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Sample records for aqueous humor

  1. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google Plus Email Print this page Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms ... aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out freely (follow blue arrow). Aqueous humor flows ...

  2. Monitoring dynamics of aqueous humor in glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous humor dynamics was observed in patients treated for glaucoma. Aqueous flow was measured using the radionuclide method of contact application of 22NaCl and the detection of gamma radiation with external detectors. The sample of 184 eyes was divided into three groups: open-angle glaucoma with therapy, open-angle glaucoma without therapy and angle-closure glaucoma 47 eyes were used as controls. Changes were observed in 22Na outflow half-time in dependence on the duration of the disease, therapy, intraocular pressUre and changes in the perimeter. The new technique has been fully proven in practice, is a contribution to the diagnosis of glaucoma and an indicator of the compensation of the disease. (author)

  3. Effects of astaxanthin on antioxidation in human aqueous humor

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Hirotaka; Arai, Kiyomi; Hayashi, Shimmin; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Jiro; Chikuda, Makoto; Obara, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative effects of astaxanthin through the changes in superoxide scavenging activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide and total hydroperoxides in human aqueous humor. The study subjects were 35 patients who underwent bilateral cataract surgery on one side before and the other side after intake of astaxanthin (6 mg/day for 2 weeks). Their aqueous humor was taken during the surgery and subjected to measurements of the three parameters. After astaxanthin intake, the superoxide...

  4. Aqueous humor cytokine profiling in patients with wet AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yu; Li, Jiaqing; Tang, Miao; Yuan, Miner; Hu, Andina; Zhan, Zongyi; Li, Zijing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the chemokine expression profiles in the aqueous humor of wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) patients and to correlate their levels with clinical findings. Methods Undiluted aqueous humor samples (100–200 μl) were obtained from 16 wet AMD eyes and 12 control eyes. Forty chemokines were measured using a multiplex method. A 6×6 mm area of the macular region centered on the fovea was examined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results The detection rates were 50% or more for 15 chemokines. Compared with the control group, the aqueous humor in wet AMD patients showed a significantly higher expression of CXCL10 (p=0.004), CCL14 (p=0.002), CXCL16 (p=0.013), CXCL7 (p=0.033), and CCL22 (p=0.037), while growth-related oncogene (GRO) was significantly decreased in the wet AMD patients (p=0.001). When compared with treatment-naïve patients, the recurrent group had significant upregulation of CXCL10 (p=0.012) and CCL22 (p=0.002). CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size, and CCL22 was higher in patients whose OCT images showed intraretinal fluid (IRF) or hyperreflective foci (HF). Conclusions Elevated levels of inflammation-related chemokines, including CXCL10, CCL14, CXCL16, CXCL7, and CCL22, in the aqueous humor of AMD patients may suggest a pathogenic role for inflammation. CXCL10 and CCL22 were more elevated in eyes with recurrent wet AMD than in treatment-naïve eyes. CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size. The increase in CCL22 was correlated with the presence of IRF or HF. These data may be of interest in the search for biomarkers associated with wet AMD and may potentially indicate different treatment strategies. PMID:27122966

  5. Monitoring of aqueous humor metabolites using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicksted, James P.; Erckens, Roel J.; Motamedi, Massoud; March, Wayne F.

    1994-05-01

    Laser Raman scattering has been used to monitor glucose and lactate metabolites within aqueous humor specimens obtained from nine human eyes during cataract surgery. Nine postmortem rabbit eyes were also investigated. Raman measurements were obtained using a single grating Raman spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD. A 514.5 nm line from an argon laser was used to illuminate capillaries containing several microliters of aqueous humor. A water background was subtracted from each of the aqueous humor Raman spectra. This experimental system was calibrated so that each metabolite in water could be measured down to 0.1 weight percent. Raman peaks indicative of the stretching vibrations of methylene and methyl groups associated with glucose and lactate, respectively, were observed in the human specimens. A second stretching mode characteristic of lactate between the carbon atom and either the carboxylic acid group or carboxylate ion group was also observed providing a distinguishing feature between the glucose and lactate Raman peaks. Similar structure was observed from the rabbit specimens, but these samples have recently been found to have been contaminated during euthanasia.

  6. Comparison of aqueous humor cytokine and chemokine levels in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Vania, Maya; Ang, Marcus; Chee, Soon Phaik; Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the aqueous humor levels of proinflammatory and angiogenic factors of diabetic patients with and without retinopathy. Methods Aqueous humor was collected at the start of cataract surgery from diabetic subjects and non-diabetic controls. The presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy were graded with fundus examination. Levels of 22 different inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines and chemokines were compared. Results Aqueous humor samples from 47 diabetic patients (20 wit...

  7. Oculo-peritoneal shunt: draining aqueous humor to the peritoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maldonado-Junyent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.

  8. How the Build Up of Aqueous Humor Can Damage the Optic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Up of Aqueous Humor Can Damage the Optic Nerve Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... in intraocular pressure causing damage to the optic nerve and leading to vision loss. Glossary of Terms ...

  9. Alterations in the aqueous humor proteome in patients with a glaucoma shunt device

    OpenAIRE

    Anshu, Arundhati; Price, Marianne O; Richardson, Matthew R; Segu, Zaneer M.; Lai, Xianyin; Yoder, Mervin C.; Price, Francis W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether implantation of a glaucoma shunt device leads to inappropriate accumulation of plasma derived proteins in the aqueous humor. Methods Aqueous humor samples were collected from 11 patients (study group) with a glaucoma shunt device undergoing either cataract surgery or a corneal transplant and 11 patients (control) with senile cataract undergoing routine cataract extraction. Of the study group, 9 had an Ahmed valve implant and 2 eyes had a Baerveldt implant. Trypt...

  10. Review Of Applied Mathematical Models For Describing The Behaviour Of Aqueous Humor In Eye Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzierka M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, currently used methods for modeling the flow of the aqueous humor through eye structures are presented. Then a computational model based on rheological models of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is proposed. The proposed model may be used for modeling the flow of the aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork. The trabecular meshwork is modeled as an array of rectilinear parallel capillary tubes. The flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is considered. As a results of discussion mathematical equations of permeability of porous media and velocity of fluid flow through porous media have been received.

  11. In silico analysis of the molecular machinery underlying aqueous humor production : potential implications for glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Sarah F; Gorgels, Theo Gmf; van der Spek, Peter J; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Bergen, Arthur Ab

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ciliary body epithelia (CBE) of the eye produce the aqueous humor (AH). The equilibrium between the AH production by the CBE and the outflow through the trabecular meshwork ultimately determines the intraocular pressure (IOP). An increased IOP is a major risk factor for primary open

  12. Ocular pharmacoscintigraphic and aqueous humoral drug availability of ganciclovir-loaded mucoadhesive nanoparticles in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhter, Sohail; Ramazani, Farshad; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Ahmad, Farjam Jalees; Rahman, Ziyaur; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Storm, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes the improved ocular retention and aqueous humoral drug availability of ganciclovir (GCV) when administered via topical instillation of different kind of nanoparticles onto the rabbit eye. GCV was loaded into PLGA nanoparticles, chitosan-coated nanoparticles and chitosan-

  13. Determination of drug concentration in aqueous humor of cataract patients administered gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuan; WANG Ning-li; WANG Yan-ling; MA Chen; MA Li; GAO Li-xin; HUANG Ying-xiang; XIONG Shi-hong; WANG Kang

    2010-01-01

    Background Ophthalmic gel has been developed to increase the drug concentration in aqueous humor and to retard the loss of drug from the conjunctival sac.The research was to compare the drug concentration in aqueous humor of cataract patients administered 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel with that in patients administered 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution.Methods Ninety-six patients with cataract (96 eyes) were randomly assigned to 8 groups.The patients in groups 1-4received topical gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic gel and those in groups 5-8 received gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution.The dose regimen was 1 drop, 4 times a day for 3 consecutive days prior to cataract surgery.On the day of surgery, 1drop was applied at 15, 30, 60 or 120 minutes before commencement of cataract surgery in groups 1 and 5, groups 2 and 6, goups 3 and 7, and groups 4 and 8, respectively.Aqueous humor was extracted during the cataract surgery for the analysis of gatifloxacin concentration..Results The concentrations of gatifloxacin in aqueous humor were (0.24±0.25) μg/ml, (1.11±0.74) μg/ml, (2.32±2.01)μg/ml and (1.85±1.14) μg/ml in groups 1 to 4, and (0.16±0.25) μg/ml, (0.31±0.24) μg/ml, (0.75±0.28) μg/ml and (0.33±0.22) μg/ml in groups 5 to 8, respectively.Patients receiving gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel showed greater mean values of gatifloxacin concentration in aqueous humor than those receiving gatifloxacin solution, and such differences were significant with P <0.05 for all comparisons except that between groups 1 and 5.Conclusion Topical gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel can attain significantly greater drug concentrations in human aqueous humor than gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution.

  14. Studies of aqueous humor proteins in rabbits after posterior chamber lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałuzny; Rózyczka, J; Gutsze, A; Mierzejewski, A; Pieniazek, W

    1991-01-01

    In 13 rabbits, 1 month to 1 year after posterior chamber lens implantation/polymethylmetacrylate/, the level of aqueous humor proteins was evaluated and the proteins separation in polyacylamide gel was performed. The studies were also carried out in unoperated eyes of the same animals and control group was composed of the eyes before surgery. It was found that in pseudophakic eyes an increased level of proteins remained during the whole year/the highest one month after surgery, slowly decreasing afterwards/, with the appearance of additional fractions. The moderate increase of the proteins concentration was also observed in unoperated eyes. The increase of aqueous humor proteins in pseudophakic eyes indicates that the presence of polymethyl metacrylate is not completely indifferent to the eyeball in spite of the suggestions derived from the clinical observations. PMID:1911644

  15. Looking into aqueous humor through metabolomics spectacles - exploring its metabolic characteristics in relation to myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas-Bernardos, Cecilia; Armitage, Emily G; García, Antonia; Mérida, Salvador; Navea, Amparo; Bosch-Morell, Francisco; Barbas, Coral

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous humor is the transparent fluid found in the anterior chamber of the eye that provides the metabolic requirements to the avascular tissues surrounding it. Despite the fact that metabolomics could be a powerful tool in the characterization of this biofluid and in revealing metabolic signatures of common ocular diseases such as myopia, it has never to our knowledge previously been applied in humans. In this research a novel method for the analysis of aqueous humor is presented to show its application in the characterization of this biofluid using CE-MS. The method was extended to a dual platform method (CE-MS and LC-MS) in order to compare samples from patients with different severities of myopia in order to explore the disease from the metabolic phenotype point of view. With this method, a profound knowledge of the metabolites present in human aqueous humor has been obtained: over 40 metabolites were reproducibly and simultaneously identified from a low volume of sample by CE-MS, including among others, a vast number of amino acids and derivatives. When this method was extended to study groups of patients with high or low myopia in both CE-MS and LC-MS, it has been possible to identify over 20 significantly different metabolite and lipid signatures that distinguish patients based on the severity of myopia. Among these, the most notable higher abundant metabolites in high myopia were aminooctanoic acid, arginine, citrulline and sphinganine while features of low myopia were aminoundecanoic acid, dihydro-retinoic acid and cysteinylglycine disulfide. This dual platform approach offered complementarity such that different metabolites were detected in each technique. Together the experiments presented provide a whelm of valuable information about human aqueous humor and myopia, proving the utility of non-targeted metabolomics for the first time in analyzing this type of sample and the metabolic phenotype of this disease. PMID:27036676

  16. Analysis of Aqueous Humor Calcium and Phosphate from Cataract Eyes with and without Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chan Joong; Choi, Sang Kyung

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To compare the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the aqueous humor and serum of diabetics and non-diabetics. Methods We divided patients into two groups: seventy-six non-diabetic cataract patients and fifty-two diabetic cataract patients. The diabetic group was divided again into three subgroups: twenty-six patients with no diabetic retinopathy, thirteen patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and thirteen patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The authors c...

  17. Levels of thrombopoietin in aqueous humor of patients with noninfectious acute anterior uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Salom, David

    2015-01-01

    José-Juan Mondejar,1,4 David Salom,1,3 Salvador Garcia-Delpech,1,2 Manuel Diaz-Llopis11Ophthalmology Department, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, 2Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Universitario La Fe, 3Ophthalmology Department, Hospital de Manises, Valencia, 4Ophthalmology Department, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, SpainPurpose: To measure thrombopoietin (TPO) levels in the serum and aqueous humors of patients with noninfectious acute an...

  18. Oxygen Tension in the Aqueous Humor of Human Eyes under Different Oxygenation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Sharifipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure oxygen tension in the aqueous humor of human eyes under different oxygenation conditions. Methods: This prospective comparative interventional case series consisted of two parts. In the first part, 120 consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery were randomized into group I (control group in which surgery was performed under local anesthesia inhaling 21% oxygen; group II in whom general anesthesia using 50% oxygen was employed; and group III receiving general anesthesia with 100% oxygen. After aspirating 0.2 ml aqueous humor under sterile conditions, the aqueous sample and a simultaneously drawn arterial blood sample were immediately analyzed using a blood gas analyzer. In part II the same procedures were performed in 10 patients after fitting a contact lens and patching the eye for 20 minutes (group IV and in 10 patients after transcorneal delivery of oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min (group V. Results: Mean aqueous PO2 in groups I, II and III was 112.3±6.2, 141.1±20.4, and 170.1±27 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001 and mean arterial PO2 was 85.7±7.9, 184.6±46, and 379.1±75.9 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001. Aqueous PO2 was 77.2±9.2 mmHg in group IV and 152.3±10.9 mmHg in group V (P values <0.001. There was a significant correlation between aqueous and blood PO2 (r=0.537, P<0.001. The contribution of atmospheric oxygen to aqueous PO2 was 23.7%. Conclusion: Aqueous oxygen tension is mostly dependent on the systemic circulation and in part on the atmosphere. Increasing inspiratory oxygen and transcorneal oxygen delivery both increase aqueous PO2 levels.

  19. The relationship between cytokine level and nitric oxide content in aqueous humor after intraocular lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between cytokine level and nitric oxide (NO) content in aqueous humor after intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: All New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into three groups: (1) control group, (2) extracapsular cataract extraction group (ECCE), (3) extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation group (ECCE+IOL). The inflammation of all experimental rabbit eyes, including cornea edema and anterior chamber exudation were observed via zoom-photo slitlamp microscope 1,3,7,14,30 d postoperation. Meanwhile, aqueous humor was drawn for white blood cell (WBC) counting and classifying, and for NO-2/NO-3 and cytokine assay, including interleukin-2(IL-2), tumour necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). Statistics were taken by SPSS softwear. RESULTS: (1) Total WBC in aqueous humor were higher and anterior chamber exudation were more severe in ECCE+IOL group than that in ECCE group and control group. (2) The level of IL-2 and TNF-α and the content of NO-2/NO-3 in aqueous humor of ECCE+IOL group were higher than that in ECCE group and control group 1-14 d postoperation respectively, and it increased to peak value at 3-7 d postoperation and decreased gradually after two weeks postoperation. (3) The change regularity of IL-2, TNF-α and NO-2/NO-3 in each group were basically similar, i.e. when the level of cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) was normal, the content of NO-2/NO-3 was normal too, when the level of cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) increased, the content of NO-2/NO-3 increased too. CONCLUSION: The intraocular inflammation after ECCE+IOL was more severe than that after simple ECCE. NO, IL-2 and TNF-α play an important role in intraocular inflammation after intraocular lens implantation. The changes of IL-2 and TNF-α level was closely related with NO content in aqueous humor.

  20. Blood gas analyzer utility in evaluating oxygen kinetics of the aqueous humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ersan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 and carbon dioxide (PCO2 and the pH of aqueous humor (AH and arterial blood samples from rabbits using a blood gas analyzer. Methods: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized intramuscularly with ketamine and xylazine and were then allowed to breathe room air. Using a gas blood analyzer, arterial blood and AH samples were analyzed for PO2, PCO2, and pH. Results: The mean arterial blood pressure was 87.14 ± 15.0 mmHg. The mean blood and AH PO2 were 95.18 ± 11.76 mmHg and 88.83 ± 9.92 mmHg, the mean blood and AH PCO2 were 25.86 ± 5.46 mmHg and 29.50 ± 5.36 mmHg, and the mean blood and AH pH were 7.38 ± 0.06 and 7.33 ± 0.09, respectively. Conclusion: Conclusions: The blood gas analyzer was easily employed to evaluate the aqueous humor in rabbits. When comparing the results of studies evaluating aqueous PO2, care should be taken to determine the methods used in these studies.

  1. Increased melatonin levels in aqueous humor of patients with proliferative retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Erdinc; Sahin, Semsettin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report the association between melatonin levels in aqueous humor and serum, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) grade in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS Aqueous humor and plasma samples from 26 patients with DR (in nonproliferative and proliferative stages) and 14 control subjects were collected during cataract surgery after 6 p.m. Melatonin concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS Melatonin levels were significantly higher in the aqueous humor of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) [18.57±2.67 pg/mL (range 15.20-23.06) vs 13.63±2.71 pg/mL (range 10.20-20.20), P=0.0001], but not in those with nonproliferative retinopathy (NPDR) [13.79±2.56 pg/mL (range 9.80-20.10) vs 13.63±2.71 pg/mL (range 10.20-20.20), P=0.961] compared to controls. There was decrement in the plasma melatonin level of patients with PDR, but no significant differences between the plasma melatonin levels of the study groups [5.37±1.74 pg/mL (range 2.85-8.65) vs 6.11±1.90 pg/mL (range 3.13-9.41), P=0.293], or between control and DR groups [NPDR 6.11±1.90 pg/mL (range 3.13-9.41) vs control 6.15±1.91 pg/mL (range 2.18-9.86); PDR (5.37±1.74 pg/mL (range 2.85-8.65) vs control 6.15±1.91 pg/mL (range 2.18-9.86), P=0.808, P=0.264]. CONCLUSION Elevated melatonin levels in aqueous humor in PDR may indicate the level to be associated with DR severity. PMID:27275429

  2. Effect of excimer laser (Arf, 193 nm) on aqueous humor during photorefractive keratectomy biophysical and biochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet light (193 nm) produced by an excimer laser has been used to produce precise tissue ablation with minimal thermal damage to adjacent tissue. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of excimer laser during photo refractive keratectomy (PRK) on aqueous humor constituents and also the effect of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD)- applied topically- on these changes if exist. Five groups of schenchilla rabbits were involved in this study, where four groups underwent corneal stromal ablation using argon fluoride excimer laser (Ar F, 193 nm). Two of these four groups were treated with superoxide dismutase intra operatively. The fifth group was used as control one. The obtained results revealed depletion of aqueous humor ascorbate and glutathione contents. Aqueous humor refractive index, cholesterol, phospholipids, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total protein were measured. In conclusion, the excimer laser can induce changes in aqueous humor constituents during PRK. These changes lasted at least for 24 hours and as the time increased to 4 weeks, these changes became limited. The use of exogenous SOD seems to exert beneficial effect on aqueous humor refractive index and total protein

  3. Pharmacokinetics and aqueous humor penetration of levofloxacin 1.5% and moxifloxacin 0.5% in patients undergoing cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Frank A; Nguimfack, Ines Teuma; Fluet, Angel T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin 1.5% and moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5% ophthalmic solutions in aqueous humor after multiple doses prior to cataract surgery. Methods Ninety-eight eyes underwent cataract surgery and met the requirements of PK analysis. Eligible eyes were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive levofloxacin or moxifloxacin prior to cataract surgery and were randomized into one of four sampling time points (ie, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hour post-last dose). Randomization was investigator and laboratory-masked. Three days prior to cataract surgery, each patient instilled one drop of the assigned study medication into the operative eye four times daily. One aqueous humor specimen was collected from the eye at the randomized time point. Aqueous humor specimens were assayed for drug concentration using a validated liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometer. Results Concentrations of the drug in the aqueous humor, as described by mean Cmax and pooled AUC0–6 values, were greater for levofloxacin than moxifloxacin (Cmax: 1.43, 0.87 μg/ml, respectively, P=0.008; AUC0–6 6.1, 3.8 μg·min/ml, P<0.001 respectively). No treatment-emergent adverse events were reported. Conclusion Significantly greater drug exposures were attained in aqueous humor following the administration of levofloxacin 1.5% than moxifloxacin 0.5% ophthalmic solution. Achieving considerable higher drug concentration in the aqueous humor with levofloxacin 1.5% may demonstrate a greater potential for bacterial eradication. PMID:27194905

  4. The isolated ciliary bilayer is useful for studies of aqueous humor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, M L; Yamada, E; Cummins, D; Mori, N; Mead, A; Murakami, M

    1991-01-01

    An intact ciliary epithelial bilayer has been isolated from the rabbit eye by perfusion, microsurgical dissection, and recovery techniques. Vital subcellular organelles and intercellular junctions of this epithelial bilayer preparation are very well preserved. The total electrical resistance of the epithelial bilayer is 350 ohms, and the transepithelial potential is 650 microV, nonpigmented epithelium side negative. The electrical resistance is reduced by 0.2 mM EGTA and the transepithelial potential reduced by 0.1 mM ouabain. Bicarbonate depletion at a constant pH of 7.4 rapidly and significantly reduces the transepithelial potential. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease transmembrane potential by as much as 30%. These morphologic and physiologic experiments authenticate the validity of this bilayered epithelial preparation for future use in detailed studies of the mechanism of aqueous humor formation. PMID:1808804

  5. The digital aqueous humor outflow meter: an alternative tool for screening of the human eye outflow facility

    OpenAIRE

    Kozobolis, Vassilios P.; Eleftherios I Paschalis; Foudoulakis, Nikitas C; et al

    2010-01-01

    Vassilios P Kozobolis, Eleftherios I Paschalis, Nikitas C Foudoulakis, Stavrenia C Koukoula, Georgios LabirisDepartment of Ophthalmology and Eye Institute of Thrace, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To develop, characterize, and validate a prototype digital aqueous humor outflow tonographer (DAHOM).Material and methods: The DAHOM was developed, characterized, and validated in three phases. Phase 1 involved construction of the sensor. This was broadly based on t...

  6. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE INTERLEUKIN 1 LEVELS IN AQUEOUS HUMOR AFTER TRANSSCLERAL FIXATION OF INTRAOCULAR LENSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周朝晖; 何守志

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. To study the interleukin 1 (IL-1) levels in aqueous humor after transscleroal fixation of intraocular lenses (IOLs) implantation in rabbits and disciss the effect of IL-1 on postoperative anterior ocular inflammation, Methods. Twenty-seven pigmented rabbits were divided into three groups: G1, transscleral fixation of posterior chamber (PC) IOLs implantation; G2, Lens of rabbits were removed without IOLs implantation; GS, the control group, without surgical intervention. On the Ist, 3rd, 7th and 14th postoperative days, aqueous humor samples were obtained. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) colormetry was used to detected for the presence of IL-1. The data were analyzed hy using analysis of variance of SAS soft ware. Results. It was found that IL-1 level in aqueous humor was increased after transscleral fixation of IOLs implantatlon, IL-1 level reached its maximum on the 14th postoperative days in the IOL implanted group. IL-1 levels on 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th days postoperatively was significantly higher (P<0. 05) in IOLs implanted group than that of only extracapsular lenses extraction but no IOLs implantation group and that of the none sttrgical intervention group. Conclusions. IL-1 levels increased had a close relationship with a specific response to IOL implantation. The increase of IL-1 may be suggested as the principal mediators of immunological and inflammlatory responses, so that may play critical role in anterior ocular inflammative response after IOL implantation.

  7. Study on the aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 in rabbits after extracapsular extraction of lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the development of posterior capsular opacification and the aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 after extracapsular extraction of lens in rabbits. Methods: Extracapsular extraction of lens was performed in 30 New Zealand rabbits. Aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 were repeatedly determined with RIA and ophthal-moscopic as well as slit-lamp examination were repeatedly performed to detect any posterior capsular opacification developed on dl, d3, 1w, 2w, 1 month, 3 month posteperatively. Results: The aqueous humor contents of IL-1β and IL-6 increased gradually after operation, reached the peak on d7-d14, then gradually returned to within normal range by 2nd or 3rd month. Beginning from one month post-operatively, posterior capsular opacification was observed in some rabbits. By the end of 3rd month, Grade I opacification was developed in 5 rabbits, Grade H in 9 rabbits with Grade III (fundus view obliterated) in 14 rabbits. Peak IL-1β and IL- 6 content values were positively correlated with grading of future opacification. Conclusion: IL-1β and IL-6 might play important roles in the development of posterior capsular opacification after lens extraction in rabbits. (authors)

  8. Aqueous humor enhances the proliferation of rat retinal precursor cells in culture, and this effect is partially reproduced by ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jing; Klassen, Henry; Pries, Mette; Wang, Wei; Nissen, Mogens H

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous humor has been shown to influence the proliferation of various ocular cell types, but the effect on immature retinal cells is not known. Here, the effect of pig aqueous humor on the proliferation of rat retinal precursor cells (RPCs) was investigated. RPCs were prepared from embryonic day...... [(3)H]thymidine incorporation by as much as 317%, as compared with controls. Aqueous supplementation also increased both the number and size of RPC spherical aggregates ("spheres") over the first 4 days, consistent with increased proliferative activity. Using gel filtration and the in vitro...... activity present in aqueous humor. These results highlight the potential role of soluble factors present in the cellular microenvironment with respect to modulation of endogenous progenitor cell activity....

  9. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in peripheral blood and aqueous humor of patients with Toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis using real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Felipe dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the ability of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR for detectingToxoplasma gondii DNA in the peripheral blood and aqueous humor of patients with toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis. Methods: Fifty-five patients with infectious uveitis seen from 2009 to 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences of the Federal University of São Paulo were enrolled in this study. Forty-three patients had toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis, and the remaining 12 had non-toxoplasmic infectious uveitis and served as controls. qPCR analysis forT. gondii DNA was performed on the patients' peripheral blood and aqueous humor samples. Results: The qPCR was positive for T. gondii DNA in 37.21% (16/43 of the aqueous humor samples and 2.33% (1/43 of the peripheral blood samples; further, 16.27% (7/43 of the patients had positive results in both their blood and aqueous humor samples. Conclusion: qPCR was able to detect T. gondii DNA in patients with toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis in the blood as well as the aqueous humor and can help with the diagnosis of the disease.

  10. Hyaluronic acid-coated niosomes facilitate tacrolimus ocular delivery: Mucoadhesion, precorneal retention, aqueous humor pharmacokinetics, and transcorneal permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weidong; Li, Qi; Wan, Tao; Liu, Cui; Pan, Wenhui; Wu, Zushuai; Zhang, Guoguang; Pan, Jingtong; Qin, Mengyao; Lin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Chuanbin; Xu, Yuehong

    2016-05-01

    Tacrolimus (FK506) was used to prevent corneal allograft rejection in patients who were resistant to steroids and cyclosporine. However, the formulation for FK506 ocular delivery remained a challenge due to the drug's high hydrophobicity, high molecular weight, and eye's physiological and anatomical constraints. The aim of this project is to develop an ocular delivery system for FK506 based on a combined strategy of niosomes and mucoadhesive hyaluronic acid (HA), i.e., FK506HA-coated niosomes, which exploits virtues of both niosomes and HA to synergistically improve ophthalmic bioavailability. The FK506HA-coated niosomes were characterized with particle size, zeta potential, and rheology behavior. Mucoadhesion of FK506HA-coated niosomes to mucin was investigated through surface plasmon resonance in comparison with non-coated niosomes and HA solution. The results showed that niosomes possessed adhesion to mucin, and HA coating enhanced the adhesion. The in vivo precorneal retention was evaluated in rabbit, and the results showed that HA-coated niosomes prolonged the residence of FK506 significantly in comparison with non-coated niosomes or suspension. Aqueous humor pharmacokinetics test showed that area under curve of HA-coated niosomes was 2.3-fold and 1.2-fold as that of suspension and non-coated niosomes, respectively. Moreover, the synergetic corneal permeability enhancement of the hybrid delivery system on FK506 was visualized and confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscope. Overall, the results indicated that the hybrid system facilitated FK506 ocular delivery on mucoadhesion, precorneal retention, aqueous humor pharmacokinetics and transcorneal permeability. Therefore, HA-coated niosomes may be a promising approach for ocular targeting delivery of FK506. PMID:26820107

  11. Changes in aqueous humor following single or repeated UVB irradiation of rabbit cornea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fris, M.; Čejková, Jitka; Midelfart, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 245, č. 11 (2007), s. 1705-1711. ISSN 0721-832X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/06/1379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Aqueous humour * Nuclear magnetic resonance * UVB rays Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.590, year: 2007

  12. The digital aqueous humor outflow meter: an alternative tool for screening of the human eye outflow facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios P Kozobolis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vassilios P Kozobolis, Eleftherios I Paschalis, Nikitas C Foudoulakis, Stavrenia C Koukoula, Georgios LabirisDepartment of Ophthalmology and Eye Institute of Thrace, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To develop, characterize, and validate a prototype digital aqueous humor outflow tonographer (DAHOM.Material and methods: The DAHOM was developed, characterized, and validated in three phases. Phase 1 involved construction of the sensor. This was broadly based on the fundamental design of a typical Schiotz tonographer with a series of improvements, including corneal indentation, which was converted to an electrical signal via a linear variable differential transducer, an analog signal which was converted to digital via ADC circuitry, and digital data acquisition and processing which was made possible by a serial port interface. Phase 2 comprised development of software for automated assessment of the outflow facility. Automated outflow facility assessment incorporated a series of fundamental improvements in comparison with traditional techniques, including software-based filtering of ripple noise and extreme variations, rigidity impact analysis, and evaluation of the impact of patient age, central corneal thickness, and ocular axial length. Phase 3 comprised characterization and validation of DAHOM, for which we developed an experimental setup using porcine cadaver eyes. DAHOM’s repeatability was evaluated by means of Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient. The level of agreement with a standard Schiotz tonographer was evaluated by means of paired t-tests and Bland-Altman analysis in human eyes.Results: The experimental setup provided the necessary data for the characterization of DAHOM. A fourth order polynomial equation provided excellent fit (R square >0.999. DAHOM demonstrated high repeatability (Cronbach’s alpha ≥0.997; intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.987 and an adequate level of

  13. Elevated Transforming Growth Factor-β2 in the Aqueous Humor: A Possible Explanation for High Rate of Capsular Contraction Syndrome in High Myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keke; Zhu, Xiangjia; Chen, Minjie; Sun, Xinghuai; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Peng; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the role of transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) in the development of high myopic capsular contraction syndrome. Methods. Nineteen cases of capsular contraction syndrome, including 14 with high myopia, were collected, and their clinical data were reviewed. Aqueous humor and anterior capsular membranes were obtained during capsulotomy. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining with anti-TGF-β2 antibody were performed on capsular membranes. TGF-β2 levels in aqueous humor were assayed using ELISA and western blot. Results. High myopia was significantly associated with the incidence of capsular contraction syndrome (odds ratio: 14.74, P myopia. Conclusions. High myopia is a risk factor for capsular contraction syndrome. Elevated TGF-β2 levels in high myopic cataract patients may play an important role in the pathogenesis of capsular contraction syndrome. PMID:26942002

  14. Elevated Transforming Growth Factor-β2 in the Aqueous Humor: A Possible Explanation for High Rate of Capsular Contraction Syndrome in High Myopia

    OpenAIRE

    Keke Zhang; Xiangjia Zhu; Minjie Chen; Xinghuai Sun; Jin Yang; Peng Zhou; Yi Lu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the role of transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) in the development of high myopic capsular contraction syndrome. Methods. Nineteen cases of capsular contraction syndrome, including 14 with high myopia, were collected, and their clinical data were reviewed. Aqueous humor and anterior capsular membranes were obtained during capsulotomy. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining with anti-TGF-β2 antibody were performed on capsula...

  15. Aqueous humor level of sCD44 in patients with degenerative myopia and primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akdogan Muberra

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44 is a major hyaluronan cell surface receptor widely distributed in eye tissues and fluids. The shed ectodomain of CD44 is termed soluble CD44 and is toxic to human retinal ganglion cells in cell culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of sCD44 in the aqueous humor (AH of normal subjects, patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, and patients with degenerative myopia but without glaucoma, to determine if the molecule might serve as a protein marker of glaucoma. Findings In this case-control study, AH samples were collected from controls (n = 16, patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (n = 11, and patients with degenerative myopia (n = 11 who underwent phacoemulsification surgery to treat mature or immature cataracts. The sCD44 concentration in AH was measured using a commercial ELISA kit. In normal AH samples the sCD44 concentration was 5.40 ± 1.21 ng/mL, whereas in degenerative myopia patients the sCD44 concentration was 5.76 ± 1.15 ng/mL. There was thus no statistically significant difference between these two groups (p > 0.05. The aqueous sCD44 concentration in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (12.2 ± 10.1 ng/mL was higher than that of the control group (p Conclusion sCD44 may be a protein marker of primary open-angle glaucoma.

  16. Elevated Transforming Growth Factor-β2 in the Aqueous Humor: A Possible Explanation for High Rate of Capsular Contraction Syndrome in High Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the role of transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2 in the development of high myopic capsular contraction syndrome. Methods. Nineteen cases of capsular contraction syndrome, including 14 with high myopia, were collected, and their clinical data were reviewed. Aqueous humor and anterior capsular membranes were obtained during capsulotomy. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining with anti-TGF-β2 antibody were performed on capsular membranes. TGF-β2 levels in aqueous humor were assayed using ELISA and western blot. Results. High myopia was significantly associated with the incidence of capsular contraction syndrome (odds ratio: 14.74, P<0.001, 95% CI: 5.29–41.05. Histopathological analysis revealed proliferation of fibroblast-like lens epithelial cells on the shrunken anterior capsule, labeled with TGF-β2 antibodies. ELISA and Western blot showed higher levels of TGF-β2 in aqueous humor of patients with capsular contraction syndrome and high myopia. Conclusions. High myopia is a risk factor for capsular contraction syndrome. Elevated TGF-β2 levels in high myopic cataract patients may play an important role in the pathogenesis of capsular contraction syndrome.

  17. Тhe shifts in the content of prostoglandins Е2 in aqueous humor of patients with senile and complicated cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Zilfyan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose. There has been undertaken in this research, in case of complicated cataracts, an attempt of definition of a role of prostaglandins Е2 (PgЕ2 in mechanisms of cancellation of immune responses, responsible for ACAID, in the early period of the aseptic uveitis course. Material and method. The patients with senile and complicated cataracts underwent the microaxial phonoemulsification. The first group included patients with senile uncomplicated cataract (400 eyes, the second one – with cataract, proceeding associated with primary open-angled glaucoma (200 eyes, the third group – with cataract, proceeding associated with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (200 eyes, the fourth group – with cataract, proceeding associated with arterial hypertension (300 eyes, the fifth one – with cataract, proceeding associated with diabetes mellitus (100 eyes, and the sixth group – with cataract, proceeding associated with previous trauma (100 eyes. The studied contingent of patients has been examined using subjective and objective methods of research standard in ophthalmology. Aqueous humor of patients of all six studied groups (80 tests in each group was subjected to immunoenzymatic level definition of prostaglandins Е2, using kits of the firm DRG International Inc. (USA. The content of prostaglandins Е2 was expressed in pg/ml. Immunoenzymatic researches (ELISA were conducted with the autoanalyzer «Stat Fax 3200» (USA in wavelengths of absorption of 420-450 nm. The obtained results were statistically analyzed, using the Student criteria and the SPSS-13 software. Results. In case of complicated cataracts, namely cataracts, proceeding associated with open-angle and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, and also in traumatic cataracts, an inflammatory process in form of anterior aseptic uveitis was observed in the early post-operative period. Relative high indices of prostaglandins Е2 were determined in the aqueous humor of the above

  18. Firocoxib on aqueous humor prostaglandin E 2 levels for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of blood-aqueous barrier in healthy and Toxoplasma gondii -seropositive cats

    OpenAIRE

    Deise Cristine Schroder; Matias Bassinello Stocco; Deborah de Arruda Isoton; Carla Patricia Amarante e Silva; Ísis Assis Braga; Érica Pereira da Silva; Camila do Espírito Santo Maciel; Fernanda Harumi Maruyama; Luciano Nakazato; Daniel Moura de Aguiar; Adriane Jorge Mendonça; Alexandre Pinto Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of firocoxib for controlling experimentally-induced breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier in healthy and Toxoplasma gondii -seropositive cats. Thirty two cats with no ocular abnormalities were used. Groups (n=8/each) were formed with healthy cats that received 5mg g-1 of oral firocoxib (FH) or no treatment (CH) on day 0; seropositive cats for anti -T. gondii specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) were grouped (n=8/each) and treated in a similar fas...

  19. Aqueous humor outflow effects of partial thickness channel created by a femtosecond laser in ex-vivo human eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Dongyul; Chaudhary, Gautam; Kurtz, Ron; Juhasz, Tibor

    2007-02-01

    The reduced outflow rate caused by the increased resistance through trabecular meshwork (TM) has been thought to be the main reason for elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). It has been demonstrated that femtosecond laser pulses tuned to 1.7 μm wavelength can create the partial thickness channel in the sclera in ex vivo human eyes [1] and aqueous outflow can be increased by these channels in porcine eyes [2]. It was also shown that the outflow rate is reduced over time in ex vivo human eyes [3]. Therefore, the control experiment without laser treatment at the same condition was conducted and showed that outflow was reduced by 1.5 +/- 0.8 μl/min at 15mmHg and 1.8 +/- 1.0 μl/min at 25mmHg. However, the outflow rate increased by 0.26 μl/min at 15mmHg and 0.15 μl/min at 25mmHg after the partial thickness channel was created, meaning the amount of increased outflow rate might be more than measured considering the outflow reduction in control experiment. We suggest that the femtosecond laser created partial thickness channel can increase the outflow rate and delay the progression of glaucoma.

  20. Time profile of viral DNA in aqueous humor samples of patients treated for varicella-zoster virus acute retinal necrosis by use of quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, D; Germi, R; Labetoulle, M; Romanet, J P; Morand, P; Chiquet, C

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) loads using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in patients treated for acute retinal necrosis (ARN). Six patients (52 ± 13 years old) with ARN syndrome were consecutively studied. Aqueous humor (AH) was sampled from both eyes of all patients for qPCR evaluation. The patients were treated with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreal injections of antiviral drugs. The mean follow-up time was 17.6 ± 16.4 months. Main outcome measures were the numbers of viral genome copies in the AH, assessed using real-time qPCR with hydrolysis probe technology with a threshold of detection of 200 copies/ml. Two main portions of the viral load curves were observed for each patient: a plateau phase (27.8 ± 24.9 days) and a decrease in the number of viral genome copies. The mean baseline viral load was 3.4 × 10(7) ± 4.45 × 10(7) copies/ml (6 × 10(6) to 1.2 × 10(8) copies/ml). The viral load decreased according to a logarithmic model, with a 50% reduction obtained in 3 ± 0.7 days. There was a significant viral load (>102 copies/ml) at 50 days after the onset of treatment, despite antiviral drugs. qPCR use demonstrated reproducible VZV DNA kinetics with a two-phase evolution: a plateau followed by a logarithmic decrease. These data suggest that high-dosage antiviral therapy administered for the conventional 10-day duration is insufficient for most patients. This series of patients responded with a similar decrease in viral load once treatment was initiated, and the data from these patients may be used to predict the responses of future patients. PMID:23637296

  1. Simultaneous determination of timolol maleate in combination with some other anti-glaucoma drugs in rabbit aqueous humor by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassib, Sonia T; Elkady, Ehab F; Sayed, Rawda M

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a sensitive, selective, accurate and precise LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of an anti-glaucoma ß-blocker, timolol maleate (TIM) with other co-administered anti-glaucoma drugs of different classes, namely; dorzolamide hydrochloride (DOR), brinzolamide (BRZ) and brimonidine tartrate (BRM) in rabbit aqueous humor (AH) using eslicarbazepine as an internal standard (IS). Liquid-liquid extraction was used for the purification and pre-concentration of analytes from rabbit AH matrix. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a mobile phase consisting of 10mM ammonium formate pH=7: methanol: acetonitrile (5: 50: 45, v/v/v) in isocratic mode of elution at a flow rate of 0.8mL/min on an INERTSIL(®) C18 ODS-3 column (150mm×4.6mm, 3.5μm). The method was operated using electrospray ionization source in the positive ionization mode prior to detection by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) at the following transitions: m/z 317.2→261.0 for TIM, m/z 325.1→199.0 for DOR, m/z 384.2→281.0 for BRZ, m/z 292.1→212.0 for BRM and m/z 255.0→237.0 for IS. The separation was done in only 3min and the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was (50ng/ml) for all cited drugs. A detailed validation of the bio-analytical method was performed as mentioned in US-FDA and EMA guidelines and the standard calibration curves were found to be linear in the range (50-5000ng/ml) for all drugs with good mean regression coefficient for all drugs. PMID:27085020

  2. EFFECTS OF FLUNIXIN MEGLUMINE CONJUNCTIVAL SHOT OVER THE HUMOR AQUEOUS PROTEIN OF DOGS SUBMITTED TO THE PARACENTESIS OF THE ANTERIOR CHAMBER AVALIAÇÃO DOS EFEITOS DA FLUNIXINA MEGLUMINA, POR VIA SUBCONJUNTIVAL, SOBRE A CONCENTRAÇÃO E PADRÃO PROTEICO DO HUMOR AQUOSO DE CÃES SUBMETIDOS À PARACENTESE DA CÂMARA ANTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diniz Galera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Flunixin meglumine effects, over aqueous humor proteins of eyes on dogs who were submitted to paracentesis of the anterior chamber, were evaluated. To ten adult dogs clinically healthy were given a subconjunctival shot with flunixin meglumine (1.1mg/Kg on the right eye and sterilized saline solution 0.9% on the left eye, with the same volume. After general anesthesia, were submitted to two paracentesis of the both eyes to collect 0.2mL of first and second aqueous. The samples were submitted to Bradford test, wich proteins concentrations were  15.98mg/dL ± 4.48 e 11.46mg/dL ± 2.72 for the right and the left eyes, respectively, on the first paracentesis and 119.8mg/dL ± 6.74 e 120.63mg/dL ± 22.4 for the right and the left eyes, on the second paracentesis. There was no significant statistically differences between the protein values of the treated eyes in comparison with the control one. When compared, the proteins concentrations between the first and second paracentesis of the right and left eyes, statistic differences were found between these two moments (p<0.001. SDS-PAGE showed differences in the protein patterns of aqueous humor in result of the paracentesis.

    KEY WORDS: Aqueous humor, eye, flunixin meglumine, paracentesis, proteíns.

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos da flunixina meglumina, pela via subconjuntival, sobre as proteínas do humor aquoso de olhos de cães submetidos à paracentese da câmara anterior. Dez animais adultos, clinicamente sadios, receberam, por aplicação subconjuntival, flunixina meglumina (1,1mg/kg no olho direito e solução salina estéril a 0,9% no olho esquerdo, em igual volume. Mediante anestesia geral, foram submetidos a duas paracenteses de ambos os olhos para coleta de 0,2mL de aquoso primário e secundário, respectivamente. As amostras foram submetidas ao Teste de Bradford, cujas concentrações proteicas (média e desvio-padrão obtidas foram de 15

  3. Bromfenac 0.09% bioavailability in aqueous humor, prophylactic effect on cystoid macular edema, and clinical signs of ocular inflammation after phacoemulsification in a Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Palacio,1 Lourdes Fernández De Ortega,2 Francisco R Bustos,3 Eduardo Chávez,4 Aldo A Oregon-Miranda,5 Arieh R Mercado-Sesma5 1Anterior Segment Department, Fundación Hospital Nuestra Señora de la Luz, México City, México; 2Anterior Segment Department, Asociación Para Evitar la Ceguera en México, Hospital Dr Luis Sánchez Bulnes, México; 3Anterior Segment Department, Antiguo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México; 4Anterior Segment Department, Instituto de Oftalmología, Fundación de Asistencia Privada Conde de Valenciana, IAP, México; 5Clinical Research Department, Laboratorios Sophia, SA de CV, Zapopan, Jalisco, México Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor bioavailability and clinical efficacy of bromfenac 0.09% vs nepafenac on the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME after phacoemulsification.Material and methods: A Phase II, double-blind, masked, active-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial of 139 subjects, randomized to either a bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution (n=69 or nepafenac 0.1% (n=70. Subjects instilled a drop three times a day for a period of 30 days. Follow-up visits were on days 2, 7, 15, 30, and 60. Biomicroscopy, clinical ocular signs, and assessment of posterior segment were performed. The primary efficacy endpoints included the presence of CME evaluated by optical coherence tomography. Safety evaluation included intraocular pressure, transaminase enzymes, lissamine green, and fluorescein stain.Results: The demographic and efficacy variables were similar between groups at baseline. The presence of pain, photophobia, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, cellularity, and corneal edema disappeared by day 30 in both groups. The central retinal thickness did not show significant changes after treatment when compared to baseline as follows: in the bromfenac group (247.2±32.9 vs 252.0±24.9 µm; P=0.958 and in nepafenac group (250.8±34

  4. Analysis of protein composition of rabbit aqueous humor following two different cataract surgery incision procedures using 2-DE and LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonnell Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous humor (AH, a liquid of the anterior and posterior chamber of the eye, comprises many proteins with various roles and important biological functions. Many of these proteins have not been identified yet and their functions in AH are still unknown. Recently, our laboratory published the protein database of AH obtained from healthy rabbits which expanded known protein identifications by 65%. Our present study extends our previous work and analyses AH following two types of cataract surgery incision procedures (clear corneal and limbal incisions by using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Although both incision protocols are commonly used during cataract surgeries, the difference in protein composition and their release into AH following each surgery has never been systematically compared and remains unclear. The first step, which is the focus of this work, is to assess the scale of the protein change, at which time does maximum release occurs and when possible, to identify protein changes. Results Samples of AH obtained prior to surgery and at different time points (0.5, 2, 12, 24 and 48 hours following surgery (n = 3/protocol underwent protein concentration determination, 2-DE and LC-MS/MS. There was a large (9.7 to 31.2 mg/mL and rapid (~0.5 hour influx of proteins into AH following either incision with a return to baseline quantities after 12 hours and 24 hours for clear corneal and limbal incision, respectively. We identified 80 non-redundant proteins, and compared to our previous study on healthy AH, 67.5% of proteins were found to be surgery-specific. In addition, 51% of those proteins have been found either in clear corneal (20% or limbal incision (31% samples. Conclusions Our results imply that a mechanism of protein release into AH after surgery is a global response to the surgery rather than increase in amount of protective proteins found

  5. [Value of gentamycin concentration in aqueous humor of a rabbit's eye depending on the method of application. Summary of a doctoral thesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, R H

    1992-10-01

    Pharmacokinetics of gentamycin in the primary and secondary rabbit's aqueous was examined by using a new experimental method of subconjunctival application (without breaking the continuity of the conjunctiva). It was established that after subconjunctival application one cannot obtain any therapeutical concentrations in the primary or secondary aqueous. Presented are conditions which have to be fulfilled to obtain a therapeutical concentration of gentamycin in the secondary aqueous. PMID:1306533

  6. 兔房水来源exosomes的分离与鉴定及其免疫抑制功能的研究%Isolation of rabbit aqueous humor-derived exosomes and their immunosuppression function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖志雄; 楼正青; 肖中

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate exosomes from rabbit aqueous humor and to investigate their immunosuppression function. Methods; Aqueous humor was collected from 40 New Zealand rabbits and exosomes were isolatied by fractional separation and ultracentrifugation methods; the morphology was studied with electron microscopy. The immunosuppressive-related proteins of exosomes were detected with Western blotting; their inhibitory effect on ConA-induced proliferation of T lymphocyte was estimation with CCK-8 cells proliferation assay. Results; Eight mililiters of aqueous humor were collected from 40 New Zealand rabbits and 200 μg exosomes was yielded. Under electron microscope, the exosomes had typical structure of lipid bi-layer with a diameter of 50 - 100 nm. The results of Western bloting showed that these exosomes expressed Hsp70,CD9 and Alix but not Grp94,presenting a typical exosomes protein profile. Moreover,exosomes expressed high level of TGF-β and significantly inhibited the proliferation of T lymphocytes. Conclusions: Immunosuppressive exosomes can be isolated from rabbit aqueous humor, which may be involved in immunotolerance of the eye.%目的:探讨兔房水中是否能够分离得到具有脂质双分子层结构的纳米级小囊泡exosomes,并检测其是否表达免疫抑制相关分子,参与眼球免疫耐受状态的维持.方法:收集40只健康新西兰大白兔的房水,分级分离,超速离心制备exosomes,透视电镜对其形态进行鉴定;Western blot检测exosomes标志性蛋白以及免疫抑制相关分子TGF-β的表达情况;采用CCK-8细胞增殖检测方法判断兔房水来源的exosomes对经ConA诱导的兔子T淋巴细胞增殖情况的抑制功能.结果:40只新西兰大白兔收集到约8 ml的房水,从中获得200μg exosomes.经透射电镜鉴定:从房水中分离获得的exosomes直径主要集中在50~100 nm,具有典型的脂质双分子层结构;Wester blot结果表明,该exosomes表达热休克蛋白Hsp70

  7. Humorous treatment of actuality

    OpenAIRE

    Vårdal, Karianne Holt

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a close reading of the humor and irony used in Michael Moore's feature documentaries; Roger and Me, Bowling for Columbine and Sicko. Based on existing theories on humor and the documentary, my analysis is a reading of carefully chosen scenes to illustrate the different methods used to create humor and irony, as well as a attempt to describe why we laugh at these particular scenes. A review of critical discourse surrounding Moore's films and their use of humor, identifies issues ...

  8. Humor. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David; Parr, Jerry; Duffy, Vincent; Strader, Bill; Stephens, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on humor in early child care: (1) "What Makes Young Children Laugh?" (David Elkind); (2) "Humor as a Tool in the Workplace" (Jerry Parr); (3) "Vincent's Vignettes" (Vincent Duffy); (4) "Family Humor" (Bill Strader); and (5) "Books to Tickle Funny Bones" (Karen Stephens). (SD)

  9. Penetrability of interleukin-1β and its effect on the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the aqueous humor of rabbits treated with interleukin-1β

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xiao-yan; CHEN Feng-hua; WANG Ning-li; MA Jian-min; Ping-yu Lee; LIU Ke-gao; Steven M Podos

    2009-01-01

    Background Interleukin (IL)-1β may effectively decrease introcular pressure (IOP) when administered by subconjunctival injection in normal rabbit. However, IL-1β is a large molecular agent and an inflammation factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetrability of IL-1β, and the concentrations of both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 in the aqueous humor of normal rabbits treated with IL-1β.Methods A total of 170 rabbits were used in the study and were assigned to several different treatment groups as follows: 125 of the rabbits were assigned to two groups. In one group, 33 rabbits were injected subconjunctivally with IL-1β and 39 were injected with saline alone. In the other group, 27 rabbits were given eye drops containing IL-1β (400 ng/ml) and 26 were given saline alone. Aqueous humor (AH) was drawn and the concentration of IL-1β within the fluid measured. The IOP was measured in another six rabbits after administration of eye drops containing IL-1β (400 ng/ml). A further 20 rabbits were assigned to 3 groups as follows: eight untreated normal controls; six injected subconjunctivally with IL-1β; and six injected subconjunctivally with saline alone. AH was drawn and the concentration of TNF-α in the fluid was measured. Another 19 rabbits were assigned to 3 groups as follows: seven untreated normal controls; and six injected subconjunctivally with IL-1β; and six injected subconjunctivally with saline alone. AH was drawn and the concentration of IL-6 in the fluid measured. Measurement of cytokine concentration was by radio-immunoassay in all cases.Results The IL-1β concentration in the AH was higher in those animals in which it had been administered subconjunctivally (P 0.05). The administration of IL-1β in the form of eye drops had little effect upon lOP reduction. Lower TNF-α concentrations were seen in the AH after the subconjunctival administration of IL-1β, but the concentration of IL-6 was the same as in the normal controls

  10. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed. PMID:16367459

  11. Metonymy And Humor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤琴

    2008-01-01

    Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80’s of last century.Traditionally,they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper,I try a new research perspective,metonymic function and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in the interpretation of humor as a cognitive and mental process.

  12. 99Tc-MDP对兔实验性葡萄膜炎房水及血清细胞因子的影响%99Tc-MDP on aqueous humor and serum cytokines of experimental uveitis in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张开颜; 冼文光; 金陈进; 陈海波; 赵普宁

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of 99Tc-MDP on the experimental uveitis in rabbits. Methods Twenty-one experimental rabbits were randomly divided into normal sodium control group, dexamethasone administration group and 99Tc-MDP administration group,7 rabbits in each group. ELISA assay was applied to detect the levels of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) in the aqueous humor, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) in serum before establishing the models, at 5 days after establishing the models,at 10 days after drug administration and at 5 days after stopping administration. Results The levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in aqueous humor of normal sodium control group were (86.2±51.2)ng · L-1 and (91.2±67.9)ng · L-1 at 10 days after drug administration lower than (95.1±44.7)ng · L-1 and (135.6±106.3)ng · L-1 at 5 days after establishing the models, respectively. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in serum of normal sodium control group were (151.9±57.9) ng · L-1 and (4.7±1.2)ng · L-1 at 10 days after drug administration lower than (175.6±96.0)ng · L-1 and (5.8±2. 3)ng · L-1 at 5 days after establishing the models,respectively. The levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in aqueous humor of dexamethasone administration group were (106.9±28.5)ng · L-1 and (168.1±256.6)ng · L-1 at 10 days after drug administration higher than (82.7±41.4)ng ·L-1 and (117.4±45.5)ng · L-1 at 5 days after establishing the models,respectively. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in serum of dexamethasone administration group were (80.3±23.4)ng · L-1 and (3.2±2.3)ng · L-1 at 10 days after drug administration lower than (188.2±104.9)ng · L-1 and (5.7±3.6)ng · L-1 at 5 days after establishing the models,respectively. The levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in aqueous humor of 99Tc-MDP administration group were (136.2±47.2) ng · L-1 and (183.1±79.6) ng · L-1 at 10 days after drug administration higher than (98

  13. Humor and language

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Vilhelm; Henriksen, Jesper Schnedler; Galting, Marie; Pejtersen, Susan June; Pedersen, Lasse Lindegaard; Van Kuylenstierna, Christine; Loznica, Javor

    2014-01-01

    By looking at stand-up comedian Russell Peters’s show “The Green Card Tour”, we seek an understanding of how sociolinguistics and humor correlates and are applied for comedic effect. In order to achieve the latter, this project will firstly attempt to explain sociolinguistics and humor in relation to each other. Later, those concepts will be applied to the chosen sections within the The Green Card Tour, specifically revolving around how Russell Peters achieves comedic effect...

  14. HUMOR V TISKANIH OGLASIH

    OpenAIRE

    Šalamun, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Humor v slovarju pomeni kakovost – da si zabaven ali smešen, ampak v oglaševanju je to zelo resen ter tvegan posel. Namen oglaševanja s humorjem je več kot samo spraviti v smeh par ljudi. Potrebno je upoštevati, da kadar se uporablja humor v oglaševanju, da so različne stvari smešne različnim ljudem. Oglas, ki lahko nekoga nasmeji, lahko pri drugem pusti slabi vtis. Humor se v oglaševanju uporablja že vrsto let, vendar na slovenskem trgu ni toliko prisoten še posebej v tiskanih oglasih. Kljub...

  15. Humor v likovni umetnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Humor je izraz za vsako sporočilo, povzročeno z dejanjem, govorom, pisanjem ali sliko, ki ima za svoj produkt nasmeh ali smeh. Ljudje različnih profilov tematiko preučujejo že vsaj od antike naprej, poskušajo jo umestiti tudi v kontekst. Zdi se, da je humor kulturno pogojen, integriran v kontekst časa, vezan na družbeno zgodovino, hkrati pa nam služi kot ključ do kulturnih kod, saj odnos do humorja (smeha), način uporabe v praksi ter njegove oblike in objekti niso konstantni, ampak spremenlji...

  16. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-01-01

    In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  17. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  18. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  19. Humoral immunity in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, A F; Craig, S; Bardana, E J

    1987-09-01

    Bronchiectasis occurs in patients with immunodeficiency and fungal hypersensitivity disorders. To assess the prevalence of abnormal humoral immune parameters in bronchiectasis, a retrospective study was carried out on sera from 30 patients. Studies included immunoglobulin quantitation and specific antibody to fungal species. Eleven patients were found to have immunodeficiency (nine with panhypoglobulinemia and two with selective IgM deficiency). Six patients had elevations of serum IgA and four patients had elevations of serum IgE. Six patients had elevated total antibody to Aspergillus or Candida species and six had precipitin bands to one or more fungal antigens. This study indicates that immunodeficiency is prevalent and plays a causative role in some patients with bronchiectasis. Hypersensitivity reactions to Aspergillus, Candida, and other ubiquitous environmental fungi may also play an etiopathogenic role in this disease (bronchiectasis, humoral immunity, immunodeficiency). PMID:3631652

  20. Study on Deep Structure of Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫林琼

    2007-01-01

    Humor is the common favorite of people in all walks of life and at all ages. Studying the deep structure of humor, that is, the psychological and cognitive foundation in producing and comprehending humor, is quite practical in helping people first to recognize, understand and appreciate others' humor and then to apply their own humor to their daily communication.

  1. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis)

    OpenAIRE

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-01-01

    Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed th...

  2. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Skalicky; Cynthia M. Berger; Scott A. Crossley; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195) with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and ...

  3. Does Humor Matter? From Organization Management Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kai-Ping Huang; Wen-Ching Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study is to provide an overview discussion on the issue of humor management of within organizations. Although there are limits to which a work environment can be relaxed through humor or any other device, bonding through humor can be an important device within an organization whereby unity and common purpose are realized. Types of humor in the workplace can include puns, slapstick, jokes and anecdotes and teasing. Humor is also an important device for dealing with chan...

  4. Does Humor Matter? From Organization Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ping Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is to provide an overview discussion on the issue of humor management of within organizations. Although there are limits to which a work environment can be relaxed through humor or any other device, bonding through humor can be an important device within an organization whereby unity and common purpose are realized. Types of humor in the workplace can include puns, slapstick, jokes and anecdotes and teasing. Humor is also an important device for dealing with change. Approach: The literature review and arguments were conducted to identify the function, importance and influence of humor within organizations. Results: By observing humor and by being sensitive to its implications, rather than dismissing it simply as frivolity, managers can implement changes based on their interpretations of workplace humor. Negatively, humor can be an important device for protecting self-image and one’s social peers within an organization; where managers observe such socialization, they can move to improve staff relations. Spontaneous humor is also a useful training device, for evaluating how well new ideas have been communicated. Humor then can be a spur to initiative and to spontaneous responses. Where a manager wants to engage in pleasantries with employees then, it seems that industrially democratic humor is an important component of such interaction. Humor can be an important factor in industrial democracy and increased productivity. Conclusion: Humor can be an important device for building a tram spirit and for forming a cohesive unit, unanimously concerned with its own survival and profitability.

  5. Various Means of Achieving Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓棠

    2014-01-01

    Humor can be found everywhere in our daily life. It shows one's wisdom and confidence, which reflects a person's character, mind and cultivation. While it makes people laugh, it enlightens and instruct people. As we all know, English humor is a manifestation of the western literature. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences of different cultures. The present paper starts from the analysis of English humor, trying to find out some ways of achieving humor so as to better our understanding and appreciation of English humor.

  6. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  7. Estudio histopatológico de hígado y riñón de caninos y su relación con las concentraciones de urea, creatinina, proteínas, enzimas (ALT y SAP en sangre premortem y en humor acuoso a las 0 y 24 horas postmortem Histopathological study of canine liver and kidney and their relationship with blood and postmortem aqueous humour samples concentrations of urea, creatinine, proteins and enzymes activities (ALT and SAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GALLARDO

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se necropsiaron 31 caninos, sin historia clínica de patologías hepáticas o renales. Previo a la eutanasia, realizada con solución sobresaturada de tiopental sódico, se obtuvo una muestra de plasma; una vez efectuada la eutanasia, se obtuvo una muestra de humor acuoso desde el ojo derecho y otra 24 h después del ojo izquierdo. En cada muestra se determaron las concentraciones de urea, creatinina, proteínas, ALT y SAP. Se caracterizaron las lesiones histológicas de hígado y de riñón de caninos a fin de relacionarlas con las concentraciones de urea, creatinina, proteínas, ALT y SAP en sangre premortem y en humor acuoso a las 0 y 24 h postmortem. A cada perro se le practicó una necropsia, obteniéndose muestras de hígado y riñón en formalina al 10%. Para la caracterización histológica de las lesiones se utilizó la siguiente escala: ausente (0, leve (I, moderado (II, marcado (III, y severo (IV. A cada órgano se le asignó un grado de alteración histológica utilizando una escala similar (I a IV; este grado de alteración fue comparado con las concentraciones de los metabolitos estudiados en sangre y humor acuoso a las 0 y 24 h postmortem. El 100% de los perros manifestó algún grado de alteración renal y hepática (G.A.R. y G.A.H.. Los trastornos de tipo inflamatorio necrótico a nivel renal fueron observados en el 100% de los perros, destacándose la glomerulonefritis (100% y la nefritis intersticial (87.09%. A nivel hepático los trastornos de tipo circulatorio fueron los más frecuentemente observados (100%, siendo la congestión difusa la lesión más encontrada (63.33%. Las concentraciones de los metabolitos estudiados fueron mayores en sangre premortem que en humor acuoso a las 0 y 24 h postmortem (pThe goal of this study was to characterize histopathological lesions of the liver and kidney of canines, and their relationship with blood and postmortem samples of aqueous humor concentrations of urea, creatinine, proteins

  8. The Benefits of Humor in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloth, Joan Kay

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 31 nursing students and 3 teachers identified several benefits from using humor in class: relieving stress, focusing attention, making learning fun, enhancing learning, and strengthening relationships. Students overwhelmingly supported the use of appropriate humor. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  9. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  10. Black humor in O.Henry's novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静楠

    2013-01-01

      Black humor is a kind of literary style rose in American and O .Henry's novels used it to express the satire to society and show the sympathy to the lower class .The most typical works contain black humor two are The Cop and the Anthem and The Gift of the Magi.By using black humor, he created his unique endings .This article is trying to analysis the use of black humor in his novels and the effect.

  11. Humor in intimate relationships Ties among sense of humor, similarity in humor and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di

  12. Strategi Penciptaan Humor dengan Pemanfaatan Aspek-aspek Kebahasaan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2010-01-01

    Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor v...

  13. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality.Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  14. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  15. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  16. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A.; Vrabel, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  17. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  18. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  19. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  20. Strategi Penciptaan Humor dengan Pemanfaatan Aspek-aspek Kebahasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor variously. Sometimes people can feel happy when they hear humor; but sometimes they can feel infuriated, hateful, insinuated, or even aggrieved. This is caused by immeasurable humor context in each communication. It depends on the target that the humor creator wants.

  1. Developing a typology of humor in audiovisual media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We analy

  2. Where is the humor in verbal irony?

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, RW; Bryant, GA; Colston, HL

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Munich/Boston. Irony is often related to humor, both in spoken and written language. One possibility is that humor arises once people reconcile the incongruity between what speakers say and imply when using irony. Humor automatically emerges in these cases given the release of tension following a momentary sense of disparity. Our claim is that this proposal does not capture many of the dynamic complexities in real-world ironic discourse. We describe psycholo...

  3. The changes of aqueous humor vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor levels before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in proliferative diabetic retinopathy%增生性DR玻璃体腔注射ranibizumab前后房水中VEGF和PEDF水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云鹏; 陈小红; 陈梅珠

    2016-01-01

    .Objective This study was to determine the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in aqueous humor of PDR eyes before and after intravitreai injection of ranibizumab.Methods Self-controlled observational study was designed.Fifteen eyes of 15 PDR patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command from January to August 2014, and 1 eye combined with neovascular glaucoma and iris rubeosis.Aqueous samples of 0.1 ml at each time were collected before and 7 days after the injection of ranibizumab from all patients under the informed consent.The changes of aqueous VEGF and PEDF concentrations were detected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.This study complied with Declaration of Helsinki and the protocol was approved by this hospital.Results The freeVEGF concentrations before and 7 days after intravitreal injection were (179.4±136.5) pg/ml and (27.1 ±23.5) pg/ml, respectively, showing a significant reduce after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (t =4.172, P =0.001).PEDF concentrations before and 7 days after intravitreal injection were (394.0-±237.2) pg/ml and (267.7±199.6) pg/ml, respectively, showing a significant reduce after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (t =5.443, P =0.000).Intraocular neovascularization vanished after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and vitrectomy was carried out at the seventh day after intravitreal injection.Conclusions Free VEGF and PEDF levels in aqueous humor appear to be significantly decreased after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, and ocular neovascularization disappears at same time,which avoids intraoperative bleeding during vitrectomy.

  4. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  5. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  6. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  7. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  8. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  9. Confessions from a Guy Who Teaches Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.

    2008-01-01

    Humor is an intriguing topic that exists in the contexts of adult education and human resource development. This paper describes my experiences at developing and facilitating a graduate course on humor and adult learning. Researchers and scholarly practitioners in adult education and human resource development are encouraged to build their…

  10. Humor, Emotional Empathy, Creativity and Cognitive Dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, G. Alfred; Altermatt, Ellen R.; Forsyth, Peggy D.

    The devaluation of racial, ethnic, or religious groups, sometimes disguised as humor, is a major contributor to violence and aggression against these groups. In an effort to understand this process, five factors of humor: negative ethnic stereotype jokes, play-on-word jokes, academic/social referent cartoons, gender/establishment jokes, and gross…

  11. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. PMID:26580553

  12. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes. PMID:11641883

  13. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  14. Last Laughs: Gallows Humor and Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemonte, Nicole M

    2015-12-01

    This paper argues that "backstage" gallows humor among clinical mentors not only affects medical students' perceptions of what it means to be a doctor but is also symptomatic and indicative of a much larger problem in medicine-namely, the failure to attend fully to the complexity and profundity of the lived experiences of illness, suffering, and death. Reorienting the discourse surrounding gallows humor away from whether or in what context it is acceptable and toward the reasons why doctors feel the need to use such humor in the first place addresses this issue in a more illuminating way. PMID:26062447

  15. Differences in Humor Styles between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2014-01-01

    Humor, as a relaxing topic, is a very complicate thing in the intercultural communication. The famous professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, Rod A. Martin who focuses his study on functions of humor and laughter proposes four humor styles. In this essay, I use four dimensions referred by Hofstede to analyze the preferred humor styles in China and America.

  16. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor s

  17. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  18. The dynamic concept of humor : Erich Fromm and the possibility of humane humor

    OpenAIRE

    Hietalahti, Jarno

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the social philosophy of humor from the viewpoint of Erich Fromm’s critical humanistic thinking. The work consists of an introduction and four individual articles. The introduction discusses Fromm’s theories in relation to the phenomenon of humor to provide a basis for the articles. The central aim is to understand the dynamic nature of humor and how it is related to the problem of being a paradoxical creature, that is, a human being. It is...

  19. The Serious Business of Humor : A qualitative study of humor as a management tool

    OpenAIRE

    N Schönfeldt, Sara; Miznikova, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    This research was initiated due to the novelty of the topic. Humor is a common phenomenon in the daily interaction of many people; however this study is particularly interested in humor as used by managers. As a preconception to the study it was assumed that appropriately used humor results in benefits for a leader, thus we wish to explore how managers in Swedish organizations reason about if and how humor can be used as a management tool. For this purpose we employed qualitative research wit...

  20. El humor en los servicios hospitalarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaga Benítez Óscar William

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El humor es un fenómeno demasiado complejo para ser explicado fácilmente, sin embargo la risa, es una de las formas más admirables del comportamiento humano. El humor forma parte de nuestra vida cotidiana y todos tenemos de él, ya desde nuestra más tierna infancia un conocimiento intuitivo. Muchos saben que el humor mejora las relaciones humanas, puede favorecer una cierta distensión y facilita el bienestar de todos los miembros de una empresa, dirigentes, empleados y obreros. Muchos esperan encontrar en él la forma de resolver los conflictos y de reducir la agresividad. Allí donde se encuentren hombres, existe el humor, comprenderlo mejor y utilizarlo más libremente y en el momento oportuno, puede ayudarnos a hacer nuestra vida más agradable.

  1. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  2. Identity and Stereotypes: Humor Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Repšienė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional understanding of humor as being tolerant, full of non-aggressive life curiosities, funny situations, mocking national or human vices, and related to an optimistic and contemplative attitude towards reality, has changed its main supportive points: the optimistic view of reality has been altered into a pessimistic and destructive one, forbearing ridicule has turned into severe offence, strangeness into stupidity, funny situations into futile misunderstanding. Everything is regarded as a dramatic possibility to survive or an endless situational tragedy where the most strict evaluation criteria, censorship, and dogmatism are empowered, meaning that, in the current times of widely propagated tolerance and overwhelming comprehension, it is extremely dangerous to offend somebody with an innocent joke or light mockery, to evoke an urge to contradict or negate when ideological aspirations are beyond “decency” limits. One of the most advocated rules in the Lithuanian press is: “Joke carefully with foreign nationals” from an interview with Barry Tomelin, London “International house” consultant and teaching director, the author of the book “World’s Business Cultures: And How to Unlock Them” (with Michael Nicks. Identity is to be saved and nourished as the highest sanctity but its formation, meaningfulness and spread are not always attuned to the official approach.Our life is full of stereotypes and our neighboring countries are not to be excluded – we have a preconceived notion of them. Using the national stereotype term we characterize relatively stable generalized opinions, in an open or hidden form, containing one or another assessment of a nation.Our attitude towards neighbors is revealed in nicknames given to them – non-official ethnonyms usually bearing a negative connotation. Some monikers have already lasted for centuries while others have been coined during the last decades. Anecdotes with the most popular

  3. Dendritic Cells and Humoral Immunity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hideki; Schmitt, Nathalie; Palucka, A. Karolina; Banchereau, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Summary Dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate the innate and adaptive immune systems to induce tolerance and immunity. DC plasticity and subsets are prominent determinants in the regulation of immune responses. Our recent studies suggest that humoral and cellular immunity is regulated by different myeloid DC subsets with distinct intrinsic properties in humans. While antibody response is preferentially mediated by CD14+ dermal DCs, cytotoxic T cell response is preferentially mediated by Langerhans cells (LCs). Thus, mechanisms whereby DCs induce humoral and cellular immunity appear to be fundamentally distinct. In this review, we will focus on the role of DCs in the development of humoral immunity. We will also discuss the mechanisms whereby DCs induce CD4+ T cells associated with the help of B cell response, including T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, and why human LCs lack this ability. PMID:20309010

  4. Perfil de humor de mulheres com fibromialgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Brandt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o perfil dos estados de humor de mulheres com fibromialgia, bem como analisar sua associação com características sociodemográficas e clínicas. MÉTODOS: Cento e seis participantes responderam ao Questionário Sociodemográfico e Clínico (QSDC e à Escala de Humor de Brunel (BRUMS. O QSDC é constituído por perguntas sobre dados pessoais e aspectos clínicos, enquanto o BRUMS avalia o humor por meio de seis fatores, a saber: tensão, depressão, raiva, vigor, fadiga e confusão mental. Os dados foram tratados com estatística descritiva e por meio dos testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: As variáveis negativas do humor estiveram em níveis elevados, em especial a tensão, a depressão, a fadiga e a confusão mental, enquanto o vigor esteve baixo. Verificou-se ainda que as participantes mais jovens que trabalham com diagnóstico de depressão e, principalmente, as que possuíam maior número de sintomas relacionados à fibromialgia apresentavam humor mais deprimido do que seus pares. CONCLUSÃO: Mulheres com fibromialgia apresentaram tendência de humor deprimido, sendo que essa característica se apresentou associada a fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos.

  5. Sentido del humor en el adulto mayor

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina M. Labarca R.

    2012-01-01

    El humor es un fenómeno poco estudiado dentro del contexto de la psicología, menos aún, en el adulto mayor, grupo etario que se encuentra en constante crecimiento dentro de nuestro país.En tal sentido, la investigación, guiada por los planteamientos de Carbelo (2007) y DAnello (2010), denominada sentido del humor en el adulto mayor, tuvo por objetivo, determinar el significado que tiene este fenómeno para el adulto mayor. Para ello, se realizó un estudio de corte cualitativo,donde se utilizó ...

  6. Dialogic Grounds of Humor in Mathnavi

    OpenAIRE

    ar Mohammadi Kalesar; mk Yousefpour; ma Khazane Darloo

    2011-01-01

    “Dialogue”, in Bakhtin’s thought, is a term which has a methodological nature. This term shows a method for facing cases which are not hegemonic. Dialogue, therefore, is in opposition to the hegemony of monophonic forces. The origins of the dialogical aspects of humor, laugh and carnival are in very character. In this article, we want to investigate the bases that make the dialogical carnival and form the humorous elements. In the first section, we illustrate the subversion of the superior vo...

  7. Sensation seeking, social attitudes and humor appreciation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Forabosco, Giovannantonio; Ruch, Willibald

    1994-01-01

    The present study examines the role of sensation seeking, conservatism, toughmindedness, sex, and age in appreciation of humor in Italian adults. A sample of 100 females and 48 males responded to Italian adaptations of the 3 WD humor test, Form V of the sensation seeking scale, and the C-Scale. Funniness of incongruity-resolution humor correlated positively with conservatism, female sex, and age, and negatively with all components of sensation seeking. Funniness of nonsense humor correlated p...

  8. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, CL

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11–13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial simila...

  9. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor studies, where a broader view is taken, that is, a view that includes artificial intelligence, reasoning, common-sense and context representations, and machine learning. But there are other kinds of...

  10. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.

    2016-01-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  11. A Study of Linguistic Humor Translation of British Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑾

    2015-01-01

    The translatability of humor is gradually accepted and linguistic humor based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages is considered to be the most difficult to translate. This paper is to study the linguistic humor translation of British sitcoms in the light of Skopos theory and explore practical ways of E-C translation of linguistic hu⁃mor.

  12. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  13. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  14. Humor as Camouflage of Televised Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to research on schema theory and media effects by examining how violence is portrayed in comedy programs. Finds a high rate of violence (especially verbal forms) on comedy programs; and the combination of humor, minor acts of violence, and program context tend to trivialize its presence. Suggests that viewers' schema for comedy uses…

  15. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  16. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist

    2016-01-01

    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  17. Using Humor to Crack the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    1994-01-01

    Assistant vice president for academic personnel at public university took notes on incidents that caused participants to laugh during meetings of academic managers between 1988 and 1993. Recorded percentages of males and females in attendance, who conducted meeting, and who initiated laughter. Found differences in how men and women used humor to…

  18. ¿Hay humor en Juan Montalvo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Valdano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo analiza la prosa panfletaria de Juan Montalvo desde el punto de vista del humor. Montalvo, además de dedicar muchas páginas a disertar sobre la risa, buscó con frecuencia insertar efectos humorísticos en su estilo, encaminados a ridiculizar a sus enemigos políticos. ¿Hasta qué punto un autor eminentemente moralista, un libelista cáustico como Montalvo, que echa mano del insulto, la burla y el sarcasmo, puede considerarse un humorista? Para comprender esta ambigüedad entre un Montalvo solemne y otro burlón, entre un Montalvo austero y otro irónico se analizan aquí ciertos recursos literarios que utiliza este autor y con los que provoca efectos que lindan con lo humorístico.This work analyses Juan Montalvo's pamphlet prose from a humorous perspective. To what extent can an eminently caustic moralist author as Montalvo, who uses insult, mockery and sarcasm, be considered a humorist? In order to understand this ambiguity between a solemn Montalvo and a Mocking one, between an austere and an ironic one, certain resources used by the author are analysed, resources that border on humour.

  19. Dialogic Grounds of Humor in Mathnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ar Mohammadi Kalesar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available “Dialogue”, in Bakhtin’s thought, is a term which has a methodological nature. This term shows a method for facing cases which are not hegemonic. Dialogue, therefore, is in opposition to the hegemony of monophonic forces. The origins of the dialogical aspects of humor, laugh and carnival are in very character. In this article, we want to investigate the bases that make the dialogical carnival and form the humorous elements. In the first section, we illustrate the subversion of the superior voice as a semantic and formal structural method in Mathnavi. In the second section, the reflection of this method in formation of humor in the stories of Mathnavi has been investigated. In these stories, presence of the superior voice in the public space and its dialogue with the suppressed voices makes a space steeped in the elements of carnival and laugh. It can be said that the humors in Mathnavi are not the techniques for embellishing the text but the affects of the transcendental method of Mathnavi for interpreting the world.

  20. Relationship between humor and proposed punishment for crimes: Beware of humorous people

    OpenAIRE

    Ruch, Willibald; Busse, Peter; Hehl, Franz-Josef

    1996-01-01

    It was hypothesized that appreciation of the structural basis and of sexual content in humor is related to punitiveness in different ways. Sixty-eight male subjects served as lay judges and stipulated what would be the just minimum and maximum punishment of committing one of 25 criminal acts and filled in scales relating to humor appreciation, conservatism, dogmatism, and intolerance of ambiguity. Funniness of incongruity-resolution correlated positively with minimum and maximum punishment. A...

  1. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  2. Hubungan Antara Sense of Humor Dengan Kebahagiaan Pada Lansia

    OpenAIRE

    Puspita, Ayu

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is a person’s ability to use humor in solving the problem, a person’s skill to create the humor, and the ability to appreciate or respond humor. Individuals who have a sense of humor is known to be better of use coping with stress, establish a relationship with the people around him and mentally and physically healthier. When the elderly can cope the stress feelings better, then feelings of sadness or disapointment that may arise will be reduced so that the elderly will have ha...

  3. On the Humor Translation in Subtitling of American Sitcom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石杨

    2014-01-01

    The subtitling translation in American sitcom is of great significance which helps Chinese audiences to understand pro-grams. Humor element is an essential part of the sitcom. However, the loss of humor is very common in subtitling translation, so the vivid and accurate translation for humor in sitcoms has become a challenge for the translators. This thesis analyzes the defini-tion of humor and the main features of subtitling translation, and then discusses several examples of humor loss in the subtitling translation of Friends to put forward corresponding strategies.

  4. The Analysis of Lin Yutang’s Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琴

    2014-01-01

    Lin Yutang is called the master humorist in China. He advocates humor and spiritual literature in his maga-zine Lun Yu (Analects) which attracts essays and readership. His informal but polished style in both Chinese and English makes him one of the most influential writers of his generation, and his compilations and translations of classic Chinese texts into English are bestsellers in the West. Humor is a distinctive feature in his works. In his book, he uses humor as he sees appropriate, and through humor he criticizes social realities, depicts characters and introduces original expressions, etc. His humor can be related to some aspects in his life. In this paper, I will briefly analysis Lin's sense of humor and how Lin' applies humor in his works.

  5. Differentiating what is humorous from what is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter

    2016-03-01

    After 2.5 millennia of philosophical deliberation and psychological experimentation, most scholars have concluded that humor arises from incongruity. We highlight 2 limitations of incongruity theories of humor. First, incongruity is not consistently defined. The literature describes incongruity in at least 4 ways: surprise, juxtaposition, atypicality, and a violation. Second, regardless of definition, incongruity alone does not adequately differentiate humorous from nonhumorous experiences. We suggest revising incongruity theory by proposing that humor arises from a benign violation: something that threatens a person's well-being, identity, or normative belief structure but that simultaneously seems okay. Six studies, which use entertainment, consumer products, and social interaction as stimuli, reveal that the benign violation hypothesis better differentiates humorous from nonhumorous experiences than common conceptualizations of incongruity. A benign violation conceptualization of humor improves accuracy by reducing the likelihood that joyous, amazing, and tragic situations are inaccurately predicted to be humorous. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26692355

  6. Humor v reklamě

    OpenAIRE

    Melounová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis Humour in advertisement is focused on creating humorous advertisements. The Thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is about advertisement, psychology of advertisement, emotions and emotional appeals that are used in advertising, primarily appeal humour. The practical part includes analysis of the survey focused on the effectiveness of humour in advertisements, analysis of selected campaign and the results of own survey.

  7. Sentido del humor en el adulto mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina M. Labarca R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El humor es un fenómeno poco estudiado dentro del contexto de la psicología, menos aún, en el adulto mayor, grupo etario que se encuentra en constante crecimiento dentro de nuestro país.En tal sentido, la investigación, guiada por los planteamientos de Carbelo (2007 y DAnello (2010, denominada sentido del humor en el adulto mayor, tuvo por objetivo, determinar el significado que tiene este fenómeno para el adulto mayor. Para ello, se realizó un estudio de corte cualitativo,donde se utilizó la Entrevista en Profundidad como método de recolección de la información. Los informantes fueron 4 adultos mayores (2 hombres y 2 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre 60 y 73 años de edad, los cuales fueron seleccionados como una muestra de propósito. Para el análisis, se utilizó la Teoría Fundamentada, concluyéndose que para el adulto mayor, cuando el sentido del humor se convierte en parte de la personalidad, es un factor protector de la salud, da sentido de pertenencia y cambia positivamente el ambiente, trayendo como consecuencia una mejor calidad de vida, siendo esto último el principal significante que surgió del análisis de la información. Igualmente, se determinó que el sentido del humor es una construcción social que se va elaborando a lo largo de la vida y que se afianza en esta etapa vital.

  8. The use of humor in the care of psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysodimitra Galatou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is defined as a state of good spirit, exhibited with a smile or laughter, as a response to external stimuli. It constitutes a special form of human communication as well as a form of social conduct. The word «humor» appears for the first time in Hippocrates' writings. Psychology considers humor as one of the most powerful weapons against depression and disappointment. In psychiatric therapeutics humor serves many purposes, thereby acting as a supplement, not a substitute to treatment received. Purpose: of this article is to highlight the positive effects of humor in humans, health professionals and patient. Material and method: An extensive literature search databases such as Medline, Pub Med, Wikipedia, Cinahl, Medscape, with key words: humor, psychiatric patient, care, humor scales Results: Humor is an interpersonal process which facilitates and promotes expression and exchange of views; however it requires prudence, cautiousness and respect to patients' personality and sensitive issues. Humor is not innate, it is acquired and it can be learning and taught. Conclusion: The correct use of humor in therapeutic practice, contributes to the development of a therapeutic relationship between patient and healthcare professional as well as a sense of trust between them.

  9. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  10. Cultural differences in therapeutic humor in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Adamle, Kathleen; Chiang, Ling-Chun

    2009-03-01

    Humor has been recognized by nurse researchers and practitioners as a constructive therapeutic intervention and has shown positive psychological and physiological outcomes for patient care. Because cross-cultural research on humor is sparse, this preliminary study investigates how nursing faculty members approach teaching therapeutic humor in the classroom and clinical education in different countries. Through an investigation of classroom (didactic) education and clinical practicum with direct patient care, the study may elucidate the linkage between theory and practice as well as how nursing faculty members view therapeutic humor in general. Researching nursing faculty teaching practices and viewpoints of therapeutic humor may help reveal cultural differences in the use of humor in healthcare settings. This cross-cultural study included 40 nursing faculty at three nursing programs: two in the United States and one in Taiwan. A qualitative approach was used to perform content analysis on responses to the open-ended questionnaires. Research findings revealed cultural differences between faculties from the two countries. Taiwanese faculty members indicated that they teach more theory and concepts related to therapeutic humor in the classroom than do nursing faculty members from the United States. However, nursing faculty members in Taiwan reported that they observe and practice less therapeutic humor in clinical settings out of respect for the cultural value of "reverence of illness" operating within Taiwanese society. Therapeutic humor was family centered and interdependent on relationships, roles, duties, and responsibilities of family members. In contrast, the U.S. faculty members stated that they teach less theory and concepts related to therapeutic humor in the classroom but observe and practice humor more in clinical settings. United States faculty approached teaching therapeutic humor in the classroom on an informal basis because the subject was not part of

  11. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  12. Does humor influence the stigma of mental illnesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Fokuo, J Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A

    2014-05-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, the participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared with the nondisclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the nondisclosed condition, suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719

  13. The Naturalization of Humor in Dubbing: Translation of Cultural References and Humor in Modern Family

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Perucha, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Estudio sobre la traducción del humor y las referencias culturales de forma tanto teórica como práctica. Dicho estudio proporciona una base de conocimiento en la cual se explican los distintos tipos de humor y bromas, así como las técnicas de traducción de referentes culturales y una breve introducción al doblaje. Esta parte teórica se ve reflejada en el análisis de la serie de televisión Modern Family, de la cual se comparan algunos fragmentos seleccionados de la versión original con los fra...

  14. Humor in Training: Laugh and the World Learns with You--Maybe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Guidelines for using humor in training are as follows: (1) use a modicum of apt, relevant humor in an informative presentation; (2) self-disparaging humor enhances the presenter's image; (3) humor is only one factor that enhances interest; (4) apt, relevant humor does not affect persuasiveness; and (5) satire has unpredictable results. (SK)

  15. Humor appreciation of captionless cartoons in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bozikas Vasilis P; Kosmidis Mary H; Giannakou Maria; Adamopoulou Aravela; Gonda Xenia; Fokas Kostas; Garyfallos George

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It seems that the core neural regions and cognitive processes implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) pathophysiology may overlap with those involved in humor appreciation. However, to date, there have been no studies that have explored humor appreciation in OCD. The purpose of the present work was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of patients with OCD. Methods We examined 25 patients with OCD and 25 healthy controls, matched by age, education, and gen...

  16. Impact of humor in advertising on consumer purchase decision

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Anh Thuc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the consumer decision process and its determinants, explore the concept and usage of humor in advertising to find out its impacts on consumer’s purchase decision. The theoretical framework gathered data from articles, books and previous re-searches. The author explained the process of purchase decision making, consumer buying behavior and presented the classification of humor, effects of humor and appropriate product types. Empirical data was collec...

  17. Humor a vtip v reklamě

    OpenAIRE

    Hipčová, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the advertisements mainly those where humor and wit have appeared. Thesis is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical one. In the first part the marketing activities, psychology of the advertisement, humor and wit in advertisement are described. The second part is focused on mobile operator Vodafone, particular advertisements as well as on the own quantitative research. The main aim of the research is to find out how the humor and wit in the advertisement is...

  18. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    OpenAIRE

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES; JUANITA SÁNCHEZ

    2006-01-01

    Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influe...

  19. Ageing and the humoral immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study presented in this thesis is concerned with changes in the humoral immune system as a function of age in different inbred mouse strains. Their capacity to develop humoral immune responses to experimentally given thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens under various conditions is compared. Furthermore, experiments employing thymus transplantation and thymic humoral factors which are directed at the restoration of the diminished T cell functions in old age are reported. (Auth.)

  20. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Plenty; Susanne Bejerot; Kimmo Eriksson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ) and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biolo...

  1. Danish Humor in Cross-Cultural Professional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2014-01-01

    The specificities of national humor are often mentioned in humor research, but seldom explained in depth. This article concerns two studies, which reveal that Danish humor (as used in professional settings) is judged by Danes and non-Danes alike as ironic, self-ironic, sarcastic, and direct, with...... no limits or taboos. These characteristics of Danish humor are analyzed here using two different theoretical frameworks: linguistics – where an explanation is found in certain type-specific features of the Danish language, namely the dialogical particles typical of the Nordic languages in general...

  2. Comparative evaluation of aqueous and plasma concentration of topical moxifloxacin alone and with flurbiprofen in patients of cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujash Halder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the aqueous and plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin administered topically alone and with flurbiprofen in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects scheduled for routine cataract surgery were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 25 each. Group-1 patients were treated with topical moxifloxacin alone: One drop 6 times/day for 3 days before surgery and one drop 4 times on the day of surgery: Group-2 patients were treated with topical moxifloxacin as in Group-1 and with topical flurbiprofen: One drop 4 times/day for 3 days before and on the day of surgery. The interval between two drugs was 30 min for last 3 days and 15 min on the day of surgery. Last dose was administered 1 h before aqueous humor and blood sampling for both the groups. The antibiotic concentration in aqueous humor and plasma were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The mean concentration of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor was 1.71 ± 0.82 mg/ml in Group-1 and 2.39 ± 1.34 mg/ml in Group-2. Concentrations of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor were significantly higher in Group-2 than that of Group-1. Conclusion: Flurbiprofen may increase the concentration of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor.

  3. Humor en línea. Línea del humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Mirta Clara Echevarría

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora indaga el humor propuesto por el diario ‘InterVoz’ (Córdoba, Argentina. El medio publica el "típico humor cordobés". Historietas, chistes y relatos representan la vida urbana cotidiana, confluencia de lo popular y lo masivo, a través de la inclusión de usos lingüísticos, costumbres, personajes típicos y personajes públicos, sobre todo políticos. Estos textos, en algunos casos, reproducen lo publicado en papel; sin embargo, son manifestaciones diferentes. En este discurso emergente, estudia las condiciones de producción, circulación y consumo desde varias vertientes. Subraya la autora la relación del humor con el resto del diario por: la fuerte relación intertextual con la información y el diseño hipertextual. Destaca tópicas y retórica del humor como parte de una política discursiva centrada en lo regional, con el objeto de construir un discurso identitario de clara apelación a "los cordobeses en el mundo". El humor de ‘InterVoz’ (el diario en su totalidad, en el marco de la globalización, se manifiesta como una otra voz, sin llegar a establecerse como contradiscurso. Este periódico –como tantos en la red– subraya las marcas de lo local para permanecer en lo global.

  4. The humor continuum: from text to smart environments (keynote paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate

  5. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B.; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2009-01-01

    Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect…

  6. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  7. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  8. Laugh yourself to sleep: memory consolidation for humorous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-05-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well. PMID:24337230

  9. Co-operative Principle of Conversation and Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付岚

    2012-01-01

    Language humor is a usual phenomenon in human communication. It is an interdisciplinary subject connected with a wide range of learning. Up to now, a great deal of research has been done from the viewpoint of psychology and sociology. In the field of linguistics, some explorations have already been made in regard to its semantic and rhetorical aspects, but due attention has not been paid to it in pragmatics in that in everyday verbal communication, humorous utterances are easy to enjoy but hard to define. Apart from its capability of laughter-making, language humor is more often than not, produced to implicitly perform some communicative functions, not achievable by explicit expressions. This the - sis, based on the fruitful studies of humor, attempts to investigate the mechanisms of English humor from the perspective of a new theory 一 Co- operative Principle.

  10. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF THREE KINDS OF HUMOR IN PUBLICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.

  11. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Raab

    2009-01-01

    The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily) in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this a...

  12. Children’s Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  13. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stuber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.

  14. Measurement approaches to the sense of humor: Introduction and overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ruch, Willibald

    1996-01-01

    There has been a renaissance of research interest in the "sense of humor" in recent years, partly äs an attempt to define the concept but more strenuously to provide Instruments for its measurement. A quick count of recent publications shows an average of two to three new sense of humor- instruments per year — or one every four to six months. This intensity of research is unparalleled in the history of humor research and contrasts sharply with 25 years ago when the renewal of interest in hum...

  15. Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Using Humor in Education but Were Afraid to Laugh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.

    The importance of laughter and humor to enhance education, and special education in particular, is addressed. A sense of humor is an attitude, and humor together with enthusiasm helps students enjoy the learning process. Humor can make students become more alert, and can have very positive influences on affect. A funny remark, a pleasant…

  16. Why We Laugh and What Makes Us Laugh: The Enigma of Humor

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Asa Berger

    2013-01-01

    Humor (and related concerns such as the nature of comedy and of laughter) is an enigmatic subject that has perplexed our greatest thinkers from Aristotle’s time to the present. There are four competing theories that explain humor, each of which argues that all humor is based on: superiority, incongruity, cognitive problems in processing humor and psychoanalytic perspectives (such as masked aggression).

  17. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  18. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justine T; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D

    2016-07-01

    Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we propose two information-theoretic measures-ambiguity and distinctiveness-derived from a simple model of sentence processing. We test these measures on a set of puns and regular sentences and show that they correlate significantly with human judgments of funniness. Moreover, within a set of puns, the distinctiveness measure distinguishes exceptionally funny puns from mediocre ones. Our work is the first, to our knowledge, to integrate a computational model of general language understanding and humor theory to quantitatively predict humor at a fine-grained level. We present it as an example of a framework for applying models of language processing to understand higher level linguistic and cognitive phenomena. PMID:26235596

  19. The Aggression-Inhibiting Influence of Nonhostile Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert A.; Ball, Rodney L.

    1974-01-01

    The present experiment sought to investigate the hypothesis that exposure to nonhostile humor would be highly effective in reducing the level of aggression subsequently evidenced by angry individuals. (Author/RK)

  20. SEX DIFFERENCES DURING HUMOR APPRECIATION IN CHILD SIBLING-PAIRS

    OpenAIRE

    Vrticka, Pascal; Neely, Michelle; Walter, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental origin of sex differences in adult brain function is poorly understood. Elucidating neural mechanisms underlying comparable cognitive functionality in both children and adults is required to address this gap. Humor appreciation represents a particularly relevant target for such developmental research because explanatory theories apply across the life span and underlying neurocircuitry shows sex differences in adults. As a positive mood state, humor is also of interest due to...

  1. LOL: An Investigation into Cybernetic Humor, or: Can Machines Laugh?

    OpenAIRE

    Bacciu, Davide; Gervasi, Vincenzo (Ed.); Prencipe, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of humour have been the subject of much study and investigation, starting with and up to our days. Much of this work is based on literary theories, put forward by some of the most eminent philosophers and thinkers of all times, or medical theories, investigating the impact of humor on brain activity or behaviour. Recent functional neuroimaging studies, for instance, have investigated the process of comprehending and appreciating humor by examining functional activity in distinc...

  2. Does Humor Influence the Stigma of Mental Illnesses?

    OpenAIRE

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided per...

  3. The effect of Plantago ovata on humoral immune responses in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeipoor, R; Saeidnia, S; Kamalinejad, M

    2000-09-01

    The effect of the aqueous extract of Plantago ovata (PO) (Plantaginaceae) consisting of a mixture of polysaccharides and glycoside on humoral immune responses was studied. In rabbits, after oral administration of PO (0.5 g/kg) a significant decrease in anti-HD antibody titre was observed in primary response. Intraperitoneal injection of 0.25 g/kg of PO in mice prior to immunisation with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) resulted in a significant decrease in hemagglutinating antibody (HD) titre. Oral administration and intraperitoneal injection of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg of PO resulted in a significant increase in white blood cells (WBC) and spleen leukocytes counts. The spleen weight also increased with intraperitoneal injection (0.25 and 0.5 g/kg) and oral administration of 0.5 g/kg of PO. Present results indicate that PO can suppress the humoral immune responses, especially in primary immune response. PMID:10967483

  4. Humor appreciation of captionless cartoons in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozikas Vasilis P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It seems that the core neural regions and cognitive processes implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD pathophysiology may overlap with those involved in humor appreciation. However, to date, there have been no studies that have explored humor appreciation in OCD. The purpose of the present work was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of patients with OCD. Methods We examined 25 patients with OCD and 25 healthy controls, matched by age, education, and gender. We administered Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT, a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons by Mordillo. Each set of stimuli consisted of two almost identical drawings, one of which was funny due to the alteration of a detail in the cartoon, whereas the other was not funny. Severity of psychopathology was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS. Results No significant effect for group, gender or group × gender interaction was found on the PHAT scores. In OCD patients, humor appreciation was not significantly associated with age of onset, duration of illness, and obsessions, but correlated significantly with compulsions. Conclusions Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons in OCD, does not seem to be deficient compared to healthy subjects but may be related to illness characteristics.

  5. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  6. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  7. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Fox

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating. Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer. In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  8. The Conceptualization, Measurement, and Role of Humor as a Character Strength in Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim R. Edwards

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In positive psychology, humor has been identified as one of 24 character strengths considered ubiquitously important for human flourishing. Unlike the other strengths, humor was a late addition to this classification system and its status as a strength continues to be somewhat controversial. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to explore the associations between humor and several outcome variables of relevance to positive psychology (happiness, routes to happiness, resilience, and morality. The second purpose was to explore how best to conceptualize and measure humor as a character strength by comparing the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS Humor Scale with the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ in their ability to predict the outcome variables. A sample of 176 participants completed questionnaires assessing the humor and positive psychology constructs. The results indicated that the humor measures significantly predicted most of the outcome variables, supporting the importance of humor in positive psychology. Furthermore, although the VIA-IS Humor scale and positive humor styles on the HSQ showed considerable overlap, the negative humor styles added significantly to the prediction of outcome variables beyond these positive humor measures, supporting the importance of assessing maladaptive as well as adaptive uses of humor in research on positive psychology. These findings suggest that the HSQ may be a more useful measure than the VIA-IS Humor scale in future research in this field.

  9. Hipercalcemia humoral secundaria a carcinoma mixto de endometrio Humoral hypercalcemia in mixed endometrial carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    I. Pinal-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.Hypercalcemia secondary to neoplastic disease is a frequent entity caused in the majority of cases by ectopic secretions of P...

  10. The humor after of the humor: concepts around Pablo Holberg´s Eden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Turnes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 21st century comics production in Argentina have experienced the emergence of new methods of publication, promotion and circulation consisting of a series of devices whose complex relationship has redefined the authorial figureas well as a new reading audience. The passage from the Internet and digital formats to the book has established itself as post-industrial strategy in the context of the reconstitution of a diverse comics field, where the national tradition of humor serves as example of the mentioned changes

  11. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:25786353

  12. Humor i reklamens tjänst : Två branschkunnigas åsikter om humor i reklam

    OpenAIRE

    Back, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Syftet med mitt arbete är att undersöka vad humor i reklam innebär. Humor uppfattas på olika sätt beroende på var man befinner sig i världen så kan man klarlägga en övergripande definition över vad humor i reklam är? Humor är något som får oss på bra humör, får oss att skratta, men får reklam mer synlighet med hjälp av humoristiska inslag? Jag har genom en kvalitativ metod intervjuat två personer inom reklambranschen för att få ett grepp över humorns innebörd och påverkan i reklam. Den te...

  13. Intrathecal Humoral Immunity to Encephalitic RNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C. Bergmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is the target for acute encephalitic viral infections, as well as a reservoir for persisting viruses. Intrathecal antibody (Ab synthesis is well documented in humans afflicted by infections associated with neurological complications, as well as the demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the origin, recruitment, maintenance, and biological relevance of Ab-secreting cells (ASC found in the central nervous system (CNS following experimental neurotropic RNA virus infections. We will summarize evidence for a highly dynamic, evolving humoral response characterized by temporal alterations in B cell subsets, proliferation, and differentiation. Overall local Ab plays a beneficial role via complement-independent control of virus replication, although cross or self-reactive Ab to CNS antigens may contribute to immune-mediated pathogenesis during some infections. Importantly, protective Ab exert anti-viral activity not only by direct neutralization, but also by binding to cell surface-expressed viral glycoproteins. Ab engagement of viral glycoproteins blocks budding and mediates intracellular signaling leading to restored homeostatic and innate functions. The sustained Ab production by local ASC, as well as chemokines and cytokines associated with ASC recruitment and retention, are highlighted as critical components of immune control.

  14. Eosinophils: important players in humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, C

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils perform numerous tasks. They are involved in inflammatory reactions associated with innate immune defence against parasitic infections and are also involved in pathological processes in response to allergens. Recently, however, it has become clear that eosinophils also play crucial non-inflammatory roles in the generation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils, being a major source of the plasma cell survival factor APRIL (activation and proliferation-induced ligand), are essential not only for the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow, but also for the maintenance of these cells in the lamina propria which underlies the gut epithelium. At steady state under non-inflammatory conditions eosinophils are resident cells of the gastrointestinal tract, although only few are present in the major organized lymphoid tissue of the gut - the Peyer's patches (PP). Surprisingly, however, lack of eosinophils abolishes efficient class-switching of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)A in the germinal centres of PP. Thus, eosinophils are required to generate and to maintain mucosal IgA plasma cells, and as a consequence their absence leads to a marked reduction of IgA both in serum and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Eosinophils thus have an essential part in long-term humoral immune protection, as they are crucial for the longevity of antibody-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow and, in addition, for gut immune homeostasis. PMID:26291602

  15. Humorous "Era" stories from the Arilje region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Desanka P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses humorous stories collected in the village of Brekovo near Arilje; the stories were created in the first half of the 20th century and noted down by Momčilo Jovanović, a villager from Brekovo. Later on, in the 1980's, the stories were passed down to the author of this paper. These narrations are mostly short stories and anecdotes; in a very realistic fashion, the stories depict life and culture of the Dinaric race from old Vlah - Zlatibor cultural area, namely, the type of person also known as "Era", well-known for its wittiness, smartness and wisdom. Based on the analysis of seven Era-stories, the author identified the social and cultural values highlighted in the stories (such as attitudes toward authorities intergenerational relationship, status of women, power relations between townsmen and peasants, propensity toward justice and truth. In summary, the stories document the mutual influence between traditional culture and the Era personality in this particular rural region; therefore, they could contribute to studies on character traits of the inhabitants in a given area of western Serbia.

  16. Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory%Study on the CE/EC Humorous Utterances Translation under the Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛昆

    2012-01-01

    This thesis takes the Skopos Theory which is the core of German functionalism as the breakthrough point. According to the general classification of humorous utterance, this thesis divides it into situational humor and language humor. This thesis aims to analyze the application of the Skopos Theory in the two classifications of humorous utterances translation from the two perspectives which are conformity and conflict between the source-te~tfunction and the target-text function.

  17. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16–24, 25–35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80–.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66–.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5–35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0–15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus–despite similar labels–these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles. PMID:27547259

  18. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long

  19. An Analysis of Verbal Humor in American Sitcom The Big Bang Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珍; 芮艳芳

    2015-01-01

    Humor plays an indispensable part in human communication. This thesis is a tentative analysis of verbal humor under-standing within the framework of Relevance Theory. This paper, using The Big Bang Theory as a corpus, analyzes the humor gener-ated in the cognitive process of searching for relevance. According to the Relevance Theory, the understanding of humor is a pro-cess in which the hearer finds"relevance"in what seems"irrelevant". The author hopes that this analysis can help more people un-derstand and appreciate the humor in The Big Bang Theory. And meanwhile their personal sense of humor can also be improved.

  20. A Study of Humor in Lost in Thailand from the Perspective of Presupposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2014-01-01

    Humor study enjoys a long history with a variety of theories and methods. Among them, the pragmatic approach is a relatively new and vigorous perspective. Scholars have adopted the cooperative principle and relevance theory to explain humor. However, as to studying humor from the perspective of pragmatic presupposition, very few researches have been done in this regard. Such being the case, this paper will use presupposition as a tool to analyze humor in Lost in Thailand which is a sensational comedy in China. By analyzing cases from this film, the paper aims to explore how presupposition functions in the production of humorous effect, and to provide some new insights into humor study.

  1. Ridiculed death and the dead: Black humor on the epitaphs and epigrams of the ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Lađa

    2007-01-01

    Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral) rituals, I am also going to set...

  2. Laugh and learn: humor as a teaching strategy in occupational therapy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, Marti; Schwartz, Kathleen Barker

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY Humor use in education has been studied in fields such as psychology and nursing. Research has demonstrated that effective educational humor needs to be integrated into the topic and used in moderation. Used appropriately, humor can gain attention, facilitate creative thinking and memory, motivate students to attend class, and promote learning outcomes. No studies were located in the occupational therapy literature that specifically related to humor as an aspect of teaching. The purpose of this article is to explore the merits of humor as an educational tool and to give examples of ways that occupational therapy faculty and clinical instructors can employ humor. PMID:23944666

  3. Does humor explain why relationally aggressive adolescents are popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2014-08-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents' gender and their friends' levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; M age = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  4. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  5. Analysis on the Humor and Irony in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓越

    2016-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice, published in 1813, is the most influential work of British female writer Jane Austen (1775-1817). By analyzing Jane Austen's representative novel, Pride and Prejudice, we are convinced by the excellent humor and irony used in it. Irony in Pride and Prejudice is mainly embodied in Austen's verbal irony, situational irony and dramatic irony. Under the perspective of stylistics, this paper analyzes dialogues, descriptive and commentary language and the arrangement of the whole plots of Austen's Pride and Prejudice to show how the different tones of humor and irony are reflected in the novel. This paper also focuses on the significance in portraying the characteristics of the roles and theme performance of humor and irony used in Pride and Prejudice, which help us to appreciate the satire literature.

  6. Erotismo, sexualidad y humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Sigl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la importancia del erotismo, la sexualidad y el humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano. Demuestra que estos elementos performativos no solo están fuertemente interconectados, sino también íntimamente ligados a la sacralidad andina. La primera parte del texto está dedicada a los componentes humorísticos y lúdicos del enamoramiento mediante la danza, postulando que humor y alegría forman parte del “erotismo andino”. Mientras tanto, la segunda parte estudia el “transformismo ritual andino”, que consiste en presentaciones dancísticas sumamente jocosas y fuertemente sexuadas a cargo de hombres hetero y homosexuales disfrazados de mujer.

  7. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality. PMID:27005341

  8. Creating Valuable Content On Social Media Using Humor

    OpenAIRE

    Pozdniakova, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This research has been conducted for Oulu University of Applied Sciences as a bachelor’s thesis. The study is part of the HURMOS-project initiated to understand the benefits of using humor in different fields of business. The topic was chosen to expand the understanding of social media as a marketing platform for businesses and the benefits as well as the potential setbacks of using humor to communicate with the followers. The research topic came about from the interest of the author on the u...

  9. El humor en la literatura infantil del franquismo

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor Sáez, María Victoria

    2007-01-01

    El período franquista no es un tiempo favorable al humor en la literatura para niños, que se utilizaba como un vehículo de adoctrinamiento, y sólo algunos autores crean historias y personajes capaces de hacer reír y sonreír. Primero con un humor suave, nada crítico o innovador, basado en personajes infantiles divertidos y en situaciones de la vida cotidiana. Después con el juego lingüístico y el disparate en poesía y relatos. Pero, sobre todo, en las historietas cómicas, con...

  10. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further. PMID:27347254

  11. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication. PMID:24160572

  12. Influence of Leaders’ Humor Styles on the Employees’ Job Related Affective Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Merve Unal

    2014-01-01

    Humor is a common dimension of human interaction. Therefore, it has an effect on working groups and organizations. The influence of humor on interpersonal relationship and behavior has been considered by various enterprises. In this work, we report that adaptive humor styles employed by leader buffers job related positive affective well-being of employees whereas maladaptive humor styles employed by leaders buffers job related negative affective well-being of employees. Our results indicate t...

  13. Analysis of Humor in The Big Bang Theory Based on the Conversational Relevance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yang

    2014-01-01

    Humor is the life buoy in waves of life. Pragmatics and humor are closely linked. Relevance is one of the important topics of Pragmatics. This paper takes the lines from The Big Bang Theory as a case study and analyzes the humorous effect from the perspective of Principle of Relevance and Conversational Relevance, hoping to help people deepen the appreciation and un⁃derstanding of humor.

  14. Impact of Humor Advertising in Radio and Print Advertising - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    S, Venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    The use of humour in advertising is the effective way of communication in any emotion to sell the products. Humor increase attention and attract more consumers so it became an effective advertising in any medium of advertising. Researchers and Advertisers more interested towards humor advertising more than century, but no review paper regarding impact of humor in radio and print advertising are published. Aim of this paper to get detailed review on impact of humor in radio and print advertisi...

  15. Research on the Role of Humor in Well-Being and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Arnie Cann; Nicholas A. Kuiper

    2014-01-01

    In this interview, Dr. Arnie Cann discusses his research and views on the ubiquitous role of humor in psychological health and well-being. The interview begins with Professor Cann recounting how he originally became interested in studying humor. He then reflects on the main findings associated with the wide variety of humor-related studies he has conducted over the years. In doing so, Dr. Cann provides suggestions and ideas for further research investigating the role of humor in health and we...

  16. Humor as a marketing communications tool : A case of a Finnish e-retailer

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This research work has been conducted for Oulu University of Applied Sciences (OUAS) for bachelor’s thesis project. Commissioner is from inside OUAS concern called Verkkokaupan tutkimusryhmä. The topic of humor was chosen in order to broaden the understanding and appreciation towards humor in marketing communications. The views, mechanics, and politics of humor interest the author and thus the research project was born. Humor is a powerful tool in everyday life and conceals great potential ut...

  17. Pragmatics Analysis In Humorous Text In Reader’s Digest Magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina, Sri

    2011-01-01

    Skripsi yang berjudul Pragmatic Analysis in Humorous Text in Reader’s Digest Magazine, menganalisis konteks dari humor yang berbentuk dialog dan bagaimana humor tersebut diinterpretasikan; yang terdapat di dalam teks humor di dalam majalah Reader’s Digest edisi Agustus, September, Oktober, November dan Desember 2010. Analisis ini menggunakan teori Yule tahun 1996 yang mengatakan bahwa beberapa fokus kajian pragmatik adalah mengkaji makna penutur di dalam konteks tertentu dan bagaimana konteks...

  18. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    OpenAIRE

    McCosker B; Moran CC

    2012-01-01

    Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interperson...

  19. Why We Laugh and What Makes Us Laugh: The Enigma of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Asa Berger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Humor (and related concerns such as the nature of comedy and of laughter is an enigmatic subject that has perplexed our greatest thinkers from Aristotle’s time to the present. There are four competing theories that explain humor, each of which argues that all humor is based on: superiority, incongruity, cognitive problems in processing humor and psychoanalytic perspectives (such as masked aggression.

  20. Exploring the relationship between humor types, innovative work behavior and innovative performance

    OpenAIRE

    Atta-Owusu, K. (Kwadwo)

    2016-01-01

    Humor is important human behavior that plays a vital role in communication and social interactions. Being a social phenomenon, humor is pervasive in organizations and workplaces. Because of its playful nature and the amusement it engenders, its presence in organizations is usually seen a distraction. Traditionally, work has been conceived as a serious undertaking hence any seemingly frivolous behavior like humor should not form part of it. However, it has been suggested that humor has numero...

  1. A Study of Dicken’s Humor Weiting——With Incongruity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如红

    2008-01-01

    Many scholars have shown great interest in Dickens’ humor writing.On the basis of the scholars’ studies,this thesis will make an analysis on the humor in his works that arise as reaction to what we perceive "incongruous".The thesis will apply the incongruity theory to Dickens’ humor writing.

  2. Consumer Response to Humor in Advertising: A Series of Field Studies Using Behavioral Observation.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Cliff; Klein, David M.; Bryant, Jennings

    1990-01-01

    In a series of field studies, social and business events were promoted using humorous, non-humorous, and control formats. The humorous promotions significantly increased attendance for the social events, but showed no significant impact for business events. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.

  3. Helping At-Risk College Students Help Themselves through Humor: A Reading and Writing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lois E.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the many benefits of humor. Describes a reading and writing strategy to help at-risk college students reduce stress, appreciate the humor in many areas of college life, and use reading and writing about humorous college situations as a tool for developing critical thinking. Describes an application of the strategy. (SR)

  4. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  5. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  6. Perception of aggressive humor in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Samson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates humor appreciation of aggressive cartoons in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. These traits were described to have a peculiar relation to laughter-related phenomena, in particular to disparagement humor. 185 participants rated highly aggressive and non-aggressive humorous stimuli for funniness and aversiveness and their scores on the gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism scales were measured. The cartoons were controlled for their structural basis, i.e., incongruity-resolution and nonsense humor, as these two types of humor strongly influence the appreciation of humorous stimuli. The results revealed that high scores on gelotophobia lead to higher aversion to aggressive humor, whereas high scores on katagelasticism lead to more enjoyment of aggressive humor with less aversion. Gelotophobia and katagelasticism lead to sensitivity to aggression in humor, which fits the overt behavior of reacting sensitively towards laughter (gelotophobia and enjoying to laugh at others (katagelasticism. Gelotophilia did not predict reactions to either aggressive or non-aggressive humor but did predict more amusement in general: High scorers on gelotophilia seem to be relaxed towards any form of humor, even if it has an aggressive note. This study confirms the three dimensions to have peculiar responses to aggressive types of humor and opens up several questions to be explored in future research.

  7. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  8. Humor in Advertisements Enhances Product Liking by Mere Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Holland, R.W.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This reprinted article originally appeared in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2009 (Mar), Vol 15(1), 35-45. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2009-03685-005). Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often

  9. Temperament and Communicative Competence as Predictors of Young Children's Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, David K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explores the relations between temperament, communicative competence, and humor expression among four- and five-year-old nursery school children. Shows that ratings of communicative competence and various dimensions of temperament account for a significant proportion of the variance in the reported frequency of children's laughter and verbal and…

  10. Humoral response to rabies vaccines in pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V K; Tiwari, K N; Mohan, Bhardwaj; Mala, Chabbra; Rana, U V S; Ichhpujani, R L

    2007-06-01

    Humoral immune response was studied in dogs vaccinated with different tissue culture vaccines commonly used for immunization of dogs in India. The results revealed that after single dose of vaccination only 56% dogs developed protective titer (> or = 1:8). The response of the three vaccines used in the study was not similar, highlighting the need to maintain post marketing surveillance. PMID:18338690

  11. Mexican Proverbs: The Philosophy, Wisdom and Humor of a People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Octavio A.

    Careful reading of proverbs can aid an individual to develop self-awareness by providing insights into what one cultural group considers desirable human behavior. Respect for the elderly can be taught to the young through the study of proverbs. Through their proverbs, the Mexicans reveal their friendliness, love of animals, sense of humor, and…

  12. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  13. Using Humorous Sitcom Clips in Teaching Federal Income Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, H. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    This article shares the motivation, process, and outcomes of using humorous scenes from television comedies to teach the real world of tax practice. The article advances the literature by reviewing the use of video clips in a previously unexplored discipline, discussing the process of identifying and selecting appropriate clips, and introducing…

  14. Humor Preference as a Function of Preoedipal Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Samuel

    1982-01-01

    Psychoanalytic theory predicts that humor preference is a derivative of unresolved childhood conflicts. Analyzed students' (N=104) Rorschach protocols to yield measures of preoedipal fixation. Students ranked jokes from most to least funny. Results showed that the ranking of jokes was a function of the fixation measures for women only. (Author/RC)

  15. Laugh and Learn: Using Humor to Teach Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher used humor when teaching Shakespearean tragedy. Describes how this improved students' attitudes and appreciation of the tragedies, helped them appreciate literature devices in the plays, and helped them review prior to their exam. (SR)

  16. Laughing matters: Infant humor in the context of parental affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7 months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6 months, and more often and sooner at 7 months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months of age, parental affect influenced infants' affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing. PMID:25897958

  17. ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN THE AQUEOUS HUMOR AND BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA

    OpenAIRE

    Eman A.Fahmy; Mona A.Abdel Hamid; Leqaa A.Moemen; Nervana A.Khalaf

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa is a common form of hereditary retinal degeneration constituting the largest Mendelian genetic cause of blindness in the developed world. It has been widely suggested that oxidative stress possibly contributes to its pathogenesis. We measured the levels of total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) activity, protein, metabolites of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP path...

  18. Microdevice for aqueous humor drainage Maldonado Bas - Pförtner

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Maldonado-Bas; Ana Maldonado-Junyent; Arturo Maldonado-Junyent

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: A microdevice for the treatment of refractory glaucoma is presented. The underlying concepts, its mechanisms of action and the surgical technique for implanting are explained and the results are analyzed. The microdevice was developed and the surgeries were performed at the Maldonado-Bas Eye Clinic (Cordoba, Argentina), under the rules established in the protocol approved by the provisions of the National Administration of Drugs, Food and Medical Technology 430/7. File No.:1-47-25-64...

  19. The isolated ciliary bilayer is useful for studies of aqueous humor formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, M L; Yamada, E.; Cummins, D; Mori, N; Mead, A.; Murakami, M.

    1991-01-01

    An intact ciliary epithelial bilayer has been isolated from the rabbit eye by perfusion, microsurgical dissection, and recovery techniques. Vital subcellular organelles and intercellular junctions of this epithelial bilayer preparation are very well preserved. The total electrical resistance of the epithelial bilayer is 350 ohms, and the transepithelial potential is 650 microV, nonpigmented epithelium side negative. The electrical resistance is reduced by 0.2 mM EGTA and the transepithelial p...

  20. Towards a new structural model of the sense of humor: Preliminary findings

    OpenAIRE

    N D

    2012-01-01

    In this article some formal, content-related and procedural considerations towards the sense of humor are articulated and the analysis of both everyday humor behavior and of comic styles leads to the initial proposal of a four factor- model of humor (4FMH). This model is tested in a new dataset and it is also examined whether two forms of comic styles (benevolent humor and moral mockery) do fit in. The model seems to be robust but further studies on the structure of the sense of humor as a pe...

  1. Humor and Resiliency: Towards a Process Model of Coping and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Kuiper

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article considers how humor may fit within a resiliency perspective. Following a brief overview of resiliency approaches, including selected work on positive psychology, several lines of research that provide initial support for resiliency effects of humor on stress and trauma are highlighted. This work ranges from anecdotal case report descriptions of facilitative humor use in extremely traumatic situations (e.g., paramedics, to more rigorous studies examining moderator and cognitive appraisal effects of humor on psychological well-being. Although these initial findings are quite promising, it is noted that some resiliency-based approaches to humor are limited by a sole focus on humor as a positive attribute. As such, a humor styles model, which acknowledges both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of humor, is used to describe broader avenues of research within a resiliency perspective. This process orientation to humor use also highlights the importance of both negative and positive emotion regulation in modulating coping and growth. This model is then used to comment on limitations and potential extensions of current resiliency perspectives on humor, including programs and exercises that attempt to train humor use in a facilitative manner.

  2. Ridiculed death and the dead: Black humor on the epitaphs and epigrams of the ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lađa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral rituals, I am also going to set a question about the attitude to death and life inherent for this kind of humor, arguing that its origin should be searched in the folk tradition.

  3. Humor styles and loneliness: a study among Hong Kong and Hangzhou undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Wong, Ashley Yuen Man; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between humor styles and loneliness among a sample of Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese. A total of 159 Hong Kong undergraduates and 178 Hangzhou undergraduates were recruited to complete a survey composed of the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scales. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-defeating humor explained significant variance in both social and emotional loneliness for Hong Kong students, but only in social loneliness for Hangzhou students. Hong Kong students scored significantly higher on aggressive humor and self-defeating humor, and scored significantly lower on affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor than did their counterparts in Hangzhou. This could be attributed to the greater influence of Confucianism in Mainland China than in Hong Kong. PMID:25153950

  4. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor. PMID:27180510

  5. Research on the Role of Humor in Well-Being and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, Dr. Arnie Cann discusses his research and views on the ubiquitous role of humor in psychological health and well-being. The interview begins with Professor Cann recounting how he originally became interested in studying humor. He then reflects on the main findings associated with the wide variety of humor-related studies he has conducted over the years. In doing so, Dr. Cann provides suggestions and ideas for further research investigating the role of humor in health and well-being. Specific topic areas discussed include the use of humor in the workplace and other social domains, personality approaches to humor, humor and interpersonal processes, humor and psychopathology, and humor’s role in dealing with stress and well-being. One of the prominent themes in this interview is the clear recognition of sense of humor as a multi-dimensional construct that includes various components that may either be beneficial or detrimental to well-being. A further important theme is the major distinction between humor as an inherent personality construct versus humor that results from exposure to stimuli (e.g., a comedy film. Comments are also provided by Dr. Cann on how the positive affect stemming from humor may be of particular benefit to the individual. Also discussed is the recent move to more fully integrate contemporary humor research with positive psychology approaches. The interview concludes with Dr. Cann providing several recommendations regarding future theorizing and research on the role of humor in psychological well-being.

  6. Is Laughing at the Expense of Victims and Offenders a Red Flag? Humor and Secondary Traumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Those who work with human trauma often use humor to handle job stressors. Research has demonstrated that lighthearted humor is related to lower secondary traumatic stress scores, while gallows humor has the inverse relationship. This work explores how three types of humor relate to secondary traumatic stress: (a) humor at the expense of victims, (b) humor at the expense of offenders, and (c) humor containing sexual innuendo. Internet crimes against children taskforce personnel completed questionnaires about secondary traumatic stress and coping techniques. Humor at the expense of victims was rarely used, but when it was, it was indicative of higher secondary traumatic stress. There were no relationships between secondary traumatic stress and the use of humor at the expense of offenders or humor containing sexual innuendo. PMID:26301442

  7. Lateralization in appreciation of humor: sex differences vs stimulus effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, J

    1997-10-01

    The finding that women rate funnier humorous items with left-ear input, while men give higher ratings with right-ear input has been cited as evidence for a biological basis for sex differences in appreciation of humor. However, in 1991 Gallivan did not find this effect and suggested that the earlier finding could have been due to the use of 'male-oriented' stimuli. In this study, 72 subjects rated the funniness of 32 'female oriented' comedy excerpts, presented monaurally. Women gave higher ratings with right-ear input but men's ratings were not affected by ear of presentation. These findings represent another failure to replicate the earlier-reported hemispheric effect and support the conclusion that it may have been due to the stimuli used. PMID:9347538

  8. KEPEKAAN HUMOR DENGAN DEPRESI PADA REMAJA DITINJAU DARI JENIS KELAMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationship between sense of humorsand depression in adolescents in terms of gender. The subjects of this studywere students of SMA Negeri 1 Sewon, Bantul, Yogyakarta class X andXI. The data collection tools of this study used the Beck Depression Inventory(BDI and the Sense of Humor Scale Version-B, and used the analysiscovariance method to analyze the data. The results of this study showedsignificant differences in depression among female subjects and male subjects with a value of F = 6.905 and p = 0.010 (p <0.05 by controlling the sense of humor variable. The average level of female depression (7.284 was higher than male subjects (6.196. This result will be discussed further in this paper.

  9. Mother, melancholia, and humor in Erik H. Erikson's earliest writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2008-09-01

    Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account. PMID:19105029

  10. La grata dominación del humor publicitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Elena del Carmen Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone dar cuenta de las estrategias con que el humor hace emerger, en el contexto general de los discursos, aquellos fragmentos omitidos por el decir oficial. Por su naturaleza de articulador ideológico, el texto publicitario (como todo texto remite a lo ya dicho en un estado dado de sociedad. En este sentido, resulta interesante observar qué fragmentos del discurso social recoge la publicidad humorística, con qué retórica los hace risibles y quiénes son aquellos sobre los que recae la risa. Se comentan avisos que son emitidos actualmente por canales de cable o aire en la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina.

  11. Quillaja brasiliensis saponins induce robust humoral and cellular responses in a bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Silveira, Fernando; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Yendo, Anna Carolina; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-04-01

    A saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis leaves (QB-90) and a semi-purified aqueous extract (AE) were evaluated as adjuvants in a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine in mice. Animals were immunized on days 0 and 14 with antigen plus either QB-90 or AE or an oil-adjuvanted vaccine. Two-weeks after boosting, antibodies were measured by ELISA; cellular immunity was evaluated by DTH, lymphoproliferation, cytokine release and single cell IFN-γ production. Serum anti-BVDV IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b were significantly increased in QB-90- and AE-adjuvanted vaccines. A robust DTH response, increased splenocyte proliferation, Th1-type cytokines and enhanced production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were detected in mice that received QB-90-adjuvanted vaccine. The AE-adjuvanted preparation stimulated humoral responses but not cellular immune responses. These findings reveal that QB-90 is capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immune responses when used as adjuvant. PMID:27012913

  12. The Relationship between Principals’ Humor Styles and Instructional Leadership Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ergün RECEPOĞLU; Özdemir, Servet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine whether there is a meaningful difference or not between humor styles of school principals and their leadership behaviors This is a descriptive research in the relational survey model The population of the study is teachers who work in the primary schools in Kastamonu province in 2009 2010 and 2010 2011 Education year 1046 teachers who work in the 70 primary schools were reached in the process of data collection As a data collection instrument ldqu...

  13. Dislexicon of slapstick humor, funny cinematography, and very special effects

    OpenAIRE

    D'haeyere, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    The Dislexicon of Slapstick Humor, Funny Cinematography, and Very Special Effects is a richly illustrated glossary containing 138 witty words used in Mack Sennett's comedy studios between 1912 and 1933. It comprises clever concepts connected to slapstick comedy, gag strategies, funny pratfalls, dangerous stuntwork, and secrets of the filmmaking trade. In a mishmash of slapstick facts and fictions, the Dislexicon fully accepts small talk, tall tales, filmspeak, jokes, and gossip as historical ...

  14. HUMOR STYLES, CREATIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND CREATIVE THINKING IN A HONG KONG SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Hui, Anna Na

    2015-12-01

    Humor is found to be an essential element of creative thinking in Western culture. In Eastern culture, however, the relationship between creativity and humor is ambivalent. This study examined the relationship among humor styles, creative personality traits, and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 118 Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong was recruited to complete the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the three Creative Personality subscales of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), and the Verbal Test of the Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests. Results show that humor styles are uncorrelated with creative thinking abilities of flexibility, fluency, and originality, but affiliative humor and aggressive humor are correlated with creative personality traits of novelty and diversity. A hierarchical multiple regression shows that both humor styles and creative personality traits of novelty and diversity account for non-significant variance on creative thinking abilities. These findings largely support a hypothesized non-association between humor styles and creative measures. They also pose a sharp contrast to findings obtained in the West, in which humor styles are typically correlated with both creative thinking abilities and creative personality traits. PMID:26595303

  15. Studies of the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamahashi, K; Sato, M; Yamato, M; Kokubo, M; Mitani, G; Ito, S; Nagai, T; Ebihara, G; Kutsuna, T; Okano, T; Mochida, J

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to repair and regenerate articular cartilage with layered chondrocyte sheets, produced using temperature-responsive culture dishes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets. Articular chondrocytes and synovial cells were harvested during total knee arthroplasty. After co-culture, the samples were divided into three groups: a monolayer, 7 day culture sheet group (group M); a triple-layered, 7 day culture sheet group (group L); and a monolayer culture group with a cell count identical to that of group L (group C). The secretion of collagen type 1 (COL1), collagen type 2 (COL2), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13), transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Layered chondrocyte sheets produced the most humoral factors. PGE2 expression declined over time in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L. TGFβ expression was low in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets may contribute to cartilaginous tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:23165985

  16. Stop laughing! Humor perception with and without expressive suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Sebastian; Grandjean, Didier; Samson, Andrea C; Delplanque, Sylvain; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-01-01

    The neurophysiological study of emotion regulation focused on the strategy of reappraisal-i.e., the cognitive reinterpretation of a stimulus. Reappraisal reduces emotional expression, the experience of both negative and positive feelings, and the amplitude of an event-related potential (ERP)-the late positive potential (LPP). In contrast, the strategy of expressive suppression (ES), being the inhibition of emotional expression, has been reported to reduce subjective feelings of positive, but not negative emotion, and has not yet been investigated with ERPs. We focused on the LPP to assess the correlates of ES in the context of humor perception. Twenty-two female participants rated sequences of humorous (H) and non-humorous (NH) pictures, while their zygomaticus muscle was recorded. A spontaneous (SP) condition, in which participants attended naturally to the pictures, resulted in higher ratings of funniness, increased smiling, and increased LPP amplitude for H compared to NH stimuli. An ES condition, in which participants suppressed their facial reactions, resulted in reduced smiling, without affecting subjective ratings. LPP amplitude did not differ between H and NH stimuli during ES, suggesting equal allocation of processing resources to both stimuli. These results suggest that, similarly to reappraisal, ES modifies the way the brain processes positive emotional stimuli. PMID:22369232

  17. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2016-08-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  18. Three Decades Investigating Humor and Laughter: An Interview With Professor Rod Martin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and

  19. How Does the Agent’s Perceived Intentions Change Consumers Response to the Humorous (Disparagement Humor) Advertisement in Morocco?

    OpenAIRE

    Nejjar, Ichraq

    2012-01-01

    Humorous advertisements are widely used in Morocco. Disparagement humour in particular is gaining popularity within Moroccan advertisers. However, little research has been done in order to assess consumer’s feelings and opinions towards these advertisements. This research will therefore examine female Moroccan’s sentiments and opinions towards disparagement advertisements by employing the persuasion knowledge model as a framework, and specifically focusing on the impact that the perceived adv...

  20. Humor, desidealização e sublimação na psicanálise Humor, de-idealization and sublimation in psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kupermann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A motivação principal deste artigo é demonstrar que a metapsicologia do humor se oferece, na obra freudiana, como o paradigma a partir do qual se podem compreender as operações em jogo no processo da sublimação. Percebe-se, assim, que a associação entre duas problemáticas sombreadas pela tradição psicanalítica - o humor e a sublimação - contribui para o esclarecimento de ambas. Ao longo do texto são enfatizados o trabalho de desidealização promovido pelo humor, a modalidade identificatória envolvida na sua produção, a referência do humor negro à condição de orfandade que caracteriza o sujeito moderno, bem como a política que acompanha a anunciação do dito humorístico e, mesmo, do Witz (espirituosidade de modo geral. Finalmente, demonstra-se a filiação do humor ao realismo grotesco, amplamente analisado por Mikhail Bakhtin, indicando como, na enunciação humorística, é preciso considerar a participação da alegria, sua força motriz.This article's main motivation is to demonstrate that the metapsychology of humor offers itself, in the Freudian work, as a paradigm from which we can understand the operations at work in the process of sublimation. Thus, we can notice that the associations between two traditional psychoanalytical problems - humor and sublimation - contribute to its explanation. The text emphasizes the process of de-idealization through humor - as well as the aspect of identification involved in its production -, the reference of dark humor to the condition of "orphan" which characterizes the modern individual, and the politics that accompany the announcement of an amusing word (and even the Witz in general. Finally, it demonstrates the affinity of humor to grotesque realism, widely analyzed by Mikhail Bakhtin, showing how, in enunciating humor, it is necessary to consider the role of joy, its driving force.

  1. "Make'em Laugh and They Will Learn": A Closer Look at the Relationship between Perceptions of Instructors' Humor Orientation and Student Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja

    The use of humor in the classroom has been investigated using a variety of humor operationalizations and methodologies with mixed results. The present study examined the role of teacher humor orientation (HO) rather than specific humorous behaviors. The relationship between teacher humor orientation and learning was the focus of this study.…

  2. In vitro assessment of humoral immunity following exposure to heavy metals.

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, L D

    1982-01-01

    The immune system of animals and man is extremely complex. This report will discuss the effect metals has on one segment of the immune system; that is, humoral immunity. Humoral immunity is essentially the production of antibody in response to an antigen. The B-lymphocyte is the primary cell responsible for producing antibody. However, this cell is regulated by T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Many methods are available to assess humoral immune responses. A multitude of immunoassays have been d...

  3. Perception of aggressive humor in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Andrea C.; Yonni Meyer

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates humor appreciation of aggressive cartoons in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. These traits were described to have a peculiar relation to laughter-related phenomena, in particular to disparagement humor. 185 participants rated highly aggressive and non-aggressive humorous stimuli for funniness and aversiveness and their scores on the gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism scales were measured. The cartoons were controlled for t...

  4. Firespitters: Performance, Power, and Payoff in African American Women's Humor, 1968-Present

    OpenAIRE

    Finley, Jessyka Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study considers the social, cultural, and political production of black women's humor, making the case that humor becomes more than merely a technique of entertainment. Instead, I argue that humor is a mode of literacy and site of self-authorship for African American women across a variety of discursive fields, including literature, sketch comedy, stand-up comedy, and electoral politics. Usually described as a "routine," the professional stand-up comics of this study are in fact presenti...

  5. Virgin soil in irony research: Personality, humor, and the “sense of irony”

    OpenAIRE

    Bruntsch, Richard; Hofmann, Jennifer; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    he aim of the paper is fourfold: (a) show why humor scholars should study irony, (b) explore the need for considering interindividual differences in healthy adults’ irony performance, (c) stress the necessity for developing tools assessing habitual differences in irony performance, and (d) indicate future directions for joint irony and humor research and outline possible applications. Verbal irony is often employed with a benevolent humorous intent by speakers, but can also serve as a means o...

  6. Humor in advertising: a review on use of television radio and print advertising media

    OpenAIRE

    S, Venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Television advertising is a most common commercial activity used in advertising medium. Humor in advertising contains an important aspect on changing attitude of the consumer, improves buying behavior and creates new patterns for buying any goods and services. Humor in television advertising is the effective and convenient way to attract the any consumers because they are emotional based content and makes the consumer to special for satisfaction. Compared to all emotions humor advertising is ...

  7. Autism-spectrum traits predict humor styles in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism tend to have impaired processing of humor and laugh at things that are not commonly found funny. Here the relationship between humor styles and the broader autism phenotype was investigated in a sample of the general population. The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) and the humor styles questionnaire (HSQ) were administered to six hundred US participants recruited through an Internet-based service. On the w...

  8. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth S. Bast; Elliot M. Berry

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are...

  9. Utilization of humor in a tourism service encounter when creating a service experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtovuori, H.-M. (Hilla-Maria)

    2016-01-01

    The motivation for this research is to explore how humor is utilized in a tourism service encounter when creating a service experience. The aim of this study is to link an understanding between theory and empirical data, and construct a framework that answers the research questions. The aim is also to increase awareness of how a company can utilize humor in creating a new service. The delimitation has been made by studying one phenomenon, which is the humorous service encounter situation tha...

  10. Application of Pragmatic Theories on Humorous Language in Advertisement and their Translations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈亚媛; 周玉梅

    2012-01-01

    This paper will analyze the humorous language in advertisement and their English to Chinese and Chinese to English translations from the pragmatic perspective.Some pragmatic theories including the Relevance Theory,the Cooperative Principle,and the Speech Acts will be introduced to discuss how the humor effects and how to translate it efficiently,i.e.,achieving the equivalent effect in the context.The aim of the paper is to comprehend the humor and to analyze how to translate the humorous language in advertisements fromthe perspective ofpragmatics.

  11. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall. PMID:11506048

  12. Sex differences in preferences for humor: a replication, modification, and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Liana S E; Hurwitz, William; Lieberman, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary-minded scientists have proposed that humor is a sexually selected trait in men that signals mate quality. Indeed, women tend to prefer men who make them laugh and men tend to prefer women who laugh at their jokes. However, it is unclear how robust this pattern is. Here we report a replication of one of the first studies (Bressler, Martin, and Balshine, 2006) to examine the sex differences in preferences for humor receptivity versus humor production. We replicate Bressler et al.'s (2006) findings that men prefer women who are receptive to their humor whereas women prefer men who produce humor. These findings held even after we modified Bressler et al.'s questionnaire for better conceptual validity. Furthermore, using a separate measure designed to assess trade-offs, we found that men viewed humor receptivity as a necessity and humor production as a luxury when they were asked to create an ideal long-term partner. For women, it was just the opposite. These results bolster the claim that sexual selection has shaped sex differences regarding preferences for a prospective mate's sense of humor and that what one means by "sense of humor" can vary. PMID:25670631

  13. Universalidad y variabilidad cultural de la risa y el humor

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Jáuregui

    2008-01-01

    La risa es un fenómeno aparentemente universal, pero el humor que la provoca muestra una variabilidad casi infinita. Este artículo trata de distinguir entre los aspectos universales de la risa y los que son culturalmente variables. Define la risa como una emoción básica del ser humano, provocada por un estímulo cognitivo que depende de definiciones sociales de la situación, lo cual explica al menos en parte su aparente heterogeneidad. Otros aspectos que también pueden variar son las no...

  14. Roth’s Humorous Art of Ghost Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Paule

    2014-01-01

    In her article "Roth's Humorous Art of Ghost Writing" Paule Lévy analyses Philip Roth's Exit Ghost, the last novel featuring Nathan Zuckerman, in which Roth reassesses his favorite alter ego's itinerary while exploring the troubled relation between writing and aging. Lévy considers Exit Ghost as an ironic sequel to The Ghost Writer and posits that in the light of Derrida's theories of writing and "hauntology" the central motifs of ghosts and "spectrality" in the novel are a means for Roth to ...

  15. Humoral response of the mouse to Treponema pallidum.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, J. M.; Folds, J D

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the development of the humoral immune response of mice to infection with Treponema pallidum, Balb/c and C57Bl mice were injected intradermally with 10 x 10(6) virulent organisms. Serum samples were taken from the mice at weekly intervals after infection and used in the electrophoretic transblotting technique to detect T pallidum and T phagedenis biotype Reiter antigens. The serum samples taken from infected mice at 21, 42, 84, and 126 days after infection recognised two to 15 T...

  16. Effect of centchroman on cellular and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Licto; Asad, Mohammad; Hrishikeshavan, Heremaglur Jagannath; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2007-01-01

    Centchroman (Ormeloxifene) is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator that is used as once a week oral contraceptive agent. The effect of centchroman on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. The first three models namely carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and neutrophil adhesion test were used to study cell mediated immunity while the latter three models were used to see the effect on humoral immunity. Centchroman was administered orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg and levamisole (2.5 mg/kg/ p.o) was used as standard drug. Centchroman significantly increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and also prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased significantly the circulating antibody litre in indirect haemagglunation test. However, it did not show any significant effect on phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay and nor did influence the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Centchroman was also not effective in preventing the cyclophosphamde induced neutropenia. Hence, it was concluded that centchroman increases humoral immunity with no significant effect on cell mediated immunity. PMID:18476393

  17. Humoral Immune System Alterations in Silica Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Aminian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Crystalline silica may act as an immune adjuvant to increase inflammation and antibody production. The high­est exposures to silica are known to occur in the dusty trades industries such as stone- cutting. We undertook this popula­tion based study to examine the association between occupational silica exposure and humoral immune system."nMethods: In this historical cohort study, 47 workers from 10 stone-cutting factories in Rey City, south of Tehran, Iran  that had more than 10 years exposure  to silica were included in case group and 45 individual without any exposure to silica were selected for control group. We measured serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, and IgA of participants with ELISA method and compared the results between exposed workers and control groups."nResults: The mean concentrations of two immunoglobulines (IgG, IgA and IgM in case group in comparison with control group were higher and lower respectively but both were in normal range. IgA concentration between two groups was statisti­cally significant (P< 0.05."nConclusion: Crystalline silica exposure may promote the humoral immune system in some individuals. Additional research is recommended in other population, using study design that minimize potential selection bias and maximize the quality of expo­sure assessment.

  18. The Potency of Humor and Instructional Self-Efficacy on Art Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Palmer, Teri

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study was sparked by a keen interest in art teachers who practice humor in challenging school environments. Stressors unique to art education can cause teachers to lose heart in such a way that their ability to perform is compromised. To teach effectively, teachers must maintain resilience to cope with stress. Pedagogical humor,…

  19. The Role of Humor in Learning Physics: a Study of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Maria

    2016-02-01

    We all know that they do it, but what do students laugh about when learning science together? Although research has shown that students do use humor when they learn science, the role of humor in science education has received little attention. In this study, undergraduate students' laughter during collaborative work in physics has been investigated. In order to do this, a framework inspired by conversation analysis has been used. Empirical data was drawn from two video-recorded sessions in which first-year engineering students solved physics problems together. The analysis revealed that the students' use of humor was almost exclusively related to physics. Five themes identified summarize the role of humor in the group discussions: Something is obvious, Something is difficult, Something said might be wrong, Something is absurd, and Something said is not within informal norms. This study shows that humor may contribute not only to a good working atmosphere and thereby to the students' learning but also how humor interrelates with both disciplinary culture of physics and its epistemology. The students do not only create and re-create humor that facilitates their social interactions, but through humor they constitute local norms of science and engage with the disciplinary discourse.

  20. On The Loss of Humor in Translation From Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张路

    2012-01-01

    Humor is everywhere in our daily life.It not only brings people laughter,but also reduces pressure,relaxes intensive atmosphere,and helps people avoid embarrassing situation.Meanwhile,humor can also reflect people’s attitude towards life and shows the charm of human being’s language and their wisdom.The problem is that humor cannot be accurately and vividly be translated due to varied factors such as culture,linguistics and spelling, etc. This thesis mainly analyzes the reasons and solutions of humor translation from the perspective of Skopos theory.This analysis is based on an abundance of humor examples.By such thorough analysis,it is found that differences in culture and linguistics account for the failures in humor translation.Chinese and westerners differ a lot in cultural vocabulary,conventional structure,semantic, syntax,social and historical background and value,which puts forth many problems for translation especially for humor translation that requires expressing the most vivid meaning in the least words.Under the guidance of Skopos theory,texts can also be successfully translated.It is under the guidance of Skopos theory no matter the translator adopts transliteration,domestication or method of notes.Therefore,by such analysis from the perspective of Skopos theory,readers will have a deep and thorough understanding of humor translation.

  1. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  2. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed measures of abstract…

  3. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  4. "Last Professor Standing!": Powerpoint Enables All Faculty to Use Humor in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    There are two major global educational trends that have changed the form and execution of humor in the classroom and in professional conferences: (1) the burgeoning instructional technology, especially PowerPoint, which can provide a vehicle for several forms of low risk humor anyone can present; and (2) the diversity of classroom demographics,…

  5. Humor in High School and the Role of Teacher Leaders in School Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiczky, Bonnie; Mullen, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    How can public schools improve public relations strategies, particularly in communications between teachers and students? The purposes of this study were to investigate teacher leaders' perceptions of the use of humor in the high school classroom and discover how humor might bridge instruction to student learning and strengthen…

  6. Finding Comfort in a Joke: Consolatory Effects of Humor Through Cognitive Distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate that the cognitive demands involved in humor processing can attenuate negative emotions. A primary aspect of humor is that it poses cognitive demands needed for incongruency resolution. On the basis of findings that cognitive distraction prevents mood-congruent proces

  7. How fun are your meetings? How and when humor patterns emerge and impact team performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our

  8. He Who Laughs First: The Importance of Humor to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne

    1985-01-01

    Reviews current theories of humor development, discusses the interaction of humor with other developmental areas (including cognitive development, personality development, creativity, and moral development), and suggests ways in which research can be applied in the early childhood classroom. (Author/DST)

  9. To Laugh is to Know: A Discussion of the Cognitive Element in Children's Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Libby

    The development of children's humor is described, focusing on the cognitive aspect of what is funny and how this relates to children's intellectual growth. Cognitive elements that facilitate children's humor are identified as: (1) the ability to grasp incongruities, (2) the presence of an intellectual challenge, (3) timing, (4) novelty, and (5) a…

  10. A Review of Humor for Computer Games: Play, Laugh and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormann, Claire; Biddle, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Computer games are now becoming ways to communicate, teach, and influence attitudes and behavior. In this article, we address the role of humor in computer games, especially in support of serious purposes. We begin with a review of the main theories of humor, including superiority, incongruity, and relief. These theories and their…

  11. The heart of the matter: the effects of humor on well-being during recovery from cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Nicholas L; Yoshimura, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the uses of humor among cardiovascular patients to test the associations between humor use, satisfaction with companion relationships, and health during recovery. Self-report data were collected from members of two national support groups for patients recovering from cardiovascular disease. As expected, general humorousness associated with social and psychological well-being. Several specific functions of humor in cardiovascular recovery were identified and linked with health perceptions. Antidote humor increased social and psychological health perceptions, whereas conversation regulation humor and distancing humor were negatively related to perceived social and psychological health. Relationship satisfaction mediated most effects. The findings offer new insight into the variability of humor effects, particularly following cardiovascular treatment. PMID:23829386

  12. The Use of Humor in Forensic Mental Health Staff-Patient Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Paaske, Kristian J.;

    2014-01-01

    Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions with...... forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting. The...... search was conducted in June 2013. Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, and PsychINFO were searched using keywords relevant to the study. Articles were categorized using a literature matrix and analyzed using thematic analysis. Twelve research articles were reviewed and included in the analysis. Three themes were...

  13. Humor Therapy: Relieving Chronic Pain and Enhancing Happiness for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi M. Y. Tse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effectiveness of a humor therapy program in relieving chronic pain, enhancing happiness and life satisfaction, and reducing loneliness among older persons with chronic pain. It was a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest controlled design. Older persons in a nursing home were invited to join an 8-week humor therapy program (experimental group, while those in another nursing home were treated as a control group and were not offered the program. There were 36 older people in the experimental group and 34 in the control group. Upon completion of the humor therapy program, there were significant decreases in pain and perception of loneliness, and significant increases in happiness and life satisfaction for the experimental group, but not for the control group. The use of humor therapy appears to be an effective nonpharmacological intervention. Nurses and other healthcare professionals could incorporate humor in caring for their patients.

  14. The Relationship of Self Esteem and Humor Styles in First Class Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Soner Cakmak; Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam; Ali Tasdemir; Mahmut Onur Karaytug

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Self-esteem and humor styles are significant factors for being a healthy person. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation ship between self-esteem and humor styles in medical students. Material and Methods: Two hundred three medical students (107 males, 96 females) were included this study. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and humor style was measured with Humor Styles Questionnaire. Results: The rate of students who have mild or high ...

  15. NOVEL MLANTJARAN KA SASAK: FROM DILLEMATIC TEACHERS TO HUMOROUS ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Tingkat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the representation of the image of teachers in the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak written by Gde Srawana. Using the theory of literary sociology and the theory of representation as the basis of analysis, it was found that teachers were  imaged of being dilemmatic, humanistic idealistic, caring about the Balinese culture, and being humorous. Sociologically, the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak pictured the life background of the Balinese society during 1930s, indicated by the critical attitude of the intellectuals through I Made Sarati and Ida Ayu Priya, the characters who played a role as teachers, towards the caste feudalism in marriage. Such a critical attitude was expressed in such an inciting way that the ethic and aesthetic values needed to educate society were not neglected.

  16. Humoral and cellular factors of maternal immunity in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Henri; Berri, Mustapha; Gerdts, Volker; Meurens, François

    2009-03-01

    Immunoglobulins cannot cross the placenta in pregnant sows. Neonatal pigs are therefore agammaglobulinemic at birth and, although immunocompetent, they cannot mount rapid immune responses at systemic and mucosal sites. Their survival depends directly on the acquisition of maternal immunity via colostrum and milk. Protection by maternal immunity is mediated by a number of factors, including specific systemic humoral immunity, involving mostly maternal IgG transferred from blood to colostrum and typically absorbed within the first 36 h of life. Passive mucosal immunity involves local humoral immunity, including the production of secretory IgA (sIgA), which is transferred principally via milk until weaning. The mammary gland (MG) produces sIgA, which is, then secreted into the milk via the poly-Ig receptor (pIgR) of epithelial cells. These antibodies are produced in response to intestinal and respiratory antigens, including pathogens and commensal organisms. Protection is also mediated by cellular immunity, which is transferred via maternal cells present in mammary secretions. The mechanisms underlying the various immunological links between MG and the mucosal surfaces involve hormonally regulated addressins and chemokines specific to these compartments. The enhancement of colostrogenic immunity depends on the stimulation of systemic immunity, whereas the enhancement of lactogenic immunity depends on appropriate stimulation at induction sites, an increase in cell trafficking from the gut and upper respiratory tract to the MG and, possibly, enhanced immunoglobulin production at the effector site and secretion in milk. In addition, mammary secretions provide factors other than immunoglobulins that protect the neonate and regulate the development of mucosal immunity--a key element of postnatal adaptation to environmental antigens. PMID:18761034

  17. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer

  18. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensdorff-Pouilly, Silvia von, E-mail: s.vonmensdorff@vumc.nl; Moreno, Maria [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands); Verheijen, René H. M. [Department of Woman & Baby, Division of Surgical & Oncological Gynaecology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands)

    2011-07-29

    MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer.

  19. Humor, Loneliness and Interpersonal Communication: A Quantitative Study of Romanian Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Schiau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study examines the correlations between humor, loneliness, gender and aging by presenting the results from a sample of eighty-three older Romanian adults, aged sixty and above. The first section of the paper is a comprehensive review of the social-psychological literature on aging, gender and humor. The second section assesses the findings generated from a study that uses the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (Thorson & Powell, 1993 and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults – short version, (diTomaso, Brannen & Best, 2004. Building on Robert Weiss’s (1973 reflections on the differences between feelings of loneliness because of social isolation or emotional isolation, the research findings nuance –and in some cases challenge several assumptions on gender, age, and emotional and social loneliness. The findings also point to the correlation between feelings of social loneliness and the use of humor in interpersonal communications. The data collected suggests that while Romanian men may value the use of humor more than women when self-reporting, that older Romanian women tend to use humor in interpersonal situations and that there is a significant correlation between the use of this type of humor and a reduced sense of social loneliness.

  20. Infant humor perception from 3- to 6-months and attachment at one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireault, Gina; Sparrow, John; Poutre, Merlin; Perdue, Brittany; Macke, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Infancy is a critical time for the development of secure attachment, which is facilitated by emotionally synchronous interactions with parents. Humor development, which includes shared laughter and joint attention to an event, emerges concurrently with attachment, but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, between humor development and attachment in the first year. Thirty 3-month-old infants were videoed at home each month until they were 6-months old while their parents attempted to amuse them. Frequency of infants' smiles and laughs served as a measure of "state humor", and the smiling/laughing subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised served as a measure of "trait humor". State and trait humor were not correlated. Lower trait humor as 6 months predicted higher attachment security on the Attachment Q-sort at 12-months (r=.46), suggesting that less good-humored infants elicit greater parental engagement, which works to the benefit of attachment, or vice versa. Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. PMID:22982281

  1. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M Fiacconi

    Full Text Available Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR and facial electromyography (EMG. Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.

  2. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others. PMID:26332843

  3. The influence of humor styles in coping strategies in Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Roberto Lillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a growing interest in the study of the resources that people use from face to a problem. The interest in the study of the characteristics related to the humor has gone in increase, especially for the influence of the development of a new concept in psychology that derives in the call positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Zinder and McCullog 2000, in Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003 which is centered in adaptive strengths such as optimism, faith, courage, as well as humor (Martin 2003, quoted in Martin et al., 2003. Sense of humor has been considered as an unidimensional construct (Omar, 1995 and the consequencies has been some errors in the assesment, as a result of a problem of validity. The present study seeks to introduce certain aspects that have not been considered in the past, so much the potential beneficial effects, as the deleterious forms of the sense of humor as for the psychological well-being. Four dimensions of the sense of humor were assesed (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003, version Lillo, 2006 relating to the uses or functions in everyday life and the ways of people cope (Fridenberg and Lewis, 1991, version Richaud de Minzi. 2003. They were also significant relationships among styles of humor and ways of coping that could explain the importance of the construct sense of humor, as an important resource to be used. Although it is necessary to highlight that it is not sought to embrace all the components of the sense of humor, but rather it is focused in the interpersonal functions and intrapsíquicas that adolescents use in daily life. These functions are considered most relevant to the well-being. Measuring these aspects of the humor, it is expected that they can explain a greater proportion of the variance as for the ways of people cope. 

  4. That’s Not Funny! – But It Should Be: Effects of Humorous Emotion Regulation on Emotional Experience and Memory

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    Lisa eKugler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that humorous reappraisal can reduce elicited negative emotions, suggesting that humor may be a functional strategy to cope with emotionally negative situations. However, the effect of humorous reappraisal on later memory about the emotion-eliciting situation is currently unknown, although this is crucial for more adaptive responding in future situations. To address this issue, we examined the effects of humorous reappraisal on both emotional experience and memory, compared to non-humorous rational reappraisal and a non-reappraisal control condition. Replicating previous findings, humorous reappraisal reduced evoked negative valence and arousal levels very effectively, and the down-regulation of experienced negative emotions was even more pronounced after humorous compared to rational reappraisal. Regarding later memory for emotion-eliciting stimuli, both humorous and rational reappraisal reduced free recall, but recognition memory was unaffected, with memory strength being stronger after humorous than after rational reappraisal. These results indicate that humor seems to be indeed an optimal strategy to cope with negative situations because humor can help us to feel better when confronted with negative stimuli, but still allows us to retrieve stimulus information later when afforded to do so by the presence of appropriate contextual features.

  5. Promoviendo el sentido del humor en las personas adultas con discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Paredes Gómez; Antonio Flores Nieto

    2014-01-01

    Diferentes investigaciones demuestran la importancia del sentido del humor en el bienestar personal y la salud. En el presente trabajo se plantea examinar la utilidad e idoneidad para personas con discapacidad intelectual de la visualización y lectura de material humorístico en soporte impreso destinado a la población general, con un nivel de lectura característico de las edades comprendidas entre los 11 y 12 años; así como analizar si el modelo multidimensional del sentido del humor de Garcí...

  6. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity. PMID:21796701

  7. How does psychopathy relate to humor and laughter? Dispositions toward ridicule and being laughed at, the sense of humor, and psychopathic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Flisch, Rahel; Tschupp, Stefanie; Platt, Tracey; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-01-01

    This scoping study examines the relation of the sense of humor and three dispositions toward ridicule and being laughed at to psychopathic personality traits. Based on self-reports from 233 adults, psychopathic personality traits were robustly related to enjoying laughing at others, which most strongly related to a manipulative/impulsive lifestyle and callousness. Higher psychopathic traits correlated with bad mood and it existed independently from the ability of laughing at oneself. While overall psychopathic personality traits existed independently from the sense of humor, the facet of superficial charm yielded a robust positive relation. Higher joy in being laughed at also correlated with higher expressions in superficial charm and grandiosity while fearing to be laughed at went along with higher expressions in a manipulative life-style. Thus, the psychopathic personality trait could be well described in its relation to humor and laughter. Implications of the findings are highlighted and discussed with respect to the current literature. PMID:22559907

  8. Effect of a cephalic irradiation on humoral immunitary response in adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the origin and mechanisms of immunitary depression due to irradiation, it is tried to find if changes of humoral immunitary response could be caused by a limited irradiation of central nervous system

  9. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Bast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a “food substitute” at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain.

  10. Laugh Away the Fat? Therapeutic Humor in the Control of Stress-induced Emotional Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Elizabeth S; Berry, Elliot M

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a "food substitute" at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain. PMID:24498514

  11. ¿El sentido del humor, tiene sentido en el aula? / Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Antonio González Ynfante

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, se abordará cómo, a pesar de las múltiples ventajas que puede aportar el humor en las aulas, se omite su empleo por la existencia de ciertos prejuicios y temores. La idea no es que los docentes hagan el papel de comediantes o payasos, sino la de mediar y acercar la clase de manera pedagógica y didáctica a través del uso del humor, y sobre esto reflexionaba Platón (1992, cuando planteaba que muchas veces ayudaba una broma, en donde la seriedad oponía resistencia. Abstract. This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.

  12. Co-dependence of the neural and humoral pathways in the mechanism of remote ischemic conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, J. M.; Davidson, S M; Hausenloy, D.J.; Yellon, D M

    2016-01-01

    The cardioprotection afforded by remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) is mediated via a complex mechanism involving sensory afferent nerves, the vagus nerve, and release of a humoral blood-borne factor. However, it is unknown whether release of the protective factor depends on vagal activation or occurs independently. This study aimed to evaluate the co-dependence of the neural and humoral pathways of RIC, focussing on the vagus nerve and intrinsic cardiac ganglia. In the first study, anesthet...

  13. Relationship of Humor and Negative Life Events with Depression among Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Bahadori-Khosroshahi; Zeynab Khanjani

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between humor and negative life events with depression among university students.Materials and Method: This is a cross sectional study. The statistical populations consisted of all students of Tabriz University, in which 200(100 male, 100 female) were selected by simple random sampling. To collect data we used Khoshouei Humor Scale, The List of Life Events and Beck Depression Test. Data were analyzed, using correlation c...

  14. Incongruity humor in language and beyond: from Bergson to digitally enhanced worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Humour research is often about verbal humour. Language allows us to play with words and with its syntactic, semantic and pragmatic aspects. It provides us with building blocks that can be composed in unusual ways, introducing ambiguities, confusion, inappropriate language use, and incongruities. This allows the design of humour, whether it is word play, verbal jokes, or humorous remarks triggered by conversational interaction. Design and analysis of verbal humor has become part of computation...

  15. Humor: a research and practice tool for nurse scholar-supervisors, practitioners, and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura-Petro, H

    1991-06-01

    The nurse scholar, whether a supervisor, an educator, or a practitioner, has a lifetime of research opportunities as well as personal experiences related to the human need for humor. We need to develop the means to assess the individual's and group's response to humor. Nurse scholars, particularly the nurse supervisor, can make a significant contribution in the search to harness some of the energy we use in laughing and direct it toward helping us heal our human conditions. PMID:10110633

  16. Bilingual Humor, Authentic Aunties, and the Transnational Vernacular at Gezi Park

    OpenAIRE

    Perin Gurel

    2015-01-01

    Mass-mediated American culture and the English language became raw materials for vernacular protest humor alongside images of headscarf-wearing middle-aged “aunties” during antigovernment protests in Turkey in the summer of 2013. Focusing on posts shared on Facebook and Twitter by Turkish protestors and their supporters in the first two months of the protests, this article studies the complex linguistic and visual humor that developed around Gezi Park and relates it to the identity politics m...

  17. The Relationship of Self Esteem and Humor Styles in First Class Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Cakmak

    2015-12-01

    Material and Methods: Two hundred three medical students (107 males, 96 females were included this study. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and humor style was measured with Humor Styles Questionnaire. Results: The rate of students who have mild or high self-esteem levels was 89.7%. In Humor Styles Questionnaire, the average scores of affiliative and self-enhancing humor were significantly higher than the average scores of aggressive and self-defeating humor. Male students were using humor, especially aggressive and self-defeating humor styles more commonly than female students. A positive correlation was found between self-esteem and affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Conclusion: The present study revealed a positive correlation between self-esteem and positive humor styles. There is a need to develop educational models that would bolster self-esteem and positive humor in medical students. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 782-793

  18. Gestionando con humor: un paso más hacia un liderazgo de excelencia

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    Franco Lotito Catino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En toda investigación que se lleva a cabo en torno a la incidencia del humor en la gestión y administración de una empresa, los autores destacan la relevancia de este factor en los buenos resultados que obtienen aquellas empresas, cuyos líderes están en condiciones de darle un espacio y uso apropiado al humor, razón por la cual, el objetivo principal de este artículo apuntará a destacar la relevancia de este elemento en la organizaciones, avalado por el grato ambiente laboral que prima en dichas empresas, así como por las observaciones y experiencias del autor del artículo, cuyas conclusiones demuestran que el buen humor no sólo “produce” más, sino que también mantiene más sanos y contentos a los trabajadores al bajar los niveles de estrés. In every research conducted on the use of humor in the management of a company, authors emphasize the importance of this factor in the good results obtained. This article aims to highlight the importance of humor in the organizations resulting in a pleasant working atmosphere. The author’s observation and experiences are also included. Conclusions show that humor not only results in higher e ciency but also in happier and healthier workers by lowering stress levels.

  19. Dark Humor in Sula%《秀拉》与黑色幽默

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静琼

    2012-01-01

    Dark humor is defined as a stylistic feature with irony at its core. The weapon for the powerless, dark humor always targets those in power. In Sula, Toni Morrison employs irony to satirize African American stereotypes established by racism and sexism. To survive, African Americans ann themselves with humor. Humor implies hope. The (dark) humor in Sula brings spiritual comfort to the victims of racism and sexism, strengthens the Bottom, the black community, challenges the grand narrative of the U.S. history, and proves an essential component of American humor.%黑色幽默是一种文体,反讽是其常用的技巧。黑色幽默是草根的武器,权势是黑色幽默的靶子。在《秀拉》中,莫里森采用反讽,嘲讽种族主义者设定的美国黑人刻板形象,条分缕析地抨击种族歧视和性别歧视。哪里有幽默,哪里就有希望。幽默不但令黑人取得了精神上的胜利,而且挑战美国官方历史的宏大叙事,更为美国幽默增添了多元视角。

  20. Freezing adversely affects measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor levels in human aqueous samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarathi Balaiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sankarathi Balaiya Sandeep Grover Ravi K Murthy Kakarla V ChalamDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USAPurpose: Aqueous levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF can be a surrogate marker of intraocular VEGF activity and a measure of efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment in a variety of vasoproliferative retinal disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and central retinal vein occlusion. Measurement of the VEGF level may be adversely affected by premeasurement variables, such as freezing and delay, in sample analysis. We aim to evaluate the effect of storage and delayed measurement of human aqueous VEGF levels in these conditions.Methods: Aqueous samples collected from patients receiving intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for various retinal diseases were divided into two groups. In Group 1, the VEGF levels were analyzed on the same day; in Group 2, the VEGF levels were analyzed after 21 days of freezer storage (-80°C using immunobead assay. Statistical comparison using a paired t-test was performed between the two groups.Results: Thirty-one aqueous humor samples were collected, and the VEGF concentration for fresh samples was 7.8 ± 5.9 pg/mL (mean ± SD compared to 6.5 ± 6.0 pg/mL in frozen samples, resulting in a statistically significant difference (P = 0.03.Conclusions: Accurate measurement of the VEGF level is a vital component of clinical decision-making. Delayed analysis of VEGF levels in aqueous samples may result in significant sample degradation and lower levels of measured VEGF.Keywords: VEGF level, aqueous humor, immunobead assay, VEGF storage

  1. Effects of splenectomy on the humoral immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to investigate the influence of neonatal and adult splenectomy on humoral immunity in mice. In the bone marrow and lymph nodes of both groups of splenectomized mice the number of immunoglobulin (Ig)-positive (B) lymphocytes was significantly higher than in sham-operated mice. These higher numbers of B cells probably reflect a compensation for the absence of the B cell population of the spleen. Hardly any quantitative differences in the serum immunoglobulins were found between splenectomized and sham-splenectomized mice. Only for the IgM class was a significantly lower concentration found in the serum of splenectomized animals. This low concentration of IgM in the blood of splenectomized mice was caused by a failure of the remaining organs to compensate completely for the removal of the quantitatively important population of IgM-producing plasma cells in the spleen. Nevertheless, the number of precursors of IgM-producing plasma cells in bone marrow and lymph nodes and their ability to differentiate into IgM-producing plasma cells was not diminished by splenectomy. Probably the spleen provides a highly efficient environment for the differentiation into IgM-producing plasma cells. By investigating the synergistic ability of bone marrow cells and thymus cells from neonatally splenectomized mice it was found that these cells were fully capable of co-operating in the adoptive plaque-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (SFBC). (author)

  2. Tragedia, comedia y humor en el psicoanálisis

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    Carmen Elisa Escobar María

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la afirmación de S. Critchley de que el psicoanálisis es la prolongación, profundización y complicación de lo que él llama paradigma trágico-heroico, se trata de precisar que lo trágico es lo que hace inseparables la teoría y la experiencia psicoanalítica de la risa y los fenómenos ligados a ella. Esto, en general, ha sido insuficientemente indagado. Siguiendo estos argumentos, se presentan algunas observaciones en torno a esa especie de exhortación “volver a las cosas mismas”, tan afín al método freudiano, al “uso” de lo trágico-heroico en Lacan, al concepto de Cosa y al aporte de Freud al humor. Por otra parte, y en completa relación con lo anterior, se destacan algunos señalamientos lacanianos que ubican al “cuerpo” como central en la experiencia de lo cómico. Y por último, se examina la contraposición Bergson - Freud - Lacan en torno a la risa, lo mecánico y el lenguaje.

  3. [History of scrofula: from humoral dyscrasia to consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte G, Ignacio; Chuaqui F, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The term “scrofula” was used for a long time to designate a chronic swelling of cervical lymph nodes. This paper outlines the prevalent ideas on the nature, pathogenesis and the treatment of this disorder, from classical Greek medicine up to the 18th century. A Hippocratic treatise regarded scrofula as produced by an accumulation of phlegm, with a consequent imbalance or dyscrasia of the body humors. It was believed that it could heal spontaneously; but it could also soften, open through the skin and have an obstinate course. The treatment consisted mainly on local applications, incision to evacuate the soft content, or extirpation of the abnormal mass. In France and England, crowds of scrofulous patients were touched by the kings who were supposed to have a hereditary miraculous power to cure the disease. A Medieval text mentioned that scrofula could also affect other parts of the body. In the 17th century, scrofula was reputed as a frequent condition and was attributed to blood acrimony which coagulated in spongy organs. It was associated to phthisis or consumption due to the lethal outcome in some patients and to a cheese-like appearance of the pulmonary and the scrofulous lesions. PMID:27401383

  4. AGE-DEPENDENT FEATURES OF EVOLVING HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Toptygina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Age dynamics of humoral immunity was studied in healthy children, i.e., 11 newborns, 33 infants of 4 to 8 months, 32 children of 1 to 2 years old,, 17 children of 4 to 5 years old, 25 children of 6 to 8 years old, 15 children of 9 to 11 years old, and 28 adolescents of 14 to 16 years old. Evaluation of membrane receptors on B cells was performed by means of three-colour fluorescent label and allowed of characterizing B1 subpopulations (CD19+CD5+CD27-, naпve B2 cells (CD19+CD5-CD27-, and B2 memory cells (CD19+CD5-CD27+. B1 cells have been shown to dominate in blood of newborns and younger children (up to 5 years old. By the contrary, B2 memory cells were nearly undetectable in newborns, and exceeded 20% in adolescents (by 15 years old. Meanwhile, it has been revealed that the amounts of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses did progressively increase with age, whereas IgG2 remained decreased to 50% of adult values for a long time, and reached them by 11 years and later. We suggest that the age dynamics of IgG subclasses is connected with age-dependent changes in B cell subpopulations.

  5. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  6. Depresión (humor deprimido en los mayores residentes en la comunidad Depression (depressed humor among the elderly residents in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª. Gorete Reis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Los mayores están sujetos a riesgos acrecentados por el poco compromiso con la vida, el aislamiento, la precariedad de recursos y la enfermedad, entre otros. Hoy, la depresión es considerada la perturbación mental con mayor crecimiento, repercutiendo en los cambios en el estilo de vida y en la salud. Nos cuestionamos sobre el estado de humor deprimido de los mayores que viven en la comunidad. El objetivo es evaluar la depresión e identificar los factores relacionados con ella. Estudio descriptivo correlacional. Conclusión: Hay un número elevado de personas con humor deprimido. Ser mujer y estar enferma revela relaciones con la depresión, así como tener limitaciones para ejecutar las actividades.Old people are submit to risk factors that increase from life disengagement; loneliness, decrease in income and in resources and also from diseases, among others. Today depression is considered a mental disturb in a growing process which affects life style and health. That's why we questioned old people living in community, about depressed humor. The aim of this study is to evaluate depression's level nd associate factors. It's a descriptive, correlate study. Conclusions: There are a great number of people with depressed humor and, be woman, have diseabilities are factors relate to depression.

  7. Humor e Discriminação por Orientação Sexual no Ambiente Organizacional

    OpenAIRE

    Hélio Arthur Reis Irigaray; Luiz Alex Silva Saraiva; Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri

    2010-01-01

    To deal with multiple social manifestations in the organizational world, humor is an important form of communicating something, although not in an explicit way, smoothing critics and aggressions under the pretext of getting a laugh. In this paper we discuss humor as a form of manifesting discrimination of sexual orientation in the work place. Based on specialized literature about social, denotative and connotative functions of humor, and the insertion of female and male homosexuals in a profe...

  8. An Inquiry on Ethnic Humor, Anomie, and Authoritarianism : How Sociological and Psychological Factors Influence Ethical Perception of Ethnic Jokes

    OpenAIRE

    Fardzadeh, Haghish Ebad

    2011-01-01

    For over a century, jokes have been considered serious narratives indicating shared attitudes, beliefs, or conflicts that are ripped from the community’s mind. Notably, people’s ethical attitude toward ethnic jokes has been ignored in humor studies. The purpose of the current thesis is twofold: a) developing a scale for measuring people’s ethical attitude toward ethnic humor and b) exploring sociological and psychological factors that relate to ethical attitude toward ethnic humor. In brief, ...

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Vitreous Humor in Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Reich

    Full Text Available To analyze the protein profile of human vitreous of untreated patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO.Sixty-eight vitreous humor (VH samples (44 from patients with treatment naïve RVO, 24 controls with idiopathic floaters were analyzed in this clinical-experimental study using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometer and tandem mass spectrometry. To define potential candidate protein markers of RVO, proteomic analysis was performed on RVO patients (n = 30 and compared with controls (n = 16. To determine validity of potential biomarker candidates in RVO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC was performed by using proteome data of independent RVO (n = 14 and control samples (n = 8.Ninety-four different proteins (736 tryptic peptides could be identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be significant when comparing RVO and control samples (P = 1.43E-05 to 4.48E-02. Five proteins (Clusterin, Complement C3, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5, Opticin and Vitronectin, remained significant after using correction for multiple testing. These five proteins were also detected significant when comparing subgroups of RVO (central RVO, hemi-central RVO, branch RVO to controls. Using independent samples ROC-Area under the curve was determined proving the validity of the results: Clusterin 0.884, Complement C3 0.955, IGLL5 1.000, Opticin 0.741, Vitronectin 0.786. In addition, validation through ELISA measurements was performed.The results of the study reveal that the proteomic composition of VH differed significantly between the patients with RVO and the controls. The proteins identified may serve as potential biomarkers for pathogenesis induced by RVO.

  10. Humoral Immunity Links Candida albicans Infection and Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin, Chantal; Salleron, Julia; Damiens, Sébastien; Moragues, Maria Dolores; Souplet, Vianney; Jouault, Thierry; Robert, Raymond; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Sendid, Boualem; Colombel, Jean Fréderic; Poulain, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The protein Hwp1, expressed on the pathogenic phase of Candida albicans, presents sequence analogy with the gluten protein gliadin and is also a substrate for transglutaminase. This had led to the suggestion that C. albicans infection (CI) may be a triggering factor for Celiac disease (CeD) onset. We investigated cross-immune reactivity between CeD and CI. Methods Serum IgG levels against recombinant Hwp1 and serological markers of CeD were measured in 87 CeD patients, 41 CI patients, and 98 healthy controls (HC). IgA and IgG were also measured in 20 individuals from each of these groups using microchips sensitized with 38 peptides designed from the N-terminal of Hwp1. Results CI and CeD patients had higher levels of anti-Hwp1 (p=0.0005 and p=0.004) and anti-gliadin (p=0.002 and p=0.0009) antibodies than HC but there was no significant difference between CeD and CI patients. CeD and CI patients had higher levels of anti-transglutaminase IgA than HC (p=0.0001 and p=0.0039). During CI, the increase in anti-Hwp1 paralleled the increase in anti-gliadin antibodies. Microchip analysis showed that CeD patients were more reactive against some Hwp1 peptides than CI patients, and that some deamidated peptides were more reactive than their native analogs. Binding of IgG from CeD patients to Hwp1 peptides was inhibited by γIII gliadin peptides. Conclusions Humoral cross-reactivity between Hwp1 and gliadin was observed during CeD and CI. Increased reactivity to Hwp1 deamidated peptide suggests that transglutaminase is involved in this interplay. These results support the hypothesis that CI may trigger CeD onset in genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:25793717

  11. Sculpting humoral immunity through dengue vaccination to enhance protective immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne eCrill

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune

  12. On the Effects of Teacher’s Sense of Humor on Iranian’s EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Ghanei Motlagh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teacher’s sense of humor is like a miracle in creating effective teaching and learning environments where there is no place for stress and anxiety but instead intrinsic motivation is enhanced. The present study aims mainly, to explore the effects of teachers’ sense of humor of EFL intermediate learners' reading comprehension ability. Having administered a test of reading proficiency, 58 learners are selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. Also two English language teachers, based on TOEFL and Humor Questionnaire, are selected to teach these learners. The process of teaching and the materials were the same for both groups. But participants in humor class were taught in a well-defined humorous environment managed by the teacher. Considering the control group, the process of teaching reading texts was conducted in a normal manner. To measure the relationship between EFL teachers’ sense of humor and EFL learners' intrinsic motivation in reading comprehension ability, an Intrinsic Motivation in Reading Questionnaire (IMERQ including reading curiosity, is given to experimental participants both at the outset and at the end of the course. Finally based on the data, it was found that teachers’ sense of humor was effective in improving learners' reading comprehension ability and enhancing intrinsic motivation. The findings can also provide pedagogical implications for considering teachers’ sense of humor as an intrinsically motivating learning tool.Keywords: sense of humor, intrinsic motivation, reading comprehension, intermediate

  13. Positive psychological measure: constructing and evaluating the reliability and validity of a Chinese Humor Scale applicable to professional nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hsiao, Yu-Ling; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan; Chang, Chueh

    2005-09-01

    The nursing profession has generally accepted humor as beneficial to health care. As nursing has always emphasized holistic care and the importance of individual needs, the profession values the ability of humor to positively affect all aspects of a patient's well being. The purposes of this study were to develop a "Chinese Humor Scale (CHS)" for the nursing profession and then test its reliability and validity. The 405 individuals selected for participation in this study included nursing on-the-job students from a medical university and professional nurses practicing at four hospitals in north Taiwan. Researchers developed a list of 57 key humor measures which were filled out and returned by study participants. An evaluation of results using Cronbach's alpha coefficients demonstrated good consistency (alpha=.93) for the developed CHS. Intercorrelations amongst the four sub-scales were generally quite low, indicating each sub-scale measures dimensions relatively distinct from one another (r=.24 approximately .48, both p'shumorous creativity", "tendency to laugh", "perceptivity to humor", and "humorous attitude", were found to explain 55.42% of total variances. The CHS was found to provide good validity using a content validity index (CVI) developed by five experts. The results of this study provide encouraging evidence for the construct validity and reliability of the proposed humor scale and support its application by nursing educators and clinicians to further test and assess concepts related to humor. Further research is needed to explore more fully the implications of humor in nursing. PMID:16237632

  14. Altered Antioxidant-Oxidant Status in the Aqueous Humor and Peripheral Blood of Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, Cristina; Salom Alonso, David; Sequedo, Ma Dolores; Hervás, David; Marín-Lambíes, Cristina; Aller, Elena; Jaijo, Teresa; Díaz Llopis, Manuel; Millán Salvador, José María; Rodrigo, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa is a common form of hereditary retinal degeneration constituting the largest Mendelian genetic cause of blindness in the developed world. It has been widely suggested that oxidative stress possibly contributes to its pathogenesis. We measured the levels of total antioxidant capacity, free nitrotyrosine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) activity, protein, metabolites of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway,...

  15. The measurement of enzymes in tear fluid and aqueous humor and callibration Curves for the evaluation of enzyme concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Čejka, Čestmír; Zvárová, Jana

    Praha, 2004. s. 33. [IMIA Working Conference on Satistical Methodology and Clinical Trials . 12.04.2004-15.04.2004, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0419 Keywords : ocular surface injures Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  16. Promoviendo el sentido del humor en las personas adultas con discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes Gómez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes investigaciones demuestran la importancia del sentido del humor en el bienestar personal y la salud. En el presente trabajo se plantea examinar la utilidad e idoneidad para personas con discapacidad intelectual de la visualización y lectura de material humorístico en soporte impreso destinado a la población general, con un nivel de lectura característico de las edades comprendidas entre los 11 y 12 años; así como analizar si el modelo multidimensional del sentido del humor de García-Larrauri (2006 es aplicable a la población del presente estudio; y descubrir las preferencias de los participantes entre el material en soporte impreso: “sólo texto” o “texto con dibujos”.Los resultados indican que las personas con discapacidad intelectual desarrollan experiencias de humor que pueden aprovecharse para aumentar su calidad de vida. Una buena forma de promoverlo es utilizando la literatura de humor popular, adaptada en forma de textos sencillos y/o acompañados de dibujos.

  17. The Influences of Humorous Advertising on Brand Popularity and Advertising Effects in the Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market. The frequent use of humorous materials and appeals has been the main tendency in advertising. However, no consistent conclusions regarding the actual effects of humorous advertising have been determined. The subjects of the current study were users of the Lion Travel website. Online questionnaires were sent to and collected from random respondents. One hundred questionnaires were delivered, and 512 valid questionnaires were collected. Each collected questionnaire represented a valid sample. The study generated the following five results: (1 humorous advertisements may partially influence brand awareness; (2 humorous elements may partially influence advertising effects; (3 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the advertising attitude of advertising effects; (4 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the brand attitude of advertising effects; (5 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the purchasing intention of advertising effects. Eventually, it is anticipated that the results of this study can serve as a reference and provide suggestions for humorous advertising strategies in the tourism industry.

  18. No Occasion for Pleasure: The Self-Worth Contingency of a Setback and Coping With Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay Caroline Mary Geisler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not one uses humor to cope with a setback may depend on the idiosyncratic relation of the setback to feeling of self-worth. All people pursue the higher order goal of self-validation, but people differ in what domains of life their self-worth is contingent upon and to what extent. In this article based on an incongruity theory of humor we argue that the use of humor in coping with a highly self-worth-contingent setback may be impeded by two cognitive-motivational processes: goal-driven activation and goal shielding. From the outlined theory we derived the hypothesis that the more a domain is contingent upon self-worth, the less likely a person will be to use humor to deal with a setback in that domain. We tested this hypothesis in two studies employing two forms of self-report, i.e., ratings of reaction likelihood to setbacks described at an abstract domain level (Study 1, and ranking of reaction likelihood to concrete setbacks from different domains (Study 2. The hypothesis was affirmed in different domains of self-worth contingency controlling for the influence of habitual coping with humor, coping by disengagement, and global self-esteem.

  19. Helminth Protein Vaccine Induced Follicular T Helper Cell for Enhancement of Humoral Immunity against Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein vaccines combined with adjuvants have been widely used to induce immune responses, especially the humoral immune response, against molecular targets including parasites. Follicular T helper (Tfh cells are the specialized providers of B-cell help, however, the induction of Tfh cells in protein vaccination has been rarely studied. Here, we report that the Schistosoma japonicum recombinant protein (SjGST-32 combined with tacrolimus (FK506 augmented the induction of Tfh cells, which expressed the canonical markers CXCR5, BCL6, and IL-21, and enhanced the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the expression of IL-21R on germinal center (GC B cells and memory B cells increased in immunized mice, which indicated that IL-21 from the induced Tfh cells interacted with IL-21R for activation of B cells and maintenance of long-lived humoral immunity. Our results suggest that helminth protein vaccine combined with FK506 induces Tfh cell for stimulating humoral immune responses and inducing long-lived humoral immunity.

  20. Entertainment-education in the context of humor: effects on safer sex intentions and risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Gusé, Emily; Mahood, Chad; Brookes, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Past research has examined the effects of entertainment narratives on story-related behaviors, but most has focused primarily on dramatic genres rather than comedy. The present study examines how the presence or absence of pregnancy-related humor influences viewers' counterarguing, perceived severity, and intentions to engage in unprotected sexual behavior. Results were consistent with expectations in that related humor reduced counterarguing while also trivializing the severity of the consequences of sexual behavior. When the pregnancy storyline was presented in its original humorous context, viewers reported greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex than when pregnancy was presented in a more serious tone. Model testing clarified this finding by revealing the underlying mechanisms. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21707390

  1. Computational humor researches and applications%幽默计算及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林鸿飞; 张冬瑜; 杨亮; 徐博

    2016-01-01

    幽默作为一种特殊的语言表达方式,是生活中活跃气氛、化解尴尬的重要元素。随着人工智能的快速发展,如何利用计算机技术识别和生成幽默成为自然语言处理领域热门的研究内容之一,并逐渐形成一个新兴研究领域:幽默计算。幽默计算致力于利用自然语言处理技术理解和识别包含幽默的文本表达,挖掘幽默表达潜在的语义内涵,构建面向幽默表达的计算模型。首先对当前幽默计算的背景进行概述,阐明幽默的可计算性和幽默计算对于人工智能的意义;在此基础上,对幽默研究的发展情况进行回顾,给出幽默研究的语言学基础;然后综述当前幽默计算在幽默识别和幽默生成两个方面的进展情况,分别给出针对幽默识别和幽默生成的计算框架;最后,对幽默计算在聊天机器人、机器翻译、儿童教育软件和外语教学等多个自然语言处理任务中的应用前景和应用模式进行展望。希望通过对幽默计算及其应用研究的总结和概述,完善现有幽默计算模型,增进计算机对于自然语言的理解,推动人工智能的进一步发展。%Humor,as a special phenomenon of human communications,can warm up the atmosphere and eliminate em-barrassment.In recent years,with the research development of artificial intelligence,research area related to how to model humorous expression using computers becomes a hot topic in natural language processing tasks,and evolves to become a new subject,called computational humor.Computational humor aims to recognize and interpret humorous ex-pressions in context using natural language processing technologies,and construct humor based computational models. In this article,we firstly introduce the backgrounds of computational humor research and detail the reasons for which hu-mor can be modeled using computers.After that,we review related research in two lines,humor

  2. A Field Experiment on Behavioural Effects of Humorous, Environmentally Oriented and Authoritarian Posters against Littering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Hansmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A humorous, an environmentally oriented and an authoritarian poster against littering were tested in a field experiment on their behavioural effectiveness. Corresponding slogans were placed on anti-littering posters designed for this study and used experimentally at four railway stations. The experimental design entailed 4 communication conditions including a control condition where no poster was presented. In each experimental run (N = 96, flyers were distributed for 30 minutes. The number of distributed flyers was counted, and the proportion of littered flyers was determined for each experimental run. It was found that the humorous and environmentally oriented posters achieved a reduction of 58% and 64%, respectively, in littering as compared with the control condition. The authoritarian poster was significantly less effective, but achieved a significant reduction of 25%. Considered together with some previous findings and theories, the results indicate that environmentally oriented and humorous anti-littering posters are more effective than authoritarian ones

  3. [The humoral immunity changes in experimental cranio-cerebral trauma, concurrent with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merets'kyĭ, V M

    2013-05-01

    The results of studying in dynamics of the humoral immunity indices were adduced in experimental cranio-cerebral truma (CCT) in conjunction with diabetes mellitus (DM). Peculiarities of the immune answer while the period of an acute reaction on trauma and early signs of posttraumatic period have been characterized by reduction of content in the main classes of immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, IgG and enhancement of the circulating immune complexes (CIC) concentration. Experimental DM was accompanied by raising of functional activity of humoral immunity in accordance with immunoglobulins level and CIC. The specificity of changes in humoral immunity in conditions of CCT on the DM background consisted of more profound lowering of the immunoglobulins level and rapid enhancement of the CIC content. PMID:23888817

  4. Sobre acciones, silencios y un sentido de humor particular en un equipo de cuidados paliativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wainer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo reflexiono en las complejas y contradictorias maneras en que un equipo de Cuidados Paliativos desarrolla un discurso y un sentido del humor particulares mientras asisten a personas que experimentan enfermedades terminales. El objetivo es pensar cómo los profesionales paliativistas manipulan, refuerzan, resignifican, y sobre todo, se apropian de una forma de comunicación verbal y no-verbal en la cual el silencio, el humor y la risa conforman una parte central de las tácticas terapéuticas de interacción con pacientes. Además, considero el uso del humor como modo de relacionarse con las presiones y contradicciones de la construcción cotidiana de su campo profesional.

  5. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level. PMID:25059843

  6. 幽默交际中的回应策略%Responding strategies in humorous communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓月

    2014-01-01

    为研究幽默交际中的回应策略,基于礼貌原则、关联理论、言语行为和刻意曲解等理论和原则,对幽默交际中听话人运用的非言语回应、言语回应、不回应等回应策略进行了深入分析,为言语和非言语幽默交际提供了更多研究视角和分析方法。%To study responding strategies in humorous communications, politeness principle, relevance theory, speech act theory and deliberate misinterpretation were adopted to deeply analyze several responding strategies employed by recipients in humorous communications:nonverbal response, verbal response, no response, etc. The result will provide a new per-spective for analyzing verbal and nonverbal humorous communication.

  7. Post Mortem Blood and Vitreous Humor Ethanol Levels Relation in Fars Legal Medicine Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Hejazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The concentration of ethanol measured in postmortem blood needs to be interpreted as to whether the person who had consumed alcohol has exceeded some threshold limit. However, interpreting postmortem BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration results and drawing correct conclusions about ante mortem levels is fraught with difficulties as under some circumstances alcohol might be produced after death by microbial activity.Subjects and Methods: In the case of ethanol, the blood samples should be taken from a femoral vein and whenever possible additional specimens, such as urine and vitreous humor (VH, should also be obtained and sent for analysis to be able to have the best interpretationResults: 167 Specimens of femoral vein blood and vitreous humor were analyzed. In this study, direct injection and gas-chromatographic techniques were employed to quantitate the ethanol concentrations. These two concentrations were then compared and the BAC/VHAC (Viterous Humor Alcohol Concentration ratio was evaluated.Among these specimens, there were 142 cases in which we have found ethanol in blood but not in vitreous humor. Also we have found 2 cases by positive VHAC but negative BAC. The average blood ethanol concentration was 61.5 mg/dLit while the average ethanol vitreous humor concentration was 127 mg/dLit. However, the ratio was measured as 0.7.Conclusion: The similarity in the results of the post mortem cases reinforces the assertion that co analysis of vitreous humor and blood is important to interpret post mortem results

  8. Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1H-PEO and 13C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  9. Efeito do dimetildioctadecilamônio na resposta imune humoral e celular de cobaios inoculados com o herpesvírus bovino-1 inativado Effect of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium chloride on the humoral and cellular response to inactivated bovine herpesvirus-1 in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o potencial adjuvante do cloreto de dimetildioctadecilamônio (DDA cloreto em estimular as respostas imune humoral e celular, do tipo hipersensibilidade cutânea tardia (DTH, em cobaios que receberam preparações de antígeno contendo o herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BHV-1 inativado. Os animais foram vacinados com o BHV-1 em cinco diferentes formulações, representadas pelos grupos: A- adjuvante completo / incompleto de Freund, B- hidróxido de alumínio (Al(OH3, C- DDA cloreto, D- associação Al(OH3 / DDA cloreto e E- BHV-1 em solução aquosa sem adjuvante. Os animais do grupo F, grupo-controle negativo, foram inoculados apenas com meio de cultivo celular. Os maiores títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes do BHV-1, expressos em log2, foram obtidos nos grupos D, A e C, com títulos de 6,25, 6,0 e 5,25, respectivamente. Na avaliação da DTH, os maiores aumentos na espessura da dobra da pele foram observados nos grupos A (2,4mm, C (1,8mm e D (1,1mm. O DDA cloreto, utilizado tanto de forma isolada quanto em associação, determinou a potencialização das respostas imunológicas humoral e celular de cobaios imunizados com o BHV-1 inativado.The adjuvanticity of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium chloride (DDA chloride to induce humoral and cell mediated (delayed type hypersensitivity - DTH - immune responses was assessed in guinea pigs that received antigen preparations containing inactivated bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1. The animals were vaccinated with five different formulations, containing BHV-1 represented by groups: A- complete/incomplete Freund adjuvant, B- aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH3, C- DDA chloride, D- association Al(OH3/DDA and E- BHV-1 in aqueous solution without adjuvant. Group F was the negative control group and the animals received only cell culture medium. The higher titers of BHV-1 neutralizing antibodies, expressed in log2, were obtained in groups D, A and C with values of 6.25, 6.0 and 5.25, respectively. In the DTH

  10. [The humoral immunity indices of patients with malignant skin melanoma using the viral immunomodulator rigvir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkina, L S; Heisele, O G; Garklava, R R; Muceniece, A J

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a viral immunomodulator rigvir on humoral immunity was studied in patients with skin malignant melanoma. Peripheral blood levels of B-lymphocytes, IgA, G and M and circulating immune complexes were assayed and immunoglobulin/B-cell ratio (Ig/B) calculated. Preoperative treatment with rigvir brought the indexes of humoral immunity to normal. Response of melanoma patients to rigvir treatment was different from that seen in healthy subjects and was determined by the course of disease. PMID:1300751

  11. Las divergencias en torno a los humores en los compendios de medicina sánscrita

    OpenAIRE

    Arnau Navarro, Juan

    2013-01-01

    El artículo traza la genealogía de las divergencias sobre los humores en la literatura médica india del periodo clásico, utilizando como fuentes primarias las ediciones sánscritas de los compendios de Caraka, Susruta y Vagbha.ta. La tesis fundamental es sencilla, las diversas tradiciones médicas indias se desarrollaron en el marco de una teoría de los humores, pero las fuentes más antiguas de la tradición ayurvédica muestran que nunca hubo un acuerdo completo acerca de la naturaleza y funcion...

  12. Interactions of the humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 with the complement system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doni, Andrea; Garlanda, Cecilia; Bottazzi, Barbara;

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system comprises a cellular and a humoral arm. The long pentraxin PTX3 is a fluid phase pattern recognition molecule, which acts as an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. PTX3 has antibody-like properties including interactions with complement components....... PTX3 interacts with C1q, ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 as well as mannose-binding lectin, recognition molecules in the classical and lectin complement pathways. The formation of these heterocomplexes results in cooperative pathogen recognition and complement activation. Interactions with C4b binding protein...

  13. Humorous advertising used on TV: The effects of this appeal upon brand awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Glen Kingsley

    2009-01-01

    The following study is a detailed account of the effects humorous TV advertising has upon brand awareness. The objective of this study is to uncover firstly, can humour gain attention for the brand and through using humour in TV ads, can this create more recognition towards the brand? Also is the brand remembered in conjunction with the humorous TV advert? These are the main questions that will be studied and answered. A brief introduction to the study and the purpose of the study is explaine...

  14. Characterization of humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with human papilloma virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 30 females infected with the human papilloma virus, attended in the office of Immunology of the Specialty Polyclinic belonging to 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Clinical Surgical Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from June 2009 to June 2010, in order to characterize them according to immune response. To evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response rosetting assay and quantification of immunoglobulins were used respectively. Women between 25-36 years of age (40 %) infected with this virus, especially those coming from urban areas, prevailed in the series, and a significant decrease of the cellular response as compared to the humoral response was evidenced

  15. Plexin-D1 Is a Novel Regulator of Germinal Centers and Humoral Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Holl, Eda K.; O’Connor, Brian P.; Holl, T. Matt; Roney, Kelly E.; Zimmermann, Albert G.; Jha, Sushmita; Kelsoe, Garnett; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    Long-lived humoral immune responses depend upon the generation of memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells during the germinal center (GC) reaction. These memory compartments, characterized by class-switched IgG and high-affinity Abs, are the basis for successful vaccination. We report that a new member of the plexin family of molecules, plexin-D1, controls the GC reaction and is required for secondary humoral immune responses. Plexin-D1 was not required for B cell maturation, marginal zone...

  16. ¡Marte es divertido! Sobre humor, apreciación y emociones en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Ruiz Gurrillo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo proponer un acercamiento pragmático a la apreciación del humor. La bibliografía sobre psicología ha mostrado que los niños disfrutan de las historias divertidas, humorísticas y fantásticas. Sin embargo, la apreciación del humor ha sido escasamente investigada desde una perspectiva productiva. Nuestro corpus está compuesto por 149 narraciones humorísticas de escolares de nueve y diez años . Así, los informantes de nuestro corpus se sitúan en el estadio 5 de acertijos y chistes (McGhee, 2002, lo que representa un punto de inflexión hacia el humor adulto. Concretamente, los niños desarrollan un sentido del humor (Thorson y Powell, 1993 en el que la apreciación del humor es el mecanismo más importante. En consecuencia, se describirán los tipos de apreciación del humor (Klein, 2003: 7; Orekoya et al., 2014, así como lo divertido, la fantasía y las emociones implicadas.

  17. The Use of Humor and Storytelling with African American Men: Innovative Therapeutic Strategies for Success in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereen, Linwood G.; Hill, Nicole R.; Butler, S. Kent

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of culturally appropriate humor as a tool for change within the parameters of counseling has grown within the literature. In comparison, the art of storytelling has had little attention within the literature as a tool for strategic change. This article outlines a framework for the use of humor and storytelling as…

  18. Laughing in the Face of Fear (of Disease Detection): Using Humor to Promote Cancer Self-Examination Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L

    2016-07-01

    This research examines the possible benefit of using humor to reduce anxiety associated with performing cancer self-examination behaviors. In Study 1, 187 undergraduates read a humorous public service announcement (PSA) script promoting either breast or testicular self-exams. Results suggest that perception of humor reduced anxiety about self-exams, which, in turn, related to more positive self-exam attitudes. Simultaneously, humor perception associated with greater message processing motivation, which, in turn, associated with more supportive self-exam attitudes. Self-exam attitudes also positively associated with self-exam intentions. These results were largely replicated in Study 2. Further, self-exam intentions predicted self-exam behavior 1 week later. However, consistent with past research, the humorous and serious messages did not generate differences in subsequent self-exam behavior, though the intention-behavior relationship was stronger and significant for those exposed to the humorous versus the serious messages. In light of these findings, and given that humor has the advantage of attracting and holding attention in real message environments, the use of carefully constructed humor appeals may be a viable message strategy to promote health detection behaviors. PMID:26652312

  19. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our

  20. Caution, the Use of Humor May Lead to Confusion: Evaluation of a Video Podcast of the Midwest Teen Sex Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Shelly; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Spies, Erica L.; Losch, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Web sites about sexual health lack the interactivity, humor, and "viral" nature required to attract young adults. The Midwest Teen Sex Show (www.midwestteensexshow.com) is an interactive, humor-based Web site that provides sexual health information to young adults. One episode from the Web site was shown to six focus groups of young women, ages…

  1. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H3BO3 at temperatures up to 1500C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO3- + 2I- + 3H+, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >104 has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. The Use of Humor As a Teaching Tool in the College Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Deiter, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    Previous research reports a strong positive correlation between class attendance and student performance. Consequently, college educators, often explore innovative ways of encouraging class attendance. While no substitute for substance, humor is a teaching tool that can create a more positive, fun, interesting environment that promotes class attendance and student learning.

  3. Techniques for Using Humor and Fun in the Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minchew, Sue S.; Hopper, Peggy F.

    2008-01-01

    The authors, former middle and high school English teachers, review the rationale for using humor and fun in the classroom and provide detailed descriptions for teaching practices and activities that confer enjoyment and learning for language arts students. Although fun activities, these methods foster vocabulary development, grammar instruction,…

  4. Humor, Self-Attitude, Emotions, and Cognitions in Group Art Therapy with War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytin, Alexander; Lebedev, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study of the therapeutic effects of group art therapy in a psychotherapy unit of a Russian hospital for war veterans. The researchers randomly assigned 112 veterans being treated for stress-related disorders to an experimental group (art therapy) and a control group. The emphasis was on the use of humor in the…

  5. Reactions to Humorous Sexual Stimuli as a Function of Sexual Activeness and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prerost, Frank J.

    1984-01-01

    Assessed male (N=60) and female (N=60) responses to pictorial humorous sexual material in relationship to degree of sexual expression and personal satisfaction with sexual behavior. Results showed persons with active and satisfying sexual expression enjoyed sexually explicit cartoons and showed less preference for aggressive themes. (LLL)

  6. "Ma Sha Allah!" Creating Community through Humor Practices in a Diverse Arabic Language Flagship Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Sara Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Lave and Wenger's (1991) and Wenger's (1998) "communities of practice" (CoP) framework, this study explores the shared repertoire of humor practices in the creation of community within the context of a culturally diverse and multilevel adult Arabic language classroom consisting of two native speakers, five heritage language learners…

  7. Male Readership Differences in Liquor Magazine Ads Employing Nonsensical and Sexual Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined the attention getting value of nonsensical and sexual humor used in liquor advertisements to determine if one was more effective than the other in attracting male magazine readers. Thirty-two Starch-scored liquor ads taken from 1976 and 1977 issues of "Time,""Newsweek," and "Sports Illustrated" were analyzed by three male readers.…

  8. "Grammar Nazis Never Sleep": Facebook Humor and the Management of Standard Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Tamah; Švelch, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Language Management Theory (Nekvapil and Sherman, "Language management in contact situations. Perspectives from three continents". Peter Lang, Frankfurt/Main, 2009) to investigate Facebook pages as a site and instrument of behavior-toward-language, focusing specifically on the use of humor. The language in question is…

  9. Relevance theory and humor%关联理论与幽默

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许华菁

    2013-01-01

      This paper combines with application examples to discuss and analyze the related concepts of relevance theory and humor.%  文章结合应用实例对关联理论与幽默的相关概念进行了探讨和分析。

  10. Linguistic Basis of Humor In Uses of Grice’s Cooperative Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Pan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Grice’s Cooperative Principle (CP was originally presented at Harvard University in 1967 as part of the William James lectures. Once established, Cooperative Principle had a widespread impact on a range of scholar activity, from work interested in the narrowest issues of language meaning to work interested in the broadest questions of social communication. As is known, verbal humor is a genre of linguistics interaction that often emerges in daily conversation. This paper is aimed at probing into the linguistic basis involved in the process of language humor from the perspective of Grice’s CP. It is also intended to reveal the relation between creation of humor and violation of cooperative principle, and then give critical comments on Grice’s cooperative principle, which mainly focuses on limitations Grice’s cooperative principle. Finally, the essay has a natural conclusion for contribution of study pragmatics of conversational principle, and its application in other fields.  Keywords: Grice’s Cooperative Principle, humor, violation

  11. As Far As Words Go: Activities for Understanding Ambiguous Language and Humor, Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Cecile Cyrul

    2009-01-01

    Understanding ambiguous words, phrases, and sentences is an important part of reading well, communicating skillfully, and enjoying humor based on word play. With this seven-unit activity book--filled with creative, ready-to-use activities based on jokes and puns--students will learn how to decipher the language ambiguities they encounter inside…

  12. Humor Scholarship and TESOL: Applying Findings and Establishing a Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…

  13. [Humoral nonspecific immunity in patients with post-burn cicatrical strictures of the esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumladze, R B; Babaian, S S; Bobkov, Iu I; Chernyshev, V S; Taratuta, O V

    1983-03-01

    The authors have studied the significance of factors of the humoral non-specific defense (HND) in 37 patients with cicatricial constrictions of the oesophagus and stomach. The data obtained were used for choosing the optimum terms for gastrostoma and oesophagoplasty. In 14 patients treatment with lysozyme was performed due to decreased indices of HND. PMID:6857955

  14. From Kate Sanborn to Feminist Psychology: The Social Context of Women's Humor, 1885-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Alice

    1986-01-01

    Examines the work of Kate Sanborn (1839-1917), who edited an anthology of women's humor and crusaded for 20 years to alter the stereotype of women's humorlessness. It is suggested that her work adds to our knowledge of feminist history, as well as presaging current theoretical developments in the psychology of women. (Author/ABB)

  15. Stress Management Strategies for Students: The Immediate Effects of Yoga, Humor, and Reading on Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…

  16. Between laugh, common sense and dissent. Humor magazine as a controversial space (1978-1980.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Raices

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals on initial phase of argentine Humor magazine, between 1978 and 1980, during the military dictatorship period (1976-1983. Our text is focused on significative actores implied with the magazine. In that sense, we research the intervention of its public through reader’s letters section. Our goal was to analyze controversies in that section. We assert it was a useful space in restablishing broken social links resulting from state repression. In addition to this, the reader’s section was a way so Humor could evaluate the effects of contents offered to its public.The analysis let us detect two controversies developed about relevant public matters. The first one concerns horror representation, relating the jewish genocide (Shoah; the second one dealt with how comic cartoons depicts the Other in the shape of popular classes. Both controversies oblige Humor to state explicitly the values of its editorial project and also evidenced a notorious dissent between its readers. Our contribution is intended to bring complexity to an assumed vision that relates directly actors connected with Humor magazine with oposition to dictatorial government.

  17. What makes you laugh? Strategies for appropriation of humor and laugh by mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Paula dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of:SANTOS, Roberto Elísio dos; ROSSETTI, Regina (Org.. Humor e riso na cultura midiática: variações e permanências. São Paulo: Paulinas, 2012. (Coleção Comunicação em Pauta

  18. Sense of humor and its association with psychological disturbances among dental students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan, Balasubramanian; Barik, Ashish Kumar; Patil, Rajesh; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Reddy, Mora Sathi Rami

    2013-10-01

    Although the health benefits of humor and the potential advantages of having a good Sense of Humor (SoH) have been long recognized, they have not been investigated in dental students. The aim of this study was to assess the extent and demographic correlates of SoH in dental students and its association with their self-reported level of psychological disturbances. Six hundred and five students (age 20.3±1.83 years, 250 males, 355 females) from two dental schools in India anonymously completed the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the intergroup differences based on gender and year of study, respectively. The association between SoH and each of the three negative affective states was evaluated with multiple linear regressions. The mean MSHS score of the sample was 59.65±11.77. Male students showed a marginally higher SoH than females (60.78 vs. 58.86, pstudents, the psychosocial roles of humor, and their application in improving the psychological climate in dental schools. PMID:24098038

  19. Bilingual Humor, Authentic Aunties, and the Transnational Vernacular at Gezi Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perin Gurel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass-mediated American culture and the English language became raw materials for vernacular protest humor alongside images of headscarf-wearing middle-aged “aunties” during antigovernment protests in Turkey in the summer of 2013. Focusing on posts shared on Facebook and Twitter by Turkish protestors and their supporters in the first two months of the protests, this article studies the complex linguistic and visual humor that developed around Gezi Park and relates it to the identity politics mobilized during the resistance. Exploring how the protestors projected themselves as both cosmopolitan (through the use of American mass culture and the English language and locally rooted (through the use of auntie humor, the essay delineates how “America” can function in local Middle Eastern politics even in the absence of actual US intervention on the ground. Humor at Gezi demonstrates how closely analyzing transculturated vernacular communication can help us modify Western-derived academic theories about culture and power, making the case for incorporating the study of folklore into transnational American Studies.

  20. The Potential of Humor as a Trigger for Emotional Engagement in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Colin; Deed, Craig; Lugg, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the relevance of humor to student engagement in outdoor education. A sociocultural framework is applied to this examination, based on a view of learning as constructed, cognitive, embodied, and affective. A set of affordances of outdoor education as a contextually situated learning activity is identified along with related…

  1. Repeatedly administered antidepressant drugs modulate humoral and cellular immune response in mice through action on macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Kozlowski, Michael; Bryniarski, Pawel; Strobel, Spencer; Bryk, Agata; Myszka, Michal; Tyszka, Anna; Kuszmiersz, Piotr; Nowakowski, Jaroslaw; Filipczak-Bryniarska, Iwona

    2016-08-01

    Depression is associated with an altered immune response, which could be normalized by antidepressant drugs. However, little is known about the influence of antidepressants on the peripheral immune response and function of macrophages in individuals not suffering from depression. Our studies were aimed at determining the influence of antidepressant drugs on the humoral and cellular immune response in mice. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with imipramine, fluoxetine, venlafaxine, or moclobemide and contact immunized with trinitrophenyl hapten followed by elicitation and measurement of contact sensitivity by ear swelling response. Peritoneal macrophages from drug-treated mice were either pulsed with sheep erythrocytes or conjugated with trinitrophenyl and transferred into naive recipients to induce humoral or contact sensitivity response, respectively. Secretion of reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, and cytokines by macrophages from drug-treated mice was assessed, respectively, in chemiluminometry, Griess-based colorimetry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression of macrophage surface markers was analyzed cytometrically. Treatment of mice with fluoxetine, venlafaxine, and moclobemide results in suppression of humoral and cell-mediated immunity with a reduction of the release of macrophage proinflammatory mediators and the expression of antigen-presentation markers. In contrast, treatment with imipramine enhanced the humoral immune response and macrophage secretory activity but slightly suppressed active contact sensitivity. Our studies demonstrated that systemically delivered antidepressant drugs modulate the peripheral humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, mostly through their action on macrophages. Imipramine was rather proinflammatory, whereas other tested drugs expressed immunosuppressive potential. Current observations may be applied to new therapeutic strategies dedicated to various disorders associated with excessive

  2. Dinâmicas sociais e estados de humor Social dynamics and mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Rebustini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as relações das dinâmicas sociais (família, amigos e escola; i.e., três fatores sociais sobre os estados de humor. A pesquisa foi realizada com uma equipe feminina de voleibol (14/15 anos. Aplicou-se o teste POMS (Profile of Mood States para mensurar os estados de humor. Foi utilizada uma escala de 1 (muito mal a 5 (muito bem para que as atletas avaliassem cada um dos três fatores. Os resultados apontaram correlações significativas entre as escalas e os estados de humor; e diferenças significativas entre os níveis de intensidade apontados na escala dos três fatores e os estados de humor. Os resultados indicam clara interferência das dinâmicas sociais sobre os estados de humor, portanto, as interferências sociais não podem ser descartadas na preparação do atleta.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social dynamics (family, friends and school; i.e., three social factors on mood states. The survey was conducted with a women's volleyball team (14/15 years. The POMS test (Profile of Mood States was employed to measure the team's mood states. The athletes assessed the three factors by the use of a Likert scale ranging from 1 (very bad to 5 (very good. Results showed significant correlations between scales and mood states, and significant differences between the intensity levels representing their moods for each of the three factors. The results show clear interference of social dynamics on the mood states. Therefore, social interference cannot be ignored during an athlete's training program.

  3. En torno al tratamiento lexicográfico de la fraseología humorística

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva Timofeev, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo centra su atención en la representación lexicográfica de la fraseología humorística. El humor, aun siendo un fenómeno eminentemente pragmático, forma parte del significado de algunas unidades fraseológicas (UF). Sin embargo, son confusos los criterios para considerar un fraseologismo como humorístico, lo cual provoca la disparidad de descripciones lexicográficas recogidas en distintos diccionarios. Por eso, tras un análisis de la significación fraseológica y de los puntos básicos...

  4. ¿El sentido del humor, tiene sentido en el aula? / Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy Antonio González Ynfante

    2011-01-01

    Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje...

  5. The evolution and functions of laughter and humor: a synthetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Matthew; Wilson, David Sloan

    2005-12-01

    A number of recent hypotheses have attempted to explain the ultimate evolutionary origins of laughter and humor. However most of these have lacked breadth in their evolutionary frameworks while neglecting the empirical existence of two distinct types of laughter--Duchenne and non-Duchenne--and the implications of this distinction for the evolution of laughter as a signal. Most of these hypotheses have also been proposed in relative isolation of each other and remain disjointed from the relevant empirical literature. Here we attempt to remedy these shortcomings through a synthesis of previous laughter and humor research followed by (i) a reevaluation of this research in light of theory and data from several relevant disciplines, and (ii) the proposal of a synthetic evolutionary framework that takes into account phylogeny and history as well as proximate mechanisms and adaptive significance. We consider laughter to have been a preadaptation that was gradually elaborated and co-opted through both biological and cultural evolution. We hypothesize that Duchenne laughter became fully ritualized in early hominids between 4 and 2 mya as a medium for playful emotional contagion. This mechanism would have coupled the emotions of small hominid groups and promoted resource-building social play during the fleeting periods of safety and satiation that characterized early bipedal life. We further postulate that a generalized class of nonserious social incongruity would have been a reliable indicator of such safe times and thereby came to be a potent distal elicitor of laughter and playful emotion. This class of stimuli had its origins in primate social play and was the foundation for formal human humor. Within this framework, Duchenne laughter and protohumor were well established in the hominid biobehavioral repertoire when more cognitively sophisticated traits evolved in the hominid line between 2 mya and the present. The prior existence of laughter and humor allowed them to be

  6. Humor og ironi i tværsproglige og tværkulturelle møder. Bona-fide, ikke-bona-fide og bona-fide-cum-humor i dansk og fransk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lita Lundquist

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen tager udgangspunkt i en empirisk undersøgelse af hvordan danskere og franskmænd anvender og reagerer på humor og ironi i professionelle sammenhænge. Humor er i sig selv et mangefacetteret fænomen der er beskrevet i flere sproglige og ikke sproglige discipliner, men når humor studeres som et tværsprogligt og tværkulturelt fænomen, inddrages endnu flere aspekter der kalder på andre former for belysning. Humor betragtes her først som en ikke-bona-fide sproghandling der for at være vellykket via sin semantiske og pragmatiske dobbelt(tydighed skal tolkes som en bona-fide-cum-humor sproghandling. Danskeres udbredte anvendelse af humor og (selvironi, også i faglige sammenhænge, i modsætning til franskmænds præference for ordspil, forklares sprogligt via særegenheder i det danske overfor det franske sprog, og kulturantropologisk og sociologisk via forskelle i civilisationsprocesser og ledelsesstrukturer i de to kulturer. Artiklen er således et forsøg på at slå bro mellem komparativ sprogforskning og sammenlignende lande- og kulturstudier.

  7. Face theory in verbal humor%幽默的“面子”论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾懿

    2012-01-01

      As a special verbal form of human communication, humor should be studied together with face with face which embodies the individual’s social image. This article illustrates the double function of verbal humor on face, approaching from two perspectives, that is, face-saving function and face-threatening function.%  幽默作为一种特殊的言语交际形式,常常与体现个体社会形象的面子联系起来。本文从维护面子的功能和损坏面子的功能两个角度出发,着重探讨了幽默对面子的双重作用。

  8. Impacto de los trastornos del humor en la calidad de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Ermelinda; Nossa, Paulo Nuno Sousa; Silva, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    introdução: As Doenças do Humor (DH) provocam um forte prejuízo nas pessoas, embora ainda não seja muito claro o seu impacte na qualidade de vida (QDV) conforme a especiicidade da doença. objetivos: Os objetivos deste estudo são: 1) identiicar relações signiicativas entre a QDV e variáveis sociodemográicas em pessoas com doenças do humor; 2) identiicar relações signiicativas entre a QDV e a Depressão Major (DM) Distimia (D) Doença Bipolar (DB) e Perturbações Depressivas Sem Outra ...

  9. EFEITO DO PROBIÓTICO NA RESPOSTA IMUNE HUMORAL EM BOVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Genaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of probiotic supplementation on mineral mixture to the humoral immune response in cattle vaccinated with a single dose of rabies vaccine. Forty steers, Nellore, aged 12 months were randomly divided into 2 groups (20 animals / group: control group (CG with 70 grams of mineral / animal / day and probiotic group (GP with 70 grams of supplement mineral added with 4 grams of probiotic / animal. The individual titles of neutralizing antibodies were determined by neutralization technique based on the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT and Fluorescent Inhibition Microtest (FIMT. There were no statistic significant differences between the mean serum concentrations between groups, concluding that the administration of probiotics does not interfere with the humoral immune response rabies.

  10. Humor in marketing as a success factor: the case of MEO

    OpenAIRE

    Boleto, Ana Raquel Soeiro

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing É certo e sabido que a utilização do humor no marketing é algo que não é novo para ninguém, no entanto, há que ter a astúcia em saber usá-lo da forma mais correta no nosso negócio. Pode vir a ser ouro se bem utilizado ou pode ser um fracasso total se mal utilizado. Este projeto pretende contar a história de sucesso do serviço de telecomunicações MEO, da PT Comunicações, ao adotar uma estratégia de marketing com um focus totalmente ligado ao Humor bem utilizado. ...

  11. On the Effects of Teacher’s Sense of Humor on Iranian’s EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Ghanei Motlagh; Khalil Motallebzade; Mohammad Ali Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Teacher’s sense of humor is like a miracle in creating effective teaching and learning environments where there is no place for stress and anxiety but instead intrinsic motivation is enhanced. The present study aims mainly, to explore the effects of teachers’ sense of humor of EFL intermediate learners' reading comprehension ability. Having administered a test of reading proficiency, 58 learners are selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. Also two English language teachers...

  12. Chronic spinal cord injury impairs primary antibody responses, but spares existing humoral immunity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Oropallo, Michael A.; HELD, KATHERINE S.; Goenka, Radhika; Ahmad, Sifat A.; O’Neill, Patrick J.; Steward, Oswald; Lane, Thomas E.; Cancro, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in immune depression. To better understand how injury inhibits humoral immunity, the effects of chronic thoracic SCI on B cell development and immune responses to thymus-independent (TI) type-2 and thymus-dependent (TD) antigens were determined. Mice received complete crush injury or control laminectomy at either thoracic level 3 (T3), which disrupts descending autonomic control of the spleen, or at T9, which conserves most splenic sympathetic activity. Althou...

  13. Deregulation of the humoral immune response of the oyster (Crassostrea corteziensis) exposed to naphthalene

    OpenAIRE

    KJG Díaz-Resendiz; CA Romero-Bañuelos; ML Robledo-Marenco; AE Rojas-García; BS Barrón-Vibanco; IM Medina-Díaz; MI Girón-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Naphthalene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aquatic ecosystems, and it can cause alterations in the immune system of organisms that live there. The oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is a species native to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, with economic and ecological importance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of subacute exposure to sublethal concentrations of naphthalene on the parameters of the humoral immune response (lysozyme and phenoloxidase activ...

  14. Importance of persistent cellular and humoral immune changes before diabetes develops: prospective study of identical twins.

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, R. Y.; Peakman, M; Alviggi, L; Hussain, M J; Lo, S S; Shattock, M.; Pyke, D. A.; Bottazzo, G F; Vergani, D.; Leslie, R D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the pattern of cellular and humoral immune changes associated with insulin dependent diabetes before diabetes develops. DESIGN--Prospective study over 10 years of 25 non-diabetic identical twins of patients with insulin dependent diabetes. The non-diabetic twins were followed up either till they developed diabetes or to the end of the study. SETTING--Teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--25 non-diabetic identical cotwins of patients with diabetes; 46 controls of the same sex a...

  15. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Reduction in Medical Education: Humor as an Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Narula; Varsha Chaudhary; Kusum Narula; Ram Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Background: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved in medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. Objective of the study was to explore the effectiveness of humor when used as intervention in large group teaching over negative emotions amongst students. Method: The present Interventional, Randomized control trial study was carried out on medical students of 4th Semester of RMCH, Bareilly, w...

  16. An analysis of the cellular and humoral immune responses of Galleria mellonella larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Niall

    2015-01-01

    The invertebrate immune system is composed of the intertwined cellular and humoral components which have similar structural and functional attributes to the mammalian innate immune system. For this reason insects have served as useful screening tools in academic and industry research for the assessment of pathogenicity of microorganisms or the antimicrobial efficacy of drugs. Due to the low cost, fast turnover of results and lack of ethical constrictions the insect screening model has been us...

  17. Evaluation of the immune humoral response of Brazilian patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    L.C. Torres; S.M.M. Sugayama; C. Arslanian; M. M. Sales; M. Carneiro-Sampaio

    2010-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial dysmorphisms, broad thumbs and toes, mental and growth deficiency, and recurrent respiratory infections. RTS has been associated with CREBBP gene mutations, but EP300 gene mutations have recently been reported in 6 individuals. In the present study, the humoral immune response in 16 RTS patients with recurrent respiratory infections of possible bacterial etiology was evaluated. No significant differ...

  18. NF-κB/Rel Proteins and the Humoral Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, Sandhya; Aggarwal, Kamna; Paquette, Nicholas; Silverman, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB)/Rel transcription factors form an integral part of innate immune defenses and are conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Studying the function, mechanism of activation and regulation of these factors is crucial for understanding host responses to microbial infections. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has proved to be a valuable model system to study these evolutionarily conserved NF-κB mediated immune responses. Drosophila combats pathogens through humoral and...

  19. Use and Clinical Interpretation of Pneumococcal Antibody Measurements in the Evaluation of Humoral Immune Function

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Thomas M.; Hill, Harry R.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal vaccination is a commonly used technique for assessing the humoral immune status of a patient suspected of having immunodeficiency. Interpretation of what constitutes an adequate response, however, can be challenging. This is due to the complexity of the data generated from serotype-specific assays, historical variations in the assays used to measure pneumococcal antibodies, and varying recommendations on the relevant cut points that define response. In this review, we summarize ...

  20. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Reduction in Medical Education: Humor as an Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Narula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved in medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. Objective of the study was to explore the effectiveness of humor when used as intervention in large group teaching over negative emotions amongst students. Method: The present Interventional, Randomized control trial study was carried out on medical students of 4th Semester of RMCH, Bareilly, which has total 90 students. Using simple random sampling lottery method the whole class was divided in two groups-A and B consisting of 45 students each. Group A as control group and Group B experimental group. In first and last lecture of both groups Dass-21 was used as measuring scale, for depression, anxiety and stress and results were compared to see the effect of humor on these three negative emotions. Result: Comparison of Severe and Extremely severe Stress: In Group A 40.54% in class -1 increased to 47.54% in class- 4, while in group B initial 13.15 % was reduced to 0 % (highly significant. Anxiety: In group A, after Class 1 -57.45% increased to 61.11% after class 4, while in group B, after class 1- 23.68% reduced to 2.27% only (highly significant. Depression: In group A, after Class 1 - 40.53% & 41.66 % after class 4 (not significant, while in group B, after class 1- 18.41% reduced to 0% (highly significant. Conclusion: In present study humor was found to be very effective intervention in relieving students on their negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress to a larger extent. Further research would justify the use of humor as an effective teaching aid in medical education.

  1. Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Yersinia pestis Infection in Long-Term Recovered Plague Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bei; Du, Chunhong; Zhou, Lei; Bi, Yujing; Wang, Xiaoyi; Wen, Li; Guo, Zhaobiao; Song, Zhizhong; Yang, Ruifu

    2012-01-01

    Plague is one of the most dangerous diseases and is caused by Yersinia pestis. Effective vaccine development requires understanding of immune protective mechanisms against the bacterium in humans. In this study, the humoral and memory cellular immune responses in plague patients (n = 65) recovered from Y. pestis infection during the past 16 years were investigated using a protein microarray and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot). The seroprevalence to the F1 antigen in all re...

  2. Seasonal variations of the humoral immune parameters of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Y. (Yulema)

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal cycles, mainly due to great variations in the light duration and temperature, are important and modulate several aspects of the animal behavior. In the case of poikilotherms animals such as fish this is very relevant. Thus, temperature changes fish immunity and affects disease resistance. We evaluate in this work the season variations of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) humoral innate parameters focusing on winter months, at which the culture of this specie is more diffic...

  3. Procedimientos de humor en Théâtre sans animaux de Jean-Michel Ribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Cots Vicente

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the role of humour in Théâtre sans animaux. Our approach is to define two forms of humour which play on the effects of incoherence: the unusual and the absurd. We then examine these two forms of humour and the effects which they produce in Jean-Michel Ribes’s text. We show the specificity of the humor of Ribes which articulates the unusual with the absurd.

  4. Humoral Immunity to AAV-6, 8, and 9 in Normal and Dystrophic Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Smith, Bruce; Duan, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-6, 8, and 9 are promising gene-delivery vectors for testing novel Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model. Humoral immunity greatly influences in vivo AAV transduction. However, neutralizing antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9 have not been systemically examined in normal and dystrophic dogs. To gain information on the seroprevalence of antibodies to AAV-6, 8, and 9, we measured neutralizing antibody titers using an in vitro transduction inhibition ...

  5. Assessing humoral and cell-mediated immune response in Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Chang, S.P.; Berestecky, J.

    2000-01-01

    Seven immature green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured from Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu were used to evaluate methods for assessing their immune response. Two turtles each were immunized intramuscularly with egg white lysozyme (EWL) in Freunda??s complete adjuvant, Gerbu, or ISA-70; a seventh turtle was immunized with saline only and served as a control. Humoral immune response was measured with an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-mediated immune response was measured using in vitro cell proliferation assays (CPA) using whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) cultured with concanavalin A (ConA), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or soluble egg EWL antigen. All turtles, except for one immunized with Gerbu and the control, produced a detectable humoral immune response by 6 weeks which persisted for at least 14 weeks after a single immunization. All turtles produced an anamnestic humoral immune response after secondary immunization. Antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in PBM was seen in all turtles either after primary or secondary immunization, but it was not as consistent as humoral immune response; antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in whole blood was rarely seen. Mononuclear cells had significantly higher stimulation indices than whole blood regardless of adjuvant, however, results with whole blood had lower variability. Both Gerbu and ISA-70 appeared to potentiate the cell-mediated immune response when PBM or whole blood were cultured with PHA. This is the first time cell proliferation assays have been compared between whole blood and PBM for reptiles. This is also the first demonstration of antigen specific cell-mediated response in reptiles. Cell proliferation assays allowed us to evaluate the cell-mediated immune response of green turtles. However, CPA may be less reliable than ELISA for detecting antigen specific immune response. Either of the three adjuvants appears suitable to safely elicit a

  6. The Effect of Pistacia khynjuk on Humoral Immune System of Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A Hadinia; SM Hosseini; A Ghanbari; R Aryanpour; F Sayedi; SH Askarian

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Plants from the genus Pistacia family such as Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khynjuk are considered as herbal medicines. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of these plants have been confirmed. The aim of the current study was to find the effect of Pistacia khynjuk on humoral immune system of Wistar rats. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental study which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty male W...

  7. Gestational Zinc Deficiency Impairs Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Hepatitis B Vaccination in Offspring Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Zhao; Xuelian Wang; Ying Zhang; Qiuhong Gu; Fen Huang; Wei Zheng; Zhiwei Li

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gestational zinc deficiency has been confirmed to impair the infant immune function. However, knowledge about effects of maternal mild zinc deficiency during pregnancy on hepatitis B vaccine responsiveness in offspring is limited. In this report, we aimed to examine how maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy influences humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in offspring of BALB/c mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From day 1 of pregnancy upon delive...

  8. Review of intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy trials for primary humoral immunodeficiency patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, H. W.; Dougherty, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    An available supply of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is essential for individuals with primary humoral immunodeficiency. A shortage in 1997 prompted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to revise guidelines for the licensure, production, and distribution of new IVIG products, including the standardization of United States clinical trials regarding endpoints for safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics. The following review is intended to present current information and results of clinical...

  9. Successful therapy with rituximab of refractory acute humoral renal transplant rejection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, A; Saglam, F; Cavdar, C; Sifil, A; Atila, K; Sarioglu, S; Bora, S; Gulay, H; Camsari, T

    2008-01-01

    Acute humoral rejection (AHR) is generally less responsive to conventional anti-rejection treatment with consequent allograft losses. Therapeutic options include antilymphocyte antibody (ATG), intravenous immunglobulin (IVIG), plasmapheresis, or immunoadsorption with protein A together with intensification of immunsuppression with a tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil combination. This report describes a transplant recipient who responded to rituximab therapy as treatment for steroid-, ATG-, IVIG-, and plasmapheresis-resistant AHR. PMID:18261611

  10. Independence of Measles-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Robert M.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    With a larger, independent cohort and more sophisticated measures, we sought to confirm our work that indicated independence of humoral and cellular immunity following measles vaccination. We recruited an age-stratified random cohort of 764 healthy subjects from all socio-economic strata, all with medical-record documentation of two age-appropriate doses of measles-containing vaccine. We quantified measles-specific neutralizing antibody levels and assayed the IFN-γ ELISPOT response to measles...

  11. Exploring the Rendition of Humor in Dubbed English Comedy Animations into Persian

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Sadeghpour; Ali Khazaeefar; Masood Khoshsaligheh

    2015-01-01

    Dubbing is one of the developing areas in Translation Studies, and this study aimed at investigating the translation strategies used in the dubbing of comedy animations from English to Persian. Since colloquial, idiomatic, and humorous expressions have the capacity to elicit laughter and as it is not always easy to draw a clear-cut line between these three types of expressions, this study examines all three types, investigating the strategies used in translating these expressions. The data wa...

  12. The Relation: the Contemporary Folk Humor on the Internet in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otčenášek, Jaroslav

    Zagreb: The European Advanced and Systematic Research Centre, 2008 - (Šimović, V.; Bakić-Tomić, L.; Hubinková, Z.; Loistl, O.; Lasker, G.), s. 192-195 ISBN 978-953-99326-9-3. [International Conference on Advances and Systems Research /1./. Zadar (HR), 25.10.2007-26.10.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : humor * folklore * new media * internet * parody * anecdote Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Social Looking, Social Referencing and Humor Perception in 6-and-12-month-old Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Mireault, Gina C.; Crockenberg, Susan C.; Sparrow, John E.; Pettinato, Christine A.; Woodard, Kelly C.; Malzac, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Social referencing refers to infants' use of caregivers as emotional referents in ambiguous situations (Walden, 1993). Studies of social referencing typically require ambulation, thereby over-looking younger, non-ambulatory infants (i.e., ≤ 8-mos) and resulting in a widespread assumption that young infants do not employ this strategy. Using a novel approach that does not require mobility, we found that when parents provided unsolicited affective cues during an ambiguous-absurd (i.e., humorous...

  14. Do cheerfulness, exhilaration, and humor production moderate pain tolerance? A FACS study

    OpenAIRE

    Zweyer, K; Velker, B; Ruch, Willibald

    2004-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that watching a funny film leads to an increase in pain tolerance. The present study aimed at separating three factors considered potentially essential (mood, behavior, and cognition related to humor) and examined whether they are responsible for this effect. Furthermore, the study examined whether trait cheerfulness and trait seriousness, as measured by the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory (STCI; Ruch et al. 1996), moderate changes in pain tolerance. Fifty-sixty fe...

  15. Between laugh, common sense and dissent. Humor magazine as a controversial space (1978-1980).

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Raices

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals on initial phase of argentine Humor magazine, between 1978 and 1980, during the military dictatorship period (1976-1983). Our text is focused on significative actores implied with the magazine. In that sense, we research the intervention of its public through reader’s letters section. Our goal was to analyze controversies in that section. We assert it was a useful space in restablishing broken social links resulting from state repression. In addition to this, the ...

  16. Social Criticism Gets Animated. Satire and Humor in Corpse Bride (2005) by Timothy Burton

    OpenAIRE

    Druzhinina, Marina

    2009-01-01

    This essay explores social criticism and the way how, by means of satire and humor, it is introduced in the animated fantasy movie that was nominated for Best Animated Feature Film in the 78th Academy Awards, Corpse Bride (2005). The essay provides evidence that its chief director, Timothy Burton, explores the faults of society through all aspects of this highly entertaining stop-motion picture: setting, characterisation, structure, imagery, and language. The essay discusses in details th...

  17. THE USE OF HUMOROUS DRAWINGS IN THE COURSE OF "HISTORY AND METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH AGRONOMY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues related to humorous, ironic, satirical figure, which is one of the kinds of fine art. Forms, styles and genres graphs of this type were reviewed. The classical method of analysis has been used in the article, only the subject of the analysis was images of various phenomena in agronomic practice. Basic definitions of humorous illustration, showing the history of its creation are presented. In the example of drawn short stories by Dutch artist Herluf Bidstrup we show possibilities of using a humorous picture as a good example of observation of the development of plants. We have marked characteristic features of modern cartoons - the ability to largely reflect the concerns associated with the development and application of new technologies in the agricultural sector and economy. Towards a new form of comic drawing we can consider a meme as a unit of cultural information. The caricature is as follows-known work is presented in an entirely different semantic perspective, it is like tracing paper for lighting any problems. The emphasis is on the possibility of using intelligent and ironic drawings in the teaching discipline of "History and methodology of scientific agriculture" for better learning, remembering and propaganda agronomic knowledge

  18. Investigating the effect of ionizing radiations on humoral immune system in industrial radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general review of radiobiology, immunology system,mechanism of biological effect of radiation and their biological damaging on cells and organs and specifically radiation effects on humoral immune system are given. The purpose is investigating the side effects of occupational exposures caused by ionizing radiation, and reviewing the decreasing probability of humoral immune responses in industrial radiographers. Generally, it measures the following humoral factors of industrial radiographers by value of different exposures: 1-Measuring immunoglobulins serum which consist of IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE. 2-Electrophoresis of serum proteins to investigate gamma globulins changes and also the changes occur in serum globulins after exposure. 3-Investigating the titration of isohem glutins serum (or natural immunoglobulins) that is mostly from IgM. 4-Measuring the above experiments on health control personnel who have not exposed to occupational or biological radiation effects. 5-Comparing the results of the two groups by statistical analysis. 6-Trying to relate the exposure to the information obtained from the above experiments. 7-Finally, to obtain this response whether mutation as low dose of radiation as investigated in this project is a threatening factor to the health and immunity of industrial radiographers

  19. Stress and Humoral Innate Immune Response of Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata Cultured in Sea Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, Fulvio; Roncarati, Alessandra; Angelucci, Giulia; Fenza, Alessandra; Meluzzi, Adele

    2016-09-01

    Innate and acquired immune responses of Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata was studied under normal culture and short-term stressful conditions for 18 months in offshore sea cages in Alghero Bay, Italy. Every 45 d, 50 fish were sampled and divided into two groups: fish in the first group (normal culture conditions) were bled after harvesting; fish in the second group were put into a tank under stressful conditions (crowding and confinement) and bled after 2 h. Innate humoral immunity, such as complement-like, hemagglutination, and lysozyme activities, was determined in the sera of both groups. Pathogen challenge was not performed, but the specific humoral immune response was assessed against the most common pathogens affecting cultured fish in Sardinia. Stressed fish, compared with the control, showed a lower lysozyme activity against Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum, which was not clearly correlated with temperatures. Complement-like activity differed between the first and second half of the study and, at the end of the trial, a slightly higher activity was recorded in the controls than in the stressed fish. Hemagglutination activity was mainly higher in the stressed fish than in control fish. Confinement, crowding, and cold water temperature caused decreased lysozyme activity in short-term stressed Gilthead Seabream compared with those reared normally. The specific humoral immune response, against V. anguillarum, Tenacibaculum mesophilum, Enterococcus Seriolicida, and Aeromonas sobria, fluctuated during the rearing period, particularly during the first year of culture. Received October 12, 2015; accepted March 24, 2016. PMID:27485027

  20. Ambiguity in English Humor%英语笑话的歧义分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温美霞

    2015-01-01

    The linguistic ambiguity,which can be taken as a communication barrier in actual exchanges,is often employed in the realization of jokes to display humorous effect.This paper tentatively explores the inference and appreciation of English jokes from three perspectives,including phonological ambiguity,lexical ambiguity and syntactic ambiguity to illuminate the fact that linguistic ambiguity is an important mechanism for the birth of humors and that humor can be understood effectively with the help of the analysis of ambiguity.%歧义在正常交际中可被视为交际的障碍,然而运用到笑话中却能产生幽默诙谐的效果。本文根据触发歧义的语言层次,试从语音歧义,词汇歧义和句法歧义三方面理解和欣赏英语笑话,表明歧义机制是建构幽默的重要手段,通过分析歧义能有效解读幽默。

  1. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  2. Humoral Immune Response against Neural Antigens and Its Effects on Cognition in Lung Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybacka-Mossakowska, J; Ramlau, R; Gazdulska, J; Gołda-Gocka, I; Kozubski, W; Michalak, S

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment develops as a clinical manifestation of immune-mediated indirect effects of malignancy in lung cancer patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of humoral immune response on cognition in lung cancer patients. Fifty-one lung cancer patients were subjected to neurological examination: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test (TMT), and Hamilton scale. The Psychology Experiment Building Language software was used for the evaluation of digit span, simple reaction time (SRT), and choice reaction time (CRT) tests. Serum samples were tested for the presence of onconeuronal antibodies and antineural antibodies. The results demonstrate that autoantibodies were found in 31 % patients. MMSE scores were lower (26.7 ± 2.7) in seropositive patients than in seronegative subjects (28.7 ± 1.2; p = 0.013). Executive functions were also influenced by the presence of autoantibodies. The humoral immune response in lung cancer patients affected both SRT and CRT. We conclude that the humoral immune response in lung cancer patients is associated with cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment is associated with both specific reactions against onconeuronal or antineural antigens and non-organ specific reactions against nucleosome antigens. PMID:26987335

  3. Exploring the Rendition of Humor in Dubbed English Comedy Animations into Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Sadeghpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dubbing is one of the developing areas in Translation Studies, and this study aimed at investigating the translation strategies used in the dubbing of comedy animations from English to Persian. Since colloquial, idiomatic, and humorous expressions have the capacity to elicit laughter and as it is not always easy to draw a clear-cut line between these three types of expressions, this study examines all three types, investigating the strategies used in translating these expressions. The data was collected from five popular American comedy animations dubbed into Persian. The original humorous, colloquial, and idiomatic expressions and their Persian translations were written down and the strategies used in translating them were identified and classified into nine groups for further analysis. The findings from the sample demonstrate that the Persian translators tend to use familiar expressions rather than translate literally and that beside humorous expressions, the translators tend to use idiomatic and colloquial expressions to produce laughter mostly in cases where the original animation has not used them. In short, the Persian translators have frequently and freely used idiomatic and colloquial expressions in their secondary function to elicit laughter which is a strategy that can be used in the translation of comedies, especially for children, where there are numerous linguistic and cultural barriers across the cultures.Keywords: Audiovisual translation, Dubbing, Idiom, Colloquial expressions, Persian

  4. Comparison of humoral response in sheep to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Humoral response of sheep to F. gigantica was compared with the well known humoral response to F. hepatica, in order to explain the difference of susceptibility of sheep to these two parasites. In this work, a lesser susceptibility of sheep to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica infection was confirmed. Humoral response to F. hepatica infection is similar to that previously described by several authors. IgG level of F. gigantica infected sheep increased from week 2 post-infection (2WPI and displayed a peak at 13WPI. F. gigantica excretory-secretory products (FgESP analyzed by SDS-PAGE showed at least 31 bands from 12.0 to 127.6 kDa in FgESP. Western blot indicated that F. gigantica infected sheep sera recognized, in FgESP, at least 30 antigens from 7.8 to 119.2 kDa of which 12 major bands recognized after OWPI. In FhESP and FgESP, F. hepatica infected sheep serum reacted only with the lower molecular mass antigens, while F. gigantica infected sheep serum reacted with the lower and the higher molecular mass antigens. These differences of antigenic recognition might be associated with the difference of susceptibility of sheep. Further investigation must be done to study the mechanism of resistance between the sheep infected with F. hepatica or F. gigantica.

  5. Social looking, social referencing and humor perception in 6- and-12-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Pettinato, Christine A; Woodard, Kelly C; Malzac, Kirsten

    2014-11-01

    Social referencing refers to infants' use of caregivers as emotional referents in ambiguous situations (Walden, 1993). Studies of social referencing typically require ambulation, thereby over-looking younger, non-ambulatory infants (i.e., ≤8-months) and resulting in a widespread assumption that young infants do not employ this strategy. Using a novel approach that does not require mobility, we found that when parents provided unsolicited affective cues during an ambiguous-absurd (i.e., humorous) event, 6-month-olds employ one component of social referencing, social looking Additionally, 6-month-olds who did not laugh at the event were significantly more likely to look toward parents than their counterparts who found the event funny. Sequential analyses revealed that, following a reference to a smiling parent, 6-month olds were more likely to smile at the parent, but by 12 months were more likely to smile at the event suggesting that older infants are influenced by parental affect in humorous situations. The developmental implications of these findings are discussed, as well as the usefulness of studying humor for understanding important developmental phenomena. PMID:25061893

  6. The Applicability of Humorous Print Ads%幽默平面广告的适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海波

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨哪一类别商品的平面广告更适合于采用幽默的诉求方式,研究随机选取160大学生为被试,以16则改编平面广告为实验材料,以广告类型(幽默,非幽默)、商品类别为自变量,以广告评价、广告顺序为协变量,以商品的印象、喜爱程度、购买意向为因变量,进行平衡设计实验。结果表明,幽默广告具有较好广告效果,可以提高受众对大宗工具、小奖赏和小工具型商品的记忆;幽默平面广告更适用于低风险、功能性商品,不适用于高风险、享乐性商品。%Humor is widely used in advertisements. However, it is not applicable to all. If not used properly, the humor inthe advertisements may have reversed influence. This research attempted to find out which types of merchandise humor was more applicable, using Product Color Matrix as the standard classification for merchandises. I chose two kinds of representative merchandise from each category, which were big tools (range hood, water heater), big toys (diamond bracelet, sports car), little treats (beer, juice), and little tools (toothpaste and beer bottle opener). Two different print advertisements were made for each merchandise, respectively, humorous ad and non-humorous ad. Two hypotheses were put forward : ( 1 ) humor always harvested good advertising effect ; ( 2 ) humor acted dif- ferently on the merchandise of different types. A total of 16 adapted unfamiliar or foreign print advertisements were shown to 160 college students, who were randomly selected to take the questionnaire. In this experiment with balanced design, univariate analysis variance and multivariate analysis of variance were applied to analyze data. Whether humor was used in advertisement was the independent variable. Evaluation and the order of the ads were the covariates. Impression, preference, and purchase intention toward the merchandise were the dependent variables

  7. Isaac, el incompetente: Un ejemplo del humor como recurso literario para expresar la gracia en la Biblia Isaac, el incompetente: Um exemplo do humor como recurso literário para expressar a graça na Bíblia Isaac, the Incompetent: An Example of Humor as a Literary Resource to Express Grace in the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Bravo Retamal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca mostrar la presencia del humor en los relatos sobre Isaac. Esto no significa que el humor sea la única forma de acercarse a los textos, sino que aquí se privilegia una dimensión que ha estado generalmente ausente en la consideración de los mismos, y que sin duda se encuentra en ellos: el humor. Los rasgos de Isaac que surgen del análisis de los pasajes respectivos van configurando un personaje con un perfil humorístico en cuanto es un patriarca poco hábil, pasivo, incompetente: una especie de "antipatriarca", por medio edel cual Dios actúa y mantiene sus promesas. Se muestra así que Dios actúa graciosamente.Este artigo trata de mostrar a presença do humor nos relatos sobre Isaac. Isso não quer dizer que o humor é a única maneira de ficar perto aos textos, porém aqui privilegia-se uma dimensão que tem estado geralmente ausente na consideração dos mesmos, e que sem dúvida encontra-se neles: O humor. Os traços de Isaac que emergem da análise das passagens respectivas vão configurando um personagem com um perfil bem humorado sendo que ele é um patriarca pouco hábil, passivo, incompetente: uma espécie de "antipatriarca", por meio do qual Deus atua e mantém suas promessas. Mostra-se que Deus atua com graça.This article aims at showing the humor in the narratives about Isaac, not meaning that it is the only way to approach those texts. It rather singles out a perspective traditionally ignored and certainly found there: humor. Isaac's features as decipheredfrom the analysis of the respective passages shape his humorous profile as a less skilled, passive, incompetent patriarch: a kind of "anti-patriarch" through whom God acts and delivers his promises. This article thereby shows how God acts gracefully.

  8. Será rir o melhor remédio? O impacto do clima de humor na satisfação laboral e no desempenho

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Cátia Sofia Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário Este estudo tem como objetivo fornecer evidências empíricas adicionais acerca do impacto do Clima de Humor na Satisfação Laboral e no Desempenho. Para este fim hipotetizou-se (1) um impacto positivo do Clima de Humor Positivo na Satisfação Laboral e no Desempenho; (2) um impacto negativo do Clima de Humor Negativo na Satisfação Laboral e no Desempenho; (3) um impacto negativo do Clima de Humor sobre a Gestão na Satisfaçã...

  9. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is an innovative method to produce useful building materials from Martian regolith. Acids and bases produced from the regolith...

  10. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is a novel technology for recovering oxygen, iron, and other constituents from lunar and Mars soils. The closed-loop...

  11. Humor e Discriminação por Orientação Sexual no Ambiente Organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Arthur Reis Irigaray

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To deal with multiple social manifestations in the organizational world, humor is an important form of communicating something, although not in an explicit way, smoothing critics and aggressions under the pretext of getting a laugh. In this paper we discuss humor as a form of manifesting discrimination of sexual orientation in the work place. Based on specialized literature about social, denotative and connotative functions of humor, and the insertion of female and male homosexuals in a professional atmosphere, we conducted a qualitative study with heterosexual and homosexual workers in companies located in the metropolitan regions of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo from 2005 through 2008 to obtain their life stories. The interviews were recorded and fully transcribed. They were then subjected to a French discourse analysis technique. The main results suggest that heterosexual humor about gays is explicit, and it seems to be socially legitimated because gays are funny. We also found surprising evidence that gays make jokes about themselves, confirming social stigma through laughs. The main conclusions discuss the need to put humor in a political context, as a form of communication in organizations, because one of its social functions is to aid the social processes of controlling and social discrimination.

  12. A pilot study of the relation between humor styles and the past-positive and past-negative time perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2013-08-01

    Those who use self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles tend to recall positive experiences with their parents and primary caretakers, whereas those who use the self-defeating humor style tend to recall negative experiences with them. Considering the importance of experiences with parents and primary caretakers for life satisfaction and happiness, it was hypothesized that the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles would be positively correlated with past-positive experiences and negatively correlated with past-negative experiences, and that the self-defeating humor style would be positively correlated with past-negative experiences and negatively correlated with past-positive experiences. The Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Past-Positive and Past-Negative subscales of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory were administered to 114 undergraduates. The hypotheses were partially supported despite the retrospective nature of the Past-Positive and Past-Negative Subscales and the correlational nature of the study, indicating further research is needed. PMID:24340822

  13. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Piepenbrink

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles.A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19 and healthy control subjects (n = 19. The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy.These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing population.

  14. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenbrink, Michael S.; Samuel, Memorie; Zheng, Bo; Carter, Brittany; Fucile, Christopher; Bunce, Catherine; Kiebala, Michelle; Khan, Atif A.; Thakar, Juilee; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Morse, Diane; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Haughey, Norman J.; Valenti, William; Keefer, Michael C.; Kobie, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs) have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles. Methods and Findings A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 19). The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy. Conclusions These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing

  15. Influence of Some Pesticides on Humoral and Cellular Immunity of Exposed Workers in Pesticides Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in developing countries. In most of these countries organophosphate pesticides constitute the most widely used pesticides. The main toxicity of OPs is neurotoxicity, which is caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. OPs also affect the immune response, including effects on cellular and humoral immunity. Our study examined the effect of organophosphorus compounds on humoral and cellular immunity of exposed workers in pesticides industries. The study was conducted into 40 subjects. They were 2 groups; 20 exposed workers from Gharbeia and Kafr Elsheikh at 2008 and 2009 and 20 unexposed individuals as a control group at the same period of time. We examined some immune parameters; pseudocholinesterase, WBCs count, CD4%, CD8%, CD4/CD8, CD56%, Interleukin 2, IgG and IgM. Also we take history and clinical examination for them. We reported a highly significant decrease in pseudo cholinesterase level among the exposed group in comparison to the control group, highly significant increase in percentage of CD8 in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in CD4 / CD8 ratio in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in percentage of CD56 in the exposed group in comparison to control group and a highly significant increase in IgG level in the exposed group in comparison to control group. On the other hand, we reported no significant change in white blood cells count between the exposed and control groups, no significant change in percentage of CD4 among the exposed and control group, no significant change in Interleukin 2 level among the exposed and control group and no significant change in IgM level among the exposed and control group. We concluded that pesticides extensively affect the humoral and cellular immune system of occupationally exposed workers.

  16. Gestational zinc deficiency impairs humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in offspring mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gestational zinc deficiency has been confirmed to impair the infant immune function. However, knowledge about effects of maternal mild zinc deficiency during pregnancy on hepatitis B vaccine responsiveness in offspring is limited. In this report, we aimed to examine how maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy influences humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in offspring of BALB/c mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From day 1 of pregnancy upon delivery, maternal mice were given a standard diet (30 mg/kg/day zinc, zinc deficient diet (8 mg/kg/day zinc, or combination of zinc deficient diet (8 mg/kg/day zinc in the first 2 weeks of gestation and zinc supplement diet (150 mg/kg/day zinc for the last week of pregnancy, respectively. Newborn pups of these maternal mice were immunized with hepatitis B vaccine at postnatal weeks 0, 2 and 4. Then, splenocytes and blood samples from the offspring mice were harvested for detection of serum zinc concentrations, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, expression of cytokines using ELISA, CCK-8 and flow cytometric analysis. Results from the present study demonstrated that gestational zinc deficiency inhibited antibody responses, and decreased the proliferative capacity of T cells in offsprings immunized with hepatitis B vaccine. Additionally, HBsAg-specific cytokines analysis revealed that gestational zinc deficiency could inhibit secretion of IFN-γ from splenocytes, and decrease IFN-γ expression of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Gestational zinc deficiency can weaken the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to hepatitis B vaccine via decreasing B cell counts and hepatitis B virus-specific immunoglobulin G production, as well as reducing T cell proliferation, CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell ratio, and Th1-type immune responses.

  17. Shallow Theory of Biology Classroom Humor%生物课堂幽默浅论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范旭东

    2014-01-01

    与初中生物相比,高中生物知识的广度和深度都有所增加,知识相对来说比较抽象,容易使课堂变得枯燥无味。学生在课堂中很容易无精打采,产生厌倦情绪。如果在平时的课堂中加入一些幽默化的元素,不仅可以起到化繁为简的目的,也可以激发学生对生物学科的兴趣。正如苏联著名教育家斯维特洛夫所说:“教育家最主要的也是第一位的助手是幽默。”结合教学实践谈了生物课堂的幽默。%Compared with middle school biology,the high school biology increased breadth and depth of knowledge,knowledge is relatively abstract,easy to become boring classroom. Students in the classroom is easy to slouch,boredom. If in the usual classroom add some elements of humor,not only can rise to change numerous for brief,the purpose of can also stimulate students interest in biology. As the famous educator thwaite rove says:“educator is the most important and the first assistant humor.” Talk about the biological classroom humor combined with teaching practice.

  18. Deregulation of the humoral immune response of the oyster (Crassostrea corteziensis exposed to naphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KJG Díaz-Resendiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in aquatic ecosystems, and it can cause alterations in the immune system of organisms that live there. The oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is a species native to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, with economic and ecological importance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of subacute exposure to sublethal concentrations of naphthalene on the parameters of the humoral immune response (lysozyme and phenoloxidase activity, and nitric oxide production on the oyster C. corteziensis. The results indicated that naphthalene, under the conditions tested, significantly deregulated the parameters evaluated. This could increase susceptibility to infections and therefore affect oyster production.

  19. Humoral immunosuppression in men exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related carcinogens in polluted environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Szczeklik, A; Szczeklik, J; Galuszka, Z; Musial, J; Kolarzyk, E; Targosz, D

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated humoral immunity by measuring IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE concentrations in 274 male workers in an iron foundry in Cracow, Poland. There were two groups: 199 coke oven workers and 76 cold-rolling mill workers. The groups were similar with respect to age, length of work (average 15 years), and smoking habits. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), assessed by personal and area monitoring, ranged from 0.2 to 50 micrograms/m3 benzo[a]pyrene in coke plant workers and was of ...

  20. An Analysis of the Humor between Chinese and Western from the Perspective of Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Jiatong

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Intercultural communication was originally developed by the American cultural anthropologist Edward T Hall,he believes communicative competence includes not only a form of language understanding and mastering the language,but also on when and where to What is the proper way for anyone to use language to communicate.This article will list some of the differences in the Western sense of humor in everyday life and explore the root causes of these differences to find ways to resolve these differences in Intercultural communication.

  1. The short effect of pelvic radiotherapy of gynecological cancers on humoral and cell mediated immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of short effect of pelvic irradiation on cellular and humoral immunity was made in 24 patients treated by irradiation alone or a combination of surgery and irradiation for uterine carcinoma, at 2, 6, 12 months after loco-regional therapy. Twelve months later there is a decrease of T lymphocytes (P = 0.01), whereas the B lymphocytes count is normal; the percentage of T and B lymphocytes remains stable, but the lymphocyte response to PHA after 3 days is reduced (p = 0.03). A significant decrease of immunoglobulins G, A and M is observed

  2. Humor y psicoanálisis: una lectura de los textos de Freud

    OpenAIRE

    García Serrano, Federico

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo se centra en el estudio de los textos de Freud referidos al humor. Se trata en él de sentar unas bases conceptuales, que en buena medida quedan representadas en el anexo final, en el que se aporta un glosario de términos sobre la materia, la práctica mayoría de los cuales no aparece recogido en los diccionarios de psicoanálisis al uso, y que también debemos considerar como una propuesta, en proceso de elaboración. La segunda parte es el punto de partida de un trabajo d...

  3. Estudo de competências pragmáticas no autismo: sarcasmo e humor

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Alexandra Catarina Vieira da

    2010-01-01

    Objectivos: O presente trabalho tem como objectivo estudar as competências pragmáticas na compreensão do humor e sarcasmo em crianças com autismo. Métodos: Foi feita a gravação de dez anedotas de vários tipos sendo estas, posteriormente, aplicadas a dois alunos com autismo pertencentes a faixas etárias diferentes e a dois alunos sem esta problemática, também das mesmas faixas etárias. Estudou-se a capacidade de cada um interpretar e compreender correctamente uma anedota, ass...

  4. La narrativa humorística de un novelista serio: Antonio Mingote

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri Coll, José María

    2007-01-01

    Mingote, poco conocido y estudiado como novelista, es autor de relatos en que el humor del absurdo y grandes dosis de ternura en sus personajes consiguen atrapar al lector. Inició su carrera como novelista en 1948 con Las palmeras de cartón, obra a la que han seguido otras novelas: Ojos de esmeralda (1949), Los revólveres hablan de sus cosas (1953) y Adelita en el desván (1991). Este trabajo estudia las características de la obra escrita de Mingote incardinándola en el conte...

  5. Evaluation of Candida Colonization and Specific Humoral Responses against Candida albicans in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari Javad; Mehdi Taheri Sarvtin; Mohammad Taghi Hedayati; Zohreh Hajheydari; Jamshid Yazdani; Tahereh Shokohi 2

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the candidal colonization and specific humoral responses against Candida albicans in patients with atopic dermatitis. One hundred patients with atopic dermatitis and 50 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Skin and oral specimens from all participants were cultured on CHROMagar Candida medium. Isolated yeasts were identified by using the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. ELISA was used for detection of IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodie...

  6. Características personales del sentido del humor en áreas laborales

    OpenAIRE

    Hilda Torres

    2006-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo, identificar las características personales relacionadas con el sentido del humor en empleados y gerentes en sus ambientes laborales de empresas establecidas en el estado Zulia del sector bebidas. Fue un proceso de investigación descriptiva y de campo, con un diseño de tipo no experimental transaccional. La muestra estuvo conformado por 162 empleados y 24 gerentes, aplicándoseles un cuestionario para la recolección de datos de preguntas cerradas. Se co...

  7. El monólogo de humor. Un proyecto de educación literaria

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Suescun, Nora

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una propuesta de educación literaria para 4º de ESO, de unas 22 horas lectivas. La metodología empleada para su desarrollo será una secuencia didáctica ginebrina, vertebrada en torno a la tarea final de escritura y representación (individual) de un monólogo de humor por parte de los alumnos. El objetivo principal de este proyecto es la reflexión y toma de conciencia de los alumnos de la esencia del género dramático, así como el desarrollo de su creatividad individua...

  8. The influence of humor styles in coping strategies in Entre Ríos

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Roberto Lillo

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years there has been a growing interest in the study of the resources that people use from face to a problem. The interest in the study of the characteristics related to the humor has gone in increase, especially for the influence of the development of a new concept in psychology that derives in the call positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Zinder and McCullog 2000, in Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003) which is centered in adaptive strengths su...

  9. Managing humans biting and humorous tales of a software engineering manager

    CERN Document Server

    Lopp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The humor and insights in the 2nd Edition of Managing Humans are drawn from Michael Lopp's management experiences at Apple, Netscape, Symantec, and Borland, among others. This book is full of stories based on companies in the Silicon Valley where people have been known to yell at each other and occasionally throw chairs. It is a place full of dysfunctional bright people who are in an incredible hurry to find the next big thing so they can strike it rich and then do it all over again. Among these people are managers, a strange breed of people who, through a mystical organizational ritual, have

  10. Linguistic-based Patterns for Figurative Language Processing: The Case of Humor Recognition and Irony Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Pérez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El lenguaje figurado representa una de las tareas más difíciles del procesamiento del lenguaje natural. A diferencia del lenguaje literal, el lenguaje figurado hace uso de recursos lingüísticos tales como la ironía, el humor, el sarcasmo, la metáfora, la analogía, entre otros, para comunicar significados indirectos que la mayoría de las veces no son interpretables sólo en términos de información sintáctica o semántica. Por el contrario, el lenguaje figurado refleja patrones del pe...

  11. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed. PMID:21449245

  12. Non Castigat Ridendo Mores: evaluating the effectiveness of humor appeal in printed advertisements for HIV/AIDS prevention in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soscia, Isabella; Turrini, Alex; Tanzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of different emotional appeals in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns using printed advertisements. More specifically, it examines the effectiveness of humor appeal compared with shock and fear appeals. The authors experimentally test the level of attention drawn and the spontaneous recall arising when young Italian adults are shown different HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. Findings show that humor appeals are less effective than fear and shock appeals, evidencing the failures in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in Italy, a country where the former communication strategy has been used in substantive ways. The results also indicate the higher effectiveness of fear appeals (over shock and humor) in printed HIV/AIDS advertising campaigns. The implications of these results for further studies and for improving the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are also discussed. PMID:22694065

  13. The humoral immune response of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) against horse red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Alexandre; Wells, Barrie; Woods, Gregory M

    2009-07-15

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is under threat of extinction due to a fatal infectious neoplastic disease, named Devil Facial Tumour Disease. Tumours are transferred as allografts between animals and no effective immune response or host resistance to the disease has been detected, raising interest in the immune function of the species. To investigate whether Tasmanian devils had a competent humoral immune response, four devils were immunised with horse red blood cells (HRBC) either intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. Antibody responses were measured by direct and indirect haemagglutination assays for a period of up to 40 weeks. Primary responses were well defined, but secondary responses were prominent only in the devils immunised subcutaneously. All devils showed evidence for a memory antibody response following a booster given 32 weeks after the first injection and this was more evident with the subcutaneous route. Tasmanian devils tested were capable of mounting a humoral immune response against HRBC and the subcutaneous injection in the presence of the adjuvant Montanide was a safe and effective route. PMID:19264365

  14. Purification and characterization of lectin from humoral fluids of Charybdis feriatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Congjie; Wang Guizhong; HE Jianfeng; LI Shaojing; HUANG Huiyang

    2006-01-01

    To search new sources of lectin, an experiment on lectin distribution in humoral serum of crab Charybdisferiatus (in short, CFL) was conducted March, 2002. When adding solid ammonium sulfate into the fluids up to 50% saturation at 4℃, most CFL activity showed precipitates who were then continually extracted by ammonium sulfate of different concentrations. The supernatant, which was called primary CFL fluids, was given a 17.60-fold purification and 45.70% recovery of total activity. Finally, by using Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, the CFL in the primary CFL fluid was highly purified.Compared to the original humoral fluids, the last purified CFL got a 203.90-fold purification and 30.48%recovery of total activity, and demonstrated a single band on SDS-PAGE. In thesame time, the purified CFL was detected for agglutination activity with 7 kinds of animal erythrocytes. Other characterization,such as sugar inhibition, and the effect of temperature on the agglutination activity of CFL were also studied. Our results indicate that agglutination activity of CFL was influenced by sugar and temperature.

  15. Evaluation of humoral immune function in patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeid Rahiminejad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence of autoimmune diseases such as immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP with  immunodeficiencies has  been  reported  previously in  patients  who  suffered  from primary antibody deficiency (PAD. But there is no original study on immunological profiles of ITP patients to find out their probable immune deficiency.In this case-control study, ITP patients’ humoral immunity was investigated for diagnosis of PAD in comparison with normal population. To evaluate the humoral immune system against polysaccharide antigens, patients’ serum immunoglobulin levels were measured and a 23-valent pneumococcal  capsular polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23 was administrated  to evaluate the antibody response to vaccination.In  this  study, 14 out  of  36 patients  (39% were diagnosed with antibody mediated immune deficiency including 2 patients (5.5% with immunoglobulin class deficiency and 4 (11% with IgG subclass deficiency. The remaining patients suffered from specific antibody deficiency. The most frequent deficiency in ITP patients was specific antibody deficiency.Therefore, immunological survey on ITP patients may be important especially for those who have undergone splenectomy.

  16. How Not To Be A Buzzkill: Creative Techniques In Using Humor To Combat Doomsday Narratives (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, L.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change may seem like no laughing matter- new studies continually paint a bleak future for the members of the planet. We use descriptions such as 'dire', 'urgent', and 'colossal' hoping audiences will grasp the magnitude of the challenges that befall our society. But all too often it feels as if the message falls on deaf ears. With apocalyptic narratives, people shut out the message, feel too overwhelmed to know what to do, or are just too busy immersed in their Netflix account to notice. How can one worry about climate change when they may not even know how they are paying rent next month? Why should they pay attention to doomsday narratives when they could just watch funny cat videos all day? This session will look at the various ways science writers and educators are using humor to combat the depressing. With a particular focus on social media tools, this talk will examine the various methods used to energize audiences instead of deflating them and whether the approach has any value in getting the public to absorb the message. Is humor really an effective communication tool, or are we just kidding ourselves?

  17. Purification and characterization of lectin from humoral fluids of Charybdis feriatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Congjie; Wang, Guizhong; He, Jianfeng; Li, Shaojing; Huang, Huiyang

    2006-12-01

    To search new sources of lectin, an experiment on lectin distribution in humoral serum of crab Charybdis feriatus (in short, CFL) was conducted March, 2002. When adding solid ammonium sulfate into the fluids up to 50% saturation at 4°C, most CFL activity showed precipitates who were then continually extracted by ammonium sulfate of different concentrations. The supernatant, which was called primary CFL fluids, was given a 17.60-fold purification and 45.70% recovery of total activity. Finally, by using Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, the CFL in the primary CFL fluid was highly purified. Compared to the original humoral fluids, the last purified CFL got a 203.90-fold purification and 30.48% recovery of total activity, and demonstrated a single band on SDS-PAGE. In the same time, the purified CFL was detected for agglutination activity with 7 kinds of animal erythrocytes. Other characterization, such as sugar inhibition, and the effect of temperature on the agglutination activity of CFL were also studied. Our results indicate that agglutination activity of CFL was influenced by sugar and temperature.

  18. Sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and soldier caste in a polyembryonic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Takuma; Yoshimura, Jin; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Defense against enemies is a type of natural selection considered fundamentally equivalent between the sexes. In reality, however, whether males and females differ in defense strategy is unknown. Multiparasitism necessarily leads to the problem of defense for a parasite (parasitoid). The polyembryonic parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum is famous for its larval soldiers' ability to kill other parasites. This wasp also exhibits sexual differences not only with regard to the competitive ability of the soldier caste but also with regard to host immune enhancement. Female soldiers are more aggressive than male soldiers, and their numbers increase upon invasion of the host by other parasites. In this report, in vivo and in vitro competition assays were used to test whether females have a toxic humoral factor; if so, then its strength was compared with that of males. We found that females have a toxic factor that is much weaker than that of males. Our results imply sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and larval soldiers. We discuss how this sexual complementarity guarantees adaptive advantages for both males and females despite the one-sided killing of male reproductives by larval female soldiers in a mixed-sex brood. PMID:27385149

  19. The Hepatitis C Virus Glycan Shield and Evasion of the Humoral Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the induction of effective immune responses, 80% of hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected individuals progress from acute to chronic hepatitis. In contrast to the cellular immune response, the role of the humoral immune response in HCV clearance is still subject to debate. Indeed, HCV escapes neutralizing antibodies in chronically infected patients and reinfection has been described in human and chimpanzee. Studies of antibody-mediated HCV neutralization have long been hampered by the lack of cell-culture-derived virus and the absence of a small animal model. However, the development of surrogate models and recent progress in HCV propagation in vitro now enable robust neutralization assays to be performed. These advances are beginning to shed some light on the mechanisms of HCV neutralization. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the viral targets of anti-HCV-neutralizing antibodies and the mechanisms that enable HCV to evade the humoral immune response. The recent description of the HCV glycan shield that reduces the immunogenicity of envelope proteins and masks conserved neutralizing epitopes at their surface constitutes the major focus of this review.

  20. Impact of humor and gender in e-mail marketing : Case DefShop GmbH

    OpenAIRE

    Sivén, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis project was conducted for DefShop GmbH. In accordance to the commissioner’s interests towards customization of their e-mail newsletter service, a test campaign was administered in order to detect possible differences in the clicking behavior of male and female newsletter subscribers when receiving either neutral or humorous e-mails. The two test e-mails used for the campaign differed in their visual content, changing the message in either humorous or neutral direction. ...

  1. Género, humor y escritura; o de cómo se construye la sonrisa inteligente

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lozano, Consuelo Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Esta ponencia intenta bordar en tres direcciones que aluden a la presencia femenina en la creación literaria y su relación con el humor como una construcción cultural y de género: la primera se refiere a la presencia del sentido del humor y la ironía en cierta producción literaria creada por mujeres, como son los casos de la escritora y filósofa Rosario Castellanos y de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, en México. Derivado de este punto, el segundo aspecto aborda, comparativamente, la...

  2. La explicación dinámica del humor como recurso preventivo en las adicciones

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo González Menéndez

    2003-01-01

    Se destaca el método utilizado por Freud para el abordaje del humor en su paradigmática obra "El chiste y su relación con el inconsciente"; se exponen los aspectos dinámicos fundamentales del humorismo, la comicidad y el chiste; y se abordan desde ese prisma algunos chistes paradigmáticos actuales.A partir de los mecanismos defensivos subyacentes en el humor y la observación de que el estado de embriaguez persigue la reproducción de divertimentos de la infan¬cia, similares a las determinadas...

  3. "¿Puras Groserías?": Rethinking the Role of Profanity and Graphic Humor in Latin@ Students' Bilingual Wordplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ramón Antonio; Morales, P. Zitlali

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the role of profanity and graphic humor in the bilingual wordplay of Latin@ middle school students. We highlight the creativity, skill, and communicative competence embedded in this transgressive wordplay, revealing how these youth employed profanity and graphic humor to index ethnic solidarity and construct bilingual…

  4. The Sociological Theory of Humor and Its Application Research%幽默的社会理论及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世民; 方杰; 孙配贞; 张进辅; 郑雪

    2012-01-01

    幽默的社会理论认为幽默是人们在社会交往情境中与常规意义进行游戏的交往方式。影响社会交往情境下的幽默创作的因素有幽默创作者的游戏心境、安全感、人格特质、社交能力、双方的关系满意度和交往情境。双方的关系满意度、熟悉度或理解程度、幽默倾向、双方交往的幽默倾向以及幽默信息的特点都对幽默接收者的幽默理解有重要影响。幽默可广泛应用于说服、安慰、冲突处理、领导、伴侣选择等各种情景。今后研究可扩展探讨幽默创作的年龄差异、幽默理解的研究方法、深化幽默在不同情境的应用以及深化探讨幽默的文化差异。%According to the sociological theory of humor, humor is an interaction in which people play with institutionalized meanings within a situation that can be defined as being humorous and funny through laughter. There are two purposes of humor: one is to create laughter and amusement from involved parties, to reduce conflict and enhance interpersonal relationship; the other is to serve as a mode of interpersonal communication that is frequently used to convey implicit messages in an indirect manner. Humor involves four essential components: humor creator, humor recipient, interpersonal context and humor message. Humor production was explored from the perspective of playfulness, sense of security, personality trait, interpersonal skill, relationship satisfaction, and interaction context. Playfulness is considered as the fundemental of the sense of humor, that is, refusing to look on things seriously. Individuals with a greater sense of security should be more involved in conversations, responsive to their partners, and attentive to the situation, which results in greater laughter and smiling. Humor orientation is positively correlated with optimism and openness. Humor production requires multiple skilled social competences that make interaction in a playful

  5. Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are special variants of these techniques. Here, organic solvents or their mixtures with or without dissolved electrolytes are used as separation buffer or mobile phase, respectively. The most important features of non-aqueous systems are: better solubility of more hydrophobic ionic substances (many natural products) than in water, much less current and Joule heating allows for using highly concentrated buffers and/or larger capillary internal diameters, polar interactions are enhanced in organic solvents which is often highly advantageous in chiral separation systems. This chapter presents most frequently used solvents, their properties, as well as shows pH* scale which is often used in non-aqueous systems.

  6. Amphoteric Aqueous Hafnium Cluster Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Park, Deok-Hie; Amador, Jenn M; Keszler, Douglas A; Nyman, May

    2016-05-17

    Selective dissolution of hafnium-peroxo-sulfate films in aqueous tetramethylammonium hydroxide enables extreme UV lithographic patterning of sub-10 nm HfO2 structures. Hafnium speciation under these basic conditions (pH>10), however, is unknown, as studies of hafnium aqueous chemistry have been limited to acid. Here, we report synthesis, crystal growth, and structural characterization of the first polynuclear hydroxo hafnium cluster isolated from base, [TMA]6 [Hf6 (μ-O2 )6 (μ-OH)6 (OH)12 ]⋅38 H2 O. The solution behavior of the cluster, including supramolecular assembly via hydrogen bonding is detailed via small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The study opens a new chapter in the aqueous chemistry of hafnium, exemplifying the concept of amphoteric clusters and informing a critical process in single-digit-nm lithography. PMID:27094575

  7. Differences in aqueous concentrations of cytokines in macular edema secondary to branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Feng

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigates the differential aqueous concentrations of interleukin 6, 8, 1β (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, respectively, serum amyloid A (SAA, transforming growth factor (TGF-β, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in eyes with macular edema as a result of a branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Significantly higher concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TGF-β, bFGF, SAA, and VEGF were found in the aqueous humor of CRVO and BRVO patients than in the aqueous humor of control patients. A significant correlation was observed between the concentration of bFGF and the inner central macular thickness (CMT of BRVO patients (r = 0.688; P = 0.02. A significant correlation was observed between the concentration of SAA and both the full and outer CMT of the ischemic group (r = 0.545 and 0.683, respectively; P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively. In the non-ischemic group, the level of IL-6 was significantly associated with inner CMT (r = 0.560; P = 0.03. The full and outer CMT was significantly reduced in CRVO patients when compared with BRVO patients (P = 0.02 and 0.02, respectively after injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB at 4 weeks. SIGNIFICANCE: Serum amyloid A as a major protein involved in the acute and chronic stages of inflammation, and IL-6 and bFGF were significantly associated with the extent of macular edema in patients with RVO. Besides VEGF, other inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesic factors may be associated with RVO. This finding may have implications for the medical treatment of RVO.

  8. Human Leukocyte Antigen Associations with Humoral and Cellular Immunity Following a Second Dose of Measles-Containing Vaccine: Persistence, Dampening, and Extinction of Associations Found After a First Dose

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Robert M.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Previously we found Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) associations with humoral immunity following a single dose of measles-containing vaccine. In this study, we sought to determine if HLA associations exist with humoral and cellular immunity following a second dose of measles-containing vaccine and if the associations we found with humoral immunity after the first dose persist following a second dose.

  9. Adaptação e validação da Escala de Senso de Humor Situacional Adaptación y validez de la Escala de Sentido del Humor Situacional Adaptation and validation of the Situational Humor Response Questionaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Benevides Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou desenvolver uma versão em português brasileiro do Situational Humor Response Questionaire (SHRQ, com adaptação transcultural e avaliação das medidas psicométricas em amostra brasileira. O instrumento em português de Portugal foi vertido para o português brasileiro passando pelas etapas de adaptação semântica, comparação das versões, validade de face e de conteúdo. O instrumento foi aplicado a 621 sujeitos. Foi feita extração de fatores com rotação oblíqua, análise das cargas fatoriais e consistência interna. Foram apontados três fatores: humor com amigos e colegas (α=0,70; influências sobre o humor (α=0,70; e humor em situações adversas (α =0,55. A consistência interna sugere que para o contexto brasileiro podem ser aperfeiçoados os itens de forma a aumentar o grau de precisão do fator. Contudo, o instrumento apresenta consistência interna aceitável.El estudio visó desarrollar una versión en portugués brasileño del Situational Humor Response Questionaire (SHRQ, con adaptación transcultural y evaluación de las medidas psicométricas en muestra brasileña. El instrumento en portugués de Portugal fue traducido para el portugués brasileño pasando por las etapas de adaptación semántica, comparación de las versiones, validez facial y de contenido. El instrumento fue aplicado en 621 sujetos. Fue hecha la extracción de factores con rotación oblicua, análisis de las cargas factoriales y consistencia interna. Fueron apuntados tres factores: humor con amigos y compañeros (α=0,70; influencias sobre el humor (α=0,70; y humor en situaciones adversas (α=0,55. La consistencia interna sugiere que para el contexto brasileño pueden ser perfeccionados los ítems para aumentar el grado de precisión del factor. Sin embargo, el instrumento presenta consistencia interna aceptable.This study aimed to develop a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire (SHRQ, with

  10. Aqueous coordination complexes of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thecomplex formation constants, obtained by different methods, for the complexing of neptunium, in different oxidation states, in aqueous solutions, with several organic and inorganic ligands, have been critically reviewed. The values for the thermodynamic parameters associated with the complex formation, wherever available, are also presented. (author)

  11. Aqueous systems and geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant unpublished results reported include: osmotic coefficients of KCl solutions vs. molality at 109 to 2010C; cadmium ion diffusivities in CaCl2 hydrous melts; a x-ray diffraction study of the uranyl complex in water; solubility of amorphous silica in aqueous NaNO3 solutions at 100 to 3000C; and corrosion of carbon steel by geothermal brine

  12. 合作原则与言语幽默的实现%Cooperative Principle and Realization of Verbal Humor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卉

    2015-01-01

    In verbal communication,the generation of humorous effect may be due to the language factors,also may be due to the influence of non -linguistic factors.In violation of the principle of communication,using a special way of communication, or using body gestures,such as,deputy language in communication can all be causes of humor.Based on verbal communication as the communicator in violation of the cooperative principle and humorous effects make communication as the research object, the author analyzes the causes of the humorous effect.%在言语交际中,幽默效果的产生可能是由于语言因素的影响,也可能是由于非语言因素的影响。违反交际中的原则、使用特殊的交际方式或在交际中使用肢体、手势等副语言都可能是产生幽默的原因。本文以言语交际中由于交际者违反合作原则而使交际产生幽默效果为研究对象,对其幽默效果的产生原因进行分析。

  13. Posintro™-HBsAg, a modified ISCOM including HBsAg, induces strong cellular and humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiött, Asa; Larsson, Kristina; Manniche, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    HBsAg vaccine formulation, Posintro™-HBsAg, was compared to two commercial hepatitis B vaccines including aluminium or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the two adjuvant systems MF59 and QS21 in their efficiency to prime both cellular and humoral immune responses. The Posintro™-HBsAg induced...

  14. Impact of iron deficiency anemia on cell-mediated and humoral immunity in children: A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Indranil; SAHA, Kaushik; Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Roy, Shreosee; Raychaudhuri, Gargi; Chatterjee, Mitali; Mitra, Pradip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The precise role of iron in immune regulation especially in children vulnerable to iron deficiency is not fully known. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and its treatment with oral iron supplementation on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and humoral immunity (HMI) in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 children (

  15. Coloquialismo y humor en South Park: análisis del doblaje al español

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Martín, Álvaro

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo es un estudio sobre la traducción del coloquialismo y el humor en productos audiovisuales. Tomando como referencia el doblaje al español de South Park, se analizan algunos errores habituales en obras similares y se plantean estrategias de traducción efectivas, tanto a nivel textual como oracional.

  16. Cellular and humoral immune responses in a population from the Baringo District, Kenya to Leishmania promastigote lipophosphoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Hey, A S; Theander, T G;

    1992-01-01

    In a cross-sectional house-to-house study in a leishmaniasis-endemic area in Kenya, the cellular and humoral immune response to Leishmania lipophosphoglycan (LPG) was determined. Clinical data, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and plasma were obtained from 50 individuals over the age of eight...

  17. Effects of a humor-centered activity on disruptive behavior in patients in a general hospital psychiatric ward

    OpenAIRE

    Higueras, Antonio; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Mu??oz, Jos?? P.; Idini, Esther; Ortiz, Ana; Rinc??n, Francisco; Prieto-Merino, David

    2006-01-01

    This study would not have been possible without the professional collaboration and enthusiasm of the Titiritas Clown group, who were the stars of the humor-based activities on the ward. We offer special thanks to the members of this group: Jos?? P??rez de la Blanca, Francisco Parera, and Fernando P??rez de la Blanca.

  18. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecitis, Chad David

    2009-12-01

    Interfaces or phase boundaries are a unique chemical environment relative to individual gas, liquid, or solid phases. Interfacial reaction mechanisms and kinetics are often at variance with homogeneous chemistry due to mass transfer, molecular orientation, and catalytic effects. Aqueous interfaces are a common subject of environmental science and engineering research, and three environmentally relevant aqueous interfaces are investigated in this thesis: 1) fluorochemical sonochemistry (bubble-water), 2) aqueous aerosol ozonation (gas-water droplet), and 3) electrolytic hydrogen production and simultaneous organic oxidation (water-metal/semiconductor). Direct interfacial analysis under environmentally relevant conditions is difficult, since most surface-specific techniques require relatively `extreme' conditions. Thus, the experimental investigations here focus on the development of chemical reactors and analytical techniques for the completion of time/concentration-dependent measurements of reactants and their products. Kinetic modeling, estimations, and/or correlations were used to extract information on interfacially relevant processes. We found that interfacial chemistry was determined to be the rate-limiting step to a subsequent series of relatively fast homogeneous reactions, for example: 1) Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorbed to cavitating bubble-water interfaces during sonolysis was the rate-determining step in transformation to their inorganic constituents carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and fluoride; 2) ozone oxidation of aqueous iodide to hypoiodous acid at the aerosol-gas interface is the rate-determining step in the oxidation of bromide and chloride to dihalogens; 3) Electrolytic oxidation of anodic titanol surface groups is rate-limiting for the overall oxidation of organics by the dichloride radical. We also found chemistry unique to the interface, for example: 1

  19. Characterizing Fullerene Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have indicated that fullerenes can form stable colloidal suspensions in water when introduced to the aqueous phase through solvent exchange, sonication, or extended mixing. The colloidal suspensions created using these techniques have effective aqueous phase concentratio...

  20. Humoral immune response to campylobacter jejuni in patients with enterocolitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. In addition, it can cause neurological post-infectious sequels, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS. Humoral immune response to C. jejuni was monitored in patients with C. jejuni enterocolitis, GBS patients and healthy persons, by ELISA. Statistical significance between patients with enterocolitis and healthy persons, as well as among GBS patients and healthy controls, was proven. Statistical significance in IgA among the examined groups was also noticed. The highest values of IgM were found in the patients with GBS, while the highest values of IgG were found in those with enterocolitis. C. jejuni is a significant cause of antecedent infection in GBS. ELISA techniques can be considered a reliable method in determining the presence of serum antibodies in patients with enterocolitis caused by C. jejuni, as well as in patients with GBS.

  1. Seasonal variations of the humoral immune parameters of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Yulema; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal cycles, mainly due to great variations in the light duration and temperature, are important and modulate several aspects of the animal behavior. In the case of poikilotherms animals such as fish this is very relevant. Thus, temperature changes fish immunity and affects disease resistance. We evaluate in this work the season variations of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) humoral innate parameters focusing on winter months, at which the culture of this specie is more difficult. Our results showed that not all the innate immune parameters are depressed by low temperatures. Moreover, some of them are more dependent than others to the season and both temperature and photoperiod are operating together. PMID:24852342

  2. La percepción de lo humorístico en la infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plácido Alberto Horas

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available The sense of the comic (humor has been studied during several decades from a philosophical point of view, and a limited scientific research have been carried out on this subject. In the present article, philosophical and psychological approaches are compared, and the problem of the sense of the comic is analyzed from a research point of view. An investigation is carried out, in which 60 verbal and graphical stimuli, previously considered comical by a group of judges, are given to 300 primary school children, male and female, from 7 to 13 years of age. Indicators of having perceíved the comic aspect of the stimuli are categorized as smiling, giving verbal responses, and explaining why is the stimulus funny; the three categories indicate degrees of complexity. No sex differences were found. Differences ionterms of age, academic performance, and complexity of thinking processes are discussed, from the point of view of Piaget and cognitive psychology.

  3. DISEASE RESISTANCE AND HUMORAL IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF VITAMIN C ON GROUPER, EPINEPHELUS AWOARA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The disease resistance and humoral immunomodulatory effects of vitamin C administered orally to grouper, Epinephelus awoara maintained on a frozen fish diet supplemented with vitamin C at 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg were investigated. After 20 weeks, the growth rates of the groups with high level of vitamin C apparently increased. The untreated fish had symptoms of vitamin C deficiency. The endogenous liver tissue vitamin C levels were found to reflect well the dietary treatments. After intraperitoneal injection or bath challenge with a virulent strain of Vibrio vulnificus, fish fed with high level vitamin C showed significantly higher survival rate compared with the normal control group. Vaccination with formalin inactivated V. vulnificus significantly enhanced the specific antibody production in fish treated with vitamin C, and completely protected from strong bacterial challenge the groups fed on fish with vitamin C 1500 and 2000 mg/kg diet.

  4. Interplay Between Amphioxus Complement with Sea Bass Macrophages: Opsonic Activity of Amphioxus Humoral Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Junli; LIU Min; ZHANG Shicui

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the existence of a complement system in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum.However,whether it has an opsonic activity similar to that of vertebrates remains unknown.We demonstrated that the humoral fluid (HF)of amphioxus promoted the phagocytosis of yeast cells with sea bass (Lateolabraxjaponicus) macrophages,whereas the C3-depleted and heated HF significantly lost the phagocytosis-promoting capacity.In addition,the precipitation of factor B (Bf) led to a marked loss of opsonic activity.Moreover,C3 fragments in the HF were found to bind to yeast cell surfaces.The results indicate that the amphioxus complement system is an important element involved in the opsonic activity,which promotes the sea bass macrophage phagocytosis by tagging yeast cells with C3 fragments via the activation of alternative complement pathway.

  5. Interpretation of drug concentrations in an alternative matrix: the case of meprobamate in vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bévalot, Fabien; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Cartiser, Nathalie; Le Meur, Catherine; Malicier, Daniel; Fanton, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    The use of vitreous humor (VH) as an alternative matrix to blood in the field of forensic toxicology has been described for numerous drugs. Interpretation of drug concentrations measured in VH, as in other matrices, requires statistical analysis of a data set obtained on a significant series. In the present study, two diagnostic tests interpreting postmortem VH concentrations of meprobamate in 117 sets of autopsy data are reported. (1) A VH meprobamate concentration threshold of 28 mg/l was statistically equivalent to that of blood meprobamate concentration threshold of 50 mg/l distinguishing overdose from therapeutic use in blood. The intrinsic qualities of the test were good, with sensitivity of 0.95 and absolute specificity of 1. (2) A novel interpretation tool is proposed, allowing blood concentration range to be evaluated, with a known probability, from VH concentration. PMID:21337124

  6. Co-dependence of the neural and humoral pathways in the mechanism of remote ischemic conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Jack M J; Davidson, Sean M; Hausenloy, Derek J; Yellon, Derek M

    2016-07-01

    The cardioprotection afforded by remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) is mediated via a complex mechanism involving sensory afferent nerves, the vagus nerve, and release of a humoral blood-borne factor. However, it is unknown whether release of the protective factor depends on vagal activation or occurs independently. This study aimed to evaluate the co-dependence of the neural and humoral pathways of RIC, focussing on the vagus nerve and intrinsic cardiac ganglia. In the first study, anesthetised rats received bilateral cervical vagotomy or sham-surgery immediately prior to RIC (4 × 5 min limb ischemia-reperfusion) or sham-RIC. Venous blood plasma was dialysed across a 12-14 kDa membrane and dialysate perfused through a naïve-isolated rat heart prior to 35-min left anterior descending ischemia and 60-min reperfusion. In the second study, anesthetised rats received RIC (4 × 5-min limb ischemia-reperfusion) or control (sham-RIC). Dialysate was prepared and perfused through a naïve-isolated rat heart in the presence of the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium or muscarinic antagonist atropine, prior to ischemia-reperfusion as above. Dialysate collected from RIC-treated rats reduced infarct size in naïve rat hearts from 40.7 ± 6.3 to 23.7 ± 3.1 %, p cervical vagotomy, the protection of RIC dialysate was abrogated (42.2 ± 3.2 %, p nerve. In addition, this factor appears to induce cardioprotection via recruitment of intrinsic cardiac ganglia. PMID:27338249

  7. The Effect of Pistacia khynjuk on Humoral Immune System of Wistar Rats

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    A Hadinia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Plants from the genus Pistacia family such as Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khynjuk are considered as herbal medicines. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of these plants have been confirmed. The aim of the current study was to find the effect of Pistacia khynjuk on humoral immune system of Wistar rats. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental study which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of ten animals and orally received 10 mg/kg of the extract of nucleus, cutin and fruit of Pistacia khynjuk respectively, every day for two weeks. The control group received only placebo. Immuno-reactivity was induced using BCG vaccine (IP with Freund‘s complete adjuvant (CFA. The titer of IgG and IgM were measured after the treatment using ELISA method. Moreover, the cervical lymph nodes and spleen of animals were excised and the volume and density of the primary and secondary follicle was evaluated by steriology. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS using one-way ANOVA. Results: The differences in the mean level of IgG and IgM between the treated and the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Also, the mean volume of the spleen and cervical lymph nodes of the first three groups in comparison with the control animals were not significant (p>.05. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the Pistacia khynjuk did not have any direct effect on the activity of humoral immune system and the increasing of antibody level among Wistar rats.

  8. The Leishmania infantum PUF proteins are targets of the humoral response during visceral leishmaniasis

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    Requena Jose M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA-binding proteins of the PUF family share a conserved domain consisting of tandemly repeated 36-40 amino acid motifs (typically eight known as Puf repeats. Proteins containing tandem repeats are often dominant targets of humoral responses during infectious diseases. Thus, we considered of interest to analyze whether Leishmania PUF proteins result antigenic during visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Findings Here, employing whole-genome databases, we report the composition, and structural features, of the PUF family in Leishmania infantum. Additionally, the 10 genes of the L. infantum PUF family were cloned and used to express the Leishmania PUFs in bacteria as recombinant proteins. Finally, the antigenicity of these PUF proteins was evaluated by determining levels of specific antibodies in sera from experimentally infected hamsters. The Leishmania PUFs were all recognized by the sera, even though with different degree of reactivity and/or frequency of recognition. The reactivity of hamster sera against recombinant LiPUF1 and LiPUF2 was particularly prominent, and these proteins were subsequently assayed against sera from human patients. High antibody responses against rLiPUF1 and rLiPUF2 were found in sera from VL patients, but these proteins resulted also recognized by sera from Chagas' disease patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that Leishmania PUFs are targets of the humoral response during L. infantum infection and may represent candidates for serodiagnosis and/or vaccine reagents; however, it should be kept in mind the cross-reactivity of LiPUFs with antibodies induced against other trypanosomatids such as Trypanosoma cruzi.

  9. Differential impact of ageing on cellular and humoral immunity to a persistent murine γ-herpesvirus

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    Burkum Claire E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncogenic γ-herpesviruses establish life-long infections in their hosts and control of these latent infections is dependent on continual immune surveillance. Immune function declines with age, raising the possibility that immune control of γ-herpesvirus infection becomes compromised with increasing age, allowing viral reactivation and/or increased latent load, both of which are associated with the development of malignancies. Results In this study, we use the experimental mouse γ-herpesvirus model, γHV68, to investigate viral immunity in aged mice. We found no evidence of viral recrudescence or increased latent load in aged latently-infected mice, suggesting that effective immune control of γ-herpesvirus infection remains intact with ageing. As both cellular and humoral immunity have been implicated in host control of γHV68 latency, we independently examined the impact of ageing on γHV68-specific CD8 T cell function and antibody responses. Virus-specific CD8 T cell numbers and cytolytic function were not profoundly diminished with age. In contrast, whereas ELISA titers of virus-specific IgG were maintained over time, there was a progressive decline in neutralizing activity. In addition, although aged mice were able to control de novo acute infection with only slightly delayed viral clearance, serum titers of neutralizing antibody were reduced in aged mice as compared to young mice. Conclusion Although there is no obvious loss of immune control of latent virus, these data indicate that ageing has differential impacts on anti-viral cellular and humoral immune protection during persistent γHV68 infection. This observation has potential relevance for understanding γ-herpesvirus immune control during disease-associated or therapeutic immunosuppression.

  10. Preparation of ESAT-6 Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Humoral Immunity after Intranasal Administration

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    H Najminezhad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among several tuberculosis vaccine candidates for replacement of BCG, ESAT-6 protein has a special role. Since mycobacterium tuberculosis infection most often attacks the lungs, intranasal rout can be regarded as appropriate methods for tuberculosis vaccines and drug delivery. One of the appropriate systems for intranasal vaccine delivery is using biodegradable nanoparticles. Among biodegradable polymers, chitosan polymer has great features to increase the response of immunity system. This study aimed to investigate the specific humoral immune response of mice model after encapsulation of recombinant ESAT-6 antigen in chitosan nanoparticles. Methods: The chitosan nanoparticles containing ESAT-6 antigen were synthesized by ionic gelation. Nanoparticle properties including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation rates, and protein release were measured in vitro. The immunization was performed through the nose for 3 times on days 0 and 14 and 28. 2 weeks after last administration, blood samples were collected and specific IgG titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Results: The nanoparticles synthesized had appropriate properties. The mean size of resulting nanoparticles was 242.8 nm by excellent antigen loading capacity (95.23 %. The vitro release of antigen from nanoparticles after 200 hours was detected as 67.5%. The Level of IgG antibody showed significant increase in the group that had received chitosan nanoparticles containing ESAT-6 compared with other groups. Conclusion: ESAT-6 protein was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles successfully. Administration of chitosan nanoparticles can be a suitable method for administration of humoral immunity antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through intranasal rout.

  11. Development of SCN connectivity and the circadian control of arousal: a diminishing role for humoral factors?

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    Andrew J Gall

    Full Text Available The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN is part of a wake-promoting circuit comprising the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH and locus coeruleus (LC. Although widely considered a "master clock," the SCN of adult rats is also sensitive to feedback regarding an animal's behavioral state. Interestingly, in rats at postnatal day (P2, repeated arousing stimulation does not increase neural activation in the SCN, despite doing so in the LC and DMH. Here we show that, by P8, the SCN is activated by arousing stimulation and that selective destruction of LC terminals with DSP-4 blocks this activational effect. We next show that bidirectional projections among the SCN, DMH, and LC are nearly absent at P2 but present at P8. Despite the relative lack of SCN connectivity with downstream structures at P2, day-night differences in sleep-wake activity are observed, suggesting that the SCN modulates behavior at this age via humoral factors. To test this hypothesis, we lesioned the SCN at P1 and recorded sleep-wake behavior at P2: Day-night differences in sleep and wake were eliminated. We next performed precollicular transections at P2 and P8 that isolate the SCN and DMH from the brainstem and found that day-night differences in sleep-wake behavior were retained at P2 but eliminated at P8. Finally, the SCN or DMH was lesioned at P8: When recorded at P21, rats with either lesion exhibited similarly fragmented wake bouts and no evidence of circadian modulation of wakefulness. These results suggest an age-related decline in the SCN's humoral influence on sleep-wake behavior that coincides with the emergence of bidirectional connectivity among the SCN, DMH, and LC.

  12. A Study on the Humoral and Complement Immune System of Patients with Organic Acidemia

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    Faegheh Alizadeh Najjarbashi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with organic acidemia are prone to different infections, which lead to acidosis episodes. Some studies have evaluated the status of immune system in acidotic phase in these patients, but to the best of our knowledge no study has evaluated the immune system in non-acidotic phase of the disease. In this study, thirty-one patients with organic acidemia were enrolled. For evaluation of humoral immunity, serum IgA, IgG, IgE, IgM, isohemaggltuinin titer, anti tetanus and anti diphtheria IgG were measured. For screening of complement deficiencies, serum C3, C4, and CH50 were assessed. Eleven patients had Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD, 10 had methylmalonic acidemia, 5 had isovaleric acidemia, 4 had glutaric aciduria, and 1 had propionic acidemia. Serum IgM level was less than normal in 2 patients. Serum isohemagglutinin titer was less than 1:8 in 2 other patients. IgA, IgE, and IgG were within normal range for all patients. Anti tetanus and anti diphtheria IgG levels were low in two patients with MSUD. No significant relationship was found between any of the measured parameters and history of recurrent admissions, recurrent infections and the type of their diseases. Five patients had high C3 level, 4 had high C4 level, and 5 had high CH50 percentage. Totally, 10 patients had high complement level, but no remarkable connection was noted between the type of the disease and complement level. Minor insignificant deficiencies in humoral immunity in non-acidotic phase of organic acidemia were found. Some components of complement system showed increase in some patients, which might be due to decreased pH in extracellular fluid.

  13. Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection.

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    Rebecca A Elsner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is an emerging infectious disease and already by far the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Similar to many other infections, infection with B. burgdorferi results in strong antibody response induction, which can be used clinically as a diagnostic measure of prior exposure. However, clinical studies have shown a sometimes-precipitous decline of such antibodies shortly following antibiotic treatment, revealing a potential deficit in the host's ability to induce and/or maintain long-term protective antibodies. This is further supported by reports of frequent repeat infections with B. burgdorferi in endemic areas. The mechanisms underlying such a lack of long-term humoral immunity, however, remain unknown. We show here that B. burgdorferi infected mice show a similar rapid disappearance of Borrelia-specific antibodies after infection and subsequent antibiotic treatment. This failure was associated with development of only short-lived germinal centers, micro-anatomical locations from which long-lived immunity originates. These showed structural abnormalities and failed to induce memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells for months after the infection, rendering the mice susceptible to reinfection with the same strain of B. burgdorferi. The inability to induce long-lived immune responses was not due to the particular nature of the immunogenic antigens of B. burgdorferi, as antibodies to both T-dependent and T-independent Borrelia antigens lacked longevity and B cell memory induction. Furthermore, influenza immunization administered at the time of Borrelia infection also failed to induce robust antibody responses, dramatically reducing the protective antiviral capacity of the humoral response. Collectively, these studies show that B. burgdorferi-infection results in targeted and temporary immunosuppression of the host and bring new insight into the mechanisms underlying the failure

  14. The effects of melamine on humoral immunity with or without cyanuric acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rong H; Li, Xi T; Wang, Xin; Li, Hua S; Yin, Rong L; Liu, Jiao; Dong, Qiao; Wang, Wen C; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Bao S; Han, Xiao H; He, Jian B; Bai, Wen L

    2016-04-01

    Melamine is an industrial chemical with high nitrogen content. When added to the pet food and milk it can falsely elevate the apparent protein concentration readings. Cyanuric acid related structurally to melamine has a strong mutual affinity with melamine. The combined ingestion of melamine and cyanuric acid was considered to be responsible for the crystalluria, kidney stones and subsequent renal failure in animals. In our previous investigation, we demonstrated that melamine alone or its combination with cyanuric acid appears to be toxic to the immune system in mice. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of melamine on humoral immunity with or without cyanuric acid in mice. In comparison to control group, a significantly lower content of plasma cells expressing CD138 were observed in mixture groups of melamine and cyanuric acid with both middle and high doses. The co-administration of melamine and cyanuric acid resulted in a significant decreasing in blimp-1 protein expression and the contents of sIgA, C3, IL-21 and IL-4 compared with the control group. Moreover, our data clearly showed that melamine-related toxicity suppressed the production of IL-6 and IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the animals from mixture of melamine and cyanuric acid with high dose group exhibited a significantly lower expression of gata-3 protein, The results from the present study suggested that the exposure to melamine alone or combination with cyanuric acid had certain humoral immunotoxicity in mice, especially when ingested in high dosage. PMID:27033911

  15. Leptospiral proteins recognized during the humoral immune response to leptospirosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, H; Croda, J; Flannery, B; Mazel, M; Matsunaga, J; Galvão Reis, M; Levett, P N; Ko, A I; Haake, D A

    2001-08-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis caused by pathogenic spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. An understanding of leptospiral protein expression regulation is needed to develop new immunoprotective and serodiagnostic strategies. We used the humoral immune response during human leptospirosis as a reporter of protein antigens expressed during infection. Qualitative and quantitative immunoblot analysis was performed using sera from 105 patients from Brazil and Barbados. Sera from patients with other diseases and healthy individuals were evaluated as controls. Seven proteins, p76, p62, p48, p45, p41, p37, and p32, were identified as targets of the humoral response during natural infection. In both acute and convalescent phases of illness, antibodies to lipopolysaccharide were predominantly immunoglobulin M (IgM) while antibodies to proteins were exclusively IgG. Anti-p32 reactivity had the greatest sensitivity and specificity: positive reactions were observed in 37 and 84% of acute- and convalescent-phase sera, respectively, while only 5% of community control individuals demonstrated positive reactions. Six immunodominant antigens were expressed by all pathogenic leptospiral strains tested; only p37 was inconsistently expressed. Two-dimensional immunoblots identified four of the seven infection-associated antigens as being previously characterized proteins: LipL32 (the major outer membrane lipoprotein), LipL41 (a surface-exposed outer membrane lipoprotein), and heat shock proteins GroEL and DnaK. Fractionation studies demonstrated LipL32 and LipL41 reactivity in the outer membrane fraction and GroEL and DnaK in the cytoplasmic fraction, while p37 appeared to be a soluble periplasmic protein. Most of the other immunodominant proteins, including p48 and p45, were localized to the inner membrane. These findings indicate that leptospiral proteins recognized during natural infection are potentially useful for serodiagnosis and may serve as targets for vaccine

  16. A Novel Chitosan CpG Nanoparticle Regulates Cellular and Humoral Immunity of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To develop a safe and novel immunoadjuvant to enhance the immunity and resistance of animals against E.coli infection. Methods An 88-base immunostimulatory oligodeoxynuleotide containing eleven CpG motifs (CpG ODN)was synthesized and amplified by PCR. The chitosan nanoparticle (CNP) was prepared by ion linking method to entrap the CpG ODN that significantly promotes the proliferation of lymphocytes of pig in vitro. Then the CpG- CNP was inoculated into 21-day old Kunming mice, which were orally challenged with virulent K88/K99 E. Coli 35 days after inoculation. Blood was collected from the tail vein of mice on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 after inoculation to detect the changes and content of immunoglobulins, cytokines and immune cells by ELISA, such as IgG, IgA, IgM, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6. Results The CpG provoked remarkable proliferation of lymphocytes of pig in vitro in comparison with that of control group (P<0.05). The inoculation with CpG-CNP significantly raised the content of IgG, IgM, and IgA in the sera of immunized mice (P<0.05). The levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 in the mice significantly increased in comparison with those in controls (P<0.05), so was the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes in immunized mice. The humoral and cellular immunities were significantly enhanced in immunized mice, which resisted the infection of E. coli and survived, while the control mice manifested evident symptoms and lesions of infection. Conclusions CpG-CNP can significantly promote cellular and humoral immunity and resistance of mice against E. coli infection, and can be utilized as an effective adjuvant to improve the immunoprotection and resistance of porcine against infectious disease.

  17. Phantasmatic Constructions: Language and Humor and the Interrogation of Identity in Contemporary Filipino Comic Plays

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    Maria Rhodora G. Ancheta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ways in which humor operates to interrogate and assert Filipino identity in the face of an ever invasive hyperreal intervention in Philippine contemporary life, in two contemporary comic plays, “Welcome to IntelStar” by Chris Martinez (2005, and “Psychedelia Apocalypsis” by Nicolas Pichay (2007. In the former, a comic monologue foregrounds the “call center phenomenon” in the Philippines. Outsourced service is shown as a maneuver which loosely transplants English-speaking, ‘American-sounding’ workers within a global economic community, and one which now comically depicts these workers, in fact, as culturally mired subjects negotiating their identity constructions within their everyday lives. “Psychedelia Apocalypsis” is a farcical depiction of an American film crew’s apparently innocent entry into the Philippine highlands to shoot the Francis Ford Coppola film Apocalypse Now; as a result, they become embroiled in the intersections of Filipino history, current Philippine internal conflicts, and Philippine political feuds, thus highlighting the matrix of current Philippine culture and life. In reading these two plays as shifting cultural texts, I seek to examine how the language of humor and the comic strategies used therein (especially citing the role of incongruity theories respond to the creation, or to the evolution of a hyperreal Filipino identity, one that complicates the fixing of a national identity in the face of a culture that has long grappled with this question, given the Philippines’ own colonial and hybrid culture. And while this paper focuses mainly on Filipino texts and problematizes Filipino identity, it is significant to explore the Asian and Third World reverberations of the possibilities and problems of this cultural reengagement and reconsolidation of identity, examined now by way of language and culture.

  18. El humor en el arte contemporáneo: claves de creación, comunicación y sintaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Malave, Florencio Javier

    2016-01-01

    Falta palabras claves La tesis analiza los procesos por los cuales el humor se hace presente en las creaciones artísticas contemporáneas, realizando un acercamiento a las principales teorías de la psicología del humor y relacionándolo con los atributos visuales, las figuras retóricas y las áreas relacionadas con el humor, entendiendo estas como “campos” que se emplean para resultar hilarantes. En este análisis se deducen las claves por las que es posible crear, comunicar y proponer una sin...

  19. Strategies in Cultural Dubbing of the Humorous Parts of a Drama Series: The Case of “Due South”, Episode 60

    OpenAIRE

    SHARIATI, Zahra; AMIRIAN, Zahra; ESLAMIRASEKH, Abbass

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Humor is a special topic in audiovisual translation (AVT) studies because in films they give valuable information, but its management in audiovisual translation is restricted by technical, linguistic, and cultural constraints (Veiga, 2009, p.  2, 3). This study focuses on the Persian dubbing of three humorous parts of an episode of the non-comedy drama series, “Due South” to see which translation strategies are frequently used, and the humorous effects of both ST and TT will be exam...

  20. Imaging the Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathway in Human Eyes by Three-dimensional Micro-computed Tomography (3D micro-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Hann; M Bentley; A Vercnocke; E Ritman; M Fautsch

    2011-12-31

    The site of outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma is believed to be located in the region of Schlemm's canal inner wall endothelium, its basement membrane and the adjacent juxtacanalicular tissue. Evidence also suggests collector channels and intrascleral vessels may have a role in intraocular pressure in both normal and glaucoma eyes. Traditional imaging modalities limit the ability to view both proximal and distal portions of the trabecular outflow pathway as a single unit. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (3D micro-CT) as a potential method to view the trabecular outflow pathway. Two normal human eyes were used: one immersion fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and one with anterior chamber perfusion at 10 mmHg followed by perfusion fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde/2% glutaraldehyde. Both eyes were postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide and scanned with 3D micro-CT at 2 {mu}m or 5 {mu}m voxel resolution. In the immersion fixed eye, 24 collector channels were identified with an average orifice size of 27.5 {+-} 5 {mu}m. In comparison, the perfusion fixed eye had 29 collector channels with a mean orifice size of 40.5 {+-} 13 {mu}m. Collector channels were not evenly dispersed around the circumference of the eye. There was no significant difference in the length of Schlemm's canal in the immersed versus the perfused eye (33.2 versus 35.1 mm). Structures, locations and size measurements identified by 3D micro-CT were confirmed by correlative light microscopy. These findings confirm 3D micro-CT can be used effectively for the non-invasive examination of the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, collector channels and intrascleral vasculature that comprise the distal outflow pathway. This imaging modality will be useful for non-invasive study of the role of the trabecular outflow pathway as a whole unit.

  1. Analysis of protein composition of rabbit aqueous humor following two different cataract surgery incision procedures using 2-DE and LC-MS/MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Behrens, A.; McDonell, P.J.; Van Eyk, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2011), s. 1-15. ISSN 1477-5956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : proteomics * tandem mass spectrometry * cataract surgery Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.328, year: 2011 http://www.proteomesci.com/content/9/1/8

  2. Тhe shifts in the content of prostoglandins Е2 in aqueous humor of patients with senile and complicated cataracts

    OpenAIRE

    Zilfyan, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose. There has been undertaken in this research, in case of complicated cataracts, an attempt of definition of a role of prostaglandins Е2 (PgЕ2) in mechanisms of cancellation of immune responses, responsible for ACAID, in the early period of the aseptic uveitis course. Material and method. The patients with senile and complicated cataracts underwent the microaxial phonoemulsification. The first group included patients with senile uncomplicated cataract (400 eyes), the ...

  3. Humoral immune response of horses experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi/ Resposta imune humoral de eqüinos infectados experimentalmente com Trypanosoma evansi

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    Lúcia Padilha Cury Thomaz de Aquino

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Six adult horses were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi (106 parasites. Three other adult horses served as negative control. Serum samples of the experimentally infected horses with T. evansi and non-infected controls horses were obtained before inoculation, and daily thereafter until 14 days post infection (DPI. After that time the serum samples were obtained weekly. Sera of the infected and non-infected control horses was tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of antibodies against T. evansi. Both ELISA and IFAT detected trypanosomal antibodies shortly after infection and showed progressive increases in antibodies levels during early stages of infection. The responses started on the eighth and eleventh DPI. Maximum IFAT and ELISA values were reached after four weeks of infection and were maintained at this level until the end of the period of study.Seis eqüinos foram inoculados com 106 tripomastigota sangüícolas de Trypanosoma evansi. Três outros animais foram mantidos como testemunhas. Amostras de soro sangüíneo foram obtidas de todos os animais, antes da inoculação, e diariamente até o 14º dia pós inoculação (DPI; após este período uma vez por semana. Pesquisa de anticorpos anti- T. evansi, foram realizadas através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI e do ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática (ELISA. A resposta imune humoral, detectada através da RIFI e do ELISA, iniciou-se, em média, a partir do oitavo DPI, alcançando títulos máximos após quatro semanas de evolução, e os titulos de anticorpos anti- T. evansi mantiveram-se elevadas até o término das observações.

  4. Case of Acute Graft Failure during Suspected Humoral Rejection with Preserved Ejection Fraction, but Severely Reduced Longitudinal Deformation Detected by 2D-Speckle Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Eiskjær, Hans; Kofoed-Nielsen, Pernille B;

    2014-01-01

    remained unchanged, indicating need of more reliable noninvasive methods for graft function surveillance. Global longitudinal strain relates to clinical heart failure, filling pressure, and cardiac index during suspected humoral rejection and microvascular dysfunction in this HTX patient. We suggest...

  5. The Murine Humoral Immune Response to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Idiotype Network Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Michael Roy

    Recognition of a wide spectrum in disease outcomes following Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection has led to the suggestion that individual differences may be due to characteristics of the immune response. HBV, a hepatotropic virus, is not directly cytopathic to the host hepatocytes but the cellular damage which does not occur may be due to the host's own immune response. It is this variety in immune response capabilities following natural infection or vaccination which led to the present study in which the murine humoral immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was examined. Following immunization with purified HBsAg an anti-HBs response could be detected in 19 inbred strains of mice. The response, which varied among the strains, was linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Among high responders to HBsAg were two strains in which a poor response to a single epitope could be detected. Although quantitatively serum from these strains resembled serum from other high responders, there was a major difference in the qualitative aspects. Included within this study was the role of idotype networks within the murine anti-HBs response. By directly targeting HBsAg-specific B cells within the framework of an idiotype network by an Ab-2, it was possible to circumvent T cell-dependent regulation of an immune response. In each of five inbred strains of mice immunized with a polyclonal rabbit Ab-2 an Ab-3 population with HBsAg-specificity (Ab -1^') was induced. These mice were also immunized with HBsAg resulting in a higher anti-HBs response as compared to HBsAg immunization alone in all of the strains tested except for one. The response in this strain, normally a low responder to HBsAg, indicated that the mechanisms for genetic restriction of the anti -HBs response was still active, although it was not apparent during anti-Id immunization. The effects of an anti-Id on the murine antibody response to HBsAg may lead to insights on the presence of idiotype

  6. Staphylococcus aureus avirulent mutant vaccine induces humoral and cellular immune responses on pregnant heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, M; Rodriguez, N; Vivas, A; Giraudo, J; Bogni, C

    2016-06-17

    Bovine mastitis produces economic losses, attributable to the decrease in milk production, reduced milk quality, costs of treatment and replacement of animals. A successful prophylactic vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus should elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. In a previous report we evaluated the effectiveness of a live vaccine to protect heifers against challenge with a virulent strain. In the present study the immunological response of heifers after combined immunization schedule was investigated. In a first experimental trial, heifers were vaccinated with 3 subcutaneous doses of avirulent mutant S. aureus RC122 before calving and one intramammary dose (IMD) after calving. Antibodies concentration in blood, bactericidal effect of serum from vaccinated animals and lymphocyte proliferation was determined. The levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in colostrum and the lymphocyte proliferation index were significantly higher in vaccinated respect to non-vaccinated group throughout the experiment. The second trial, where animals were inoculated with different vaccination schedules, was carried out to determine the effect of the IMD on the level of antibodies in blood and milk, cytokines (IL-13 and IFN-γ) concentration and milk's SCC and bacteriology. The bacterial growth of the S. aureus strains was totally inhibited at 1-3×10(6) and 1-3×10(3)cfu/ml, when the strains were mixed with pooled serum diluted 1/40. The results shown that IMD has not a significant effect on the features determinate. In conclusion, a vaccination schedule involving three SC doses before calving would be enough to stimulate antibodies production in milk without an IMD. Furthermore, the results showed a bactericidal effect of serum from vaccinated animals and this provides further evidence about serum functionality. Immune responses, humoral (antigen-specific antibodies and Th2 type cytokines) and cellular (T-lymphocyte proliferation responses and Th1 type cytokines), were

  7. Diario de un taller de humor gráfico e historieta costumbrista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entrialgo, Mauro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of this text gave lessons of graphic humour and comics dealing with local customs, in the classrooms at the Círculo de Bellas Artes in Madrid during a week in the 2010 summer. His report about these days shows a way to consider the teaching of the comic that places the information about the media and its own narrative tools in close-up and then, the mere plastic accuracy. This way of teaching also proposes specific exercises and alternation of new and traditional technologies. Giving the creative historical precedents and the sector publishing reality, is also a matter of importance from a professional point of view. At the same time, the author explains his theory on the humouristic speech, some considerations about the nature of the drawing and championed a very large definition of the two words: “cartoon story”.

    El autor de este texto impartió un taller de humor gráfico e historieta costumbrista en las aulas del madrileño Círculo de Bellas Artes durante una semana del verano de 2010. Su relato de aquellos días esboza una forma de abordar la enseñanza de la historieta que coloca en primer término el conocimiento del medio y sus herramientas narrativas sobre la mera habilidad plástica. En esa dirección, propone ejercicios concretos y procedimientos que alternan nuevas y tradicionales tecnologías. También destaca la importancia formativa de dar a conocer los antecedentes creativos históricos del medio y la realidad editorial del sector desde el punto de vista profesional, al mismo tiempo que expone fugazmente su particular teoría sobre la estructura del discurso humorístico, emite diversas consideraciones sobre la naturaleza del dibujo y aboga por una amplísima definición del término historieta.

  8. Geen effectiever vermaak dan leedvermaak. Humor als retorisch wapen in de Lanterne magique of toverlantaern (1782-83.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nieuwenhuis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the late eighteenth-century Dutch periodical Lanterne magique of toverlantaern. This political journal is analyzed from the perspective of its sense of humor and its rhetorical strategy. The Lanterne magique turns out to offer a striking example of so-called defamatory rhetoric. In this periodical it is all about humiliating and scapegoating political enemies, and Schadenfreude is the main means through which this is done. The enemies are jocularly depicted as drunkards, cowards and perverts. Thus Schadenfreude, as part of the broader culture of slanderous attack, turns out to be an effective tool within late eighteenth-century public debate. Besides that, the fact that the Lanterne magique was so successful at the time, tells us that both this debate and the sense of humor of eighteenth-century Dutch society differ from that of our own time. Realizing this, we can start to understand early-modern political rhetoric and laughter better.

  9. Empirical evidence of cold stress induced cell mediated and humoral immune response in common myna ( Sturnus tristis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Mansur A.; Zaib, Anila; Anjum, Muhammad S.; Qayyum, Mazhar

    2015-11-01

    Common myna ( Sturnus tristis) is a bird indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that has invaded many parts of the world. At the onset of our investigation, we hypothesized that the immunological profile of myna makes it resistant to harsh/new environmental conditions. In order to test this hypothesis, a number of 40 mynas were caught and divided into two groups, i.e., 7 and 25 °C for 14 days. To determine the effect of cold stress, cell mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed. The macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly ( P immunization by SRBC. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been reported in the progression of this bird's invasion in frosty areas of the world. The results revealed a strengthened humoral immune response of myna and made this bird suitable for invasion in the areas of harsh conditions.

  10. The use of 125I-labelled protein A for the detection of humoral immunity of gross murine leukaemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay utilising binding of 125I-labelled protein A to antibodies bound to virus adsorbed onto microtitre plates was shown to be suitable for detection of humoral immunity to Gross murine leukaemia virus (MuLV). The specificity of the reaction was shown by the fact that only homologous or closely related viruses effectively inhibited binding of antibodies to adsorbed virus. With this method a low level of spontaneous humoral immunity was demonstrated in sera from AKR/Crc mice, a strain with high concentrations of endogenous virus, whereas little or no anti-viral activity was found in CBA/H-T6Crc, a subline that does not appear to express MuLV. (Auth.)

  11. “A jocis ad seria”: la risa ambivalente en la obra humorística de Manuel Vilas

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Valencia, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    La obra de Manuel Vilas, tanto narrativa como poética, ha sido recurrentemente valorada por la crítica como literatura humorística. El propósito de este artículo es analizar el tipo de risa que encontramos en la recepción de la obra vilasiana para, desde ahí, proponer, entre las diferentes teorías sobre la risa, una lectura que sintetice a través del humor su visión del mundo y los elementos más característicos de su obra (identidad nacional, autoficción, hibridación genérica, ambigüedad ideo...

  12. Age-related impairment of humoral response to influenza is associated with changes in antigen specific T follicular helper cell responses

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Julie S; Masters, April R; Hopkins, Jacob W; Laura Haynes

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper (TFH) cell responses are essential for generation of protective humoral immunity during influenza infection. Aging has a profound impact on CD4+ T cell function and humoral immunity, yet the impact of aging on antigen specific TFH responses remains unclear. Influenza specific TFH cells are generated in similar numbers in young and aged animals during infection, but TFH cells from aged mice exhibit significant differences, including reduced expression of ICOS and elevated p...

  13. Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Release of a prostaglandin-stimulating bone-resorbing factor in vitro by human transitional-cell carcinoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Bringhurst, F R; Bierer, B E; Godeau, F; Neyhard, N; Varner, V; Segre, G. V.

    1986-01-01

    Secretion by tumor cells of circulating bone-resorbing factors may frequently underlie the hypercalcemia that occurs in patients with malignancy. Efforts to identify the responsible mediators have been hampered by a lack of available human tumor cell systems suitable for study of the pathogenesis of the humoral hypercalcemia syndrome. We have established a transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC) line in vitro from a patient with humoral hypercalcemia. These cells are tumorigenic and cause hypercalc...

  14. The comparisons of gender differences in playfulness, humor and creativity of postgraduate students between Mainland China and Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Lingling; Zhang, Song; Zhou, Chunfang

    This paper aims to study influences from regional cultural differences and gender differences on fostering creativity in postgraduate level education between Mainland China and Taiwan. From the departure of viewing creativity as a socio-cultural conception, playfulness and humor are focused as two...... main aspects influencing creativity in this study. The findings lead some discussions on how gender differences in creativity are influenced by socio-cultural environment....

  15. "Dissecting the poisoned honey" : Sexist Humor in Egypt: A linguistic analysis of sexism in Colloquial Cairene Arabic jokes

    OpenAIRE

    Nayef, Heba; El-Nashar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to shed light on sexism in Egyptian Internet jokes. It examines how language, as an institution largely controlled by men, is manipulated and used to disparage women in this discursive mode of humor. Through running a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 284 sexist internet jokes, the study addressed three points; namely, the most frequently targeted category of women in sexist jokes; the most salient physical and personal attributes and finally the way sexist jokes is...

  16. Enterotoxemia in the goat: the humoral response and local tissue reaction following vaccination with two different bacterin-toxoids.

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, T. E.; Butler, D G; Bell, J A

    1983-01-01

    A vaccination trial involving 72 goats was designed to compare the epsilon antitoxin titres and local reactions at the injection sites, of two commercial enterotoxemia vaccines. Three dosage regimens were used for each vaccine (12 goats per group). Although no significant differences were noted in humoral immune response between the two vaccines (P = 0.05), one vaccine regime resulted in low titres (P = 0.05) on two occasions. Local tissue reactions at injection sites persisted for six months...

  17. Humoral leukocyte adherence inhibition (H-LAI) test in screening of high risk group for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In screening 150 ore miners a positive humoral immune response to the lung tumor antigen was found in 30 serum samples. Repeated testing of the positive sera (after 1-3 years) was only possible in 15 cases. The reaction of 12 serum samples again was positive, while 2 persons died of lung cancer. The results obtained in these follow-up investigations are discussed. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 11 refs

  18. Separate and combined effect of low doses of ionizing radiation and hydroquinone on humoral immune response in regional lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole-body exposure of mice to 0.1 Gy γ-radiation resulted in stimulation of T-cell dependent humoral immune response in lymph nodes. At the same enhansement of succeptability of immunocompetent cells to damaging effect of hydroquinone was observed. Under irradiation with doses of 0.5 or 1 Gy which cause dose-dependent immunosupression, hydroquinone induced stimulation of antigene production

  19. State of humoral link of immune system in children with mono- and mixed-variants of rotavirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Сміян-Горбунова, Катерина Олександрівна; Бинда, Тетяна Парфеніївна; Сміян, Олександр Іванович

    2015-01-01

    Connection of an immune system with infection agents defines the further development of infectious diseases especially rotavirus infection (RVI). The state of immune system before the beginning of disease and an adequacy of immune answer to causative agent defines the possibility of disease and its heaviness, duration of an acute period, cyclicity, time of pathogens elimination and period of reconvalescence. The humoral link is one of important components of immune system.Methods. 96 children...

  20. The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Prebiotic and Probiotic on Performance, Humoral Immunity Responses and Egg Hatchability in Broiler Breeders

    OpenAIRE

    Hajati H; Hassanabadi A; Teimouri Yansari A

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment, the influence of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation in the broiler breeder diets on body weight, mortality, feed intake, egg production, hatchability and humoral immunity response was investigated. A total number of 13140 female and 1260 male breeders (Cobb 500) with 26 wks of age were allocated to three treatments with six replicates (800 birds each replicate). Breeders were fed control basal diet, basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide) or pr...