen-deuterium exchange on dicarboxylic acids during aqueous extraction. Deuterium enrichment was observed to be a function of diacid structure as well as delta-D. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Anti-diabetic action of the aqueous extract of Ocimum suave in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2012-04-16

    Apr 16, 2012 ... Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder of the endocrine system. .... Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum suave on serum lipid profile, urea as well as AST and ALT activities of normal and alloxan-induced .... Hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of four Korean medicinal plants in alloxan.

  2. Some Central Nervous System Effects of the aqueous Extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Phyllanthus amarus is used in Southern Nigeria to treat variety of diseases including epilepsy. The aqueous extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus was investigated for some central nervous system effects. Two animals models (maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion), were used ...

  3. Toxic Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Vernonia bipontini Vatke on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    2006). Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of stem-bark, root and leaves of V. amygdalina are ... cell volume (Pcv), red blood cell and hemoglobin concentration. ... Mice of the same sex were grouped into 9 experimental and 1 control groups for LD50 determination, and 20 experimental and 10 control groups for long term ...

  4. Effect of aqueous plant extracts on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four aqueous plant extracts (APEs) of Acorus calamus (L), Xanthium strumarium (L), Polygonum hydropiper (L) and Clerodendron infortunatum (Gaertn) were evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions at 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/v) concentrations against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner). Also, the ...

  5. Effects of Aqueous White Grubs Extract on Some Markers of Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous white grubs extract on some markers of liver injury was studied in guinea pigs with CCl4-induced liver damage. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol and triglyceride were analysed in guinea pigs after ...

  6. Effects of aqueous Anaphe venata extract on fecal pellet output in mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption of Silkworm, Anaphe venata has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of seasonal ataxia in some parts of Nigeria. Injection of some doses of Aqueous Anaphe venata extract (AAV) by intraperitoneal route into mice has been reported to cause some behavioral changes associated with ...

  7. Preventing protein adsorption from a range of surfaces using an aqueous fish protein extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Saju; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Meyer, Rikke L.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize an aqueous extract of fish proteins (FPs) as a coating for minimizing the adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA). The surfaces include stainless steel (SS), gold (Au), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and poly(styrene) (PS). The adsorption processes (kinetics and adsorbed...

  8. Effects of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on the groCulex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neem tree Azadirachta indica Juss (Meliaceae) is one of the most studied plant species for pest control, including mosquitoes. However, the effect of aqueous neem seed extracts (ANSE) on each of the 4 instars of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is unknown. In order to determine the effect of ...

  9. Effect of aqueous seed extract of Nigella sativa on lead-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is used in the manufacture of batteries, metal products, paints and other domestic substances. This study investigated the effect of aqueous seed extract of Nigella sativa on leadinduced cerebral cortex toxicity in Long Evan's rats. Twenty five Long Evans rats divided into five groups of five animals were used for the study.

  10. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in paracetamol induced nephrotoxicity in male wistar rats. Madinah Naggayi1, Nozmo Mukiibi1, Ezekiel Iliya2. 1. Mbarara university of science and technology, Physiology. 2. Ahmad Bello University, Physiology. Abstract. Background: Oxidative stress plays a ...

  11. Anti-ulcer activity of aqueous leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nauclea latifolia is known to possess various therapeutic properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of aqueous leaf extract of N. latifolia against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Five groups of albino rats were pre-treated orally with: vehicle, distilled water (ulcer control), ...

  12. Effect of methanol, n-hexane and aqueous extract of Irvingia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bush mango leaf (Irvingia gabonensis) is commonly used locally to treat diarrhoea. The present study evaluated the anti-diarrhoea effect of this plant extract on albino rats induced with castor oil. Fresh tender leaf of this plant was collected, air-dried, powdered and percolated in n-hexane, methanol and aqueous solvents.

  13. Anti-Diarrheal Activity of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ageratum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Ageratum conyzoides had been reportedly used in traditional medicine in the treatment of diarrhea. Thus its aqueous leaf extract was investigated for its possible anti-diarrheal property using castor oil induced diarrheal, charcoal meal intestinal transit and castor oil-induced enteropooling models in Wistar rats ...

  14. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 57.59% and 68.06% inhibition respectively. The present study showed that the aqueous extract of Aloe barbadensis has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities that could be mediated via modulators of pain and inflammation or through central activity. Keywords: Aloe barbadensis; anti-inflammatory; analgesic activity ...

  16. Effects of the aqueous and hexane extracts of Mondia whitei on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Mondia whitei Hook (Skeels) were studied on the sexual behaviour and some fertility parameters of sexually inexperienced male rats. Animals were orally administered 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight (b.w) of either the aqueous or the hexane extracts of Mondia whitei whilst the control group received ...

  17. The Antibacterial Effect of Aqueous Extract of Garlic against Resistant Enterococci

    OpenAIRE

    Shaghayegh Nikpour Moghadam(MSc); Shokoufeh Nikpour Moghadam(MSc)

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Enterococci are relatively nonvirulent bacteria that rarely cause disease. Antimicrobial treatment of Enterococci is often challenging due to their antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of garlic against Enterococcal isolates. Methods: In this descriptive study, 120 Enterococcus isolates including 70 multidrug-resistant isolates were collected from hospitals of Babol, Iran. Isolates’ susceptibilit...

  18. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albizia zygia is used in folk medicine for treatment of a wide variety of ailments including wounds, toothache and inflammation. Its acclaimed local use in the treatment of inflammation prompted the investigation into its antiinflammatory activity. The effect of the aqueous stem bark extract of Albizia zygia on inflammation was ...

  19. Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Allium Sativum Linn on the Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect and probable mechanism of action of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum on intestinal motility of the rabbit was studied. Four rabbits were used as experimental animals in this study, and the standard organ bath procedure was used to monitor and record the contractions of the isolated intestine of the rabbits.

  20. Antispasmodic effects of Citrus aurantium flowers aqueous extract on uterus of non-pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Ghanavati, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Citrus aurantium is a small citrus tree, with scented white flowers. The C. aurantium is used in Asian herbal medicine primarily to treat digestive problems. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of C. aurantium flower's aqueous extract on uterine contraction in presence of some known uterus stimulants. In experimental study 30 virgin Wistar rats 200-300gr were obtained. After laparatomy, a piece of Uterus was dissected out and mounted in an organ bath (10ml) containing De Jalon (29°C) and contracted by KCl (60mM), oxytocin (10mU/ml) and barium chloride (4mM) then the effect of C. aurantium flower's aqueous extract (1-8 mg/ml) on the uterine contractions was investigated.μμthe role of β-adrenoceptors, opioid receptors were evaluated. Cumulative concentrations of the extract (1-8 mg/ml) decreased KCl, oxytocin and barium chloride induced uterine contractions, dose-dependently (paurantium flower's aqueous extract was unaffected on incubation the tissue with propranolol and naloxone. It seems that the extract induced antispasmodic effect mainly via calcium influx blockade. However, neither β-adrenoceptors nor opioid receptors were involved. Since the extract has antispasmodic effect on uterus contraction therefore we can suggest that more study will be necessary to relief dysmenorrheal.