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Sample records for aqueous humor

  1. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google Plus Email Print this page Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms ... aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out freely (follow blue arrow). Aqueous humor flows ...

  2. Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Borchert, Mark

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that spectroscopic analysis of the aqueous humor of the eye could be used to indirectly predict blood glucose levels in diabetics noninvasively. We have been investigating this potential using Raman spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) analysis. We have determined that glucose at clinically relevant concentrations can be accurately predicted in human aqueous humor in vitro using a PLS model based on artificial aqueous humor. We have further determined that with proper instrument design, the light energy necessary to achieve clinically acceptable prediction of glucose does not damage the retinas of rabbits and can be delivered at powers below internationally acceptable safety limits. Herein we summarize our current results and address our strategies to improve instrument design. 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  3. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

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    David F. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96±0.19 L min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37±0.27 L min−1 (=6; <.05 in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42±0.05 L min−1 at baseline and 0.42±0.04 L min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow.

  4. Monitoring of aqueous humor metabolites using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicksted, James P.; Erckens, Roel J.; Motamedi, Massoud; March, Wayne F.

    1994-05-01

    Laser Raman scattering has been used to monitor glucose and lactate metabolites within aqueous humor specimens obtained from nine human eyes during cataract surgery. Nine postmortem rabbit eyes were also investigated. Raman measurements were obtained using a single grating Raman spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD. A 514.5 nm line from an argon laser was used to illuminate capillaries containing several microliters of aqueous humor. A water background was subtracted from each of the aqueous humor Raman spectra. This experimental system was calibrated so that each metabolite in water could be measured down to 0.1 weight percent. Raman peaks indicative of the stretching vibrations of methylene and methyl groups associated with glucose and lactate, respectively, were observed in the human specimens. A second stretching mode characteristic of lactate between the carbon atom and either the carboxylic acid group or carboxylate ion group was also observed providing a distinguishing feature between the glucose and lactate Raman peaks. Similar structure was observed from the rabbit specimens, but these samples have recently been found to have been contaminated during euthanasia.

  5. Comparison of aqueous humor cytokine and chemokine levels in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Vania, Maya; Ang, Marcus; Chee, Soon Phaik; Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the aqueous humor levels of proinflammatory and angiogenic factors of diabetic patients with and without retinopathy. Methods Aqueous humor was collected at the start of cataract surgery from diabetic subjects and non-diabetic controls. The presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy were graded with fundus examination. Levels of 22 different inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines and chemokines were compared. Results Aqueous humor samples from 47 diabetic patients (20 wit...

  6. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum

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    Ana Maldonado-Junyent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  7. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Junyent, Ana; Maldonado-Bas, Arturo; Gonzalez, Andrea; Pueyrredón, Francisco; Maldonado-Junyent, María; Maldonado-Junyent, Arturo; Rodriguez, Diego; Bulacio, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  8. Alterations in the aqueous humor proteome in patients with a glaucoma shunt device

    OpenAIRE

    Anshu, Arundhati; Price, Marianne O; Richardson, Matthew R; Segu, Zaneer M.; Lai, Xianyin; Yoder, Mervin C.; Price, Francis W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether implantation of a glaucoma shunt device leads to inappropriate accumulation of plasma derived proteins in the aqueous humor. Methods Aqueous humor samples were collected from 11 patients (study group) with a glaucoma shunt device undergoing either cataract surgery or a corneal transplant and 11 patients (control) with senile cataract undergoing routine cataract extraction. Of the study group, 9 had an Ahmed valve implant and 2 eyes had a Baerveldt implant. Trypt...

  9. In silico analysis of the molecular machinery underlying aqueous humor production : potential implications for glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Sarah F; Gorgels, Theo Gmf; van der Spek, Peter J; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Bergen, Arthur Ab

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ciliary body epithelia (CBE) of the eye produce the aqueous humor (AH). The equilibrium between the AH production by the CBE and the outflow through the trabecular meshwork ultimately determines the intraocular pressure (IOP). An increased IOP is a major risk factor for primary open

  10. Ocular pharmacoscintigraphic and aqueous humoral drug availability of ganciclovir-loaded mucoadhesive nanoparticles in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhter, Sohail; Ramazani, Farshad; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Ahmad, Farjam Jalees; Rahman, Ziyaur; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Storm, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes the improved ocular retention and aqueous humoral drug availability of ganciclovir (GCV) when administered via topical instillation of different kind of nanoparticles onto the rabbit eye. GCV was loaded into PLGA nanoparticles, chitosan-coated nanoparticles and chitosan-

  11. Comparison of fluconazole pharmacokinetics in serum, aqueous humor, vitreous humor, and cerebrospinal fluid following a single dose and at steady state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, U K; Mayers, M; Garg, Y; Liu, Q F; Newcomer, G; Madu, C; Liu, W; Louie, A; Miller, M H

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters and penetration of fluconazole following a single dose in the serum, aqueous humor, vitreous humor and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of non pigmented rabbits using serial sampling techniques and to determine if the pharmacokinetic parameters in the eye and CSF are similar. Twenty healthy male rabbits received intravenous fluconazole 20 mg/kg as a single dose or 20 mg/kg every 12 hours for 4 doses. Serum, aqueous humor, vitreous humor and CSF samples were taken 15 minutes after the initial intravenous injection and hourly thereafter for six hours. Fluconazole concentrations were determined by microbiological assay. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using a nonlinear least-square regression program. Fluconazole's penetration in all anatomical compartments was > 70% than in the serum. Similar elimination half-lives and time to reach maximum concentrations were noted in all compartments. While mean concentrations in each anatomical compartment were similar in animals receiving a single dose or among those at serum steady state, the mean concentrations achieved in the serum, aqueous and vitreous humors and CSF were between 1.82 and 2.17 times higher at serum steady state than following a single dose. At serum concentrations that are comparable to those in humans, the penetration of fluconazole into the noninflamed aqueous and vitreous humors and CSF were > or = 70%. The CSF and ocular pharmacokinetic parameters closely resembled each other, so that either could be used as a surrogate for the other.

  12. Determination of drug concentration in aqueous humor of cataract patients administered gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuan; WANG Ning-li; WANG Yan-ling; MA Chen; MA Li; GAO Li-xin; HUANG Ying-xiang; XIONG Shi-hong; WANG Kang

    2010-01-01

    Background Ophthalmic gel has been developed to increase the drug concentration in aqueous humor and to retard the loss of drug from the conjunctival sac.The research was to compare the drug concentration in aqueous humor of cataract patients administered 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel with that in patients administered 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution.Methods Ninety-six patients with cataract (96 eyes) were randomly assigned to 8 groups.The patients in groups 1-4received topical gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic gel and those in groups 5-8 received gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution.The dose regimen was 1 drop, 4 times a day for 3 consecutive days prior to cataract surgery.On the day of surgery, 1drop was applied at 15, 30, 60 or 120 minutes before commencement of cataract surgery in groups 1 and 5, groups 2 and 6, goups 3 and 7, and groups 4 and 8, respectively.Aqueous humor was extracted during the cataract surgery for the analysis of gatifloxacin concentration..Results The concentrations of gatifloxacin in aqueous humor were (0.24±0.25) μg/ml, (1.11±0.74) μg/ml, (2.32±2.01)μg/ml and (1.85±1.14) μg/ml in groups 1 to 4, and (0.16±0.25) μg/ml, (0.31±0.24) μg/ml, (0.75±0.28) μg/ml and (0.33±0.22) μg/ml in groups 5 to 8, respectively.Patients receiving gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel showed greater mean values of gatifloxacin concentration in aqueous humor than those receiving gatifloxacin solution, and such differences were significant with P <0.05 for all comparisons except that between groups 1 and 5.Conclusion Topical gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel can attain significantly greater drug concentrations in human aqueous humor than gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of amikacin and chloramphenicol in the aqueous humor of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, M; Rush, D; Madu, A; Motyl, M; Miller, M H

    1991-01-01

    Composite data describing ocular pharmacokinetics are unreliable because of intersubject variation. To address this problem, an animal model was developed in which multiple aqueous samples from single subjects were obtained. Following direct anterior chamber or intravenous administration of amikacin or chloramphenicol, pharmacokinetic analysis of drug concentrations in the serum and anterior chamber was performed by using a nonlinear least-squares regression program. The number of anterior chamber paracenteses performed did not alter the beta elimination rates or percent penetration into the anterior chamber. The aqueous humor and peripheral-compartment terminal slopes were identical. These data indicate that complete ocular concentration-time curves can be obtained without altering antibiotic pharmacokinetics. Following direct injection into the anterior chamber, the elimination rates for both antibiotics followed a one-compartment model, whereas those following intravenous administration best fit an open, first-order, two-compartment model. Following intravenous administration, the anterior chamber elimination rate constants for both drugs were equal to that of the serum and significantly longer than that following direct injection. The elimination rates of both drugs following direct injection were similar. Systemic administration resulted in drug levels in aqueous humor that persisted longer than those following direct injection. Chloramphenicol, a lipophilic compound, gave higher mean concentrations in aqueous humor than did amikacin. Our model provides a new approach which rigorously examines ocular pharmacokinetics and provides data which suggest that for selected compounds the parenteral route of administration is preferable. PMID:1952850

  14. Oxygen Tension in the Aqueous Humor of Human Eyes under Different Oxygenation Conditions

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    Farideh Sharifipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure oxygen tension in the aqueous humor of human eyes under different oxygenation conditions. Methods: This prospective comparative interventional case series consisted of two parts. In the first part, 120 consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery were randomized into group I (control group in which surgery was performed under local anesthesia inhaling 21% oxygen; group II in whom general anesthesia using 50% oxygen was employed; and group III receiving general anesthesia with 100% oxygen. After aspirating 0.2 ml aqueous humor under sterile conditions, the aqueous sample and a simultaneously drawn arterial blood sample were immediately analyzed using a blood gas analyzer. In part II the same procedures were performed in 10 patients after fitting a contact lens and patching the eye for 20 minutes (group IV and in 10 patients after transcorneal delivery of oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min (group V. Results: Mean aqueous PO2 in groups I, II and III was 112.3±6.2, 141.1±20.4, and 170.1±27 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001 and mean arterial PO2 was 85.7±7.9, 184.6±46, and 379.1±75.9 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001. Aqueous PO2 was 77.2±9.2 mmHg in group IV and 152.3±10.9 mmHg in group V (P values <0.001. There was a significant correlation between aqueous and blood PO2 (r=0.537, P<0.001. The contribution of atmospheric oxygen to aqueous PO2 was 23.7%. Conclusion: Aqueous oxygen tension is mostly dependent on the systemic circulation and in part on the atmosphere. Increasing inspiratory oxygen and transcorneal oxygen delivery both increase aqueous PO2 levels.

  15. The relationship between cytokine level and nitric oxide content in aqueous humor after intraocular lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between cytokine level and nitric oxide (NO) content in aqueous humor after intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: All New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into three groups: (1) control group, (2) extracapsular cataract extraction group (ECCE), (3) extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation group (ECCE+IOL). The inflammation of all experimental rabbit eyes, including cornea edema and anterior chamber exudation were observed via zoom-photo slitlamp microscope 1,3,7,14,30 d postoperation. Meanwhile, aqueous humor was drawn for white blood cell (WBC) counting and classifying, and for NO-2/NO-3 and cytokine assay, including interleukin-2(IL-2), tumour necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). Statistics were taken by SPSS softwear. RESULTS: (1) Total WBC in aqueous humor were higher and anterior chamber exudation were more severe in ECCE+IOL group than that in ECCE group and control group. (2) The level of IL-2 and TNF-α and the content of NO-2/NO-3 in aqueous humor of ECCE+IOL group were higher than that in ECCE group and control group 1-14 d postoperation respectively, and it increased to peak value at 3-7 d postoperation and decreased gradually after two weeks postoperation. (3) The change regularity of IL-2, TNF-α and NO-2/NO-3 in each group were basically similar, i.e. when the level of cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) was normal, the content of NO-2/NO-3 was normal too, when the level of cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) increased, the content of NO-2/NO-3 increased too. CONCLUSION: The intraocular inflammation after ECCE+IOL was more severe than that after simple ECCE. NO, IL-2 and TNF-α play an important role in intraocular inflammation after intraocular lens implantation. The changes of IL-2 and TNF-α level was closely related with NO content in aqueous humor.

  16. Blood gas analyzer utility in evaluating oxygen kinetics of the aqueous humor

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    Ismail Ersan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 and carbon dioxide (PCO2 and the pH of aqueous humor (AH and arterial blood samples from rabbits using a blood gas analyzer. Methods: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized intramuscularly with ketamine and xylazine and were then allowed to breathe room air. Using a gas blood analyzer, arterial blood and AH samples were analyzed for PO2, PCO2, and pH. Results: The mean arterial blood pressure was 87.14 ± 15.0 mmHg. The mean blood and AH PO2 were 95.18 ± 11.76 mmHg and 88.83 ± 9.92 mmHg, the mean blood and AH PCO2 were 25.86 ± 5.46 mmHg and 29.50 ± 5.36 mmHg, and the mean blood and AH pH were 7.38 ± 0.06 and 7.33 ± 0.09, respectively. Conclusion: Conclusions: The blood gas analyzer was easily employed to evaluate the aqueous humor in rabbits. When comparing the results of studies evaluating aqueous PO2, care should be taken to determine the methods used in these studies.

  17. Determination of tamsulosin in human aqueous humor and serum by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Pärssinen, Olavi; Leppänen, Esa; Mauriala, Timo; Lehtonen, Marko; Auriola, Seppo

    2007-01-17

    A simple, sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of tamsulosin in human aqueous humor and serum to study the recently reported eye-related adverse effects of this alpha(1)-blocker drug. Aqueous humor samples were analyzed by direct injection, after addition of the internal standard, labetalol. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was used for serum sample preparation. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed phase column by gradient elution with acetonitrile -0.1% formic acid at a flow-rate of 0.2 ml/min. Detection and quantification of the analytes were carried out with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using positive electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The limit of quantification was 0.1 ng/ml for both aqueous humor and serum samples and linearity was obtained over the concentration ranges of 0.1-4.7 ng/ml and 0.1-19.3 ng/ml for aqueous humor and serum samples, respectively. Acceptable accuracy and precision were obtained for concentrations within the standard curve ranges. The method has been used for the determination of tamsulosin in aqueous humor and serum samples from patients that were on tamsulosin medication and underwent cataract surgery.

  18. Fleroxacin pharmacokinetics in aqueous and vitreous humors determined by using complete concentration-time data from individual rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M H; Madu, A; Samathanam, G; Rush, D; Madu, C N; Mathisson, K; Mayers, M

    1992-01-01

    Although composite data from separate subjects can be used to generate single-subject estimates, intersubject variation precludes rigorous ocular pharmacokinetic analysis. Therefore, a rabbit model in which sequential aqueous and vitreous humor samples were obtained following the administration of the quinolone fleroxacin was developed. Mean data from individual animals were used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Following direct intravitreal or systemic drug administration, sequential paracenteses did not alter pharmacokinetic constants or ocular penetration and were not associated with an increase in ocular protein; contamination of vitreous humor with blood was minimal (less than 0.1%). Following direct injection or intravenous administration, vitreous humor concentration-time data were best described by one- and two-compartment models, respectively. The maximum concentration and the penetration into the aqueous and vitreous humors were 1.54 and 0.5 micrograms/ml and 27 and 10%, respectively. Elimination rates from aqueous and vitreous humors and serum were similar following parenteral drug administration. Drug elimination following direct injection was rapid, and the elimination rate from the vitreous humor was not prolonged by the coadministration of probenecid. Our animal model provides a new approach to the rigorous examination of the ocular pharmacokinetics of quinolone antimicrobial agents in the eye.

  19. Aqueous humor enhances the proliferation of rat retinal precursor cells in culture, and this effect is partially reproduced by ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jing; Klassen, Henry; Pries, Mette;

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous humor has been shown to influence the proliferation of various ocular cell types, but the effect on immature retinal cells is not known. Here, the effect of pig aqueous humor on the proliferation of rat retinal precursor cells (RPCs) was investigated. RPCs were prepared from embryonic day...

  20. Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor in rabbits and mice serum and rabbits aqueous humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi ZHANG; Guang-ji WANG; Jian-guo SUN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) in rabbits and mice after iv and postocular administration, and the changes of rhbFGF in rabbits aqueous humor after postocular administration. METHODS: After iv or postocular administration three doses of rhbFGF in rabbits and mice,rhbFGF concentration in serum and rabbit aqueous humor was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent .assay. RESULTS: Serum concentration-time data of rabbits after iv administration of rhbFGF 1, 2, and 4 μg/kg were fitted to bi-exponential equations with half-lives of 0.9, 0.9, and 0.6 min for T1/2α and 7, 8, and 4.7 min for T1/2β.Plasma concentration-time data of mice after iv administration of rhbFGF 2.5, 5 and 10 μg/kg were fitted to biexponential equations with half-lives of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.9 min for T1/2α and 6, 5, and 7 min for T1/2β. The AUCs were linearly correlated to doses in both cases (rrabbit=0.997, rmouse=0.999). The serum concentrations of rhbFGF were very low, near to the background after postocular administration of 2 or 5 μg/kg, in both rabbits and mice. The rhbFGF levels in rabbits aqueous humor were higher than control 8 h postdose (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: rhbFGF within the examined doses had a linear pharmacokinetics in rabbits and mice. High concentration of rhbFGF was found in rabbits aqueous humor after postocular administration.

  1. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

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    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis.

  2. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE INTERLEUKIN 1 LEVELS IN AQUEOUS HUMOR AFTER TRANSSCLERAL FIXATION OF INTRAOCULAR LENSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周朝晖; 何守志

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. To study the interleukin 1 (IL-1) levels in aqueous humor after transscleroal fixation of intraocular lenses (IOLs) implantation in rabbits and disciss the effect of IL-1 on postoperative anterior ocular inflammation, Methods. Twenty-seven pigmented rabbits were divided into three groups: G1, transscleral fixation of posterior chamber (PC) IOLs implantation; G2, Lens of rabbits were removed without IOLs implantation; GS, the control group, without surgical intervention. On the Ist, 3rd, 7th and 14th postoperative days, aqueous humor samples were obtained. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) colormetry was used to detected for the presence of IL-1. The data were analyzed hy using analysis of variance of SAS soft ware. Results. It was found that IL-1 level in aqueous humor was increased after transscleral fixation of IOLs implantatlon, IL-1 level reached its maximum on the 14th postoperative days in the IOL implanted group. IL-1 levels on 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th days postoperatively was significantly higher (P<0. 05) in IOLs implanted group than that of only extracapsular lenses extraction but no IOLs implantation group and that of the none sttrgical intervention group. Conclusions. IL-1 levels increased had a close relationship with a specific response to IOL implantation. The increase of IL-1 may be suggested as the principal mediators of immunological and inflammlatory responses, so that may play critical role in anterior ocular inflammative response after IOL implantation.

  3. Firocoxib on aqueous humor prostaglandin E 2 levels for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of blood-aqueous barrier in healthy and Toxoplasma gondii -seropositive cats

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    Deise Cristine Schroder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of firocoxib for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier in healthy and Toxoplasma gondii -seropositive cats. Thirty two cats with no ocular abnormalities were used. Groups (n=8/each were formed with healthy cats that received 5mg g-1 of oral firocoxib (FH or no treatment (CH on day 0; seropositive cats for anti -T. gondii specific immunoglobulin G (IgG were grouped (n=8/each and treated in a similar fashion (FT and CT. On day 1, cats of all groups received the same treatment protocol, and 1h later, aqueocentesis was performed under general anesthesia (M0. Following 1h, the same procedure was repeated (M1. Quantitation of aqueous humor total protein and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were determined. Aqueous samples of seropositive cats were tested for anti- T. gondii specific IgG. In M0, aqueous samples of CT showed a significantly higher concentration of PGE2 in comparison with other groups (P<0.05. In all groups, PGE2 concentration increased significantly from M0 to M1 (P=0.001. PGE2 values did not change significantly between groups in M1 (P=0.17. Anti- T. gondii specific IgG were reported only in samples of M1, and aqueous titers did not change significantly between FT and CT (P=0.11. Although we have observed that aqueous humor PGE2 levels were significantly higher in cats of CT group during M0, such increase was not able to break the blood-aqueous barrier and cause anterior uveitis. Firocoxib did not prevent intraocular inflammation after aqueocentesis, in healthy and toxoplasmosis-seropositive cats.

  4. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE TUMOUR NECROSIS FACTOR LEVELS IN AQUEOUS HUMOR AFTER TRAUMATIC CATARACT AND INTRAOCULAR LENS IMPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Purpose. This paper studies the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) levels in aqueous humor after traumatic cataract extraction and posterior chamber (PC) intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in rabbits,and discusses the effect of TNF on postoperative anterior ocular inflammation.Methods. Twenty-seven pigmented rabbits were divided into three groups: for the first group, the IOL were placed in the capsular bag after traumatic cataract extraction; for the second, the Extracapsular cataract extraction without IOL implantation; and for the third, the control group without surgical intervention. On the 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day postoperatively, aqueous humor samples were obtained. A modified double antibodies indirect sandwich ELISA was used to detected for the presence of TNF. The data were studied by means of analysis of variance in SAS software.Result. The TNF level was increased in aqueous humor and reached its maximum on the 1st postoperative days after traumatic cataract extraction and PC IOLs implantation, and the TNF levels are significantly higher (P<0.05) on the 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day postoperatively in traumatic cataract extraction and PC IOL implanted group than that in the non-surgical-intervention group and extracapsular cataract extraction group.Conclusions. The increase of TNF levels had a close relationship with presence of the IOL itself which induces the secretion of TNF. This suggested that TNF as the principal mediators of immunological and inflammatory responses, so that may play critical role in anterior ocular inflammative response after traumatic cataract extraction and IOL implantation.

  5. Aqueous humor penetration of topical bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% in rabbits: response to authors

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    Chang-Lin J-E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Joan-En Chang-Lin, Amy L Batoosingh, David A Hollander, Rhett M Schiffman, Diane D-S Tang-LiuAllergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USAWe read with great interest the recent article by Ogundele and Jasek,1 in which the authors concluded that bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.01% (Lumigan®; Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA produced lower bimatoprost acid concentration than bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% (Lumigan; Allergan, Inc in the aqueous humor of rabbits. This conclusion was made based on two treatment time points (30 and 90 minutes with a small sample size (n = 4 at each time point and with large variability. 

  6. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in peripheral blood and aqueous humor of patients with Toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis using real-time PCR

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    Fabio Felipe dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the ability of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR for detectingToxoplasma gondii DNA in the peripheral blood and aqueous humor of patients with toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis. Methods: Fifty-five patients with infectious uveitis seen from 2009 to 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences of the Federal University of São Paulo were enrolled in this study. Forty-three patients had toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis, and the remaining 12 had non-toxoplasmic infectious uveitis and served as controls. qPCR analysis forT. gondii DNA was performed on the patients' peripheral blood and aqueous humor samples. Results: The qPCR was positive for T. gondii DNA in 37.21% (16/43 of the aqueous humor samples and 2.33% (1/43 of the peripheral blood samples; further, 16.27% (7/43 of the patients had positive results in both their blood and aqueous humor samples. Conclusion: qPCR was able to detect T. gondii DNA in patients with toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis in the blood as well as the aqueous humor and can help with the diagnosis of the disease.

  7. Aqueous humor level of sCD44 in patients with degenerative myopia and primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Akdogan Muberra

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44 is a major hyaluronan cell surface receptor widely distributed in eye tissues and fluids. The shed ectodomain of CD44 is termed soluble CD44 and is toxic to human retinal ganglion cells in cell culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of sCD44 in the aqueous humor (AH of normal subjects, patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, and patients with degenerative myopia but without glaucoma, to determine if the molecule might serve as a protein marker of glaucoma. Findings In this case-control study, AH samples were collected from controls (n = 16, patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (n = 11, and patients with degenerative myopia (n = 11 who underwent phacoemulsification surgery to treat mature or immature cataracts. The sCD44 concentration in AH was measured using a commercial ELISA kit. In normal AH samples the sCD44 concentration was 5.40 ± 1.21 ng/mL, whereas in degenerative myopia patients the sCD44 concentration was 5.76 ± 1.15 ng/mL. There was thus no statistically significant difference between these two groups (p > 0.05. The aqueous sCD44 concentration in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (12.2 ± 10.1 ng/mL was higher than that of the control group (p Conclusion sCD44 may be a protein marker of primary open-angle glaucoma.

  8. Point-of-service, quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor for evaluating anterior globe integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartia, Manas R.; Misra, Santosh K.; Ye, Mao; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron; Plucinski, Lisa; Zhou, Xiangfei; Kellner, David; Labriola, Leanne T.; Pan, Dipanjan

    2015-11-01

    Limited training, high cost, and low equipment mobility leads to inaccuracies in decision making and is concerning with serious ocular injuries such as suspected ruptured globe or post-operative infections. Here, we present a novel point-of-service (POS) quantitative ascorbic acid (AA) assay with use of the OcuCheck Biosensor. The present work describes the development and clinical testing of the paper-based biosensor that measures the changes in electrical resistance of the enzyme-plated interdigitated electrodes to quantify the level of AA present in ocular fluid. We have demonstrated the proof-of-concept of the biosensor testing 16 clinical samples collected from aqueous humor of patients undergoing therapeutic anterior chamber paracentesis. Comparing with gold standard colorimetric assay for AA concentration, OcuCheck showed accuracy of >80%, sensitivity of >88% and specificity of >71%. At present, there are no FDA-approved POS tests that can directly measures AA concentration levels in ocular fluid. We envisage that the device can be realized as a handheld, battery powered instrument that will have high impact on glaucoma care and point-of-care diagnostics of penetrating ocular globe injuries.

  9. Involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the aqueous humor outflow-enhancing effects of abnormal-cannabidiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhuanhong; Kumar, Akhilesh; Kumar, Pritesh; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal-cannabidiol (abn-cbd), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid agonist, on aqueous humor outflow via the trabecular meshwork (TM) of porcine eye, and to examine the involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor and the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK) pathway. The effects of abn-cbd on aqueous humor outflow were measured using a porcine anterior segment perfused organ culture model. The activation of p42/44 MAPK by abn-cbd was determined in cultured TM cells with western blot analysis using an anti-phospho-p42/44 MAPK antibody. Administration of abn-cbd caused a concentration-dependent enhancement of aqueous humor outflow facility with a maximum effect (155.0 ± 11.7% of basal outflow facility) after administration of 30 nM abn-cbd. Pretreatment with 1 μM of O-1918, a cannabidiol analog that acts as a selective antagonist at the non-CB1/CB2 receptor, produced a full antagonism of 30 nM abn-cbd induced increase of aqueous humor outflow facility. Pretreatment with 1 μM of CB1 antagonist SR141716A partially blocked, whereas pretreatment with either 1 μM of CB1 antagonist AM251 or 1 μM of CB2 antagonist SR144528 had no effect on abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. Treatment of TM cells with 30 nM of abn-cbd activated p42/44 MAPK, which was blocked completely by pretreatment with O-1918, and partially by pretreatment with SR141716A, but not by either AM251 or SR144528. In addition, PD98059, an inhibitor of p42/44 MAPK pathway, blocked completely the abn-cbd induced p42/44 MAPK activation and blocked partially the abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrate that abn-cbd increases aqueous humor outflow through the TM pathway of the eye, and this effect is mediated by a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor, with an involvement of p42/44 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:22580290

  10. Anterior Segment Alterations and Comparative Aqueous Humor Proteomics in the Buphthalmic Rabbit (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Deepak P.; Bouhenni, Rachida

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To use an integrated proteohistologic approach to gain insight into the anterior segment alterations in the buphthalmic rabbit. Methods Eyes from 2- and 5-year-old buphthalmic and normal rabbits (n=20) were studied histologically. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of aqueous humor (AH) was used to determine differential protein expression between animal groups. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed on selected differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-MS/MS. Results The buphthalmic rabbits manifested a mild clinical phenotype with typical angle anomalies that appeared progressive by histology. Significantly thickened Descemet’s membrane (DM) and anterior lens capsule in all buphthalmic rabbits showed increased fibronectin and collagen-IV immunolabeling. LC-MS/MS applying stringent filtering criteria revealed significant differential expression of several AH proteins in these rabbits. The protein of interest in the 2-year-old group was histidine-rich glycoprotein, and those in the 5-year-old group included alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, clusterin, apolipoprotein E, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, transthyretin, cochlin, gelsolin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, and beta-2 microglobulin. The proteomic data for selected proteins was validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. A wide range of functional groups were affected by the altered AH proteins. These included extracellular matrix modulation, regulation of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and protein transport. Conclusions Multiple anterior segment alterations were histologically identified in the buphthalmic rabbits that showed progressive changes with age. The differentially expressed AH proteins in these rabbits suggest a multifunctional role for AH in modulating pathologic changes in DM, anterior lens capsule, and the angular meshwork in these animals. PMID:22253484

  11. Thermally labile components of aqueous humor potently induce osteogenic potential in adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joshua T; Kwon, Heung Sun; Wood, Joshua A; Borjesson, Dori L; Tomarev, Stanislav I; Murphy, Christopher J; Russell, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) hold promise for use in cell-based therapies. Their intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties are potentially useful for treatments of inflammatory conditions such as uveitis, while their ability to differentiate along multiple cell lineages suggests use in regenerating damaged or degenerated tissue. However, how ASCs will respond to the intraocular environment is poorly studied. We have recently reported that aqueous humor (AH), the fluid that nourishes the anterior segment of the eye, potently increases alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of ASCs, indicating osteogenic differentiation. Here, we expand on our previous findings to better define the nature of this response. To this end, we cultured ASCs in the presence of 0, 5, 10, and 20% AH and assayed them for ALP activity. We found ALP activity correlates with increasing AH concentrations from 5 to 20%, and that longer treatments result in increased ALP activity. By using serum free media and pretreating AH with dextran-coated charcoal, we found that serum and charcoal-adsorbable AH components augment but are not required for this response. Further, by heat-treating the AH, we established that thermally labile components are required for the osteogenic response. Finally, we showed myocilin, a protein present in AH, could induce ALP activity in ASCs. However, this was to a lesser extent than untreated 5% AH, and myocilin could only partially rescue the effect after heat treatment, documenting there were additional thermally labile constituents of AH involved in the osteogenic response. Our work adds to the understanding of the induction of ALP in ASCs following exposure to AH, providing important insight in how ASCs will be influenced by the ocular environment. In conclusion, increased osteogenic potential upon exposure to AH represents a potential challenge to developing ASC cell-based therapies directed at the eye.

  12. Тhe shifts in the content of prostoglandins Е2 in aqueous humor of patients with senile and complicated cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Zilfyan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose. There has been undertaken in this research, in case of complicated cataracts, an attempt of definition of a role of prostaglandins Е2 (PgЕ2 in mechanisms of cancellation of immune responses, responsible for ACAID, in the early period of the aseptic uveitis course. Material and method. The patients with senile and complicated cataracts underwent the microaxial phonoemulsification. The first group included patients with senile uncomplicated cataract (400 eyes, the second one – with cataract, proceeding associated with primary open-angled glaucoma (200 eyes, the third group – with cataract, proceeding associated with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (200 eyes, the fourth group – with cataract, proceeding associated with arterial hypertension (300 eyes, the fifth one – with cataract, proceeding associated with diabetes mellitus (100 eyes, and the sixth group – with cataract, proceeding associated with previous trauma (100 eyes. The studied contingent of patients has been examined using subjective and objective methods of research standard in ophthalmology. Aqueous humor of patients of all six studied groups (80 tests in each group was subjected to immunoenzymatic level definition of prostaglandins Е2, using kits of the firm DRG International Inc. (USA. The content of prostaglandins Е2 was expressed in pg/ml. Immunoenzymatic researches (ELISA were conducted with the autoanalyzer «Stat Fax 3200» (USA in wavelengths of absorption of 420-450 nm. The obtained results were statistically analyzed, using the Student criteria and the SPSS-13 software. Results. In case of complicated cataracts, namely cataracts, proceeding associated with open-angle and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, and also in traumatic cataracts, an inflammatory process in form of anterior aseptic uveitis was observed in the early post-operative period. Relative high indices of prostaglandins Е2 were determined in the aqueous humor of the above

  13. Firocoxib on aqueous humor prostaglandin E 2 levels for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of blood-aqueous barrier in healthy and Toxoplasma gondii -seropositive cats

    OpenAIRE

    Deise Cristine Schroder; Matias Bassinello Stocco; Deborah de Arruda Isoton; Carla Patricia Amarante e Silva; Ísis Assis Braga; Érica Pereira da Silva; Camila do Espírito Santo Maciel; Fernanda Harumi Maruyama; Luciano Nakazato; Daniel Moura de Aguiar; Adriane Jorge Mendonça; Alexandre Pinto Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of firocoxib for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier in healthy and Toxoplasma gondii -seropositive cats. Thirty two cats with no ocular abnormalities were used. Groups (n=8/each) were formed with healthy cats that received 5mg g-1 of oral firocoxib (FH) or no treatment (CH) on day 0; seropositive cats for anti -T. gondii specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) were grouped (n=8/each) and treated in a similar fas...

  14. Simultaneous determination of timolol maleate in combination with some other anti-glaucoma drugs in rabbit aqueous humor by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassib, Sonia T; Elkady, Ehab F; Sayed, Rawda M

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a sensitive, selective, accurate and precise LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of an anti-glaucoma ß-blocker, timolol maleate (TIM) with other co-administered anti-glaucoma drugs of different classes, namely; dorzolamide hydrochloride (DOR), brinzolamide (BRZ) and brimonidine tartrate (BRM) in rabbit aqueous humor (AH) using eslicarbazepine as an internal standard (IS). Liquid-liquid extraction was used for the purification and pre-concentration of analytes from rabbit AH matrix. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a mobile phase consisting of 10mM ammonium formate pH=7: methanol: acetonitrile (5: 50: 45, v/v/v) in isocratic mode of elution at a flow rate of 0.8mL/min on an INERTSIL(®) C18 ODS-3 column (150mm×4.6mm, 3.5μm). The method was operated using electrospray ionization source in the positive ionization mode prior to detection by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) at the following transitions: m/z 317.2→261.0 for TIM, m/z 325.1→199.0 for DOR, m/z 384.2→281.0 for BRZ, m/z 292.1→212.0 for BRM and m/z 255.0→237.0 for IS. The separation was done in only 3min and the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was (50ng/ml) for all cited drugs. A detailed validation of the bio-analytical method was performed as mentioned in US-FDA and EMA guidelines and the standard calibration curves were found to be linear in the range (50-5000ng/ml) for all drugs with good mean regression coefficient for all drugs. PMID:27085020

  15. EFFECTS OF FLUNIXIN MEGLUMINE CONJUNCTIVAL SHOT OVER THE HUMOR AQUEOUS PROTEIN OF DOGS SUBMITTED TO THE PARACENTESIS OF THE ANTERIOR CHAMBER AVALIAÇÃO DOS EFEITOS DA FLUNIXINA MEGLUMINA, POR VIA SUBCONJUNTIVAL, SOBRE A CONCENTRAÇÃO E PADRÃO PROTEICO DO HUMOR AQUOSO DE CÃES SUBMETIDOS À PARACENTESE DA CÂMARA ANTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diniz Galera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Flunixin meglumine effects, over aqueous humor proteins of eyes on dogs who were submitted to paracentesis of the anterior chamber, were evaluated. To ten adult dogs clinically healthy were given a subconjunctival shot with flunixin meglumine (1.1mg/Kg on the right eye and sterilized saline solution 0.9% on the left eye, with the same volume. After general anesthesia, were submitted to two paracentesis of the both eyes to collect 0.2mL of first and second aqueous. The samples were submitted to Bradford test, wich proteins concentrations were  15.98mg/dL ± 4.48 e 11.46mg/dL ± 2.72 for the right and the left eyes, respectively, on the first paracentesis and 119.8mg/dL ± 6.74 e 120.63mg/dL ± 22.4 for the right and the left eyes, on the second paracentesis. There was no significant statistically differences between the protein values of the treated eyes in comparison with the control one. When compared, the proteins concentrations between the first and second paracentesis of the right and left eyes, statistic differences were found between these two moments (p<0.001. SDS-PAGE showed differences in the protein patterns of aqueous humor in result of the paracentesis.

    KEY WORDS: Aqueous humor, eye, flunixin meglumine, paracentesis, proteíns.

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos da flunixina meglumina, pela via subconjuntival, sobre as proteínas do humor aquoso de olhos de cães submetidos à paracentese da câmara anterior. Dez animais adultos, clinicamente sadios, receberam, por aplicação subconjuntival, flunixina meglumina (1,1mg/kg no olho direito e solução salina estéril a 0,9% no olho esquerdo, em igual volume. Mediante anestesia geral, foram submetidos a duas paracenteses de ambos os olhos para coleta de 0,2mL de aquoso primário e secundário, respectivamente. As amostras foram submetidas ao Teste de Bradford, cujas concentrações proteicas (média e desvio-padrão obtidas foram de 15

  16. 房水培养对牛角膜内皮细胞生长的影响%Influence of aqueous humor on growth of bovine corneal endothelial cell in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李善义; 戴应; 谭美华; 丁勇; 钟敬祥; 陈建苏

    2013-01-01

    Background The construction of tissue-engineered corneal endothelium needs the functional seeding cells,so how to culture a large amount of functional corneal endothelial cells (CECs) is an urgent problem to be solved.Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of aqueous humor on bovine CECs in vitro.Methods Aqueous humor of 1.2 ml was collected from the anterior chamber of bovine and sterilized,and the liquid supernatant was obtained.The bovine CECs were isolated from bovine cornea and then cultured in low glucose Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in vitro.Aqueous humor was added into the medium with the final concentration of 2.5%,5.0%,l0.0%,15.0% and 20.0%,respectively,and no aqueous humor was added in the control group.Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to detect the absorbency value of CECs for the evaluation of cell proliferation.Progression of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM).After confluence of the cells was reached,1 ml plastic spear tip was used to scratch the cell single layer,and the cells were incubated consequently in medium with 10% FBS and with or without aqueous humor for 24 hours.Healing area of the cell single layer was measured.The cells were incubated at a density of 6 × 105 cells/ml and cultured using medium with or without 10.0% aqueous human for 5 days,and the number of the cells was analyzed by DAPI fluorescence technique.Results Under the phase-contrast microscopy,the confluent CECs showed a slabstone-like and hexagonal appearance.CCK-8 assay revealed that the absorbance values of CECs was significantly different among the various culture groups (F=4.051,P =0.007),and the absorbance value in different concentrations of aqueous human culture groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01).FCM showed that the percentage of the cells in S-G2 phases was (34.80-±3.13)% in the 10.0% aqueous humors group and (23.06±1.13)

  17. Bromfenac 0.09% bioavailability in aqueous humor, prophylactic effect on cystoid macular edema, and clinical signs of ocular inflammation after phacoemulsification in a Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Palacio,1 Lourdes Fernández De Ortega,2 Francisco R Bustos,3 Eduardo Chávez,4 Aldo A Oregon-Miranda,5 Arieh R Mercado-Sesma5 1Anterior Segment Department, Fundación Hospital Nuestra Señora de la Luz, México City, México; 2Anterior Segment Department, Asociación Para Evitar la Ceguera en México, Hospital Dr Luis Sánchez Bulnes, México; 3Anterior Segment Department, Antiguo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México; 4Anterior Segment Department, Instituto de Oftalmología, Fundación de Asistencia Privada Conde de Valenciana, IAP, México; 5Clinical Research Department, Laboratorios Sophia, SA de CV, Zapopan, Jalisco, México Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor bioavailability and clinical efficacy of bromfenac 0.09% vs nepafenac on the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME after phacoemulsification.Material and methods: A Phase II, double-blind, masked, active-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial of 139 subjects, randomized to either a bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution (n=69 or nepafenac 0.1% (n=70. Subjects instilled a drop three times a day for a period of 30 days. Follow-up visits were on days 2, 7, 15, 30, and 60. Biomicroscopy, clinical ocular signs, and assessment of posterior segment were performed. The primary efficacy endpoints included the presence of CME evaluated by optical coherence tomography. Safety evaluation included intraocular pressure, transaminase enzymes, lissamine green, and fluorescein stain.Results: The demographic and efficacy variables were similar between groups at baseline. The presence of pain, photophobia, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, cellularity, and corneal edema disappeared by day 30 in both groups. The central retinal thickness did not show significant changes after treatment when compared to baseline as follows: in the bromfenac group (247.2±32.9 vs 252.0±24.9 µm; P=0.958 and in nepafenac group (250.8±34

  18. Analysis of protein composition of rabbit aqueous humor following two different cataract surgery incision procedures using 2-DE and LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonnell Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous humor (AH, a liquid of the anterior and posterior chamber of the eye, comprises many proteins with various roles and important biological functions. Many of these proteins have not been identified yet and their functions in AH are still unknown. Recently, our laboratory published the protein database of AH obtained from healthy rabbits which expanded known protein identifications by 65%. Our present study extends our previous work and analyses AH following two types of cataract surgery incision procedures (clear corneal and limbal incisions by using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Although both incision protocols are commonly used during cataract surgeries, the difference in protein composition and their release into AH following each surgery has never been systematically compared and remains unclear. The first step, which is the focus of this work, is to assess the scale of the protein change, at which time does maximum release occurs and when possible, to identify protein changes. Results Samples of AH obtained prior to surgery and at different time points (0.5, 2, 12, 24 and 48 hours following surgery (n = 3/protocol underwent protein concentration determination, 2-DE and LC-MS/MS. There was a large (9.7 to 31.2 mg/mL and rapid (~0.5 hour influx of proteins into AH following either incision with a return to baseline quantities after 12 hours and 24 hours for clear corneal and limbal incision, respectively. We identified 80 non-redundant proteins, and compared to our previous study on healthy AH, 67.5% of proteins were found to be surgery-specific. In addition, 51% of those proteins have been found either in clear corneal (20% or limbal incision (31% samples. Conclusions Our results imply that a mechanism of protein release into AH after surgery is a global response to the surgery rather than increase in amount of protective proteins found

  19. Numerical analysis of aqueous humor hydromechanics after cataract surgery based on fluent%基于Fluent的白内障术后房水流体力学数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁书秀; 郝菲菲; 孙昭晨; 邵彦; 李亚新

    2014-01-01

    A hydrodynamic rigid three-dimensional model of natural convection based on fluent soft-ware has been made to study microfluidic flow in the human eye.The anterior and posterior chambers are regarded as study model,which is the main channel of aqueous humor,the pressure difference and tem-perature caused by the aqueous humor in the eyeball was calculated,the cornea temperature,aqueous humor flow and gap width between iris and pupil's influence on pressure difference was analyzed.Pres-sure difference of the model after cataract surgery was calculated in different gap width between iris and pupil.Compared with the model before surgery,the hydrodynamic reasons of cataract surgery complica-tions are analyzed,which will provide a new way to study surgery complications.%应用fluent软件,建立三维自然对流水动力刚体模型,探究了眼内微流体的运动。本研究将以眼球前房和后房即房水主要流动区域作为研究模型,求解眼球内部房水流动产生的压力差和温度场,分析了眼角膜温度、房水分泌流量和虹膜至晶状体的最小距离对眼内压差的影响。计算了虹膜至人工晶体不同间距下的白内障术后模型前后房眼内压的差值,通过和术前对比,分析了白内障术后并发症的水动力因素,为后续白内障术后并发症的研究提供了新的途径。

  20. 原发性开角型青光眼房水外流通路改变的研究进展%The progress of aqueous humor outflow pathway in open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安琳; 季健

    2011-01-01

    原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)是一种以视神经轴索及相关视网膜神经节细胞丢失为特征的视神经病变.眼压升高是POAG最重要的危险因素.大多数POAG患者眼压升高主要是房水外流阻力异常增高所致.小梁网是产生房水排出阻力的主要部位.目前多数研究者认为POAG患者小梁网功能不良与致炎因子表达、细胞老化、氧化应激损伤及细胞质成分减少等因素有关.小梁网细胞本身及细胞外基质的变化均可以引起房水外流阻力的改变,进而导致眼内压的升高.为了进一步开展对POAG发病机制的研究,有必要就目前有关POAG患者房水外流通路改变的研究进展予以综述,旨在为POAG的深入研究提供参考依据.%Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is defined as an optic neuropathy characterized by loss of optic nerve axons and retinal ganglion cells.Increase of intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for POAG,which is partially due to an abnormally high aqueous humor outflow resistance in trabecular meshwork ( TM ).Trabecular outflow pathway is a key element in drainage of aqueous humor.Malfunction of TM in POAG is associated with over expression of inflammatory markers,cellular senescence,oxidative stress,and decrease of cellularity.The biological changes of TM cell and extracellular matrix compromise trabecular pathway drainage resulting in an increased IOP.This article reviewed the progression in research on aqueous humor outflow pathway emphasizing the alteration of trabecular pathway.

  1. [Value of gentamycin concentration in aqueous humor of a rabbit's eye depending on the method of application. Summary of a doctoral thesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, R H

    1992-10-01

    Pharmacokinetics of gentamycin in the primary and secondary rabbit's aqueous was examined by using a new experimental method of subconjunctival application (without breaking the continuity of the conjunctiva). It was established that after subconjunctival application one cannot obtain any therapeutical concentrations in the primary or secondary aqueous. Presented are conditions which have to be fulfilled to obtain a therapeutical concentration of gentamycin in the secondary aqueous. PMID:1306533

  2. 兔房水来源exosomes的分离与鉴定及其免疫抑制功能的研究%Isolation of rabbit aqueous humor-derived exosomes and their immunosuppression function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖志雄; 楼正青; 肖中

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate exosomes from rabbit aqueous humor and to investigate their immunosuppression function. Methods; Aqueous humor was collected from 40 New Zealand rabbits and exosomes were isolatied by fractional separation and ultracentrifugation methods; the morphology was studied with electron microscopy. The immunosuppressive-related proteins of exosomes were detected with Western blotting; their inhibitory effect on ConA-induced proliferation of T lymphocyte was estimation with CCK-8 cells proliferation assay. Results; Eight mililiters of aqueous humor were collected from 40 New Zealand rabbits and 200 μg exosomes was yielded. Under electron microscope, the exosomes had typical structure of lipid bi-layer with a diameter of 50 - 100 nm. The results of Western bloting showed that these exosomes expressed Hsp70,CD9 and Alix but not Grp94,presenting a typical exosomes protein profile. Moreover,exosomes expressed high level of TGF-β and significantly inhibited the proliferation of T lymphocytes. Conclusions: Immunosuppressive exosomes can be isolated from rabbit aqueous humor, which may be involved in immunotolerance of the eye.%目的:探讨兔房水中是否能够分离得到具有脂质双分子层结构的纳米级小囊泡exosomes,并检测其是否表达免疫抑制相关分子,参与眼球免疫耐受状态的维持.方法:收集40只健康新西兰大白兔的房水,分级分离,超速离心制备exosomes,透视电镜对其形态进行鉴定;Western blot检测exosomes标志性蛋白以及免疫抑制相关分子TGF-β的表达情况;采用CCK-8细胞增殖检测方法判断兔房水来源的exosomes对经ConA诱导的兔子T淋巴细胞增殖情况的抑制功能.结果:40只新西兰大白兔收集到约8 ml的房水,从中获得200μg exosomes.经透射电镜鉴定:从房水中分离获得的exosomes直径主要集中在50~100 nm,具有典型的脂质双分子层结构;Wester blot结果表明,该exosomes表达热休克蛋白Hsp70

  3. Comparative study on syphilis antibody in blood and aqueous humor of intraocular operational patients%内眼手术患者血液和房水梅毒抗体检测的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔巍; 李红霞; 高伟; 韩晓芳

    2009-01-01

    Objective To probe the positive rates of syphilis in intraocular operational Patients,and to detect the specific and unspecific antibody in Blood and aqueous humor of syphilis Patients for providing basis of aqueous humor route of transmission of syphilis.Method4075 patients being accepted intraocular operation from 2002 were confirmed by preoperative serological tests of these four infectious diseases including Hbs Ag,HCV Antibody,TP Antibody,and HIV Antibody.Infection ratio of syphilis in intraocular operational patients were analysed.The specific and unspecific antibody in blood and aqueous humor of syphilis patients was detected by rapid plasma regain circle card(RPR)and treponema pallidum gem agglutination assay(TPHA).Result In 4075 patients being accepted intraocular operation,58 cases patients had syphilis Antibody in blood.in the 58 cases syphilis patients blood serum,the "positive ratio of TPHA was 100%(58 cases)while that ratio in aqueRecently,positive rates of syphilis infection was relatively stabilizing and the syphilis may not infect through aqueous humor.%目的 探讨内眼手术患者中发生梅毒的阳性率,并通过梅毒患者房水中特异性和非特异性抗体的检测,寻找梅毒是否通过房水传播的理论依据.方法 对2004年以来准备接受内眼手术的4075例患者进行常规的传染四项检查,包括乙肝表面抗原(HBsAg),丙型肝炎抗体(HCV抗体),梅毒抗体(TP抗体),艾滋病抗体(HIV抗体)四项指标,并统计梅毒发生的阳性率;应用特异性抗体试验-梅毒螺旋体血球凝结试验(TPHA)和非特异性抗体试验-快速血浆反应素环状卡片试验(RPR)检测梅毒患者血清及房水中的抗体.结果 4075例内眼手术患者有58例患者血液中存在梅毒抗体,阳性率1.42%.58例梅毒患者血液中TPHA阳性检出率为100%(58例),房水中为32.76%(19例)两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);而同组患者血液中RPR阳性检出率为51.72%(30

  4. Humor og sygepleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Inger

    1998-01-01

    I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker.......I artiklen beskrives og reflekteres der over humors betydning som ressource for såvel patienter som sygeplejersker....

  5. Humorous treatment of actuality

    OpenAIRE

    Vårdal, Karianne Holt

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a close reading of the humor and irony used in Michael Moore's feature documentaries; Roger and Me, Bowling for Columbine and Sicko. Based on existing theories on humor and the documentary, my analysis is a reading of carefully chosen scenes to illustrate the different methods used to create humor and irony, as well as a attempt to describe why we laugh at these particular scenes. A review of critical discourse surrounding Moore's films and their use of humor, identifies issues ...

  6. Humor. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David; Parr, Jerry; Duffy, Vincent; Strader, Bill; Stephens, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on humor in early child care: (1) "What Makes Young Children Laugh?" (David Elkind); (2) "Humor as a Tool in the Workplace" (Jerry Parr); (3) "Vincent's Vignettes" (Vincent Duffy); (4) "Family Humor" (Bill Strader); and (5) "Books to Tickle Funny Bones" (Karen Stephens). (SD)

  7. Penetrability of interleukin-1β and its effect on the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the aqueous humor of rabbits treated with interleukin-1β

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xiao-yan; CHEN Feng-hua; WANG Ning-li; MA Jian-min; Ping-yu Lee; LIU Ke-gao; Steven M Podos

    2009-01-01

    Background Interleukin (IL)-1β may effectively decrease introcular pressure (IOP) when administered by subconjunctival injection in normal rabbit. However, IL-1β is a large molecular agent and an inflammation factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetrability of IL-1β, and the concentrations of both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 in the aqueous humor of normal rabbits treated with IL-1β.Methods A total of 170 rabbits were used in the study and were assigned to several different treatment groups as follows: 125 of the rabbits were assigned to two groups. In one group, 33 rabbits were injected subconjunctivally with IL-1β and 39 were injected with saline alone. In the other group, 27 rabbits were given eye drops containing IL-1β (400 ng/ml) and 26 were given saline alone. Aqueous humor (AH) was drawn and the concentration of IL-1β within the fluid measured. The IOP was measured in another six rabbits after administration of eye drops containing IL-1β (400 ng/ml). A further 20 rabbits were assigned to 3 groups as follows: eight untreated normal controls; six injected subconjunctivally with IL-1β; and six injected subconjunctivally with saline alone. AH was drawn and the concentration of TNF-α in the fluid was measured. Another 19 rabbits were assigned to 3 groups as follows: seven untreated normal controls; and six injected subconjunctivally with IL-1β; and six injected subconjunctivally with saline alone. AH was drawn and the concentration of IL-6 in the fluid measured. Measurement of cytokine concentration was by radio-immunoassay in all cases.Results The IL-1β concentration in the AH was higher in those animals in which it had been administered subconjunctivally (P 0.05). The administration of IL-1β in the form of eye drops had little effect upon lOP reduction. Lower TNF-α concentrations were seen in the AH after the subconjunctival administration of IL-1β, but the concentration of IL-6 was the same as in the normal controls

  8. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed. PMID:16367459

  9. 99Tc-MDP对兔实验性葡萄膜炎房水及血清细胞因子的影响%99Tc-MDP on aqueous humor and serum cytokines of experimental uveitis in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张开颜; 冼文光; 金陈进; 陈海波; 赵普宁

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of 99Tc-MDP on the experimental uveitis in rabbits. Methods Twenty-one experimental rabbits were randomly divided into normal sodium control group, dexamethasone administration group and 99Tc-MDP administration group,7 rabbits in each group. ELISA assay was applied to detect the levels of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) in the aqueous humor, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) in serum before establishing the models, at 5 days after establishing the models,at 10 days after drug administration and at 5 days after stopping administration. Results The levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in aqueous humor of normal sodium control group were (86.2±51.2)ng · L-1 and (91.2±67.9)ng · L-1 at 10 days after drug administration lower than (95.1±44.7)ng · L-1 and (135.6±106.3)ng · L-1 at 5 days after establishing the models, respectively. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in serum of normal sodium control group were (151.9±57.9) ng · L-1 and (4.7±1.2)ng · L-1 at 10 days after drug administration lower than (175.6±96.0)ng · L-1 and (5.8±2. 3)ng · L-1 at 5 days after establishing the models,respectively. The levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in aqueous humor of dexamethasone administration group were (106.9±28.5)ng · L-1 and (168.1±256.6)ng · L-1 at 10 days after drug administration higher than (82.7±41.4)ng ·L-1 and (117.4±45.5)ng · L-1 at 5 days after establishing the models,respectively. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in serum of dexamethasone administration group were (80.3±23.4)ng · L-1 and (3.2±2.3)ng · L-1 at 10 days after drug administration lower than (188.2±104.9)ng · L-1 and (5.7±3.6)ng · L-1 at 5 days after establishing the models,respectively. The levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in aqueous humor of 99Tc-MDP administration group were (136.2±47.2) ng · L-1 and (183.1±79.6) ng · L-1 at 10 days after drug administration higher than (98

  10. 前房放液治疗有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术后高眼压%Releasing aqueous humor of anterior chamber to treat early elevated lOP after lCL implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊露; 易魁先; 邓一鹏; 彭晓琍

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨前房放液法在有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术( implantable collamer lens,ICL)术后早期眼压升高治疗中的应用。方法:ICL植入术后早期高眼压患者,眼压>25 mmHg时,表面麻醉下,用一次性注射器针尖从角膜侧切口缓慢将房水放出,使眼压降至10~13 mmHg。术后每2 h测量眼压,如眼压再次升高,可反复放房水处理,直至眼压正常。结果:ICL植入术患者167例330眼,术后眼压>25 mmHg者32例62眼,其中部分房水可见黏弹剂。大多数患眼(48眼)通过1次放液治疗成功无复发。经过最多3次侧切口放液,所有患眼眼压均恢复正常。术后随访未见异常。结论:黏弹剂残留是导致ICL植入术后早期眼压升高的主要原因,侧切口前房放液法能有效、及时降低眼压。操作简单、安全、无痛,患者乐于接受,可反复进行。%To explore the effect of releasing aqueous humor of anterior chamber through lateral incision of cornea in treating early elevated intraocular pressure ( lOP ) after implantation of implantable collamer lens ( lCL) .METHODS: Patients with elevated lOP were analyzed after lCL implantation. When the lOP>25mmHg, aqueous humor was released slowly through lateral incision of cornea, and made the lOP reduce to 10 ~13mmHg. After operation, lOP was measured every 2h. The releasing of aqueous humor was repeated until the lOP was decreased to normal.RESULTS: One hundred sixty - seven patients ( 330 eyes) were implanted lCL, while the lOP of 32 patients (62 eyes) was higher than 25mmHg after lCL implantation. Viscoelastic material was found in aqueous humor of most of high lOP patients, and the lOP of 48 eyes did not increase again through releasing aqueous humor once. The lOP of all these eyes was decreased to normal through releasing aqueous humor in 3 times at most. There were no abnormal in postoperative follow-up.CONCLUSlON:The main reason of early elevated lOP after lCL implantation

  11. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  12. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80’s of last century.Traditionally,they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper,I try a new research perspective,metonymic function and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in the interpretation of humor as a cognitive and mental process.

  13. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80's of last century.Traditionally.they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper.I try aflew research perspective,metonymicfunction and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in theinterpretation of humor asa cognitive and mental process.

  14. Humors in Rip Van Winkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铂

    2014-01-01

    Humor is widely employed in Irving’s Rip Van Winkle. There are several kinds of humors in this short story, for exam-ple: irony, satire, farce, mockery, etc. Different humors indicate different attitudes the writer adopts toward his subject matter. This essay aims at grasping the main idea of the story through the analyses of various uses of humor.

  15. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Dix, A.; Morkes, J.; Cockton, G.; Korhonen, P.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  16. HUMOR V TISKANIH OGLASIH

    OpenAIRE

    Šalamun, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Humor v slovarju pomeni kakovost – da si zabaven ali smešen, ampak v oglaševanju je to zelo resen ter tvegan posel. Namen oglaševanja s humorjem je več kot samo spraviti v smeh par ljudi. Potrebno je upoštevati, da kadar se uporablja humor v oglaševanju, da so različne stvari smešne različnim ljudem. Oglas, ki lahko nekoga nasmeji, lahko pri drugem pusti slabi vtis. Humor se v oglaševanju uporablja že vrsto let, vendar na slovenskem trgu ni toliko prisoten še posebej v tiskanih oglasih. Kljub...

  17. Humor v likovni umetnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Humor je izraz za vsako sporočilo, povzročeno z dejanjem, govorom, pisanjem ali sliko, ki ima za svoj produkt nasmeh ali smeh. Ljudje različnih profilov tematiko preučujejo že vsaj od antike naprej, poskušajo jo umestiti tudi v kontekst. Zdi se, da je humor kulturno pogojen, integriran v kontekst časa, vezan na družbeno zgodovino, hkrati pa nam služi kot ključ do kulturnih kod, saj odnos do humorja (smeha), način uporabe v praksi ter njegove oblike in objekti niso konstantni, ampak spremenlji...

  18. Analysis of spectrum and drug sensitivity of bacteria in the aqueous humor or vitreous of patients at an early stage of penetrating ocular trauma%眼球穿孔伤患者早期前房房水或玻璃体细菌学培养分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡燕芬; 田妮; 郭月珍; 李慧英

    2016-01-01

    AlM:To analyze the spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria in the aqueous humor and vitreous immediately following the occurrence of penetrating ocular trauma. METHODS:Aqueous humor or vitreous specimens were collected from 45 eyes of 45 patients with penetrating ocular trauma before operations. The specimens were prepared for bacterial culture and the associated sensitivity tests to several commonly used antibiotics. RESULTS:Fifteen eyes of all the patients were found to be positive with bacterial infection, and the most frequently identified bacteria was staphylococcus epidermidis, which accounted for 67. 7% ( 10/15 ) of all identified cases. All identified bacteria were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, and less sensitive to cefoperazone. Most of them were resistant to gentamycin, rifampin and chloramphenicol. Accompanying intraocular foreign body or sclera wound were associated with positive bacterial cultures (χ1 2=6. 544, P1=0.016;χ22=4.5, P2=0.034). Causes of injury(χ2=1.667,P=0. 197), lens rupture (χ2 =1. 125,P=0. 352) or locations where the specimen was collected (χ2=1. 667,P=0. 197) did not contribute to the difference in the positive rates of bacterial cultures. CONCLUSlON: ln patients with penetrating ocular trauma, the major bacteria entering into the eye was staphylococcus epidermidis. Fluro- Quinolones can be used as the first - line antibiotics for prophylactic treatment. Cefoperazone can be taken as a second choice.

  19. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-01-01

    In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  20. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  1. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  2. Cultural Context and Humor Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中锋

    2009-01-01

    "Humor" is a very general word, which has been studied by numerous scholars from different points of view, pursuing different goals and using different assumptions. This paper holds that cultural context counts for the production and perception of humor.

  3. Uses of humor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, S A; Carroll, J L; Wyatt, G K

    1990-06-01

    Given demonstrated usefulness in facilitating learning, aiding healing, and reducing stress, humor has gained recognition as a clinical tool. This article reviews some uses and potential misuses of humor in psychotherapy and suggests directions for practice and research.

  4. Humoral immunity in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, A F; Craig, S; Bardana, E J

    1987-09-01

    Bronchiectasis occurs in patients with immunodeficiency and fungal hypersensitivity disorders. To assess the prevalence of abnormal humoral immune parameters in bronchiectasis, a retrospective study was carried out on sera from 30 patients. Studies included immunoglobulin quantitation and specific antibody to fungal species. Eleven patients were found to have immunodeficiency (nine with panhypoglobulinemia and two with selective IgM deficiency). Six patients had elevations of serum IgA and four patients had elevations of serum IgE. Six patients had elevated total antibody to Aspergillus or Candida species and six had precipitin bands to one or more fungal antigens. This study indicates that immunodeficiency is prevalent and plays a causative role in some patients with bronchiectasis. Hypersensitivity reactions to Aspergillus, Candida, and other ubiquitous environmental fungi may also play an etiopathogenic role in this disease (bronchiectasis, humoral immunity, immunodeficiency). PMID:3631652

  5. Study on Deep Structure of Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫林琼

    2007-01-01

    Humor is the common favorite of people in all walks of life and at all ages. Studying the deep structure of humor, that is, the psychological and cognitive foundation in producing and comprehending humor, is quite practical in helping people first to recognize, understand and appreciate others' humor and then to apply their own humor to their daily communication.

  6. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  7. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  8. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kuipers

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  9. Spass Verstehen, Zur Pragmatik von konversationellem Humor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Bjørn

    2000-01-01

    Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik......Spøg, Humor, Komik, Ironi, Kommunikationsteori, Hermeneutik, Gruppedynamik, Logik, Tekstlingvistik...

  10. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  11. Pragmatic Analysis on Verbal Humor in Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    As a nature of humanity, humor is a way of communication peculiar to human beings. Verbal humor is a cate-gory of humor which is used to express humorist ideas through language, and siteom as a unique comedy performance is an important carrier of humor. This paper applies some basic pragnmtic theories, such as Cooperative Principles (CP) and Relevance Theory(RT), to analyze the verbal humor in American popular situational comedy Friends, aiming to explore the generation mechanism of English humor. And then a better understanding and appreciation of English humor for English learners can be achieved.

  12. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Skalicky; Cynthia M. Berger; Scott A. Crossley; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195) with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and ...

  13. The relationship between corneal angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis with VEGF-A and VEGF-C expression in the aqueous humor%角膜新生血管和淋巴管与房水中VEGF-A和VEGF-C表达量关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲; 周善璧; 杨洋; 唐德荣; 薛晓燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between VEGF-A and VEGF-C expression in the aqueous humor with corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis,to provide a theoretical basis for choosing the operation time of keratoplasty.Methods It was a retrospective case series study.Ten cases (10 eyes) of hospitalized patients suffering from keratopathy and requiting keratoplasty from April to October 2011 were analyzed retrospectively.Experimental group involved 10 patients with keratoplasty following the corneal ulcer and alkali bum.Control group involved 10 patients with simple age-related cataract.Blood vessels counting (BVC) and lymphatic vessels counting (LVC) were tested by nonspecific vessels endothelial antibody CD31 and immunohistochemical staining of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor-1 (LYVE-1).VEGF-A and VEGF-C concentrations in the aqueous humor of patients and control group were measured by ELISA technology.The relationship between the expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-C in aqueous and the BVC and LVC was explored.Student t-test and Pearson correlation test were used to investigate the influencing factor.Results Immunohistochemical staining showed that all of 10 patients in experimental group presented angiogenesis,of whom 4 presented both neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis.VEGF-A and VEGF-C expression in two groups were significant different.Corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis were significantly related to VEGF-A and VEGF-C concentrations in the aqueous humor of eyes.Conclusions VEGF-A and VEGF-C expression in the aqueous humor of eyes are significantly higher in patients with neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis following keratopathy than the control group.VEGF-A expression is positively related to the BVC.VEGF-C expression is also positively related to the LVC.Therefore,VEGF-A and VEGF-C concentrations can reflect the growth of corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis.%目的 探讨房水中VEGF-A和VEGF-C

  14. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:27757091

  15. Estudio histopatológico de hígado y riñón de caninos y su relación con las concentraciones de urea, creatinina, proteínas, enzimas (ALT y SAP en sangre premortem y en humor acuoso a las 0 y 24 horas postmortem Histopathological study of canine liver and kidney and their relationship with blood and postmortem aqueous humour samples concentrations of urea, creatinine, proteins and enzymes activities (ALT and SAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GALLARDO

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se necropsiaron 31 caninos, sin historia clínica de patologías hepáticas o renales. Previo a la eutanasia, realizada con solución sobresaturada de tiopental sódico, se obtuvo una muestra de plasma; una vez efectuada la eutanasia, se obtuvo una muestra de humor acuoso desde el ojo derecho y otra 24 h después del ojo izquierdo. En cada muestra se determaron las concentraciones de urea, creatinina, proteínas, ALT y SAP. Se caracterizaron las lesiones histológicas de hígado y de riñón de caninos a fin de relacionarlas con las concentraciones de urea, creatinina, proteínas, ALT y SAP en sangre premortem y en humor acuoso a las 0 y 24 h postmortem. A cada perro se le practicó una necropsia, obteniéndose muestras de hígado y riñón en formalina al 10%. Para la caracterización histológica de las lesiones se utilizó la siguiente escala: ausente (0, leve (I, moderado (II, marcado (III, y severo (IV. A cada órgano se le asignó un grado de alteración histológica utilizando una escala similar (I a IV; este grado de alteración fue comparado con las concentraciones de los metabolitos estudiados en sangre y humor acuoso a las 0 y 24 h postmortem. El 100% de los perros manifestó algún grado de alteración renal y hepática (G.A.R. y G.A.H.. Los trastornos de tipo inflamatorio necrótico a nivel renal fueron observados en el 100% de los perros, destacándose la glomerulonefritis (100% y la nefritis intersticial (87.09%. A nivel hepático los trastornos de tipo circulatorio fueron los más frecuentemente observados (100%, siendo la congestión difusa la lesión más encontrada (63.33%. Las concentraciones de los metabolitos estudiados fueron mayores en sangre premortem que en humor acuoso a las 0 y 24 h postmortem (pThe goal of this study was to characterize histopathological lesions of the liver and kidney of canines, and their relationship with blood and postmortem samples of aqueous humor concentrations of urea, creatinine, proteins

  16. Various Means of Achieving Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓棠

    2014-01-01

    Humor can be found everywhere in our daily life. It shows one's wisdom and confidence, which reflects a person's character, mind and cultivation. While it makes people laugh, it enlightens and instruct people. As we all know, English humor is a manifestation of the western literature. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences of different cultures. The present paper starts from the analysis of English humor, trying to find out some ways of achieving humor so as to better our understanding and appreciation of English humor.

  17. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  18. Detecting herpes simplex virus in aqueous humor of patients suffering from corneal endotheliitis by polymerase chain reaction and indirect immunofluorescent technique%聚合酶链反应和间接免疫荧光法对角膜内皮炎病原诊断的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡; 范松涛; 孙洪臣

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨聚合酶链反应(PCR)和间接免疫荧光法(IIF)对角膜内皮炎的病原学诊断价值.方法 分别应用PCR和IIF对临床诊断为角膜内皮炎患者的房水进行单纯疱疹病毒检测,同时以老年白内障患者的房水作为对照,并做统计学分析.结果 16例角膜内皮炎患者的房水中,用PCR法检测阳性11例,阳性检出率为68.75%,20例对照组房水中无1例阳性,二者有显著性差异(P﹤0.05);13例角膜内皮炎患者的房水中,用IIF法检测阳性4例,阳性检出率为30.77%,20例对照组房水中无1例阳性,二者有显著性差异(P﹤0.05);角膜内皮炎患者的房水中PCR阳性检出率(68.75%)与IIF阳性检出率(30.77%)差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05).结论 PCR法和IIF法均可作为角膜内皮炎的病原学快速诊断,但PCR法比IIF法敏感,可首选.%Objective To evaluate the significance of polymerase chain reaction and indirect immunofluorescent technique on etiologic diagnosis of endotheliitis.Methods Herpes simplex virus in aqueous aspirate of the study group with corneal endotheliitis and the control groups with senile cataract were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) technique. Results In the study group,11 cases suffering from corneal endotheliitis had positive reactions in aqueous humor detected by PCR,the positive ratio was 68.75%. While in the control group, no case suffering from senile cataract had positive reaction detected by PCR. There was a significant difference between two groups. In the study group, 4 cases suffering from corneal endotheliitis had positive reactions in aqueous humor detected by IIF technique,the positive ratio was 30.77%. While in the control group, no case suffering from senile cataract had positive reaction detected by IIF technique. There was a significant difference between the study group and the control group statistically (P<0.05). It the study groups, there was a significant difference

  19. Cooperative Principle and English Humorous Utterance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳

    2010-01-01

    <正>Humorous utterances,especially those in the form of conversation in life,have distinctive pragmatic features.There is a close relationship between humor and pragmatics,which can be found in various books on pragmatics.In those books,humorous utterances function as examples for pragmatic analysis.Effective humorous languages often reflect one or several pragmatic features.This paper specifically introduces one of the important theories of pragmatics:cooperative principle,by which the paper analyzes the humorous utterance and explores the relationship between pragmatic rules and humorous utterance.The purpose is to make people know humorous utterance is a matter of pragmatics. The reality of the humor especially depends on implication of the language and the context.

  20. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  1. Black humor in O.Henry's novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静楠

    2013-01-01

      Black humor is a kind of literary style rose in American and O .Henry's novels used it to express the satire to society and show the sympathy to the lower class .The most typical works contain black humor two are The Cop and the Anthem and The Gift of the Magi.By using black humor, he created his unique endings .This article is trying to analysis the use of black humor in his novels and the effect.

  2. Strategi Penciptaan Humor dengan Pemanfaatan Aspek-aspek Kebahasaan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2010-01-01

    Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor v...

  3. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  4. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  5. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  6. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality.Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  7. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  8. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A.; Vrabel, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  9. English Humor Derived from the Violation of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯凌虹

    2009-01-01

    Humor is a wisdom, which reflects a person's character, mind and educational level. Humor can be revealed in many ways, yet mainly by means oflanguage. Starting from the analysis of the language of English humor, this paper studies the ways of English humor, especially the English humor on the violation of Cooperative Principle. By analyzing the relationship of English humor and the Cooperative Principle, this paper aims at bettering our understanding and comprehension of the Cooperative Principle and English humor.

  10. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  11. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  12. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  13. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  14. The changes of aqueous humor vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor levels before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in proliferative diabetic retinopathy%增生性DR玻璃体腔注射ranibizumab前后房水中VEGF和PEDF水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云鹏; 陈小红; 陈梅珠

    2016-01-01

    .Objective This study was to determine the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in aqueous humor of PDR eyes before and after intravitreai injection of ranibizumab.Methods Self-controlled observational study was designed.Fifteen eyes of 15 PDR patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command from January to August 2014, and 1 eye combined with neovascular glaucoma and iris rubeosis.Aqueous samples of 0.1 ml at each time were collected before and 7 days after the injection of ranibizumab from all patients under the informed consent.The changes of aqueous VEGF and PEDF concentrations were detected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.This study complied with Declaration of Helsinki and the protocol was approved by this hospital.Results The freeVEGF concentrations before and 7 days after intravitreal injection were (179.4±136.5) pg/ml and (27.1 ±23.5) pg/ml, respectively, showing a significant reduce after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (t =4.172, P =0.001).PEDF concentrations before and 7 days after intravitreal injection were (394.0-±237.2) pg/ml and (267.7±199.6) pg/ml, respectively, showing a significant reduce after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (t =5.443, P =0.000).Intraocular neovascularization vanished after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and vitrectomy was carried out at the seventh day after intravitreal injection.Conclusions Free VEGF and PEDF levels in aqueous humor appear to be significantly decreased after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, and ocular neovascularization disappears at same time,which avoids intraoperative bleeding during vitrectomy.

  15. Strategi Penciptaan Humor dengan Pemanfaatan Aspek-aspek Kebahasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor variously. Sometimes people can feel happy when they hear humor; but sometimes they can feel infuriated, hateful, insinuated, or even aggrieved. This is caused by immeasurable humor context in each communication. It depends on the target that the humor creator wants.

  16. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies. PMID:25153846

  17. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  18. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We analy

  19. Where is the humor in verbal irony?

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, RW; Bryant, GA; Colston, HL

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Munich/Boston. Irony is often related to humor, both in spoken and written language. One possibility is that humor arises once people reconcile the incongruity between what speakers say and imply when using irony. Humor automatically emerges in these cases given the release of tension following a momentary sense of disparity. Our claim is that this proposal does not capture many of the dynamic complexities in real-world ironic discourse. We describe psycholo...

  20. The Cooperative Principle and English Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李澜

    2007-01-01

    English jokes are humorous and implicit. They can set people laughing, and at the same time they can also set people thinking. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences between different cultures. This paper tries to explain the causes of English humor in terms of cooperative principles of conversation. Examples are given to illustrate each cause.

  1. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  2. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  3. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  4. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  5. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  6. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  7. Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈华军

    2005-01-01

    As I drove into a car park, I noticed that a utility truck with a dog sitting behind the wheel was rolling towards a female pedestrian. She seemed oblivious. So I hit my horn to get her attention, she looked up just in time to jump out of the truck's path, and the vehicle bumped harmlessly into the herb and stopped.

  8. The Role of Humor in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳

    2013-01-01

    Humor plays an important role in many spheres and aspects of human life. The study is intended to analyze the feasibil-ity of utilizing humor as a communicative strategy as well as a tool to create a positive teaching environment for language teach-ing in class.

  9. A Study on Intertextuality in Verbal Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks about how intertextuality and its concerned theories can be well applied to the study of humor.Through analysis of specific samples,the paper finds parody,verbal irony and text allusions are effective intertextual means to produce and understand verbal humor.

  10. Humor, Emotional Empathy, Creativity and Cognitive Dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, G. Alfred; Altermatt, Ellen R.; Forsyth, Peggy D.

    The devaluation of racial, ethnic, or religious groups, sometimes disguised as humor, is a major contributor to violence and aggression against these groups. In an effort to understand this process, five factors of humor: negative ethnic stereotype jokes, play-on-word jokes, academic/social referent cartoons, gender/establishment jokes, and gross…

  11. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching, viewers do not…

  12. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  13. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. PMID:26580553

  14. Do Humorous People Take Poorer Care of Their Health? Associations Between Humor Styles and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim R. Edwards

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A sense of humor is widely viewed as beneficial for physical health. However, some limited research suggests that humor may actually be related to increased smoking and alcohol consumption because humorous individuals may take a less serious attitude toward substance use. The purpose of the present study was to explore this hypothesis in greater detail in a sample of 215 undergraduate students. Individual differences in humor were measured using the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ, and playfulness (i.e., low seriousness was assessed using the trait version of the State-Trait Cheerfulness Inventory (STCI-T. Participants also completed a questionnaire about their substance use (smoking, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine. As predicted, affiliative humor, aggressive humor, and playfulness were significant predictors of greater substance use. Mediation analyses confirmed that the link between both affiliative and aggressive humor and substance use was mediated by seriousness, indicating that this association is due, at least in part, to high-humor individuals taking a less serious, more playful outlook on life. Overall, these results support the view that a sense of humor may be related to less healthy habits, at least in the domain of substance use.

  15. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes. PMID:11641883

  16. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  17. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  18. Differences in Humor Styles between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2014-01-01

    Humor, as a relaxing topic, is a very complicate thing in the intercultural communication. The famous professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, Rod A. Martin who focuses his study on functions of humor and laughter proposes four humor styles. In this essay, I use four dimensions referred by Hofstede to analyze the preferred humor styles in China and America.

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  20. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor s

  1. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  2. The dynamic concept of humor : Erich Fromm and the possibility of humane humor

    OpenAIRE

    Hietalahti, Jarno

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the social philosophy of humor from the viewpoint of Erich Fromm’s critical humanistic thinking. The work consists of an introduction and four individual articles. The introduction discusses Fromm’s theories in relation to the phenomenon of humor to provide a basis for the articles. The central aim is to understand the dynamic nature of humor and how it is related to the problem of being a paradoxical creature, that is, a human being. It is...

  3. The Serious Business of Humor : A qualitative study of humor as a management tool

    OpenAIRE

    N Schönfeldt, Sara; Miznikova, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    This research was initiated due to the novelty of the topic. Humor is a common phenomenon in the daily interaction of many people; however this study is particularly interested in humor as used by managers. As a preconception to the study it was assumed that appropriately used humor results in benefits for a leader, thus we wish to explore how managers in Swedish organizations reason about if and how humor can be used as a management tool. For this purpose we employed qualitative research wit...

  4. El humor en los servicios hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaga Benítez Óscar William

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El humor es un fenómeno demasiado complejo para ser explicado fácilmente, sin embargo la risa, es una de las formas más admirables del comportamiento humano. El humor forma parte de nuestra vida cotidiana y todos tenemos de él, ya desde nuestra más tierna infancia un conocimiento intuitivo. Muchos saben que el humor mejora las relaciones humanas, puede favorecer una cierta distensión y facilita el bienestar de todos los miembros de una empresa, dirigentes, empleados y obreros. Muchos esperan encontrar en él la forma de resolver los conflictos y de reducir la agresividad. Allí donde se encuentren hombres, existe el humor, comprenderlo mejor y utilizarlo más libremente y en el momento oportuno, puede ayudarnos a hacer nuestra vida más agradable.

  5. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research. PMID:24467450

  6. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  7. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. PMID:27651012

  8. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  9. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  10. Identity and Stereotypes: Humor Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Repšienė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional understanding of humor as being tolerant, full of non-aggressive life curiosities, funny situations, mocking national or human vices, and related to an optimistic and contemplative attitude towards reality, has changed its main supportive points: the optimistic view of reality has been altered into a pessimistic and destructive one, forbearing ridicule has turned into severe offence, strangeness into stupidity, funny situations into futile misunderstanding. Everything is regarded as a dramatic possibility to survive or an endless situational tragedy where the most strict evaluation criteria, censorship, and dogmatism are empowered, meaning that, in the current times of widely propagated tolerance and overwhelming comprehension, it is extremely dangerous to offend somebody with an innocent joke or light mockery, to evoke an urge to contradict or negate when ideological aspirations are beyond “decency” limits. One of the most advocated rules in the Lithuanian press is: “Joke carefully with foreign nationals” from an interview with Barry Tomelin, London “International house” consultant and teaching director, the author of the book “World’s Business Cultures: And How to Unlock Them” (with Michael Nicks. Identity is to be saved and nourished as the highest sanctity but its formation, meaningfulness and spread are not always attuned to the official approach.Our life is full of stereotypes and our neighboring countries are not to be excluded – we have a preconceived notion of them. Using the national stereotype term we characterize relatively stable generalized opinions, in an open or hidden form, containing one or another assessment of a nation.Our attitude towards neighbors is revealed in nicknames given to them – non-official ethnonyms usually bearing a negative connotation. Some monikers have already lasted for centuries while others have been coined during the last decades. Anecdotes with the most popular

  11. El humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Torres de Sánchez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Una tendencia mundial se ha originado: el uso del humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes y mejorar el ambiente donde la persona se encuentre. En el área educativa hay pruebas que demuestran su utilidad y que efectivamente origina cambios positivos, medidos en las evaluaciones, tanto en los estudiantes como en participantes de sesiones de facilitación. El objetivo del experimento realizado fue: Determinar el comportamiento a través de la calificaciones en la primera prueba, del efecto del uso del humor en el dictado de clases utilizando diferentes herramientas como: chistes, anécdotas, analogías en los contenidos. A través de un estudio experimental con un grupo de control realizado en dos aulas de clases con 35 alumnos cada uno, al grupo experimental se le aplicó diferentes recursos humorísticos como herramientas de aprendizaje. Se analizaron las calificaciones en la primera prueba a través de porcentajes de aprobados y aplazados, observándose que el grupo experimental arrojó los mayores porcentajes de aprobados. Tales resultados confirman que el humor como herramienta, si induce a un desempeño excelente en alumnos, lo que lleva a implementar acciones de adiestramiento para los facilitadores, así como el surgimiento de investigaciones más profundas sobre el uso del humor en la educación.

  12. The use of humor in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Chapman

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Humor can be a useful treatment technique in the hands of some psychotherapists. It may help the patient to see painful life events and situations from less threatening perspectives, and can take the anxiety and guilt out of many difficult circunstances and incidents. Humor can be valuable in talking with parents about the problems of their adolescent children, in working with adolescents themselves, in discussing difficulties encountered in the workplace and in social environments, in decreasing obstructive awe of the therapist and apprehensiveness about treatment, in dealing with problems such as male sexual impotence, and in many other areas. Some therapists, however, handle humor awkwardly; in their hands it misfires or falls flat, and they should avoid it.

  13. Dialogic Grounds of Humor in Mathnavi

    OpenAIRE

    ar Mohammadi Kalesar; mk Yousefpour; ma Khazane Darloo

    2011-01-01

    “Dialogue”, in Bakhtin’s thought, is a term which has a methodological nature. This term shows a method for facing cases which are not hegemonic. Dialogue, therefore, is in opposition to the hegemony of monophonic forces. The origins of the dialogical aspects of humor, laugh and carnival are in very character. In this article, we want to investigate the bases that make the dialogical carnival and form the humorous elements. In the first section, we illustrate the subversion of the superior vo...

  14. Sentido del humor en el adulto mayor

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina M. Labarca R.

    2012-01-01

    El humor es un fenómeno poco estudiado dentro del contexto de la psicología, menos aún, en el adulto mayor, grupo etario que se encuentra en constante crecimiento dentro de nuestro país.En tal sentido, la investigación, guiada por los planteamientos de Carbelo (2007) y DAnello (2010), denominada sentido del humor en el adulto mayor, tuvo por objetivo, determinar el significado que tiene este fenómeno para el adulto mayor. Para ello, se realizó un estudio de corte cualitativo,donde se utilizó ...

  15. The value of humor in psycotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chazenbalk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this work is to show how humor—when is used properly- has a positive effect on the patient ant the therapist’s self improving their alliance, supervision and team meetings. It’s also good for profesionals to include humor, recreation and rest in their job routines, because these ingredients let them be more effective in psychoterapy. The vast majority of psychological theories agree on its importance. The Cognitive Psychology believes that humor helps the patient evaluate reality in a different way, stops disfunctional thoughts, lets the expression of negative emotions and finds more adaptative patterns. 

  16. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor studies, where a broader view is taken, that is, a view that includes artificial intelligence, reasoning, common-sense and context representations, and machine learning. But there are other kinds of...

  17. Semantic Perspective:Verbal Humor in Chinese Cross Talk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Shao-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the verbal humor in Guo Degang’s cross talk from semantic perspective. The focus is to illus-trate the generating process and the mechanism of verbal humor. Three aspects of semantics which produce humorous effect, morpheme absorption, ambiguity, and script opposition will be discussed. Finally, it is found out that script opposition can take place of morpheme absorption, ambiguity to explain how humor is caused fundamentally.

  18. Sensation seeking, social attitudes and humor appreciation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Forabosco, Giovannantonio; Ruch, Willibald

    1994-01-01

    The present study examines the role of sensation seeking, conservatism, toughmindedness, sex, and age in appreciation of humor in Italian adults. A sample of 100 females and 48 males responded to Italian adaptations of the 3 WD humor test, Form V of the sensation seeking scale, and the C-Scale. Funniness of incongruity-resolution humor correlated positively with conservatism, female sex, and age, and negatively with all components of sensation seeking. Funniness of nonsense humor correlated p...

  19. Analysis on the Translation Strategies in English humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2015-01-01

    1.Definition and connotation of humor The English word"humor"came from Latin originally which was used to refer to"wet"and"fluid"After a series of evolution,it finally evolved into the word used in daily life in the16th century.Then it was used to describe a kind of people who are humorous,funny and clever.Humor is a cultural phenomenon based on language.There are

  20. A Study of Linguistic Humor Translation of British Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑾

    2015-01-01

    The translatability of humor is gradually accepted and linguistic humor based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages is considered to be the most difficult to translate. This paper is to study the linguistic humor translation of British sitcoms in the light of Skopos theory and explore practical ways of E-C translation of linguistic hu⁃mor.

  1. Factors Affecting the Humorous Language Style of Mark Twin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀丽

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, Mark Twain is an expert in handling humor.The formation of his language style has close connection with three aspects. Local literature influences Mark Twain very much. Western humor is another influential element. And his per-sonal experience is also contributed to his humorous language style.

  2. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  3. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.

    2016-01-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  4. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  5. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  6. Using Humor to Crack the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    1994-01-01

    Assistant vice president for academic personnel at public university took notes on incidents that caused participants to laugh during meetings of academic managers between 1988 and 1993. Recorded percentages of males and females in attendance, who conducted meeting, and who initiated laughter. Found differences in how men and women used humor to…

  7. ¿Hay humor en Juan Montalvo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Valdano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo analiza la prosa panfletaria de Juan Montalvo desde el punto de vista del humor. Montalvo, además de dedicar muchas páginas a disertar sobre la risa, buscó con frecuencia insertar efectos humorísticos en su estilo, encaminados a ridiculizar a sus enemigos políticos. ¿Hasta qué punto un autor eminentemente moralista, un libelista cáustico como Montalvo, que echa mano del insulto, la burla y el sarcasmo, puede considerarse un humorista? Para comprender esta ambigüedad entre un Montalvo solemne y otro burlón, entre un Montalvo austero y otro irónico se analizan aquí ciertos recursos literarios que utiliza este autor y con los que provoca efectos que lindan con lo humorístico.This work analyses Juan Montalvo's pamphlet prose from a humorous perspective. To what extent can an eminently caustic moralist author as Montalvo, who uses insult, mockery and sarcasm, be considered a humorist? In order to understand this ambiguity between a solemn Montalvo and a Mocking one, between an austere and an ironic one, certain resources used by the author are analysed, resources that border on humour.

  8. Dialogic Grounds of Humor in Mathnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ar Mohammadi Kalesar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available “Dialogue”, in Bakhtin’s thought, is a term which has a methodological nature. This term shows a method for facing cases which are not hegemonic. Dialogue, therefore, is in opposition to the hegemony of monophonic forces. The origins of the dialogical aspects of humor, laugh and carnival are in very character. In this article, we want to investigate the bases that make the dialogical carnival and form the humorous elements. In the first section, we illustrate the subversion of the superior voice as a semantic and formal structural method in Mathnavi. In the second section, the reflection of this method in formation of humor in the stories of Mathnavi has been investigated. In these stories, presence of the superior voice in the public space and its dialogue with the suppressed voices makes a space steeped in the elements of carnival and laugh. It can be said that the humors in Mathnavi are not the techniques for embellishing the text but the affects of the transcendental method of Mathnavi for interpreting the world.

  9. Humor as Camouflage of Televised Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to research on schema theory and media effects by examining how violence is portrayed in comedy programs. Finds a high rate of violence (especially verbal forms) on comedy programs; and the combination of humor, minor acts of violence, and program context tend to trivialize its presence. Suggests that viewers' schema for comedy uses…

  10. Mark Twain and American Humor [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In this three-part lesson, students examine structure and characterization in the short story and consider the significance of humor through a study of Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." In Part I, through skits and storytelling, students first examine the structure of Twain's story and the role he creates for his…

  11. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist

    2016-01-01

    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  12. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  13. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  14. Relationship between humor and proposed punishment for crimes: Beware of humorous people

    OpenAIRE

    Ruch, Willibald; Busse, Peter; Hehl, Franz-Josef

    1996-01-01

    It was hypothesized that appreciation of the structural basis and of sexual content in humor is related to punitiveness in different ways. Sixty-eight male subjects served as lay judges and stipulated what would be the just minimum and maximum punishment of committing one of 25 criminal acts and filled in scales relating to humor appreciation, conservatism, dogmatism, and intolerance of ambiguity. Funniness of incongruity-resolution correlated positively with minimum and maximum punishment. A...

  15. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  16. On the Humor Translation in Subtitling of American Sitcom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石杨

    2014-01-01

    The subtitling translation in American sitcom is of great significance which helps Chinese audiences to understand pro-grams. Humor element is an essential part of the sitcom. However, the loss of humor is very common in subtitling translation, so the vivid and accurate translation for humor in sitcoms has become a challenge for the translators. This thesis analyzes the defini-tion of humor and the main features of subtitling translation, and then discusses several examples of humor loss in the subtitling translation of Friends to put forward corresponding strategies.

  17. Hubungan Antara Sense of Humor Dengan Kebahagiaan Pada Lansia

    OpenAIRE

    Puspita, Ayu

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is a person’s ability to use humor in solving the problem, a person’s skill to create the humor, and the ability to appreciate or respond humor. Individuals who have a sense of humor is known to be better of use coping with stress, establish a relationship with the people around him and mentally and physically healthier. When the elderly can cope the stress feelings better, then feelings of sadness or disapointment that may arise will be reduced so that the elderly will have ha...

  18. The Analysis of Lin Yutang’s Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琴

    2014-01-01

    Lin Yutang is called the master humorist in China. He advocates humor and spiritual literature in his maga-zine Lun Yu (Analects) which attracts essays and readership. His informal but polished style in both Chinese and English makes him one of the most influential writers of his generation, and his compilations and translations of classic Chinese texts into English are bestsellers in the West. Humor is a distinctive feature in his works. In his book, he uses humor as he sees appropriate, and through humor he criticizes social realities, depicts characters and introduces original expressions, etc. His humor can be related to some aspects in his life. In this paper, I will briefly analysis Lin's sense of humor and how Lin' applies humor in his works.

  19. Differentiating what is humorous from what is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter

    2016-03-01

    After 2.5 millennia of philosophical deliberation and psychological experimentation, most scholars have concluded that humor arises from incongruity. We highlight 2 limitations of incongruity theories of humor. First, incongruity is not consistently defined. The literature describes incongruity in at least 4 ways: surprise, juxtaposition, atypicality, and a violation. Second, regardless of definition, incongruity alone does not adequately differentiate humorous from nonhumorous experiences. We suggest revising incongruity theory by proposing that humor arises from a benign violation: something that threatens a person's well-being, identity, or normative belief structure but that simultaneously seems okay. Six studies, which use entertainment, consumer products, and social interaction as stimuli, reveal that the benign violation hypothesis better differentiates humorous from nonhumorous experiences than common conceptualizations of incongruity. A benign violation conceptualization of humor improves accuracy by reducing the likelihood that joyous, amazing, and tragic situations are inaccurately predicted to be humorous. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26692355

  20. Mathematics and Humor: John Allen Paulos and the Numeracy Crusade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available John Allen Paulos at minimum gave the Numeracy movement a name through his book Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. What may not be so obvious was Paulos’ strong interest in the relationship between mathematics and mathematicians on the one hand and humor and stand-up-comedian joke structures on the other. Innumeracy itself could be seen as a typically mathematical Gotcha joke on American culture generally. In this perspective, a Minnesotan acculturated to Minnesota-Nice Humor of Self-Immolation Proclivities (SImP looks at the more raw-boned, take-no-prisoners humor style Paulos outlined in Mathematics and Humor and implemented in Innumeracy. Despite the difference in humor styles, there is much to applaud in Paulos’ analysis of the relationship between certain types of humor and professional interests of mathematicians in Mathematics and Humor. Much humor relies on the sense of incongruity which Paulos’ claims to be central to all humor and key to mathematical reductio ad absurdum. Mathematics is rightfully famous for a sense of combinatorial playfulness in its most elegant proofs, as humor often relies on clashing combinations of word play. And a great range of mathematical lore is best understood within a concept of a sudden drop from one sense of certainty to another (essentially a Gotcha on the audience. Innumeracy repeatedly exemplifies Gotchas on the great unwashed and unmathematical majority. Extensive empirical evidence over the last quarter century allows us to synthesize these Paulos observations into the idea that inculcated mathematical humor has strong propensities to complex Intellectual, Advocate, and Crusader humor forms. However, the Paulos humors do not include the Sympathetic Pain humor form, the inclusion of which may increase teaching effectiveness.

  1. Sentido del humor en el adulto mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina M. Labarca R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El humor es un fenómeno poco estudiado dentro del contexto de la psicología, menos aún, en el adulto mayor, grupo etario que se encuentra en constante crecimiento dentro de nuestro país.En tal sentido, la investigación, guiada por los planteamientos de Carbelo (2007 y DAnello (2010, denominada sentido del humor en el adulto mayor, tuvo por objetivo, determinar el significado que tiene este fenómeno para el adulto mayor. Para ello, se realizó un estudio de corte cualitativo,donde se utilizó la Entrevista en Profundidad como método de recolección de la información. Los informantes fueron 4 adultos mayores (2 hombres y 2 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre 60 y 73 años de edad, los cuales fueron seleccionados como una muestra de propósito. Para el análisis, se utilizó la Teoría Fundamentada, concluyéndose que para el adulto mayor, cuando el sentido del humor se convierte en parte de la personalidad, es un factor protector de la salud, da sentido de pertenencia y cambia positivamente el ambiente, trayendo como consecuencia una mejor calidad de vida, siendo esto último el principal significante que surgió del análisis de la información. Igualmente, se determinó que el sentido del humor es una construcción social que se va elaborando a lo largo de la vida y que se afianza en esta etapa vital.

  2. The use of humor in the care of psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysodimitra Galatou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is defined as a state of good spirit, exhibited with a smile or laughter, as a response to external stimuli. It constitutes a special form of human communication as well as a form of social conduct. The word «humor» appears for the first time in Hippocrates' writings. Psychology considers humor as one of the most powerful weapons against depression and disappointment. In psychiatric therapeutics humor serves many purposes, thereby acting as a supplement, not a substitute to treatment received. Purpose: of this article is to highlight the positive effects of humor in humans, health professionals and patient. Material and method: An extensive literature search databases such as Medline, Pub Med, Wikipedia, Cinahl, Medscape, with key words: humor, psychiatric patient, care, humor scales Results: Humor is an interpersonal process which facilitates and promotes expression and exchange of views; however it requires prudence, cautiousness and respect to patients' personality and sensitive issues. Humor is not innate, it is acquired and it can be learning and taught. Conclusion: The correct use of humor in therapeutic practice, contributes to the development of a therapeutic relationship between patient and healthcare professional as well as a sense of trust between them.

  3. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  4. Does humor influence the stigma of mental illnesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Fokuo, J Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A

    2014-05-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, the participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared with the nondisclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the nondisclosed condition, suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  5. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  6. The Naturalization of Humor in Dubbing: Translation of Cultural References and Humor in Modern Family

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Perucha, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Estudio sobre la traducción del humor y las referencias culturales de forma tanto teórica como práctica. Dicho estudio proporciona una base de conocimiento en la cual se explican los distintos tipos de humor y bromas, así como las técnicas de traducción de referentes culturales y una breve introducción al doblaje. Esta parte teórica se ve reflejada en el análisis de la serie de televisión Modern Family, de la cual se comparan algunos fragmentos seleccionados de la versión original con los fra...

  7. Humor in Training: Laugh and the World Learns with You--Maybe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Guidelines for using humor in training are as follows: (1) use a modicum of apt, relevant humor in an informative presentation; (2) self-disparaging humor enhances the presenter's image; (3) humor is only one factor that enhances interest; (4) apt, relevant humor does not affect persuasiveness; and (5) satire has unpredictable results. (SK)

  8. Comparative evaluation of aqueous and plasma concentration of topical moxifloxacin alone and with flurbiprofen in patients of cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sujash; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Biswas, Supreeti; Mandal, Tapan Kumar; Dutta, Bakul Kumar; Haldar, Mithilesh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the aqueous and plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin administered topically alone and with flurbiprofen in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects scheduled for routine cataract surgery were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 25 each). Group-1 patients were treated with topical moxifloxacin alone: One drop 6 times/day for 3 days before surgery and one drop 4 times on the day of surgery: Group-2 patients were treated with topical moxifloxacin as in Group-1 and with topical flurbiprofen: One drop 4 times/day for 3 days before and on the day of surgery. The interval between two drugs was 30 min for last 3 days and 15 min on the day of surgery. Last dose was administered 1 h before aqueous humor and blood sampling for both the groups. The antibiotic concentration in aqueous humor and plasma were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The mean concentration of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor was 1.71 ± 0.82 mg/ml in Group-1 and 2.39 ± 1.34 mg/ml in Group-2. Concentrations of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor were significantly higher in Group-2 than that of Group-1. Conclusion: Flurbiprofen may increase the concentration of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor. PMID:23833362

  9. Comparative evaluation of aqueous and plasma concentration of topical moxifloxacin alone and with flurbiprofen in patients of cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujash Halder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the aqueous and plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin administered topically alone and with flurbiprofen in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects scheduled for routine cataract surgery were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 25 each. Group-1 patients were treated with topical moxifloxacin alone: One drop 6 times/day for 3 days before surgery and one drop 4 times on the day of surgery: Group-2 patients were treated with topical moxifloxacin as in Group-1 and with topical flurbiprofen: One drop 4 times/day for 3 days before and on the day of surgery. The interval between two drugs was 30 min for last 3 days and 15 min on the day of surgery. Last dose was administered 1 h before aqueous humor and blood sampling for both the groups. The antibiotic concentration in aqueous humor and plasma were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The mean concentration of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor was 1.71 ± 0.82 mg/ml in Group-1 and 2.39 ± 1.34 mg/ml in Group-2. Concentrations of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor were significantly higher in Group-2 than that of Group-1. Conclusion: Flurbiprofen may increase the concentration of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor.

  10. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Plenty; Susanne Bejerot; Kimmo Eriksson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ) and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biolo...

  11. Ageing and the humoral immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study presented in this thesis is concerned with changes in the humoral immune system as a function of age in different inbred mouse strains. Their capacity to develop humoral immune responses to experimentally given thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens under various conditions is compared. Furthermore, experiments employing thymus transplantation and thymic humoral factors which are directed at the restoration of the diminished T cell functions in old age are reported. (Auth.)

  12. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    OpenAIRE

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES; JUANITA SÁNCHEZ

    2006-01-01

    Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influe...

  13. Humor a vtip v reklamě

    OpenAIRE

    Hipčová, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the advertisements mainly those where humor and wit have appeared. Thesis is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical one. In the first part the marketing activities, psychology of the advertisement, humor and wit in advertisement are described. The second part is focused on mobile operator Vodafone, particular advertisements as well as on the own quantitative research. The main aim of the research is to find out how the humor and wit in the advertisement is...

  14. Impact of humor in advertising on consumer purchase decision

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Anh Thuc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the consumer decision process and its determinants, explore the concept and usage of humor in advertising to find out its impacts on consumer’s purchase decision. The theoretical framework gathered data from articles, books and previous re-searches. The author explained the process of purchase decision making, consumer buying behavior and presented the classification of humor, effects of humor and appropriate product types. Empirical data was collec...

  15. Analysis on the Mechanism Whereby Humor is Produced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Humor, a distinctive linguistic phenomenon, plays an important role in the language culture. In addition, humor has become a topic in linguistics. As the most important principles in pragmatics, the CP has provided a theoretical tool for analyzing humor, which is the product of the speaker’s intentional or unintentional violation of certain maxim of the Cooperative Principle. Participants should understand the literal meaning of an utterance firstly, and then, by relating the utterance to the specific context and certain background information, they come to realize the violation of the CP and appreciate the humor.

  16. A Study of the Translation of Humor in English Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹

    2016-01-01

    What is believed to be the most important thing in translating English movie subtitle is the transmission of humorous effects. Humor is the development result of language and culture, and it is human's wisdom. Based on Vermeer's Skopostheorie theory of functionalist approaches, the thesis suggests that the instrumental translation strategy based on the source text analysis can be used for the translation of humor discourses. The translator can translate humorous languages by way of literal translation, annotation, combination of literal translation and free translation.

  17. Humor en línea. Línea del humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Mirta Clara Echevarría

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora indaga el humor propuesto por el diario ‘InterVoz’ (Córdoba, Argentina. El medio publica el "típico humor cordobés". Historietas, chistes y relatos representan la vida urbana cotidiana, confluencia de lo popular y lo masivo, a través de la inclusión de usos lingüísticos, costumbres, personajes típicos y personajes públicos, sobre todo políticos. Estos textos, en algunos casos, reproducen lo publicado en papel; sin embargo, son manifestaciones diferentes. En este discurso emergente, estudia las condiciones de producción, circulación y consumo desde varias vertientes. Subraya la autora la relación del humor con el resto del diario por: la fuerte relación intertextual con la información y el diseño hipertextual. Destaca tópicas y retórica del humor como parte de una política discursiva centrada en lo regional, con el objeto de construir un discurso identitario de clara apelación a "los cordobeses en el mundo". El humor de ‘InterVoz’ (el diario en su totalidad, en el marco de la globalización, se manifiesta como una otra voz, sin llegar a establecerse como contradiscurso. Este periódico –como tantos en la red– subraya las marcas de lo local para permanecer en lo global.

  18. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well. PMID:24337230

  19. The humor continuum: from text to smart environments (keynote paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  20. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  1. Welcome to HELL : Humor in English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2007-01-01

    Humor means understanding not only the language and words but their use, meaning, subtle nuances, the underlying culture, implications and unwritten messages. Humor does not often travel well from one culture to another, as each society has a somewhat different concept of what is funny (Dobson, 1987). In Foreign Language Learning (FLL), the…

  2. Did You Hear the One about...? Humor in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Used properly, humor can be a valuable educational tool. It also helps middle school students cope with many of the personal issues that arise and focus on school, and helps teachers connect with their students. From silly costumes to movie music, this article describes how some teachers and administrators incorporate humor into their daily school…

  3. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B.; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2009-01-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect…

  4. Embodied Agents: A New Impetus to Humor Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Stock, O.; Strapparava, C.; Nijholt, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we survey the role of humor in human-to-human interaction with the aim to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. For that reason w

  5. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justine T.; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we…

  6. Humor: What Can It Do for Tertiary Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Given the important role of the affective variables in the process of learning, this paper examines ways of overcoming negative effects (i.e. anxiety, boredom) of the contextual factors. Exemplifying the uses of humor through context-specific, purpose-driven jokes, it maintains that humor can be utilized to produce a resourceful, encouraging and…

  7. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  8. Multilingual Manipulation and Humor in "I Love Lucy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    "I Love Lucy" is considered to have been one of the most humorous television programs in the United States as early as the 1950s. This paper explores the use of language by the protagonists, Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, in order to understand the source of the program's humor. Linguistic analysis of the Ricardos' speech is applied,…

  9. Changes of Blood Aqueous Barrier after Phacoemulsification in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Luo; Yizhi Liu; Xinyu Zhang; Yuhua Liu

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the function and the morphological changes of the blood aqueousbarrier (BAB) after phacoemulsification and to provide the physiological mechanism ofBAB dysfunction.Methods: Phacoemulsification was performed on 12 rabbit eyes. Aqueous humor wasabstracted and the concentrations of aqueous humor protein were examined preoperativelyand on postoperative days 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 with Lowry. After the iris and the ciliarybody were removed from the rabbit eyes, we selected lanthanum nitrate as a tracer,then ultrastructural changes of BAB were investigated with transmission electronmicroscopy.Results: Highly statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found betweenpreoperative aqueous humor protein concentration and those measured on days 1, 7, 14,2 1and 30 after surgery. Under transmission electron microscopy, a part of the endothelialcells and BAB damaged as shown by the leakage of lanthanum tracing into intravesselsthrough the broad space were observed.Conclusion: The results suggest that there is a blood aqueous barrier breakdown afterphacoemulsification. The morphological basis of BAB damage is the reversible opening oftight junctions between endothelial cells.

  10. Co-operative Principle of Conversation and Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付岚

    2012-01-01

    Language humor is a usual phenomenon in human communication. It is an interdisciplinary subject connected with a wide range of learning. Up to now, a great deal of research has been done from the viewpoint of psychology and sociology. In the field of linguistics, some explorations have already been made in regard to its semantic and rhetorical aspects, but due attention has not been paid to it in pragmatics in that in everyday verbal communication, humorous utterances are easy to enjoy but hard to define. Apart from its capability of laughter-making, language humor is more often than not, produced to implicitly perform some communicative functions, not achievable by explicit expressions. This the - sis, based on the fruitful studies of humor, attempts to investigate the mechanisms of English humor from the perspective of a new theory 一 Co- operative Principle.

  11. Playing with Expectations: A Contextual View of Humor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airenti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    In the developmental literature, the idea has been proposed that young children do not understand the specificity of non-literal communicative acts. In this article, I focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I explore the acquisition of the communicative contexts that enable children to engage in humorous interactions before they possess the capacity to analyze them in the terms afforded by a full-fledged theory of mind. I suggest that different forms of humor share several basic features and that we can construct a continuum from simple to sophisticated forms. In particular, I focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants that is also considered a typical feature of irony. I argue that all forms of humor can be regarded as a type of interaction that I propose to call “playing with expectations.”

  12. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.

  13. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Raab

    2009-01-01

    The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily) in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this a...

  14. Science For The Public: Collaboration and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them, humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  15. The role of verbal humor in second language education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ziyaeemehr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Instructor humor serves a wide range of functions in educational contexts. This paper reports on a study that investigated the functions of instructors' humorous verbalizations in academic classrooms at a university where English is used as a second language. Data were collected through audio-recordings and classroom observations. The results of an inductive analysis led to the development of three major categories, namely “foregrounding form”, “reinforcing meaning” and “highlighting cultural dissimilarities”. These categories represented the strategies that served as instructional functions of humor in the context of L2 (second language education. Findings indicate that using verbal humor in L2 classrooms offers opportunities to facilitate access to L2 linguistic and cultural knowledge resources that are embedded in humorous exchanges. Additionally, the findings suggest that L2 instructors must have specific (socio linguistic and sociocultural humor competence to use humor to engage learners and communicate finer aspects of the L2. The implications of the findings are explored within the context of second language learning and teaching.

  16. Children’s Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  17. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stuber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.

  18. Measurement approaches to the sense of humor: Introduction and overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ruch, Willibald

    1996-01-01

    There has been a renaissance of research interest in the "sense of humor" in recent years, partly äs an attempt to define the concept but more strenuously to provide Instruments for its measurement. A quick count of recent publications shows an average of two to three new sense of humor- instruments per year — or one every four to six months. This intensity of research is unparalleled in the history of humor research and contrasts sharply with 25 years ago when the renewal of interest in hum...

  19. Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Using Humor in Education but Were Afraid to Laugh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.

    The importance of laughter and humor to enhance education, and special education in particular, is addressed. A sense of humor is an attitude, and humor together with enthusiasm helps students enjoy the learning process. Humor can make students become more alert, and can have very positive influences on affect. A funny remark, a pleasant…

  20. Why We Laugh and What Makes Us Laugh: The Enigma of Humor

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Asa Berger

    2013-01-01

    Humor (and related concerns such as the nature of comedy and of laughter) is an enigmatic subject that has perplexed our greatest thinkers from Aristotle’s time to the present. There are four competing theories that explain humor, each of which argues that all humor is based on: superiority, incongruity, cognitive problems in processing humor and psychoanalytic perspectives (such as masked aggression).

  1. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  2. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justine T; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D

    2016-07-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we propose two information-theoretic measures-ambiguity and distinctiveness-derived from a simple model of sentence processing. We test these measures on a set of puns and regular sentences and show that they correlate significantly with human judgments of funniness. Moreover, within a set of puns, the distinctiveness measure distinguishes exceptionally funny puns from mediocre ones. Our work is the first, to our knowledge, to integrate a computational model of general language understanding and humor theory to quantitatively predict humor at a fine-grained level. We present it as an example of a framework for applying models of language processing to understand higher level linguistic and cognitive phenomena. PMID:26235596

  3. The Aggression-Inhibiting Influence of Nonhostile Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert A.; Ball, Rodney L.

    1974-01-01

    The present experiment sought to investigate the hypothesis that exposure to nonhostile humor would be highly effective in reducing the level of aggression subsequently evidenced by angry individuals. (Author/RK)

  4. LOL: An Investigation into Cybernetic Humor, or: Can Machines Laugh?

    OpenAIRE

    Bacciu, Davide; Gervasi, Vincenzo (Ed.); Prencipe, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of humour have been the subject of much study and investigation, starting with and up to our days. Much of this work is based on literary theories, put forward by some of the most eminent philosophers and thinkers of all times, or medical theories, investigating the impact of humor on brain activity or behaviour. Recent functional neuroimaging studies, for instance, have investigated the process of comprehending and appreciating humor by examining functional activity in distinc...

  5. Does Humor Influence the Stigma of Mental Illnesses?

    OpenAIRE

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided per...

  6. SEX DIFFERENCES DURING HUMOR APPRECIATION IN CHILD SIBLING-PAIRS

    OpenAIRE

    Vrticka, Pascal; Neely, Michelle; Walter, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental origin of sex differences in adult brain function is poorly understood. Elucidating neural mechanisms underlying comparable cognitive functionality in both children and adults is required to address this gap. Humor appreciation represents a particularly relevant target for such developmental research because explanatory theories apply across the life span and underlying neurocircuitry shows sex differences in adults. As a positive mood state, humor is also of interest due to...

  7. The Conceptualization, Measurement, and Role of Humor as a Character Strength in Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim R. Edwards

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In positive psychology, humor has been identified as one of 24 character strengths considered ubiquitously important for human flourishing. Unlike the other strengths, humor was a late addition to this classification system and its status as a strength continues to be somewhat controversial. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to explore the associations between humor and several outcome variables of relevance to positive psychology (happiness, routes to happiness, resilience, and morality. The second purpose was to explore how best to conceptualize and measure humor as a character strength by comparing the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS Humor Scale with the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ in their ability to predict the outcome variables. A sample of 176 participants completed questionnaires assessing the humor and positive psychology constructs. The results indicated that the humor measures significantly predicted most of the outcome variables, supporting the importance of humor in positive psychology. Furthermore, although the VIA-IS Humor scale and positive humor styles on the HSQ showed considerable overlap, the negative humor styles added significantly to the prediction of outcome variables beyond these positive humor measures, supporting the importance of assessing maladaptive as well as adaptive uses of humor in research on positive psychology. These findings suggest that the HSQ may be a more useful measure than the VIA-IS Humor scale in future research in this field.

  8. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  9. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Fox

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating. Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer. In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  10. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  11. The humor after of the humor: concepts around Pablo Holberg´s Eden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Turnes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 21st century comics production in Argentina have experienced the emergence of new methods of publication, promotion and circulation consisting of a series of devices whose complex relationship has redefined the authorial figureas well as a new reading audience. The passage from the Internet and digital formats to the book has established itself as post-industrial strategy in the context of the reconstitution of a diverse comics field, where the national tradition of humor serves as example of the mentioned changes

  12. Humor i reklamens tjänst : Två branschkunnigas åsikter om humor i reklam

    OpenAIRE

    Back, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Syftet med mitt arbete är att undersöka vad humor i reklam innebär. Humor uppfattas på olika sätt beroende på var man befinner sig i världen så kan man klarlägga en övergripande definition över vad humor i reklam är? Humor är något som får oss på bra humör, får oss att skratta, men får reklam mer synlighet med hjälp av humoristiska inslag? Jag har genom en kvalitativ metod intervjuat två personer inom reklambranschen för att få ett grepp över humorns innebörd och påverkan i reklam. Den te...

  13. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion.

  14. Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory%Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛昆

    2012-01-01

    This thesis takes the Skopos Theory which is the core of German functionalism as the breakthrough point. According to the general classification of humorous utterance, this thesis divides it into situational humor and language humor. This thesis aims to analyze the application of the Skopos Theory in the two classifications of humorous utterances translation from the two perspectives which are conformity and conflict between the source-te~tfunction and the target-text function.

  15. Intrathecal Humoral Immunity to Encephalitic RNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C. Bergmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is the target for acute encephalitic viral infections, as well as a reservoir for persisting viruses. Intrathecal antibody (Ab synthesis is well documented in humans afflicted by infections associated with neurological complications, as well as the demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the origin, recruitment, maintenance, and biological relevance of Ab-secreting cells (ASC found in the central nervous system (CNS following experimental neurotropic RNA virus infections. We will summarize evidence for a highly dynamic, evolving humoral response characterized by temporal alterations in B cell subsets, proliferation, and differentiation. Overall local Ab plays a beneficial role via complement-independent control of virus replication, although cross or self-reactive Ab to CNS antigens may contribute to immune-mediated pathogenesis during some infections. Importantly, protective Ab exert anti-viral activity not only by direct neutralization, but also by binding to cell surface-expressed viral glycoproteins. Ab engagement of viral glycoproteins blocks budding and mediates intracellular signaling leading to restored homeostatic and innate functions. The sustained Ab production by local ASC, as well as chemokines and cytokines associated with ASC recruitment and retention, are highlighted as critical components of immune control.

  16. Humoral pattern recognition and the complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degn, S E; Thiel, S

    2013-08-01

    In the context of immunity, pattern recognition is the art of discriminating friend from foe and innocuous from noxious. The basis of discrimination is the existence of evolutionarily conserved patterns on microorganisms, which are intrinsic to these microorganisms and necessary for their function and existence. Such immutable or slowly evolving patterns are ideal handles for recognition and have been targeted by early cellular immune defence mechanisms such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and by humoral defence mechanisms such as the complement system. Complement is a proteolytic cascade system comprising around 35 different soluble and membrane-bound proteins. It constitutes a central part of the innate immune system, mediating several major innate effector functions and modulating adaptive immune responses. The complement cascade proceeds via controlled, limited proteolysis and conformational changes of constituent proteins through three activation pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway and the lectin pathway, which converge in common effector functions. Here, we review the nature of the pattern recognition molecules involved in complement activation, as well as their close relatives with no or unknown capacity for activating complement. We proceed to examine the composition of the pattern recognition complexes involved in complement activation, focusing on those of the lectin pathway, and arrive at a new model for their mechanism of operation, supported by recently emerging evidence.

  17. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  18. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16–24, 25–35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80–.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66–.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5–35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0–15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus–despite similar labels–these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles. PMID:27547259

  19. The Use of Humor in Forensic Mental Health Staff-Patient Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Alkier Gildberg, Frederik; Bradley, S. K.;

    2014-01-01

    Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions...... with forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting...... identified: (a) "humor as staff skill," showing that staff found humor to be important as an interpersonal ability; (b) "humor as a relational tool" with the purpose of establishing and maintaining staff-patient interactions; and (c) "the impact of humor on patients," describing impacts on conflicts...

  20. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long

  1. A Study of Humor in Lost in Thailand from the Perspective of Presupposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2014-01-01

    Humor study enjoys a long history with a variety of theories and methods. Among them, the pragmatic approach is a relatively new and vigorous perspective. Scholars have adopted the cooperative principle and relevance theory to explain humor. However, as to studying humor from the perspective of pragmatic presupposition, very few researches have been done in this regard. Such being the case, this paper will use presupposition as a tool to analyze humor in Lost in Thailand which is a sensational comedy in China. By analyzing cases from this film, the paper aims to explore how presupposition functions in the production of humorous effect, and to provide some new insights into humor study.

  2. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in American Sitcom The Big Bang Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珍; 芮艳芳

    2015-01-01

    Humor plays an indispensable part in human communication. This thesis is a tentative analysis of verbal humor under-standing within the framework of Relevance Theory. This paper, using The Big Bang Theory as a corpus, analyzes the humor gener-ated in the cognitive process of searching for relevance. According to the Relevance Theory, the understanding of humor is a pro-cess in which the hearer finds"relevance"in what seems"irrelevant". The author hopes that this analysis can help more people un-derstand and appreciate the humor in The Big Bang Theory. And meanwhile their personal sense of humor can also be improved.

  3. Ridiculed death and the dead: Black humor on the epitaphs and epigrams of the ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Lađa

    2007-01-01

    Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral) rituals, I am also going to set...

  4. Does humor explain why relationally aggressive adolescents are popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2014-08-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents' gender and their friends' levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; M age = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  5. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  6. Analysis on the Humor and Irony in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓越

    2016-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice, published in 1813, is the most influential work of British female writer Jane Austen (1775-1817). By analyzing Jane Austen's representative novel, Pride and Prejudice, we are convinced by the excellent humor and irony used in it. Irony in Pride and Prejudice is mainly embodied in Austen's verbal irony, situational irony and dramatic irony. Under the perspective of stylistics, this paper analyzes dialogues, descriptive and commentary language and the arrangement of the whole plots of Austen's Pride and Prejudice to show how the different tones of humor and irony are reflected in the novel. This paper also focuses on the significance in portraying the characteristics of the roles and theme performance of humor and irony used in Pride and Prejudice, which help us to appreciate the satire literature.

  7. Reconsidering language teaching through a focus on humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formal language education is often predicated on a series of modernist fictions that greatly simplify the nature of language and the process of communication. Acts of linguistic creativity involving humor and language play are frequently either ignored or considered deviant. In this paper, we contribute to ongoing efforts to re-conceptualize language education in ways that make use of more robust (and less modernist theories of language and communication. We revisit calls for more pedagogical focus on humor and language play and illustrate how more attention to these types of language might help us to move away from some of the classroom fictions that currently constrain teachers and learners alike. Specifically, we present recent conceptions of language and of communication, and discuss how, in light of these, humor and language play can be used to increase learners’ metalinguistic awareness and expand their communicative/interpretive repertoires.

  8. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  9. Erotismo, sexualidad y humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Sigl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la importancia del erotismo, la sexualidad y el humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano. Demuestra que estos elementos performativos no solo están fuertemente interconectados, sino también íntimamente ligados a la sacralidad andina. La primera parte del texto está dedicada a los componentes humorísticos y lúdicos del enamoramiento mediante la danza, postulando que humor y alegría forman parte del “erotismo andino”. Mientras tanto, la segunda parte estudia el “transformismo ritual andino”, que consiste en presentaciones dancísticas sumamente jocosas y fuertemente sexuadas a cargo de hombres hetero y homosexuales disfrazados de mujer.

  10. El humor en la literatura infantil del franquismo

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor Sáez, María Victoria

    2007-01-01

    El período franquista no es un tiempo favorable al humor en la literatura para niños, que se utilizaba como un vehículo de adoctrinamiento, y sólo algunos autores crean historias y personajes capaces de hacer reír y sonreír. Primero con un humor suave, nada crítico o innovador, basado en personajes infantiles divertidos y en situaciones de la vida cotidiana. Después con el juego lingüístico y el disparate en poesía y relatos. Pero, sobre todo, en las historietas cómicas, con...

  11. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality. PMID:27005341

  12. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality.

  13. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further. PMID:27347254

  14. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication. PMID:24160572

  15. Why We Laugh and What Makes Us Laugh: The Enigma of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Asa Berger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Humor (and related concerns such as the nature of comedy and of laughter is an enigmatic subject that has perplexed our greatest thinkers from Aristotle’s time to the present. There are four competing theories that explain humor, each of which argues that all humor is based on: superiority, incongruity, cognitive problems in processing humor and psychoanalytic perspectives (such as masked aggression.

  16. Analysis of Humor in The Big Bang Theory Based on the Conversational Relevance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yang

    2014-01-01

    Humor is the life buoy in waves of life. Pragmatics and humor are closely linked. Relevance is one of the important topics of Pragmatics. This paper takes the lines from The Big Bang Theory as a case study and analyzes the humorous effect from the perspective of Principle of Relevance and Conversational Relevance, hoping to help people deepen the appreciation and un⁃derstanding of humor.

  17. Pragmatics Analysis In Humorous Text In Reader’s Digest Magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina, Sri

    2011-01-01

    Skripsi yang berjudul Pragmatic Analysis in Humorous Text in Reader’s Digest Magazine, menganalisis konteks dari humor yang berbentuk dialog dan bagaimana humor tersebut diinterpretasikan; yang terdapat di dalam teks humor di dalam majalah Reader’s Digest edisi Agustus, September, Oktober, November dan Desember 2010. Analisis ini menggunakan teori Yule tahun 1996 yang mengatakan bahwa beberapa fokus kajian pragmatik adalah mengkaji makna penutur di dalam konteks tertentu dan bagaimana konteks...

  18. Impact of Humor Advertising in Radio and Print Advertising - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    The use of humour in advertising is the effective way of communication in any emotion to sell the products. Humor increase attention and attract more consumers so it became an effective advertising in any medium of advertising. Researchers and Advertisers more interested towards humor advertising more than century, but no review paper regarding impact of humor in radio and print advertising are published. Aim of this paper to get detailed review on impact of humor in radio and print advertisi...

  19. Perception of aggressive humor in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Samson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates humor appreciation of aggressive cartoons in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. These traits were described to have a peculiar relation to laughter-related phenomena, in particular to disparagement humor. 185 participants rated highly aggressive and non-aggressive humorous stimuli for funniness and aversiveness and their scores on the gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism scales were measured. The cartoons were controlled for their structural basis, i.e., incongruity-resolution and nonsense humor, as these two types of humor strongly influence the appreciation of humorous stimuli. The results revealed that high scores on gelotophobia lead to higher aversion to aggressive humor, whereas high scores on katagelasticism lead to more enjoyment of aggressive humor with less aversion. Gelotophobia and katagelasticism lead to sensitivity to aggression in humor, which fits the overt behavior of reacting sensitively towards laughter (gelotophobia and enjoying to laugh at others (katagelasticism. Gelotophilia did not predict reactions to either aggressive or non-aggressive humor but did predict more amusement in general: High scorers on gelotophilia seem to be relaxed towards any form of humor, even if it has an aggressive note. This study confirms the three dimensions to have peculiar responses to aggressive types of humor and opens up several questions to be explored in future research.

  20. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  1. Helping At-Risk College Students Help Themselves through Humor: A Reading and Writing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lois E.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the many benefits of humor. Describes a reading and writing strategy to help at-risk college students reduce stress, appreciate the humor in many areas of college life, and use reading and writing about humorous college situations as a tool for developing critical thinking. Describes an application of the strategy. (SR)

  2. A Study of Dicken’s Humor Weiting——With Incongruity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如红

    2008-01-01

    Many scholars have shown great interest in Dickens’ humor writing.On the basis of the scholars’ studies,this thesis will make an analysis on the humor in his works that arise as reaction to what we perceive "incongruous".The thesis will apply the incongruity theory to Dickens’ humor writing.

  3. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  4. The Effects of Professor Humor on College Students' Attention and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this present study was to investigate the effect of instructor humor on college students' levels of engagement and retention of material. A convenience sample of junior- and senior-level students enrolled in four separate courses within the College of Education were exposed to two different lectures--one humorous, one non-humorous.…

  5. Consumer Response to Humor in Advertising: A Series of Field Studies Using Behavioral Observation.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Cliff; Klein, David M.; Bryant, Jennings

    1990-01-01

    In a series of field studies, social and business events were promoted using humorous, non-humorous, and control formats. The humorous promotions significantly increased attendance for the social events, but showed no significant impact for business events. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.

  6. Use and Non-Use of Humor in Academic ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay; Abdullah, Mohd S. Faiz

    2011-01-01

    A substantial body of research emphasizes the importance of humor in teaching/learning processes; however, research on the reasons for non-use of humor in academic contexts has enjoyed scant attention. Addressing this gap, this study examines the reasons for instructors' humor avoidance taking into account student perceived benefits of using humor…

  7. Microdevice for aqueous humor drainage Maldonado Bas - Pförtner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Maldonado-Bas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A microdevice for the treatment of refractory glaucoma is presented. The underlying concepts, its mechanisms of action and the surgical technique for implanting are explained and the results are analyzed. The microdevice was developed and the surgeries were performed at the Maldonado-Bas Eye Clinic (Cordoba, Argentina, under the rules established in the protocol approved by the provisions of the National Administration of Drugs, Food and Medical Technology 430/7. File No.:1-47-25-649-07-1. METHODS: In a prospective study, following the protocol, 16 eyes with refractory glaucoma were included and operated. Intraocular pressure <21mmHg with or without additional medication was considered successful. The follow-up was one year. Averages, percentages and their 95% confidence bands were calculated. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to compare averages. RESULTS: The average preoperative intraocular pressure was 32.81 mmHg, SD ± 10.94 mmHg in a range of 14 to 50 mmHg. The average post-surgical intraocular pressure at one year was 12.43 mmHg, SD ± 2.85 mmHg in a range of 7 to 19 mmHg. The difference between the pre-and post-surgery average intraocular pressure was 20.38 mmHg. The number of successes was 14 eyes (87.5%, confidence interval (CI 95% 61.6% - 98.6%. The number of failures was two eyes (12.5%, CI 95% 1.43% - 38.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the microdevice is successful for the treatment of refractory glaucoma.

  8. Laughing matters: Infant humor in the context of parental affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7 months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6 months, and more often and sooner at 7 months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months of age, parental affect influenced infants' affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing. PMID:25897958

  9. The Muhammad cartoon controversy and the globalization of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kuipers

    2008-01-01

    At the 2006 conference of the International Society for Humor Studies (Danish University of Education, Copenhagen), several panels addressed issues raised by the Muhammad cartoon story. Among these, a colloquium organized by Paul Lewis and decorously titled "Transnational Ridicule and Response" focu

  10. Laugh and Learn: Using Humor to Teach Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher used humor when teaching Shakespearean tragedy. Describes how this improved students' attitudes and appreciation of the tragedies, helped them appreciate literature devices in the plays, and helped them review prior to their exam. (SR)

  11. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Holland, R.W.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This reprinted article originally appeared in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2009 (Mar), Vol 15(1), 35-45. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2009-03685-005). Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often

  12. Humor Preference as a Function of Preoedipal Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Samuel

    1982-01-01

    Psychoanalytic theory predicts that humor preference is a derivative of unresolved childhood conflicts. Analyzed students' (N=104) Rorschach protocols to yield measures of preoedipal fixation. Students ranked jokes from most to least funny. Results showed that the ranking of jokes was a function of the fixation measures for women only. (Author/RC)

  13. Does CMC Promote Language Play? Exploring Humor in Two Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergriff, Ilona; Fuchs, Carolin

    2009-01-01

    In view of the growing body of research on humor and language play in computer-mediated communication (CMC) which--more than any other medium--has been associated with goofing off, joking, and other nonserious communication, this paper compares spontaneous foreign language play (L2 play) in text-only synchronous computer-mediated versus…

  14. Q fever in pregnant goats: humoral and cellular immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Post, J.; Gelderen, van E.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C. burnetii infections in domestic ruminants even though these species are

  15. Temperament and Communicative Competence as Predictors of Young Children's Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, David K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explores the relations between temperament, communicative competence, and humor expression among four- and five-year-old nursery school children. Shows that ratings of communicative competence and various dimensions of temperament account for a significant proportion of the variance in the reported frequency of children's laughter and verbal and…

  16. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  17. Danish Humor in Cross-Cultural Professional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2014-01-01

    , with no limits or taboos. These characteristics of Danish humor are analyzed here using two different theoretical frameworks: linguistics – where an explanation is found in certain type-specific features of the Danish language, namely the dialogical particles typical of the Nordic languages in general...

  18. Towards a new structural model of the sense of humor: Preliminary findings

    OpenAIRE

    N D

    2012-01-01

    In this article some formal, content-related and procedural considerations towards the sense of humor are articulated and the analysis of both everyday humor behavior and of comic styles leads to the initial proposal of a four factor- model of humor (4FMH). This model is tested in a new dataset and it is also examined whether two forms of comic styles (benevolent humor and moral mockery) do fit in. The model seems to be robust but further studies on the structure of the sense of humor as a pe...

  19. Humor and Resiliency: Towards a Process Model of Coping and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Kuiper

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article considers how humor may fit within a resiliency perspective. Following a brief overview of resiliency approaches, including selected work on positive psychology, several lines of research that provide initial support for resiliency effects of humor on stress and trauma are highlighted. This work ranges from anecdotal case report descriptions of facilitative humor use in extremely traumatic situations (e.g., paramedics, to more rigorous studies examining moderator and cognitive appraisal effects of humor on psychological well-being. Although these initial findings are quite promising, it is noted that some resiliency-based approaches to humor are limited by a sole focus on humor as a positive attribute. As such, a humor styles model, which acknowledges both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of humor, is used to describe broader avenues of research within a resiliency perspective. This process orientation to humor use also highlights the importance of both negative and positive emotion regulation in modulating coping and growth. This model is then used to comment on limitations and potential extensions of current resiliency perspectives on humor, including programs and exercises that attempt to train humor use in a facilitative manner.

  20. Ridiculed death and the dead: Black humor on the epitaphs and epigrams of the ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lađa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral rituals, I am also going to set a question about the attitude to death and life inherent for this kind of humor, arguing that its origin should be searched in the folk tradition.

  1. On Untranslatability of Humor in Mark Twain's Novels and Compensating Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小路

    2016-01-01

    Mark Twain was a well-known 19th-century American author and a reputed critical realist. His novels are excellent for combining humor with irony, which reveal his criticism of kinds of miserable reality in American society. His humor is not just for humorous effect, but has serious and profound social connotations. So when readers of the target language are reading his novels, their understanding of the deep purpose and connotations would be influenced by the quality of translation of those humors. Therefore, translators must own language competence and sufficient knowledge about the cultural background, for humor is a typical example of untranslatability. This paper makes an analysis of the two types of untranslatability: the cultural untranslatability and the linguistic and takes translation of humor in Mark Twain's novels as examples to analyze the untranslatability of humor in literature and gives suggestions of compensating strategy.

  2. Humor styles and loneliness: a study among Hong Kong and Hangzhou undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Wong, Ashley Yuen Man; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between humor styles and loneliness among a sample of Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese. A total of 159 Hong Kong undergraduates and 178 Hangzhou undergraduates were recruited to complete a survey composed of the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scales. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-defeating humor explained significant variance in both social and emotional loneliness for Hong Kong students, but only in social loneliness for Hangzhou students. Hong Kong students scored significantly higher on aggressive humor and self-defeating humor, and scored significantly lower on affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor than did their counterparts in Hangzhou. This could be attributed to the greater influence of Confucianism in Mainland China than in Hong Kong. PMID:25153950

  3. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor. PMID:27180510

  4. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.

  5. Decoding humor experiences from brain activity of people viewing comedy movies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Sawahata

    Full Text Available Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer's perception of humor (humor onset determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events.

  6. Research on the Role of Humor in Well-Being and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, Dr. Arnie Cann discusses his research and views on the ubiquitous role of humor in psychological health and well-being. The interview begins with Professor Cann recounting how he originally became interested in studying humor. He then reflects on the main findings associated with the wide variety of humor-related studies he has conducted over the years. In doing so, Dr. Cann provides suggestions and ideas for further research investigating the role of humor in health and well-being. Specific topic areas discussed include the use of humor in the workplace and other social domains, personality approaches to humor, humor and interpersonal processes, humor and psychopathology, and humor’s role in dealing with stress and well-being. One of the prominent themes in this interview is the clear recognition of sense of humor as a multi-dimensional construct that includes various components that may either be beneficial or detrimental to well-being. A further important theme is the major distinction between humor as an inherent personality construct versus humor that results from exposure to stimuli (e.g., a comedy film. Comments are also provided by Dr. Cann on how the positive affect stemming from humor may be of particular benefit to the individual. Also discussed is the recent move to more fully integrate contemporary humor research with positive psychology approaches. The interview concludes with Dr. Cann providing several recommendations regarding future theorizing and research on the role of humor in psychological well-being.

  7. Is Laughing at the Expense of Victims and Offenders a Red Flag? Humor and Secondary Traumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Those who work with human trauma often use humor to handle job stressors. Research has demonstrated that lighthearted humor is related to lower secondary traumatic stress scores, while gallows humor has the inverse relationship. This work explores how three types of humor relate to secondary traumatic stress: (a) humor at the expense of victims, (b) humor at the expense of offenders, and (c) humor containing sexual innuendo. Internet crimes against children taskforce personnel completed questionnaires about secondary traumatic stress and coping techniques. Humor at the expense of victims was rarely used, but when it was, it was indicative of higher secondary traumatic stress. There were no relationships between secondary traumatic stress and the use of humor at the expense of offenders or humor containing sexual innuendo. PMID:26301442

  8. Quillaja brasiliensis saponins induce robust humoral and cellular responses in a bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Silveira, Fernando; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Yendo, Anna Carolina; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-04-01

    A saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis leaves (QB-90) and a semi-purified aqueous extract (AE) were evaluated as adjuvants in a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine in mice. Animals were immunized on days 0 and 14 with antigen plus either QB-90 or AE or an oil-adjuvanted vaccine. Two-weeks after boosting, antibodies were measured by ELISA; cellular immunity was evaluated by DTH, lymphoproliferation, cytokine release and single cell IFN-γ production. Serum anti-BVDV IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b were significantly increased in QB-90- and AE-adjuvanted vaccines. A robust DTH response, increased splenocyte proliferation, Th1-type cytokines and enhanced production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were detected in mice that received QB-90-adjuvanted vaccine. The AE-adjuvanted preparation stimulated humoral responses but not cellular immune responses. These findings reveal that QB-90 is capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immune responses when used as adjuvant. PMID:27012913

  9. Cartooning Humor: How Arabs are Laughably Derided in Animations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Belamghari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some animated movies use humor to capture the full attention of its audience. In so doing, the movie’s messages have become a great concern for many theorists and critics by virtue of the idea that a movie can be a repository of ideologies meant to construct a certain type of easy-going and noncritical audience. This paper, therefore, takes the example of Max Fleischer’s Popeye the Sailor Meets Ali Baba and his Forty Thieves (1937 and Robert Clampett’s Ali Baba Bound (1941 as its case studies aiming at spotting the different manifestations of humor, taking Arabs as its subject-matter, becoming a leaked ideology and taming the discourse that is amplified, manipulated, and delivered to the Western public in unwarrantable ways compared to the imagery of Westerners.

  10. KEPEKAAN HUMOR DENGAN DEPRESI PADA REMAJA DITINJAU DARI JENIS KELAMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationship between sense of humorsand depression in adolescents in terms of gender. The subjects of this studywere students of SMA Negeri 1 Sewon, Bantul, Yogyakarta class X andXI. The data collection tools of this study used the Beck Depression Inventory(BDI and the Sense of Humor Scale Version-B, and used the analysiscovariance method to analyze the data. The results of this study showedsignificant differences in depression among female subjects and male subjects with a value of F = 6.905 and p = 0.010 (p <0.05 by controlling the sense of humor variable. The average level of female depression (7.284 was higher than male subjects (6.196. This result will be discussed further in this paper.

  11. Semblanzas deportivas: humor, deporte y terror en Fontanarrosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Palacios

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el uso del humor negro del caricaturista Fontanarrosa en su serie Semblanzas Deportivas, definiendo, a la vez que deslindando, lo humorístico y lo cómico. Se aborda también el lugar que ocupa la obra de Fontanarrosa en la cultura popular, en donde destacan sobre todo temas deportivos como: fútbol, boxeo, atletismo y lucha libre. Se observa el uso de la literatura borgeana en Fontanarrosa y cómo, a partir de la exageración en imágenes de los rasgos de sus personajes, se consigue elaborar una crítica sin que sea necesario recurrir a la abierta oposición.

  12. Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2008-09-01

    Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account. PMID:19105029

  13. La grata dominación del humor publicitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Elena del Carmen Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone dar cuenta de las estrategias con que el humor hace emerger, en el contexto general de los discursos, aquellos fragmentos omitidos por el decir oficial. Por su naturaleza de articulador ideológico, el texto publicitario (como todo texto remite a lo ya dicho en un estado dado de sociedad. En este sentido, resulta interesante observar qué fragmentos del discurso social recoge la publicidad humorística, con qué retórica los hace risibles y quiénes son aquellos sobre los que recae la risa. Se comentan avisos que son emitidos actualmente por canales de cable o aire en la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina.

  14. Lateralization in appreciation of humor: sex differences vs stimulus effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, J

    1997-10-01

    The finding that women rate funnier humorous items with left-ear input, while men give higher ratings with right-ear input has been cited as evidence for a biological basis for sex differences in appreciation of humor. However, in 1991 Gallivan did not find this effect and suggested that the earlier finding could have been due to the use of 'male-oriented' stimuli. In this study, 72 subjects rated the funniness of 32 'female oriented' comedy excerpts, presented monaurally. Women gave higher ratings with right-ear input but men's ratings were not affected by ear of presentation. These findings represent another failure to replicate the earlier-reported hemispheric effect and support the conclusion that it may have been due to the stimuli used. PMID:9347538

  15. Dislexicon of slapstick humor, funny cinematography, and very special effects

    OpenAIRE

    D'haeyere, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    The Dislexicon of Slapstick Humor, Funny Cinematography, and Very Special Effects is a richly illustrated glossary containing 138 witty words used in Mack Sennett's comedy studios between 1912 and 1933. It comprises clever concepts connected to slapstick comedy, gag strategies, funny pratfalls, dangerous stuntwork, and secrets of the filmmaking trade. In a mishmash of slapstick facts and fictions, the Dislexicon fully accepts small talk, tall tales, filmspeak, jokes, and gossip as historical ...

  16. American Humor reflected in English Film The Big Bang Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珍

    2016-01-01

    With the accelerated process of globalization, we are able to access to the wide variety of cultural forms from all over the world conveniently. The United States, a typical country of immigrants, enjoys the world's first place of ethnic cultural melt-ing. In this paper, the writer takes popular sitcom, The Big Bang Theory, for example to explore the humorous culture of the United States as well as its sources and characteristics from the perspective of subtitle translation.

  17. The Relationship between Principals’ Humor Styles and Instructional Leadership Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ergün RECEPOĞLU; Özdemir, Servet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine whether there is a meaningful difference or not between humor styles of school principals and their leadership behaviors This is a descriptive research in the relational survey model The population of the study is teachers who work in the primary schools in Kastamonu province in 2009 2010 and 2010 2011 Education year 1046 teachers who work in the 70 primary schools were reached in the process of data collection As a data collection instrument ldqu...

  18. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal, as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and

  19. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  20. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  1. Stop laughing! Humor perception with and without expressive suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Sebastian; Grandjean, Didier; Samson, Andrea C; Delplanque, Sylvain; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-01-01

    The neurophysiological study of emotion regulation focused on the strategy of reappraisal-i.e., the cognitive reinterpretation of a stimulus. Reappraisal reduces emotional expression, the experience of both negative and positive feelings, and the amplitude of an event-related potential (ERP)-the late positive potential (LPP). In contrast, the strategy of expressive suppression (ES), being the inhibition of emotional expression, has been reported to reduce subjective feelings of positive, but not negative emotion, and has not yet been investigated with ERPs. We focused on the LPP to assess the correlates of ES in the context of humor perception. Twenty-two female participants rated sequences of humorous (H) and non-humorous (NH) pictures, while their zygomaticus muscle was recorded. A spontaneous (SP) condition, in which participants attended naturally to the pictures, resulted in higher ratings of funniness, increased smiling, and increased LPP amplitude for H compared to NH stimuli. An ES condition, in which participants suppressed their facial reactions, resulted in reduced smiling, without affecting subjective ratings. LPP amplitude did not differ between H and NH stimuli during ES, suggesting equal allocation of processing resources to both stimuli. These results suggest that, similarly to reappraisal, ES modifies the way the brain processes positive emotional stimuli. PMID:22369232

  2. Studies of the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamahashi, K; Sato, M; Yamato, M; Kokubo, M; Mitani, G; Ito, S; Nagai, T; Ebihara, G; Kutsuna, T; Okano, T; Mochida, J

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to repair and regenerate articular cartilage with layered chondrocyte sheets, produced using temperature-responsive culture dishes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets. Articular chondrocytes and synovial cells were harvested during total knee arthroplasty. After co-culture, the samples were divided into three groups: a monolayer, 7 day culture sheet group (group M); a triple-layered, 7 day culture sheet group (group L); and a monolayer culture group with a cell count identical to that of group L (group C). The secretion of collagen type 1 (COL1), collagen type 2 (COL2), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13), transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Layered chondrocyte sheets produced the most humoral factors. PGE2 expression declined over time in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L. TGFβ expression was low in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets may contribute to cartilaginous tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:23165985

  3. Specific and nonspecific aspects of humoral immune response in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsztajn, G M; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Lombardi, C; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    1. We have studied some generic and specific aspects of the humoral immune response in 96 patients with leprosy (29 paucibacillary and 67 multibacillary individuals). We determined serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG and IgA), CH50, C1q, C3 and C4, circulating immune complexes (CIC), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and antinuclear antibodies. No specific pattern of general humoral immune changes could be observed. 2. The specific immune response was studied by the detection of specific IgM anti-M. leprae antibodies. An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and an ELISA were compared for clinical effectiveness. IRMA showed greater sensitivity for the serodiagnosis of leprosy as compared to ELISA (88.1% vs 58.2% for multibacillary patients and 20.7% vs 10.3% for paucibacillary leprosy patients). Specificity was 96% for IRMA and 97% for ELISA. 3. Our results indicate that nonspecific changes in the humoral immune response are of little value in assessing leprosy patients and that immune assays for the detection of specific anti-M. leprae antibodies may be of value in the diagnosis, study and follow-up of these patients. PMID:8173529

  4. A systematic review of humoral immune responses against tumor antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2009-10-01

    This review summarizes studies on humoral immune responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) with a focus on antibody frequencies and the potential diagnostic, prognostic, and etiologic relevance of antibodies against TAAs. We performed a systematic literature search in Medline and identified 3,619 articles on humoral immune responses and TAAs. In 145 studies, meeting the inclusion criteria, humoral immune responses in cancer patients have been analyzed against over 100 different TAAs. The most frequently analyzed antigens were p53, MUC1, NY-ESO-1, c-myc, survivin, p62, cyclin B1, and Her2/neu. Antibodies against these TAAs were detected in 0-69% (median 14%) of analyzed tumor patients. Antibody frequencies were generally very low in healthy individuals, with the exception of few TAAs, especially MUC1. For several TAAs, including p53, Her2/neu, and NY-ESO-1, higher antibody frequencies were reported when tumors expressed the respective TAA. Antibodies against MUC1 were associated with a favorable prognosis while antibodies against p53 were associated with poor disease outcome. These data suggest different functional roles of endogenous antibodies against TAAs. Although data on prediagnostic antibody levels are scarce and antibody frequencies for most TAAs are at levels precluding use in diagnostic assays for cancer early detection, there is some promising data on achieving higher sensitivity for cancer detection using panels of TAAs.

  5. How Does the Agent’s Perceived Intentions Change Consumers Response to the Humorous (Disparagement Humor) Advertisement in Morocco?

    OpenAIRE

    Nejjar, Ichraq

    2012-01-01

    Humorous advertisements are widely used in Morocco. Disparagement humour in particular is gaining popularity within Moroccan advertisers. However, little research has been done in order to assess consumer’s feelings and opinions towards these advertisements. This research will therefore examine female Moroccan’s sentiments and opinions towards disparagement advertisements by employing the persuasion knowledge model as a framework, and specifically focusing on the impact that the perceived adv...

  6. Sense of humor, childhood cancer stressors, and outcomes of psychosocial adjustment, immune function, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jacqueline S; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Gregory, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis, treatment, and side effects of childhood cancer have been described as extremely stressful experiences in the life of a child. Anecdotally, children report that a sense of humor helps them cope with the daily experiences of living with cancer; however, no research has examined sense of humor and childhood cancer stressors. This study investigated the effect of sense of humor on the relationship between cancer stressors and children's psychosocial adjustment to cancer, immune function, and infection using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. A direct relationship was observed between sense of humor and psychosocial adjustment to cancer, such that children with a high sense of humor had greater psychological adjustment, regardless of the amount of cancer stressors. A moderating effect was observed for incidence of infection. As childhood cancer stressors increase, children with high coping humor scores reported fewer incidences of infection than low scorers.

  7. Analysis of Humor in Zhao Benshan’s Comic Sketch from Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹

    2012-01-01

      Humor is a pervasive human phenomenon. It is observable in many spheres and aspects of life in various human interactions. Humor plays an important role in our social life. Relevance Theory provides a new perspective on the analysis of humor interpretation. From a relevance-theoretic point of view, humor interpretation is a cognitive process in which the addressee is willing to sacrifice more cognitive effort to access the more covert interpretation in pursuit of the extra ef ect—amusement brought about by comic sketch. The conclusion is made in the end in which the Relevance Theory works as it plays such an important role in analyzing humor production that helps us understand and appreciate Zhao’s humor better.

  8. Patrón de immunoblotting y niveles de anticuerpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii en suero y humor acuoso de pacientes con lesiones de toxoplasmosis ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morella Bouchard Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar en muestras de suero y humor acuoso los niveles de anticuerpos anti-toxoplasma a través del Coeficiente de Goldmann y Witmer (CGW y el patrón de reconocimiento antigénico a través del immunoblotting (IB, en pacientes con serología positiva con y sin lesiones de toxoplasmosis ocular. Se recogieron simultáneamente muestras de suero y humor acuoso de 26 pacientes: un grupo de casos que poseían lesiones retinales de toxoplasmosis ocular en fase activa e inactiva (n=17 y un grupo control que requería cirugía ocular por presencia de cataratas (n=9. Las determinación de IgM e IgG específicas se realizó por ELISA de inmunocaptura e indirecto, respectivamente. Se utilizó la inmunodifusión radial para la cuantificación de la IgG total. El CGW resultó >2, indicativo de producción local de anticuerpos específicos en 12/17 de los casos, mientras que en los controles no se observó, esto evidenció una sensibilidad del 71% y una especificidad de 100%. En IB, la aparición de bandas diferentes en humor acuoso, indicativo de producción local de anticuerpos específicos se observaron en 11/17 de los casos y 1/9 de los controles, reflejando una sensibilidad de 65% y una especificidad de 89%. Al considerar las dos pruebas la sensibilidad se incrementó a un 73%, pero la especificidad disminuyó a 89%. En conclusión el IB es útil como prueba confirmatoria para diagnóstico de toxoplasmosis ocular, pero sólo como un complemento del coeficiente de GW especialmente en pacientes con lesiones atípicas donde el diagnóstico clínico es difícil. Aqueous humor and serum immunoblotting profiles and anti–toxoplasma gondii antibodies in patients with toxoplasmosis-induced retinal lesions Abstract The purpose of this study was to analize the anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies levels in serum and aqueous humor samples in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis by using Goldman and Witmer Coefficient (GWC and the

  9. "Make'em Laugh and They Will Learn": A Closer Look at the Relationship between Perceptions of Instructors' Humor Orientation and Student Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja

    The use of humor in the classroom has been investigated using a variety of humor operationalizations and methodologies with mixed results. The present study examined the role of teacher humor orientation (HO) rather than specific humorous behaviors. The relationship between teacher humor orientation and learning was the focus of this study.…

  10. Autism-spectrum traits predict humor styles in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism tend to have impaired processing of humor and laugh at things that are not commonly found funny. Here the relationship between humor styles and the broader autism phenotype was investigated in a sample of the general population. The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) and the humor styles questionnaire (HSQ) were administered to six hundred US participants recruited through an Internet-based service. On the w...

  11. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth S. Bast; Elliot M. Berry

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are...

  12. Utilization of humor in a tourism service encounter when creating a service experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtovuori, H.-M. (Hilla-Maria)

    2016-01-01

    The motivation for this research is to explore how humor is utilized in a tourism service encounter when creating a service experience. The aim of this study is to link an understanding between theory and empirical data, and construct a framework that answers the research questions. The aim is also to increase awareness of how a company can utilize humor in creating a new service. The delimitation has been made by studying one phenomenon, which is the humorous service encounter situation tha...

  13. Humor in advertising: a review on use of television radio and print advertising media

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Television advertising is a most common commercial activity used in advertising medium. Humor in advertising contains an important aspect on changing attitude of the consumer, improves buying behavior and creates new patterns for buying any goods and services. Humor in television advertising is the effective and convenient way to attract the any consumers because they are emotional based content and makes the consumer to special for satisfaction. Compared to all emotions humor advertising is ...

  14. Analysis of Black Humor in the Movie Forrest Gump From Rhetorical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱梅红; 刘立红

    2009-01-01

    The humorous effect is well presented throughout the American movie Forrest Gump by using kinds of rhetoric methods.This paper mainly focuses on the black humor in the movie from rhetorical perspective.It analyzes the application of certain rhetoric methods such as sarcasm,irony,simile,and hyperbole in the movie;and it also illustrates how the effect of black humor is achieved by giving a great number of examples.

  15. Virgin soil in irony research: Personality, humor, and the “sense of irony”

    OpenAIRE

    Bruntsch, Richard; Hofmann, Jennifer; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    he aim of the paper is fourfold: (a) show why humor scholars should study irony, (b) explore the need for considering interindividual differences in healthy adults’ irony performance, (c) stress the necessity for developing tools assessing habitual differences in irony performance, and (d) indicate future directions for joint irony and humor research and outline possible applications. Verbal irony is often employed with a benevolent humorous intent by speakers, but can also serve as a means o...

  16. Perception of aggressive humor in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Andrea C.; Yonni Meyer

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates humor appreciation of aggressive cartoons in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. These traits were described to have a peculiar relation to laughter-related phenomena, in particular to disparagement humor. 185 participants rated highly aggressive and non-aggressive humorous stimuli for funniness and aversiveness and their scores on the gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism scales were measured. The cartoons were controlled for t...

  17. Firespitters: Performance, Power, and Payoff in African American Women's Humor, 1968-Present

    OpenAIRE

    Finley, Jessyka Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study considers the social, cultural, and political production of black women's humor, making the case that humor becomes more than merely a technique of entertainment. Instead, I argue that humor is a mode of literacy and site of self-authorship for African American women across a variety of discursive fields, including literature, sketch comedy, stand-up comedy, and electoral politics. Usually described as a "routine," the professional stand-up comics of this study are in fact presenti...

  18. Sex differences in preferences for humor: a replication, modification, and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Liana S E; Hurwitz, William; Lieberman, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary-minded scientists have proposed that humor is a sexually selected trait in men that signals mate quality. Indeed, women tend to prefer men who make them laugh and men tend to prefer women who laugh at their jokes. However, it is unclear how robust this pattern is. Here we report a replication of one of the first studies (Bressler, Martin, and Balshine, 2006) to examine the sex differences in preferences for humor receptivity versus humor production. We replicate Bressler et al.'s (2006) findings that men prefer women who are receptive to their humor whereas women prefer men who produce humor. These findings held even after we modified Bressler et al.'s questionnaire for better conceptual validity. Furthermore, using a separate measure designed to assess trade-offs, we found that men viewed humor receptivity as a necessity and humor production as a luxury when they were asked to create an ideal long-term partner. For women, it was just the opposite. These results bolster the claim that sexual selection has shaped sex differences regarding preferences for a prospective mate's sense of humor and that what one means by "sense of humor" can vary. PMID:25670631

  19. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall. PMID:11506048

  20. Application of Pragmatic Theories on Humorous Language in Advertisement and their Translations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈亚媛; 周玉梅

    2012-01-01

    This paper will analyze the humorous language in advertisement and their English to Chinese and Chinese to English translations from the pragmatic perspective.Some pragmatic theories including the Relevance Theory,the Cooperative Principle,and the Speech Acts will be introduced to discuss how the humor effects and how to translate it efficiently,i.e.,achieving the equivalent effect in the context.The aim of the paper is to comprehend the humor and to analyze how to translate the humorous language in advertisements fromthe perspective ofpragmatics.

  1. Humor: alguns mecanismos lingüísticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Carcagnolo Gil

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Quer-se pôr em evidência algumas possibilidades que a língua oferece para a produção do humor. Uma das principais características do texto-piada é a sua estruturação, marcada pela oposição entre os elementos antecedente x conseqüente, oposição essa que se resolve por meio de um mediador, cujas bases distribuem-se pelos níveis fonético-fonológico, morfossintático e semântico.

  2. Methylmercury: effect on serum enzymes and humoral antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, L.D. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis); Exon, J.H.; Arbogast, B.

    1977-05-01

    Dosages of 20 and 10 ppM methylmercury were toxic to rabbits while 1 ppM did not produce clinical signs or death. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were elevated in all rabbits exposed to methylmercury. Methylmercury-exposed rabbits challenged to A/PR8 influenza virus had hemagglutination inhibition titers as much as four times lower than those of controls. Histopathologic lesions were found in the cerebellum of rabbits that died. The most significant features of this study were that methylmercury chloride suppressed the humoral immune system and resulted in increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels, which may aid in diagnosis when methylmercury poisoning is suspected.

  3. Kinetics of humoral responsiveness and antigenic distribution in operated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaert, P; Mahieu, A; van Geertruyden, N

    1979-01-01

    Wistar R/A rats were injected intravenously with 10(9) sheep red blood cells (SRBC) prior to, during or after a standard laparotomy. Stimulation of anti-SRBC antibody synthesis was already observed when the antigen was given 4 h prior to surgery and was maximal if SRBC were administered at the time of operation. The enhancing effect on the immune response lasted for 2 days after surgery. From the third post-operative day on, the injection of SRBC induced a normal humoral response. No subsequent depression was detected. Inter-organ distribution studies of 51Cr-labelled SRBC injected at various times prior, during or after the surgical procedure, showed a maximum decrease of liver uptake during operation; the depression was still present 2 h later but on the first post-operative day, no significant difference from the controls could be demonstrated. When the labelled antigen was given before surgery, organ distribution was normal. Consequently, there is no time relationship between the stimulation of antibody production and the alteration of total phagocytosis induced by surgery. Therefore, the enhanced humoral response cannot be explained only by spillover of the antigen from the liver into lymphoid organs. PMID:511217

  4. Effect of centchroman on cellular and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Licto; Asad, Mohammad; Hrishikeshavan, Heremaglur Jagannath; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2007-01-01

    Centchroman (Ormeloxifene) is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator that is used as once a week oral contraceptive agent. The effect of centchroman on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. The first three models namely carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and neutrophil adhesion test were used to study cell mediated immunity while the latter three models were used to see the effect on humoral immunity. Centchroman was administered orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg and levamisole (2.5 mg/kg/ p.o) was used as standard drug. Centchroman significantly increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and also prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased significantly the circulating antibody litre in indirect haemagglunation test. However, it did not show any significant effect on phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay and nor did influence the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Centchroman was also not effective in preventing the cyclophosphamde induced neutropenia. Hence, it was concluded that centchroman increases humoral immunity with no significant effect on cell mediated immunity. PMID:18476393

  5. He Who Laughs First: The Importance of Humor to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne

    1985-01-01

    Reviews current theories of humor development, discusses the interaction of humor with other developmental areas (including cognitive development, personality development, creativity, and moral development), and suggests ways in which research can be applied in the early childhood classroom. (Author/DST)

  6. To Laugh is to Know: A Discussion of the Cognitive Element in Children's Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Libby

    The development of children's humor is described, focusing on the cognitive aspect of what is funny and how this relates to children's intellectual growth. Cognitive elements that facilitate children's humor are identified as: (1) the ability to grasp incongruities, (2) the presence of an intellectual challenge, (3) timing, (4) novelty, and (5) a…

  7. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in Friends from the Perspective of Coopera-tive Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷宏

    2014-01-01

    Friends is a classical situation comedy in America in which humorous dialogues abound. With the theoretical frame-work of Cooperative Principle, this thesis extracts typical dialogues in American situation comedy Friends as data and discusses the characters’violation of maxims of Cooperative Principle together with the derived humorous effect.

  8. The Role of Humor in Learning Physics: a Study of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Maria

    2016-02-01

    We all know that they do it, but what do students laugh about when learning science together? Although research has shown that students do use humor when they learn science, the role of humor in science education has received little attention. In this study, undergraduate students' laughter during collaborative work in physics has been investigated. In order to do this, a framework inspired by conversation analysis has been used. Empirical data was drawn from two video-recorded sessions in which first-year engineering students solved physics problems together. The analysis revealed that the students' use of humor was almost exclusively related to physics. Five themes identified summarize the role of humor in the group discussions: Something is obvious, Something is difficult, Something said might be wrong, Something is absurd, and Something said is not within informal norms. This study shows that humor may contribute not only to a good working atmosphere and thereby to the students' learning but also how humor interrelates with both disciplinary culture of physics and its epistemology. The students do not only create and re-create humor that facilitates their social interactions, but through humor they constitute local norms of science and engage with the disciplinary discourse.

  9. A Review of Humor for Computer Games: Play, Laugh and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormann, Claire; Biddle, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Computer games are now becoming ways to communicate, teach, and influence attitudes and behavior. In this article, we address the role of humor in computer games, especially in support of serious purposes. We begin with a review of the main theories of humor, including superiority, incongruity, and relief. These theories and their…

  10. On the Anti-slavery Theme and Great Humor in Pudd'nhead Wilson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢争艳

    2015-01-01

    Pudd'nhead Wilson is an excellent novel of Mark Twain.Mark Twain fully uses his great humor to deeply criticize and satirize the darkness of the society in Pudd'nhead Wilson.This paper mainly makes an exploration on Twain's anti-slavery theme and marvelous humor in the novel.

  11. On The Loss of Humor in Translation From Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张路

    2012-01-01

    Humor is everywhere in our daily life.It not only brings people laughter,but also reduces pressure,relaxes intensive atmosphere,and helps people avoid embarrassing situation.Meanwhile,humor can also reflect people’s attitude towards life and shows the charm of human being’s language and their wisdom.The problem is that humor cannot be accurately and vividly be translated due to varied factors such as culture,linguistics and spelling, etc. This thesis mainly analyzes the reasons and solutions of humor translation from the perspective of Skopos theory.This analysis is based on an abundance of humor examples.By such thorough analysis,it is found that differences in culture and linguistics account for the failures in humor translation.Chinese and westerners differ a lot in cultural vocabulary,conventional structure,semantic, syntax,social and historical background and value,which puts forth many problems for translation especially for humor translation that requires expressing the most vivid meaning in the least words.Under the guidance of Skopos theory,texts can also be successfully translated.It is under the guidance of Skopos theory no matter the translator adopts transliteration,domestication or method of notes.Therefore,by such analysis from the perspective of Skopos theory,readers will have a deep and thorough understanding of humor translation.

  12. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  13. Humor in High School and the Role of Teacher Leaders in School Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiczky, Bonnie; Mullen, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    How can public schools improve public relations strategies, particularly in communications between teachers and students? The purposes of this study were to investigate teacher leaders' perceptions of the use of humor in the high school classroom and discover how humor might bridge instruction to student learning and strengthen…

  14. How fun are your meetings? How and when humor patterns emerge and impact team performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our

  15. Humor techniques: from real world and game environments to smart environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Streitz, Norbert; Markopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore how future smart environments can be given a sense of humor. Humor requires smartness. Entering witty remarks in a conversation requires understanding of the conversation, the conversational partner, the context and the history of the conversation. We can try to model intera

  16. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  17. "Last Professor Standing!": Powerpoint Enables All Faculty to Use Humor in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    There are two major global educational trends that have changed the form and execution of humor in the classroom and in professional conferences: (1) the burgeoning instructional technology, especially PowerPoint, which can provide a vehicle for several forms of low risk humor anyone can present; and (2) the diversity of classroom demographics,…

  18. A Review of Humor in Educational Settings: Four Decades of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, John A.; Dunbar, Norah; Rodriguez, Dariela; Liu, Shr-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to provide a summary of extant research regarding humor in the classroom, with an emphasis on identifying and explaining inconsistencies in research findings and offering new directions for future studies in this area. First, the definitions, functions, and main theories of humor are reviewed. Next, the paper…

  19. Finding Comfort in a Joke: Consolatory Effects of Humor Through Cognitive Distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate that the cognitive demands involved in humor processing can attenuate negative emotions. A primary aspect of humor is that it poses cognitive demands needed for incongruency resolution. On the basis of findings that cognitive distraction prevents mood-congruent proces

  20. Interactions of the humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 with the complement system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doni, Andrea; Garlanda, Cecilia; Bottazzi, Barbara;

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system comprises a cellular and a humoral arm. The long pentraxin PTX3 is a fluid phase pattern recognition molecule, which acts as an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. PTX3 has antibody-like properties including interactions with complement components...

  1. The heart of the matter: the effects of humor on well-being during recovery from cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Nicholas L; Yoshimura, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the uses of humor among cardiovascular patients to test the associations between humor use, satisfaction with companion relationships, and health during recovery. Self-report data were collected from members of two national support groups for patients recovering from cardiovascular disease. As expected, general humorousness associated with social and psychological well-being. Several specific functions of humor in cardiovascular recovery were identified and linked with health perceptions. Antidote humor increased social and psychological health perceptions, whereas conversation regulation humor and distancing humor were negatively related to perceived social and psychological health. Relationship satisfaction mediated most effects. The findings offer new insight into the variability of humor effects, particularly following cardiovascular treatment. PMID:23829386

  2. Humor Therapy: Relieving Chronic Pain and Enhancing Happiness for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi M. Y. Tse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effectiveness of a humor therapy program in relieving chronic pain, enhancing happiness and life satisfaction, and reducing loneliness among older persons with chronic pain. It was a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest controlled design. Older persons in a nursing home were invited to join an 8-week humor therapy program (experimental group, while those in another nursing home were treated as a control group and were not offered the program. There were 36 older people in the experimental group and 34 in the control group. Upon completion of the humor therapy program, there were significant decreases in pain and perception of loneliness, and significant increases in happiness and life satisfaction for the experimental group, but not for the control group. The use of humor therapy appears to be an effective nonpharmacological intervention. Nurses and other healthcare professionals could incorporate humor in caring for their patients.

  3. The Relationship of Self Esteem and Humor Styles in First Class Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Soner Cakmak; Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam; Ali Tasdemir; Mahmut Onur Karaytug

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Self-esteem and humor styles are significant factors for being a healthy person. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation ship between self-esteem and humor styles in medical students. Material and Methods: Two hundred three medical students (107 males, 96 females) were included this study. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and humor style was measured with Humor Styles Questionnaire. Results: The rate of students who have mild or high ...

  4. Science for the Public Through Collaboration and Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Richard

    2013-03-01

    The transformation of all things media and information into a dynamic environment of user access has created what seems infinite possibilities to inform the public in many different ways - as well as seemingly infinite possibilities to confuse. This talk will describe a rather non-conventional collaboration between two different creative cultures and its significance to maintaining scientific accuracy and devising strategies important to audience engagement - among them humor. While focusing on the award-winning effort ``When Things Get Small'' created by University of California Television producer R. Wargo in collaboration with condensed matter physicist I.K. Schuller and actor Adam J. Smith, with both NSF and private support, the case study provides insight into a model and modes which can be used successfully by other scientists to engage the public in what they do.

  5. NOVEL MLANTJARAN KA SASAK: FROM DILLEMATIC TEACHERS TO HUMOROUS ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Tingkat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the representation of the image of teachers in the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak written by Gde Srawana. Using the theory of literary sociology and the theory of representation as the basis of analysis, it was found that teachers were  imaged of being dilemmatic, humanistic idealistic, caring about the Balinese culture, and being humorous. Sociologically, the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak pictured the life background of the Balinese society during 1930s, indicated by the critical attitude of the intellectuals through I Made Sarati and Ida Ayu Priya, the characters who played a role as teachers, towards the caste feudalism in marriage. Such a critical attitude was expressed in such an inciting way that the ethic and aesthetic values needed to educate society were not neglected.

  6. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Von Mensdorff-Pouilly

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer.

  7. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensdorff-Pouilly, Silvia von, E-mail: s.vonmensdorff@vumc.nl; Moreno, Maria [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands); Verheijen, René H. M. [Department of Woman & Baby, Division of Surgical & Oncological Gynaecology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands)

    2011-07-29

    MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer.

  8. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer

  9. Infant humor perception from 3- to 6-months and attachment at one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireault, Gina; Sparrow, John; Poutre, Merlin; Perdue, Brittany; Macke, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Infancy is a critical time for the development of secure attachment, which is facilitated by emotionally synchronous interactions with parents. Humor development, which includes shared laughter and joint attention to an event, emerges concurrently with attachment, but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, between humor development and attachment in the first year. Thirty 3-month-old infants were videoed at home each month until they were 6-months old while their parents attempted to amuse them. Frequency of infants' smiles and laughs served as a measure of "state humor", and the smiling/laughing subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised served as a measure of "trait humor". State and trait humor were not correlated. Lower trait humor as 6 months predicted higher attachment security on the Attachment Q-sort at 12-months (r=.46), suggesting that less good-humored infants elicit greater parental engagement, which works to the benefit of attachment, or vice versa. Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. PMID:22982281

  10. Humor, Loneliness and Interpersonal Communication: A Quantitative Study of Romanian Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Schiau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study examines the correlations between humor, loneliness, gender and aging by presenting the results from a sample of eighty-three older Romanian adults, aged sixty and above. The first section of the paper is a comprehensive review of the social-psychological literature on aging, gender and humor. The second section assesses the findings generated from a study that uses the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (Thorson & Powell, 1993 and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults – short version, (diTomaso, Brannen & Best, 2004. Building on Robert Weiss’s (1973 reflections on the differences between feelings of loneliness because of social isolation or emotional isolation, the research findings nuance –and in some cases challenge several assumptions on gender, age, and emotional and social loneliness. The findings also point to the correlation between feelings of social loneliness and the use of humor in interpersonal communications. The data collected suggests that while Romanian men may value the use of humor more than women when self-reporting, that older Romanian women tend to use humor in interpersonal situations and that there is a significant correlation between the use of this type of humor and a reduced sense of social loneliness.

  11. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M Fiacconi

    Full Text Available Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR and facial electromyography (EMG. Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.

  12. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others. PMID:26332843

  13. The influence of humor styles in coping strategies in Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Roberto Lillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a growing interest in the study of the resources that people use from face to a problem. The interest in the study of the characteristics related to the humor has gone in increase, especially for the influence of the development of a new concept in psychology that derives in the call positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Zinder and McCullog 2000, in Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003 which is centered in adaptive strengths such as optimism, faith, courage, as well as humor (Martin 2003, quoted in Martin et al., 2003. Sense of humor has been considered as an unidimensional construct (Omar, 1995 and the consequencies has been some errors in the assesment, as a result of a problem of validity. The present study seeks to introduce certain aspects that have not been considered in the past, so much the potential beneficial effects, as the deleterious forms of the sense of humor as for the psychological well-being. Four dimensions of the sense of humor were assesed (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003, version Lillo, 2006 relating to the uses or functions in everyday life and the ways of people cope (Fridenberg and Lewis, 1991, version Richaud de Minzi. 2003. They were also significant relationships among styles of humor and ways of coping that could explain the importance of the construct sense of humor, as an important resource to be used. Although it is necessary to highlight that it is not sought to embrace all the components of the sense of humor, but rather it is focused in the interpersonal functions and intrapsíquicas that adolescents use in daily life. These functions are considered most relevant to the well-being. Measuring these aspects of the humor, it is expected that they can explain a greater proportion of the variance as for the ways of people cope. 

  14. That’s Not Funny! – But It Should Be: Effects of Humorous Emotion Regulation on Emotional Experience and Memory

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    Lisa eKugler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that humorous reappraisal can reduce elicited negative emotions, suggesting that humor may be a functional strategy to cope with emotionally negative situations. However, the effect of humorous reappraisal on later memory about the emotion-eliciting situation is currently unknown, although this is crucial for more adaptive responding in future situations. To address this issue, we examined the effects of humorous reappraisal on both emotional experience and memory, compared to non-humorous rational reappraisal and a non-reappraisal control condition. Replicating previous findings, humorous reappraisal reduced evoked negative valence and arousal levels very effectively, and the down-regulation of experienced negative emotions was even more pronounced after humorous compared to rational reappraisal. Regarding later memory for emotion-eliciting stimuli, both humorous and rational reappraisal reduced free recall, but recognition memory was unaffected, with memory strength being stronger after humorous than after rational reappraisal. These results indicate that humor seems to be indeed an optimal strategy to cope with negative situations because humor can help us to feel better when confronted with negative stimuli, but still allows us to retrieve stimulus information later when afforded to do so by the presence of appropriate contextual features.

  15. IL-21 optimizes T cell and humoral responses in the central nervous system during viral encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phares, Timothy W.; DiSano, Krista D.; Hinton, David R.; Hwang, Mihyun; Zajac, Allan J.; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Bergmann, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Acute coronavirus encephalomyelitis is controlled by T cells while humoral responses suppress virus persistence. This study defines the contribution of interleukin (IL)-21, a regulator of T and B cell function, to central nervous system (CNS) immunity. IL-21 receptor deficiency did not affect peripheral T cell activation or trafficking, but dampened granzyme B, gamma interferon and IL-10 expression by CNS T cells and reduced serum and intrathecal humoral responses. Viral control was already lost prior to humoral CNS responses, but demyelination remained comparable. These data demonstrate a critical role of IL-21 in regulating CNS immunity, sustaining viral persistence and preventing mortality. PMID:23992866

  16. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity. PMID:21796701

  17. How does psychopathy relate to humor and laughter? Dispositions toward ridicule and being laughed at, the sense of humor, and psychopathic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Flisch, Rahel; Tschupp, Stefanie; Platt, Tracey; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-01-01

    This scoping study examines the relation of the sense of humor and three dispositions toward ridicule and being laughed at to psychopathic personality traits. Based on self-reports from 233 adults, psychopathic personality traits were robustly related to enjoying laughing at others, which most strongly related to a manipulative/impulsive lifestyle and callousness. Higher psychopathic traits correlated with bad mood and it existed independently from the ability of laughing at oneself. While overall psychopathic personality traits existed independently from the sense of humor, the facet of superficial charm yielded a robust positive relation. Higher joy in being laughed at also correlated with higher expressions in superficial charm and grandiosity while fearing to be laughed at went along with higher expressions in a manipulative life-style. Thus, the psychopathic personality trait could be well described in its relation to humor and laughter. Implications of the findings are highlighted and discussed with respect to the current literature. PMID:22559907

  18. Aqueous Angiography–Mediated Guidance of Trabecular Bypass Improves Angiographic Outflow in Human Enucleated Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alex S.; Saraswathy, Sindhu; Dastiridou, Anna; Begian, Alan; Mohindroo, Chirayu; Tan, James C. H.; Francis, Brian A.; Hinton, David R.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the ability of trabecular micro-bypass stents to improve aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in regions initially devoid of AHO as assessed by aqueous angiography. Methods Enucleated human eyes (14 total from 7 males and 3 females [ages 52–84]) were obtained from an eye bank within 48 hours of death. Eyes were oriented by inferior oblique insertion, and aqueous angiography was performed with indocyanine green (ICG; 0.4%) or fluorescein (2.5%) at 10 mm Hg. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent images were acquired. Concurrent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histologic analysis of angiographically positive and negative areas. Experimentally, some eyes (n = 11) first received ICG aqueous angiography to determine angiographic patterns. These eyes then underwent trabecular micro-bypass sham or stent placement in regions initially devoid of angiographic signal. This was followed by fluorescein aqueous angiography to query the effects. Results Aqueous angiography in human eyes yielded high-quality images with segmental patterns. Distally, angiographically positive but not negative areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens on OCT images. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways. Trabecular bypass but not sham in regions initially devoid of ICG aqueous angiography led to increased aqueous angiography as assessed by fluorescein (P = 0.043). Conclusions Using sequential aqueous angiography in an enucleated human eye model system, regions initially without angiographic flow or signal could be recruited for AHO using a trabecular bypass stent. PMID:27588614

  19. Mark Twain’s Humor and Satire in Adventures of Huckberry Finn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chen; CHEN Min

    2016-01-01

    This article is a briefly description of humor&satire in Mark Twain’s work:The Adventure of Huckberry Finn. Mark Twain’s humor&satire is the typical American style one, using colloquial language and slang in his own writing. Only when readers know some background knowledge before can they get the humor&satire in Make. Twain’s works. The theme of this novel is combined by the experiences and encounters down the Mississippi of the two boys:Huck and Jim. Their journey pres-ents a sample of the small town world of America. This colloquial yet poetic style makes the humor&satire more impressive in the work.

  20. The effectiveness of humor in persuasion: the case of business ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle, J

    2001-04-01

    In this study, persuasion theory was used to develop the following predictions about use of humor in persuasive messages for business ethics training: (a) cartoon drawings will enhance persuasion by creating liking for the source, (b) ironic wisecracks will enhance persuasion by serving as a distraction from counterarguments, and (c) self-effacing humor will enhance persuasion by improving source credibility. Canadian business students (N = 148) participated in 1 of 4 versions of "The Ethics Challenge," a training exercise used by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Three versions were modified by adding or removing cartoon drawings (of cartoon characters Dilbert and Dogbert) and humorous responses (Dogbert's wisecracks). Removing the cartoon drawings had little effect on persuasiveness. Removing ironic wisecracks had more effect, and interfering with the self-effacing combination of cartoons and wisecracks had the strongest effect. The results suggest that researchers should ground their predictions in existing theory and that practitioners should differentiate among humor types.

  1. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating

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    Elizabeth S. Bast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a “food substitute” at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain.

  2. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Elizabeth S; Berry, Elliot M

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a "food substitute" at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain. PMID:24498514

  3. Jeff Foxworthy’s Redneck Humor and the Boundaries of Middle-Class American Whiteness

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    J. David Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies examine the use of rhetorical boundaries to produce intra-racial othering within whiteness. I expand this project by exploring the textual and social codes in Jeff Foxworthy humor that demarcate the boundaries between the redneck and the non-redneck. Such boundaries are complex, porous fault-lines that use symbolic pollution embedded in humor to stigmatize White outsiders. Social codes referencing symbolic pollution establish boundaries to define and insulate a normative, mainstream White identity from the intra-racial threat of redneck identity. This project provides a novel addition to whiteness studies by taking redneck humor analytically seriously and concludes by drawing comparisons between codes found in Foxworthy humor and those levied against rural Whites during the eugenics era.

  4. The strategic use of humor in political discourse of Silvio Berlusconi

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    Kamila Miłkowska-Samul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to illustrate some of the mechanisms existing in political discourse which employ emotions and humor as a persuasive means. The study is based on authentic texts produced by Silvio Berlusconi. The importance of emotions and humor in political speech is viewed in the light of changes taking place in public communication due to the development of mass media and Internet, leading to, among others, ever more frequent use of the comical aspect of communication as a method of gaining and maintaining political power. That is why the use of emotions and humor in Berlusconi’s speech is analyzed as a strategic choice and a powerful instrument of political struggle. The article highlights the role of emotions and humor in creating a positive self-image of the politician.

  5. ¿El sentido del humor, tiene sentido en el aula? / Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

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    Freddy Antonio González Ynfante

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, se abordará cómo, a pesar de las múltiples ventajas que puede aportar el humor en las aulas, se omite su empleo por la existencia de ciertos prejuicios y temores. La idea no es que los docentes hagan el papel de comediantes o payasos, sino la de mediar y acercar la clase de manera pedagógica y didáctica a través del uso del humor, y sobre esto reflexionaba Platón (1992, cuando planteaba que muchas veces ayudaba una broma, en donde la seriedad oponía resistencia. Abstract. This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.

  6. Incongruity humor in language and beyond: from Bergson to digitally enhanced worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Humour research is often about verbal humour. Language allows us to play with words and with its syntactic, semantic and pragmatic aspects. It provides us with building blocks that can be composed in unusual ways, introducing ambiguities, confusion, inappropriate language use, and incongruities. This allows the design of humour, whether it is word play, verbal jokes, or humorous remarks triggered by conversational interaction. Design and analysis of verbal humor has become part of computation...

  7. Humor: a research and practice tool for nurse scholar-supervisors, practitioners, and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura-Petro, H

    1991-06-01

    The nurse scholar, whether a supervisor, an educator, or a practitioner, has a lifetime of research opportunities as well as personal experiences related to the human need for humor. We need to develop the means to assess the individual's and group's response to humor. Nurse scholars, particularly the nurse supervisor, can make a significant contribution in the search to harness some of the energy we use in laughing and direct it toward helping us heal our human conditions. PMID:10110633

  8. Humor Therapy: Relieving Chronic Pain and Enhancing Happiness for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Mimi M.Y.; Lo, Anna P. K.; Cheng, Tracy L. Y.; Chan, Eva K. K.; Annie H. Y. Chan; Chung, Helena S. W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of a humor therapy program in relieving chronic pain, enhancing happiness and life satisfaction, and reducing loneliness among older persons with chronic pain. It was a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest controlled design. Older persons in a nursing home were invited to join an 8-week humor therapy program (experimental group), while those in another nursing home were treated as a control group and were not offered the program. There were 36 older ...

  9. Co-dependence of the neural and humoral pathways in the mechanism of remote ischemic conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, J. M.; Davidson, S M; Hausenloy, D.J.; Yellon, D M

    2016-01-01

    The cardioprotection afforded by remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) is mediated via a complex mechanism involving sensory afferent nerves, the vagus nerve, and release of a humoral blood-borne factor. However, it is unknown whether release of the protective factor depends on vagal activation or occurs independently. This study aimed to evaluate the co-dependence of the neural and humoral pathways of RIC, focussing on the vagus nerve and intrinsic cardiac ganglia. In the first study, anesthet...

  10. Relationship of Humor and Negative Life Events with Depression among Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Bahadori-Khosroshahi; Zeynab Khanjani

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between humor and negative life events with depression among university students.Materials and Method: This is a cross sectional study. The statistical populations consisted of all students of Tabriz University, in which 200(100 male, 100 female) were selected by simple random sampling. To collect data we used Khoshouei Humor Scale, The List of Life Events and Beck Depression Test. Data were analyzed, using correlation c...

  11. The Relationship of Self Esteem and Humor Styles in First Class Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Soner Cakmak

    2015-12-01

    Material and Methods: Two hundred three medical students (107 males, 96 females were included this study. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and humor style was measured with Humor Styles Questionnaire. Results: The rate of students who have mild or high self-esteem levels was 89.7%. In Humor Styles Questionnaire, the average scores of affiliative and self-enhancing humor were significantly higher than the average scores of aggressive and self-defeating humor. Male students were using humor, especially aggressive and self-defeating humor styles more commonly than female students. A positive correlation was found between self-esteem and affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Conclusion: The present study revealed a positive correlation between self-esteem and positive humor styles. There is a need to develop educational models that would bolster self-esteem and positive humor in medical students. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 782-793

  12. Integrating Humor and Positive Psychology Approaches to Psychological Well-Being

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    Nadia Brittany Maiolino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated how individual differences and personality constructs taken from the positive psychology and humor domains of psychology may play an important role in psychological well-being. Participants completed measures assessing trait gratitude, savoring, and humor styles; along with several positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being (e.g., life satisfaction, positive affect, depression, and anxiety. We first examined the degree of empirical and conceptual overlap among the personality constructs from these two domains. Here, we found that higher levels of gratitude and savoring were associated with higher levels of self-enhancing and affiliative humor, whereas higher levels of aggressive and self-defeating humor were primarily associated with lower levels of gratitude. Subsequent regression analyses indicated that the positive psychology construct of gratitude was predictive of several different indices of positive and negative well-being, whereas savoring was most predictive of greater positive affect. In addition, these regression analyses also revealed that the humor styles of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor provided a significant increase in the prediction of several positive and negative indices of well-being, above and beyond the effects attributable to the positive psychology constructs alone. These findings were then discussed in terms of developing a broader and more integrated theoretical approach to the understanding of psychological well-being.

  13. Dark Humor in Sula%《秀拉》与黑色幽默

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静琼

    2012-01-01

    Dark humor is defined as a stylistic feature with irony at its core. The weapon for the powerless, dark humor always targets those in power. In Sula, Toni Morrison employs irony to satirize African American stereotypes established by racism and sexism. To survive, African Americans ann themselves with humor. Humor implies hope. The (dark) humor in Sula brings spiritual comfort to the victims of racism and sexism, strengthens the Bottom, the black community, challenges the grand narrative of the U.S. history, and proves an essential component of American humor.%黑色幽默是一种文体,反讽是其常用的技巧。黑色幽默是草根的武器,权势是黑色幽默的靶子。在《秀拉》中,莫里森采用反讽,嘲讽种族主义者设定的美国黑人刻板形象,条分缕析地抨击种族歧视和性别歧视。哪里有幽默,哪里就有希望。幽默不但令黑人取得了精神上的胜利,而且挑战美国官方历史的宏大叙事,更为美国幽默增添了多元视角。

  14. Gestionando con humor: un paso más hacia un liderazgo de excelencia

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    Franco Lotito Catino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En toda investigación que se lleva a cabo en torno a la incidencia del humor en la gestión y administración de una empresa, los autores destacan la relevancia de este factor en los buenos resultados que obtienen aquellas empresas, cuyos líderes están en condiciones de darle un espacio y uso apropiado al humor, razón por la cual, el objetivo principal de este artículo apuntará a destacar la relevancia de este elemento en la organizaciones, avalado por el grato ambiente laboral que prima en dichas empresas, así como por las observaciones y experiencias del autor del artículo, cuyas conclusiones demuestran que el buen humor no sólo “produce” más, sino que también mantiene más sanos y contentos a los trabajadores al bajar los niveles de estrés. In every research conducted on the use of humor in the management of a company, authors emphasize the importance of this factor in the good results obtained. This article aims to highlight the importance of humor in the organizations resulting in a pleasant working atmosphere. The author’s observation and experiences are also included. Conclusions show that humor not only results in higher e ciency but also in happier and healthier workers by lowering stress levels.

  15. Humor and Trauma-Related Psychopathology Among Survivors of Terror Attacks and Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Avi; Weinberg, Michael; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Ataria, Yochai; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationships between humor and trauma-related psychopathology (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and anxiety symptoms) among 105 dyads consisting of Israelis who were injured during terror attacks and their spouses (N = 210). An actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was applied as part of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis aimed at examining the associations between the use of different styles of humor and trauma-related psychopathology. Consistent with our hypotheses, results suggested that benign styles of humor were associated with survivors' lower levels of trauma-related symptoms (actor effects) and also had a buffering effect for the spouse (partner effects). More specifically, the use of self-enhancing humor by survivors was negatively associated with spousal symptoms and the use of affiliative humor by spouses was negatively associated with psychopathology symptoms reported by survivors. The results of this study shed light on the role that benign humor may play in coping with traumatic events while taking into account the dyadic relationships among survivors and their spouses. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. Aqueous and vitreous penetration of ciprofloxacin following different modes of systemic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, A A; Mayers, M; Perkins, R; Liu, W; Drusano, G L; Aswani, R; Madu, C N; Miller, M H

    1996-08-01

    The overall importance of the peak or the mean serum concentrations as predictors of ocular drug penetration is unknown. To address this fundamental question with an agent which shows promise as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of endophthalmitis, we studied the penetration of ciprofloxacin into the aqueous and vitreous humors following three different modes of systemic administration. New Zealand white rabbits received either a single bolus dose (40 mg kg-1), three intermittent doses of 13.33 mg kg-1 evenly spaced over an 8 hr period, or a continuous infusion of 40 mg kg-1 over an 8 hr period. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using RSTRIP II, a non-linear, least square regression model analysis program. The serum area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values for each mode of drug administration were similar: 32.9 micrograms hr ml-1 for single dose, 31.9 micrograms hr ml-1 for intermittent dose, and 33.8 micrograms hr ml-1 for continuous infusion modes. The percentage penetration into the aqueous and vitreous were also similar; 30.5% and 6.5% for a single dose, 31.6% and 7.4% for intermittent doses and 30.0% and 7.5% for continuous infusion. The penetration into the aqueous and vitreous humors was not influenced by mode of administration. As with other quinolones we have studied, elimination rates were similar for the central and peripheral compartments in the post-distributive phase. Vitreous humor ciprofloxacin concentrations achieved were below that which inhibits most Staphylococcus epidermidis, the most common isolate in patients with post-operative endophthalmitis.

  17. [History of scrofula: from humoral dyscrasia to consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte G, Ignacio; Chuaqui F, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The term “scrofula” was used for a long time to designate a chronic swelling of cervical lymph nodes. This paper outlines the prevalent ideas on the nature, pathogenesis and the treatment of this disorder, from classical Greek medicine up to the 18th century. A Hippocratic treatise regarded scrofula as produced by an accumulation of phlegm, with a consequent imbalance or dyscrasia of the body humors. It was believed that it could heal spontaneously; but it could also soften, open through the skin and have an obstinate course. The treatment consisted mainly on local applications, incision to evacuate the soft content, or extirpation of the abnormal mass. In France and England, crowds of scrofulous patients were touched by the kings who were supposed to have a hereditary miraculous power to cure the disease. A Medieval text mentioned that scrofula could also affect other parts of the body. In the 17th century, scrofula was reputed as a frequent condition and was attributed to blood acrimony which coagulated in spongy organs. It was associated to phthisis or consumption due to the lethal outcome in some patients and to a cheese-like appearance of the pulmonary and the scrofulous lesions. PMID:27401383

  18. Humoral and Cellular Immune Response in Canine Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J; Popiel, J; Chełmońska-Soyta, A

    2015-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases in dogs and is generally considered to be autoimmune in nature. In human hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland is destroyed by both cellular (i.e. autoreactive helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes) and humoral (i.e. autoantibodies specific for thyroglobulin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine) effector mechanisms. Other suggested factors include impaired peripheral immune suppression (i.e. the malfunction of regulatory T cells) or an additional pro-inflammatory effect of T helper 17 lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunological changes in canine hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight clinically healthy dogs, 25 hypothyroid dogs without thyroglobulin antibodies and eight hypothyroid dogs with these autoantibodies were enrolled into the study. There were alterations in serum proteins in hypothyroid dogs compared with healthy controls (i.e. raised concentrations of α-globulins, β2- and γ-globulins) as well as higher concentration of acute phase proteins and circulating immune complexes. Hypothyroid animals had a lower CD4:CD8 ratio in peripheral blood compared with control dogs and diseased dogs also had higher expression of interferon γ (gene and protein expression) and CD28 (gene expression). Similar findings were found in both groups of hypothyroid dogs. Canine hypothyroidism is therefore characterized by systemic inflammation with dominance of a cellular immune response.

  19. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  20. Depresión (humor deprimido en los mayores residentes en la comunidad Depression (depressed humor among the elderly residents in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª. Gorete Reis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Los mayores están sujetos a riesgos acrecentados por el poco compromiso con la vida, el aislamiento, la precariedad de recursos y la enfermedad, entre otros. Hoy, la depresión es considerada la perturbación mental con mayor crecimiento, repercutiendo en los cambios en el estilo de vida y en la salud. Nos cuestionamos sobre el estado de humor deprimido de los mayores que viven en la comunidad. El objetivo es evaluar la depresión e identificar los factores relacionados con ella. Estudio descriptivo correlacional. Conclusión: Hay un número elevado de personas con humor deprimido. Ser mujer y estar enferma revela relaciones con la depresión, así como tener limitaciones para ejecutar las actividades.Old people are submit to risk factors that increase from life disengagement; loneliness, decrease in income and in resources and also from diseases, among others. Today depression is considered a mental disturb in a growing process which affects life style and health. That's why we questioned old people living in community, about depressed humor. The aim of this study is to evaluate depression's level nd associate factors. It's a descriptive, correlate study. Conclusions: There are a great number of people with depressed humor and, be woman, have diseabilities are factors relate to depression.

  1. Humor e Discriminação por Orientação Sexual no Ambiente Organizacional

    OpenAIRE

    Hélio Arthur Reis Irigaray; Luiz Alex Silva Saraiva; Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri

    2010-01-01

    To deal with multiple social manifestations in the organizational world, humor is an important form of communicating something, although not in an explicit way, smoothing critics and aggressions under the pretext of getting a laugh. In this paper we discuss humor as a form of manifesting discrimination of sexual orientation in the work place. Based on specialized literature about social, denotative and connotative functions of humor, and the insertion of female and male homosexuals in a profe...

  2. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor of albino and pigmented rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R J; Liu, W; Drusano, G; Madu, A; Mayers, M; Madu, C; Miller, M H

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor samples from albino and pigmented rabbits by using a recently described animal model which permits robust estimation of parameter values. The drug was administered to rabbits intravenously, multiple vitreous humor and serum samples were taken from each rabbit, and the vitreous humor and serum samples were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with RSTRIP, an iterative, nonlinear, weighted, least-squares regression program. Eight New Zealand White rabbits and eight Dutch Belted rabbits (split into single-dose and multiple-dose groups) were investigated in this study. The value of penetration into the vitreous humor of albino rabbits (n = 6) was 32.6% +/- 2.12%, with terminal-elimination half-life values of 3.21 and 2.39 h, respectively, for vitreous humor and serum. In pigmented rabbits after a single dose (n = 3) and with a steady-state concentration of drug in serum (n = 4), penetration values were similar, at 30.4% +/- 2.98% and 30.0% +/- 4.12%, respectively (P > 0.10). Following a single dose of ofloxacin, pigmented animals had elimination half-life values from serum and vitreous humor of 2.64 and 4.32 h, respectively. After steady state was achieved, half-life values for serum and vitreous humor were 3.12 and 6.05 h, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Humoral immunity links Candida albicans infection and celiac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Corouge

    Full Text Available The protein Hwp1, expressed on the pathogenic phase of Candida albicans, presents sequence analogy with the gluten protein gliadin and is also a substrate for transglutaminase. This had led to the suggestion that C. albicans infection (CI may be a triggering factor for Celiac disease (CeD onset. We investigated cross-immune reactivity between CeD and CI.Serum IgG levels against recombinant Hwp1 and serological markers of CeD were measured in 87 CeD patients, 41 CI patients, and 98 healthy controls (HC. IgA and IgG were also measured in 20 individuals from each of these groups using microchips sensitized with 38 peptides designed from the N-terminal of Hwp1.CI and CeD patients had higher levels of anti-Hwp1 (p=0.0005 and p=0.004 and anti-gliadin (p=0.002 and p=0.0009 antibodies than HC but there was no significant difference between CeD and CI patients. CeD and CI patients had higher levels of anti-transglutaminase IgA than HC (p=0.0001 and p=0.0039. During CI, the increase in anti-Hwp1 paralleled the increase in anti-gliadin antibodies. Microchip analysis showed that CeD patients were more reactive against some Hwp1 peptides than CI patients, and that some deamidated peptides were more reactive than their native analogs. Binding of IgG from CeD patients to Hwp1 peptides was inhibited by γIII gliadin peptides.Humoral cross-reactivity between Hwp1 and gliadin was observed during CeD and CI. Increased reactivity to Hwp1 deamidated peptide suggests that transglutaminase is involved in this interplay. These results support the hypothesis that CI may trigger CeD onset in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  4. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne eCrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune

  5. Humoral Immunity Links Candida albicans Infection and Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin, Chantal; Salleron, Julia; Damiens, Sébastien; Moragues, Maria Dolores; Souplet, Vianney; Jouault, Thierry; Robert, Raymond; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Sendid, Boualem; Colombel, Jean Fréderic; Poulain, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The protein Hwp1, expressed on the pathogenic phase of Candida albicans, presents sequence analogy with the gluten protein gliadin and is also a substrate for transglutaminase. This had led to the suggestion that C. albicans infection (CI) may be a triggering factor for Celiac disease (CeD) onset. We investigated cross-immune reactivity between CeD and CI. Methods Serum IgG levels against recombinant Hwp1 and serological markers of CeD were measured in 87 CeD patients, 41 CI patients, and 98 healthy controls (HC). IgA and IgG were also measured in 20 individuals from each of these groups using microchips sensitized with 38 peptides designed from the N-terminal of Hwp1. Results CI and CeD patients had higher levels of anti-Hwp1 (p=0.0005 and p=0.004) and anti-gliadin (p=0.002 and p=0.0009) antibodies than HC but there was no significant difference between CeD and CI patients. CeD and CI patients had higher levels of anti-transglutaminase IgA than HC (p=0.0001 and p=0.0039). During CI, the increase in anti-Hwp1 paralleled the increase in anti-gliadin antibodies. Microchip analysis showed that CeD patients were more reactive against some Hwp1 peptides than CI patients, and that some deamidated peptides were more reactive than their native analogs. Binding of IgG from CeD patients to Hwp1 peptides was inhibited by γIII gliadin peptides. Conclusions Humoral cross-reactivity between Hwp1 and gliadin was observed during CeD and CI. Increased reactivity to Hwp1 deamidated peptide suggests that transglutaminase is involved in this interplay. These results support the hypothesis that CI may trigger CeD onset in genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:25793717

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Vitreous Humor in Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michael; Dacheva, Ivanka; Nobl, Matthias; Siwy, Justyna; Schanstra, Joost P.; Mullen, William; Koch, Frank H. J.; Kopitz, Jürgen; Kretz, Florian T. A.; Auffarth, Gerd U.; Koss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the protein profile of human vitreous of untreated patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods Sixty-eight vitreous humor (VH) samples (44 from patients with treatment naïve RVO, 24 controls with idiopathic floaters) were analyzed in this clinical-experimental study using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometer and tandem mass spectrometry. To define potential candidate protein markers of RVO, proteomic analysis was performed on RVO patients (n = 30) and compared with controls (n = 16). To determine validity of potential biomarker candidates in RVO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was performed by using proteome data of independent RVO (n = 14) and control samples (n = 8). Results Ninety-four different proteins (736 tryptic peptides) could be identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be significant when comparing RVO and control samples (P = 1.43E-05 to 4.48E-02). Five proteins (Clusterin, Complement C3, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5), Opticin and Vitronectin), remained significant after using correction for multiple testing. These five proteins were also detected significant when comparing subgroups of RVO (central RVO, hemi-central RVO, branch RVO) to controls. Using independent samples ROC-Area under the curve was determined proving the validity of the results: Clusterin 0.884, Complement C3 0.955, IGLL5 1.000, Opticin 0.741, Vitronectin 0.786. In addition, validation through ELISA measurements was performed. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that the proteomic composition of VH differed significantly between the patients with RVO and the controls. The proteins identified may serve as potential biomarkers for pathogenesis induced by RVO. PMID:27362861

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Vitreous Humor in Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Reich

    Full Text Available To analyze the protein profile of human vitreous of untreated patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO.Sixty-eight vitreous humor (VH samples (44 from patients with treatment naïve RVO, 24 controls with idiopathic floaters were analyzed in this clinical-experimental study using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometer and tandem mass spectrometry. To define potential candidate protein markers of RVO, proteomic analysis was performed on RVO patients (n = 30 and compared with controls (n = 16. To determine validity of potential biomarker candidates in RVO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC was performed by using proteome data of independent RVO (n = 14 and control samples (n = 8.Ninety-four different proteins (736 tryptic peptides could be identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be significant when comparing RVO and control samples (P = 1.43E-05 to 4.48E-02. Five proteins (Clusterin, Complement C3, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5, Opticin and Vitronectin, remained significant after using correction for multiple testing. These five proteins were also detected significant when comparing subgroups of RVO (central RVO, hemi-central RVO, branch RVO to controls. Using independent samples ROC-Area under the curve was determined proving the validity of the results: Clusterin 0.884, Complement C3 0.955, IGLL5 1.000, Opticin 0.741, Vitronectin 0.786. In addition, validation through ELISA measurements was performed.The results of the study reveal that the proteomic composition of VH differed significantly between the patients with RVO and the controls. The proteins identified may serve as potential biomarkers for pathogenesis induced by RVO.

  8. Positive psychological measure: constructing and evaluating the reliability and validity of a Chinese Humor Scale applicable to professional nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hsiao, Yu-Ling; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan; Chang, Chueh

    2005-09-01

    The nursing profession has generally accepted humor as beneficial to health care. As nursing has always emphasized holistic care and the importance of individual needs, the profession values the ability of humor to positively affect all aspects of a patient's well being. The purposes of this study were to develop a "Chinese Humor Scale (CHS)" for the nursing profession and then test its reliability and validity. The 405 individuals selected for participation in this study included nursing on-the-job students from a medical university and professional nurses practicing at four hospitals in north Taiwan. Researchers developed a list of 57 key humor measures which were filled out and returned by study participants. An evaluation of results using Cronbach's alpha coefficients demonstrated good consistency (alpha=.93) for the developed CHS. Intercorrelations amongst the four sub-scales were generally quite low, indicating each sub-scale measures dimensions relatively distinct from one another (r=.24 approximately .48, both p'shumorous creativity", "tendency to laugh", "perceptivity to humor", and "humorous attitude", were found to explain 55.42% of total variances. The CHS was found to provide good validity using a content validity index (CVI) developed by five experts. The results of this study provide encouraging evidence for the construct validity and reliability of the proposed humor scale and support its application by nursing educators and clinicians to further test and assess concepts related to humor. Further research is needed to explore more fully the implications of humor in nursing. PMID:16237632

  9. On the Effects of Teacher’s Sense of Humor on Iranian’s EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Ghanei Motlagh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teacher’s sense of humor is like a miracle in creating effective teaching and learning environments where there is no place for stress and anxiety but instead intrinsic motivation is enhanced. The present study aims mainly, to explore the effects of teachers’ sense of humor of EFL intermediate learners' reading comprehension ability. Having administered a test of reading proficiency, 58 learners are selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. Also two English language teachers, based on TOEFL and Humor Questionnaire, are selected to teach these learners. The process of teaching and the materials were the same for both groups. But participants in humor class were taught in a well-defined humorous environment managed by the teacher. Considering the control group, the process of teaching reading texts was conducted in a normal manner. To measure the relationship between EFL teachers’ sense of humor and EFL learners' intrinsic motivation in reading comprehension ability, an Intrinsic Motivation in Reading Questionnaire (IMERQ including reading curiosity, is given to experimental participants both at the outset and at the end of the course. Finally based on the data, it was found that teachers’ sense of humor was effective in improving learners' reading comprehension ability and enhancing intrinsic motivation. The findings can also provide pedagogical implications for considering teachers’ sense of humor as an intrinsically motivating learning tool. Keywords: sense of humor, intrinsic motivation, reading comprehension, intermediate

  10. Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1H-PEO and 13C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  11. Treatment of Aqueous Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Spronsen, J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the recovery or removal of one or more crystallizable compounds from an aqueous solution containing, apart from the said crystallizable compounds, one or more organic or inorganic scale- forming or scale-inducing materials having a lower solubility in water

  12. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market. The frequent use of humorous materials and appeals has been the main tendency in advertising. However, no consistent conclusions regarding the actual effects of humorous advertising have been determined. The subjects of the current study were users of the Lion Travel website. Online questionnaires were sent to and collected from random respondents. One hundred questionnaires were delivered, and 512 valid questionnaires were collected. Each collected questionnaire represented a valid sample. The study generated the following five results: (1 humorous advertisements may partially influence brand awareness; (2 humorous elements may partially influence advertising effects; (3 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the advertising attitude of advertising effects; (4 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the brand attitude of advertising effects; (5 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the purchasing intention of advertising effects. Eventually, it is anticipated that the results of this study can serve as a reference and provide suggestions for humorous advertising strategies in the tourism industry.

  13. Helminth Protein Vaccine Induced Follicular T Helper Cell for Enhancement of Humoral Immunity against Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein vaccines combined with adjuvants have been widely used to induce immune responses, especially the humoral immune response, against molecular targets including parasites. Follicular T helper (Tfh cells are the specialized providers of B-cell help, however, the induction of Tfh cells in protein vaccination has been rarely studied. Here, we report that the Schistosoma japonicum recombinant protein (SjGST-32 combined with tacrolimus (FK506 augmented the induction of Tfh cells, which expressed the canonical markers CXCR5, BCL6, and IL-21, and enhanced the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the expression of IL-21R on germinal center (GC B cells and memory B cells increased in immunized mice, which indicated that IL-21 from the induced Tfh cells interacted with IL-21R for activation of B cells and maintenance of long-lived humoral immunity. Our results suggest that helminth protein vaccine combined with FK506 induces Tfh cell for stimulating humoral immune responses and inducing long-lived humoral immunity.

  14. Promoviendo el sentido del humor en las personas adultas con discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes Gómez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes investigaciones demuestran la importancia del sentido del humor en el bienestar personal y la salud. En el presente trabajo se plantea examinar la utilidad e idoneidad para personas con discapacidad intelectual de la visualización y lectura de material humorístico en soporte impreso destinado a la población general, con un nivel de lectura característico de las edades comprendidas entre los 11 y 12 años; así como analizar si el modelo multidimensional del sentido del humor de García-Larrauri (2006 es aplicable a la población del presente estudio; y descubrir las preferencias de los participantes entre el material en soporte impreso: “sólo texto” o “texto con dibujos”.Los resultados indican que las personas con discapacidad intelectual desarrollan experiencias de humor que pueden aprovecharse para aumentar su calidad de vida. Una buena forma de promoverlo es utilizando la literatura de humor popular, adaptada en forma de textos sencillos y/o acompañados de dibujos.

  15. 幽默交际中的回应策略%Responding strategies in humorous communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓月

    2014-01-01

    为研究幽默交际中的回应策略,基于礼貌原则、关联理论、言语行为和刻意曲解等理论和原则,对幽默交际中听话人运用的非言语回应、言语回应、不回应等回应策略进行了深入分析,为言语和非言语幽默交际提供了更多研究视角和分析方法。%To study responding strategies in humorous communications, politeness principle, relevance theory, speech act theory and deliberate misinterpretation were adopted to deeply analyze several responding strategies employed by recipients in humorous communications:nonverbal response, verbal response, no response, etc. The result will provide a new per-spective for analyzing verbal and nonverbal humorous communication.

  16. Sobre acciones, silencios y un sentido de humor particular en un equipo de cuidados paliativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wainer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo reflexiono en las complejas y contradictorias maneras en que un equipo de Cuidados Paliativos desarrolla un discurso y un sentido del humor particulares mientras asisten a personas que experimentan enfermedades terminales. El objetivo es pensar cómo los profesionales paliativistas manipulan, refuerzan, resignifican, y sobre todo, se apropian de una forma de comunicación verbal y no-verbal en la cual el silencio, el humor y la risa conforman una parte central de las tácticas terapéuticas de interacción con pacientes. Además, considero el uso del humor como modo de relacionarse con las presiones y contradicciones de la construcción cotidiana de su campo profesional.

  17. A Field Experiment on Behavioural Effects of Humorous, Environmentally Oriented and Authoritarian Posters against Littering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Hansmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A humorous, an environmentally oriented and an authoritarian poster against littering were tested in a field experiment on their behavioural effectiveness. Corresponding slogans were placed on anti-littering posters designed for this study and used experimentally at four railway stations. The experimental design entailed 4 communication conditions including a control condition where no poster was presented. In each experimental run (N = 96, flyers were distributed for 30 minutes. The number of distributed flyers was counted, and the proportion of littered flyers was determined for each experimental run. It was found that the humorous and environmentally oriented posters achieved a reduction of 58% and 64%, respectively, in littering as compared with the control condition. The authoritarian poster was significantly less effective, but achieved a significant reduction of 25%. Considered together with some previous findings and theories, the results indicate that environmentally oriented and humorous anti-littering posters are more effective than authoritarian ones

  18. Entertainment-education in the context of humor: effects on safer sex intentions and risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Gusé, Emily; Mahood, Chad; Brookes, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Past research has examined the effects of entertainment narratives on story-related behaviors, but most has focused primarily on dramatic genres rather than comedy. The present study examines how the presence or absence of pregnancy-related humor influences viewers' counterarguing, perceived severity, and intentions to engage in unprotected sexual behavior. Results were consistent with expectations in that related humor reduced counterarguing while also trivializing the severity of the consequences of sexual behavior. When the pregnancy storyline was presented in its original humorous context, viewers reported greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex than when pregnancy was presented in a more serious tone. Model testing clarified this finding by revealing the underlying mechanisms. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21707390

  19. Computational humor researches and applications%幽默计算及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林鸿飞; 张冬瑜; 杨亮; 徐博

    2016-01-01

    幽默作为一种特殊的语言表达方式,是生活中活跃气氛、化解尴尬的重要元素。随着人工智能的快速发展,如何利用计算机技术识别和生成幽默成为自然语言处理领域热门的研究内容之一,并逐渐形成一个新兴研究领域:幽默计算。幽默计算致力于利用自然语言处理技术理解和识别包含幽默的文本表达,挖掘幽默表达潜在的语义内涵,构建面向幽默表达的计算模型。首先对当前幽默计算的背景进行概述,阐明幽默的可计算性和幽默计算对于人工智能的意义;在此基础上,对幽默研究的发展情况进行回顾,给出幽默研究的语言学基础;然后综述当前幽默计算在幽默识别和幽默生成两个方面的进展情况,分别给出针对幽默识别和幽默生成的计算框架;最后,对幽默计算在聊天机器人、机器翻译、儿童教育软件和外语教学等多个自然语言处理任务中的应用前景和应用模式进行展望。希望通过对幽默计算及其应用研究的总结和概述,完善现有幽默计算模型,增进计算机对于自然语言的理解,推动人工智能的进一步发展。%Humor,as a special phenomenon of human communications,can warm up the atmosphere and eliminate em-barrassment.In recent years,with the research development of artificial intelligence,research area related to how to model humorous expression using computers becomes a hot topic in natural language processing tasks,and evolves to become a new subject,called computational humor.Computational humor aims to recognize and interpret humorous ex-pressions in context using natural language processing technologies,and construct humor based computational models. In this article,we firstly introduce the backgrounds of computational humor research and detail the reasons for which hu-mor can be modeled using computers.After that,we review related research in two lines,humor

  20. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-07-25

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level.

  1. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level. PMID:25059843

  2. [The humoral immunity changes in experimental cranio-cerebral trauma, concurrent with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merets'kyĭ, V M

    2013-05-01

    The results of studying in dynamics of the humoral immunity indices were adduced in experimental cranio-cerebral truma (CCT) in conjunction with diabetes mellitus (DM). Peculiarities of the immune answer while the period of an acute reaction on trauma and early signs of posttraumatic period have been characterized by reduction of content in the main classes of immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, IgG and enhancement of the circulating immune complexes (CIC) concentration. Experimental DM was accompanied by raising of functional activity of humoral immunity in accordance with immunoglobulins level and CIC. The specificity of changes in humoral immunity in conditions of CCT on the DM background consisted of more profound lowering of the immunoglobulins level and rapid enhancement of the CIC content. PMID:23888817

  3. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H3BO3 at temperatures up to 1500C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO3- + 2I- + 3H+, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >104 has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Efeito do dimetildioctadecilamônio na resposta imune humoral e celular de cobaios inoculados com o herpesvírus bovino-1 inativado Effect of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium chloride on the humoral and cellular response to inactivated bovine herpesvirus-1 in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o potencial adjuvante do cloreto de dimetildioctadecilamônio (DDA cloreto em estimular as respostas imune humoral e celular, do tipo hipersensibilidade cutânea tardia (DTH, em cobaios que receberam preparações de antígeno contendo o herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BHV-1 inativado. Os animais foram vacinados com o BHV-1 em cinco diferentes formulações, representadas pelos grupos: A- adjuvante completo / incompleto de Freund, B- hidróxido de alumínio (Al(OH3, C- DDA cloreto, D- associação Al(OH3 / DDA cloreto e E- BHV-1 em solução aquosa sem adjuvante. Os animais do grupo F, grupo-controle negativo, foram inoculados apenas com meio de cultivo celular. Os maiores títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes do BHV-1, expressos em log2, foram obtidos nos grupos D, A e C, com títulos de 6,25, 6,0 e 5,25, respectivamente. Na avaliação da DTH, os maiores aumentos na espessura da dobra da pele foram observados nos grupos A (2,4mm, C (1,8mm e D (1,1mm. O DDA cloreto, utilizado tanto de forma isolada quanto em associação, determinou a potencialização das respostas imunológicas humoral e celular de cobaios imunizados com o BHV-1 inativado.The adjuvanticity of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium chloride (DDA chloride to induce humoral and cell mediated (delayed type hypersensitivity - DTH - immune responses was assessed in guinea pigs that received antigen preparations containing inactivated bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1. The animals were vaccinated with five different formulations, containing BHV-1 represented by groups: A- complete/incomplete Freund adjuvant, B- aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH3, C- DDA chloride, D- association Al(OH3/DDA and E- BHV-1 in aqueous solution without adjuvant. Group F was the negative control group and the animals received only cell culture medium. The higher titers of BHV-1 neutralizing antibodies, expressed in log2, were obtained in groups D, A and C with values of 6.25, 6.0 and 5.25, respectively. In the DTH

  5. Analysis of the humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Persson, K;

    1998-01-01

    The humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) was studied. Omp2 is a highly genus-conserved structural protein of all Chlamydia species, containing a variable N-terminal fragment. To analyze where the immunogenic parts were localized, seven highly purified truncated...... patient sera, Omp2 was found to be a major immunogen of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis infections (P humoral immune responses were not confined to any particular region of the Omp2 protein, and no species-specific anti-Omp2 immunoglobulins were detected....

  6. [The humoral immunity indices of patients with malignant skin melanoma using the viral immunomodulator rigvir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkina, L S; Heisele, O G; Garklava, R R; Muceniece, A J

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a viral immunomodulator rigvir on humoral immunity was studied in patients with skin malignant melanoma. Peripheral blood levels of B-lymphocytes, IgA, G and M and circulating immune complexes were assayed and immunoglobulin/B-cell ratio (Ig/B) calculated. Preoperative treatment with rigvir brought the indexes of humoral immunity to normal. Response of melanoma patients to rigvir treatment was different from that seen in healthy subjects and was determined by the course of disease. PMID:1300751

  7. Mark Twain’s Humor and Irony in The Stolen White Elephant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢长菊

    2011-01-01

    Mark Twain is a realistic writer in America.His humor,irony and together with colloquial speech have been remembered by readers,for which he became one of America’s most beloved humorists and storytellers.This paper focuses on one of Twain’s short stories The Stolen White Elephant.Through the analysis of Twain’s humor and irony shown from the two main characters in this specific story,this paper is to show the social reality reflected in The Stolen White Elephant.

  8. CONSECUTIVE IMMUNIZATION WITH RECOMBINANT FOWLPOX VIRUS AND PLASMID DNA FOR ENHANCING CELLULAR AND HUMORAL IMMUNITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗坤; 金宁一; 郭志儒; 秦云龙; 郭炎; 方厚华; 安汝国; 殷震

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the influence of consecutive immunization on cellular and humoral immunity in mice. Methods: We evaluated a consecutive immunization strategy of priming with recombinant fowlpox virus vUTALG and boosting with plasmid DNA pcDNAG encoding HIV-1 capsid protein Gag. Results: In immunized mice, the number of CD4+ T cells from splenic lymphocytes increased significantly and the proliferation response of splenocytes to ConA and LPS elevated markedly and HIV-1-specific antibody response could be induced. Conclusion: Consecutive immunization could increase cellular and humoral immunity responses in mice.

  9. Characterization of humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with human papilloma virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 30 females infected with the human papilloma virus, attended in the office of Immunology of the Specialty Polyclinic belonging to 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Clinical Surgical Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from June 2009 to June 2010, in order to characterize them according to immune response. To evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response rosetting assay and quantification of immunoglobulins were used respectively. Women between 25-36 years of age (40 %) infected with this virus, especially those coming from urban areas, prevailed in the series, and a significant decrease of the cellular response as compared to the humoral response was evidenced

  10. An Analysis of Humor from a Perspective of Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单彦辰

    2013-01-01

    The Functional Linguistics provides a new perspective for the study of language in the present time.It regards language as a semiotic system.It also interprets language as a network of meaning potential.It accounts for what one can do linguistically and provides the set of linguistic choices.What the speaker do is the realization of these choices and certain meanings then are expressed.This present paper has conducted a discourse study of humors.The theoretical framework of humor analysis in this paper is systemic-functional linguistics,especially the theory of context.

  11. The representation of Tyneside English in humorous dialect literature: perception and reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2016-01-01

    Humorous dialect literature denotes a unique genre of English literature which aims to capture local varieties by the use of non-standard spelling and lexis. But how well are local varieties actually captured in these humorous books? This paper argues that, while this type of literature does...... not accurately represent the local variety (which is established through a comparison with contemporary spoken corpus data), it can tell us which linguistic features are salient and enregistered in a given community. The study presented here shows this for Tyneside English and further tests it via...

  12. Eastern Europe as the source of horror and humor: Examples films, "Hostel" and "Euro Trip"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Trifunović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 2004. to 2007. three films belonging to two different genres were complete in the American production-a horror and a comedy. These being, Hostel (I and II and Euro Trip. The only similarity found in these films is the same stimulus that motivates the horror and the humor segment in them. That stimulus was identifies where all three films are placed, and that is Eastern Europe, more precisely Slovakia. This phenomenon was considered in Noel Carroll’s theory concerning the relationship of horror and humor in order to explain and understand their existence.

  13. The Use of Humor and Storytelling with African American Men: Innovative Therapeutic Strategies for Success in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereen, Linwood G.; Hill, Nicole R.; Butler, S. Kent

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of culturally appropriate humor as a tool for change within the parameters of counseling has grown within the literature. In comparison, the art of storytelling has had little attention within the literature as a tool for strategic change. This article outlines a framework for the use of humor and storytelling as…

  14. Laughing in the Face of Fear (of Disease Detection): Using Humor to Promote Cancer Self-Examination Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L

    2016-07-01

    This research examines the possible benefit of using humor to reduce anxiety associated with performing cancer self-examination behaviors. In Study 1, 187 undergraduates read a humorous public service announcement (PSA) script promoting either breast or testicular self-exams. Results suggest that perception of humor reduced anxiety about self-exams, which, in turn, related to more positive self-exam attitudes. Simultaneously, humor perception associated with greater message processing motivation, which, in turn, associated with more supportive self-exam attitudes. Self-exam attitudes also positively associated with self-exam intentions. These results were largely replicated in Study 2. Further, self-exam intentions predicted self-exam behavior 1 week later. However, consistent with past research, the humorous and serious messages did not generate differences in subsequent self-exam behavior, though the intention-behavior relationship was stronger and significant for those exposed to the humorous versus the serious messages. In light of these findings, and given that humor has the advantage of attracting and holding attention in real message environments, the use of carefully constructed humor appeals may be a viable message strategy to promote health detection behaviors.

  15. Laughing in the Face of Fear (of Disease Detection): Using Humor to Promote Cancer Self-Examination Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L

    2016-07-01

    This research examines the possible benefit of using humor to reduce anxiety associated with performing cancer self-examination behaviors. In Study 1, 187 undergraduates read a humorous public service announcement (PSA) script promoting either breast or testicular self-exams. Results suggest that perception of humor reduced anxiety about self-exams, which, in turn, related to more positive self-exam attitudes. Simultaneously, humor perception associated with greater message processing motivation, which, in turn, associated with more supportive self-exam attitudes. Self-exam attitudes also positively associated with self-exam intentions. These results were largely replicated in Study 2. Further, self-exam intentions predicted self-exam behavior 1 week later. However, consistent with past research, the humorous and serious messages did not generate differences in subsequent self-exam behavior, though the intention-behavior relationship was stronger and significant for those exposed to the humorous versus the serious messages. In light of these findings, and given that humor has the advantage of attracting and holding attention in real message environments, the use of carefully constructed humor appeals may be a viable message strategy to promote health detection behaviors. PMID:26652312

  16. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our

  17. Caution, the Use of Humor May Lead to Confusion: Evaluation of a Video Podcast of the Midwest Teen Sex Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Shelly; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Spies, Erica L.; Losch, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Web sites about sexual health lack the interactivity, humor, and "viral" nature required to attract young adults. The Midwest Teen Sex Show (www.midwestteensexshow.com) is an interactive, humor-based Web site that provides sexual health information to young adults. One episode from the Web site was shown to six focus groups of young women, ages…

  18. ¡Marte es divertido! Sobre humor, apreciación y emociones en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Ruiz Gurrillo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo proponer un acercamiento pragmático a la apreciación del humor. La bibliografía sobre psicología ha mostrado que los niños disfrutan de las historias divertidas, humorísticas y fantásticas. Sin embargo, la apreciación del humor ha sido escasamente investigada desde una perspectiva productiva. Nuestro corpus está compuesto por 149 narraciones humorísticas de escolares de nueve y diez años . Así, los informantes de nuestro corpus se sitúan en el estadio 5 de acertijos y chistes (McGhee, 2002, lo que representa un punto de inflexión hacia el humor adulto. Concretamente, los niños desarrollan un sentido del humor (Thorson y Powell, 1993 en el que la apreciación del humor es el mecanismo más importante. En consecuencia, se describirán los tipos de apreciación del humor (Klein, 2003: 7; Orekoya et al., 2014, así como lo divertido, la fantasía y las emociones implicadas.

  19. A pilot study of the relation between humor styles and the past-positive and past-negative time perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2013-08-01

    Those who use self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles tend to recall positive experiences with their parents and primary caretakers, whereas those who use the self-defeating humor style tend to recall negative experiences with them. Considering the importance of experiences with parents and primary caretakers for life satisfaction and happiness, it was hypothesized that the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles would be positively correlated with past-positive experiences and negatively correlated with past-negative experiences, and that the self-defeating humor style would be positively correlated with past-negative experiences and negatively correlated with past-positive experiences. The Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Past-Positive and Past-Negative subscales of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory were administered to 114 undergraduates. The hypotheses were partially supported despite the retrospective nature of the Past-Positive and Past-Negative Subscales and the correlational nature of the study, indicating further research is needed.

  20. Between laugh, common sense and dissent. Humor magazine as a controversial space (1978-1980.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Raices

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals on initial phase of argentine Humor magazine, between 1978 and 1980, during the military dictatorship period (1976-1983. Our text is focused on significative actores implied with the magazine. In that sense, we research the intervention of its public through reader’s letters section. Our goal was to analyze controversies in that section. We assert it was a useful space in restablishing broken social links resulting from state repression. In addition to this, the reader’s section was a way so Humor could evaluate the effects of contents offered to its public.The analysis let us detect two controversies developed about relevant public matters. The first one concerns horror representation, relating the jewish genocide (Shoah; the second one dealt with how comic cartoons depicts the Other in the shape of popular classes. Both controversies oblige Humor to state explicitly the values of its editorial project and also evidenced a notorious dissent between its readers. Our contribution is intended to bring complexity to an assumed vision that relates directly actors connected with Humor magazine with oposition to dictatorial government.

  1. What makes you laugh? Strategies for appropriation of humor and laugh by mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Paula dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of:SANTOS, Roberto Elísio dos; ROSSETTI, Regina (Org.. Humor e riso na cultura midiática: variações e permanências. São Paulo: Paulinas, 2012. (Coleção Comunicação em Pauta

  2. Male Readership Differences in Liquor Magazine Ads Employing Nonsensical and Sexual Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined the attention getting value of nonsensical and sexual humor used in liquor advertisements to determine if one was more effective than the other in attracting male magazine readers. Thirty-two Starch-scored liquor ads taken from 1976 and 1977 issues of "Time,""Newsweek," and "Sports Illustrated" were analyzed by three male readers.…

  3. HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSES TO VARIOUS ANTIGENS IN THE ASTERIDS: A.GIBBOSA AND A.RUBENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leclerc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunizations with various antigens of the sea stars Asterina gibbosa and Asterias rubens produce specific humoral immune reactions which initiate the antibody factor. This antibody factor is correlated with kappa genes and could be composed of 4 kappa chains. It is the first time that such phenomenom was described in an invertebrate.

  4. The Use of Humor As a Teaching Tool in the College Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Deiter, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    Previous research reports a strong positive correlation between class attendance and student performance. Consequently, college educators, often explore innovative ways of encouraging class attendance. While no substitute for substance, humor is a teaching tool that can create a more positive, fun, interesting environment that promotes class attendance and student learning.

  5. Techniques for Using Humor and Fun in the Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minchew, Sue S.; Hopper, Peggy F.

    2008-01-01

    The authors, former middle and high school English teachers, review the rationale for using humor and fun in the classroom and provide detailed descriptions for teaching practices and activities that confer enjoyment and learning for language arts students. Although fun activities, these methods foster vocabulary development, grammar instruction,…

  6. Stress Management Strategies for Students: The Immediate Effects of Yoga, Humor, and Reading on Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…

  7. Humor Production as a Function of Sex of Subject, Creativity, and Cartoon Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinsky, David M.; Rubien, Janet

    1976-01-01

    High- and low-creative male and female college students were asked to devise humorous captions to cartoons containing sexual, aggressive, or neutral themes. Results indicate that males generated funnier captions than females to sexual and aggressive stimuli but not to neutral stimuli. Moreover, creativity was positively related to humor…

  8. Sense of humor and its association with psychological disturbances among dental students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan, Balasubramanian; Barik, Ashish Kumar; Patil, Rajesh; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Reddy, Mora Sathi Rami

    2013-10-01

    Although the health benefits of humor and the potential advantages of having a good Sense of Humor (SoH) have been long recognized, they have not been investigated in dental students. The aim of this study was to assess the extent and demographic correlates of SoH in dental students and its association with their self-reported level of psychological disturbances. Six hundred and five students (age 20.3±1.83 years, 250 males, 355 females) from two dental schools in India anonymously completed the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the intergroup differences based on gender and year of study, respectively. The association between SoH and each of the three negative affective states was evaluated with multiple linear regressions. The mean MSHS score of the sample was 59.65±11.77. Male students showed a marginally higher SoH than females (60.78 vs. 58.86, pstudents, the psychosocial roles of humor, and their application in improving the psychological climate in dental schools. PMID:24098038

  9. Making social robots more attractive: the effects of voice pitch, humor and empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niculescu, Andreea; Dijk, van Betsy; Nijholt, Anton; Li, Haizhou; See, Swan Lan; Ge, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore how simple auditory/verbal features of the spoken language, such as voice characteristics (pitch) and language cues (empathy/humor expression) influence the quality of interaction with a social robot receptionist. For our experiment two robot characters were created: Olivia,

  10. Humor Reduces Anxiety and Disgust in Anticipation of an Educational Dissection in Teacher Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Demirhan, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Dissections of human organs and animals are an important part of medical and science education but students usually express negative emotions towards dissections. Some studies show a negative influence of disgust and anxiety on motivation, interest and achievement. Therefore, reducing anxiety and disgust should be an important aim. As humor can…

  11. Vitreous humor and albumin augment the proliferation of cultured retinal precursor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jing; Klassen, Henry; Pries, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    Intravitreal injection is an important delivery route for studies involving the transplantation of various types of precursor cells to the retina; however, the effect on these cells of exposure to the vitreous microenvironment has not been specifically investigated. Here vitreous humor was evalua...

  12. Reactions to Humorous Sexual Stimuli as a Function of Sexual Activeness and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prerost, Frank J.

    1984-01-01

    Assessed male (N=60) and female (N=60) responses to pictorial humorous sexual material in relationship to degree of sexual expression and personal satisfaction with sexual behavior. Results showed persons with active and satisfying sexual expression enjoyed sexually explicit cartoons and showed less preference for aggressive themes. (LLL)

  13. From Kate Sanborn to Feminist Psychology: The Social Context of Women's Humor, 1885-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Alice

    1986-01-01

    Examines the work of Kate Sanborn (1839-1917), who edited an anthology of women's humor and crusaded for 20 years to alter the stereotype of women's humorlessness. It is suggested that her work adds to our knowledge of feminist history, as well as presaging current theoretical developments in the psychology of women. (Author/ABB)

  14. The Application of Humorous Song in EFL Classrooms and Its Effects on Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Marzieh; Kassaian, Zohre; Dastjerdi, Hossein Vahid

    2010-01-01

    Language learners need to feel secure and to be free of stress so they can focus on language tasks (Ellis, 1994). A language teacher should use different tools to encourage students and make them involved in learning process. Humor and song are effective tools, as they develop creativity and make the class environment an appropriate setting for…

  15. "Grammar Nazis Never Sleep": Facebook Humor and the Management of Standard Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Tamah; Švelch, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Language Management Theory (Nekvapil and Sherman, "Language management in contact situations. Perspectives from three continents". Peter Lang, Frankfurt/Main, 2009) to investigate Facebook pages as a site and instrument of behavior-toward-language, focusing specifically on the use of humor. The language in question is…

  16. Humor, Self-Attitude, Emotions, and Cognitions in Group Art Therapy with War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytin, Alexander; Lebedev, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study of the therapeutic effects of group art therapy in a psychotherapy unit of a Russian hospital for war veterans. The researchers randomly assigned 112 veterans being treated for stress-related disorders to an experimental group (art therapy) and a control group. The emphasis was on the use of humor in the…

  17. Relevance theory and humor%关联理论与幽默

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许华菁

    2013-01-01

      This paper combines with application examples to discuss and analyze the related concepts of relevance theory and humor.%  文章结合应用实例对关联理论与幽默的相关概念进行了探讨和分析。

  18. [Humoral nonspecific immunity in patients with post-burn cicatrical strictures of the esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumladze, R B; Babaian, S S; Bobkov, Iu I; Chernyshev, V S; Taratuta, O V

    1983-03-01

    The authors have studied the significance of factors of the humoral non-specific defense (HND) in 37 patients with cicatricial constrictions of the oesophagus and stomach. The data obtained were used for choosing the optimum terms for gastrostoma and oesophagoplasty. In 14 patients treatment with lysozyme was performed due to decreased indices of HND. PMID:6857955

  19. As Far As Words Go: Activities for Understanding Ambiguous Language and Humor, Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Cecile Cyrul

    2009-01-01

    Understanding ambiguous words, phrases, and sentences is an important part of reading well, communicating skillfully, and enjoying humor based on word play. With this seven-unit activity book--filled with creative, ready-to-use activities based on jokes and puns--students will learn how to decipher the language ambiguities they encounter inside…

  20. Dinâmicas sociais e estados de humor Social dynamics and mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Rebustini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as relações das dinâmicas sociais (família, amigos e escola; i.e., três fatores sociais sobre os estados de humor. A pesquisa foi realizada com uma equipe feminina de voleibol (14/15 anos. Aplicou-se o teste POMS (Profile of Mood States para mensurar os estados de humor. Foi utilizada uma escala de 1 (muito mal a 5 (muito bem para que as atletas avaliassem cada um dos três fatores. Os resultados apontaram correlações significativas entre as escalas e os estados de humor; e diferenças significativas entre os níveis de intensidade apontados na escala dos três fatores e os estados de humor. Os resultados indicam clara interferência das dinâmicas sociais sobre os estados de humor, portanto, as interferências sociais não podem ser descartadas na preparação do atleta.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social dynamics (family, friends and school; i.e., three social factors on mood states. The survey was conducted with a women's volleyball team (14/15 years. The POMS test (Profile of Mood States was employed to measure the team's mood states. The athletes assessed the three factors by the use of a Likert scale ranging from 1 (very bad to 5 (very good. Results showed significant correlations between scales and mood states, and significant differences between the intensity levels representing their moods for each of the three factors. The results show clear interference of social dynamics on the mood states. Therefore, social interference cannot be ignored during an athlete's training program.

  1. Repeatedly administered antidepressant drugs modulate humoral and cellular immune response in mice through action on macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Kozlowski, Michael; Bryniarski, Pawel; Strobel, Spencer; Bryk, Agata; Myszka, Michal; Tyszka, Anna; Kuszmiersz, Piotr; Nowakowski, Jaroslaw; Filipczak-Bryniarska, Iwona

    2016-08-01

    Depression is associated with an altered immune response, which could be normalized by antidepressant drugs. However, little is known about the influence of antidepressants on the peripheral immune response and function of macrophages in individuals not suffering from depression. Our studies were aimed at determining the influence of antidepressant drugs on the humoral and cellular immune response in mice. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with imipramine, fluoxetine, venlafaxine, or moclobemide and contact immunized with trinitrophenyl hapten followed by elicitation and measurement of contact sensitivity by ear swelling response. Peritoneal macrophages from drug-treated mice were either pulsed with sheep erythrocytes or conjugated with trinitrophenyl and transferred into naive recipients to induce humoral or contact sensitivity response, respectively. Secretion of reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, and cytokines by macrophages from drug-treated mice was assessed, respectively, in chemiluminometry, Griess-based colorimetry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression of macrophage surface markers was analyzed cytometrically. Treatment of mice with fluoxetine, venlafaxine, and moclobemide results in suppression of humoral and cell-mediated immunity with a reduction of the release of macrophage proinflammatory mediators and the expression of antigen-presentation markers. In contrast, treatment with imipramine enhanced the humoral immune response and macrophage secretory activity but slightly suppressed active contact sensitivity. Our studies demonstrated that systemically delivered antidepressant drugs modulate the peripheral humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, mostly through their action on macrophages. Imipramine was rather proinflammatory, whereas other tested drugs expressed immunosuppressive potential. Current observations may be applied to new therapeutic strategies dedicated to various disorders associated with excessive

  2. O rei está nu: Contrapoder e realização de desejo, na piada e no humor The king is naked: Counter power and wishful thinking in joke and humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Birman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste artigo é a de demonstrar como a piada e o humor têm como alvo privilegiado o campo do poder, sendo assim práticas discursivas eminentemente sociais. Além disso, como formas que seriam de realização de desejo, segundo Freud, seriam ainda formas de desconstrução do poder.The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that joke and humor have power as their privileged target, by which they become social discourse practices. Besides that, as forms of wishful thinking, according to Freud, joke and humor could be a way of deconstructing power.

  3. En torno al tratamiento lexicográfico de la fraseología humorística

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva Timofeev, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo centra su atención en la representación lexicográfica de la fraseología humorística. El humor, aun siendo un fenómeno eminentemente pragmático, forma parte del significado de algunas unidades fraseológicas (UF). Sin embargo, son confusos los criterios para considerar un fraseologismo como humorístico, lo cual provoca la disparidad de descripciones lexicográficas recogidas en distintos diccionarios. Por eso, tras un análisis de la significación fraseológica y de los puntos básicos...

  4. Memória, humor e emoção Memoria, humor y emoción Memory, mood and emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Kuckartz Pergher

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O número de estudos que visam compreender as interações entre processos cognitivos e afetivos vem aumentando nos últimos anos, principalmente em função das suas inúmeras implicações práticas, com destaque para a psicoterapia e a área forense. O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar algumas das possíveis interações entre processos afetivos e a memória. Inicialmente são assumidas definições para os termos emoção, humor e afeto. Depois, são abordadas as relações entre humor, emoção e memória, descrevendo-se os principais fenômenos investigados nessas áreas. Para cada fenômeno descrito, são expostos fundamentos empíricos e teorias explicativas. Ao final, são discutidas limitações e implicações dos estudos sobre as relações entre humor, emoção e memória, apontando-se para a necessidade de um maior consenso entre os pesquisadores da área.El número de estudios que visan comprender las interacciones entre procesos cognitivos y afectivos viene aumentando en los últimos años, principalmente en función de sus incontables implicaciones prácticas, con destaque para la psicoterapia y el área forense. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo presentar algunas de las posibles interacciones entre procesos afectivos y la memoria. Inicialmente se asumen definiciones para los términos emoción, humor y afecto y para los sistemas de memoria. Enseguida, se abordan los fenómenos de la memoria congruente con el humor, memoria dependiente del humor, memorias autobiográficas súper generalizadas y del impacto de la emoción/estrés sobre los sistemas de memoria semántica y autobiográfica. También se exponen algunos hallazgos experimentales y teorías explicativas de tales fenómenos. Al final, se discuten implicaciones de las investigaciones en el área de emoción vs. cognición.The number of studies that aim to understand the interactions between the cognitive and affective processes has been increasing over

  5. Underage drinkers' responses to negative-restrictive versus proactive-nonrestrictive slogans in humorous anti-alcohol abuse messages: are humorous responsible drinking campaign messages effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined underage drinkers' responses to negative-restrictive versus proactive-nonrestrictive slogans in humorous anti-alcohol abuse advertisements. The authors conducted a posttest-only control group experiment with 91 teenagers and college-aged participants. For underage moderate drinkers, the negative-restrictive slogans (e.g., "Don't drink") increased participants' perceived risk of excessive drinking and increased a level of intention to change their drinking behavior. However, for underage binge drinkers, the negative-restrictive slogans lowered participants' risk perception of excessive drinking and intention to change their drinking behavior.

  6. Humor og ironi i tværsproglige og tværkulturelle møder. Bona-fide, ikke-bona-fide og bona-fide-cum-humor i dansk og fransk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lita Lundquist

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen tager udgangspunkt i en empirisk undersøgelse af hvordan danskere og franskmænd anvender og reagerer på humor og ironi i professionelle sammenhænge. Humor er i sig selv et mangefacetteret fænomen der er beskrevet i flere sproglige og ikke sproglige discipliner, men når humor studeres som et tværsprogligt og tværkulturelt fænomen, inddrages endnu flere aspekter der kalder på andre former for belysning. Humor betragtes her først som en ikke-bona-fide sproghandling der for at være vellykket via sin semantiske og pragmatiske dobbelt(tydighed skal tolkes som en bona-fide-cum-humor sproghandling. Danskeres udbredte anvendelse af humor og (selvironi, også i faglige sammenhænge, i modsætning til franskmænds præference for ordspil, forklares sprogligt via særegenheder i det danske overfor det franske sprog, og kulturantropologisk og sociologisk via forskelle i civilisationsprocesser og ledelsesstrukturer i de to kulturer. Artiklen er således et forsøg på at slå bro mellem komparativ sprogforskning og sammenlignende lande- og kulturstudier.

  7. Humor in marketing as a success factor: the case of MEO

    OpenAIRE

    Boleto, Ana Raquel Soeiro

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing É certo e sabido que a utilização do humor no marketing é algo que não é novo para ninguém, no entanto, há que ter a astúcia em saber usá-lo da forma mais correta no nosso negócio. Pode vir a ser ouro se bem utilizado ou pode ser um fracasso total se mal utilizado. Este projeto pretende contar a história de sucesso do serviço de telecomunicações MEO, da PT Comunicações, ao adotar uma estratégia de marketing com um focus totalmente ligado ao Humor bem utilizado. ...

  8. Impacto de los trastornos del humor en la calidad de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Ermelinda; Nossa, Paulo Nuno Sousa; Silva, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    introdução: As Doenças do Humor (DH) provocam um forte prejuízo nas pessoas, embora ainda não seja muito claro o seu impacte na qualidade de vida (QDV) conforme a especiicidade da doença. objetivos: Os objetivos deste estudo são: 1) identiicar relações signiicativas entre a QDV e variáveis sociodemográicas em pessoas com doenças do humor; 2) identiicar relações signiicativas entre a QDV e a Depressão Major (DM) Distimia (D) Doença Bipolar (DB) e Perturbações Depressivas Sem Outra ...

  9. INDICATORS OF HUMORAL IMMUNITY UNDER CHEMICAL BURNS OF ESOPHAGUS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchuk, T V; Kravchenko, N K; Raetska, Ya B; Ostapchenko, L I

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the immune system has been actively involved in the regeneration and healing processes of post burn wounds. However, unanswered questions remain concerning the role of humoral immunity in the healing mechanisms and development of burn wound complications. We have developed an experimental model of chemical esophageal burn (CEB) which corresponds to esophageal burn in 1-8 years old children. We studied the features of humoral immunity upon CEB in rats. A decrease in IgG levels and an increase in levels of medium- and low- molecular circulating immune complexes (CIC) on the first day of esophageal burns were observed. On the 21st day of burn, we observed an increase in the IgG concentration and a tendency to accumulation of medium- and low-molecular CIC. The studied indicators can be used to differentiate CEB development and create a timeline of burn wounds.

  10. Face theory in verbal humor%幽默的“面子”论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾懿

    2012-01-01

      As a special verbal form of human communication, humor should be studied together with face with face which embodies the individual’s social image. This article illustrates the double function of verbal humor on face, approaching from two perspectives, that is, face-saving function and face-threatening function.%  幽默作为一种特殊的言语交际形式,常常与体现个体社会形象的面子联系起来。本文从维护面子的功能和损坏面子的功能两个角度出发,着重探讨了幽默对面子的双重作用。

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Sparfloxacin in the Serum and Vitreous Humor of Rabbits: Physicochemical Properties That Regulate Penetration of Quinolone Antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiguo; Liu, Qing Feng; Perkins, Ruth; Drusano, George; Louie, Arnold; Madu, Assumpta; Mian, Umar; Mayers, Martin; Miller, Michael H.

    1998-01-01

    We have used a recently described animal model to characterize the ocular pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin in vitreous humor of uninfected albino rabbits following systemic administration and direct intraocular injection. The relationships of lipophilicity, protein binding, and molecular weight to the penetration and elimination of sparfloxacin were compared to those of ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, and ofloxacin. To determine whether elimination was active, elimination rates following direct injection with and without probenecid or heat-killed bacteria were compared. Sparfloxacin concentrations were measured in the serum and vitreous humor by a biological assay. Protein binding and lipophilicity were determined, respectively, by ultrafiltration and oil-water partitioning. Pharmacokinetic parameters were characterized with RSTRIP, an iterative, nonlinear, weighted, least-squares-regression program. The relationship between each independent variable and mean quinolone concentration or elimination rate in the vitreous humor was determined by multiple linear regression. The mean concentration of sparfloxacin in the vitreous humor was 59.4% ± 12.2% of that in serum. Penetration of sparfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, and ofloxacin into, and elimination from, the vitreous humor correlated with lipophilicity (r2 > 0.999). The linear-regression equation describing this relationship was not improved by including the inverse of the square root of the molecular weight and/or the degree of protein binding. Elimination rates for each quinolone were decreased by the intraocular administration of probenecid. Heat-killed Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased the rate of elimination of fleroxacin. Penetration of sparfloxacin into the noninflamed vitreous humor was greater than that of any quinolone previously examined. There was an excellent correlation between lipophilicity and vitreous entry or elimination for sparfloxacin as well as ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, and ofloxacin

  12. Successful therapy with rituximab of refractory acute humoral renal transplant rejection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, A; Saglam, F; Cavdar, C; Sifil, A; Atila, K; Sarioglu, S; Bora, S; Gulay, H; Camsari, T

    2008-01-01

    Acute humoral rejection (AHR) is generally less responsive to conventional anti-rejection treatment with consequent allograft losses. Therapeutic options include antilymphocyte antibody (ATG), intravenous immunglobulin (IVIG), plasmapheresis, or immunoadsorption with protein A together with intensification of immunsuppression with a tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil combination. This report describes a transplant recipient who responded to rituximab therapy as treatment for steroid-, ATG-, IVIG-, and plasmapheresis-resistant AHR. PMID:18261611

  13. Social Looking, Social Referencing and Humor Perception in 6-and-12-month-old Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Mireault, Gina C.; Crockenberg, Susan C.; Sparrow, John E.; Pettinato, Christine A.; Woodard, Kelly C.; Malzac, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Social referencing refers to infants' use of caregivers as emotional referents in ambiguous situations (Walden, 1993). Studies of social referencing typically require ambulation, thereby over-looking younger, non-ambulatory infants (i.e., ≤ 8-mos) and resulting in a widespread assumption that young infants do not employ this strategy. Using a novel approach that does not require mobility, we found that when parents provided unsolicited affective cues during an ambiguous-absurd (i.e., humorous...

  14. Do cheerfulness, exhilaration, and humor production moderate pain tolerance? A FACS study

    OpenAIRE

    Zweyer, K; Velker, B; Ruch, Willibald

    2004-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that watching a funny film leads to an increase in pain tolerance. The present study aimed at separating three factors considered potentially essential (mood, behavior, and cognition related to humor) and examined whether they are responsible for this effect. Furthermore, the study examined whether trait cheerfulness and trait seriousness, as measured by the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory (STCI; Ruch et al. 1996), moderate changes in pain tolerance. Fifty-sixty fe...

  15. Between laugh, common sense and dissent. Humor magazine as a controversial space (1978-1980).

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Raices

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals on initial phase of argentine Humor magazine, between 1978 and 1980, during the military dictatorship period (1976-1983). Our text is focused on significative actores implied with the magazine. In that sense, we research the intervention of its public through reader’s letters section. Our goal was to analyze controversies in that section. We assert it was a useful space in restablishing broken social links resulting from state repression. In addition to this, the ...

  16. Deregulation of the humoral immune response of the oyster (Crassostrea corteziensis) exposed to naphthalene

    OpenAIRE

    KJG Díaz-Resendiz; CA Romero-Bañuelos; ML Robledo-Marenco; AE Rojas-García; BS Barrón-Vibanco; IM Medina-Díaz; MI Girón-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Naphthalene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aquatic ecosystems, and it can cause alterations in the immune system of organisms that live there. The oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is a species native to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, with economic and ecological importance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of subacute exposure to sublethal concentrations of naphthalene on the parameters of the humoral immune response (lysozyme and phenoloxidase activ...

  17. Overseas and Domestic Research Status of Analysis of Humor from the Perspective of Cooperative Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雨娟

    2016-01-01

    In Harvard University in 1967, an American linguistic philosopher, Grice, firstly put forward Cooperative Principle. From then on, overseas and domestic scholars began to pay much attention on CP, and analysis of humor from CP also became popular among researchers. The thesis reviews overseas and domestic research status of the research field from the violation of CP, in order to offer some constructive suggestions and research directions.

  18. NF-κB/Rel Proteins and the Humoral Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, Sandhya; Aggarwal, Kamna; Paquette, Nicholas; Silverman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB)/Rel transcription factors form an integral part of innate immune defenses and are conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Studying the function, mechanism of activation and regulation of these factors is crucial for understanding host responses to microbial infections. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has proved to be a valuable model system to study these evolutionarily conserved NF-κB mediated immune responses. Drosophila combats pathogens through humoral and...

  19. Gestational Zinc Deficiency Impairs Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Hepatitis B Vaccination in Offspring Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Zhao; Xuelian Wang; Ying Zhang; Qiuhong Gu; Fen Huang; Wei Zheng; Zhiwei Li

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gestational zinc deficiency has been confirmed to impair the infant immune function. However, knowledge about effects of maternal mild zinc deficiency during pregnancy on hepatitis B vaccine responsiveness in offspring is limited. In this report, we aimed to examine how maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy influences humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in offspring of BALB/c mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From day 1 of pregnancy upon delive...

  20. Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Yersinia pestis Infection in Long-Term Recovered Plague Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bei; Du, Chunhong; Zhou, Lei; Bi, Yujing; Wang, Xiaoyi; Wen, Li; Guo, Zhaobiao; Song, Zhizhong; Yang, Ruifu

    2012-01-01

    Plague is one of the most dangerous diseases and is caused by Yersinia pestis. Effective vaccine development requires understanding of immune protective mechanisms against the bacterium in humans. In this study, the humoral and memory cellular immune responses in plague patients (n = 65) recovered from Y. pestis infection during the past 16 years were investigated using a protein microarray and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot). The seroprevalence to the F1 antigen in all re...

  1. Procedimientos de humor en Théâtre sans animaux de Jean-Michel Ribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Cots Vicente

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the role of humour in Théâtre sans animaux. Our approach is to define two forms of humour which play on the effects of incoherence: the unusual and the absurd. We then examine these two forms of humour and the effects which they produce in Jean-Michel Ribes’s text. We show the specificity of the humor of Ribes which articulates the unusual with the absurd.

  2. Social Criticism Gets Animated. Satire and Humor in Corpse Bride (2005) by Timothy Burton

    OpenAIRE

    Druzhinina, Marina

    2009-01-01

    This essay explores social criticism and the way how, by means of satire and humor, it is introduced in the animated fantasy movie that was nominated for Best Animated Feature Film in the 78th Academy Awards, Corpse Bride (2005). The essay provides evidence that its chief director, Timothy Burton, explores the faults of society through all aspects of this highly entertaining stop-motion picture: setting, characterisation, structure, imagery, and language. The essay discusses in details th...

  3. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Reduction in Medical Education: Humor as an Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Narula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved in medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. Objective of the study was to explore the effectiveness of humor when used as intervention in large group teaching over negative emotions amongst students. Method: The present Interventional, Randomized control trial study was carried out on medical students of 4th Semester of RMCH, Bareilly, which has total 90 students. Using simple random sampling lottery method the whole class was divided in two groups-A and B consisting of 45 students each. Group A as control group and Group B experimental group. In first and last lecture of both groups Dass-21 was used as measuring scale, for depression, anxiety and stress and results were compared to see the effect of humor on these three negative emotions. Result: Comparison of Severe and Extremely severe Stress: In Group A 40.54% in class -1 increased to 47.54% in class- 4, while in group B initial 13.15 % was reduced to 0 % (highly significant. Anxiety: In group A, after Class 1 -57.45% increased to 61.11% after class 4, while in group B, after class 1- 23.68% reduced to 2.27% only (highly significant. Depression: In group A, after Class 1 - 40.53% & 41.66 % after class 4 (not significant, while in group B, after class 1- 18.41% reduced to 0% (highly significant. Conclusion: In present study humor was found to be very effective intervention in relieving students on their negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress to a larger extent. Further research would justify the use of humor as an effective teaching aid in medical education.

  4. Humoral Immunity to AAV-6, 8, and 9 in Normal and Dystrophic Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce; Duan, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition ...

  5. Seasonal variations of the humoral immune parameters of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Y. (Yulema)

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal cycles, mainly due to great variations in the light duration and temperature, are important and modulate several aspects of the animal behavior. In the case of poikilotherms animals such as fish this is very relevant. Thus, temperature changes fish immunity and affects disease resistance. We evaluate in this work the season variations of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) humoral innate parameters focusing on winter months, at which the culture of this specie is more diffic...

  6. Review of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy trials for primary humoral immunodeficiency patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, H. W.; Dougherty, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    An available supply of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is essential for individuals with primary humoral immunodeficiency. A shortage in 1997 prompted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to revise guidelines for the licensure, production, and distribution of new IVIG products, including the standardization of United States clinical trials regarding endpoints for safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics. The following review is intended to present current information and results of clinical...

  7. The relief of a caregiver's burden through guided imagery, role-playing, humor, and paradoxical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kam-Shing

    2003-01-01

    Caregiving by relatives to a person with mental illness is demanding and overwhelming. This paper describes how to use guided imagery, role-playing, humor, and paradoxical intervention to help the wife of a man with mental illness in easing her worry, anxiety, and frustration engendered by caregiving. The intervention made the wife feel normal and relaxed in facing the "symptoms" of her husband's mental illness. It also revived the wife's patience, hope, and strength in the process of rehabilitation.

  8. The Effect of Pistacia khynjuk on Humoral Immune System of Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A Hadinia; SM Hosseini; A Ghanbari; R Aryanpour; F Sayedi; SH Askarian

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Plants from the genus Pistacia family such as Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khynjuk are considered as herbal medicines. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of these plants have been confirmed. The aim of the current study was to find the effect of Pistacia khynjuk on humoral immune system of Wistar rats. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental study which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty male W...

  9. An Application of the General Theory of Verbal Humor to Kurt Vonnegut’s “Cat’s Cradle”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru OLTEAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article represents a step in an ongoing work to determine the nature of humor in the works of Kurt Vonnegut. Here I focus on “Cat’s Cradle” – perhaps the author’s first work of significant success – and seek to create a formal model of the novel, outlining only the fragments of text which are humorous. The methodology used is based primarily on the General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH created by Salvatore Attardo and Victor Raskin, which the authors claim can be applied to any kind of text. The purpose of the present paper is not to dispute this claim, but rather, on the basis of its validity, to apply the GTVH directly onto “Cat’s Cradle”, primarily so as to identify patterns in the usage and placement of humor within the text of the novel. What the paper seeks to prove is that elements of humor in a novel are not placed at random and do not exist only to lighten the mood of a story or to push forward an idea that the narrator seeks to get through to the reader. Instead, the precise placement of the humorous pieces of text creates a formal image that is also a representation of the way in which the novel as a whole is constructed.

  10. Social looking, social referencing and humor perception in 6- and-12-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Pettinato, Christine A; Woodard, Kelly C; Malzac, Kirsten

    2014-11-01

    Social referencing refers to infants' use of caregivers as emotional referents in ambiguous situations (Walden, 1993). Studies of social referencing typically require ambulation, thereby over-looking younger, non-ambulatory infants (i.e., ≤8-months) and resulting in a widespread assumption that young infants do not employ this strategy. Using a novel approach that does not require mobility, we found that when parents provided unsolicited affective cues during an ambiguous-absurd (i.e., humorous) event, 6-month-olds employ one component of social referencing, social looking Additionally, 6-month-olds who did not laugh at the event were significantly more likely to look toward parents than their counterparts who found the event funny. Sequential analyses revealed that, following a reference to a smiling parent, 6-month olds were more likely to smile at the parent, but by 12 months were more likely to smile at the event suggesting that older infants are influenced by parental affect in humorous situations. The developmental implications of these findings are discussed, as well as the usefulness of studying humor for understanding important developmental phenomena. PMID:25061893

  11. Neutrophil recruitment to lymph nodes limits local humoral response to Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenyeva, Olena; Boularan, Cedric; Kabat, Juraj; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Cicala, Claudia; Yeh, Anthony J; Chan, June L; Periasamy, Saravanan; Otto, Michael; Kehrl, John H

    2015-04-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of host defense against bacterial pathogens. They are rapidly mobilized to sites of infection where they help marshal host defenses and remove bacteria by phagocytosis. While splenic neutrophils promote marginal zone B cell antibody production in response to administered T cell independent antigens, whether neutrophils shape humoral immunity in other lymphoid organs is controversial. Here we investigate the neutrophil influx following the local injection of Staphylococcus aureus adjacent to the inguinal lymph node and determine neutrophil impact on the lymph node humoral response. Using intravital microscopy we show that local immunization or infection recruits neutrophils from the blood to lymph nodes in waves. The second wave occurs temporally with neutrophils mobilized from the bone marrow. Within lymph nodes neutrophils infiltrate the medulla and interfollicular areas, but avoid crossing follicle borders. In vivo neutrophils form transient and long-lived interactions with B cells and plasma cells, and their depletion augments production of antigen-specific IgG and IgM in the lymph node. In vitro activated neutrophils establish synapse- and nanotube-like interactions with B cells and reduce B cell IgM production in a TGF-β1 dependent manner. Our data reveal that neutrophils mobilized from the bone marrow in response to a local bacterial challenge dampen the early humoral response in the lymph node. PMID:25884622

  12. Humoral antibody response of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus against Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Gío, Juan José; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2008-04-01

    The humoral immune response of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus was evaluated using a direct ELISA. Serum was tested from fish infected with Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea) and from fish injected intraperitoneally with the Cichlidogyrus spp. antigenic extract, i.e., 150 microl of the Cichlidogyrus spp. saline extract diluted in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) (1:1) were inoculated intraperitoneally at day 0, followed by 2 dosages of 50 microl of the same Cichlidogyrus spp. saline extract diluted in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) (1:1) at weeks 2 and 4, respectively. The humoral response was also evaluated by the double immunodiffusion test (DID) and by serum protein and total immunoglobulin (Ig) determinations. The IgM OD values in the hyperimmune fish were significantly higher than in the infected and uninfected fish groups. In the DID test, a precipitation (antigen-antibody) band was observed between the Cichlidogyrus spp. saline extract and hyperimmune sera, but not with the other groups. Increases in serum protein concentration and total Igs were observed in the immunized fish at weeks 2 and 10 postinjection. Results from this study suggest that tilapia is capable of producing an induced humoral immune response against an antigenic extract of Cichlidogyrus spp. PMID:18564741

  13. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  14. Neutrophil recruitment to lymph nodes limits local humoral response to Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kamenyeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils form the first line of host defense against bacterial pathogens. They are rapidly mobilized to sites of infection where they help marshal host defenses and remove bacteria by phagocytosis. While splenic neutrophils promote marginal zone B cell antibody production in response to administered T cell independent antigens, whether neutrophils shape humoral immunity in other lymphoid organs is controversial. Here we investigate the neutrophil influx following the local injection of Staphylococcus aureus adjacent to the inguinal lymph node and determine neutrophil impact on the lymph node humoral response. Using intravital microscopy we show that local immunization or infection recruits neutrophils from the blood to lymph nodes in waves. The second wave occurs temporally with neutrophils mobilized from the bone marrow. Within lymph nodes neutrophils infiltrate the medulla and interfollicular areas, but avoid crossing follicle borders. In vivo neutrophils form transient and long-lived interactions with B cells and plasma cells, and their depletion augments production of antigen-specific IgG and IgM in the lymph node. In vitro activated neutrophils establish synapse- and nanotube-like interactions with B cells and reduce B cell IgM production in a TGF-β1 dependent manner. Our data reveal that neutrophils mobilized from the bone marrow in response to a local bacterial challenge dampen the early humoral response in the lymph node.

  15. Ambiguity in English Humor%英语笑话的歧义分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温美霞

    2015-01-01

    The linguistic ambiguity,which can be taken as a communication barrier in actual exchanges,is often employed in the realization of jokes to display humorous effect.This paper tentatively explores the inference and appreciation of English jokes from three perspectives,including phonological ambiguity,lexical ambiguity and syntactic ambiguity to illuminate the fact that linguistic ambiguity is an important mechanism for the birth of humors and that humor can be understood effectively with the help of the analysis of ambiguity.%歧义在正常交际中可被视为交际的障碍,然而运用到笑话中却能产生幽默诙谐的效果。本文根据触发歧义的语言层次,试从语音歧义,词汇歧义和句法歧义三方面理解和欣赏英语笑话,表明歧义机制是建构幽默的重要手段,通过分析歧义能有效解读幽默。

  16. Stress and Humoral Innate Immune Response of Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata Cultured in Sea Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, Fulvio; Roncarati, Alessandra; Angelucci, Giulia; Fenza, Alessandra; Meluzzi, Adele

    2016-09-01

    Innate and acquired immune responses of Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata was studied under normal culture and short-term stressful conditions for 18 months in offshore sea cages in Alghero Bay, Italy. Every 45 d, 50 fish were sampled and divided into two groups: fish in the first group (normal culture conditions) were bled after harvesting; fish in the second group were put into a tank under stressful conditions (crowding and confinement) and bled after 2 h. Innate humoral immunity, such as complement-like, hemagglutination, and lysozyme activities, was determined in the sera of both groups. Pathogen challenge was not performed, but the specific humoral immune response was assessed against the most common pathogens affecting cultured fish in Sardinia. Stressed fish, compared with the control, showed a lower lysozyme activity against Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum, which was not clearly correlated with temperatures. Complement-like activity differed between the first and second half of the study and, at the end of the trial, a slightly higher activity was recorded in the controls than in the stressed fish. Hemagglutination activity was mainly higher in the stressed fish than in control fish. Confinement, crowding, and cold water temperature caused decreased lysozyme activity in short-term stressed Gilthead Seabream compared with those reared normally. The specific humoral immune response, against V. anguillarum, Tenacibaculum mesophilum, Enterococcus Seriolicida, and Aeromonas sobria, fluctuated during the rearing period, particularly during the first year of culture. Received October 12, 2015; accepted March 24, 2016. PMID:27485027

  17. Comparison of humoral response in sheep to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Humoral response of sheep to F. gigantica was compared with the well known humoral response to F. hepatica, in order to explain the difference of susceptibility of sheep to these two parasites. In this work, a lesser susceptibility of sheep to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica infection was confirmed. Humoral response to F. hepatica infection is similar to that previously described by several authors. IgG level of F. gigantica infected sheep increased from week 2 post-infection (2WPI and displayed a peak at 13WPI. F. gigantica excretory-secretory products (FgESP analyzed by SDS-PAGE showed at least 31 bands from 12.0 to 127.6 kDa in FgESP. Western blot indicated that F. gigantica infected sheep sera recognized, in FgESP, at least 30 antigens from 7.8 to 119.2 kDa of which 12 major bands recognized after OWPI. In FhESP and FgESP, F. hepatica infected sheep serum reacted only with the lower molecular mass antigens, while F. gigantica infected sheep serum reacted with the lower and the higher molecular mass antigens. These differences of antigenic recognition might be associated with the difference of susceptibility of sheep. Further investigation must be done to study the mechanism of resistance between the sheep infected with F. hepatica or F. gigantica.

  18. The Applicability of Humorous Print Ads%幽默平面广告的适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海波

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨哪一类别商品的平面广告更适合于采用幽默的诉求方式,研究随机选取160大学生为被试,以16则改编平面广告为实验材料,以广告类型(幽默,非幽默)、商品类别为自变量,以广告评价、广告顺序为协变量,以商品的印象、喜爱程度、购买意向为因变量,进行平衡设计实验。结果表明,幽默广告具有较好广告效果,可以提高受众对大宗工具、小奖赏和小工具型商品的记忆;幽默平面广告更适用于低风险、功能性商品,不适用于高风险、享乐性商品。%Humor is widely used in advertisements. However, it is not applicable to all. If not used properly, the humor inthe advertisements may have reversed influence. This research attempted to find out which types of merchandise humor was more applicable, using Product Color Matrix as the standard classification for merchandises. I chose two kinds of representative merchandise from each category, which were big tools (range hood, water heater), big toys (diamond bracelet, sports car), little treats (beer, juice), and little tools (toothpaste and beer bottle opener). Two different print advertisements were made for each merchandise, respectively, humorous ad and non-humorous ad. Two hypotheses were put forward : ( 1 ) humor always harvested good advertising effect ; ( 2 ) humor acted dif- ferently on the merchandise of different types. A total of 16 adapted unfamiliar or foreign print advertisements were shown to 160 college students, who were randomly selected to take the questionnaire. In this experiment with balanced design, univariate analysis variance and multivariate analysis of variance were applied to analyze data. Whether humor was used in advertisement was the independent variable. Evaluation and the order of the ads were the covariates. Impression, preference, and purchase intention toward the merchandise were the dependent variables

  19. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is an innovative method to produce useful building materials from Martian regolith. Acids and bases produced from the regolith...

  20. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is a novel technology for recovering oxygen, iron, and other constituents from lunar and Mars soils. The closed-loop...

  1. Decreased humoral antibody episodes of acute renal allograft rejection in recipients expressing the HLA-DQβ1*0202 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannam, Venkat K R; Santos, Mark; Lewis, Robert E; Cruse, Julius M

    2012-10-01

    The present investigation was designed to show the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecular allelic specificities in the recipient on the induction of humoral antibody rejection, identified by C4d peritubular capillary staining, as well as specific antibody identified by Luminex technology. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed on dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes and they present antigenic peptides to CD4 positive T lymphocytes. Human renal peritubular and glomerular capillaries express class II MHC molecules upon activation. Expression of class II molecules on renal microvascular endothelial cells exposes them to possible interaction with specific circulating antibodies. We hypothesize that HLA-DQβ1*0202 expression in recipients decreases the likelihood of antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. We found that 80% (=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients failed to induce humoral antibody renal allograft rejection and 20% (n=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody renal allograft rejection (p=0.008). By contrast, 48% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients failed to induce a humoral antibody component of renal allograft rejection and 52% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. Our results suggest that recipients who express the DQβ1*0202 allele are less likely to induce a humoral antibody component of acute renal allograft rejection than are those expressing DQ1, DQ3, or DQ4 alleles. DQβ1*0202 allele expression in recipients could possibly be protective against acute humoral allograft rejection and might serve as a future criterion in recipient selection and in appropriate therapy for acute renal rejection episodes.

  2. Será rir o melhor remédio? O impacto do clima de humor na satisfação laboral e no desempenho

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Cátia Sofia Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário Este estudo tem como objetivo fornecer evidências empíricas adicionais acerca do impacto do Clima de Humor na Satisfação Laboral e no Desempenho. Para este fim hipotetizou-se (1) um impacto positivo do Clima de Humor Positivo na Satisfação Laboral e no Desempenho; (2) um impacto negativo do Clima de Humor Negativo na Satisfação Laboral e no Desempenho; (3) um impacto negativo do Clima de Humor sobre a Gestão na Satisfaçã...

  3. Humor e Discriminação por Orientação Sexual no Ambiente Organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Arthur Reis Irigaray

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To deal with multiple social manifestations in the organizational world, humor is an important form of communicating something, although not in an explicit way, smoothing critics and aggressions under the pretext of getting a laugh. In this paper we discuss humor as a form of manifesting discrimination of sexual orientation in the work place. Based on specialized literature about social, denotative and connotative functions of humor, and the insertion of female and male homosexuals in a professional atmosphere, we conducted a qualitative study with heterosexual and homosexual workers in companies located in the metropolitan regions of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo from 2005 through 2008 to obtain their life stories. The interviews were recorded and fully transcribed. They were then subjected to a French discourse analysis technique. The main results suggest that heterosexual humor about gays is explicit, and it seems to be socially legitimated because gays are funny. We also found surprising evidence that gays make jokes about themselves, confirming social stigma through laughs. The main conclusions discuss the need to put humor in a political context, as a form of communication in organizations, because one of its social functions is to aid the social processes of controlling and social discrimination.

  4. A pilot study of the relation between humor styles and the past-positive and past-negative time perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2013-08-01

    Those who use self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles tend to recall positive experiences with their parents and primary caretakers, whereas those who use the self-defeating humor style tend to recall negative experiences with them. Considering the importance of experiences with parents and primary caretakers for life satisfaction and happiness, it was hypothesized that the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles would be positively correlated with past-positive experiences and negatively correlated with past-negative experiences, and that the self-defeating humor style would be positively correlated with past-negative experiences and negatively correlated with past-positive experiences. The Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Past-Positive and Past-Negative subscales of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory were administered to 114 undergraduates. The hypotheses were partially supported despite the retrospective nature of the Past-Positive and Past-Negative Subscales and the correlational nature of the study, indicating further research is needed. PMID:24340822

  5. Ha ha! versus aha! a direct comparison of humor to nonhumorous insight for determining the neural correlates of mirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving; Wang, Zhuangjun; Xu, Xiaokun

    2015-05-01

    While humor typically involves a surprising discovery, not all discoveries are perceived as humorous or lead to a feeling of mirth. Is there a difference in the neural signature of humorous versus nonhumorous discovery? Subjects viewed drawings that were uninterpretable until a caption was presented that provided either: 1) a nonhumorous interpretation (or insight) of an object from an unusual or partial view (UV) or 2) a humorous interpretation (HU) of the image achieved by linking remote and unexpected concepts. fMRI activation elicited by the UV captions was a subset of that elicited by the humorous HU captions, with only the latter showing activity in the temporal poles and temporo-occipital junction (linking remote concepts), and medial prefrontal cortex (unexpected reward). Mirth may be a consequence of the linking of remote ideas producing high-and unexpected-activation in association and classical reward areas. We suggest that this process is mediated by opioid activity as part of a system rewarding attention to novel information. PMID:24323497

  6. Influence of Some Pesticides on Humoral and Cellular Immunity of Exposed Workers in Pesticides Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in developing countries. In most of these countries organophosphate pesticides constitute the most widely used pesticides. The main toxicity of OPs is neurotoxicity, which is caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. OPs also affect the immune response, including effects on cellular and humoral immunity. Our study examined the effect of organophosphorus compounds on humoral and cellular immunity of exposed workers in pesticides industries. The study was conducted into 40 subjects. They were 2 groups; 20 exposed workers from Gharbeia and Kafr Elsheikh at 2008 and 2009 and 20 unexposed individuals as a control group at the same period of time. We examined some immune parameters; pseudocholinesterase, WBCs count, CD4%, CD8%, CD4/CD8, CD56%, Interleukin 2, IgG and IgM. Also we take history and clinical examination for them. We reported a highly significant decrease in pseudo cholinesterase level among the exposed group in comparison to the control group, highly significant increase in percentage of CD8 in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in CD4 / CD8 ratio in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in percentage of CD56 in the exposed group in comparison to control group and a highly significant increase in IgG level in the exposed group in comparison to control group. On the other hand, we reported no significant change in white blood cells count between the exposed and control groups, no significant change in percentage of CD4 among the exposed and control group, no significant change in Interleukin 2 level among the exposed and control group and no significant change in IgM level among the exposed and control group. We concluded that pesticides extensively affect the humoral and cellular immune system of occupationally exposed workers.

  7. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Piepenbrink

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles.A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19 and healthy control subjects (n = 19. The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy.These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing population.

  8. Gestational zinc deficiency impairs humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in offspring mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gestational zinc deficiency has been confirmed to impair the infant immune function. However, knowledge about effects of maternal mild zinc deficiency during pregnancy on hepatitis B vaccine responsiveness in offspring is limited. In this report, we aimed to examine how maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy influences humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in offspring of BALB/c mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From day 1 of pregnancy upon delivery, maternal mice were given a standard diet (30 mg/kg/day zinc, zinc deficient diet (8 mg/kg/day zinc, or combination of zinc deficient diet (8 mg/kg/day zinc in the first 2 weeks of gestation and zinc supplement diet (150 mg/kg/day zinc for the last week of pregnancy, respectively. Newborn pups of these maternal mice were immunized with hepatitis B vaccine at postnatal weeks 0, 2 and 4. Then, splenocytes and blood samples from the offspring mice were harvested for detection of serum zinc concentrations, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, expression of cytokines using ELISA, CCK-8 and flow cytometric analysis. Results from the present study demonstrated that gestational zinc deficiency inhibited antibody responses, and decreased the proliferative capacity of T cells in offsprings immunized with hepatitis B vaccine. Additionally, HBsAg-specific cytokines analysis revealed that gestational zinc deficiency could inhibit secretion of IFN-γ from splenocytes, and decrease IFN-γ expression of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Gestational zinc deficiency can weaken the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to hepatitis B vaccine via decreasing B cell counts and hepatitis B virus-specific immunoglobulin G production, as well as reducing T cell proliferation, CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell ratio, and Th1-type immune responses.

  9. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenbrink, Michael S.; Samuel, Memorie; Zheng, Bo; Carter, Brittany; Fucile, Christopher; Bunce, Catherine; Kiebala, Michelle; Khan, Atif A.; Thakar, Juilee; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Morse, Diane; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Haughey, Norman J.; Valenti, William; Keefer, Michael C.; Kobie, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs) have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles. Methods and Findings A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 19). The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy. Conclusions These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing

  10. Shallow Theory of Biology Classroom Humor%生物课堂幽默浅论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范旭东

    2014-01-01

    与初中生物相比,高中生物知识的广度和深度都有所增加,知识相对来说比较抽象,容易使课堂变得枯燥无味。学生在课堂中很容易无精打采,产生厌倦情绪。如果在平时的课堂中加入一些幽默化的元素,不仅可以起到化繁为简的目的,也可以激发学生对生物学科的兴趣。正如苏联著名教育家斯维特洛夫所说:“教育家最主要的也是第一位的助手是幽默。”结合教学实践谈了生物课堂的幽默。%Compared with middle school biology,the high school biology increased breadth and depth of knowledge,knowledge is relatively abstract,easy to become boring classroom. Students in the classroom is easy to slouch,boredom. If in the usual classroom add some elements of humor,not only can rise to change numerous for brief,the purpose of can also stimulate students interest in biology. As the famous educator thwaite rove says:“educator is the most important and the first assistant humor.” Talk about the biological classroom humor combined with teaching practice.

  11. Amphoteric Aqueous Hafnium Cluster Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Park, Deok-Hie; Amador, Jenn M; Keszler, Douglas A; Nyman, May

    2016-05-17

    Selective dissolution of hafnium-peroxo-sulfate films in aqueous tetramethylammonium hydroxide enables extreme UV lithographic patterning of sub-10 nm HfO2 structures. Hafnium speciation under these basic conditions (pH>10), however, is unknown, as studies of hafnium aqueous chemistry have been limited to acid. Here, we report synthesis, crystal growth, and structural characterization of the first polynuclear hydroxo hafnium cluster isolated from base, [TMA]6 [Hf6 (μ-O2 )6 (μ-OH)6 (OH)12 ]⋅38 H2 O. The solution behavior of the cluster, including supramolecular assembly via hydrogen bonding is detailed via small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The study opens a new chapter in the aqueous chemistry of hafnium, exemplifying the concept of amphoteric clusters and informing a critical process in single-digit-nm lithography. PMID:27094575

  12. Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are special variants of these techniques. Here, organic solvents or their mixtures with or without dissolved electrolytes are used as separation buffer or mobile phase, respectively. The most important features of non-aqueous systems are: better solubility of more hydrophobic ionic substances (many natural products) than in water, much less current and Joule heating allows for using highly concentrated buffers and/or larger capillary internal diameters, polar interactions are enhanced in organic solvents which is often highly advantageous in chiral separation systems. This chapter presents most frequently used solvents, their properties, as well as shows pH* scale which is often used in non-aqueous systems.

  13. Managing humans biting and humorous tales of a software engineering manager

    CERN Document Server

    Lopp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The humor and insights in the 2nd Edition of Managing Humans are drawn from Michael Lopp's management experiences at Apple, Netscape, Symantec, and Borland, among others. This book is full of stories based on companies in the Silicon Valley where people have been known to yell at each other and occasionally throw chairs. It is a place full of dysfunctional bright people who are in an incredible hurry to find the next big thing so they can strike it rich and then do it all over again. Among these people are managers, a strange breed of people who, through a mystical organizational ritual, have

  14. The humoral immune response of lambs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirkell, D; Spooner, R K; Jones, G E; Russell, W C

    1990-08-01

    Using sera from lambs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica, the development of a good humoral immune response to M. ovipneumoniae was detected by ELISA. The antibody titres peaked 41 days post-infection and good antibody titres were maintained over the 16-week experimental period. Immunoblotting revealed that antibodies to specific antigens appeared in the sera in a sequential manner, some being seen shortly after infection and others developing only after a substantial time lag. Antibodies were raised against almost all the major antigens detected in one laboratory strain (956/2) and against all antigens previously shown to be conserved in 22 Scottish field isolates of M. ovipneumoniae.

  15. An Analysis of the Humor between Chinese and Western from the Perspective of Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Jiatong

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Intercultural communication was originally developed by the American cultural anthropologist Edward T Hall,he believes communicative competence includes not only a form of language understanding and mastering the language,but also on when and where to What is the proper way for anyone to use language to communicate.This article will list some of the differences in the Western sense of humor in everyday life and explore the root causes of these differences to find ways to resolve these differences in Intercultural communication.

  16. Deregulation of the humoral immune response of the oyster (Crassostrea corteziensis exposed to naphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KJG Díaz-Resendiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in aquatic ecosystems, and it can cause alterations in the immune system of organisms that live there. The oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is a species native to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, with economic and ecological importance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of subacute exposure to sublethal concentrations of naphthalene on the parameters of the humoral immune response (lysozyme and phenoloxidase activity, and nitric oxide production on the oyster C. corteziensis. The results indicated that naphthalene, under the conditions tested, significantly deregulated the parameters evaluated. This could increase susceptibility to infections and therefore affect oyster production.

  17. Humor y psicoanálisis: una lectura de los textos de Freud

    OpenAIRE

    García Serrano, Federico

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo se centra en el estudio de los textos de Freud referidos al humor. Se trata en él de sentar unas bases conceptuales, que en buena medida quedan representadas en el anexo final, en el que se aporta un glosario de términos sobre la materia, la práctica mayoría de los cuales no aparece recogido en los diccionarios de psicoanálisis al uso, y que también debemos considerar como una propuesta, en proceso de elaboración. La segunda parte es el punto de partida de un trabajo d...

  18. Humoral immunosuppression in men exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related carcinogens in polluted environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Szczeklik, A; Szczeklik, J; Galuszka, Z; Musial, J; Kolarzyk, E; Targosz, D

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated humoral immunity by measuring IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE concentrations in 274 male workers in an iron foundry in Cracow, Poland. There were two groups: 199 coke oven workers and 76 cold-rolling mill workers. The groups were similar with respect to age, length of work (average 15 years), and smoking habits. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), assessed by personal and area monitoring, ranged from 0.2 to 50 micrograms/m3 benzo[a]pyrene in coke plant workers and was of ...

  19. El monólogo de humor. Un proyecto de educación literaria

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Suescun, Nora

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una propuesta de educación literaria para 4º de ESO, de unas 22 horas lectivas. La metodología empleada para su desarrollo será una secuencia didáctica ginebrina, vertebrada en torno a la tarea final de escritura y representación (individual) de un monólogo de humor por parte de los alumnos. El objetivo principal de este proyecto es la reflexión y toma de conciencia de los alumnos de la esencia del género dramático, así como el desarrollo de su creatividad individua...

  20. La narrativa humorística de un novelista serio: Antonio Mingote

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri Coll, José María

    2007-01-01

    Mingote, poco conocido y estudiado como novelista, es autor de relatos en que el humor del absurdo y grandes dosis de ternura en sus personajes consiguen atrapar al lector. Inició su carrera como novelista en 1948 con Las palmeras de cartón, obra a la que han seguido otras novelas: Ojos de esmeralda (1949), Los revólveres hablan de sus cosas (1953) y Adelita en el desván (1991). Este trabajo estudia las características de la obra escrita de Mingote incardinándola en el conte...

  1. ¿Con humor se explica y se aprende una lengua mejor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Morant

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} En el siguiente artículo nos proponemos reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor como estrategia didáctica. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje presentaremos en el primer apartado las ideas de partida, mostraremos cómo a pesar de las múltiples ventajas que puede aportar el humor a las aulas, se omite su empleo por la existencia de ciertos prejuicios y temores. Seguidamente, y a modo de ejemplo, expondremos, un tema, el tabú lingüístico, en clave de humor con el propósito de acabar planteando si el género humorístico beneficia o perjudica la práctica docente al hablar sobre una lengua o al tratar de enseñarla.

  2. Aqueous systems and geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant unpublished results reported include: osmotic coefficients of KCl solutions vs. molality at 109 to 2010C; cadmium ion diffusivities in CaCl2 hydrous melts; a x-ray diffraction study of the uranyl complex in water; solubility of amorphous silica in aqueous NaNO3 solutions at 100 to 3000C; and corrosion of carbon steel by geothermal brine

  3. Aqueous coordination complexes of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thecomplex formation constants, obtained by different methods, for the complexing of neptunium, in different oxidation states, in aqueous solutions, with several organic and inorganic ligands, have been critically reviewed. The values for the thermodynamic parameters associated with the complex formation, wherever available, are also presented. (author)

  4. Immunoproteomic Profiling of Bordetella pertussis Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Reveals Broad and Balanced Humoral Immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeven, René H M; van der Maas, Larissa; Tilstra, Wichard; Uittenbogaard, Joost P; Bindels, Tim H E; Kuipers, Betsy; van der Ark, Arno; Pennings, Jeroen L A; van Riet, Elly; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon F A; Metz, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    The current resurgence of whooping cough is alarming, and improved pertussis vaccines are thought to offer a solution. Outer membrane vesicle vaccines (omvPV) are potential vaccine candidates, but omvPV-induced humoral responses have not yet been characterized in detail. The purpose of this study was to determine the antigen composition of omvPV and to elucidate the immunogenicity of the individual antigens. Quantitative proteome analysis revealed the complex composition of omvPV. The omvPV immunogenicity profile in mice was compared to those of classic whole cell vaccine (wPV), acellular vaccine (aPV), and pertussis infection. Pertussis-specific antibody levels, antibody isotypes, IgG subclasses, and antigen specificity were determined after vaccination or infection by using a combination of multiplex immunoassays, two-dimensional immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry. The vaccines and infection raised strong antibody responses, but large quantitative and qualitative differences were measured. The highest antibody levels were obtained by omvPV. All IgG subclasses (IgG1/IgG2a/IgG2b/IgG3) were elicited by omvPV and in a lower magnitude by wPV, but not by aPV (IgG1) or infection (IgG2a/b). The majority of omvPV-induced antibodies were directed against Vag8, BrkA, and LPS. The broad and balanced humoral response makes omvPV a promising pertussis vaccine candidate.

  5. Teorías lingüísticas del humor verbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ángeles Torres Sánchez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} En este articulo se ofrece una revisión crítica de la obra Linguistics theories of humor (Atrardo, 1994, que constituye uno de las pocos trabajos básicos para el estudio del humor verbal desde una perspectiva Lingüística.

  6. [Pulmonary manifestations in adult patients with a defect in humoral immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latysheva, T V; Latysheva, E A; Martynova, I A; Aminova, G E

    2016-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a group of congenital diseases of the immune system, which numbers more than 230 nosological entities associated with lost, decreased, or wrong function of its one or several components. Due to the common misconception that these are extremely rare diseases that occur only in children and lead to their death at an early age, PIDs are frequently ruled out by physicians of related specialties from the range of differential diagnosis. The most common forms of PIDs, such as humoral immunity defects, common variable immune deficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, selective IgA deficiency, etc., are milder than other forms of PID, enabling patients to attain their adult age, and may even manifest in adulthood. Bronchopulmonary involvements are the most common manifestations of the disease in patients with a defect in humoral immunity. Thus, a therapist and a pulmonologist are mostly the first doctors who begin to treat these patients and play a key role in their fate, since only timely diagnosis and initiation of adequate therapy can preserve not only the patient's life, but also its quality, avoiding irreversible complications. Chest computed tomography changes play a large role in diagnosis. These are not specific for PID; however, there are a number of characteristic signs that permit this diagnosis to be presumed. PMID:27636936

  7. Performance, humor, discourse of salvation and eternal return in the novel Miss Lonelyhearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Gondim dos Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the relationship between fiction and salvific discourse in the novel Miss Lonelyhearts (1933, by Nathanael West, understanding this problematic narrative as a liberating performance of the humor classified as black, from which dogmatic contents are dissociated, with a shift beyond the psychological dimension and religious representations that contents take into account. To do so, we carried out our reading by making use of the myth of Dionysus that allows us to articulate the vertiginous logics that takes place in West’s text, leading it to the nonsense that contaminates the religious discourse and deposes it from the sovereign power in this fictional world. Furthermore, our study is grounded on Deleuze’s recreation of Nietzsche’s eternal return. We also resort to the philosophy of religion to understand Nietzsche’s criticism of Christianity and its relation to the myth of Dionysus and eternal return in the analyzed work. The analysis made of such novel points to the insertion of irony and humor in the novel as a constant literary element that causes discursive heterogeneity, pointing the ambivalences and inconsistencies of Christianity conveyed by media in the discourse of messianic metanarrative.

  8. The Hepatitis C Virus Glycan Shield and Evasion of the Humoral Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the induction of effective immune responses, 80% of hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected individuals progress from acute to chronic hepatitis. In contrast to the cellular immune response, the role of the humoral immune response in HCV clearance is still subject to debate. Indeed, HCV escapes neutralizing antibodies in chronically infected patients and reinfection has been described in human and chimpanzee. Studies of antibody-mediated HCV neutralization have long been hampered by the lack of cell-culture-derived virus and the absence of a small animal model. However, the development of surrogate models and recent progress in HCV propagation in vitro now enable robust neutralization assays to be performed. These advances are beginning to shed some light on the mechanisms of HCV neutralization. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the viral targets of anti-HCV-neutralizing antibodies and the mechanisms that enable HCV to evade the humoral immune response. The recent description of the HCV glycan shield that reduces the immunogenicity of envelope proteins and masks conserved neutralizing epitopes at their surface constitutes the major focus of this review.

  9. Conditions for obtaining polyvinyl alcohol/trisodium trimetaphosphate hydrogels as vitreous humor substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandim-Giannetti, Andreia de Araujo; Silva, Rosianne Cristina; Magalhães, Octaviano; Schor, Paulo; Bersanetti, Patrícia Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogels are polymeric materials with numerous medical and biological applications because of their physicochemical properties. In this context, the conditions were defined for obtaining a hydrogel with characteristics similar to the vitreous humor using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). The concentration of PVA (X1 ), PVA/STMP ratio (X2 ), and initial pH (X3 ) were modified, and their effect was analyzed in terms of the refractive index (Y1 ), density (Y2 ), dynamic viscosity (Y3 ), and final pH (Y4 ). The results demonstrated that X1 interferes with Y1 , Y2 , and Y3 , and X2 interferes with Y2 and Y3 . The best condition for obtaining a hydrogel with characteristics similar to the vitreous humor was 4.2586% PVA (wt/wt), STMP/PVA ratio of 1:6.8213 (wt/wt), and initial pH of 9.424. DSC, ATR-FTIR, swelling degree, and AFM analysis confirmed the PVA reticulation with STMP. Furthermore, STMP increased the glass transition temperature and decreased the water uptake of ∼50% of the hydrogels, which can be explained by the crosslinking of PVA chains. Infrared spectroscopy revealed a decrease of hydroxyl bonds and confirmed the reticulation between PVA and STMP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1386-1395, 2016. PMID:26224170

  10. Purification and characterization of lectin from humoral fluids of Charybdis feriatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Congjie; Wang Guizhong; HE Jianfeng; LI Shaojing; HUANG Huiyang

    2006-01-01

    To search new sources of lectin, an experiment on lectin distribution in humoral serum of crab Charybdisferiatus (in short, CFL) was conducted March, 2002. When adding solid ammonium sulfate into the fluids up to 50% saturation at 4℃, most CFL activity showed precipitates who were then continually extracted by ammonium sulfate of different concentrations. The supernatant, which was called primary CFL fluids, was given a 17.60-fold purification and 45.70% recovery of total activity. Finally, by using Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, the CFL in the primary CFL fluid was highly purified.Compared to the original humoral fluids, the last purified CFL got a 203.90-fold purification and 30.48%recovery of total activity, and demonstrated a single band on SDS-PAGE. In thesame time, the purified CFL was detected for agglutination activity with 7 kinds of animal erythrocytes. Other characterization,such as sugar inhibition, and the effect of temperature on the agglutination activity of CFL were also studied. Our results indicate that agglutination activity of CFL was influenced by sugar and temperature.

  11. Evaluation of humoral immune function in patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeid Rahiminejad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence of autoimmune diseases such as immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP with  immunodeficiencies has  been  reported  previously in  patients  who  suffered  from primary antibody deficiency (PAD. But there is no original study on immunological profiles of ITP patients to find out their probable immune deficiency.In this case-control study, ITP patients’ humoral immunity was investigated for diagnosis of PAD in comparison with normal population. To evaluate the humoral immune system against polysaccharide antigens, patients’ serum immunoglobulin levels were measured and a 23-valent pneumococcal  capsular polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23 was administrated  to evaluate the antibody response to vaccination.In  this  study, 14 out  of  36 patients  (39% were diagnosed with antibody mediated immune deficiency including 2 patients (5.5% with immunoglobulin class deficiency and 4 (11% with IgG subclass deficiency. The remaining patients suffered from specific antibody deficiency. The most frequent deficiency in ITP patients was specific antibody deficiency.Therefore, immunological survey on ITP patients may be important especially for those who have undergone splenectomy.

  12. Complement Interception Across Humoral Incompatibility in Solid Organ Transplantation: A Clinical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglarnia, Ali-Reza; Ekdahl, Kristina N; Nilsson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The humoral barrier in transplant biology is the result of preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs), directed either against human leukocyte antigens (HLA) or non-HLA antigens such as blood group (ABO) molecules. The term "sensitization" applies to patients carrying these antibodies. Transplantation is widely accepted as a life-saving opportunity for patients with terminal end-organ disease. However, in sensitized patients, transplant outcome is hampered by antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) as a consequence of DSA exposure. Furthermore, sensitized patients have limited access to "matched" organs from the both living and deceased donor pool.Considering the crucial role of the complement system in the pathophysiology of AMR and the availability of complement intervention therapeutics, there is a growing interest in complement-targeting strategies. This review highlights the emerging importance of monitoring and modulation of the complement system in the context of enabling transplantation across humoral incompatibility in sensitized recipients with preformed anti-HLA or natural anti-ABO antibodies. It also discusses the significance of the complement system in the induction of accommodation and further emphasizes current and future perspectives of novel complement therapeutics.

  13. Sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and soldier caste in a polyembryonic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Takuma; Yoshimura, Jin; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Defense against enemies is a type of natural selection considered fundamentally equivalent between the sexes. In reality, however, whether males and females differ in defense strategy is unknown. Multiparasitism necessarily leads to the problem of defense for a parasite (parasitoid). The polyembryonic parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum is famous for its larval soldiers' ability to kill other parasites. This wasp also exhibits sexual differences not only with regard to the competitive ability of the soldier caste but also with regard to host immune enhancement. Female soldiers are more aggressive than male soldiers, and their numbers increase upon invasion of the host by other parasites. In this report, in vivo and in vitro competition assays were used to test whether females have a toxic humoral factor; if so, then its strength was compared with that of males. We found that females have a toxic factor that is much weaker than that of males. Our results imply sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and larval soldiers. We discuss how this sexual complementarity guarantees adaptive advantages for both males and females despite the one-sided killing of male reproductives by larval female soldiers in a mixed-sex brood. PMID:27385149

  14. How Not To Be A Buzzkill: Creative Techniques In Using Humor To Combat Doomsday Narratives (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, L.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change may seem like no laughing matter- new studies continually paint a bleak future for the members of the planet. We use descriptions such as 'dire', 'urgent', and 'colossal' hoping audiences will grasp the magnitude of the challenges that befall our society. But all too often it feels as if the message falls on deaf ears. With apocalyptic narratives, people shut out the message, feel too overwhelmed to know what to do, or are just too busy immersed in their Netflix account to notice. How can one worry about climate change when they may not even know how they are paying rent next month? Why should they pay attention to doomsday narratives when they could just watch funny cat videos all day? This session will look at the various ways science writers and educators are using humor to combat the depressing. With a particular focus on social media tools, this talk will examine the various methods used to energize audiences instead of deflating them and whether the approach has any value in getting the public to absorb the message. Is humor really an effective communication tool, or are we just kidding ourselves?

  15. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecitis, Chad David

    2009-12-01

    Interfaces or phase boundaries are a unique chemical environment relative to individual gas, liquid, or solid phases. Interfacial reaction mechanisms and kinetics are often at variance with homogeneous chemistry due to mass transfer, molecular orientation, and catalytic effects. Aqueous interfaces are a common subject of environmental science and engineering research, and three environmentally relevant aqueous interfaces are investigated in this thesis: 1) fluorochemical sonochemistry (bubble-water), 2) aqueous aerosol ozonation (gas-water droplet), and 3) electrolytic hydrogen production and simultaneous organic oxidation (water-metal/semiconductor). Direct interfacial analysis under environmentally relevant conditions is difficult, since most surface-specific techniques require relatively `extreme' conditions. Thus, the experimental investigations here focus on the development of chemical reactors and analytical techniques for the completion of time/concentration-dependent measurements of reactants and their products. Kinetic modeling, estimations, and/or correlations were used to extract information on interfacially relevant processes. We found that interfacial chemistry was determined to be the rate-limiting step to a subsequent series of relatively fast homogeneous reactions, for example: 1) Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorbed to cavitating bubble-water interfaces during sonolysis was the rate-determining step in transformation to their inorganic constituents carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and fluoride; 2) ozone oxidation of aqueous iodide to hypoiodous acid at the aerosol-gas interface is the rate-determining step in the oxidation of bromide and chloride to dihalogens; 3) Electrolytic oxidation of anodic titanol surface groups is rate-limiting for the overall oxidation of organics by the dichloride radical. We also found chemistry unique to the interface, for example: 1

  16. Neurobiologia do transtorno de humor bipolar e tomada de decisão na abordagem psicofarmacológica

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Vieira Rodrigo; Schwartzhaupt Alexandre Willi; Frey Benício Noronha; Lenadro Joyce Jacini; Ceresér Keila Maria Mendes; Silveira Liege Neto da; Zanatta Lino Marcos; Garcia Patrícia Fortes; Pollet Paulo; Braga Vanessa Flores; Ceresér Jr. Victor Hermes; Gauer Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    O Transtorno do Humor Bipolar (THB) caracteriza-se por oscilações do humor que causam prejuízos significativos no âmbito biopsicossocial. O interesse da comunidade científica por este transtorno vem aumentando nos últimos cinco anos em função de sua crescente prevalência associada ao refinamento diagnóstico, à ampliação do arsenal terapêutico e ao conhecimento dos avanços nas pesquisas da neurobiologia do transtorno. A presente revisão aborda questões diagnosticas e terapêuticas aplicadas à n...

  17. Impact of humor and gender in e-mail marketing : Case DefShop GmbH

    OpenAIRE

    Sivén, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis project was conducted for DefShop GmbH. In accordance to the commissioner’s interests towards customization of their e-mail newsletter service, a test campaign was administered in order to detect possible differences in the clicking behavior of male and female newsletter subscribers when receiving either neutral or humorous e-mails. The two test e-mails used for the campaign differed in their visual content, changing the message in either humorous or neutral direction. ...

  18. "¿Puras Groserías?": Rethinking the Role of Profanity and Graphic Humor in Latin@ Students' Bilingual Wordplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ramón Antonio; Morales, P. Zitlali

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the role of profanity and graphic humor in the bilingual wordplay of Latin@ middle school students. We highlight the creativity, skill, and communicative competence embedded in this transgressive wordplay, revealing how these youth employed profanity and graphic humor to index ethnic solidarity and construct bilingual…

  19. The Sociological Theory of Humor and Its Application Research%幽默的社会理论及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世民; 方杰; 孙配贞; 张进辅; 郑雪

    2012-01-01

    幽默的社会理论认为幽默是人们在社会交往情境中与常规意义进行游戏的交往方式。影响社会交往情境下的幽默创作的因素有幽默创作者的游戏心境、安全感、人格特质、社交能力、双方的关系满意度和交往情境。双方的关系满意度、熟悉度或理解程度、幽默倾向、双方交往的幽默倾向以及幽默信息的特点都对幽默接收者的幽默理解有重要影响。幽默可广泛应用于说服、安慰、冲突处理、领导、伴侣选择等各种情景。今后研究可扩展探讨幽默创作的年龄差异、幽默理解的研究方法、深化幽默在不同情境的应用以及深化探讨幽默的文化差异。%According to the sociological theory of humor, humor is an interaction in which people play with institutionalized meanings within a situation that can be defined as being humorous and funny through laughter. There are two purposes of humor: one is to create laughter and amusement from involved parties, to reduce conflict and enhance interpersonal relationship; the other is to serve as a mode of interpersonal communication that is frequently used to convey implicit messages in an indirect manner. Humor involves four essential components: humor creator, humor recipient, interpersonal context and humor message. Humor production was explored from the perspective of playfulness, sense of security, personality trait, interpersonal skill, relationship satisfaction, and interaction context. Playfulness is considered as the fundemental of the sense of humor, that is, refusing to look on things seriously. Individuals with a greater sense of security should be more involved in conversations, responsive to their partners, and attentive to the situation, which results in greater laughter and smiling. Humor orientation is positively correlated with optimism and openness. Humor production requires multiple skilled social competences that make interaction in a playful

  20. Characterizing Fullerene Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have indicated that fullerenes can form stable colloidal suspensions in water when introduced to the aqueous phase through solvent exchange, sonication, or extended mixing. The colloidal suspensions created using these techniques have effective aqueous phase concentratio...