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Sample records for aqueous homogeneous medical

  1. Use of LEU in the aqueous homogeneous medical isotope production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, R.M. [Babock & Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Medical Isotope Production Reactor (MIPR) is an aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate in water, contained in an aluminum cylinder immersed in a large pool of water which can provide both shielding and a medium for heat exchange. The control rods are inserted at the top through re-entrant thimbles. Provision is made to remove radiolytic gases and recombine emitted hydrogen and oxygen. Small quantities of the solution can be continuously extracted and replaced after passing through selective ion exchange columns, which are used to extract the desired products (fission products), e.g. molybdenum-99. This reactor type is known for its large negative temperature coefficient, the small amount of fuel required for criticality, and the ease of control. Calculation using TWODANT show that a 20% U-235 enriched system, water reflected can be critical with 73 liters of solution.

  2. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  3. Optimization study and neutronic and thermal-hydraulic design calculations of a 75 KWTH aqueous homogeneous reactor for medical isotopes production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Daniel Milian; Lorenzo, Daniel E. Milian; Garcia, Lorena P. Rodriguez; Llanes, Jesus Salomon; Hernandez, Carlos R. Garcia, E-mail: dperez@instec.cu, E-mail: dmilian@instec.cu, E-mail: lorenapilar@instec.cu, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Lira, Carlos A. Brayner de Oliveira, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil); Rodriguez, Manuel Cadavid, E-mail: mcadavid2001@yahoo.com [Tecnologia Nuclear Medica Spa, TNM (Chile)

    2015-07-01

    {sup 99m}Tc is the most common radioisotope used in nuclear medicine. It is a very useful radioisotope, which is used in about 30-40 million procedures worldwide every year. Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using {sup 99m}Tc represent approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. Although {sup 99m}Tc can be produced directly on a cyclotron or other type of particle accelerator, currently is almost exclusively produced from the beta-decay of its 66-h parent {sup 99}Mo. {sup 99}Mo production system in an Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR) is potentially advantageous because of its low cost, small critical mass, inherent passive safety, and simplified fuel handling, processing and purification characteristics. In this paper, an AHR conceptual design using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) is studied and optimized for the production of {sup 99}Mo. Aspects related with the neutronic behavior such as optimal reflector thickness, critical height, medical isotopes production and the reactivity feedback introduced in the solution by the volumetric expansion of the fuel solution due to thermal expansion of the fuel solution and the void volume generated by radiolytic gas bubbles were evaluated. Thermal-hydraulics studies were carried out in order to show that sufficient cooling capacity exists to prevent fuel overheating. The neutronic and thermal-hydraulics calculations have been performed with the MCNPX computational code and the version 14 of ANSYS CFX respectively. The neutronic calculations demonstrated that the reactor is able to produce 370 six-day curies of {sup 99}Mo in 5 days operation cycles and the CFD simulation demonstrated that the heat removal systems provide sufficient cooling capacity to prevent fuel overheating, the maximum temperature reached by the fuel (89.29 deg C) was smaller to the allowable temperature limit (90 deg C). (author)

  4. Simulator for SUPO, a Benchmark Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Determan, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-14

    A simulator has been developed for SUPO (Super Power) an aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) that operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1951 to 1974. During that period SUPO accumulated approximately 600,000 kWh of operation. It is considered the benchmark for steady-state operation of an AHR. The SUPO simulator was developed using the process that resulted in a simulator for an accelerator-driven subcritical system, which has been previously reported.

  5. Analysis of 99Mo Production Capacity in Uranyl Nitrate Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor using ORIGEN and MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc is a very useful radioisotope in medical diagnostic procedure. 99mTc is produced from 99Mo decay. Currently, most of 99Mo is produced by irradiating 235U in the nuclear reactor. 99Mo mostly results from the fission reaction of 235U targets with a fission yield about 6.1%. A small additional amount is created from 98Mo neutron activation. Actually 99Mo is also created in the reactor fuel, but usually we do not extract it. The fuel will become spent fuel which is a highly radioactive waste. 99Mo production system in the aqueous homogeneous reactor offers a better method, because all of the 99Mo can be extracted from the fuel solution. Fresh reactor fuel solution consists of uranyl nitrate dissolved in water. There is no separation of target and fuel in an aqueous homogeneous reactor where target and fuel become one liquid solution, and there is no spent fuel generated from this reactor. Simulation of the extraction process is performed while reactor in operation (without reactor shutdown). With an extraction flow rate of 3.6 L/h, after 43 hours of reactor operation the production of 99Mo is relatively constant at about 98.6 curie/hour. (author)

  6. Analysis of 99Mo Production Capacity in Uranyl Nitrate Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor using ORIGEN and MCNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Isnaeni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc is a very useful radioisotope in medical diagnostic procedure. 99mTc is produced from 99Mo decay. Currently, most of 99Mo is produced by irradiating 235U in the nuclear reactor. 99Mo mostly results from the fission reaction of 235U targets with a fission yield about 6.1%. A small additional amount is created from 98Mo neutron activation. Actually 99Mo is also created in the reactor fuel, but usually we do not extract it. The fuel will become spent fuel which is a highly radioactive waste. 99Mo production system in the aqueous homogeneous reactor offers a better method, because all of the 99Mo can be extracted from the fuel solution. Fresh reactor fuel solution consists of uranyl nitrate dissolved in water. There is no separation of target and fuel in an aqueous homogeneous reactor where target and fuel become one liquid solution, and there is no spent fuel generated from this reactor. Simulation of the extraction process is performed while reactor in operation (without reactor shutdown. With an extraction flow rate of 3.6 L/h, after 43 hours of reactor operation the production of 99Mo is relatively constant at about 98.6 curie/hour

  7. Olefin Metathesis in Homogeneous Aqueous Media Catalyzed by Conventional Ruthenium Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Joseph B.; Blank, Jacqueline J.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2008-01-01

    Olefin metathesis in aqueous solvents is sought for applications in green chemistry and with the hydrophilic substrates of chemical biology, such as proteins and polysaccharides. Most demonstrations of metathesis in water, however, utilize exotic complexes. We have examined the performance of conventional catalysts in homogeneous water–organic mixtures, finding that the second-generation Hoveyda–Grubbs catalyst has extraordinary efficiency in aqueous dimethoxyethane and aqueous acetone. High (71–95%) conversions are achieved for ring-closing and cross metathesis of a variety of substrates in these solvent systems. PMID:17949009

  8. REMOVAL OF REMAZOL ROSSO RB DYE FROM AQUEOUS EFFLUENTS BY HOMOGENOUS FENTON OXIDATION PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Zaharia; Victoria Fedorcea; Adrian Beda; Victor Amarandei; Augustin Muresan

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents some data from our laboratory-setup experiments of homogenous oxidative processes with hydrogen peroxide (i.e. advanced Fenton oxidation processes) applied for Remazol Rosso RB dye-containing aqueous systems, especially textile effluents. Therefore, some different operating parameters (including pH, concentration of dye, H2O2 and ferrous ions, oxidation time, temperature, stirring regime, among its) were tested for determination of the best performance in effluent decolorat...

  9. Comparison of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for glucose-to-fructose isomerization in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Vinit; Pinar, Ana B; Lobo, Raul F; Vlachos, Dionisios G; Sandler, Stanley I

    2013-12-01

    Herein, the first comparison of the mechanisms of glucose-to-fructose isomerization in aqueous media enabled by homogeneous (CrCl3 and AlCl3 ) and heterogeneous catalysts (Sn-beta) by using isotopic-labeling studies is reported. A pronounced kinetic isotope effect (KIE) was observed if the deuterium label was at the C2 position, thus suggesting that a hydrogen shift from the C2 to C1 positions was the rate-limiting step with the three catalysts. (13) C and (1) H NMR spectroscopic investigations confirmed that an intra-hydride-transfer reaction pathway was the predominant reaction channel for all three catalysts in aqueous media. Furthermore, the deuterium atom in the labeled glucose could be mapped onto hydroxymethylfurfural and formic acid through reactions that followed the isomerization step in the presence of Brønsted acids. In all three catalysts, the active site appeared to be a bifunctional Lewis-acidic/Brønsted-basic site, based on a speciation model and first-principles calculations. For the first time, a mechanistic similarities between the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of aldose-to-ketose isomerization is established and it is suggested that learning from homogeneous catalysis could assist in the development of improved heterogeneous catalysts.

  10. The decisive role of free water in determining homogenous ice nucleation behavior of aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Lishan; Li, Chenxi; Cao, Zexian

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenging issue to quantitatively characterize how the solute and pressure affect the homogeneous ice nucleation in a supercooled solution. By measuring the glass transition behavior of solutions, a universal feature of water-content dependence of glass transition temperature is recognized, which can be used to quantify hydration water in solutions. The amount of free water can then be determined for water-rich solutions, whose mass fraction, Xf, is found to serve as a universal relevant parameter for characterizing the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature, the meting temperature of primary ice, and even the water activity of solutions of electrolytes and smaller organic molecules. Moreover, the effects of hydrated solute and pressure on ice nucleation is comparable, and the pressure, when properly scaled, can be incorporated into the universal parameter Xf. These results help establish the decisive role of free water in determining ice nucleation and other relevant properties of aqueous solutions. PMID:27225427

  11. The decisive role of free water in determining homogenous ice nucleation behavior of aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Lishan; Li, Chenxi; Cao, Zexian

    2016-05-01

    It is a challenging issue to quantitatively characterize how the solute and pressure affect the homogeneous ice nucleation in a supercooled solution. By measuring the glass transition behavior of solutions, a universal feature of water-content dependence of glass transition temperature is recognized, which can be used to quantify hydration water in solutions. The amount of free water can then be determined for water-rich solutions, whose mass fraction, Xf, is found to serve as a universal relevant parameter for characterizing the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature, the meting temperature of primary ice, and even the water activity of solutions of electrolytes and smaller organic molecules. Moreover, the effects of hydrated solute and pressure on ice nucleation is comparable, and the pressure, when properly scaled, can be incorporated into the universal parameter Xf. These results help establish the decisive role of free water in determining ice nucleation and other relevant properties of aqueous solutions.

  12. Robust Discrimination between Single Gold Nanoparticles and Their Dimers in Aqueous Solution for Ultrasensitive Homogeneous Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a robust method to distinguish isolated single gold nanoparticles (AuNP monomers and their dimers under Brownian motion, a key for ultrasensitive homogeneous bioassays, including AuNP sandwich assays. To detect dimers and distinguish them from a larger number of monomers in aqueous solution, single-particle polarization microscopy was performed. For the accurate detection of individual particles, the optical anisotropy and rotational diffusion time are measured because a dimer is much more anisotropic than the nearly spherical monomer and the rotational diffusion time of a dimer is four times that of a monomer. By employing an autocorrelation analysis, we defined a measure of distinguishing that simultaneously enables high detection probability and low error probability. The detection platform offers homogeneous DNA hybridization assays and immunoassays at the subpicomolar level.

  13. REMOVAL OF REMAZOL ROSSO RB DYE FROM AQUEOUS EFFLUENTS BY HOMOGENOUS FENTON OXIDATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Zaharia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some data from our laboratory-setup experiments of homogenous oxidative processes with hydrogen peroxide (i.e. advanced Fenton oxidation processes applied for Remazol Rosso RB dye-containing aqueous systems, especially textile effluents. Therefore, some different operating parameters (including pH, concentration of dye, H2O2 and ferrous ions, oxidation time, temperature, stirring regime, among its were tested for determination of the best performance in effluent decoloration and dye removal, meaning the optimal values of each studied parameters for highest decoloration or dye removal.

  14. Comparison of the degradations of diphenamid by homogeneous photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalysis in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai-chao; Li, Xiang-zhong; Yang, Yin-hua; Sze, Kong-hung

    2010-06-01

    In this work, the homogeneous and heterogeneous degradations of diphenamid (DPA) in aqueous solution were conducted by direct photolysis with UVC (254nm) and by photocatalysis with TiO(2)/UVA (350nm), and the experimental results were compared. It was found that the homogeneous photolysis by UVC irradiation alone was quite efficient to degrade DPA up to 100% after 360min, but was very inefficient to mineralize its intermediates in terms of dissolved organic carbon reduction of only 8%. In contrast, the heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO(2)/UVA showed relatively a lower degree of DPA degradation (51%), but a higher degree of its mineralization (11%) after 360min. These results reveal that the photocatalysis process has relatively poor selectivity to degrade different compounds including various intermediates from the DPA degradation, which is beneficial to its mineralization. In addition, over 20 intermediates were identified by LC-MS and (1)H NMR analyses. Based on the identified intermediates, the reaction mechanisms and the detailed pathways of the DPA degradation by photolysis and photocatalysis were proposed, and are presented in this paper.

  15. An efficient method for synthesis of phenacyl derivatives under homogeneous phase transfer catalyst condition in aqueous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soheil Sayyahi; Jafar Saghanezhad

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, a mild and efficient procedure for synthesis of phenacyl derivatives under homogenous catalysis in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide in aqueous media is described. The nucleophilic substitution reactions were performed under ecofriendly conditions and gave the corresponding products in high yields and short reaction times.

  16. Electron transfer between excited states of some sulfonated phtha-locyanines and tyrosine as well as trptophan in homogeneous aqueous solution and aqueous micellar media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先付; 许慧君; 沈涛

    1995-01-01

    Rate constants for electron transfer between excited states of several tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (MTSPC, M = H2, Zn, ClAl, ClGa) and tyrosine or trptophan have been measured in homogeneous aqueous and aqueous micellar media. Cationic micelles formed by surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) promote the electron transfer reaction, whereas neutral micelles formed by Triton X-100 depress this process. The calculated free energy change shows that phthalocyanines act as electron donors in the electron transfer reaction of its excited singlet states with tyrosine or trptophan (Type Is), whereas they act as electron acceptors in the reaction of its excited triplet states with tyrosine or trptophan (type IT). The two different electron transfer processes involving singlet and triplet of sensitizer respectively compete with each other and form different intermediates which may induce the formation of different products. Factors that govern the importance of Type Is in the whole reaction includ

  17. Homogeneous dispersion of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles into a non-aqueous-based polymer by two surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Jorice, E-mail: jorice.samuel@gmail.com [AREVA T and D UK Ltd, AREVA T and D Research and Technology Centre (United Kingdom); Raccurt, Olivier [NanoChemistry and Nanosafety Laboratory (DRT/LITEN/DTNM/LCSN), CEA Grenoble, Department of NanoMaterials (France); Mancini, Cedric; Dujardin, Christophe; Amans, David; Ledoux, Gilles [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physico Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents (LPCML) (France); Poncelet, Olivier [NanoChemistry and Nanosafety Laboratory (DRT/LITEN/DTNM/LCSN), CEA Grenoble, Department of NanoMaterials (France); Tillement, Olivier [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physico Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents (LPCML) (France)

    2011-06-15

    Gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are more and more used. They can notably provide interesting fluorescence properties. Herein they are incorporated into a non-aqueous-based polymer, the poly(methyl methacrylate). Their dispersion within the polymer matrix is the key to improve the composite properties. As-received gadolinium oxide nanopowders cannot be homogeneously dispersed in such a polymer matrix. Two surface treatments are, therefore, detailed and compared to achieve a good stability of the nanoparticles in a non-aqueous solvent such as the 2-butanone. Then, once the liquid suspensions have been stabilized, they are used to prepare nanocomposites with homogeneous particles dispersion. The two approaches proposed are an hybrid approach based on the growth of a silica shell around the gadolinium oxide nanoparticles, and followed by a suitable silane functionalization; and a non-hybrid approach based on the use of surfactants. The surface treatments and formulations involved in both methods are detailed, adjusted and compared. Thanks to optical methods and in particular to the use of a 'home made' confocal microscope, the dispersion homogeneity within the polymer can be assessed. Both methods provide promising and conclusive results.

  18. Feasibility neutronic conceptual design for the core configuration of a 75 kWth Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor for 99Mo production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc is a very useful radioisotope, which is used in nearly 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. 99mTc is produced from 99Mo decay. Since 2007 the medical community has been plagued by 99Mo shortages due to aging reactors, such as the National Research Universal reactor in Canada and the High Flux Reactor in Petten, The Netherlands. At present, most of the world's supply of 99Mo for medical isotope production involves the neutron fission of 235U in multipurpose research reactors. 99Mo mostly results from the fission reaction of 235U targets with a fission yield about 6.1%. After irradiation in the reactor, the target is digested in acid or alkaline solutions and 99Mo is recovered through a series of extraction (separation) and purification steps. 99Mo production system in an Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR) offers a better method, because all of the 99Mo can be extracted from the fuel solution. Over 30 AHRs has been built and operated around the world with 149 years of combined experience. In this paper, an AHR conceptual design using LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) is optimized to meet the South American demand for 99Mo for the coming years. Aspect related with the neutronic behavior such as optimal reflector thickness, critical height, medical isotope production and others are evaluated. The neutronic calculations have been performed with the well-known MCNPX computational code. A benchmarking experiments performed at the Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' in order to validate that the developed models of AHRs with MCNPX code and the available library in XSDIR, ENDF/B VI.2, are adequate for studies of aqueous fuel solutions. (Author)

  19. Conceptual design of a new homogeneous reactor for medical radioisotope Mo-99/Tc-99m production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liem, Peng Hong [Nippon Advanced Information Service (NAIS Co., Inc.) Scientific Computational Division, 416 Muramatsu, Tokaimura, Ibaraki (Japan); Tran, Hoai Nam [Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Applied Physics, Div. of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten (Indonesia); Arbie, Bakri [PT MOTAB Technology, Kedoya Elok Plaza Blok DA 12, Jl. Panjang, Kebun Jeruk, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    To partly solve the global and regional shortages of Mo-99 supply, a conceptual design of a nitrate-fuel-solution based homogeneous reactor dedicated for Mo-99/Tc-99m medical radioisotope production is proposed. The modified LEU Cintichem process for Mo-99 extraction which has been licensed and demonstrated commercially for decades by BATAN is taken into account as a key design consideration. The design characteristics and main parameters are identified and the advantageous aspects are shown by comparing with the BATAN's existing Mo-99 supply chain which uses a heterogeneous reactor (RSG GAS multipurpose reactor)

  20. Magnetic separation of Dy(III) ions from homogeneous aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility to enrich paramagnetic dysprosium(III) ions in a magnetic field gradient is proved by means of interferometry, which may open the route for a magnetic separation of rare earth ions from aqueous solutions. The separation dynamics are studied for three different concentrations of DyCl3 and compared with those found recently in a sulphate solution of the 3d ion Mn(II). In view of the similar-sized hydration spheres for Dy(III) and Mn(II), the slower separation dynamics in DyCl3 is attributed to both a higher densification coefficient and the strong impact of Brownian motion due to the absence of ion-pair clusters

  1. Homogeneous synthesis of quaternized chitin in NaOH/urea aqueous solution as a potential gene vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Na; Ai, Ziye; Fang, Zehong; Wang, Yanfeng; Xia, Zhiping; Zhong, Zibiao; Fan, Xiaoli; Ye, Qifa

    2016-10-01

    Water-soluble quaternized chitins (QCs) were homogeneously synthesized by reacting chitin with (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) in 8wt% NaOH/4wt% urea aqueous solutions. The chemical structure and solution properties of the quaternized chitins were characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The results demonstrated that the water-soluble QCs, with a degree of substitution (DS) values of 0.27-0.54, could be obtained by varying the concentration of chitin, the molar ratio of CHPTAC to chitin unit, and the reaction time at room temperature (25°C). Two QCs (DS=0.36 and 0.54) were selected and studied as gene carriers. Agarose gel retardation assay revealed that both QCs could condense DNA efficiently when N/P ratio>3. The results of particle size and zeta potential indicated that both QCs had a good ability of condensing plasmid DNA into compact nanoparticles with the size of 100-200nm and zeta potential of +18 to +36mV. Compared to polyethylenimine (PEI, 25kDa), the QCs exhibited outstanding low cytotoxicity. Transfection efficiencies of the QCs/DNA complexes were measured using pGL-3 encoding luciferase as the foreign DNA, and the QCs/DNA complexes showed effective transfection efficiencies in 293T cells. These results revealed that the QCs prepared in NaOH/urea aqueous solutions could be used as promising non-viral gene carriers owing to their excellent characteristics. PMID:27312628

  2. Two-photon excited fluorescent chemosensor for homogeneous determination of copper(II) in aqueous media and complicated biological matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingzhi; Dong, Xiaohu; Xiao, Yan; Lian, Wenlong; Liu, Zhihong

    2011-05-21

    In the present work, a two-photon excited fluorescent chemosensor for Cu(2+) was prepared. The probe was constructed on the basis of internal charge transfer (ICT) principle with macrocyclic dioxotetraamine as the Cu(2+) receptor. The good water-solubility of the molecule enabled recognition and assay of Cu(2+) ions in biological media. The photophysical properties of the chemosensor were investigated in detail, exhibiting favorable fluorescence quantum yield and moderate two-photon absorption cross-section. The studies on binding thermodynamics demonstrated the formation of 1 : 1 complex between the chemosensor and Cu(2+) and an association constant of ca. 1.04 × 10(5) M(-1). Due to the rational design of the molecular structure, the sensor was highly specific to Cu(2+), which ensured high selectivity in Cu(2+) determination. Upon Cu(2+) binding, the intramolecular charge-transfer extent within the chromophore was weakened resulting in a remarkable quenching of fluorescence, based on which quantitative determination of Cu(2+) was performed. Good linearity was obtained between the fluorescence quenching value and Cu(2+) concentration ranging from 0.04 to 2.0 μM in aqueous solution. Benefiting from the merits of two-photon excitation, the chemosensor was free of interference from background luminescence in serum. A homogeneous quantitative determination of Cu(2+) was achieved in the serum medium with a linear range of 0.04 to 2.0 μM. Considering the structural flexibility of the sensor, this work also opens up the possibility to construct other two-photon excited chemosensors for direct homogeneous assay of various molecules/ions in complicated biological sample matrices. PMID:21416097

  3. Thermal-Hydraulics Study of a 75 kWth Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor for 99Mo Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Milian Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tc99m is a very useful radioisotope, which is used in nearly 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. Tc99m is produced from 99Mo decay. A potentially advantageous alternative to meeting current and future demand for 99Mo is the use of Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHR. In this paper, a thermal-hydraulics study of the core of a 75 kWth AHR conceptual design based on the ARGUS reactor for 99Mo production is presented. As the ARGUS heat removal systems were designed for working at 20 kWth, the main objective of the thermal-hydraulics study was evaluating the heat removal systems in order to show that sufficient cooling capacity exists to prevent fuel solution overheating. The numerical simulations of an AHR model were carried out using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD code ANSYS CFX 14. Evaluation shows that the ARGUS heat removal systems working at 75 kWth are not able to provide sufficient cooling capacity to prevent fuel solution overheating. To solve this problem, the number of coiled cooling pipes inside the core was increased from one to five. The results of the CFD simulations with this modification in the design show that acceptable temperature distributions can be obtained.

  4. 溶液堆物理计算程序FMCAHR开发%Development of Fuel Management Code for Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪量子; 姚栋; 王侃

    2011-01-01

    Fuel Management Code for Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (FMCAHR) is developed based on the Monte Carlo transport method. FMCAHR has the ability of doing resonance treatment, searching for critical control rods height, and calculating the thermal hydraulic parameters, bubble volume fraction and bum-up. The main structure and development process of FMCAHR is introduced in this paper, and the verification shows that the computing results of FMCAHR are precise.%针对溶液型燃料反应堆,基于蒙特卡罗输运计算方法,开发了溶液堆物理计算程序FMCAHR,该程序具有共振处理、搜索临界棒位、热工水力参数计算、气泡体积含量计算和燃耗计算的功能.对程序进行校算的结果证明该程序计算精度较高.

  5. Organ repair, hemostasis, and in vivo bonding of medical devices by aqueous solutions of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddahi-Pellé, Anne; Legrand, Aurélie; Marcellan, Alba; Louedec, Liliane; Letourneur, Didier; Leibler, Ludwik

    2014-06-16

    Sutures are traumatic to soft connective tissues, such as liver or lungs. Polymer tissue adhesives require complex in vivo control of polymerization or cross-linking reactions and currently suffer from being toxic, weak, or inefficient within the wet conditions of the body. Herein, we demonstrate using Stöber silica or iron oxide nanoparticles that nanobridging, that is, adhesion by aqueous nanoparticle solutions, can be used in vivo in rats to achieve rapid and strong closure and healing of deep wounds in skin and liver. Nanoparticles were also used to fix polymer membranes to tissues even in the presence of blood flow, such as occurring after liver resection, yielding permanent hemostasis within a minute. Furthermore, medical devices and tissue engineering constructs were fixed to organs such as a beating heart. The simplicity, rapidity, and robustness of nanobridging bode well for clinical applications, surgery, and regenerative medicine.

  6. Cobinamide production of hydrogen in a homogeneous aqueous photochemical system, and assembly and photoreduction in a (βα)8 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Wesley D; Bovell, Adonis M; Warncke, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    Components of a protein-integrated, earth-abundant metal macrocycle catalyst, with the purpose of H2 production from aqueous protons under green conditions, are characterized. The cobalt-corrin complex, cobinamide, is demonstrated to produce H2 (4.4 ± 1.8 × 10(-3) turnover number per hour) in a homogeneous, photosensitizer/sacrificial electron donor system in pure water at neutral pH. Turnover is proposed to be limited by the relatively low population of the gateway cobalt(III) hydride species. A heterolytic mechanism for H2 production from the cobalt(II) hydride is proposed. Two essential requirements for assembly of a functional protein-catalyst complex are demonstrated for interaction of cobinamide with the (βα)8 TIM barrel protein, EutB, from the adenosylcobalamin-dependent ethanolamine ammonia lyase from Salmonella typhimurium: (1) high-affinity equilibrium binding of the cobinamide (dissociation constant 2.1 × 10(-7) M) and (2) in situ photoreduction of the cobinamide-protein complex to the Co(I) state. Molecular modeling of the cobinamide-EutB interaction shows that these features arise from specific hydrogen-bond and apolar interactions of the protein with the alkylamide substituents and the ring of the corrin, and accessibility of the binding site to the solution. The results establish cobinamide-EutB as a platform for design and engineering of a robust H2 production metallocatalyst that operates under green conditions and uses the advantages of the protein as a tunable medium and material support.

  7. [Forensic-medical diagnostics of an electrical mark resulting from the injury inflicted by technical electricity in the aqueous environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Skovorodnikov, S V; Dubrovin, I A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop the criteria for forensic-medical diagnostics of an electrical injury inflicted in the aqueous environment based on the characteristics of the electrical mark. The specific morphological features of the electrical injuries inflicted in the aqueous environment that were discovered in the materials available for the forensic medical expertise were analysed taking into consideration the results of the relevant research reported in the forensic medical literature. It was shown that an electrical injury inflicted in the aqueous environment results in the formation of an unusual mark in the form of blisters containing no watery liquid associated with electrogenic oedema in the surrounding tissues. Macroscopic and microscopic studies of the electrical mark failed to reveal the signs of grade III and IV grade thermal burning or thermally affected hair. It is concluded that the consistent characteristics of the electrical mark resulting from the injury inflicted by technical electricity in the aqueous environment include cell lengthening, blister formation inside the corneal layer, and the separation of epidermis from the skin proper.

  8. Burn-up Function of Fuel Management Code for Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors and Its Validation%溶液堆物理计算程序FMCAHR燃耗功能及其验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪量子; 姚栋; 王侃

    2011-01-01

    介绍了FMCAHR程序的燃耗计算模型及流程,并使用燃耗基准题和DRAGON程序对燃耗计算结果进行验证.验证结果表明,FMCAHR燃耗计算功能的准确性较高,适用于溶液堆的燃耗计算分析.%Fuel Management Code for Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors(FMCAHR)is developed based on the Monte Carlo transport method,to analyze the physics characteristics of aqueous homogeneous reactors. FMCAHR has the ability of doing resonance treatment,searching for critical rod heights,thermal hydraulic parameters calculation,radiolytic-gas bubbles' calculation and burn-up calculation. This paper introduces the theory model and scheme of its bum-up function,and then compares its calculation results with benchmarks and with DRAGON'S burn-up results,which confirms its burn-up computing precision and its applicability in the burn-up calculation and analysis for aqueous solution reactors.

  9. A fluorescence enhancement-based label-free homogeneous immunoassay of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taihua; Choi, Yo Han; Shin, Yong-Beom; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Kim, Min-Gon

    2016-05-01

    A fluorescence enhancement-based immunoassay has been developed for the detection of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), in aqueous solutions. The results of this study show that BaP, which inefficiently fluoresces in aqueous solution, displays enhanced fluorescence when bound to the anti-BaP antibody (anti-BaP), as part of a label-free immunoassay system. Binding to anti-BaP results in a 3.12-fold increase in the fluorescence intensity of BaP, which emits at 435 nm when excited at 280 nm, due to the hydrophobic interaction and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between antibody and antigen. As result of this phenomenon, the antibody-based fluorescence immunoassay system can be used to detect BaP specifically with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 ng mL(-1). Finally, extraction recoveries of BaP from spiked wheat and barley samples were found to be in the range of 80.5-87.0% and 92.9-92.1%, respectively.

  10. Homogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, John C; Freixa, Zoraida; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M

    2011-01-01

    This first book to illuminate this important aspect of chemical synthesis improves the lifetime of catalysts, thus reducing material and saving energy, costs and waste.The international panel of expert authors describes the studies that have been conducted concerning the way homogeneous catalysts decompose, and the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The result is a ready reference for organic, catalytic, polymer and complex chemists, as well as those working in industry and with/on organometallics.

  11. Reflector homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Ragusa, J.; Santandrea, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, CEA de Saclay, DM2S/SERMA 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)]. e-mail: richard.sanchez@cea.fr

    2004-07-01

    The problem of the determination of a homogeneous reflector that preserves a set of prescribed albedo is considered. Duality is used for a direct estimation of the derivatives needed in the iterative calculation of the optimal homogeneous cross sections. The calculation is based on the preservation of collapsed multigroup albedo obtained from detailed reference calculations and depends on the low-order operator used for core calculations. In this work we analyze diffusion and transport as low-order operators and argue that the P{sub 0} transfers are the best choice for the unknown cross sections to be adjusted. Numerical results illustrate the new approach for SP{sub N} core calculations. (Author)

  12. Homogeneous Cotton solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Calviño-Louzao, E.; Hervella, L. M.; Seoane-Bascoy, J.; Vázquez-Lorenzo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Left-invariant Cotton solitons on homogeneous manifolds are determined. Moreover, algebraic Cotton solitons are studied providing examples of non-invariant Cotton solitons, both in the Riemannian and Lorentzian homogeneous settings.

  13. Novel PEG-graft-PLA nanoparticles with the potential for encapsulation and controlled release of hydrophobic and hydrophilic medications in aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bin Wang1,2, Weimin Jiang1,2, Hao Yan1,2, Xiaoxi Zhang1,2, Li Yang1,2, Lihong Deng1,2, Gurinder K Singh1,2, Jun Pan1,2 1Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology (Chongqing University, Ministry of Education, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China The first two authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: This study concerns the encapsulation and controlled release of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic medications with one polymer, which are delivered together as a combined therapy to treat diseased tissue. To test our hypothesis that the novel PEG-graft-PLA (PEG, polyethylene glycol; PLA, polylactic acid can deliver both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic medications on account of its amphiphility, charge, and graft structure, PEG-graft-PLA (molecular weight of PEG = 1900 with very low critical micelle concentration was synthesized. One hydrophilic (insulin and one hydrophobic (naproxen model medication were loaded in separately during its self-assembly in aqueous solution. The resulting nanoparticles (NPs were narrowly distributed and spherical, with average particle size around 200 nm, zeta potential >—10 mV, and encapsulation efficiency >50%. The NPs realized controlled release of insulin and naproxen for over 24 and 160 hours, respectively. Specifically, the bioactivity of the insulin released from the NPs was maintained. Owing to encapsulation, both for hydrophobic and hydrophilic medicines, and NPs obtained with similar size and zeta potential, as well as maintenance of bioactivity of loaded protein, we expect the applications of PEG-graft-PLA NPs in combination therapy.Keywords: NPs, insulin, naproxen, controlled release, combination therapy

  14. On homogeneous functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates some aspects of the behavior of homogeneous functions. Afterdetermining the degree of homogeneity of partial derivatives of a homogeneousfunction, it is determined their general form in the case of integer degree ofhomogeneity and they are defined in 0. It also generalizes the Euler relationfor homogeneous functions to the higher order partial derivatives. Finally, itis determined a necessary condition for concavity of these functions.

  15. Laser photolysis study of phenanthrenequione in ethylene glycol homogenous and its TX-100 aqueous micellar solution%乙二醇均相及其TX-100胶束溶液中光敏分子菲醌的激光光解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许新胜; 史蕾; 刘毅; 崔执凤

    2011-01-01

    The photochemical reaction mechanism of phenanthrenequione in ethylene glycol homogenous and its TX-100 aqueous micellar solution has been studied through time resolved ESR and transient absorptive spectra technique. In EG homogenous solution, CIDEP spectra and transient absorptive spectra indicate that neutral radical (PAQH) was formed through hydrogen transfer reaction between excited triplet phenanthrenequinone (3PAQ*) and EG. Triplet mechanism is the mainly mechanism to generate CIDEP. In TX-100 aqueous micellar solution, the signals of CIDEP of phenanthrenequinone anion radical were observed, which were generated from the dissociation of PAQH accompanying spin polarization transfer.%用时间分辨电子自旋共振(TR-ESR)和瞬态吸收光谱技术,研究了菲醌在乙二醇均相及其TX-100含水胶束溶液中的光化学反应机理.化学诱导动态电子极化(CIDEP)谱和瞬态吸收光谱都表明,在乙二醇均相溶液中,菲醌光激发三重态3PAQ*夺取氢原子形成中性自由基PAQH·,三重态机理是CIDEP形成的主要机理.在TX-100含水胶束溶液中,光解主要得到菲醌负离子基PAQ·-,PAQ·-由PAQH·解离形成,解离过程中伴随着极化转移.

  16. Lifting locally homogeneous geometric structures

    CERN Document Server

    McKay, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We prove that under some purely algebraic conditions every locally homogeneous structure modelled on some homogeneous space is induced by a locally homogeneous structure modelled on a different homogeneous space.

  17. Functionality and homogeneity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Functionality and homogeneity are two of the five Sustainable Safety principles. The functionality principle aims for roads to have but one exclusive function and distinguishes between traffic function (flow) and access function (residence). The homogeneity principle aims at differences in mass, spe

  18. Homogeneity of Inorganic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Zhang, L.; Keding, Ralf;

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneity of glasses is a key factor determining their physical and chemical properties and overall quality. However, quantification of the homogeneity of a variety of glasses is still a challenge for glass scientists and technologists. Here, we show a simple approach by which the homogeneity...... of different glass products can be quantified and ranked. This approach is based on determination of both the optical intensity and dimension of the striations in glasses. These two characteristic values areobtained using the image processing method established recently. The logarithmic ratio between...... the dimension and the intensity is used to quantify and rank the homogeneity of glass products. Compared with the refractive index method, the image processing method has a wider detection range and a lower statistical uncertainty....

  19. Homogeneous complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Leszek; Burda, Zdzisław; Wacław, Bartłomiej

    2006-07-01

    We discuss various ensembles of homogeneous complex networks and a Monte-Carlo method of generating graphs from these ensembles. The method is quite general and can be applied to simulate micro-canonical, canonical or grand-canonical ensembles for systems with various statistical weights. It can be used to construct homogeneous networks with desired properties, or to construct a non-trivial scoring function for problems of advanced motif searching.

  20. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  1. Homogenization approach in engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogenization is an approach which studies the macrobehavior of a medium by its microproperties. Problems with a microstructure play an essential role in such fields as mechanics, chemistry, physics, and reactor engineering. Attention is concentrated on a simple specific model problem to illustrate results and problems typical of the homogenization approach. Only the diffusion problem is treated here, but some statements are made about the elasticity of composite materials. The differential equation is solved for linear cases with and without boundaries and for the nonlinear case. 3 figures, 1 table

  2. Dynamics of homogeneous nucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2015-01-01

    clusters fluctuates, but the mean temperature remains below the temperature in the supersaturated gas until they reach the critical nucleation size. The critical nuclei have, however, a temperature equal to the supersaturated gas. The kinetics of homogeneous nucleation is not only caused by a grow or......The classical nucleation theory for homogeneous nucleation is formulated as a theory for a density fluctuation in a supersaturated gas at a given temperature. But molecular dynamics simulations reveal that it is small cold clusters which initiates the nucleation. The temperature in the nucleating...

  3. Homogeneity and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS

  4. Synthesis of silica nanosphere from homogeneous and heterogeneous systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Venkatathri

    2007-12-01

    Silica nanosphere was synthesized using homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, respectively. In homogeneous system, silica spheres were synthesized without cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr), which gave bimodal particle size and lower yield (77%). To improve the yield, CTABr was added and found that the yield was very high (100%). The particle was in nm range, but the particle sizes are bimodal. To avoid it, reaction in heterogeneous system using CTABr was carried out. Nanosized silica sphere with uniform size (yield, 94%) was observed. Homogeneous system contains a mixture of ethanol, water, aqueous ammonia and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS). In the case of heterogeneous system, only ethanol was absent.

  5. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  6. Homogenous finitary symmetric groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto‎. ‎H‎. Kegel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We characterize strictly diagonal type of embeddings of finitary symmetric groups in terms of cardinality and the characteristic. Namely, we prove the following. Let kappa be an infinite cardinal. If G=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupG i , where G i =FSym(kappan i , (H=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupH i , where H i =Alt(kappan i , is a group of strictly diagonal type and xi=(p 1 ,p 2 ,ldots is an infinite sequence of primes, then G is isomorphic to the homogenous finitary symmetric group FSym(kappa(xi (H is isomorphic to the homogenous alternating group Alt(kappa(xi , where n 0 =1,n i =p 1 p 2 ldotsp i .

  7. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten;

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....

  8. Homogeneous Plane Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics containing null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant $A_{ij}$) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, $A_{ij}(t)$, and the Ozsvath-Sch\\"ucking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of ...

  9. Homogeneous M2 duals

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with $N>4$ supersymmetry --- equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra $\\mathfrak{osp}(N|4)$ for $N>4$ --- we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{so}(n) \\oplus \\mathfrak{so}(3,2)$ for $n=5,6,7$. We find that there are no new backgrounds with $n=6,7$ but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with $n=5$. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form $\\operatorname{AdS}_4 \\times P^7$, with $P$ riemannian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(5)$, or $S^4 \\times Q^7$ with $Q$ lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(3,2)$. At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only $N=2$) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund--Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  10. Homogeneous Finsler Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Shaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    "Homogeneous Finsler Spaces" is the first book to emphasize the relationship between Lie groups and Finsler geometry, and the first to show the validity in using Lie theory for the study of Finsler geometry problems. This book contains a series of new results obtained by the author and collaborators during the last decade. The topic of Finsler geometry has developed rapidly in recent years. One of the main reasons for its surge in development is its use in many scientific fields, such as general relativity, mathematical biology, and phycology (study of algae). This monograph introduc

  11. Homogeneous turbulence theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bershadskii, A.G.

    1985-06-01

    An exact solution for the nonlinear problem of the spectral energy function of a homogeneous turbulence is derived under the assumption that energy transfer under the effect of inertial forces is determined mainly by the interactions among vortices whose wavenumbers are only slightly different from each other. The results are experimentally verified for turbulence behind grids. Similar problems are solved for MHD turbulence and for a nonstationary spectral energy function. It is shown that at the initial stage of degeneration, the spectral energy function is little influenced by the Stewart number; this agrees with experimental data for the damping of longitudinal velocity pulsations behind a grid in a longitudinal magnetic field. 15 references.

  12. Homogeneous plane waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Matthias E-mail: mblau@ictp.trieste.it; O' Loughlin, Martin E-mail: loughlin@sissa.it

    2003-03-24

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics containing null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant A{sub ij}) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, A{sub ij}(x{sup +}), and the Ozsvath-Schuecking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of the known homogeneous metrics with A{sub ij}{approx}1/(x{sup +}){sup 2} to a more complicated time-dependence. We display these metrics in various coordinate systems, show how to embed them into string theory, and determine the isometry algebra of a general HPW and the associated conserved charges. We review the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory of invariants of time-dependent harmonic oscillators and show how it can be deduced from the geometry of plane waves. We advocate the use of the invariant associated with the extra (timelike) isometry of HPWs for lightcone quantisation, and illustrate the procedure in some examples.

  13. Homogeneous plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics containing null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant Aij) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, Aij(x+), and the Ozsvath-Schuecking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of the known homogeneous metrics with Aij∼1/(x+)2 to a more complicated time-dependence. We display these metrics in various coordinate systems, show how to embed them into string theory, and determine the isometry algebra of a general HPW and the associated conserved charges. We review the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory of invariants of time-dependent harmonic oscillators and show how it can be deduced from the geometry of plane waves. We advocate the use of the invariant associated with the extra (timelike) isometry of HPWs for lightcone quantisation, and illustrate the procedure in some examples

  14. Homogeneous Plane Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Blau, Matthias; Blau, Matthias; Loughlin, Martin O'

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the search for potentially exactly solvable time-dependent string backgrounds, we determine all homogeneous plane wave (HPW) metrics in any dimension and find one family of HPWs with geodesically complete metrics and another with metrics with null singularities. The former generalises both the Cahen-Wallach (constant $A_{ij}$) metrics to time-dependent HPWs, $A_{ij}(t)$, and the Ozsvath-Sch\\"ucking anti-Mach metric to arbitrary dimensions. The latter is a generalisation of the known homogeneous metrics with $A_{ij}\\sim 1/t^2$ to a more complicated time-dependence. We display these metrics in various coordinate systems, show how to embed them into string theory, and determine the isometry algebra of a general HPW and the associated conserved charges. We review the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory of invariants of time-dependent harmonic oscillators and show how it can be deduced from the geometry of plane waves. We advocate the use of the invariant associated with the extra (timelike) isometry of HPWs for ...

  15. Fuel preparation for use in the production of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policke, Timothy A.; Aase, Scott B.; Stagg, William R.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates generally to the field of medical isotope production by fission of uranium-235 and the fuel utilized therein (e.g., the production of suitable Low Enriched Uranium (LEU is uranium having 20 weight percent or less uranium-235) fuel for medical isotope production) and, in particular to a method for producing LEU fuel and a LEU fuel product that is suitable for use in the production of medical isotopes. In one embodiment, the LEU fuel of the present invention is designed to be utilized in an Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR) for the production of various medical isotopes including, but not limited to, molybdenum-99, cesium-137, iodine-131, strontium-89, xenon-133 and yttrium-90.

  16. An approximation for homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, K.-T.; Wood, R.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, based on the well-known formulae of classical nucleation theory (CNT), the temperature TNc = 1 at which the mean number of critical embryos inside a droplet is unity is derived and proposed as a new approximation for homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets. Without consideration of time dependence and stochastic nature of the ice nucleation process, the approximation TNc = 1 is able to reproduce the dependence of homogeneous freezing temperature on drop size and water activity of aqueous drops observed in a wide range of experimental studies. We use the TNc = 1 approximation to argue that the distribution of homogeneous freezing temperatures observed in the experiments may largely be explained by the spread in the size distribution of droplets used in the particular experiment. It thus appears that this approximation is useful for predicting homogeneous freezing temperatures of water droplets in the atmosphere.

  17. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecitis, Chad David

    2009-12-01

    Interfaces or phase boundaries are a unique chemical environment relative to individual gas, liquid, or solid phases. Interfacial reaction mechanisms and kinetics are often at variance with homogeneous chemistry due to mass transfer, molecular orientation, and catalytic effects. Aqueous interfaces are a common subject of environmental science and engineering research, and three environmentally relevant aqueous interfaces are investigated in this thesis: 1) fluorochemical sonochemistry (bubble-water), 2) aqueous aerosol ozonation (gas-water droplet), and 3) electrolytic hydrogen production and simultaneous organic oxidation (water-metal/semiconductor). Direct interfacial analysis under environmentally relevant conditions is difficult, since most surface-specific techniques require relatively `extreme' conditions. Thus, the experimental investigations here focus on the development of chemical reactors and analytical techniques for the completion of time/concentration-dependent measurements of reactants and their products. Kinetic modeling, estimations, and/or correlations were used to extract information on interfacially relevant processes. We found that interfacial chemistry was determined to be the rate-limiting step to a subsequent series of relatively fast homogeneous reactions, for example: 1) Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorbed to cavitating bubble-water interfaces during sonolysis was the rate-determining step in transformation to their inorganic constituents carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and fluoride; 2) ozone oxidation of aqueous iodide to hypoiodous acid at the aerosol-gas interface is the rate-determining step in the oxidation of bromide and chloride to dihalogens; 3) Electrolytic oxidation of anodic titanol surface groups is rate-limiting for the overall oxidation of organics by the dichloride radical. We also found chemistry unique to the interface, for example: 1

  18. Homogeneous Spaces and Equivariant Embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, DA

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneous spaces of linear algebraic groups lie at the crossroads of algebraic geometry, theory of algebraic groups, classical projective and enumerative geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. By standard reasons of algebraic geometry, in order to solve various problems on a homogeneous space it is natural and helpful to compactify it keeping track of the group action, i.e. to consider equivariant completions or, more generally, open embeddings of a given homogeneous space. Such equivariant embeddings are the subject of this book. We focus on classification of equivariant em

  19. Treatment of Pesticides in Wastewater by Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Daniela Stan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic systems on the oxidative degradation of mepiquat chloride in aqueous solutions was investigated. In the case of heterogeneous reactions, the influence of five factors was studied: the type of catalyst, photocatalyst concentration, pH, pesticide concentration, and the presence of H2O2 and/or Fe3+. For homogeneous catalysis, other factors were studied: the oxidising agent and the light source. Nearly complete degradation of mepiquat chloride was obtained after about 180 minutes in the presence of an acid medium (pH3 using a UV-A lamp and TiO2P-25 catalyst (0.5 g/L, for an initial pesticide concentration of 10 ppm. Degradation rates corresponding to homogeneous photocatalysis were lower compared to those corresponding to the use of TiO2 as the photocatalyst.

  20. Albedo matrices in assembly homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relations between albedo matrices and a set of diffusion coefficients for a homogeneous medium is considered. The possibility to determine albedo matrices in a homogeneous diffusion medium on the basis of diffusion constants is proved. Relations for the reverse calculation of a set of equivalent diffusion constants using the albedo matrices are obtained. These relations can be used to check the albedo matrices determined by a numerical method. 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  1. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google Plus Email Print this page Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms ... aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out freely (follow blue arrow). Aqueous humor flows ...

  2. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Lukman Adewale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute and of repeated doses (sub-acute administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity.

  3. On $\\delta$-homogeneous Riemannian manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Berestovskii, V. N.; Nikonorov, Yu. G.

    2006-01-01

    We study in this paper previously defined by V.N. Berestovskii and C.P. Plaut $\\delta$-homogeneous spaces in the case of Riemannian manifolds. Every such manifold has non-negative sectional curvature. The universal covering of any $\\delta$-homogeneous Riemannian manifolds is itself $\\delta$-homogeneous. In turn, every simply connected Riemannian $\\delta$-homogeneous manifold is a direct metric product of an Euclidean space and compact simply connected indecomposable homogeneous manifolds; all...

  4. Homogenization in elasto-plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Orlik, J

    2008-01-01

    The theory of the two-scale convergence was applied to homogenization of elasto-plastic composites with a periodic structure and exponential hardening law. The theory is based on the fact that the elastic as well as the plastic part of the stress field two-scale converges to a limit, which is factorized by parts, depending only on macroscopic characteristics, represented in terms of corresponding part of the homogenised stress tensor and only on stress concentration tensor, related to the mic...

  5. Homogeneous determination of maximum magnitude

    OpenAIRE

    Meletti, C.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; D'Amico, V.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Martinelli, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia

    2010-01-01

    This deliverable represents the result of the activities performed by a working group at INGV. The main object of the Task 3.5 is defined in the Description of Work. This task will produce a homogeneous assessment (possibly multiple models) of the distribution of the expected Maximum Magnitude for earthquakes expected in various tectonic provinces of Europe, to serve as input for the computation and validation of seismic hazard. This goal will be achieved by combining input from earthqu...

  6. Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous nucleation in water-dicarboxylic acid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Hienola

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Binary heterogeneous nucleation of water-succinic/glutaric/malonic/adipic acid on nanometer-sized particles is investigated within the frame of classical heterogeneous nucleation theory. Homogeneous nucleation is also included for comparison. It is found that the nucleation probabilities depend on the contact angle and on the size of the seed particles. New thermodynamical properties, such as saturation vapor pressure, density and surface tension for all the dicarboxylic acid aqueous solutions are included in the calculations. While the new surface tension and density formulations do not bring any significant difference in the computed nucleation rate for homogeneous nucleation for succinic and glutaric acids, the use of the newly derived equations for the vapor pressure decrease the acid concentrations in gas phase with 3 orders of magnitude. According to our calculations, the binary heterogeneous nucleation of succinic acid-water and glutaric acid-water – although it requires a 3–4 orders of magnitude lower vapor concentrations than the homogeneous nucleation – cannot take place in atmospheric conditions. On the other hand binary homogeneous nucleation of adipic acid-water systems might be possible in conditions occuring in upper boundary layer. However, a more detailed characterization of the interaction between the surface and the molecules of the nucleating vapor should be considered in the future.

  7. REITERATED HOMOGENIZATION OFNONLINEAR MONOTONE OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study reiterated homogenization of nonlinear equations of the form -div(α(:x,x/ε, x/ε2, Duε)) = f, where α is periodic in the first two arguments and monotone in the third. It is proved that uε converges weakly in W1,p(Ω) (and even in some multiscale sense), as ε → 0 to the solution u0 of a limit problem. Moreover, an explicit expression for the limit problem is given. The main results were also stated in [15]. This article presents the complete proofs of these results.

  8. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  9. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  10. Homogenization of a nonlinear degenerate parabolic equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The homogenization of one kind of nonlinear parabolic equation is studied. The weak convergence and corrector results are obtained by combining carefully the compactness method and two-scale convergence method in the homogenization theory.

  11. Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P.; Bernhardt, A.

    1993-06-29

    The geometrical restrictions on a laser beam homogenizer are relaxed by ug a coherence delay line to separate a coherent input beam into several components each having a path length difference equal to a multiple of the coherence length with respect to the other components. The components recombine incoherently at the output of the homogenizer, and the resultant beam has a more uniform spatial intensity suitable for microlithography and laser pantogography. Also disclosed is a variable aperture homogenizer, and a liquid filled homogenizer.

  12. Significance tests and sample homogeneity loophole

    OpenAIRE

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-01-01

    In their recent comment, published in Nature, Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng discuss how P-values are widely abused in null hypothesis significance testing . We agree completely with them and in this short comment we discuss the importance of sample homogeneity tests. No matter with how much scrutiny data are gathered if homogeneity tests are not performed the significance tests suffer from sample homogeneity loophole and the results may not be trusted. For example sample homogeneity loophol...

  13. Improving homogeneity by dynamic speed limit systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, N. van Brandenberg, S. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneity of driving speeds is an important variable in determining road safety; more homogeneous driving speeds increase road safety. This study investigates the effect of introducing dynamic speed limit systems on homogeneity of driving speeds. A total of 46 subjects twice drove a route along 12

  14. Projective duality and homogeneous spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tevelev, E A

    2006-01-01

    Projective duality is a very classical notion naturally arising in various areas of mathematics, such as algebraic and differential geometry, combinatorics, topology, analytical mechanics, and invariant theory, and the results in this field were until now scattered across the literature. Thus the appearance of a book specifically devoted to projective duality is a long-awaited and welcome event. Projective Duality and Homogeneous Spaces covers a vast and diverse range of topics in the field of dual varieties, ranging from differential geometry to Mori theory and from topology to the theory of algebras. It gives a very readable and thorough account and the presentation of the material is clear and convincing. For the most part of the book the only prerequisites are basic algebra and algebraic geometry. This book will be of great interest to graduate and postgraduate students as well as professional mathematicians working in algebra, geometry and analysis.

  15. Propene Hydroformylation by Supported Aqueous-phase Rh-NORBOS Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Hjortkjær, Jes;

    2003-01-01

    The gas-phase hydroformylation reaction of propene using supported aqueous-phase (SAP) Rh-NORBOS modified catalysts in a continuous flow reactor has been examined. SAP catalysts supported on six different support materials were made by wet impregnation using solutions of the precursor complex Rh(....... Based on these results the aqueous and the homogeneous nature of the SAP catalysts are discussed....

  16. Polyurethane phantoms with homogeneous and nearly homogeneous optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, Ville T.; Mäkynen, Anssi J.; Dayton, Amanda L.; Prahl, Scott A.

    2010-02-01

    Phantoms with controlled optical properties are often used for calibration and standardization. The phantoms are typically prepared by adding absorbers and scatterers to a clear host material. It is usually assumed that the scatterers and absorbers are uniformly dispersed within the medium. To explore the effects of this assumption, we prepared paired sets of polyurethane phantoms (both with identical masses of absorber, India ink and scatterer, titanium dioxide). Polyurethane phantoms were made by mixing two polyurethane parts (a and b) together and letting them cure in a polypropylene container. The mixture was degassed before curing to ensure a sample without bubbles. The optical properties were controlled by mixing titanium dioxide or India ink into polyurethane part (a or b) before blending the parts together. By changing the mixing sequence, we could change the aggregation of the scattering and absorbing particles. Each set had one sample with homogeneously dispersed scatterers and absorbers, and a second sample with slightly aggregated scatterers or absorbers. We found that the measured transmittance could easily vary by a factor of twenty. The estimated optical properties (using the inverse adding-doubling method) indicate that when aggregation is present, the optical properties are no longer proportional to the concentrations of absorbers or scatterers.

  17. Self-thinning and neutralizing thickened aqueous liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.H.; Scheuerman, R.F.

    1979-04-17

    A thickened aqueous liquid is described for use in well treating processes, such as sand or gravel packing, fracturing, fluid-diverting, selective-plugging, fluid-displacing etc. The thickened aqueous liquid consists of an aqueous solution containing 1) an acid-reactive cellulosic water thickener in an amount ranging from 0.1 to 4% by weight of the solution to provide viscosities which at 80/sup 0/F range from 100 to 51,000 cp; 2) an amount and composition of substantially homogeneously distributed acidifying material sufficient to cause a significant decrease in the viscosity of the solution after a selected time-temperature exposure; and 3) an amount and composition of substantially homogeneously-distributed relatively slowly-reactive pH-increasing material sufficient to subsequently raise the pH of the solution to a selected relatively neutral value after an increased time. 10 claims.

  18. Pharmaceutical Industry Oriented Homogeneous Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xumu

    2004-01-01

    Chiral therapeutics already makes up over one-third of pharmaceutical drugs currently sold worldwide. This is a growing industry with global chiral drug sales for 2002 increasing by 12%to $160 billion (Technology Catalysts International) of a total drug market of $410bn. The increasing demand to produce enantiomerically pure pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavors, and other fine chemicals has advanced the field of asymmetric catalytic technologies.We aim to become a high value technology provider and partner in the chiral therapeutics industry by offering proprietary catalysts, novel building blocks, and collaborative synthetic solutions. In decade, we have developed a set of novel chiral homogeneous phosphorus ligands such as Binaphane, Me-KetalPhos, TangPhos, f-Binaphane, Me-f-KetalPhos, C4TunePhos and Binapine,which we called Chiral Ligand ToolKit. Complementing the ToolKit, (R, S, S, R)-DIOP*, T-Phos,o-BIPHEP, o-BINAPO and FAP were added recently[1].These ligands can be applied to a broad variety of drug structural features by asymmetric hydrogenation of dehydroamino acid derivatives, enamides, unsatisfied acids and esters, ketones,beta ketoesters, imines and cyclic imines. And ligand FAP had been apllied succefully in allylic alkylation and [3+2] cycloaddition.

  19. A Class of Homogeneous Einstein Manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifang KANG; Ke LIANG

    2006-01-01

    A Riemannian manifold (M,g) is called Einstein manifold if its Ricci tensor satisfies r=c·g for some constant c. General existence results are hard to obtain,e.g., it is as yet unknown whether every compact manifold admits an Einstein metric. A natural approach is to impose additional homogeneous assumptions. M. Y. Wang and W. Ziller have got some results on compact homogeneous space G/H. They investigate standard homogeneous metrics, the metric induced by Killing form on G/H, and get some classification results. In this paper some more general homogeneous metrics on some homogeneous space G/H are studies, and a necessary and sufficient condition for this metric to be Einstein is given. The authors also give some examples of Einstein manifolds with non-standard homogeneous metrics.

  20. A literature review on biotic homogenization

    OpenAIRE

    Guangmei Wang; Jingcheng Yang; Chuangdao Jiang; Hongtao Zhao; Zhidong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biotic homogenization is the process whereby the genetic, taxonomic and functional similarity of two or more biotas increases over time. As a new research agenda for conservation biogeography, biotic homogenization has become a rapidly emerging topic of interest in ecology and evolution over the past decade. However, research on this topic is rare in China. Herein, we introduce the development of the concept of biotic homogenization, and then discuss methods to quantify its three components (...

  1. The Homogeneity Scale of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ntelis, Pierros

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we probe the cosmic homogeneity with the BOSS CMASS galaxy sample in the redshift region of $0.43 < z < 0.7$. We use the normalised counts-in-spheres estimator $\\mathcal{N}(homogeneity scale of the universe. We verify that the universe becomes homogenous on scales greater than $\\mathcal{R}_{H} \\simeq 64.3\\pm1.6\\ h^{-1}Mpc$, consolidating the Cosmological Principle with a consistency test of $\\Lambda$CDM model at the percentage level. Finally, we explore the evolution of the homogeneity scale in redshift.

  2. Self-consolidating concrete homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarque, J. C.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Concrete instability may lead to the non-uniform distribution of its properties. The homogeneity of self-consolidating concrete in vertically cast members was therefore explored in this study, analyzing both resistance to segregation and pore structure uniformity. To this end, two series of concretes were prepared, self-consolidating and traditional vibrated materials, with different w/c ratios and types of cement. The results showed that selfconsolidating concretes exhibit high resistance to segregation, albeit slightly lower than found in the traditional mixtures. The pore structure in the former, however, tended to be slightly more uniform, probably as a result of less intense bleeding. Such concretes are also characterized by greater bulk density, lower porosity and smaller mean pore size, which translates into a higher resistance to pressurized water. For pore diameters of over about 0.5 μm, however, the pore size distribution was found to be similar to the distribution in traditional concretes, with similar absorption rates.En este trabajo se estudia la homogeneidad de los hormigones autocompactantes en piezas hormigonadas verticalmente, determinando su resistencia a la segregación y la uniformidad de su estructura porosa, dado que la pérdida de estabilidad de una mezcla puede conducir a una distribución no uniforme de sus propiedades. Para ello se han fabricado dos tipos de hormigones, uno autocompactante y otro tradicional vibrado, con diferentes relaciones a/c y distintos tipos de cemento. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los hormigones autocompactantes presentan una buena resistencia a la segregación, aunque algo menor que la registrada en los hormigones tradicionales. A pesar de ello, su estructura porosa tiende a ser ligeramente más uniforme, debido probablemente a un menor sangrado. Asimismo, presentan una mayor densidad aparente, una menor porosidad y un menor tamaño medio de poro, lo que les confiere mejores

  3. The Case Against Homogeneous Sets in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, M. K.

    1973-01-01

    A point-by-point criticism is made of F. H. Flynn's article, The Case for Homogeneous Sets in Mathematics'' (Mathematics in School, Volume 1 Number 2, 1972) in an attempt to show that the arguments used in trying to justify homogeneous grouping in mathematics are invalid. (Editor/DT)

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF CUBIC PARAMETERIZED HOMOGENEOUS VECTOR FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KamalH.Yasir; TNAGYun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields are studied.The classification of the phase portrait near the critical point is presented.This classification is an extension of the result given by takens to the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields with six parameters.

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF CUBIC PARAMETERIZED HOMOGENEOUS VECTOR FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karnal H.Yasir; TANG Yun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields are studied.The classification of the phase portrait near the critical point is presented. This classification is an extension of the result given by Takens to the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields with six parameters.

  6. Finalization report: homogeneous PVM/PARIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Overeinder; P.M.A. Sloot; J. Petersen

    1994-01-01

    This document reports on the design and implementation considerations of PVM/PARIX, homogeneous version 1.0. This version is for use with PARIX 1.2 only. Further, it contains information how to use Homogeneous PVM/PARIX and the appendix contains the installation notes.

  7. DETERMINISTIC HOMOGENIZATION OF QUASILINEAR DAMPED HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Nguetseng; Hubert Nnang; Nils Svanstedt

    2011-01-01

    Deterministic homogenization is studied for quasilinear monotone hyperbolic problems with a linear damping term.It is shown by the sigma-convergence method that the sequence of solutions to a class of multi-scale highly oscillatory hyperbolic problems converges to the solution to a homogenized quasilinear hyperbolic problem.

  8. s-Numbers sequences for homogeneous polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Caliskan, Erhan; Rueda, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    We extend the well known theory of $s$-numbers of linear operators to homogeneous polynomials defined between Banach spaces. Approximation, Kolmogorov and Gelfand numbers of polynomials are introduced and some well-known results of the linear and multilinear settings are obtained for homogeneous polynomials.

  9. The homogeneous geometries of real hyperbolic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillón López, Marco; Gadea, Pedro Martínez; Swann, Andrew Francis

    We describe the holonomy algebras of all canonical connections of homogeneous structures on real hyperbolic spaces in all dimensions. The structural results obtained then lead to a determination of the types, in the sense of Tricerri and Vanhecke, of the corresponding homogeneous tensors. We use ...

  10. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  11. Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we study the application of multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) approaches to numerical random homogenization. Our objective is to compute the expectation of some functionals of the homogenized coefficients, or of the homogenized solutions. This is accomplished within MLMC by considering different sizes of representative volumes (RVEs). Many inexpensive computations with the smallest RVE size are combined with fewer expensive computations performed on larger RVEs. Likewise, when it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison to a standard Monte Carlo method. Numerical results are presented for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional test-cases that illustrate the efficiency of the approach.

  12. The role of organic aerosols in homogeneous ice formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent field observations suggest that the fraction of organics containing aerosol particles in ice cloud particles is diminished when compared to the background aerosol prior to freezing. In this work, we use model calculations to investigate possible causes for the observed behavior. In particular, homogeneous freezing processes in cooling air parcels containing aqueous inorganic particles (represented by sulfuric acid and organic particles (represented by pure malonic acid and mixed malonic/sulfuric acid are studied with a detailed microphysical model. A disparate water uptake and resulting size differences that occur between organic and inorganic particles prior to freezing are identified as the most likely reason for the poor partitioning of organic aerosols into the ice phase. The differences in water uptake can be caused by changes in the relationship between solute mass fraction and water activity of the supercooled liquid phase, by modifications of the accommodation coefficient for water molecules, or by a combination thereof. The behavior of peak ice saturation ratios and total ice crystal number concentrations is examined, and the dependence of the results on cooling rate is investigated. Finally, processes are discussed that could possibly modify the homogeneous freezing behavior of organic particles.

  13. Towards a methanol economy based on homogeneous catalysis: methanol to H2 and CO2 to methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberico, E.; Nielsen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to implement both the exhaustive dehydrogenation of aqueous methanol to hydrogen and CO2 and the reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and water, may pave the way to a methanol based economy as part of a promising renewable energy system. Recently, homogeneous...

  14. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Dexian; Chen, Baoling; Chen, P

    2015-01-01

    Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focu...

  15. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-04-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  16. Deforestation homogenizes tropical parasitoid-host networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Etienne; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2010-06-01

    Human activities drive biotic homogenization (loss of regional diversity) of many taxa. However, whether species interaction networks (e.g., food webs) can also become homogenized remains largely unexplored. Using 48 quantitative parasitoid-host networks replicated through space and time across five tropical habitats, we show that deforestation greatly homogenized network structure at a regional level, such that interaction composition became more similar across rice and pasture sites compared with forested habitats. This was not simply caused by altered consumer and resource community composition, but was associated with altered consumer foraging success, such that parasitoids were more likely to locate their hosts in deforested habitats. Furthermore, deforestation indirectly homogenized networks in time through altered mean consumer and prey body size, which decreased in deforested habitats. Similar patterns were obtained with binary networks, suggesting that interaction (link) presence-absence data may be sufficient to detect network homogenization effects. Our results show that tropical agroforestry systems can support regionally diverse parasitoid-host networks, but that removal of canopy cover greatly homogenizes the structure of these networks in space, and to a lesser degree in time. Spatiotemporal homogenization of interaction networks may alter coevolutionary outcomes and reduce ecological resilience at regional scales, but may not necessarily be predictable from community changes observed within individual trophic levels.

  17. Homogenization of precipitation time series with ACMANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonkos, Peter

    2015-10-01

    New method for the time series homogenization of observed precipitation (PP) totals is presented; this method is a unit of the ACMANT software package. ACMANT is a relative homogenization method; minimum four time series with adequate spatial correlations are necessary for its use. The detection of inhomogeneities (IHs) is performed with fitting optimal step function, while the calculation of adjustment terms is based on the minimization of the residual variance in homogenized datasets. Together with the presentation of PP homogenization with ACMANT, some peculiarities of PP homogenization as, for instance, the frequency and seasonal variation of IHs in observed PP data and their relation to the performance of homogenization methods are discussed. In climatic regions of snowy winters, ACMANT distinguishes two seasons, namely, rainy season and snowy season, and the seasonal IHs are searched with bivariate detection. ACMANT is a fully automatic method, is freely downloadable from internet and treats either daily or monthly input. Series of observed data in the input dataset may cover different periods, and the occurrence of data gaps is allowed. False zero values instead of missing data code or physical outliers should be corrected before running ACMANT. Efficiency tests indicate that ACMANT belongs to the best performing methods, although further comparative tests of automatic homogenization methods are needed to confirm or reject this finding.

  18. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random independent break-type inhomogeneities with normally distributed breakpoint sizes were added to the simulated datasets. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study. After the deadline at which details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed, 22 additional solutions were submitted. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  19. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge; Smaranda, Loredana; Vanninathan, Muthusamy

    2011-09-01

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  20. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge [Departamento de IngenierIa Matematica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMR 2071 CNRS-UChile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile); Smaranda, Loredana [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Str. Targu din Vale Nr.1, Arges (Romania); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail: cconca@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: jorge@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: smaranda@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: vanni@math.tifrbng.res.in [TIFR-CAM, Post Bag 6503, GKVK Post, Bangalore - 560065 (India)

    2011-09-15

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  1. Investigations into homogenization of electromagnetic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau

    This dissertation encompasses homogenization methods, with a special interest into their applications to metamaterial homogenization. The first method studied is the Floquet-Bloch method, that is based on the assumption of a material being infinite periodic. Its field can then be expanded in terms...... like the Floquet-Bloch based methods.The fourth method studied, is a method developed specially for metamaterial homogenization, the general retrieval method (GRM). It considers bianisotropic materials, and retrieves the electric and magnetic polarizabilities in addition to the permittivity...

  2. Homogeneous phosphorus of silicon by neutron transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacture of high-voltage power semiconductors requires a homogeneous phosphorus doping of silicon within extremely narrow limits. It was the aim of the investigations to develop neutron irradiation as a means to homogeneously dope silicon with phosphorus on an industrial scale. Special attention was given to the selection of suitable reactor positions, the annealing of the irradiation damage, and the electrical properties of the devices. The experience with the application of neutron irradiated silicon for a wide spectrum of devices shows that expected homogeneity and aiming accuracy with respect to the doping can be reached with high reliability. (orig.) 891 ORU/orig. 892 MB

  3. Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Routes in Water Oxidation Catalysis Starting from Cu(II) Complexes with Tetraaza Macrocyclic Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevedello, Andrea; Bazzan, Irene; Dalle Carbonare, Nicola; Giuliani, Angela; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Africh, Cristina; Cepek, Cinzia; Argazzi, Roberto; Bonchio, Marcella; Caramori, Stefano; Robert, Marc; Sartorel, Andrea

    2016-04-20

    Since the first report in 2012, molecular copper complexes have been proposed as efficient electrocatalysts for water oxidation reactions, carried out in alkaline/neutral aqueous media. However, in some cases the copper species have been recognized as precursors of an active copper oxide layer, electrodeposited onto the working electrode. Therefore, the question whether copper catalysis is molecular or not is particularly relevant in the field of water oxidation. In this study, we investigate the electrochemical activity of copper(II) complexes with two tetraaza macrocyclic ligands, distinguishing heterogeneous or homogeneous processes depending on the reaction media. In an alkaline aqueous solution, and upon application of an anodic bias to working electrodes, an active copper oxide layer is observed to electrodeposit at the electrode surface. Conversely, water oxidation in neutral aqueous buffers is not associated to formation of the copper oxide layer, and could be exploited to evaluate and optimize a molecular, homogeneous catalysis.

  4. Self-thinning and neutralizing thickened aqueous liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.H.; Scheuerman, R.F.

    1975-07-01

    A method is described for thickening water and then reducing the viscosity at a selected time. The thickened aqueous liquid contains (1) enough dissolved acid-reactive cellulosic water thickener to provide a selected viscosity, (2) an amount and composition of substantially homogeneously distributed acidifying material sufficient to cause a decrease in the viscosity of the solution after a selected time-temperature exposure, and (3) an amount and composition of substantially homogeneously distributed relatively slowly reactive pH-increasing material sufficient to raise the pH of the solution to a selected substantially neutral value after an additional time. (5 claims)

  5. Non-homogeneous fractal hierarchical weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yujuan; Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    A model of fractal hierarchical structures that share the property of non-homogeneous weighted networks is introduced. These networks can be completely and analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters, i.e., the size of the original graph Nk and the non-homogeneous weight scaling factors r1, r2, · · · rM. We also study the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), the average degree and the average node strength, taking place on the non-homogeneous hierarchical weighted networks. Moreover the AWSP is scrupulously calculated. We show that the AWSP depends on the number of copies and the sum of all non-homogeneous weight scaling factors in the infinite network order limit.

  6. Homogeneous cosmological models in Yang's gravitation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, A. J.; Pavelle, R.

    1979-01-01

    We present a dynamic, spatially homogeneous solution of Yang's pure space gravitational field equations which is non-Einsteinian. The predictions of this cosmological model seem to be at variance with observations.

  7. Spatial homogenization of diffusion theory parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is common practice in the determination of nuclear reactor criticality and power distributions to introduce two stages of homogenization. This paper will be concerned with the second stage in which group diffusion parameters for homogenized fuel rod cells, explicitly represented control rods, poison lumps and structural materials are further homogenized over fuel assemblies. We first extend some work by Kollas and Henry (1976) dealing with the question of whether ''exact'' equivalent homogenized diffusion theory parameters exist. We prove that, if an assembly composed of heterogeneous slabs can be described by group-diffusion theory, it is possible to define group parameters spatially constant over the entire assembly that reproduce exactly the average reaction rates and leakage rates of that assembly

  8. Three-dimensional homogeneous generalized Ricci solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Calvaruso, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We study three-dimensional generalized Ricci solitons, both in Riemannian and Lorentzian settings. We shall determine their homogeneous models, classifying left-invariant generalized Ricci solitons on three-dimensional Lie groups.

  9. Layout optimization using the homogenization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Noboru

    A generalized layout problem involving sizing, shape, and topology optimization is solved by using the homogenization method for three-dimensional linearly elastic shell structures in order to seek a possibility of establishment of an integrated design system of automotive car bodies, as an extension of the previous work by Bendsoe and Kikuchi. A formulation of a three-dimensional homogenized shell, a solution algorithm, and several examples of computing the optimum layout are presented in this first part of the two articles.

  10. Bloch Approximation in Homogenization and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Conca Rosende, Carlos; Orive, R.; Vanninathan, Muthusamy

    2002-01-01

    The classical problem of homogenization of elliptic operators with periodically oscillating coefficients is revisited in this paper. As is well known, the homogenization process in a classical framework is concerned with the study of asymptotic behavior of solutions $u^\\varepsilon$ of boundary value problems associated with such operators when the period $\\varepsilon>0$ of the coefficients is small. In a previous work by C. Conca and M. Vanninathan [SIAM J. Appl. Math., 57 (1997), pp. 1639--1...

  11. Homogeneous cosmological models and new inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael S.; Widrow, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    The promise of the inflationary-universe scenario is to free the present state of the universe from extreme dependence upon initial data. Paradoxically, inflation is usually analyzed in the context of the homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker cosmological models. It is shown that all but a small subset of the homogeneous models undergo inflation. Any initial anisotropy is so strongly damped that if sufficient inflation occurs to solve the flatness and horizon problems, the universe today would still be very isotropic.

  12. Homogenization of ordinary and linear transport equations

    OpenAIRE

    Peirone, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    The homogenization of first order ordinary differential equations in $\\mathbb{R}^N$ and associated linear transport equations are studied. We prove the equivalence between $G$-convergence and strong $G$-convergence for the ordinary equations. We give a sufficient condition, which is also necessary in the autonomous case, for the weak homogenization of the linear transport equations. This condition is satisfied when div$_x f=0$.

  13. Homogeneous Dielectric Equivalents of Composite Material Shields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tobola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the methodology of replacing complicated parts of an airplane skin by simple homogeneous equivalents, which can exhibit similar shielding efficiency. On one hand, the airplane built from the virtual homogeneous equivalents can be analyzed with significantly reduced CPU-time demands and memory requirements. On the other hand, the equivalent model can estimate the internal fields satisfactory enough to evaluate the electromagnetic immunity of the airplane.

  14. Noncommutative complex structures on quantum homogeneous spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Buachalla, Réamonn

    2016-01-01

    A new framework for noncommutative complex geometry on quantum homogeneous spaces is introduced. The main ingredients used are covariant differential calculi and Takeuchi's categorical equivalence for quantum homogeneous spaces. A number of basic results are established, producing a simple set of necessary and sufficient conditions for noncommutative complex structures to exist. Throughout, the framework is applied to the quantum projective spaces endowed with the Heckenberger-Kolb calculus.

  15. Significance tests and sample homogeneity loophole

    CERN Document Server

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-01-01

    In their recent comment, published in Nature, Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng discuss how P-values are widely abused in null hypothesis significance testing . We agree completely with them and in this short comment we discuss the importance of sample homogeneity tests. No matter with how much scrutiny data are gathered if homogeneity tests are not performed the significance tests suffer from sample homogeneity loophole and the results may not be trusted. For example sample homogeneity loophole was not closed in the experiment testing local realism in which a significant violation of Eberhard inequality was found. We are not surprised that Bell type inequalities are violated since if the contextual character of quantum observables is properly taken into account these inequalities cannot be proven. However in order to trust the significance of the violation sample homogeneity loophole must be closed. Therefore we repeat after Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng that sample homogeneity loophole is probably just the ...

  16. On the homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of some organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hienola, A.

    2008-07-01

    The conversion of a metastable phase into a thermodynamically stable phase takes place via the formation of clusters. Clusters of different sizes are formed spontaneously within the metastable mother phase, but only those larger than a certain size, called the critical size, will end up growing into a new phase. There are two types of nucleation: homogeneous, where the clusters appear in a uniform phase, and heterogeneous, when pre-existing surfaces are available and clusters form on them. The nucleation of aerosol particles from gas-phase molecules is connected not only with inorganic compounds, but also with nonvolatile organic substances found in atmosphere. The question is which ones of the myriad of organic species have the right properties and are able to participate in nucleation phenomena. This thesis discusses both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, having as theoretical tool the classical nucleation theory (CNT) based on thermodynamics. Different classes of organics are investigated. The members of the first class are four dicarboxylic acids (succinic, glutaric, malonic and adipic). They can be found in both the gas and particulate phases, and represent good candidates for the aerosol formation due to their low vapor pressure and solubility. Their influence on the nucleation process has not been largely investigated in the literature and it is not fully established. The accuracy of the CNT predictions for binary water-dicarboxylic acid systems depends significantly on the good knowledge of the thermophysical properties of the organics and their aqueous solutions. A large part of the thesis is dedicated to this issue. We have shown that homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of succinic, glutaric and malonic acids in combination with water is unlikely to happen in atmospheric conditions. However, it seems that adipic acid could participate in the nucleation process in conditions occurring in the upper troposphere. The second class of organics is

  17. Analysis of homogeneous/non-homogeneous nanofluid models accounting for nanofluid-surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R.

    2016-07-01

    This article reports an unbiased analysis for the water based rod shaped alumina nanoparticles by considering both the homogeneous and non-homogeneous nanofluid models over the coupled nanofluid-surface interface. The mechanics of the surface are found for both the homogeneous and non-homogeneous models, which were ignored in previous studies. The viscosity and thermal conductivity data are implemented from the international nanofluid property benchmark exercise. All the simulations are being done by using the experimentally verified results. By considering the homogeneous and non-homogeneous models, the precise movement of the alumina nanoparticles over the surface has been observed by solving the corresponding system of differential equations. For the non-homogeneous model, a uniform temperature and nanofluid volume fraction are assumed at the surface, and the flux of the alumina nanoparticle is taken as zero. The assumption of zero nanoparticle flux at the surface makes the non-homogeneous model physically more realistic. The differences of all profiles for both the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous models are insignificant, and this is due to small deviations in the values of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters.

  18. Homogenization in compiling ICRF combined catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, F. J.; Martínez, M. J.; López, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    Context. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) recommendations regarding the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) realizations require the construction of radio sources catalogs obtained using very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) methods. The improvement of these catalogs is a necessary procedure for the further densification of the ICRF over the celestial sphere. Aims: The different positions obtained from several catalogs using common sources to the ICRF make it necessary to critically revise the different methods employed in improving the ICRF from several radio sources catalogs. In this sense, a revision of the analytical and the statistical methods is necessary in line with their advantages and disadvantages. We have a double goal: first, we propose an adequate treatment of the residual of several catalogs to obtain a homogeneous catalog; second, we attempt to discern whether a combined catalog is homogeneous. Methods: We define homogeneity as applied to our problem in a dual sense: the first deals with the spatial distribution of the data over the celestial sphere. The second has a statistical meaning, as we consider that homogeneity exists when the residual between a given catalog and the ICRF behaves as a unimodal pure Gaussian. We use a nonparametrical method, which enables us to homogeneously extend the statistical properties of the residual over the entire sphere. This intermediate adjustment allows for subsequent computation of the coefficients for any parametrical adjustment model that has a higher accuracy and greater stability, and it prevents problems related with direct adjustments using the models. On the other hand, the homogeneity of the residuals in a catalog is tested using different weights. Our procedure also serves to propose the most suitable weights to maintain homogeneity in the final results. We perform a test using the ICRF-Ext2, JPL, and USNO quasar catalogs. Results: We show that a combination of catalogs can only

  19. Exploring an approximation for the homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Kuan-Ting; Wood, Robert

    2016-06-01

    In this work, based on the well-known formulae of classical nucleation theory (CNT), the temperature TNc = 1 at which the mean number of critical embryos inside a droplet is unity is derived from the Boltzmann distribution function and explored as an approximation for homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets. Without including the information of the applied cooling rate γcooling and the number of observed droplets Ntotal_droplets in the calculation, the approximation TNc = 1 is able to reproduce the dependence of homogeneous freezing temperature on drop size V and water activity aw of aqueous drops observed in a wide range of experimental studies for droplet diameter > 10 µm and aw > 0.85, suggesting the effect of γcooling and Ntotal_droplets may be secondary compared to the effect of V and aw on homogeneous freezing temperatures in these size and water activity ranges under realistic atmospheric conditions. We use the TNc = 1 approximation to argue that the distribution of homogeneous freezing temperatures observed in the experiments may be partly explained by the spread in the size distribution of droplets used in the particular experiment. It thus appears that the simplicity of this approximation makes it potentially useful for predicting homogeneous freezing temperatures of water droplets in the atmosphere.

  20. Homogeneous and heterogeneous aqueous phase oxidation of phenol with fenton-like processes

    OpenAIRE

    Messele, Selamawit Ashagre

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, various chemical oxidation techniques have been developed to overcome the inconveniences associated to conventional treatment of industrial wastewaters. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been reported to be effective for the degradation of soluble organic contaminants from wastewaters containing non-biodegradable organic pollutants, because they can often provide an almost total degradation, under reasonably mild conditions of temperature and pressure. Among them, ...

  1. Homogenity of Die Casting and Returning Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneity of die castings is influenced by wide range of technological parameters as piston velocity in filling chamber of die casting machine, filling time of mould cavity, temperature of cast alloy, temperature of the mould, temperature of filling chamber, surface pressure on alloy during mould filling, final pressure and others. Based on stated parameters it is clear, that main parameters of die casting are filling time of die mould cavity and velocity of the melt in the ingates. Filling time must ensure the complete filling of the mould cavity before solidification process can negatively influence it. Among technological parameters also belong the returning material, which ratio in charge must be constrained according to requirement on final homogeneity of die castings. With the ratio of returning material influenced are the mechanical properties of castings, inner homogeneity and chemical composition.

  2. Homogenization of Periodic Systems with Large Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Grégoire; Capdeboscq, Yves; Piatnitski, Andrey; Siess, Vincent; Vanninathan, M.

    2004-11-01

    We consider the homogenization of a system of second-order equations with a large potential in a periodic medium. Denoting by ɛ the period, the potential is scaled as ɛ-2. Under a generic assumption on the spectral properties of the associated cell problem, we prove that the solution can be approximately factorized as the product of a fast oscillating cell eigenfunction and of a slowly varying solution of a scalar second-order equation. This result applies to various types of equations such as parabolic, hyperbolic or eigenvalue problems, as well as fourth-order plate equation. We also prove that, for well-prepared initial data concentrating at the bottom of a Bloch band, the resulting homogenized tensor depends on the chosen Bloch band. Our method is based on a combination of classical homogenization techniques (two-scale convergence and suitable oscillating test functions) and of Bloch waves decomposition.

  3. Commensurability effects in holographic homogeneous lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    An interesting application of the gauge/gravity duality to condensed matter physics is the description of a lattice via breaking translational invariance on the gravity side. By making use of global symmetries, it is possible to do so without scarifying homogeneity of the pertinent bulk solutions, which we thus term as "homogeneous holographic lattices." Due to their technical simplicity, these configurations have received a great deal of attention in the last few years and have been shown to correctly describe momentum relaxation and hence (finite) DC conductivities. However, it is not clear whether they are able to capture other lattice effects which are of interest in condensed matter. In this paper we investigate this question focusing our attention on the phenomenon of commensurability, which arises when the lattice scale is tuned to be equal to (an integer multiple of) another momentum scale in the system. We do so by studying the formation of spatially modulated phases in various models of homogeneous ...

  4. Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1H-PEO and 13C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  5. Treatment of Aqueous Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Spronsen, J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the recovery or removal of one or more crystallizable compounds from an aqueous solution containing, apart from the said crystallizable compounds, one or more organic or inorganic scale- forming or scale-inducing materials having a lower solubility in water

  6. Statistical methods for assessment of blend homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Camilla

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the use of various statistical methods to address some of the problems related to assessment of the homogeneity of powder blends in tablet production is discussed. It is not straight forward to assess the homogeneity of a powder blend. The reason is partly that in bulk materials......, it is shown how to set up parametric acceptance criteria for the batch that gives a high confidence that future samples with a probability larger than a specified value will pass the USP threeclass criteria. Properties and robustness of proposed changes to the USP test for content uniformity are investigated...

  7. Homogenization of High-Contrast Brinkman Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.

    2015-04-16

    Modeling porous flow in complex media is a challenging problem. Not only is the problem inherently multiscale but, due to high contrast in permeability values, flow velocities may differ greatly throughout the medium. To avoid complicated interface conditions, the Brinkman model is often used for such flows [O. Iliev, R. Lazarov, and J. Willems, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 1350--1372]. Instead of permeability variations and contrast being contained in the geometric media structure, this information is contained in a highly varying and high-contrast coefficient. In this work, we present two main contributions. First, we develop a novel homogenization procedure for the high-contrast Brinkman equations by constructing correctors and carefully estimating the residuals. Understanding the relationship between scales and contrast values is critical to obtaining useful estimates. Therefore, standard convergence-based homogenization techniques [G. A. Chechkin, A. L. Piatniski, and A. S. Shamev, Homogenization: Methods and Applications, Transl. Math. Monogr. 234, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2007, G. Allaire, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 23 (1992), pp. 1482--1518], although a powerful tool, are not applicable here. Our second point is that the Brinkman equations, in certain scaling regimes, are invariant under homogenization. Unlike in the case of Stokes-to-Darcy homogenization [D. Brown, P. Popov, and Y. Efendiev, GEM Int. J. Geomath., 2 (2011), pp. 281--305, E. Marusic-Paloka and A. Mikelic, Boll. Un. Mat. Ital. A (7), 10 (1996), pp. 661--671], the results presented here under certain velocity regimes yield a Brinkman-to-Brinkman upscaling that allows using a single software platform to compute on both microscales and macroscales. In this paper, we discuss the homogenized Brinkman equations. We derive auxiliary cell problems to build correctors and calculate effective coefficients for certain velocity regimes. Due to the boundary effects, we construct

  8. An eigenelement method and two homogenization conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufeng Xing; Xingming Wang

    2009-01-01

    Under inspiration from the structure-preserving property of symplectic difference schemes for Hamiltonian systems, two homogenization conditions for a representa-tive unit cell of the periodical composites are proposed, one condition is the equivalence of strain energy, and the other is the deformation similarity. Based on these two homoge-nization conditions, an eigenelement method is presented, which is characteristic of structure-preserving property. It follows from the frequency comparisons that the eigenel-ement method is more accurate than the stiffness average method and the compliance average method.

  9. Homogeneous oxalate precipitation of Pu(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on homogeneous oxalate precipitation using diethyl oxalate which was compared to precipitating Pu(III) oxalate with solid oxalic acid. The diethyl oxalate technique at 75 degrees C is better because it gives 50% less plutonium in the filtrate with a reasonable filtering time. Also, the procedure for the homogeneous precipitation is easier to automate because the liquid diethyl oxalate is simpler to introduce into the precipitator than solid oxalic acid. It also provides flexibility because the hydrolysis rate and therefore the precipitation rate can be controlled by varying the temperature

  10. Hyperelastic bodies under homogeneous Cauchy stress induced by non-homogeneous finite deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Mihai, L Angela

    2016-01-01

    We discuss whether homogeneous Cauchy stress implies homogeneous strain in isotropic nonlinear elasticity. While for linear elasticity the positive answer is clear, we exhibit, through detailed calculations, an example with inhomogeneous continuous deformation but constant Cauchy stress. The example is derived from a non rank-one convex elastic energy. Connections to conforming and non-conforming finite element implementations are drawn.

  11. Locally homogeneous structures on Hopf surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    McKay, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We study holomorphic locally homogeneous geometric structures modelled on line bundles over the projective line. We classify these structures on primary Hopf surfaces. We write out the developing map and holonomy morphism of each of these structures explicitly on each primary Hopf surface.

  12. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognesi, Stefano; Tallarita, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is les...

  13. Volume and geometry of homogeneously adequate knots

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomew, Paige; McQuarrie, Shane; Purcell, Jessica S.; Weser, Kai

    2014-01-01

    We bound the hyperbolic volumes of a large class of knots and links, called homogeneously adequate knots and links, in terms of their diagrams. To do so, we use the decomposition of these links into ideal polyhedra, developed by Futer, Kalfagianni, and Purcell. We identify essential product disks in these polyhedra.

  14. Homogeneous Catalysis by Transition Metal Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawby, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Examines four processes involving homogeneous catalysis which highlight the contrast between the simplicity of the overall reaction and the complexity of the catalytic cycle. Describes how catalysts provide circuitous routes in which all energy barriers are relatively low rather than lowering the activation energy for a single step reaction.…

  15. The homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a test to verify if every agent from a population of heterogeneous consumers has the same marginal utility of income function. This homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption is often (implicitly) used in applied demand studies because it has nice aggregation properties and facilit

  16. Remarks on homogeneous manifolds satisfying Levi conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Huckleberry, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneous complex manifolds satisfying various types of Levi conditions are considered. Classical results which were of particular interest to Andreotti are recalled. Convexity and concavity properties of flag domains are discussed in some detail. A precise classification of pseudoconvex flag domains is given. It is shown that flag domains which are in a certain sense generic are pseudoconcave.

  17. Quantum Homogeneous Spaces as Quantum Quotient Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Brzezinski, Tomasz

    1995-01-01

    We show that certain embeddable homogeneous spaces of a quantum group that do not correspond to a quantum subgroup still have the structure of quantum quotient spaces. We propose a construction of quantum fibre bundles on such spaces. The quantum plane and the general quantum two-spheres are discussed in detail.

  18. Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...

  19. Price Elasticities Implied by Homogeneous Production Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Price, J. Michael

    1994-01-01

    If a production process is characterized by a homogeneous production function, the conditions required for profit maximization imply that the elasticity of demand for each input must be elastic with respect to output price. This restriction limits the usefulness of these functions in empirical analysis.

  20. Homogeneous protein analysis by magnetic core-shell nanorod probes

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan

    2016-03-29

    Studying protein interactions is of vital importance both to fundamental biology research and to medical applications. Here, we report on the experimental proof of a universally applicable label-free homogeneous platform for rapid protein analysis. It is based on optically detecting changes in the rotational dynamics of magnetically agitated core-shell nanorods upon their specific interaction with proteins. By adjusting the excitation frequency, we are able to optimize the measurement signal for each analyte protein size. In addition, due to the locking of the optical signal to the magnetic excitation frequency, background signals are suppressed, thus allowing exclusive studies of processes at the nanoprobe surface only. We study target proteins (soluble domain of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 - sHER2) specifically binding to antibodies (trastuzumab) immobilized on the surface of our nanoprobes and demonstrate direct deduction of their respective sizes. Additionally, we examine the dependence of our measurement signal on the concentration of the analyte protein, and deduce a minimally detectable sHER2 concentration of 440 pM. For our homogeneous measurement platform, good dispersion stability of the applied nanoprobes under physiological conditions is of vital importance. To that end, we support our measurement data by theoretical modeling of the total particle-particle interaction energies. The successful implementation of our platform offers scope for applications in biomarker-based diagnostics as well as for answering basic biology questions.

  1. Temperature Trends from Homogenized German Radiosonde Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattantyús-Ábrahám, Margit; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    We present homogenization procedure and results for Germany's historical radiosonde records, dating back to 1950. Upper-air temperature records have been homogenized manually. The method makes use of the different RS networks existing in East and West-Germany from the 1950s until 1990. The largest temperature adjustments, up to 2.5K, apply to Freiberg sondes used in the East in the 1950s and 1960s. Adjustments for Graw H50 and M60 sondes, used in the West from the 1950s to the late 1980s, and for RKZ sondes, used in the East in the 1970s and 1980s, are also significant, 0.3 to 0.5K. Small differences between Vaisala RS80 and RS92 sondes used throughout Germany since 1990 and 2005, respectively, were not corrected for at levels from the ground to 300 hPa. Comparison of the homogenized data with other radiosonde datasets, RICH and HadAT2, and with Microwave Sounding Unit satellite data, shows generally good agreement. HadAT2 data exhibit a few suspicious spikes in the 1970s and 1980s, and some suspicious offsets up to 1K after 1995. Compared to RICH, our homogenized data show slightly different temperatures in the 1960s and 1970s. We find that the troposphere over Germany has been warming by 0.25 ± 0.1K per decade since the early 1960s, slightly more than reported in other studies. The stratosphere has been cooling, with the trend increasing from almost no change near 230hPa (the tropopause) to -0.5 ± 0.2K per decade near 50hPa. Trends from the homogenized data are more positive by about 0.1K per decade than for the original data, both in troposphere and stratosphere.

  2. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H3BO3 at temperatures up to 1500C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO3- + 2I- + 3H+, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >104 has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects of the medications on your hearing and balance systems. The team will discuss with you how these side effects will affect your quality of life. What are the effects I may notice from ... speech is affected. Balance problems can also occur as a result of ...

  4. Homogeneous links and the Seifert matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Manchón, P M G

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneous links were introduced by Peter Cromwell, who proved that the projection surface of these links, that given by the Seifert algorithm, has minimal genus. Here we provide a different proof, with a geometric rather than combinatorial flavor. To do this, we first show a direct relation between the Seifert matrix and the decomposition into blocks of the Seifert graph. Precisely, we prove that the Seifert matrix can be arranged in a block triangular form, with small boxes in the diagonal corresponding to the blocks of the Seifert graph. Then we prove that the boxes in the diagonal has non-zero determinant, by looking at an explicit matrix of degrees given by the planar structure of the Seifert graph. The paper contains also a complete classification of the homogeneous knots of genus one.

  5. Some dimensional results for homogeneous Moran sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰德军; 文志英; 吴军

    1997-01-01

    Let M({nk}k≥1,{ck}k≥1) be the collection of homogeneous Moran sets determined by {nk}k≥1and {ck}k≥1, where {nk}k≥1 is a sequence of positive integers and {ck}k≥1 a sequence of positive numbers. Then the maximal and minimal values of Hausdorff dimensions for elements in M are determined. The result is proved that for any value s between the maximal and minimal values, there exists an element in M{nk}k≥1, {ck}k≥1) such that its Hausdorff dimension is equal to s. The same results hold for packing dimension. In the meantime, some other properties of homogeneous Moran sets are discussed.

  6. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and homogeneity in polycrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gunes; Darling, T W; McCall, K R

    2009-01-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is capable of determining the bulk elastic properties of a solid from its characteristic vibration frequencies, given the dimensions, density and shape of the sample. The model used for extracting values of the elastic constants assumes perfect homogeneity, which can be approximated by average-isotropic polycrystals. This approximation is excellent in the small grain regime assumed for most averaging procedures, but for real samples with indeterminate grain size distributions, it is not clear where the approximation breaks down. RUS measurements were made on pure copper samples where the grain size distribution was changed by progressive heat treatments in order to find a quantitative limit for the loss of homogeneity. It is found that when a measure of the largest grains is 15% of the sample's smallest dimension, the deviation in RUS fits indicates elastic inhomogeneity. PMID:18804831

  7. Broken Ergodicity in Ideal, Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John; Fu, Terry; Nguyen, Phu; Shum, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the statistical mechanics of numerical models of ideal homogeneous, incompressible turbulence and their relevance for dissipative fluids and magnetofluids. These numerical models are based on Fourier series and the relevant statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. However, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We explain this phenomena in terms of broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We review the theoretical basis of broken ergodicity, apply it to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from simulations using GPU (graphical processing unit) computers.

  8. Smooth homogeneous structures in operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beltita, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Geometric ideas and techniques play an important role in operator theory and the theory of operator algebras. Smooth Homogeneous Structures in Operator Theory builds the background needed to understand this circle of ideas and reports on recent developments in this fruitful field of research. Requiring only a moderate familiarity with functional analysis and general topology, the author begins with an introduction to infinite dimensional Lie theory with emphasis on the relationship between Lie groups and Lie algebras. A detailed examination of smooth homogeneous spaces follows. This study is illustrated by familiar examples from operator theory and develops methods that allow endowing such spaces with structures of complex manifolds. The final section of the book explores equivariant monotone operators and Kähler structures. It examines certain symmetry properties of abstract reproducing kernels and arrives at a very general version of the construction of restricted Grassmann manifolds from the theory of loo...

  9. Kinematical uniqueness of homogeneous isotropic LQC

    CERN Document Server

    Engle, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In a paper by Ashtekar and Campiglia, invariance under volume preserving residual diffeomorphisms has been used to single out the standard representation of the reduced holonomy-flux algebra in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC). In this paper, we use invariance under all residual diffeomorphisms to single out the standard kinematical Hilbert space of homogeneous isotropic LQC for both the standard configuration space $\\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$, as well as for the Fleischhack one $\\mathbb{R} \\sqcup \\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$. We first determine the scale invariant Radon measures on these spaces, and then show that the Haar measure on $\\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$ is the only such measure for which the momentum operator is hermitian w.r.t. the corresponding inner product. In particular, the measure is forced to be identically zero on $\\mathbb{R}$ in the Fleischhack case, so that for both approaches, the standard kinematical LQC-Hilbert space is singled out.

  10. Beyond relationships between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David A. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Katz, Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arslan, Ilke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gates, Bruce C. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-08-13

    Scientists who regard catalysis as a coherent field have been striving for decades to articulate the fundamental unifying principles. But because these principles seem to be broader than chemistry, chemical engineering, and materials science combined, catalytic scientists commonly interact within the sub-domains of homogeneous, heterogeneous, and bio-catalysis, and increasingly within even narrower domains such as organocatalysis, phase-transfer catalysis, acid-base catalysis, zeolite catalysis, etc. Attempts to unify catalysis have motivated researchers to find relationships between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and to mimic enzymes. These themes have inspired vibrant international meetings and workshops, and we have benefited from the idea exchanges and have some thoughts about a path forward.

  11. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  12. Higher dimensional homogeneous cosmology in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Rahaman; S Das; N Begum; M Hossain

    2003-07-01

    Assuming a homogeneous perfect fluid with ρ = ρ() and = (), we have obtained exact solutions for cosmological models in higher-dimension based on Lyra geometry. Depending on the form of metric chosen, the model is similar to FRW type. The explicit solutions of the scale factor are found via the assumption of an equation of state = ρ, where is a constant. Some astrophysical parameters are also calculated.

  13. Homogenization of biomechanical models for plant tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Piatnitski, Andrey; Ptashnyk, Mariya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper homogenization of a mathematical model for plant tissue biomechanics is presented. The microscopic model constitutes a strongly coupled system of reaction-diffusion-convection equations for chemical processes in plant cells, the equations of poroelasticity for elastic deformations of plant cell walls and middle lamella, and Stokes equations for fluid flow inside the cells. The chemical process in cells and the elastic properties of cell walls and middle lamella are coupled becau...

  14. Recent advances in homogeneous nickel catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Sarah Z; Standley, Eric A; Jamison, Timothy F

    2014-05-15

    Tremendous advances have been made in nickel catalysis over the past decade. Several key properties of nickel, such as facile oxidative addition and ready access to multiple oxidation states, have allowed the development of a broad range of innovative reactions. In recent years, these properties have been increasingly understood and used to perform transformations long considered exceptionally challenging. Here we discuss some of the most recent and significant developments in homogeneous nickel catalysis, with an emphasis on both synthetic outcome and mechanism.

  15. Selective Homogeneous Catalysis in Asymmetric Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter

    The subject of this thesis is selectivity in homogeneous asymmetric transition metalcatalyzed reactions. Four different reactions within organic chemistry have been studied by kinetic measurements, computational chemistry (modelling) or both of them in parallel. A Hammett study was performed....... A thorough computational study succeeded in explaining the observed results, although other significant results were also obtained during this study. Finally, an intramolecular reaction was studied computationally, and the rate increase observed under phase transfer catalysis conditions could be related...

  16. 'Parodie', a large homogeneous stationary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low pressure discharge plasma with magnetic multipolar confinement has been constructed to experimentally investigate turbulence phenomena. Its main characteristics are described: the technology (cylindrical machine 1 m in diameter and 1 m long, sliding vacuum rule section, permanent magnets...); and the plasma parameters (108-1010 cm-3 electron density; homogeneous within 1% in a volume of 0.3 m3, fluctuations at thermal level)

  17. General description of homogeneous isotropic disordered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Averbuch, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    As all the physical quantities describing such a system are spherical tensors, it is shown that homogeneity and isotropy imply for the cross-correlation functions such conditions that they can be written with only standard spherical functions and a few scalar functions in which the whole physical information is included. The two limiting cases of a system with many independent defects and of a polycrystal, Gauss and Poisson limits, are discussed.

  18. Diffusion homogenization in multicomponent dispersed heterogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of diffusion homogenizing in multicomponent powders within the temperature range of solid solutions are under study. The physical model is suggested and the mathematical algorithm is developed to calculate the statistical distribution function in the concentration space as well as other integral values describing the degree of system heterogeneity. Numerical solution is made for ternary metal system (W-Mo-Re) in the form of computer program. Calculation results are presented

  19. Homogenization of eigenvalue problems in perforated domains

    OpenAIRE

    Vanninathan, M.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, we treat some eigenvalue problems in periodically perforated domains and study the asymptotic behaviour of the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors when the number of holes in the domain increases to infinity Using the method of asymptotic expansion, we give explicit formula for the homogenized coefficients and expansion for eigenvalues and eigenvectors. If we denote by ε the size of each hole in the domain, then we obtain the following aysmptotic expansion for the eigenvalues: Dir...

  20. Algebraic density property of homogeneous spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Donzelli, Fabrizio; Dvorsky, Alexander; Kaliman, Shulim

    2008-01-01

    Let $X$ be an affine algebraic variety with a transitive action of the algebraic automorphism group. Suppose that $X$ is equipped with several non-degenerate fixed point free $SL_2$-actions satisfying some mild additional assumption. Then we show that the Lie algebra generated by completely integrable algebraic vector fields on $X$ coincides with the set of all algebraic vector fields. In particular, we show that apart from a few exceptions this fact is true for any homogeneous space of form ...

  1. Correlated equilibria in homogenous good Bertrand competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jann, Ole; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We show that there is a unique correlated equilibrium, identical to the unique Nash equilibrium, in the classic Bertrand oligopoly model with homogenous goods and identical marginal costs. This provides a theoretical underpinning for the so-called "Bertrand paradox'' as well as its most general f...... formulation to date. Our proof generalizes to asymmetric marginal costs and arbitrarily many players in the following way: The market price cannot be higher than the second lowest marginal cost in any correlated equilibrium....

  2. Spin precession in a homogeneous gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First a geometrical approach for the homogeneous gravitational field is given, emphasizing its main physical features, and in accordance with relativity in which this field is interpreted as the field apparently experienced by a uniformly accelerated observer (Born-Motion). A stationary beam of particles is then studied in both the particle and the wave pictures. In the particle picture, we first study the beam in the non-relativistic approximation, and then the relativistic beam. The velocity fields, and orbit equations, as well as the connection of the relativistic beam to the non-relativistic beam, as c→ infinity, are given. Our main result is then established by calculating the so-called Quasi-Thomas precession of the spin of the particle in a homogeneous gravitational field. The differences with the regular Thomas precession are discussed and illustrated with space-time diagrams. Some numerical estimates are given. The beam is then studied in the wave picture for Dirac particles. First the Dirac equation is established in the homogeneous gravitational field by the appropriate coordinate, and Lorentz transformation, on the Dirac 4-component spinor wave function in the freely falling frame. Then working to first order in the coupling constant g, an approximate plane wave function is given as a solution for the stationary beam. The precession of the spin is then obtained, and it agrees with the result given by the particle picture. The translationary motion is also discussed briefly. The similar problem of a homogeneous electric field is discussed, via the principle of equivalence, and some formal analogies are found. Finally, a brief discussion of future research, in connection with recently available experiments to test the principle of equilavence at the quantum level, and in the context of this thesis, is given

  3. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan

    2016-06-06

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  4. Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, M.; Lili, T.

    2011-06-01

    Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT). The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS) of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997)] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995)] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10) in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

  5. Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT. The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10 in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

  6. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschöpe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation. PMID:27275824

  7. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schrittwieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  8. Towards a methanol economy based on homogeneous catalysis: methanol to H2 and CO2 to methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberico, E; Nielsen, M

    2015-04-21

    The possibility to implement both the exhaustive dehydrogenation of aqueous methanol to hydrogen and CO2 and the reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and water, may pave the way to a methanol based economy as part of a promising renewable energy system. Recently, homogeneous catalytic systems have been reported which are able to promote either one or the other of the two reactions under mild conditions. Here, we review and discuss these developments.

  9. Properties of Organic Films on Aqueous Subphases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Vaida, V.

    2003-12-01

    Recently, it has been determined that organics represent a significant percentage of the composition of certain atmospheric aerosols. The air/aqueous interface of such an aerosol has the ability to act as a concentrator and selector of organic surfactants. Amphiphilic organics, such as fatty acids and alcohols, have been found to partition to the interface of aerosols thus creating a hydrophobic organic coating on an aqueous core. The selectivity of the interface was studied by monitoring the composition of various films, via GC-MS, as a function of exposure time. A Langmuir-Blodgett trough was used to contain and collect the self-assembled films that were produced from the addition of binary solutions of surfactants to the surface of an aqueous subphase. Surfactants with differing carbon number and head group functionalities were studied. The stability of the films was examined by varying the thickness of the organic films and the pH of the subphase. For a multilayer film containing equimolar stearic acid and lauric acid on a distilled water subphase, it was found that the acid with the longer hydrocarbon tail (stearic acid) remained at the interface much longer that the shorter acid. Films containing 1-octadecanol and stearic acid, both of which have identical carbon numbers, showed similar lifetimes at the air/water interface. Octadecane was found to have a longer lifetime at the interface when dissolved in equimolar stearic acid than when in a homogeneous film. Multilayer films and films formed on acidic subphases were found to be the most stable for both fatty acids studied. The relevance of these findings as they relate to organic aerosol content and structure as well as atmospheric processing and transport will be discussed.

  10. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexian Dong

    Full Text Available Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10 cells mL(-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  11. Sulfur isotope homogeneity of lunar mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Boswell A.; Farquhar, James

    2015-12-01

    We present a new set of high precision measurements of relative 33S/32S, 34S/32S, and 36S/32S values in lunar mare basalts. The measurements are referenced to the Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) scale, on which the international reference material, IAEA-S-1, is characterized by δ33S = -0.061‰, δ34S ≡ -0.3‰ and δ36S = -1.27‰. The present dataset confirms that lunar mare basalts are characterized by a remarkable degree of sulfur isotopic homogeneity, with most new and published SF6-based sulfur isotope measurements consistent with a single mass-dependent mean isotopic composition of δ34S = 0.58 ± 0.05‰, Δ33S = 0.008 ± 0.006‰, and Δ36S = 0.2 ± 0.2‰, relative to V-CDT, where the uncertainties are quoted as 99% confidence intervals on the mean. This homogeneity allows identification of a single sample (12022, 281) with an apparent 33S enrichment, possibly reflecting cosmic-ray-induced spallation reactions. It also reveals that some mare basalts have slightly lower δ34S values than the population mean, which is consistent with sulfur loss from a reduced basaltic melt prior to eruption at the lunar surface. Both the sulfur isotope homogeneity of the lunar mare basalts and the predicted sensitivity of sulfur isotopes to vaporization-driven fractionation suggest that less than ≈1-10% of lunar sulfur was lost after a potential moon-forming impact event.

  12. Relativistic effects in homogeneous gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, David J; Toste, F Dean

    2007-03-22

    Transition-metal catalysts containing gold present new opportunities for chemical synthesis, and it is therefore not surprising that these complexes are beginning to capture the attention of the chemical community. Cationic phosphine-gold(i) complexes are especially versatile and selective catalysts for a growing number of synthetic transformations. The reactivity of these species can be understood in the context of theoretical studies on gold; relativistic effects are especially helpful in rationalizing the reaction manifolds available to gold catalysts. This Review draws on experimental and computational data to present our current understanding of homogeneous gold catalysis, focusing on previously unexplored reactivity and its application to the development of new methodology.

  13. Homogeneous asymmetric catalysis in fragrance chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappa, Alessandra; Bovo, Sara; Bertoldini, Matteo; Scrivanti, Alberto; Matteoli, Ugo

    2008-06-01

    Opposite enantiomers of a chiral fragrance may exhibit different olfactory activities making a synthesis in high enantiomeric purity commercially and scientifically interesting. Accordingly, the asymmetric synthesis of four chiral odorants, Fixolide, Phenoxanol, Citralis, and Citralis Nitrile, has been investigated with the aim to develop practically feasible processes. In the devised synthetic schemes, the key step that leads to the formation of the stereogenic center is the homogeneous asymmetric hydrogenation of a prochiral olefin. By an appropriate choice of the catalyst and the reaction conditions, Phenoxanol, Citralis, and Citralis Nitrile were obtained in high enantiomeric purity, and odor profiles of the single enantiomers were determined.

  14. 'Proserpine'. Homogeneous critical experiment with plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proserpine is a homogeneous critical experiment in which plutonium is used as a fissile material. This experiment has been designed to investigate static and kinetic parameters of a thermal neutron reactor in which fissile material is highly concentrated. This report proposes a brief description of the installation (core, solution circuits, measurement and level adjustment, reflector, adjustment mechanism and safety, thermostatically-controlled booth and temperature control, installation safety), and presents the experimental program (critical mass, characteristics of the fissile solution, temperature coefficient) and the first results obtained in a zircaloy vessel. This experiment had two main objectives: a minimum critical mass, and an operating safety with respect to contamination risks

  15. REITERATED HOMOGENIZATION OF DEGENERATE NONLINEAR ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The authors study homogenization of some nonlinear partial differential equations of the form -div (a (hx,h2x,Duh)) = f,where a is periodic in the first two arguments and monotone in the third.In particular the case where a satisfies degenerated structure conditions is studied.It is proved that uh converges weakly in Wo1.1 (Ω) to the unique solution of a limit problem as h →∞.Moreover,explicit expressions for the limit problem are obtained.

  16. Mechanisms in homogeneous and heterogeneous epoxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oyama, S Ted

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic epoxidation of olefins plays an important role in the industrial production of several commodity compounds, as well as in the synthesis of many intermediates, fine chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The scale of production ranges from millions of tons per year to a few grams per year. The diversity of catalysts is large and encompasses all the known categories of catalyst type: homogeneous, heterogeneous, and biological. This book summarizes the current status in these fields concentrating on rates, kinetics, and reaction mechanisms, but also covers broad topics including modeli

  17. Homogenization and asymptotics for small transaction costs

    CERN Document Server

    Soner, H Mete

    2012-01-01

    We consider the classical Merton problem of lifetime consumption-portfolio optimization problem with small proportional transaction costs. The first order term in the asymptotic expansion is explicitly calculated through a singular ergodic control problem which can be solved in closed form in the one-dimensional case. Unlike the existing literature, we consider a general utility function and general dynamics for the underlying assets. Our arguments are based on ideas from the homogenization theory and use the convergence tools from the theory of viscosity solutions. The multidimensional case is studied in our accompanying paper using the same approach.

  18. REITERATED HOMOGENIZATION OF NONLINEAR MONOTONE OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.L.LIONS; D.LUKKASSEN; L.E.PERSSON; P.WALL

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study reiterated homogenization of nonlinear equations of the form-div(a(x, x/ε, x/ε2, Duε)) = f, where a is periodic in the first two arguments and monotonein the third. It is proved that uε converges weakly in W1,p(Ω) (and even in some multiscalesense), as ε → 0 to the solution u0 of a limit problem. Moreover, an explicit expression forthe limit problem is given. The main results were also stated in [15]. This article presents thecomplete proofs of these results.

  19. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Yousef A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders. Methods and Results: In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plateinduced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous ...

  20. Self-dispersible nanocrystals of albendazole produced by high pressure homogenization and spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Alejandro Javier; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Sánchez Bruni, Sergio; Allemandi, Daniel; Palma, Santiago Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug used in the treatment of human or animal infections. Although ABZ has shown a high efficacy for repeated doses in monogastric mammals, its low aqueous solubility leads to erratic bioavailability. The aim of this work was to optimize a procedure in order to obtain ABZ self-dispersible nanocrystals (SDNC) by combining high pressure homogenization (HPH) and spray-drying (SD). The material thus obtained was characterized and the variables affecting both the HPH and SD processes were studied. As expected, the homogenizing pressure and number of cycles influenced the final particle size, while the stabilizer concentration had a strong impact on SD output and redispersion of powders upon contact with water. ABZ SDNC were successfully obtained with high process yield and redispersibility. The characteristic peaks of ABZ were clearly identified in the X-ray patterns of the processed samples. A noticeable increase in the dissolution rate was observed in the aqueous environment. PMID:26856301

  1. Computational approaches to homogeneous gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faza, Olalla Nieto; López, Carlos Silva

    2015-01-01

    Homogenous gold catalysis has been exploding for the last decade at an outstanding pace. The best described reactivity of Au(I) and Au(III) species is based on gold's properties as a soft Lewis acid, but new reactivity patterns have recently emerged which further expand the range of transformations achievable using gold catalysis, with examples of dual gold activation, hydrogenation reactions, or Au(I)/Au(III) catalytic cycles.In this scenario, to develop fully all these new possibilities, the use of computational tools to understand at an atomistic level of detail the complete role of gold as a catalyst is unavoidable. In this work we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the available benchmark works on methodological options to study homogenous gold catalysis in the hope that this effort can help guide the choice of method in future mechanistic studies involving gold complexes. This is relevant because a representative number of current mechanistic studies still use methods which have been reported as inappropriate and dangerously inaccurate for this chemistry.Together with this, we describe a number of recent mechanistic studies where computational chemistry has provided relevant insights into non-conventional reaction paths, unexpected selectivities or novel reactivity, which illustrate the complexity behind gold-mediated organic chemistry.

  2. Homogeneous cooling of mixtures of particle shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, R. C.; Serero, D.; Pöschel, T.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we examine theoretically the cooling dynamics of binary mixtures of spheres and rods. To this end, we introduce a generalized mean field analytical theory, which describes the free cooling behavior of the mixture. The relevant characteristic time scale for the cooling process is derived, depending on the mixture composition and the aspect ratio of the rods. We simulate mixtures of spherocylinders and spheres using a molecular dynamics algorithm implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU) architecture. We systematically study mixtures composed of spheres and rods with several aspect ratios and varying the mixture composition. A homogeneous cooling state, where the time dependence of the system's intensive variables occurs only through a global granular temperature, is identified. We find cooling dynamics in excellent agreement with Haff's law, when using an adequate time scale. Using the scaling properties of the homogeneous cooling dynamics, we estimated numerically the efficiency of the energy interchange between rotational and translational degrees of freedom for collisions between spheres and rods.

  3. Homogenization in micro-magneto-mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, A.; Keip, M.-A.; Miehe, C.

    2016-07-01

    Ferromagnetic materials are characterized by a heterogeneous micro-structure that can be altered by external magnetic and mechanical stimuli. The understanding and the description of the micro-structure evolution is of particular importance for the design and the analysis of smart materials with magneto-mechanical coupling. The macroscopic response of the material results from complex magneto-mechanical interactions occurring on smaller length scales, which are driven by magnetization reorientation and associated magnetic domain wall motions. The aim of this work is to directly base the description of the macroscopic magneto-mechanical material behavior on the micro-magnetic domain evolution. This will be realized by the incorporation of a ferromagnetic phase-field formulation into a macroscopic Boltzmann continuum by the use of computational homogenization. The transition conditions between the two scales are obtained via rigorous exploitation of rate-type and incremental variational principles, which incorporate an extended version of the classical Hill-Mandel macro-homogeneity condition covering the phase field on the micro-scale. An efficient two-scale computational scenario is developed based on an operator splitting scheme that includes a predictor for the magnetization on the micro-scale. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations demonstrate the performance of the method. They investigate micro-magnetic domain evolution driven by macroscopic fields as well as the associated overall hysteretic response of ferromagnetic solids.

  4. Primary Healthcare Solo Practices: Homogeneous or Heterogeneous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynald Pineault

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Solo practices have generally been viewed as forming a homogeneous group. However, they may differ on many characteristics. The objective of this paper is to identify different forms of solo practice and to determine the extent to which they are associated with patient experience of care. Methods. Two surveys were carried out in two regions of Quebec in 2010: a telephone survey of 9180 respondents from the general population and a postal survey of 606 primary healthcare (PHC practices. Data from the two surveys were linked through the respondent’s usual source of care. A taxonomy of solo practices was constructed (n=213, using cluster analysis techniques. Bivariate and multilevel analyses were used to determine the relationship of the taxonomy with patient experience of care. Results. Four models were derived from the taxonomy. Practices in the “resourceful networked” model contrast with those of the “resourceless isolated” model to the extent that the experience of care reported by their patients is more favorable. Conclusion. Solo practice is not a homogeneous group. The four models identified have different organizational features and their patients’ experience of care also differs. Some models seem to offer a better organizational potential in the context of current reforms.

  5. On Shearing Fluids with Homogeneous Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, D C; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study shearing spherically symmetric homogeneous density fluids in comoving coordinates. It is found that the expansion of the four-velocity of a perfect fluid is homogeneous, whereas its shear is generated by an arbitrary function of time M(t), related to the mass function of the distribution. This function is found to bear a functional relationship with density. The field equations are reduced to two coupled first order ordinary differential equations for the metric coefficients, g 11 and g 22. We have explored a class of solutions assuming that M is a linear function of the density. This class embodies, as a subcase, the complete class of shear-free solutions. We have discussed the off quoted work of Kustaanheimo (1947) and have noted that it deals with shear-free fluids having anisotropic pressure. It is shown that the anisotropy of the fluid is characterized by an arbitrary function of time. We have discussed some issues of historical priorities and credentials related to shear-free sol...

  6. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  7. Hydrogen Production by Homogeneous Catalysis: Alcohol Acceptorless Dehydrogenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    in hydrogen production from biomass using homogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous catalysis has the advance of generally performing transformations at much milder conditions than traditional heterogeneous catalysis, and hence it constitutes a promising tool for future applications for a sustainable energy sector...

  8. The homogenization of a class of degenerate quasilinear parabolic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xingyou; HUANG Yong

    2003-01-01

    The homogenization of a class of degenerate quasilinear parabolic equations is studied. The Ap weight theory and the classical compensated compactness method are incorporated to obtain the homogenized equation.

  9. MULTISCALE HOMOGENIZATION OF NONLINEAR HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH SEVERAL TIME SCALES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Louis Woukeng; David Dongo

    2011-01-01

    We study the multiscale homogenization of a nonlinear hyperbolic equation in a periodic setting. We obtain an accurate homogenization result. We also show that as the nonlinear term depends on the microscopic time variable, the global homogenized problem thus obtained is a system consisting of two hyperbolic equations. It is also shown that in spite of the presence of several time scales, the global homogenized problem is not a reiterated one.

  10. Four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian homogeneous Ricci solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Calvaruso, Giovanni; Fino, Anna

    2011-01-01

    We consider four-dimensional homogeneous pseudo-Riemannian manifolds with non-trivial isotropy and completely classify the cases giving rise to non-trivial homogeneous Ricci solitons. In particular, we show the existence of non-compact homogeneous (and also invariant) pseudo-Riemannian Ricci solitons which are not isometric to solvmanifolds, and of conformally flat homogeneous pseudo-Riemannian Ricci solitons which are not symmetric.

  11. Non-homogeneous dynamic Bayesian networks for continuous data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Husmeier, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Classical dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs) are based on the homogeneous Markov assumption and cannot deal with non-homogeneous temporal processes. Various approaches to relax the homogeneity assumption have recently been proposed. The present paper presents a combination of a Bayesian network with c

  12. THE ANALYTICAL PROPERTIES FOR HOMOGENEOUS RANDOM TRANSITION FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of Markov process in random environment and homogeneous random transition functions are introduced. The necessary and sufficient conditions for homogeneous random transition function are given. The main results in this article are the analytical properties, such as continuity, differentiability, random Kolmogorov backward equation and random Kolmogorov forward equation of homogeneous random transition functions.

  13. Radiolysis of berberine or palmatine in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszalek, Milena; Wolszczak, Marian

    2011-01-01

    The reactions of hydrated electron (eaq-), hydrogen atom (H rad ) (reducing species) and Cl2•-, Br2•-, N,O•H radicals (oxidizing species) with berberine or palmatine in aqueous solution have been studied by steady-state and pulse radiolysis. The spectra of transient intermediates, leading to the final products, are presented. The rate constants of the reaction of eaq- and rad OH radical with both alkaloids in the homogenous solution and in the presence of DNA are reported. It is demonstrated that the primary products of the reaction of berberine and palmatine with eaq- and radicals generated during radiolysis are unstable and undergo further reactions.

  14. Simple circuit to improve electric field homogeneity in contour-clamped homogeneous electric field chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, José A; Canino, Carlos A; López-Cánovas, Lilia; Gigato, Regnar; Riverón, Ana Maria

    2003-04-01

    We redesigned contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) circuitry to eliminate crossover distortion, to set identical potentials at electrodes of each equipotential pair and to drive pairs with transistors in emitter follower stages. An equipotential pair comprised the two electrodes set at the same potential to provide electric field homogeneity inside of the hexagonal array. The new circuitry consisted of two identical circuits, each having a resistor ladder, diodes and transistors. Both circuits were interconnected by diodes that controlled the current flow to electrodes when the array was energized in the 'A' or 'B' direction of the electric field. The total number of transistors was two-thirds of the total number of electrodes. Average voltage deviation from potentials expected at electrodes to achieve a homogeneous electric field was 0.06 V, whereas 0.44 V was obtained with another circuit that used transistors in push-pull stages. The new voltage clamp unit is cheap, generated homogeneous electric field, and gave reproducible and undistorted DNA band patterns. PMID:12707904

  15. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, S Jay

    2014-01-01

    In the context of a homogeneous universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions covering several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available...

  16. The structure and homogeneity of Psalm 32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Henk Potgieter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 32 is widely regarded as a psalm of thanksgiving with elements of wisdom poetry intermingled into it. The wisdom elements are variously explained as having been present from the beginning, or as having been added to a foundational composition. Such views of the Gattung have had a decisive influence on the interpretation of the psalm. This article argues, on the basis of a structural analysis, that Psalm 32 should be understood as a homogeneous wisdom composition. The parallel and inverse structure of its two stanzas demonstrate that the aim of its author was to encourage the upright to foster an open, intimate relationship with Yahweh in which transgressions are confessed and Yahweh’s benevolent guidance on the way of life is wisely accepted.

  17. Lexical Coding vs. Syntactic Marking of Homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg Müller, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    and normal, viz. Ole maler hus [Ole paints house]. It is argued that this contrast is a predictable consequence of the premise that, in Spanish, transitive activity verbs impose a mass reading on any bare object noun whereas, in Danish, BNs maintain their lexically encoded denotation as inhomogeneous...... entities. However, contrasting with the leading pattern, the so-called HAVE-verbs (Borthen, 2003) actually license Spanish BNs in object position (cf., e.g., Espinal, 2010; Espinal & Mcnally, 2011), viz. Juan tiene perro [Juan has dog]. It is claimed that the occurrence of BNs in these cases is strongly...... related to the assumption that HAVE-verbs, contrary to activity verbs, are functionally non-eventive and, therefore, do not impose a specific homogeneity reading on the bare noun in object position....

  18. Modeling of nanoplastic by asymptotic homogenization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张为民; 何伟; 李亚; 张平; 张淳源

    2008-01-01

    The so-called nanoplastic is a new simple name for the polymer/layered silicate nanocomposite,which possesses excellent properties.The asymptotic homogenization method(AHM) was applied to determine numerically the effective elastic modulus of a two-phase nanoplastic with different particle aspect ratios,different ratios of elastic modulus of the effective particle to that of the matrix and different volume fractions.A simple representative volume element was proposed,which is assumed that the effective particles are uniform well-aligned and perfectly bonded in an isotropic matrix and have periodic structure.Some different theoretical models and the experimental results were compared.The numerical results are good in agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Autophoretic self-propulsion of homogeneous particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelin, Sebastien; Lauga, Eric; de Canio, Gabriele

    2014-11-01

    Phoretic mechanisms such as diffusiophoresis exploit short-ranged interactions between solute molecules in the fluid and a rigid wall to generate local slip velocities in the presence of solute gradients along the solid boundary. This boundary flow can result in macroscopic fluid motion or phoretic migration of inert particles. These mechanisms have recently received a renewed interest to design self-propelled ``autophoretic'' systems able to generate the required solute gradients through chemical reaction at their surface. Most existing designs rely on the asymmetric chemical treatment of the particle's surface to guarantee symmetry-breaking and the generation of a net flow. We show here, however, that chemical asymmetry is not necessary for flow generation and that homogeneous particles with asymmetric geometry may lead to self-propulsion in Stokes flow. Similarly, this principle can be used to manufacture micro-pumps using channel walls with uniform chemical properties.

  20. Homogeneously dispersed multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Xueli; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Bajdich, Michal; García-Melchor, Max; Han, Lili; Xu, Jixian; Liu, Min; Zheng, Lirong; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Dinh, Cao Thang; Fan, Fengjia; Yuan, Mingjian; Yassitepe, Emre; Chen, Ning; Regier, Tom; Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yuhang; De Luna, Phil; Janmohamed, Alyf; Xin, Huolin L; Yang, Huagui; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-04-15

    Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials substantially above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory suggested that non-3d high-valency metals such as tungsten can modulate 3d metal oxides, providing near-optimal adsorption energies for OER intermediates. We developed a room-temperature synthesis to produce gelled oxyhydroxides materials with an atomically homogeneous metal distribution. These gelled FeCoW oxyhydroxides exhibit the lowest overpotential (191 millivolts) reported at 10 milliamperes per square centimeter in alkaline electrolyte. The catalyst shows no evidence of degradation after more than 500 hours of operation. X-ray absorption and computational studies reveal a synergistic interplay between tungsten, iron, and cobalt in producing a favorable local coordination environment and electronic structure that enhance the energetics for OER. PMID:27013427

  1. Temperature field simulation of laser homogenizing equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juanjuan WANG; Yunshan WANG; Fudong ZHU

    2009-01-01

    The laser homogenizing equipment was devised using the ring scanning principle. Its working principle is explained. A laser scanning ring facula is obtained when the laser beam goes through the equipment's optical system rotating with high-frequency. The scanning ring facula's mathematic model is established based on the temperature field's superposing principle. The ring facula's light intensity distribution and temperature distribution characteristics are achieved by simulating its temperature field. By studying the effect of parameters on the temperature field, the best parameters can be found. Results show that favorable temperature distribution characteristics can be attained by choosing appropriate parameters, and even the thermal effect can be realized by utilizing the circumference power compensating for the heat exchange lost in the horizontal direction. The uniform hardness layer and better process quality can be attained using the ring facula optimized for metal laser heat treatment.

  2. On the Persistence of Homogeneous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Butterfield, J

    2004-01-01

    Some recent philosophical debate about persistence has focussed on an argument against perdurantism that discusses rotating perfectly homogeneous discs (the `rotating discs argument'; RDA). The argument has been mostly discussed by metaphysicians, though it appeals to ideas from classical mechanics, especially about rotation. In contrast, I assess the RDA from the perspective of the philosophy of physics. After introducing the argument and emphasizing the relevance of physics (Sections 1 to 3), I review some metaphysicians' replies to the argument (Section 4). Thereafter, I argue for three main conclusions. They all arise from the fact, emphasized in Section 2, that classical mechanics (non-relativistic as well as relativistic) is both more subtle, and more problematic, than philosophers generally realize. The main conclusion is that the RDA can be defeated (Section 6 onwards). Namely, by the perdurantist taking objects in classical mechanics (whether point-particles or continuous bodies) to have only tempora...

  3. Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email share facebook twitter google plus linkedin Medical Management Although there’s no cure for CMT, there are ... individualized physical therapy program. For more on medical management of CMT, see Surgery Sometimes, Bracing Often, Caution ...

  4. Medical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and authentic illustrations used in the publication of medical books, journals, films, videotapes, exhibits, posters, wall charts, and computer programs. A medical illustrator may also work as a member of ...

  5. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  6. Aqueous phase synthesis of upconversion nanocrystals through layer-by-layer epitaxial growth for in vivo X-ray computed tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feifei

    2013-05-21

    Lanthanide-doped core-shell upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs) have tremendous potential for applications in many fields, especially in bio-imaging and medical therapy. As core-shell UCNCs are mostly synthesized in organic solvents, tedious organic-aqueous phase transfer processes are usually needed for their use in bio-applications. Herein, we demonstrate the first example of one-step synthesis of highly luminescent core-shell UCNCs in the "aqueous" phase under mild conditions using innocuous reagents. A microwave-assisted approach allowed for layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of a hydrophilic NaGdF4 shell on NaYF4:Yb, Er cores. During this process, surface defects of the nanocrystals could be gradually passivated by the homogeneous shell deposition, resulting in obvious enhancement in the overall upconversion emission efficiency. In addition, the up-down conversion dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb, Er@NaGdF4:Ce, Ln (Eu, Tb, Sm, Dy) nanocrystals were also synthesized to further validate the successful formation of the core-shell structure. More significantly, based on their superior solubility and stability in water solution, high upconversion efficiency and Gd-doped predominant X-ray absorption, the as-prepared NaYF4:Yb, Er@NaGdF4 core-shell UCNCs exhibited high contrast in in vitro cell imaging and in vivo X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging, demonstrating great potential as multiplexed luminescent biolabels and CT contrast agents.

  7. Homogenization of global radiosonde humidity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, Michael; Haimberger, Leopold

    2016-04-01

    The global radiosonde network is an important source of upper-air measurements and is strongly connected to reanalysis efforts of the 20th century. However, measurements are strongly affected by changes in the observing system and require a homogenization before they can be considered useful in climate studies. In particular humidity measurements are known to show spurious trends and biases induced by many sources, e.g. reporting practices or freezing of the sensor. We propose to detect and correct these biases in an automated way, as has been done with temperature and winds. We detect breakpoints in dew point depression (DPD) time series by employing a standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT) on DPD-departures from ERA-Interim. In a next step, we calculate quantile departures between the latter and the earlier part near the breakpoints of the time series, going back in time. These departures adjust the earlier distribution of DPD to the latter distribution, called quantile matching, thus removing for example a non climatic shift. We employ this approach to the existing radiosonde network. In a first step to verify our approach we compare our results with ERA-Interim data and brightness temperatures of humidity-sensitive channels of microwave measuring radiometers (SSMIS) onboard DMSP F16. The results show that some of the biases can be detected and corrected in an automated way, however large biases that impact the distribution of DPD values originating from known reporting practices (e.g. 30 DPD on US stations) remain. These biases can be removed but not corrected. The comparison of brightness temperatures from satellite and radiosondes proofs to be difficult as large differences result from for example representative errors.

  8. Half-sandwich iridium complexes for homogeneous water-oxidation catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, James D; Schley, Nathan D; Balcells, David; Hull, Jonathan F; Olack, Gerard W; Incarvito, Christopher D; Eisenstein, Odile; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H

    2010-11-17

    Iridium half-sandwich complexes of the types Cp*Ir(N-C)X, [Cp*Ir(N-N)X]X, and [CpIr(N-N)X]X are catalyst precursors for the homogeneous oxidation of water to dioxygen. Kinetic studies with cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as primary oxidant show that oxygen evolution is rapid and continues over many hours. In addition, [Cp*Ir(H(2)O)(3)]SO(4) and [(Cp*Ir)(2)(μ-OH)(3)]OH can show even higher turnover frequencies (up to 20 min(-1) at pH 0.89). Aqueous electrochemical studies on the cationic complexes having chelate ligands show catalytic oxidation at pH > 7; conversely, at low pH, there are no oxidation waves up to 1.5 V vs NHE for the complexes. H(2)(18)O isotope incorporation studies demonstrate that water is the source of oxygen atoms during cerium(IV)-driven catalysis. DFT calculations and kinetic experiments, including kinetic-isotope-effect studies, suggest a mechanism for homogeneous iridium-catalyzed water oxidation and contribute to the determination of the rate-determining step. The kinetic experiments also help distinguish the active homogeneous catalyst from heterogeneous nanoparticulate iridium dioxide.

  9. Dissolution test for homogeneity of mixed oxide fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to determine the relationship between fuel pellet homogeneity and pellet dissolubility. Although, in general, the amount of pellet residue decreased with increased homogeneity, as measured by the pellet figure of merit, the relationship was not absolute. Thus, all pellets with high figure of merit (excellent homogeneity) do not necessarily dissolve completely and all samples that dissolve completely do not necessarily have excellent homogeneity. It was therefore concluded that pellet dissolubility measurements could not be substituted for figure of merit determinations as a measurement of pellet homogeneity. 8 figures, 3 tables

  10. Is it possible to homogenize resonant chiral metamaterials ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten;

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is very important as it makes possible description in terms of effective parameters. In this contribution we consider the homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for some metamaterials there is an optimal meta-atom size which depends on the coupling...... between meta-atoms. We introduce numerical criterion of homogeneity on the basis of the Bloch modes dispersion diagram calculation and a tool to predict the homogeneity limit. We show that some metamaterials with strong coupling between meta-atoms cannot be considered as homogeneous at all...

  11. Medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  12. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is an innovative method to produce useful building materials from Martian regolith. Acids and bases produced from the regolith...

  13. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is a novel technology for recovering oxygen, iron, and other constituents from lunar and Mars soils. The closed-loop...

  14. Fuels for homogeneous self-igniting combustion processes; Brennstoffe fuer homogene selbstgezuendete Verbrennungsprozesse - Jahresbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, A; Boulouchos, K.

    2006-12-15

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done in 2006 at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, on the simulation of homogeneous self-igniting combustion. It also presents the results of experimental work on the ignition of n-butane and n-heptane in the institute's one-stroke test engine. Two simulation methods are discussed, both of which corresponded well with the results of experiments carried out. The authors note that the results provide a deeper insight into the mechanisms of self-ignition in homogeneous mixtures.

  15. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D solar system.

  16. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  17. Nearsightedness of Finite Homogeneous Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuta, Yuki; Yamanaka, Shusuke; Kawakami, Takashi; Okumura, Mitsutaka; Yamaguchi, Kizashi; Nakamura, Haruki

    On the basis of linear response function (LRF) analysis, nearsightedness of finite systems is examined for nearly homogeneous molecular systems. We first treated with Hn (n = 2-100) to inspect the local or nonlocal responses of these systems, which are, in other words, the magnitudes of nearsightedness of the finite systems. Further, the LRFs of H100n+ (n = 0-98) have been examined in order to clarify whether the magnitude of nearsightedness depends either the size of systems or the number of electrons in systems. From our calculations, we conjectured that the number of electrons are essential for nearsightedness of electronic matter (NEM) of this type of systems. This conjecture has been confirmed from the fact that the LRFs of H100n+ (n = 0-98) are similar to those of N electrons (N = 2-100) in a square well potential, showing that attractive potentials of H100n+ (n = 0-98) do not change significantly the dependence of the magnitudes of NEM on the number of electrons.

  18. Chemically homogeneous evolution in massive binaries

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Pols, O R

    2010-01-01

    Rotation can have severe consequences for the evolution of massive stars. It is now considered as one of the main parameters, alongside mass and metallicity that determine the final fate of single stars. In massive, fast rotating stars mixing processes induced by rotation may be so efficient that helium produced in the center is mixed throughout the envelope. Such stars evolve almost chemically homogeneously. At low metallicity they remain blue and compact, while they gradually evolve into Wolf-Rayet stars and possibly into progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts. In binaries this type of evolution may occur because of (I) tides in very close binaries, as a result of (II) spin up by mass transfer, as result of (III) a merger of the two stars and (IV) when one of the components in the binary was born with a very high initial rotation rate. As these stars stay compact, the evolutionary channels are very different from what classical binary evolutionary models predict. In this contribution we discuss examples of ne...

  19. Numerical Computation of Homogeneous Slope Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759 were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS.

  20. Homogeneous and isotropic calorimetry for space experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, N., E-mail: mori@fi.infn.it [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Adriani, O. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Basti, A. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bigongiari, G. [University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bonechi, L. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bonechi, S. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bongi, M. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bottai, S. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Brogi, P. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Detti, S.; Lenzi, P. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.S. [INFN sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Papini, P. [INFN sezione di Firenze, via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); and others

    2013-12-21

    Calorimetry plays an essential role in experiments observing high energy gamma and cosmic rays in space. The observational capabilities are mainly limited by the geometrical dimensions and the mass of the calorimeter. Since deployable mass depends on the design of the detector and the total mass of the payload, it is important to optimize the geometrical acceptance of the calorimeter for rare events, its granularity for particle identification, and its absorption depth for the measurement of the particle energy. A design of a calorimeter that could simultaneously optimize these characteristics assuming a mass limit of about 1.6 t has been studied. As a result, a homogeneous calorimeter instrumented with cesium iodide (CsI) crystals was chosen as the best compromise given the total mass constraint. The most suitable geometry found is cubic and isotropic, so as to detect particles arriving from every direction in space, thus maximizing the acceptance; granularity is obtained by filling the cubic volume with small cubic CsI crystals. The total radiation length in any direction is very large, and allows for optimal electromagnetic particle identification and energy measurement, while the interaction length is at least sufficient to allow a precise reconstruction of hadronic showers. Optimal values for the size of the crystals and spacing among them have been studied. Two prototypes have been constructed and preliminary tests with high energy ion and muon beams are reported.

  1. Theoretical Studies of Homogeneous Catalysts Mimicking Nitrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Magistrato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen ‘fixation’ via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N2 to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N2(HIPTN3N with (HIPTN3N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N2. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  2. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. Jay

    2015-11-01

    In the context of a homogeneous Universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the Universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions spanning several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the Universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available pressureless matter into radiation. We conclude that the existence of life, if certain advanced technologies are practical, could have a significant influence on the future large-scale evolution of the Universe.

  3. Inhomogeneous radiative forcing of homogeneous greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Radiative forcing of a homogeneous greenhouse gas (HGG) can be very inhomogeneous because the forcing is dependent on other atmospheric and surface variables. In the case of doubling CO2, the monthly mean instantaneous forcing at the top of the atmosphere is found to vary geographically and temporally from positive to negative values, with the range (-2.5-5.1 W m-2) being more than 3 times the magnitude of the global mean value (2.3 W m-2). The vertical temperature change across the atmospheric column (temperature lapse rate) is found to be the best single predictor for explaining forcing variation. In addition, the masking effects of clouds and water vapor also contribute to forcing inhomogeneity. A regression model that predicts forcing from geophysical variables is constructed. This model can explain more than 90% of the variance of the forcing. Applying this model to analyzing the forcing variation in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models, we find that intermodel discrepancy in CO2 forcing caused by model climatology leads to considerable discrepancy in their projected change in poleward energy transport.

  4. Development of a mechanical homogenizer coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crop Coffee demands investments to the machines development, which it enables the processes ofpost-harvesting, becoming them faster, meanwhile improving the working. The use of stationary layer dryers are responsible for good results at drying and product quality, but it requires a constant revolving, in order to homogenize the grain mass and improve the air distribution inside the drying chamber. The shortage of workmanship, associated to the need of constant revolving and the heavy working conditions, it becomes it indispensable to mechanize, in some way, this step. The agricultural machine design is considered of great complexity, regarding it must be concerned with the interactions among the operator, machine and environment. When designing a machine, the experience and the dominion of several standpoints have to be interpreted clearly. With the increasing competitiveness on the consumer market and agricultural machines, several companies have joined the research centers, because in general, do not make use of systematic procedures during the project, which can result in failures during operation. This article aimed to design and build a semi-mechanized revolving prototype used to mix the coffee beans. The revolving prototype with the helical screw principles proved to be able to performing the grains transport efficiently.

  5. Linear perturbations of spatially locally homogeneous spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Tanimoto, M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and properties regarding the linear perturbations are discussed for some spatially closed (vacuum) solutions of Einstein's equation. The main focus is on two kinds of spatially locally homogeneous solution; one is the Bianchi III (Thurston's H^2 x R) type, while the other is the Bianchi II (Thurston's Nil) type. With a brief summary of previous results on the Bianchi III perturbations, asymptotic solutions for the gauge-invariant variables for the Bianchi III are shown, with which (in)stability of the background solution is also examined. The issue of linear stability for a Bianchi II solution is still an open problem. To approach it, appropriate eigenfunctions are presented for an explicitly compactified Bianchi II manifold and based on that, some field equations on the Bianchi II background spacetime are studied. Differences between perturbation analyses for Bianchi class B (to which Bianchi III belongs) and class A (to which Bianchi II belongs) are stressed for an intention to be helpful for applic...

  6. On the Homogeneous Model Of Euclidean Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gunn, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We attach the degenerate signature (n,0,1) to the projectivized dual Grassmann algebra over R(n+1). We explore the use of the resulting Clifford algebra as a model for euclidean geometry. We avoid problems with the degenerate metric by constructing an algebra isomorphism between this Grassmann algebra and its dual, that yields non-metric meet and join operators. We review the Cayley-Klein construction of the projective (homogeneous) model for euclidean geometry leading to the choice of the signature (n,0,1). We focus on the cases of n=2 and n=3 in detail, enumerating the geometric products between simple k- and m-vectors. We establish that versor (sandwich) operators provide all euclidean isometries, both direct and indirect. We locate the spin group, a double cover of the direct euclidean group, inside the even subalgebra of the Clifford algebra, and provide a simple algorithm for calculating the logarithm of such elements. We conclude with an elementary account of euclidean rigid body motion within this fra...

  7. Variation principle of piezothermoelastic bodies, canonical equation and homogeneous equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-hong; ZHANG Hui-ming

    2007-01-01

    Combining the symplectic variations theory, the homogeneous control equation and isoparametric element homogeneous formulations for piezothermoelastic hybrid laminates problems were deduced. Firstly, based on the generalized Hamilton variation principle, the non-homogeneous Hamilton canonical equation for piezothermoelastic bodies was derived. Then the symplectic relationship of variations in the thermal equilibrium formulations and gradient equations was considered, and the non-homogeneous canonical equation was transformed to homogeneous control equation for solving independently the coupling problem of piezothermoelastic bodies by the incensement of dimensions of the canonical equation. For the convenience of deriving Hamilton isoparametric element formulations with four nodes, one can consider the temperature gradient equation as constitutive relation and reconstruct new variation principle. The homogeneous equation simplifies greatly the solution programs which are often performed to solve nonhomogeneous equation and second order differential equation on the thermal equilibrium and gradient relationship.

  8. Some Characteristic Quantities Associated with Homogeneous -Type and -Type Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Yeol Je

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several characteristic quantities associated with homogeneous -type and -type functions are introduced and studied in this paper. Further, the concepts of -property and -property for a couple of functions are introduced and some quantities for a pair of homogeneous functions having -property and -property are obtained, respectively. As an application, a bound for the solution of the homogeneous complementarity problem with a -type function is derived.

  9. A Modified Homogeneous Balance Method and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春平

    2011-01-01

    A modified homogeneous balance method is proposed by improving some key steps in the homogeneous balance method. Bilinear equations of some nonlinear evolution equations are derived by using the modified homogeneous balance method. Generalized Boussinesq equation, KP equation, and mKdV equation are chosen as examples to illustrate our method. This approach is also applicable to a large variety of nonlinear evolution equations.

  10. Quantitative determination of homogeneous strain value in superplastic tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    After load instability, a passage of homogeneous strain ε can be still continued in superplastic tensile deformation. But untill now, no one has given the precise value of ε corresponding to actual materials, neither in experimental measurements nor in theoretical calculations. Using the elaborate experimental measuring methods of m value and its function expressions, the note first gives the method to determine homogeneous ε, and the homogeneous ε value of typical superplastic alloy Zn-5% Al under 18℃ and 340℃ respectively.

  11. Homogeneity of passively ventilated waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Jensen, L.; Cromar, R.D.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

    1997-07-01

    Gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site are being characterized to help resolve waste storage safety issues and estimate air emissions. Characterization is accomplished by collecting and analyzing air samples from the headspaces of the tanks. Samples are generally collected from a single central location within the headspace, and it is assumed that they are representative of the entire headspace. The validity of this assumption appears to be very good for most tanks, because thermally induced convection currents within the headspaces mix constituents continuously. In the coolest waste tanks, however, thermally induced convection may be suppressed for several months of each year because of the seasonal soil temperature cycle. To determine whether composition does vary significantly with location in a cool tank, the headspaces of three waste tanks have been sampled at different horizontal and vertical locations during that part of the year when thermally induced convection is minimized. This report describes the bases for tank selection and the sampling and analytical methods used, then analyzes and discusses the results. Headspace composition data from two risers at three elevations in Tanks 241-B-103, TY-103, and U-112 have been analyzed by standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods, which indicate that these tank headspaces are essentially homogeneous. No stratification of denser vapors (e.g., carbon tetrachloride, dodecane) or lighter gases (e.g., ammonia, hydrogen) was detected in any of the three tanks. A qualitative examination of all tentatively identified organic vapors in SUMMA{trademark} and TST samples supported this conclusion.

  12. Structure of homogeneous nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.S.; Mashayek, F.; Adumitroaie, V.; Givi, P. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-4400 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Results are presented for three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence for both stationary isotropic and homogeneous shear flow configurations with zero mean induction and unity magnetic Prandtl number. Small scale dynamo action is observed in both flows, and stationary values for the ratio of magnetic to kinetic energy are shown to scale nearly linearly with the Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers above a critical value of Re{sub {lambda}}{approx_equal}30. The presence of the magnetic field has the effect of decreasing the kinetic energy of the flow, while simultaneously increasing the Taylor microscale Reynolds number due to enlargement of the hydrodynamic length scales. For shear flows, both the velocity and the magnetic fields become increasingly anisotropic with increasing initial magnetic field strength. The kinetic energy spectra show a relative increase in high wave-number energy in the presence of a magnetic field. The magnetic field is found to portray an intermittent behavior, with peak values of the flatness near the critical Reynolds number. The magnetic field of both flows is organized in the form of {open_quote}{open_quote}flux tubes{close_quote}{close_quote} and magnetic {open_quote}{open_quote}sheets.{close_quote}{close_quote} These regions of large magnetic field strength show a small correlation with moderate vorticity regions, while the electric current structures are correlated with large amplitude strain regions of the turbulence. Some of the characteristics of small scale MHD turbulence are explained via the {open_quote}{open_quote}structural{close_quote}{close_quote} description of turbulence. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Structure of homogeneous nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence for both stationary isotropic and homogeneous shear flow configurations with zero mean induction and unity magnetic Prandtl number. Small scale dynamo action is observed in both flows, and stationary values for the ratio of magnetic to kinetic energy are shown to scale nearly linearly with the Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers above a critical value of Reλ≅30. The presence of the magnetic field has the effect of decreasing the kinetic energy of the flow, while simultaneously increasing the Taylor microscale Reynolds number due to enlargement of the hydrodynamic length scales. For shear flows, both the velocity and the magnetic fields become increasingly anisotropic with increasing initial magnetic field strength. The kinetic energy spectra show a relative increase in high wave-number energy in the presence of a magnetic field. The magnetic field is found to portray an intermittent behavior, with peak values of the flatness near the critical Reynolds number. The magnetic field of both flows is organized in the form of open-quote open-quote flux tubes close-quote close-quote and magnetic open-quote open-quote sheets.close-quote close-quote These regions of large magnetic field strength show a small correlation with moderate vorticity regions, while the electric current structures are correlated with large amplitude strain regions of the turbulence. Some of the characteristics of small scale MHD turbulence are explained via the open-quote open-quote structural close-quote close-quote description of turbulence. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Homogenization Theory for a Replenishing Passive Scalar Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter R.KRAMER; Shane R.KEATING

    2009-01-01

    Homogenization theory provides a rigorous framework for calculating the effective diffusivity of a decaying passive scalar field in a turbulent or complex flow.The authors extend this framework to the case where the passive scalar fluctuations ore continuously replenished by a source(and/or sink).The basic structure.of the homogenized equations carries over,but in some eases the homogenized source can involve a non-trivial coupling of the velocity field and the source.The authors derive expressions for the homogenized source term for various multiscale source structures and interpret them physically.

  15. Operator Algebra Quantum Homogeneous Spaces of Universal Gauge Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Snigdhayan; Mathai, Varghese

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we quantize universal gauge groups such as SU(∞), as well as their homogeneous spaces, in the σ- C*-algebra setting. More precisely, we propose concise definitions of σ- C*-quantum groups and σ- C*-quantum homogeneous spaces and explain these concepts here. At the same time, we put these definitions in the mathematical context of countably compactly generated spaces as well as C*-compact quantum groups and homogeneous spaces. We also study the representable K-theory of these spaces and compute these groups for the quantum homogeneous spaces associated to the quantum version of the universal gauge group SU(∞).

  16. Markov Chain Computation for Homogeneous and Non-homogeneous Data: MARCH 1.1 Users Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Berchtold

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available MARCH is a free software for the computation of different types of Markovian models including homogeneous Markov Chains, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs and Double Chain Markov Models (DCMMs. The main characteristic of this software is the implementation of a powerful optimization method for HMMs and DCMMs combining a genetic algorithm with the standard Baum-Welch procedure. MARCH is distributed as a set of Matlab functions running under Matlab 5 or higher on any computing platform. A PC Windows version running independently from Matlab is also available.

  17. Fuels for homogeneous, self-igniting combustion processes; Brennstoffe fuer homogene selbstgezuendete Verbrennungsprozesse - Jahresbericht 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, B.; Boulouchos, K.

    2008-07-01

    This annual report for the year 2008 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland, concerning the theoretical and experimental study of self-igniting fuel-air combustion processes that occur in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engines. The work done in 2008 is reviewed, including the systematic search for better injection strategies and cylinder head design. Over 100 intricate calculation runs were made, each needing more than a day of computation and evaluation time. Experimental work in the institute's engine laboratory is also reviewed.

  18. Simulation of homogeneous diesel combustion processes; Simulation homogener Diesel-Brennverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Clemens

    2008-07-01

    For the modeling of ignition and combustion of homogeneous Diesel combustion processes two modeling approaches were developed. In both approaches the heat release during the cool flame phase as the first phase of the homogeneous combustion process is considered. The first approach is called Multi-SR approach within this work and is based on the coupling of a system of stochastic reactors with a 3d-CFD-code. The stochastic reactors are modeled in a langrangian way by particles which are moved convectively with the flow field. Depending on the local position they represent their surrounding area in the combustion chamber. Information concerning convection, evaporation, wall heat transfer as well as the turbulent timescale needed for the turbulent mixing process are transferred from the 3d-CFC-Code to the stochastic reactors. With this modeling approach ignition and combustion are implicitly considered. The second approach is a progress variable one with the reaction time as progress variable used for the turbulent description of the ignition phase of homogeneous Diesel combustion processes. The model is based on an online-generated library. Within this library the laminar heat release rates are calculated depending on the reaction time. Based on the library the turbulent released energy during the ignition phase is calculated. In the end the turbulent released energy is coupled to the 3d-CFC-Code based on a simple chemical reaction. After reaching a predefined criterion the ignition model is switched to a conventional Diesel combustion model. With this model the main combustion part is simulated then. The Multi-SR-approach as well as the progress variable approach were implemented in the three-dimensional CFD-Code KIVA [87] and validated with single cylinder data. In most cases the Multi-SR-approach showed a good agreement respect to start of the cool flame and main combustion, maximum pressure and post flame behaviour. The heat release rate during the cool flame

  19. Communication: Intraparticle segregation of structurally homogeneous polyelectrolyte microgels caused by long-range Coulomb repulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, Artem M.; Rudov, Andrey A.; Potemkin, Igor I.

    2015-05-01

    Structurally homogeneous polyelectrolyte microgels in dilute aqueous solutions are shown to exhibit inhomogeneous density profile including intraparticle "phase" coexistence of hollow core and dense "skin." This effect is a consequence of long-range Coulomb repulsion of charged groups which appear because of entropy-driven escape of monovalent counterions into the outer solvent. Excess of the charged groups at the periphery of the microgel particle reduces electrostatic energy and overall free energy of the system despite a penalty in the elastic free energy of strongly stretched subchains in the hole. This finding can serve as additional tool controlling encapsulation, transport, and release of high- and low-molecular-weight species in processes where the microgels are used as delivery systems.

  20. Influence of precipitating agent in the preparation of hydrous niobium oxide by the method of homogeneous precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the preparation, characterization and study of the ion exchange behavior of hydrous niobium oxide prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. The precipitating agent was obtained in aqueous solution by thermal decomposition of urea or ammonium carbonate. The compounds were chemically and physically characterized by X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis (TG/DTG), surface area measurements and ion exchange behavior with sodium. The materials prepared with ammonium carbonate presented a higher degree of crystallinity and better ion exchange capacity with sodium than materials prepared with urea. In the homogeneous precipitation method, materials were obtained with specific surface area of 123 - 224 m2 g-1. A variation of the preparation process produced hydrous niobium oxide with a different degree of hydration and specific surface area. This provided materials with different physico-chemical properties. (author)

  1. Amphoteric Aqueous Hafnium Cluster Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Park, Deok-Hie; Amador, Jenn M; Keszler, Douglas A; Nyman, May

    2016-05-17

    Selective dissolution of hafnium-peroxo-sulfate films in aqueous tetramethylammonium hydroxide enables extreme UV lithographic patterning of sub-10 nm HfO2 structures. Hafnium speciation under these basic conditions (pH>10), however, is unknown, as studies of hafnium aqueous chemistry have been limited to acid. Here, we report synthesis, crystal growth, and structural characterization of the first polynuclear hydroxo hafnium cluster isolated from base, [TMA]6 [Hf6 (μ-O2 )6 (μ-OH)6 (OH)12 ]⋅38 H2 O. The solution behavior of the cluster, including supramolecular assembly via hydrogen bonding is detailed via small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The study opens a new chapter in the aqueous chemistry of hafnium, exemplifying the concept of amphoteric clusters and informing a critical process in single-digit-nm lithography. PMID:27094575

  2. Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are special variants of these techniques. Here, organic solvents or their mixtures with or without dissolved electrolytes are used as separation buffer or mobile phase, respectively. The most important features of non-aqueous systems are: better solubility of more hydrophobic ionic substances (many natural products) than in water, much less current and Joule heating allows for using highly concentrated buffers and/or larger capillary internal diameters, polar interactions are enhanced in organic solvents which is often highly advantageous in chiral separation systems. This chapter presents most frequently used solvents, their properties, as well as shows pH* scale which is often used in non-aqueous systems.

  3. Radiation-thermal decomposition of nitric and acetic acids in the aqueous nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of radiation, thermal and radiation-thermal decompositions of nitric and acetic acid mixture was investigated in aqueous sodium nitrate solution in homogeneous conditions as well as by interaction of solid phase as sand rock. Temperature dependences of rate of radiation, thermal and radiation-thermal decompositions of the acids were calculated using experimental data. Resulting solutions make possible the calculation of acid decomposition dynamics accounting conditions of underground radioactive waste disposals

  4. Homogeneous Buchberger algorithms and Sullivant's computational commutative algebra challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge.......We give a variant of the homogeneous Buchberger algorithm for positively graded lattice ideals. Using this algorithm we solve the Sullivant computational commutative algebra challenge....

  5. Homogeneous Broadening of Optical Transitions in Organic Mixed Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Harmen de; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1976-01-01

    We have used the phenomenon of laser-induced molecular photodissociation to determine the homogeneous linewidth at 2 K of the origin (zero-phonon line) and a vibronic transition in the mixed-crystal absorption spectrum of dimethyl s-tetrazine in durene. From the measured 55-MHz (upper limit) homogen

  6. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p tube feeding (p Ultrasonic homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants. PMID:8229535

  7. Holomorphic maps from rational homogeneous spaces onto projective manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Chihin

    2008-01-01

    Answering a problem raised by Lazarsfeld, Hwang and Mok proved that a surjective holomorphic map from a rational homogeneous space of Picard number 1 onto projective manifold different from projective space must be a biholomorphism. THe aim of this paper is to generalized this result to irreducible rational homogeneous space of higher Picard number.

  8. Large-scale Homogenization of Bulk Materials in Mammoth Silos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis concerns the large-scale homogenization of bulk materials in mammoth silos. The objective of this research was to determine the best stacking and reclaiming method for homogenization in mammoth silos. For this purpose a simulation program was developed to estimate the homogeniza

  9. Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    De Luna, Manuel Quezada

    2012-03-01

    We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Calderon type reproducing formula on spaces of homogeneous type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓东皋; 韩永生

    1995-01-01

    By using the Calderon-Zygmund operator theory, a continuous version of the Calderon type reproducing formula associated to a para-accretive function on spaces of homogeneous type is proved. A new characterization of the Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces on spaces of homogeneous type is also obtained.

  11. A FORTRAN program for testing trend and homogeneity in proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, A K; Berry, K J; Mielke, P W

    1985-01-01

    A FORTRAN program is provided for testing linear trend and homogeneity in proportions. Trend is evaluated by the Cochran-Armitage method and homogeneity is tested by an overall X2 test as well by multiple pairwise comparisons by the Fisher-Irwin exact method. The program should be easy to implement on any size of computer with a FORTRAN compiler.

  12. Characterization of isolated homogeneous hypersurface singularities in C4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Kepao; TU; Zhenhan; YAU; Stephen; S; T

    2006-01-01

    Let V be a hypersurface with an isolated singularity at the origin in Cn+1. It is a natural question to ask when V is defined by weighted homogeneous polynomial or homogeneous polynomial up to biholomorphic change of coordinates. In 1971, a beautiful theorem of Saito gives a necessary and sufficient condition for V to be defined by a weighted homogeneous polynomial.For a two-dimensional isolated hypersurface singularity V, Xu and Yau found a coordinate free characterization for V to be defined by a homogeneous polynomial. Recently Lin and Yau gave necessary and sufficient conditions for a 3-dimensional isolated hypersurface singularity with geometric genus bi.er than zero to be defined by a homogeneous polynomial. The purpose of this paper is to prove that Lin-Yau's theorem remains true for singularities with geometric genus equal to zero.

  13. Fibrations and globalizations of compact homogeneous CR-manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibration methods which were previously used for complex homogeneous spaces and CR-homogeneous spaces of special types [1]-[4] are developed in a general framework. These include the g-anticanonical fibration in the CR-setting, which reduces certain considerations to the compact projective algebraic case, where a Borel-Remmert type splitting theorem is proved. This leads to a reduction to spaces homogeneous under actions of compact Lie groups. General globalization theorems are proved which enable one to regard a homogeneous CR-manifold as an orbit of a real Lie group in a complex homogeneous space of a complex Lie group. In the special case of CR-codimension at most two, precise classification results are proved and are applied to show that in most cases there exists such a globalization

  14. Synthesis of biscoumarin derivatives by the reaction of aldehydes and 4-hydroxycoumarin using ruthenium (III chloride hydrate as a versatile homogeneous catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaeian Khalil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-pot domino Knoevenagel-type condensation/Michael reaction of aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic aldehydes with 4-hydroxycoumarin in aqueous media in the presence of ruthenium salt as homogeneous catalyst was investigated. It was found that 5 mol% of RuCl3.nH2O catalyzes biscoumarin synthesis in high yields (70-95% under optimised, mild, green and environmentally benign reaction conditions in short times (25-35min.

  15. Turbulent Diffusion in Non-Homogeneous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.; Mahjoub, O. B.; Sekula, E.

    2012-04-01

    Many experimental studies have been devoted to the understanding of non-homogeneous turbulent dynamics. Activity in this area intensified when the basic Kolmogorov self-similar theory was extended to two-dimensional or quasi 2D turbulent flows such as those appearing in the environment, that seem to control mixing [1,2]. The statistical description and the dynamics of these geophysical flows depend strongly on the distribution of long lived organized (coherent) structures. These flows show a complex topology, but may be subdivided in terms of strongly elliptical domains (high vorticity regions), strong hyperbolic domains (deformation cells with high energy condensations) and the background turbulent field of moderate elliptic and hyperbolic characteristics. It is of fundamental importance to investigate the different influence of these topological diverse regions. Relevant geometrical information of different areas is also given by the maximum fractal dimension, which is related to the energy spectrum of the flow. Using all the available information it is possible to investigate the spatial variability of the horizontal eddy diffusivity K(x,y). This information would be very important when trying to model numerically the behaviour in time of the oil spills [3,4] There is a strong dependence of horizontal eddy diffusivities with the Wave Reynolds number as well as with the wind stress measured as the friction velocity from wind profiles measured at the coastline. Natural sea surface oily slicks of diverse origin (plankton, algae or natural emissions and seeps of oil) form complicated structures in the sea surface due to the effects of both multiscale turbulence and Langmuir circulation. It is then possible to use the topological and scaling analysis to discriminate the different physical sea surface processes. We can relate higher orden moments of the Lagrangian velocity to effective diffusivity in spite of the need to calibrate the different regions determining the

  16. Stability and Biological Activity Evaluation of Chlorantraniliprole Solid Nanodispersions Prepared by High Pressure Homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bo; Feng, Lei; Wang, Chunxin; Yang, Dongsheng; Yu, Manli; Zeng, Zhanghua; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Haixin

    2016-01-01

    Poorly water-soluble compounds are difficult to develop as pesticide products and face great challenges in water-based and environmentally friendly formulation development. In this study, high pressure homogenization combined with lyophilization was adopted to prepare the solid nanodispersions of chlorantraniliprole with poor solubility and high melting point. The mean particle sizes of the solid nanodispersions with different pesticide contents were all less than 75 nm, even when the content was up to 91.5%. For the 2.5% chlorantraniliprole solid nanodispersion with the mean particle size of 29 nm, the suspensibility and wetting time in water were 97.32% and 13 s, respectively. The re-dispersibility and wettability were superior to those of conventional water dispersible granules. The retention on the rice leaf of 18.7 mg/cm2 was 1.5 and 3 times that of commercial aqueous suspension concentrate and pure water. The bioassay result to diamondback moths indicated that the toxicity of the solid nanodispersion was 3.3 and 2.8 times that of technical and aqueous suspension concentrate, respectively. Moreover, the solid nanodispersion has the advantages of total avoidance of organic solvents, significant reduction of surfactants and feasibility of obtaining high concentration nanoformulations. The solid nanodispersion is an attractive candidate for improving pesticide solubility and efficacy, and its application in crop production will reduce both residues in food and environmental pollution of pesticide. PMID:27500828

  17. Stability and Biological Activity Evaluation of Chlorantraniliprole Solid Nanodispersions Prepared by High Pressure Homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bo; Feng, Lei; Wang, Chunxin; Yang, Dongsheng; Yu, Manli; Zeng, Zhanghua; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Haixin

    2016-01-01

    Poorly water-soluble compounds are difficult to develop as pesticide products and face great challenges in water-based and environmentally friendly formulation development. In this study, high pressure homogenization combined with lyophilization was adopted to prepare the solid nanodispersions of chlorantraniliprole with poor solubility and high melting point. The mean particle sizes of the solid nanodispersions with different pesticide contents were all less than 75 nm, even when the content was up to 91.5%. For the 2.5% chlorantraniliprole solid nanodispersion with the mean particle size of 29 nm, the suspensibility and wetting time in water were 97.32% and 13 s, respectively. The re-dispersibility and wettability were superior to those of conventional water dispersible granules. The retention on the rice leaf of 18.7 mg/cm2 was 1.5 and 3 times that of commercial aqueous suspension concentrate and pure water. The bioassay result to diamondback moths indicated that the toxicity of the solid nanodispersion was 3.3 and 2.8 times that of technical and aqueous suspension concentrate, respectively. Moreover, the solid nanodispersion has the advantages of total avoidance of organic solvents, significant reduction of surfactants and feasibility of obtaining high concentration nanoformulations. The solid nanodispersion is an attractive candidate for improving pesticide solubility and efficacy, and its application in crop production will reduce both residues in food and environmental pollution of pesticide. PMID:27500828

  18. Cardiac Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Medication For the treatment of heart failure Beta Blockers (Also known as Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents) Commonly ... have had a heart attack. Combined alpha and beta-blockers Combined alpha and beta-blockers are used as ...

  19. Medical marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18. Other people who should not use medical marijuana include: People with heart disease Pregnant women People with a history of psychosis Other concerns linked to marijuana use include: Dangerous driving or other risky behaviors ...

  20. Medication Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Small Text Medium Text Large Text Contrast Dark on Light Light on Dark Donate Search Menu Donate What is Glaucoma? Care ... Low Vision Resources Medication Guide Resources on the Web » See All Articles Help the Cause Glaucoma affects ...

  1. Medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P

    1992-01-01

    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.

  2. Medical tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ghanbari; Khadijeh Zirak Moradlu; Morteza Ramazani

    2014-01-01

    Medical tourism is considered as one of the tourism dimensions and it can contribute to the stabilized and dynamic development of a country's economy. Since it is cost-effective industry, most developing countries have focused on this industry and they are planning to develop this industry. Not only does Zanjan province, as the central region in medicine services, enjoy different kinds of variety and acceptable medical specialties but also it has historical, natural, and religious tourism pot...

  3. Aqueous Geochemistry at High Pressures and High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Jay D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-05-21

    This project is aimed at experimental characterization of the sound velocities, equations of state (EOS), and derived physical and chemical properties of aqueous solutions and carbon dioxide at extreme pressure and temperature conditions relevant to processes occurring in the interior of the Earth. Chemical transport, phase changes (including melting), fluid-solid reactions, and formation of magmatic liquids at convergent plat boundaries are a key motivation for this project. Research in this area has long been limited by the extreme experimental challenges and lack of data under the appropriate pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions. The vast majority of studies of aqueous geochemistry relevant to terrestrial problems of fluid-rock interactions have been conducted at 0.3 GPa or less, and the widely used Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state for aqueous species is applicable only at ~ < 0.5 GPa. These limits are unfortunate because fluid flow and reactions plays a central role in many deeper environments. Recent efforts including our own, have resulted in new experimental techniques that now make it possible to investigate properties of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria involving aqueous species and minerals over a much broader range of pressure and temperature appropriate for deep crustal and upper mantle processes involving water-rich fluids. We carried out 1) Brillouin scattering measurements of the equations of state and molar volume of water and carbon dioxide to over 10 GPa and 870K using precise resistance heating of samples under pressure in the diamond anvil cell, and 2) the phase diagrams of the water and CO2, and 3) Exploring new experimental approaches, including CO2 laser heating of samples in a diamond cell, to measurements of sound velocities, EOS, and phase relations by Brillouin scattering to far greater pressures and temperatures.

  4. A novel water soluble solvatochromic probe as a micropolarity reporter for homogeneous and microheterogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Amrita; Kedia, Niraja [Department of Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, BCKV Main P.O., Mohanpur 741252, Nadia, WB (India); Bagchi, Sanjib, E-mail: bsanjibb@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Presidency University, 86/1 College Street, Kolkata 700073 (India)

    2014-07-01

    A new water soluble donor–acceptor dye, sodium 4-(methyl((1E,3E)-3-(1-oxo-1H-inden-2(3H)-ylidene)prop-1-enyl)amino) benzoate (DN3) has been synthesized. Optical response of the solvatochromic dye (DN3) has been studied in various homogeneous (neat and mixed binary solvents) and heterogeneous (SDS and CTAB homomicelle and β-cyclodextrin nanocavity) media. To get information regarding the change in the solvation interaction of the dye with the alteration in its microenvironment in different media, the photophysical properties of the dye have been monitored in various media using steady state and time resolved spectral analysis. Results obtained for mixed binary solvents containing water indicate that the solute is preferentially solvated by one of the component solvents and solvent–solvent interactions are also important in determining the preference. Effect of variation of pH in aqueous medium on the spectroscopic parameters of the dye has been studied and its pKa has been estimated. Studies in homomicelles (SDS and CTAB) reveal that the dye distributes itself between the aqueous and the micellar phase and the values of distribution coefficient have been estimated from the fluorescence parameters. The dye is encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin nanocavity and a 1:2 dye-β-cyclodextrin host–guest interaction is indicated. Semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations have been carried out to support the experimental results. - Highlights: • A water soluble fluorescent dye has been synthesized and studied in various media. • The dye is sensitive towards changes in micropolarity and pH of the medium. • Study in mixed binary solvent system indicates preferential solvation of the dye. • Stronger interaction of the dye is indicated with CTAB micelles compared to SDS. • Study in aqueous β-CD medium reveals favorable 1:2 binding of the dye with β-CD.

  5. Aqueous systems and geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant unpublished results reported include: osmotic coefficients of KCl solutions vs. molality at 109 to 2010C; cadmium ion diffusivities in CaCl2 hydrous melts; a x-ray diffraction study of the uranyl complex in water; solubility of amorphous silica in aqueous NaNO3 solutions at 100 to 3000C; and corrosion of carbon steel by geothermal brine

  6. Aqueous coordination complexes of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thecomplex formation constants, obtained by different methods, for the complexing of neptunium, in different oxidation states, in aqueous solutions, with several organic and inorganic ligands, have been critically reviewed. The values for the thermodynamic parameters associated with the complex formation, wherever available, are also presented. (author)

  7. Kinetics of homogeneous and surface-catalyzed mercury(II) reduction by iron(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirbahman, Aria; Kent, Douglas B.; Curtis, Gary P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of elemental mercury, Hg(0), via Hg(II) reduction is an important pathway that should be considered when studying Hg fate in environment. We conducted a kinetic study of abiotic homogeneous and surface-catalyzed Hg(0) production by Fe(II) under dark anoxic conditions. Hg(0) production rate, from initial 50 pM Hg(II) concentration, increased with increasing pH (5.5–8.1) and aqueous Fe(II) concentration (0.1–1 mM). The homogeneous rate was best described by the expression, rhom = khom [FeOH+] [Hg(OH)2]; khom = 7.19 × 10+3 L (mol min)−1. Compared to the homogeneous case, goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (α-Fe2O3) increased and γ-alumina (γ-Al2O3) decreased the Hg(0) production rate. Heterogeneous Hg(0) production rates were well described by a model incorporating equilibrium Fe(II) adsorption, rate-limited Hg(II) reduction by dissolved and adsorbed Fe(II), and rate-limited Hg(II) adsorption. Equilibrium Fe(II) adsorption was described using a surface complexation model calibrated with previously published experimental data. The Hg(0) production rate was well described by the expression rhet = khet [>SOFe(II)] [Hg(OH)2], where >SOFe(II) is the total adsorbed Fe(II) concentration; khet values were 5.36 × 10+3, 4.69 × 10+3, and 1.08 × 10+2 L (mol min)−1 for hematite, goethite, and γ-alumina, respectively. Hg(0) production coupled to reduction by Fe(II) may be an important process to consider in ecosystem Hg studies.

  8. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  9. Reduction of pantethine in rabbit ocular lens homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D H; Szulc, M E

    1997-02-01

    In several animal models, preliminary studies have indicated that pantethine may inhibit cataract formation. Therefore, preclinical trials need to be conducted to study the pharmacology of pantethine in the ocular lens and to establish its efficacy. Since pantethine, which is a disulfide, can undergo a variety of chemical modifications such as reduction and formation of mixed disulfides, a detailed study was first conducted to determine the stability of pantethine in rabbit lens homogenate. A knowledge of the stability of pantethine in lens homogenate was necessary to establish if pantethine could be metabolized in the time it takes to harvest and homogenize a lens. The results of this study will be used to establish a protocol for harvesting and homogenizing lens samples. Pantethine (100 microM) is completely reduced to pantetheine in rabbit lens homogenate in about 16 min. About 1.5% of the pantethine added to lens homogenate forms a mixed disulfide with lens proteins, and the remainder is found in the supernatant. The supernatant pantethine concentration decreases exponentially as a function of time, and the terminal half-life for this process is 3.3 min. The free supernatant pantetheine concentration increases in pseudo first order manner as a function of time with a rate constant of 4.3 min. Pantethinase activity is not significant, because the free supernatant pantetheine concentration did not decrease. The exact mechanism of pantethine reduction in rabbit lens homogenate remains to be determined. PMID:9127277

  10. Peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation: influence of tissue non-homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerves are situated in a highly non-homogeneous environment, including muscles, bones, blood vessels, etc. Time-varying magnetic field stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves in the carpal region is studied, with special consideration of the influence of non-homogeneities. Methods A detailed three-dimensional finite element model (FEM of the anatomy of the wrist region was built to assess the induced currents distribution by external magnetic stimulation. The electromagnetic field distribution in the non-homogeneous domain was defined as an internal Dirichlet problem using the finite element method. The boundary conditions were obtained by analysis of the vector potential field excited by external current-driven coils. Results The results include evaluation and graphical representation of the induced current field distribution at various stimulation coil positions. Comparative study for the real non-homogeneous structure with anisotropic conductivities of the tissues and a mock homogeneous media is also presented. The possibility of achieving selective stimulation of either of the two nerves is assessed. Conclusion The model developed could be useful in theoretical prediction of the current distribution in the nerves during diagnostic stimulation and therapeutic procedures involving electromagnetic excitation. The errors in applying homogeneous domain modeling rather than real non-homogeneous biological structures are demonstrated. The practical implications of the applied approach are valid for any arbitrary weakly conductive medium.

  11. Homogenization and improvement in energy dissipation of nonlinear composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Luv; Sivakumar, Srinivasan M.; Vedantam, S.

    2016-04-01

    Due to their high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratio, there is a huge shift towards the composite materials from the conventional metals, but composites have poor damage resistance in the transverse direction. Undergoing impact loads, they can fail in wide variety of modes which severely reduces the structural integrity of the component. This paper deals with the homogenization of glass-fibers and epoxy composite with a material introduced as an inelastic inclusion. This nonlinearity is being modelled by kinematic hardening procedure and homogenization is done by one of the mean field homogenization technique known as Mori-Tanaka method. The homogenization process consider two phases, one is the matrix and another is the inelastic inclusion, thus glass-fibers and epoxy are two phases which can be considered as one phase and act as a matrix while homogenizing non-linear composite. Homogenization results have been compared to the matrix at volume fraction zero of the inelastic inclusions and to the inelastic material at volume fraction one. After homogenization, increase of the energy dissipation into the composite due to addition of inelastic material and effects onto the same by changing the properties of the matrix material have been discussed.

  12. Characterizing Fullerene Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have indicated that fullerenes can form stable colloidal suspensions in water when introduced to the aqueous phase through solvent exchange, sonication, or extended mixing. The colloidal suspensions created using these techniques have effective aqueous phase concentratio...

  13. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A. Taher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders.In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract did not exhibit anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw oedema.These findings indicate that Mentha piperita has a potential analgesic effect that may possibly have mediated centrally and peripherally, as well as providing a pharmacological evidence for its traditional use as a pain reliever.

  14. Homogenization and structural topology optimization theory, practice and software

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, Behrooz

    1999-01-01

    Structural topology optimization is a fast growing field that is finding numerous applications in automotive, aerospace and mechanical design processes. Homogenization is a mathematical theory with applications in several engineering problems that are governed by partial differential equations with rapidly oscillating coefficients Homogenization and Structural Topology Optimization brings the two concepts together and successfully bridges the previously overlooked gap between the mathematical theory and the practical implementation of the homogenization method. The book is presented in a unique self-teaching style that includes numerous illustrative examples, figures and detailed explanations of concepts. The text is divided into three parts which maintains the book's reader-friendly appeal.

  15. Locally $G$-homogeneous Busemann $G$-spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berestovskiĭ, V N; Repovš, D; 10.1016/j.difgeo.2011.03.001

    2011-01-01

    We present short proofs of all known topological properties of general Busemann $G$-spaces (at present no other property is known for dimensions more than four). We prove that all small metric spheres in locally $G$-homogeneous Busemann $G$-spaces are homeomorphic and strongly topologically homogeneous. This is a key result in the context of the classical Busemann conjecture concerning the characterization of topological manifolds, which asserts that every $n$-dimensional Busemann $G$-space is a topological $n$-manifold. We also prove that every Busemann $G$-space which is uniformly locally $G$-homogeneous on an orbal subset must be finite-dimensional.

  16. Analyses of beyond design basis accident homogeneous boron dilution scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kereszturi, Andras; Hegyi, Gyoergy; Maraczy, Csaba; Trosztel, Istvan; Tota, Adam [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Budapest (Hungary); Karsa, Zoltan [NUBIKI Nuclear Safety Research Institute, Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    Homogeneous boron dilution scenarios in a VVER-440 reactor were analyzed using the coupled KIKO3D-ATHLET code. The scenarios are named ''homogeneous'' because of the very slow dilution caused by a rupture in the heat exchanger of the makeup system. Without the presented analyses, a significant contribution of the homogeneous boron dilution to the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) had to be assumed in the Probabilistic Safety Analyses (PSA). According to the combined results of the presented deterministic and probabilistic analyses, the final conclusion is that boron dilution transients don't give significant contribution to the CDF for the investigated VVER-440 NPP.

  17. Synthetic and mechanistic prospects of homogeneous gold catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pankajakshan, Sreekumar

    2009-01-01

    a) The first chapter of this thesis manifests the exploration of homogeneous gold-catalyzed conversions of furan containing aryl-ynamides and ynol ethers. Enynes boast to be the most explored substrate structures in the realm of homogeneous gold catalysis, whereas the reactivity of ene-ynamides and ene-ynol ethers are much less explored till date.34, 45 Hashmi and co-workers recently reported the homogeneous gold-catalyzed synthesis of phenols from furan containing ynamides/ynol ethers.45e Th...

  18. Killing vector fields and a homogeneous isotropic universe

    CERN Document Server

    Katanaev, M O

    2016-01-01

    Some basic theorems on Killing vector fields are reviewed. In particular, the topic of a constant-curvature space is examined. A detailed proof is given for a theorem describing the most general form of the metric of a homogeneous isotropic space-time. Although this theorem can be considered to be commonly known, its complete proof is difficult to find in the literature. An example metric is presented such that all its spatial cross sections correspond to constant-curvature spaces, but it is not homogeneous and isotropic as a whole. An equivalent definition of a homogeneous and isotropic space-time in terms of embedded manifolds is also given.

  19. Experimental determination of the temperature dependence of water activities for a selection of aqueous organic solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ganbavale

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents experimental data of the temperature dependence of water activity in aqueous organic solutions relevant for tropospheric conditions (200–273 K. Water activity (aw at low temperatures (T is a crucial parameter for predicting homogeneous ice nucleation. We investigated temperature dependent water activities, ice freezing and melting temperatures of solutions, and vapour pressures of a selection of atmospherically relevant aqueous organic systems. To measure aw over a wide composition range and with a focus on low temperatures, we use various aw measurement techniques and instruments: a dew point water activity meter, an electrodynamic balance (EDB, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and a setup to measure the total gas phase pressure at equilibrium over aqueous solutions. Water activity measurements were performed for aqueous multicomponent and multifunctional organic mixtures containing the functional groups typically found in atmospheric organic aerosols, such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, ketone, ether, ester, and aromatic groups. The aqueous organic systems studied at several fixed compositions over a considerable temperature range differ significantly in their temperature dependence. Aqueous organic systems of 1,4-butanediol and methoxyacetic acid show a moderate decrease in aw with decreasing temperature. The aqueous M5 system (a multicomponent system containing five different dicarboxylic acids and aqueous 2-(2-ethoxyethoxyethanol solutions both show a strong increase of water activity with decreasing temperature at high solute concentrations for TTaw can be reversed at low temperatures and that linear extrapolations of high temperature data may lead to erroneous predictions. To avoid this, experimentally determined aw at low temperature are needed to improve thermodynamic models towards lower temperatures and for improved predictions of the ice nucleation ability of organic–water systems.

  20. Medical migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loefler, I J

    2001-10-01

    The issue of professional migration, however emotional it may have become, ought not to be regarded in moralizing terms. The history of western medicine is the history of migrating physicians. A doctor who moves from a locality to another to take up a new assignment there cannot be said to have "abandoned his patients". This emotional bond has become the victim of specialization and of depersonalization of medical services and not of medical migration, brain drain or otherwise. The primary reason for medical migration is not financial; the desire to migrate usually begins with the desire to learn. Professionals crave in the first line for professional satisfaction. The migration of medical manpower cannot be stopped with administrative measures and will not be stopped by exhortations and appeals, moralization and condemnations. Brain drain is a global phenomenon and has always been so. A country which loses its professionals, its doctors, should examine the social relationships within the profession and should investigate whether the opportunities for deriving professional satisfaction from everyday work exist or whether these have been thwarted by the hierarchy, conservatism, cronyism and the general lack of comprehension of what good medical care is about. PMID:11593497

  1. Medical Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2015-06-01

    The Medical Renaissance started as the regular Renaissance did in the early 1400s and ended in the late 1600s. During this time great medical personalities and scholar humanists made unique advances to medicine and surgery. Linacre, Erasmus, Leonicello and Sylvius will be considered first, because they fit the early classic Renaissance period. Andreas Vesalius and Ambroise Paré followed thereafter, making outstanding anatomical contributions with the publication of the "Human Factory" (1543) by Vesalius, and describing unique surgical developments with the publication of the "The Apologie and Treatise of Ambroise Paré." At the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the New Science, William Harvey, noted British medical doctor and cardiovascular researcher, discovered the general circulation. He published his findings in "The Motu Cordis" in 1628 (Figure 1). The Medical Renaissance, in summary, included a great number of accomplished physicians and surgeons who made especial contributions to human anatomy; Vesalius assembled detailed anatomical information; Paré advanced surgical techniques; and Harvey, a medical genius, detailed the circulatory anatomy and physiology.

  2. Medical tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ghanbari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is considered as one of the tourism dimensions and it can contribute to the stabilized and dynamic development of a country's economy. Since it is cost-effective industry, most developing countries have focused on this industry and they are planning to develop this industry. Not only does Zanjan province, as the central region in medicine services, enjoy different kinds of variety and acceptable medical specialties but also it has historical, natural, and religious tourism potentials. In this survey, the researcher investigated the existing potentials of Zanjan province based on descriptive - analytical tourism in offering and providing medical services and accommodation. The survey reports that offered services in tourism were not acceptable and satisfactory.

  3. Supercooling of aqueous dimethylsulfoxide solution at normal and high pressures: Evidence for the coexistence of phase-separated aqueous dimethylsulfoxide solutions of different water structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, H.; Kajiwara, K.; Miyata, K.

    2010-05-01

    Supercooling behavior of aqueous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution was investigated as a function of DMSO concentration and at high pressures. A linear relationship was observed for TH (homogeneous ice nucleation temperature) and Tm (melting temperature) for the supercooling of aqueous DMSO solution at normal pressure. Analysis of the DTA (differential thermal analysis) traces for homogeneous ice crystallization in the bottom region of the TH curve for a DMSO solution of R =20 (R: moles of water/moles of DMSO) at high pressures supported the contention that the second critical point (SCP) of liquid water should exist at Pc2=˜200 MPa and at Tc2<-100 °C (Pc2: pressure of SCP, Tc2: temperature of SCP). The presence of two TH peaks for DMSO solutions (R =15, 12, and 10) suggests that phase separation occurs in aqueous DMSO solution (R ≤15) at high pressures and low temperatures (<-90 °C). The pressure dependence of the two TH curves for DMSO solutions of R =10 and 12 indicates that the two phase-separated components in the DMSO solution of R =10 have different liquid water structures [LDL-like and HDL-like structures (LDL: low-density liquid water, HDL: high-density liquid water)] in the pressure range of 120-230 MPa.

  4. Homogenization of temperature field and temperature gradient field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The homogenization of temperature field and temperature gradient field are very important for many devices, systems and equipments, such as satellites and electronic devices. This paper discusses the distribution optimization of the limited high conductivity material with the simulated annealing algorithm to homogenize the temperature field in a two-dimensional heat conduction problem. At the same time, the temperature gradient field is homogenized with the bionic optimization method. The results show that the two optimization targets are consistent to some extent, while the bionic optimization method could save much computing time. In addition, there are threshold values for the amount of high conductivity material and the ratio of the high conductivity to the low conductivity beyond which further increasing these values brings very little improvement on the homogenization of temperature field and temperature gradient field.

  5. Fractal Dimension as a measure of the scale of Homogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Jaswant K; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2010-01-01

    In the multi-fractal analysis of large scale matter distribution, the scale of transition to homogeneity is defined as the scale above which the fractal dimension of underlying point distribution is equal to the ambient dimension of the space in which points are distributed. With finite sized weakly clustered distribution of tracers obtained from galaxy redshift surveys it is difficult to achieve this equality. Recently we have defined the scale of homogeneity to be the scale above which the deviation of fractal dimension from the ambient dimension becomes smaller than the statistical dispersion. In this paper we use the relation between the fractal dimensions and the correlation function to compute the dispersion for any given model in the limit of weak clustering amplitude. We compare the deviation and dispersion for the LCDM model and discuss the implication of this comparison for the expected scale of homogeneity in the concordant model of cosmology. We estimate the upper limit to the scale of homogeneity...

  6. Overlooked Childhoods in the Nordic States characterised by Homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Overlooked Childhoods in the Nordic States characterised by Homogeneity: Children in visibly ethnically mixed households The research about immigrant children in Scandinavia almost completely overlooks a category of children of mixed parentage, though the recent globalisation has led to increase ...

  7. DESTRUCTION CONDITIONS WHEN DITTING HOMOGENEOUS GROUND AND GROUND WITH INCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    Nichke, V.; Demishkan, V.

    2005-01-01

    On the base of analyses strained state the strong a ground with inclusion, and take into account a bigger traction effort of a modern bulldozers, was shoved as destroyed a rocks ground, a ground with inclusion, homogeneous a ground.

  8. Metric tensors for homogeneous, isotropic, 5-dimensional pseudo riemannian models

    OpenAIRE

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Birman, Graciela S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper westudy the metric tensor of a homogeneous, isotropic, 5-dimensional pseudo Riemannian space, solving the corresponding Einstein equations when the spatial component is flat, spherical or pseudo spherical

  9. Extended Homogeneous Balance Method and Lax Pairs, Backlund Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI ChengLin

    2002-01-01

    Using the extended homogeneous balance method, which is very concise and primary, Lax pairs and Backlund transformation for most nonlinear evolution equations, such as the compound KdV-Burgers equation and nonlinear diffusion equation are obtained.

  10. On acoustic band gaps in homogenized piezoelectric phononic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan E.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider a composite medium made of weakly piezoelectric inclusions periodically distributed in the matrix which ismade of a different piezoelectricmaterial. Themediumis subject to a periodic excitation with an incidence wave frequency independent of scale ε of the microscopic heterogeneities. Two-scale method of homogenization is applied to obtain the limit homogenized model which describes acoustic wave propagation in the piezoelectric medium when ε → 0. In analogy with the purely elastic composite, the resulting model allows existence of the acoustic band gaps. These are identified for certain frequency ranges whenever the so-called homogenized mass becomes negative. The homogenized model can be used for band gap prediction and for dispersion analysis for low wave numbers. Modeling such composite materials seems to be perspective in the context of Smart Materials design.

  11. Reconsideration on Homogeneous Quadratic Riemann Boundary Value Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jian-ke

    2004-01-01

    The homogeneous quadratic Riemann boundary value problem (1) with Hǒlder continuous coefficients for the normal case was considered by the author in 1997. But the solutions obtained there are incomplete. Here its general method of solution is obtained.

  12. Homogenization of attractors for a class of nonlinear parabolic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-lian; ZHANG Xing-you

    2004-01-01

    The relation between the global attractors Aε for a calss of quasilinear parabolic equations and the global attractor A0for the homogenized equation is discussed, and an explicit error estimate between Aε and A0 is given.

  13. The integral intertwining operators and quantum homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invariant partial differential equations in the quantum homogeneous spaces are considered. The Dirichlet problem is solved, and the q-analogue of the Cauchy-Segue formula for the unit ball is obtained. 7 refs

  14. Highly Sensitive Homogeneous Immunoassays Based on Construction of Silver Triangular Nanoplates-Quantum Dots FRET System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinghui; Li, Qin; Ji, Wenyu; Bin, Xue; Song, Jie

    2016-05-01

    With growing concerns about health issues worldwide, elegant sensors with high sensitivity and specificity for virus/antigens (Ag) detection are urgent to be developed. Homogeneous immunoassays (HIA) are an important technique with the advantages of small sample volumes requirement and pretreatment-free process. HIA are becoming more favorable for the medical diagnosis and disease surveillance than heterogeneous immunoassays. An important subset of HIA relies on the effect of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) via a donor-acceptor (D-A) platform, e.g., quantum dots (QDs) donor based FRET system. Being an excellent plasmonic material, silver triangular nanoplates (STNPs) have unique advantages in displaying surface plasmon resonance in the visible to near infrared spectral region, which make them a better acceptor for pairing with QDs in a FRET-based sensing system. However, the reported STNPs generally exhibited broad size distributions, which would greatly restrict their application as HIA acceptor for high detection sensitivity and specificity purpose. In this work, uniform STNPs and red-emitting QDs are firstly applied to construct FRET nanoplatform in the advanced HIA and further be exploited for analyzing virus Ag. The uniform STNPs/QDs nanoplatform based medical sensor provides a straightforward and highly sensitive method for Ag analysis in homogeneous form.

  15. Ice nucleation from aqueous NaCl droplets with and without marine diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alpert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ice formation in the atmosphere by homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation is one of the least understood processes in cloud microphysics and climate. Here we describe our investigation of the marine environment as a potential source of atmospheric IN by experimentally observing homogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous NaCl droplets and comparing against heterogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous NaCl droplets containing intact and fragmented diatoms. Homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation are studied as a function of temperature and water activity, aw. Additional analyses are presented on the dependence of diatom surface area and aqueous volume on heterogeneous freezing temperatures, ice nucleation rates, ωhet, ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, and differential and cumulative ice nuclei spectra, k(T and K(T, respectively. Homogeneous freezing temperatures and corresponding nucleation rate coefficients are in agreement with the water activity based homogeneous ice nucleation theory within experimental and predictive uncertainties. Our results confirm, as predicted by classical nucleation theory, that a stochastic interpretation can be used to describe the homogeneous ice nucleation process. Heterogeneous ice nucleation initiated by intact and fragmented diatoms can be adequately represented by a modified water activity based ice nucleation theory. A horizontal shift in water activity, Δaw, het = 0.2303, of the ice melting curve can describe median heterogeneous freezing temperatures. Individual freezing temperatures showed no dependence on available diatom surface area and aqueous volume. Determined at median diatom freezing temperatures for aw from 0.8 to 0.99, ωhet~0.11+0.06−0.05 s−1, Jhet~1.0+1.16−0.61×104 cm−2

  16. Medical emplotment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels Sune

    ’. Theoretically the project departs from Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Participatory Design and is informed by Medical Informatics, Design Research and Science and Technology Studies. Methodically the project is founded on collaborative prototyping, ethnographic studies, and design interventions...... philosophy and building on theory on narrative reasoning, the dissertation offers the notions of emplotment and re-emplotment to describe how physicians marshal information from various sources, including the medical record, the patient and coSummary to form a narrative, when making sense of patients...

  17. Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biscari, C

    2014-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field.

  18. Medical leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Leases for medical space can have far-reaching (and sometimes unintentional) consequences for the future of the practice and the costs of the business. In order to prevent hardship and expense down the line, it is especially important to review the lease to make sure that it reflects the practice's goals, needs, and structure. This article provides a number of provisions that are especially crucial to review and negotiate when leasing medical space, including use restrictions, assignment and subleasing clauses, build-out terms, and legal compliance requirements. PMID:22594070

  19. Medical leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Leases for medical space can have far-reaching (and sometimes unintentional) consequences for the future of the practice and the costs of the business. In order to prevent hardship and expense down the line, it is especially important to review the lease to make sure that it reflects the practice's goals, needs, and structure. This article provides a number of provisions that are especially crucial to review and negotiate when leasing medical space, including use restrictions, assignment and subleasing clauses, build-out terms, and legal compliance requirements.

  20. Recent advances in the understanding of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Massines, F.; Gherardi, N.; Naudé, N.; Ségur, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a state of the art of the understanding on the physics of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure. It is based on the analysis of present and previous work about the behavior of these discharges and the conditions to get them. Mechanisms controlling the homogeneity during gas breakdown and discharge development are successively discussed. The breakdown has to be a Townsend one, the ionization has to be slow enough to avoid a large avalanche development....

  1. Recent advances in the understanding of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Massines, F.; Gherardi, N.; Naudé, N.; Ségur, P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper is a state of the art of the understanding on the physics of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure. It is based on the analysis of present and previous work about the behavior of these discharges and the conditions to get them. Mechanisms controlling the homogeneity during gas breakdown and discharge development are successively discussed. The breakdown has to be a Townsend one, the ionization has to be slow enough to avoid a large av...

  2. The Approach to Steady State Using Homogeneous and Cartesian Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Gochberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeating an arbitrary sequence of RF pulses and magnetic field gradients will eventually lead to a steady-state condition in any magnetic resonance system. While numerical methods can quantify this trajectory, analytic analysis provides significantly more insight and a means for faster calculation. Recently, an analytic analysis using homogeneous coordinates was published. The current work further develops this line of thought and compares the relative merits of using a homogeneous or a Cartesian coordinate system.

  3. Matrix-dependent multigrid-homogenization for diffusion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapek, S. [Institut fuer Informatik tu Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We present a method to approximately determine the effective diffusion coefficient on the coarse scale level of problems with strongly varying or discontinuous diffusion coefficients. It is based on techniques used also in multigrid, like Dendy`s matrix-dependent prolongations and the construction of coarse grid operators by means of the Galerkin approximation. In numerical experiments, we compare our multigrid-homogenization method with homogenization, renormalization and averaging approaches.

  4. Orbits in Homogeneous Oblate Spheroidal Gravitational Space-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Lagrangian in general relativistic homogeneous oblate spheroidal gravitational fields is constructed and used to study orbits exterior to homogenous oblate spheroids. Expressions for the conservation of energy and angular momentum for this gravitational field are obtained. The planetary equation of motion and the equation of motion of a photon in the vicinity of an oblate spheroid are derived. These equations have additional terms not found in Schwarzschild's space time.

  5. A Wald test with enhanced selectivity properties in homogeneous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijian; Xie, Wenchong; Wang, Yongliang

    2013-12-01

    A Wald test with enhanced selectivity capabilities is proposed in homogeneous environments. At the design stage, we assume that the cell under test contains a noise-like interferer in addition to colored noise and possible signal of interest. We show that the Wald test is equivalent to a recently proposed Rao test. We also observe that this Rao/Wald test possesses constant false alarm rate property in homogeneous environments.

  6. Homogenization of aligned “fuzzy fiber” composites

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzigeorgiou, George

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work is to study composites in which carbon fibers coated with radially aligned carbon nanotubes are embedded in a matrix. The effective properties of these composites are identified using the asymptotic expansion homogenization method in two steps. Homogenization is performed in different coordinate systems, the cylindrical and the Cartesian, and a numerical example are presented. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High frequency homogenization for travelling waves in periodic media

    OpenAIRE

    Harutyunyan, Davit; Craster, Richard V.; Milton, Graeme W.

    2016-01-01

    We consider high frequency homogenization in periodic media for travelling waves of several different equations: the wave equation for scalar-valued waves such as acoustics; the wave equation for vector-valued waves such as electromagnetism and elasticity; and a system that encompasses the Schr{\\"o}dinger equation. This homogenization applies when the wavelength is of the order of the size of the medium periodicity cell. The travelling wave is assumed to be the sum of two waves: a modulated B...

  8. Persuasion: Reflections on Economics, Data and the 'Homogeneity Assumption'

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Fforde

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses issues to do with the empirical basis of modern economics and points towards the need to look more closely at the ‘homogeneity assumption’ that underpins much economic theory. It argues that severe problems currently prevent economics from becoming more persuasive to both students of economics and those outside the discipline. The issue involves the management of disciplinary boundaries, and excessive use of the ‘homogeneity assumption.’ Three areas of concern are explore...

  9. Catalysis at the Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Chemistry Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Howard; Alper

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Significant progress has been made in recent years in developing efficient, atom economical catalytic reactions of potential applicability to the pharmaceutical, petrochemical, and commodity chemical business sectors. In some cases, homogeneous catalytic processes offer advantages, but in others the use of heterogenized homogeneous catalysis provides a competitive advantage concerning recyclability and catalyst recovery. This presentation will consider new approaches to cyclization reactions a...

  10. Homogenization models for thin rigid structured surfaces and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Jean-Jacques; Maurel, Agnès

    2016-07-01

    A homogenization method for thin microstructured surfaces and films is presented. In both cases, sound hard materials are considered, associated with Neumann boundary conditions and the wave equation in the time domain is examined. For a structured surface, a boundary condition is obtained on an equivalent flat wall, which links the acoustic velocity to its normal and tangential derivatives (of the Myers type). For a structured film, jump conditions are obtained for the acoustic pressure and the normal velocity across an equivalent interface (of the Ventcels type). This interface homogenization is based on a matched asymptotic expansion technique, and differs slightly from the classical homogenization, which is known to fail for small structuration thicknesses. In order to get insight into what causes this failure, a two-step homogenization is proposed, mixing classical homogenization and matched asymptotic expansion. Results of the two homogenizations are analyzed in light of the associated elementary problems, which correspond to problems of fluid mechanics, namely, potential flows around rigid obstacles. PMID:27475151

  11. Spray structure as generated under homogeneous flash boiling nucleation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show the effect of the initial pressure and temperature on the spatial distribution of droplets size and their velocity profile inside a spray cloud that is generated by a flash boiling mechanism under homogeneous nucleation regime. We used TSI's Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. We conclude that the homogeneous nucleation process is strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature while the initial pressure has only a minor effect. The spray shape is not affected by temperature or pressure under homogeneous nucleation regime. We noted that the only visible effect is in the spray opacity. Finally, homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer construction, and thus is potentially suitable for fuel injection systems in combustors and engines. - Highlights: • We study the characteristics of a spray that is generated by a flash boiling process. • In this study, the flash boiling process occurs under homogeneous nucleation regime. • We used Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. • The SMD has been found to be strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature. • Homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer unit

  12. Radiolysis of berberine or palmatine in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszalek, Milena [Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, Wroblewskiego 15, 93-590 Lodz (Poland); Wolszczak, Marian, E-mail: marianwo@mitr.p.lodz.p [Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, Wroblewskiego 15, 93-590 Lodz (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    The reactions of hydrated electron (e{sub aq}{sup -}), hydrogen atom (H{sup {center_dot}}) (reducing species) and Cl{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -},Br{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -},{sup {center_dot}}N{sub 3},{sup {center_dot}}OH radicals (oxidizing species) with berberine or palmatine in aqueous solution have been studied by steady-state and pulse radiolysis. The spectra of transient intermediates, leading to the final products, are presented. The rate constants of the reaction of e{sub aq}{sup -} and {sup {center_dot}}OH radical with both alkaloids in the homogenous solution and in the presence of DNA are reported. It is demonstrated that the primary products of the reaction of berberine and palmatine with e{sub aq}{sup -} and radicals generated during radiolysis are unstable and undergo further reactions.

  13. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-02-04

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  14. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  15. Medication Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Proprietary Names (PDF - 146KB) Draft Guidance for Industry: Best Practices in Developing Proprietary Names for Drugs (PDF - 279KB) ... or (301) 796-3400 druginfo@fda.hhs.gov Human Drug ... in Medication Errors Resources for You Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: ...

  16. Controversies in Glaucoma: Current Medical Treatment and Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucolo, Claudio; Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Reibaldi, Michele; Bonfiglio, Vincenza; Longo, Antonio; Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Elevated eye pressure is the main risk factor for glaucoma; intraocular pressure rises when the ratio between aqueous humor formation (inflow) and its outflow is unbalanced. Currently, the main goal of medical treatment is the reduction of intraocular pressure. Five main classes of topical drugs are available; they include betablockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin derivatives, sympathomimetics and miotics. Beta-blockers and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors slow the formation of aqueous humor and may be considered as "inflow" drugs; the other three classes reduce the resistance to the drainage of aqueous humor and may be considered as "outflow" drugs. Despite the variety of drugs accessible in the market, there is a real need for ophthalmologists to have more potent medications for this disease. This review focuses on medical treatment of glaucoma with particular attention to novel molecules in pre-clinical or clinical development. PMID:26350532

  17. A conceptual translation of homogeneous catalysis into heterogeneous catalysis: homogeneous-like heterogeneous gold nanoparticle catalyst induced by ceria supporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xing; Xue, Wei; Guan, Bing-Tao; Shi, Fu-Bo; Shi, Zhang-Jie; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2013-02-01

    Translation of homogeneous catalysis into heterogeneous catalysis is a promising solution to green and sustainable development in chemical industry. For this purpose, noble metal nanoparticles represent a new frontier in catalytic transformations. Many challenges remain for researchers to transform noble metal nanoparticles of heterogeneous catalytic active sites into ionic species of homogeneous catalytic active sites. We report here a successful design on translating homogeneous gold catalysis into a heterogeneous system with a clear understanding of the catalytic pathway. This study initiates a novel concept to immobilize a homogeneous catalyst based on electron transfer between supporting base and supported nanoparticles. Meanwhile, on the basis of theoretical calculation, it has deepened the understanding of the interactions between noble metal nanoparticles and the catalyst support.

  18. HEVC optimizations for medical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, D. G.; Del Barrio, A. A.; Botella, Guillermo; García, Carlos; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Meyer-Baese, Anke

    2016-05-01

    HEVC/H.265 is the most interesting and cutting-edge topic in the world of digital video compression, allowing to reduce by half the required bandwidth in comparison with the previous H.264 standard. Telemedicine services and in general any medical video application can benefit from the video encoding advances. However, the HEVC is computationally expensive to implement. In this paper a method for reducing the HEVC complexity in the medical environment is proposed. The sequences that are typically processed in this context contain several homogeneous regions. Leveraging these regions, it is possible to simplify the HEVC flow while maintaining a high-level quality. In comparison with the HM16.2 standard, the encoding time is reduced up to 75%, with a negligible quality loss. Moreover, the algorithm is straightforward to implement in any hardware platform.

  19. Low-Cost Fabrication for ZrO2-Based Electrolyte Thin-Substrate by Aqueous Gel-Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓光; 李国军; 仝建峰; 陈大明

    2004-01-01

    The possibility to fabricate yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-substrates by aqueous gel casting of high concentrated aqueous slurries was investigated. The effects of dispersant, pH value, and solid content of slurries for gel process on stability and viscosity of slurries were optimized. YSZ thin-substrates green bodies with 100 μm thickness and 100 mm×100 mm flat plate were fabricated. Microstructure observations, density and bending measurements show that these green bodies are homogeneous and highly densified. After sintering at 1873 K×2 h, the ionic conductivity reaches 0.155 S·cm-1 at 1273 K.

  20. Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of ω -Bromo Acetophenones in Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fei; Liu Hui; Cui Xin; Cun Linfeng; Zhu Jin; Deng Jingen; Jiang Yaozhong

    2004-01-01

    Optical active ω-bromophenylethanols are useful building blocks for synthesis of various pharmaceuticals such as α 1-, β 2-, and β 3- adrenergic receptor agonists, which are always obtained though a biotransformative pathway and using boron reagent with rigorous conditions [1]. To our knowledge, the metal-catalysed transfer hydrogenation is seldom applied in this reaction. Recently we have developed a water-soluble chiral Ru-complex and applied successfully in transfer hydrogenation of ω-bromo acetophenones in aqueous media [2], which can not be performed in homogeneous system with HCOOH/NEt3 as hydrogen donor[3] .In this paper, we will report that asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ω-bromo acetophenones was successfully performed in aqueous media by employing hydrophobic Rh-amido complex (TsDPEN-Rh) as catalyst and HCOONa as hydrogen donor. Moreover, marked increasing of activity and high enantioselectivity (up to 98%) of ω-bromo acetophenone 1a was found in the presence of different micelles or vesicles. This method was also applied successfully in preparation of the important chiral medicinal intermediates, such as the precursor of salbutamol, 2b and fermoterol, 2c with high enantioselectivity.

  1. Homogenization results for various meteorological elements in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.

    2012-04-01

    In many scientific disciplines it is needed to process long time series of meteorological elements. In recent years considerable attention has been devoted also to analysis of daily data. Prior to any analysis, the need to homogenize data and check their quality arises. Unfortunately, most of the time series of atmospheric data with a resolution of decades to centuries contains inhomogeneities caused by station relocations, exchange of observers, changes in the vicinity of stations (e.g. urbanization), changes of instruments, observing practices (like a new formula for calculating daily average, different observation times), etc. For the period 1961-2007, 1750 series of seven climatological characteristics were tested for homogeneity (on monthly, seasonal and annual scale) and inhomogeneities were found in 42% of them. This value is underestimated, due to the low number of detections in precipitation series, in which breaks were detected only in 15% of series. For all other characteristics, this number was above 50%. Before homogenization itself, quality control on the subdaily data (for individual observation hours 7,14,21) was performed and all suspicious values were removed from time series. In our approach, data quality control is carried out by combining several methods (Štěpánek et al 2009). Detection of inhomogeneities was performed using monthly, seasonal and annual means (or sums in the case of precipitation and sunshine duration). In the homogenization of the time series, the use of various statistical tests and types of reference series made it possible to increase considerably the number of homogeneity tests results for each series tested and thus to assess homogeneity more reliably. The relative homogeneity tests applied were: Standard Normal Homogeneity Test [SNHT], the Maronna and Yohai bivariate testand the Easterling and Peterson test. Data were corrected for found inhomogeneities on daily scale. We created our own correction method (called DAP

  2. Medical imaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreel, L.

    1991-01-01

    There is now a wide choice of medical imaging to show both focal and diffuse pathologies in various organs. Conventional radiology with plain films, fluoroscopy and contrast medium have many advantages, being readily available with low-cost apparatus and a familiarity that almost leads to contempt. The use of plain films in chest disease and in trauma does not need emphasizing, yet there are still too many occasions when the answer obtainable from a plain radiograph has not been available. Th...

  3. Medical Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within Brookhaven National Laboratory, the life sciences program is carried out under two departments, the Medical Department and the Biological Department. The Medical Research Center contains three major divisions: the Hospital, the Research Laboratories, and the Occupational Medicine Clinic. The hospital, which is devoted entirely to research patients, supports clinical studies in: pulmonary diseases; neuropsychiatric disorders; hematological diseases (e.g., chronic lymphocytic leukemia); cardiopulmonary disorders; hepatobiliary dysfunction; cancer of various types; toxicological problems; bone and mineral metabolism; and dietary and nutritional disorders. Research efforts are also made to improve therapeutic measures for disease: brain tumor therapy through boron capture of epithermal neutrons, and proton beam irradiation; extracorporeal irradiation of blood in leukemia; iron chelator efficacy in thalassemia; and nonsurgical treatment of ocular melanoma. Early diagnoses and studies of the mechanism of disease are approached through medical applications of nuclear technology, including positron emission tomography. Work carried out within the Biological Department includes: biological structure determination, molecular genetics, DNA repair and plant sciences. A large part of the research is devoted to understanding how biological systems work. Central to this aim is the study of DNA. This includes effects of damage by physical and chemical agents, gene cloning of bacteria and plants and effects of low doses of radiation and other energy derived hazards

  4. Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccara, A. Claude; Mordon, Serge

    2015-10-01

    In re-listening to the lectures of Charles Townes shortly after the invention of the laser (e.g., in the Boston Science Museum), one can already have a realistic vision of the potentialities of this new tool in the field of medical therapy, as evidenced by the use of the laser in ophthalmology to cure retinal detachment in the 1960's. Since then, applications have flourished in the domain of therapy. We will thus illustrate here only some of the main fields of application of medical lasers. On the opposite, the use of lasers in medical imaging is, with one exception in ophthalmology, still at the development level. It is becoming a diagnostic tool in addition to high performance imaging facilities that are often very expensive (such as CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging). Even if progress is sometimes slow, one can now image with light inside the human body, in spite of the strong scattering of light by tissues, in the same way as a pathologist sees surgical specimens.

  5. Efficacy of Bio-Catalyzer alpha.rho no.11 (Bio-Normalizer) supplementation against peroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage in rat organ homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcocci, L; D'Anna, R; Yan, L J; Haramaki, N; Packer, L

    1996-03-01

    To better delineate the antioxidant potential of Bio-Catalyzer alpha.rho No.11 (Bio-Normalizer), a natural food supplement recently proposed as an antioxidant agent, we investigated the efficacy of Bio-Normalizer supplementation to protect rat organ homogenates against oxidative damage induced in vitro by peroxyl radicals generated in the hydrophobic or in the hydrophilic phase. Bio-Normalizer supplementation efficiently protected rat kidney homogenates against the accumulation of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives and the depletion of alpha-tocopherol induced by peroxyl radicals generated from the hydrophobic azo-initiator 2,2'-azobis (2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN). It also protected the heart but not the liver or the brain homogenates. Bio-Normalizer supplementation did not have effect in any organ homogenates when peroxyl radicals were generated from the hydrophilic azo-initiator 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride) (AAPH). In vitro direct addition of aqueous solutions of Bio-Normalizer to the organ homogenates was ineffective against AMVN or AAPH-induced oxidative damage. Our findings expand previous reports on the antioxidant activity of Bio-Normalizer. They confirm that supplemented Bio-Normalizer protects against peroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage and suggest that its antioxidant action depends on in vivo bioactivation, it is organ specific and it is limited to damage induced by peroxyl radicals generated in the hydrophobic phase.

  6. Permutation-based Homogeneous Block Content Authentication for Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Maruthuperumal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern days, digital watermarking has become an admired technique for hitting data in digital images to help guard against copyright infringement. The proposed Permutation-based Homogeneous Block Content authentication (PHBC methods develop a secure and excellence strong watermarking algorithm that combines the reward of permutation-based Homogeneous block (PHB with that of significant and insignificant bit values with X0R encryption function using Max coefficient of least coordinate value for embedding the watermark. In the projected system uses the relationship between the permutation blocks to embed many data into Homogeneous blocks without causing solemn distortion to the watermarked image. The experimental results show that the projected system is very efficient in achieving perceptual invisibility with an increase in the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. Moreover, the projected system is robust to a variety of signal processing operations, such as image Cropping, Rotation, Resizing, Adding noise, Filtering , Blurring and Motion blurring.

  7. Heterogenization of Homogeneous Catalysts: the Effect of the Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl, W.L.; Ott, K.C.; Hall, K.A.; de Rege, F.M.; Morita, D.K.; Tumas, W.; Brown, G.H.; Broene, R.D.

    1999-06-29

    We have studied the influence of placing a soluble, homogeneous catalyst onto a solid support. We determined that such a 'heterogenized' homogeneous catalyst can have improved activity and selectivity for the asymmetric hydrogenation of enamides to amino acid derivatives. The route of heterogenization of RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} cations occurs via electrostatic interactions with anions that are capable of strong hydrogen bonding to silica surfaces. This is a novel approach to supported catalysis. Supported RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} is a recyclable, non-leaching catalyst in non-polar media. This is one of the few heterogenized catalysts that exhibits improved catalytic performance as compared to its homogeneous analog.

  8. Recycling and Reuse of Ionic Liquid in Homogeneous Cellulose Acetylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Kelin; WU Rui; CAO Yan; LI Huiquan; WANG Jinshu

    2013-01-01

    Molecular distillation was used to recover ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimC1) in homogeneous cellulose acetylation.The five factors that affect the separation efficiency of molecular distillation,namely,feed flow rate,distillation temperature,feed temperature,wiper rotating speed,and distillation pressure,are discussed.The optimal recovery condition was determined via orthogonal experiments using an OA9(34) design.The IL was recycled and reused 5 times in the homogeneous cellulose acetylation system under optimal conditions.The purity of recycled IL the 5th time reached 99.56%.FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy showed that the structure of the recovered IL is not changed.This work proves that AmirnCl has excellent reusability,and that molecular distillation is an effective method for recovering IL in homogeneous cellulose acetylation.

  9. Dynamic spreading behavior of homogeneous and heterogeneous networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Chengyi; LIU Zhongxin; CHEN Zengqiang; YUAN Zhuzhi

    2007-01-01

    The detailed investigation of the dynamic epidemic spreading on homogeneous and heterogeneous networks was carried out. After the analysis of the basic epidemic models, the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model on homogenous and heterogeneous networks is established, and the dynamical evolution of the density of the infected individuals in these two different kinds of networks is analyzed theoretically. It indicates that heterogeneous networks are easier to propagate for the epidemics and the leading spreading behavior is dictated by the exponential increasing in the initial outbreaks. Large-scale simulations display that the infection is much faster on heterogeneous networks than that on homogeneous ones. It means that the network topology can have a significant effect on the epidemics taking place on complex networks. Some containment strategies of epidemic outbreaks are presented according to the theoretical analyses and numerical simulations.

  10. Homogenized behaviour of the steam generator perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the overall behaviour of structures such as multiperforated plates, that are found in the industrial components (for instance in the nuclear plant steam generators), we propose to apply the theory of the heterogeneous thermoelastic plates. First we begin by the formulation of the model, lying on an asymptotic expansion. Then we describe the application to the tube sheet and support plates case, for 900 MW and 1300 MW steam generators. Numerical values of the homogenized behaviour are provided (thermal conductivity and thermoelastic coefficients). These values are compared with those available in the literature. Some comments on the mechanical fields distribution are added, for instance: hole ovalization, stress concentrations... This study completes earlier EDF works on the thermal and mechanical homogenization of the tube sheets, which are realized before the theoretical formulation of the homogenization for plates and shells structures. (author). 16 figs., 21 tabs., 14 refs

  11. Defining Least Community as a Homogeneous Group in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new concept of least community that is as homogeneous as a random graph, and develops a new community detection algorithm from the perspective of homogeneity or heterogeneity. Based on this concept, we adopt head/tail breaks - a newly developed classification scheme for data with a heavy-tailed distribution - and rely on edge betweenness given its heavy-tailed distribution to iteratively partition a network into many heterogeneous and homogeneous communities. Surprisingly, the derived communities for any self-organized and/or self-evolved large networks demonstrate very striking power laws, implying that there are far more small communities than large ones. This notion of far more small things than large ones constitutes a new fundamental way of thinking for community detection. Keywords: head/tail breaks, ht-index, scaling, k-means, natural breaks, and classification

  12. HOMOGENIZATION, SYMMETRY, AND PERIODIZATION IN DIFFUSIVE RANDOM MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alen Alexanderian; Muruhan Rathinam; Rouben Rostamian

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic study of homogenization of diffusion in random media with emphasis on tile-based random microstructures.We give detailed examples of several such media starting from their physical descriptions,then construct the associated probability spaces and verify their ergodicity.After a discussion of material symmetries of random media,we derive criteria for the isotropy of the homogenized limits in tile-based structures.Furthermore,we study the periodization algorithm for the numerical approximation of the homogenized diffusion tensor and study the algorithm's rate of convergence.For one dimensional tile-based media,we prove a central limit result,giving a concrete rate of convergence for periodization.We also provide numerical evidence for a similar central limit behavior in the case of two dimensional tile-based structures.

  13. Interfacial forces in aqueous media

    CERN Document Server

    van Oss, Carel J

    2006-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and reorganized, the second edition of Interfacial Forces in Aqueous Media examines the role of polar interfacial and noncovalent interactions among biological and nonbiological macromolecules as well as biopolymers, particles, surfaces, cells, and both polar and apolar polymers. The book encompasses Lifshitz-van der Waals and electrical double layer interactions, as well as Lewis acid-base interactions between colloidal entities in polar liquids such as water. New in this Edition: Four previously unpublished chapters comprising a new section on interfacial propertie

  14. Encapsulation of volatiles by homogenized partially-cross linked alginates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguva, Pavan K; Ooi, Shing Ming; Desai, Parind M; Heng, Paul W S

    2015-12-30

    Cross-linked calcium alginate gels are too viscous to be efficaciously incorporated into spray dried formulations. Thus, viscosity reduction is essential to ensure the processability of calcium alginate gels to be sprayed. Viscosity reduction by high pressure homogenization can open new formulation possibilities. Presently, testing of microcapsule integrity is also limited because either single particle tests neglect collective particle behaviours in bulk or bulk testing methods are often associated with single compressions which may not fully characterize individual particle strengths. The aim of this study was sub-divided into three objectives. First objective was to evaluate the impact of high pressure homogenization on gel viscosity. Second objective was to explore the use of the homogenized gels with modified starch for microencapsulation by spray drying. The final objective was to develop a stamping system as microcapsule strength tester that can assess microcapsules in bulk and evaluate the impact of multiple compressions. Collectively, this study would lead towards developing a pressure-activated patch of microcapsules with encapsulated volatiles and the method to assess the patch efficacy. The alginate gels largely experienced an exponential decay in viscosity when homogenized. Furthermore, the homogenized gels were successfully incorporated in spray drying formulations for microencapsulation. The custom-designed microcapsule strength tester was successfully used and shown to possess the required sensitivity to discern batches of microcapsules containing volatiles to have different release profiles. Addition of homogenized gels strengthened the microcapsules only at high wall to core ratios with low mass-load alginate gels. High mass-load gels weaken the microcapsules, exhibiting a higher release at low stamping pressures and wrinkling on the microcapsules surface. PMID:26581772

  15. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah

    2015-05-01

    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  16. Successive pH- and heat-induced homogenous liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Feriduni, Behruz

    2016-08-12

    A simple and efficient analytical method known as pH- and heat-induced homogenous liquid-liquid extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography has been successfully developed for the extraction and determination of neonicotinoid pesticides in aqueous samples. In this method, a few mL of a water-miscible basic extraction solvent is mixed with a high volume of an aqueous phase containing the analytes and passed through a tube which a portion of the tube is filled with sodium carbonate as a separating agent. By passing the solution, salt is dissolved and the fine droplets of the extraction solvent are formed. The produced droplets go up through the remained solution and collect as a separated layer. In the following, the collected organic phase is removed and placed into a micro tube. Then it is heated in a water bath to form two phases. Several experimental parameters that influence extraction efficiency such as type and volume of extraction solvent, type of phase separation agent, temperature, and extraction time were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged between 51 and 81% and 680 and 1080, respectively. Calibration curves showed a high-level of linearity for all target analytes with coefficients of determination ranging between 0.997 and 0.999. The repeatability of the proposed method expressed as relative standard deviation varied between 3 and 5% (n=6, C=50μgL(-1)), and the detection limits were in the range of 0.52-1.0μgL(-1). Finally, the performance of the method was evaluated by analyzing the selected pesticides in different fruit juice and vegetable samples. PMID:27394088

  17. Modeling the elution of organic chemicals from a melting homogeneous snow pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Torsten; Wania, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Organic chemicals are often released in peak concentrations from melting snow packs. A simple, mechanistic snowmelt model was developed to simulate and predict the elution of organic substances from melting, homogeneous snow, as influenced by chemical properties and snow pack characteristics. The model calculates stepwise the chemical transport along with the melt water flow in a multi-layered snow pack, based on chemical equilibrium partitioning between the individual bulk snow phases. The model succeeds in reproducing the elution behavior of several organic contaminants observed in previously conducted cold room experiments. The model aided in identifying four different types of enrichment of organic substances during snowmelt. Water soluble substances experience peak releases early during a melt period (type 1), whereas chemicals that strongly sorb to particulate matter (PM) or snow grain surfaces elute at the end of melting (type 2). Substances that are somewhat water soluble and at the same time have a high affinity for snow grain surfaces may exhibit increasing concentrations in the melt water (type 3). Finally, elution sequences involving peak loads both at the beginning and the end of melting are simulated for chemicals that are partially dissolved in the aqueous melt water phase and partially sorbed to PM (type 4). The extent of type 1 enrichment mainly depends on the snow depth, whereby deeper snow generates more pronounced concentration peaks. PM influences the elution behavior of organic chemicals strongly because of the very large natural variability in the type and amount of particles present in snow. Urban and road-side snow rich in PM can generate type 2 concentration peaks at the end of the melt period for even relatively water soluble substances. From a clean, melting snow pack typical for remote regions, even fairly hydrophobic chemicals can be released in type 1 mode while being almost completely dissolved in the aqueous melt water phase. The

  18. Computational Homogenization of Fresh Concrete Flow Around Reinforcing Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Kolařík, Filip; Zeman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by casting of fresh concrete in reinforced concrete structures, we introduce a numerical model of a steady-state non-Newtonian fluid flow through a porous domain. Our approach combines homogenization techniques to represent the reinforced domain by the Darcy law with an interface coupling of the Stokes and Darcy flows through the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman conditions. The ensuing two-scale problem is solved by the Finite Element Method with consistent linearization and the results obtained from the homogenization approach are verified against fully resolved direct numerical simulations.

  19. Load Balancing in a Networked Environment through Homogenization

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Shahriar; Deb, Debzani; Khan, Kazi Muhammad Najmul Hasan; Joarder, Md Mahbubul Alam

    2011-01-01

    Distributed processing across a networked environment suffers from unpredictable behavior of speedup due to heterogeneous nature of the hardware and software in the remote machines. It is challenging to get a better performance from a distributed system by distributing task in an intelligent manner such that the heterogeneous nature of the system do not have any effect on the speedup ratio. This paper introduces homogenization, a technique that distributes and balances the workload in such a manner that the user gets the highest speedup possible from a distributed environment. Along with providing better performance, homogenization is totally transparent to the user and requires no interaction with the system.

  20. Automated homogeneous oxalate precipitation of Pu(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogeneous oxalate precipitation using diethyl oxalate was compared to precipitating Pu(III) oxalate with solid oxalic acid. The diethyl oxalate technique at 75 degree C is better because it gives 50% less plutonium in the filtrate with a reasonable filtering time. Also, the procedure for the homogeneous precipitation is easier to automate because the liquid diethyl oxalate is simpler to introduce into the precipitator than solid oxalic acid. It also provides flexibility because the hydrolysis rate and therefore the precipitation rate can be controlled by varying the temperature. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Homogenizer of cement mix with liquid and bulk radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lid of the homogenizer vessel with a stirrer and with bulk and liquid inlets is firmly attached to the homogenizer frame. The mixing vessel is screwed onto the lid and is connected to the frame with two moving arms. This allows to separate the mixing vessel from the lid without having to disconnect the supplies of bulk and liquid materials. The vessel is attached to swing arms pivoted in joints, which allows servicing, turning and tipping the vessel, thereby facilitating its emptying. This facilitates cleaning and reduces the maintenance time, thus increasing the safety of personnel. (J.B.). 2 figs

  2. Massive gravity: nonlinear instability of the homogeneous and isotropic universe

    CERN Document Server

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    We study the propagating modes for nonlinear massive gravity on a Bianchi type--I manifold. We analyze their kinetic terms and dispersion relations as the background manifold approaches the homogeneous and isotropic limit. We show that in this limit, at least one ghost always exists and that its frequency tends to vanish for large scales, meaning that it cannot be integrated out from the low energy effective theory. Since this ghost mode can be considered as a leading nonlinear perturbation around a homogeneous and isotropic background, we conclude that the universe in this theory must be either inhomogeneous or anisotropic.

  3. Solvable models of strings in homogeneous plane wave backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin; Papadopoulos, George; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2003-01-01

    We solve closed string theory in all regular homogeneous plane-wave backgrounds with homogeneous NS three-form field strength and a dilaton. The parameters of the model are constant symmetric and anti-symmetric matrices k_{ij} and f_{ij} associated with the metric, and a constant anti-symmetric matrix h_{ij} associated with the NS field strength. In the light-cone gauge the rotation parameters f_{ij} have a natural interpretation as a constant magnetic field. This is a generalisation of the s...

  4. Homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jin-Shuo; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; He, Xun-Jun; Wang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Based on the theory of transformation optics, a type of homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect is proposed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the proposed device are derived, and full-wave simulations are performed to validate the electromagnetic properties of transformed and shifted scattering effect. The simulation results show that the proposed device not only can visually shift the image of target in two dimensions, but also can visually transform the shape of target. It is expected that such homogeneous illusion device could possess potential applications in military camouflage and other field of electromagnetic engineering.

  5. Homogeneity studies in reference materials with Zeeman solid sampling GFAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohl, C.; Stoeppler, M.; Grobecker, K.H.

    1987-09-01

    The homogeneity of lead and cadmium in reference materials was investigated by solid sampling GFAAS. The following materials were comparatively analyzed: Standard reference materials from NBS, Washington 1567 wheat flour, 1568 rice flour and 1577a bovine liver, certified reference materials from BCR, Brussels, No 63 milk powder, No 184 bovine muscle, No 185 bovine liver, No 186 pig kidney, No 189 wholemeal flour, No 191 brown bread and a whole fish (dab) homogenate from the environmental specimen bank in the FRG. The results are remarkably different for the investigated materials.

  6. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies on substituted porphyrins in homogeneous solvents and cationic micellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of porphyrin appended 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and thiazoles were described in homogeneous medium as well as in presence of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The electron withdrawing substituent on the porphyrin moiety in both the cases make a donor–spacer–acceptor type of intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET) system resulting substantial quenching in porphyrin fluorescence due to partial energy migration towards the acceptor in the excited state. The increase in fluorescence yield as well as appreciable difference in fluorescence decay behavior in aqueous buffer solution of pH 4.2 from that in chloroform solution is believed due to partial protonation of the porphyrin ring. All the investigated systems show preferential binding into the interfacial region of the micellar sub-domain with varying degree of penetration depending on the nature of the substituent. Almost 2–4 fold increase in fluorescence yield for the probes is explained on the basis of restricted flexibility and corresponding decrease in total nonradiative rate inside the micellar interface layer. - Highlights: ► Synthesis and detail fluorescence studies of a series of porphyrin appended 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and thiazoles. ► Comparison of homogeneous solvent study with that in CTAB. ► Substantial porphyrin fluorescence quenching in donor–spacer–acceptor type system. ► Preferential binding of the substituted porphyrins in micellar sub-domain. ► Appreciable increase in fluorescence yield in micellar interface layer is due to decrease in total nonradiative rate.

  7. Reactivity and Selectivity of Heterogenized Homogeneous Catalysts: Insights from Molecular Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Kourosh; van Santen, Rutger A.

    Immobilized metal complexes on nanoporous materials have recently been proposed as a novel class of heterogeneous enantioselective catalyst for epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins as well as hydrogenation, alkylation, and nitroaldol reactions. The porous hosted materials affect catalytic performance due to a cooperative interaction among the nanoporous solid, immobilizing linker, and metal complex asymmetry. The effects of mesoporous materials and immobilizing agents on chiral catalysis are not well understood, however, the catalysts confined in nanopores show comparable or even higher conversions and enantioselectivity compared to their homogeneous counterparts. This chapter highlights major scientific problems for fundamental understanding and design of heterogenized homogeneous catalysts. It describes in detail the pivotal role of a sound framework in physical theory and molecular modeling in systematic efforts towards better materials and catalytic performance optimization. The common threads of the various topics addressed is the wide range of scales that has to be considered in establishing relations between structure, physicochemical properties, and catalytic performance. Physical theory and modeling employ a variety of methods, encompassing ab-initio calculations, molecular simulations, and the continuum model of transport and reaction in nanoporous materials. We particularly describe how molecular simulations can be used to investigate the origin of enantioselectivity of an anchored metal complex in nanoporous materials. These studies provide new insights into the steric effects that relate to choices of substrate and linker and to the interplay with mesopore confinement. We also bring detailed example of employing molecular simulations to unravel the catalytic properties of metallomacrocyclics for the electrochemical reduction of molecular oxygen in aqueous media. We rationalize the importance of immobilization and show how it relates to the steric

  8. Quantifying Redox Geochemistry Within Homogeneous and Layered Vadose Zone Using Regression Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.; Hansen, D.

    2008-12-01

    Uncertainty associated with predicting fate and transport of contaminants in the vadose zone is quite significant. This is predominantly due to the transient redox conditions and flow dynamics of the unsaturated zone that impacts the bioavailability or chemical lability of the contaminants before they reach groundwater. The hypothesis of this study is that regions with higher water flux will have higher redox potential. Specific objectives of the study are: 1) to identify positive and negative correlations amongst physical factors (e.g. flow rate, temperature, hydraulic conductivity) and chemical composition (e.g. rainwater chemistry, sorbed/aqueous concentrations, pH, Eh), and 2) to develop quantitative relationships using regression techniques with coupled HP1 (Hydrus-PHREEQC) model for factors identified as having strong associations. Flow experiments were conducted on two types of soil columns: homogeneous sand column with fine-grained alluvial sand from the banks of Canadian river, and layered sand-loam column with loamy soil collected from the wetland system of the Norman Landfill site. Norman Landfill is a closed municipal landfill site with prevalent organic contamination. For the second objective, Artificial Neural Networks will be trained using inputs (physical and chemical factors) and outputs (redox couples) obtained from soil column data and HP1, respectively. Preliminary results from lab experiments indicate decreased oxygen and nitrate, and higher iron-sulfide concentrations at the interface where hydraulic conductivity decreases from overlaying sand layer to loam soil. Higher redox activity at the interface layer suggests strong correlation between hydraulic gradient and redox potential. This is further qualified by the insignificant chemical concentration gradients (e.g. iron-sulfur coupling) observed in the homogeneous sand column.

  9. Medical electromechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Y. M.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Osipov, O. Y.

    2015-11-01

    The first part of the article presentsdevices of rehabilitation electromechatronics.As a research work, the author's team has performed sketch and technical developments on this subject, which are protected by patents of the Russian Federation. The second part providesan overview of medical robotic surgery, which is ideal for imperfections removing.It also describes capabilities of the author's team in development of active driveline based "iron" hands.Scalpels never tremble in the iron hands, which are not afraid of the aftershocks and never get tired.They can perform operations during not less than 48 consecutive hours.

  10. Medical robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    In this book, we present medical robotics, its evolution over the last 30 years in terms of architecture, design and control, and the main scientific and clinical contributions to the field. For more than two decades, robots have been part of hospitals and have progressively become a common tool for the clinician. Because this domain has now reached a certain level of maturity it seems important and useful to provide a state of the scientific, technological and clinical achievements and still open issues. This book describes the short history of the domain, its specificity and constraints, and

  11. Medical Malpractice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    MM first came to the attention of policy makers primarily in the USA where, from the 1970s, healthcare providers denounced problems in getting insurance for medical liability, pointing out to a crisis in the MM insurance market (Sage WM (2003) Understanding the first malpractice crisis of the 21th....../or its affordability, the withdrawal from the MM insurance of commercial insurers, the growth of MM public insurance or self-insurance solutions, the choice of no-fault rather than negligence liability, the adoption of enterprise liability for hospitals, the concerns for defensive medicine...

  12. [Medical nanodevices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2006-02-01

    Development of implantable medical nanodevices enables us continuous automatic treatment of patients from inside of their body. Bionic devices, interfacing with neural systems and substituting native functions, such as bionic pacemaker, bionic pressure controller are candidates to miniaturize. For such miniaturization, efforts to reduce size of power supply (e.g., biological fuel cell) and to establish reliable high-throughput, low power telecommunication (e.g., spread spectrum telecommunication) are required. Simple devices such as pacemakers would benefit from miniaturization by lowering invasion and by developing a new usage such as ventricular resynchronization. PMID:16454192

  13. Sample preparation followed by HPLC under harmless 100% aqueous conditions for determination of oxytetracycline in milk and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Naoto

    2004-05-01

    A simple and hazardous chemical-free method for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in milk and eggs has been developed. Sample preparation consists in homogenization with an aqueous solution by means of a handheld ultrasonic homogenizer followed by centrifugal ultrafiltration. HPLC is performed with an isocratic aqueous mobile phase and a photodiode array detector. Average recoveries of OTC (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 microg mL(-1) for milk; 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 microg mL(-1) for eggs) were > or =84% with relative standard deviations of solvents or hazardous reagents were used. PMID:15335039

  14. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  15. The group dynamics of medical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcorn, S

    1995-01-01

    A medical group by definition is a group of physicians and their support staff who have joined together to practice medicine. However, a medical group is more than that. Medical groups are composed of many different types of subgroups and group dynamics that are in constant flux and which may serve the medical group well or inhibit it from achieving its best performance. Understanding group dynamics is, therefore, one of the paths toward achieving excellence in the practice of low cost but fulfilling medicine. This article describes three types of potentially unsatisfactory group dynamics--homogenized, institutionalized and autocratic. Homogenized dynamics occur when physicians act as though they must all participate in decision making. Managing the group can become deadlocked by one veto. Institutionalized group dynamics lead to an over reliance upon systems and procedures to control work. Flexibility, adaptability and creativity are often lost in the process. Autocratic group dynamics arise when a single individual assumes nearly absolute control of decision making. Each of these group dynamics contain positive and negative outcomes that must be considered when evaluating medical group performance. Case examples and exhibits are provided to operationalize the importance of understanding these potentially dysfunctional group dynamics. PMID:10151363

  16. Medical robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  17. Thermal coupling at aqueous and biomolecular interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenogina, Natalia B.

    Heat flow in the materials with nanoscopic features is dominated by thermal properties of the interfaces. While thermal properties of the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces are well studied, research of the thermal transport properties across soft (liquid-liquid) interfaces is very limited. Such interfaces are, however, plentiful in biological systems. In such systems the temperature control is of a great importance, because biochemical reactions, conformation of biomolecules as well as processes in biological cells and membranes have strong temperature sensitivity. The critical ingredient to temperature control in biological systems is the understanding of heat flow and thermal coupling across soft interfaces. To investigate heat transfer across biological and aqueous interfaces we chose to study a number of soft interfacial systems by means of molecular dynamic simulations. One of the interfaces under our investigation is the interface between protein (specifically green fluorescent protein) and water. Using this model we concentrated on the importance of vibrational frequency on coupling between water and proteins, and on significant differences between the roles of low and high frequency vibrations. Our thermal interfacial analysis allowed us to shed new light on to the issue of protein to water slaving, i.e., the concept of water controlling protein dynamics. Considering that the surface of the protein is composed of a complicated mixture of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, to systematically explore the role of interfacial interactions we studied less complicated models with homogenous interfaces whith interfacial chemistry that could be changed in a controlled manner. We demonstrated that thermal transport measurements can be used to probe interfacial environments and to quantify interfacial bonding strength. Such ability provides a unique opportunity to characterize a variety of interfaces, which can be difficult to achieve with more direct

  18. Different Alterations of Cerebral Regional Homogeneity in Early-Onset and Late-Onset Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ke; Fang, Weidong; Zhu, Yingcheng; Shuai, Guangying; Zou, Dezhi; Su, Meilan; Han, Yu; Cheng, Oumei

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Eighteen EOPD, 21 LOPD and 37 age-matched normal control subjects participated in the resting state fMRI scans.Age at onset of PD modulates the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity during resting state.Disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in PD patients with a younger age of onset. Objective: Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) is distinct from late-onset PD (LOPD) as it relates to the clinical profile and response to medication. The objective of current paper is to investigate whether characteristics of spontaneous brain activity in the resting state are associated with the age of disease onset. Methods: We assessed the correlation between neural activity and age-at-onset in a sample of 39 PD patients (18 EOPD and 21 LOPD) and 37 age-matched normal control subjects. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) approaches were employed using ANOVA with two factors: PD and age. Results: In the comparisons between LOPD and EOPD, EOPD revealed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with age-matched control subjects, EOPD exhibited lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left inferior temporal gyrus; However, LOPD showed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and left insula. The ReHo values were negatively correlated with the UPDRS total scores in the right putamen in LOPD, but a correlation between the ReHo value and UPDRS score was not detected in EOPD. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that age at onset is associated with the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity in the resting state and suggest that disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. PMID:27462265

  19. Nickel N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in homogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berding, Joris

    2009-01-01

    Described in this thesis are the investigations into the chemistry of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands and transition-metal complexes thereof. Specifically, a variety of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of nickel were prepared, characterized and used as catalysts in three types of homogeneous ca

  20. Elliptic genera of homogeneous spin manifolds and theta functions identities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ruifang

    2005-01-01

    By Witten rigidity theorem and the Atiyah-Bott-Segal-Singer Lefschetz fixed point formula, the elliptic genus of a homogeneous spin manifold G/H can be expressed as a sum of theta functions quotients over the Weyl group of G. Consequently, we obtainseveral classes of combinatorial identities of theta functions.

  1. Applying homogeneous catalysis for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, M

    2006-01-01

    This article describes recent achievements of my research group in the Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V. in the area of applied homogeneous catalysis for the synthesis of biologically active compounds. Special focus is given on the development of novel and practical palladium and copper catalysts for the functionalization of haloarenes and haloheteroarenes.

  2. Synergy between experimental and computational approaches to homogeneous photoredox catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Taye B; Hansen, Jørn H

    2016-07-01

    In this Frontiers article, we highlight how state-of-the-art density functional theory calculations can contribute to the field of homogeneous photoredox catalysis. We discuss challenges in the fields and potential solutions to be found at the interface between theory and experiment. The exciting opportunities and insights that can arise through such an interdisciplinary approach are highlighted.

  3. ON A SET OF h-HARMONIC HOMOGENEOUS POLYNOMIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Renhong; Zhou Heng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study the homogeneous polynomials orthogonal with the weight function h (x(d))= x2k11gree n. It is simpler than the formula in [2], and can be regarded as an extension of [1] under the weighted case.

  4. Change in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Sensitivity Training Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Herbert B.

    1971-01-01

    Among the findings was that the heterogeneous groups showed more change on the FIRO scale. Also, on rating scales measuring positive feeling towards group, the initial superiority of homogeneous groups was reduced by the end of the T group and that heterogeneous groups manifested more significant increases. (Author/CG)

  5. Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2000-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  6. KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  7. Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold

  8. Quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Amma, Y.;

    2015-01-01

    A homogeneous 31-core fibre with a cladding diameter of 230 μm for quasi-single-mode transmission is designed and fabricated. LP01-crosstalk of -38.4 dB/11 km at 1550 nm is achieved by using few-mode trench-assisted cores....

  9. IMPACT OF COOKING HOMOGENEITY ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bofeng Mao

    2004-01-01

    Cooking homogeneity of kraft pulping can have significant impact on pulp strength properties. We have studied cooking homogeneity of two kraft digesters within Stora Enso. One of the digesters is a one-vessel hydraulic continuous digester (digester A)and the other one is a two-vessel vapor/liquor phase continuous digester (digester B). They are located in the same mill and use the same softwood chip quality. Due to the differences in chip pre-steaming and cooking facilities and conditions, significant differences in pulp strength properties, reject contents and kappa variations have been found between the pulps produced in the two digesters. Digester A has a modem chip bin with efficient pre-heating and air removal, whereas digester B has poor chip pre-steaming conditions. Our strength delivery studies show that although the two digesters produce pulps with the same kappa number and viscosity, the pulp produced in digester A has about 20% higher strength delivery, l%-unit (based on wood) lower reject content and lower kappa variations based on FTIR spectra analysis on pulp sheet than the pulp produced in digester B.Results of the studies indicate that more homogeneous cooking, i.e., lower lignin/kappa variation in the fibers, leads to improved pulp strength properties. Efficient chip pre-steaming is important/essential for achieving homogeneous cooking. Rebuilding the equipment for improving chip pre-steaming conditions of digester B is to be carried out.

  10. On Euler's Theorem for Homogeneous Functions and Proofs Thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykodi, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Euler's theorem for homogenous functions is useful when developing thermodynamic distinction between extensive and intensive variables of state and when deriving the Gibbs-Duhem relation. Discusses Euler's theorem and thermodynamic applications. Includes six-step instructional strategy for introducing the material to students. (Author/JN)

  11. Hydrologic homogeneous regions using monthly Streamflow in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahya, Ercan; Demirel, Mehmet C.; Beg, Osman A.

    2008-01-01

    Cluster analysis of gauged streamflow records into homogeneous and robust regions is an important tool for the characterization of hydrologic systems. In this paper we applied the hierarchical cluster analysis to the task of objectively classifying streamflow data into regions encompassing similar s

  12. Segmenting Demographically Homogeneous Radio Audiences: An Exploratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchon, John M.

    The possibility that the benefits sought by radio listeners could be used to further define demographically homogeneous audiences for marketing purposes was investigated by surveying a segment of college undergraduate listeners. Twenty-five interviews were conducted to determine where, why, what time of day, and to what station an individual…

  13. Non-Homogeneous Riemann Boundary Value Problem with Radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The solution of the non-homogeneous Riemann boundary value problem with radicals (1.2)together with its condition of solvability is obtained for arbitrary positive integers p and q, which generalizes the results for the case p=q=2.

  14. Simple compactifications and polar decomposition of homogeneous real spherical spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Friedrich; Krötz, Bernhard; Sayag, Eitan;

    2015-01-01

    Let Z be an algebraic homogeneous space Z = G/H attached to real reductive Lie group G. We assume that Z is real spherical, i.e., minimal parabolic subgroups have open orbits on Z. For such spaces, we investigate their large scale geometry and provide a polar decomposition. This is obtained from...

  15. Intergroup Attitudes of European American Children Attending Ethnically Homogeneous Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlothlin, Heidi; Killen, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Intergroup attitudes were assessed in European American 1st-grade (M=6.99 years, SD=0.32) and 4th-grade (M=10.01 years, SD=0.36) children (N=138) attending ethnically homogeneous schools to test hypotheses about racial biases and interracial friendships. An Ambiguous Situations Task and an Intergroup Contact Assessment were administered to all…

  16. On superspinor structure of homogeneous superspace of orthosymplectic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superspinor structure of homogeneous superspaces of orthosymplectic groups are considered. It is shown how the properties of orthosymplectic group superspaces of OSp(N, 2K) group playing an important role in the supersymmetry theory can be described using superspinors. An example confirming a possibility of the relation between . canonical ratios of Butten bracket and conventional methods of quantization is considered

  17. Homogeneity of Moral Judgment? Apprentices Solving Business Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Klaus; Heinrichs, Karin; Minnameier, Gerhard; Parche-Kawik, Kirsten

    In an ongoing longitudinal study that started in 1994, the moral development of business apprentices is being studied. The focal point of this project is a critical analysis of L. Kohlberg's thesis of homogeneity, according to which people should judge every moral issue from the point of view of their "modal" stage (the most frequently used stage…

  18. Bose-Einstein condensate in non-homogeneous gravitational field

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    Ground state properties of trapped Bose condensate with repulsive interaction in non-homogeneous gravitational field are studied. Spatial structure of Bose condensate and its momentum distributions in 3-D anisotropic trap are considered by the solution of the modified non-linear Schrodinger equation. The results are compared with the corresponding properties of condensate in a harmonic trap without gravitational field.

  19. A variational approach to homogeneous scalar fields in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Giambo', R; Magli, G

    2006-01-01

    A result of existence of homogeneous scalar field solutions between prescribed configurations is given, using a modified version of Euler--Maupertuis least action variational principle. Solutions are obtained as limit of approximating variational problems, solved using techniques introduced by Rabinowitz.

  20. Electromagnetic Radiation in a Uniformly Moving, Homogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1972-01-01

    A new method of treating radiation problems in a uniformly moving, homogeneous medium is presented. A certain transformation technique in connection with the four-dimensional Green's function method makes it possible to elaborate the Green's functions of the governing differential equations in th...

  1. Size-dependent homogenized diffusion parameters for a finite lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical technique is reported for solving the transcendental equation for unknown Ysub(n+1). The solution is expressed in terms of quantities related to Ysub(n). This is an iterative reversion technique which has already been proven to converge rapidly in the homogeneous slab problem considered herein. (author)

  2. Short wave stability of homogeneous shear flows with variable topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦华书; V. GANESH

    2014-01-01

    For the stability problem of homogeneous shear flows in sea straits of arbitrary cross section, a sufficient condition for stability is derived under the condition of inviscid flow. It is shown that there is a critical wave number, and if the wave number of a normal mode is greater than this critical wave number, the mode is stable.

  3. On the transition between heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gierens

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Box model simulations of an uplifting and adiabatically cooling cloud of aerosol have been performed in order to study the transition between cirrus formation dominated by homogeneous nucleation of ice to that dominated by heterogeneous nucleation. The aerosol was assumed to consist of an internal mixture of sulfuric acid solution droplets with inclusions of soot. The simulations show that the transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous nucleation occurs over a narrow range of soot concentration. Thus it seems to be possible to fix critical concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei which must be exceeded if heterogeneous freezing dominates cirrus formation. A formula has been derived that allows to compute the critical concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei as a function of temperature, updraft speed, ambient pressure, and supersaturation at which heterogeneous freezing occurs. Generally, homogeneous nucleation dominates in regions with updrafts stronger than 20 cmps, with the exception of heavily polluted areas which could be common in the northern hemisphere due to air traffic, where updrafts of the order 1 mps may be necessary to render heterogeneous nucleation unimportant. According to the present results it cannot be excluded that heterogeneous nucleation plays a more important role for cirrus formation in the northern midlatitudes than anywhere else. A possible consequence of these results is that air pollution may lead to a higher coverage of cirrus clouds, but then these clouds will be optically thinner than clouds formed by homogeneous freezing, with the exception of regions where condensation trails are frequent.

  4. Homogenization of intergranular fracture towards a transient gradient damage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G.; Poh, L. H.

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on the intergranular fracture of polycrystalline materials, where a detailed model at the meso-scale is translated onto the macro-level through a proposed homogenization theory. The bottom-up strategy involves the introduction of an additional macro-kinematic field to characterize the average displacement jump within the unit cell. Together with the standard macro-strain field, the underlying processes are propagated onto the macro-scale by imposing the equivalence of power and energy at the two scales. The set of macro-governing equations and constitutive relations are next extracted naturally as per standard thermodynamics procedure. The resulting homogenized microforce balance recovers the so-called 'implicit' gradient expression with a transient nonlocal interaction. The homogenized gradient damage model is shown to fully regularize the softening behavior, i.e. the structural response is made mesh-independent, with the damage strain correctly localizing into a macroscopic crack, hence resolving the spurious damage growth observed in many conventional gradient damage models. Furthermore, the predictive capability of the homogenized model is demonstrated by benchmarking its solutions against reference meso-solutions, where a good match is obtained with minimal calibrations, for two different grain sizes.

  5. Missing data analysis and homogeneity test for Turkish precipitation series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahmut Firat; Fatih Dikbas; A Cem Koç; Mahmud Gungor

    2010-12-01

    In this study, missing value analysis and homogeneity tests were conducted for 267 precipitation stations throughout Turkey. For this purpose, the monthly and annual total precipitation records at stations operated by Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMI) from 1968 to 1998 were considered. In these stations, precipitation records for each month was investigated separately and the stations with missing values for too many years were eliminated. The missing values of the stations were completed by Expectation Maximization (EM) method by using the precipitation records of the nearest gauging station. In this analysis, 38 stations were eliminated because they had missing values for more than 5 years, 161 stations had no missing values and missing precipitation values were completed in the remaining 68 stations. By this analysis, annual total precipitation data were obtained by using the monthly values. These data should be hydrologically and statistically reliable for later hydrological, meteorological, climate change modelling and forecasting studies. For this reason, Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT), (Swed–Eisenhart) Runs Test and Pettitt homogeneity tests were applied for the annual total precipitation data at 229 gauging stations from 1968 to 1998. The results of each of the testing methods were evaluated separately at a significance level of 95% and the inhomogeneous years were determined. With the application of the aforementioned methods, inhomogeneity was detected at 50 stations of which the natural structure was deteriorated and 179 stations were found to be homogeneous.

  6. On Homogeneous Production Functions with Proportional Marginal Rate of Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Daniela Vîlcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We completely classify homogeneous production functions with proportional marginal rate of substitution and with constant elasticity of labor and capital, respectively. These classifications generalize some recent results of C. A. Ioan and G. Ioan (2011 concerning the sum production function.

  7. Anything goes with heterogeneous, but not always with homogeneous oligopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Furth

    2009-01-01

    Corchón and Mas-Colell [1996. On the stability of best reply and gradient systems with applications to imperfectly competitive models. Economics Letters 51, 59-65] showed that in heterogeneous oligopoly (almost) everything is possible. In order to obtain a similar result for homogeneous oligopoly, e

  8. Are Heterogeneous or Homogeneous Groups More Beneficial to Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relative benefits to the student of working in homogeneous versus heterogeneous classroom groups. Correlation analysis of 18 desirable outcomes versus 8 personality-based heterogeneity variables reveals that heterogeneity associates with advantages as well as disadvantages. Ways in which group composition might be…

  9. Lp-boundedness of flag kernels on homogeneous groups

    CERN Document Server

    Glowacki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the flag kernel singular integral operators of Nagel-Ricci-Stein on a homogeneous group are bounded on the Lp spaces. The gradation associated with the kernels is the natural gradation of the underlying Lie algebra. Our main tools are the Littlewood-Paley theory and a symbolic calculus combined in the spirit of Duoandikoetxea and Rubio de Francia.

  10. RELAXATION OF FUNCTIONALS INVOLVING HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTIONS AND INVARIANCE OF ENVELOPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The authors compute the quasiconvex envelope of certain functions defined on the space Mmn of real m× n matrices via a homogeneous function on Mmn. They also deduce invariance properties for various convex envelopes from corresponding invariance properties satisfied by a function. Some applications related in particular to nonlinear elasticity are given.

  11. Homogeneous Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by Ni(cyclam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Jesse Dan

    The homogeneous electrochemical reduction of CO2 by the molecular catalyst [Ni(cyclam)]2+ was studied by electrochemistry and infrared spectroelectrochemistry. This catalyst has been previously shown to have increased CO2 reduction activity when adsorbed on a mercury electrode. The homogeneous reactivity, without a mercury electrode, was often ignored in the literature. Ni(cyclam) was found to efficiently and selectively produce CO at moderate overpotentials in both aqueous and mixed organic solvent systems in a homogenous fashion at an inert glassy carbon electrode. Methylated analogs of Ni(cyclam) were also studied and observed to have more positive reduction potentials and attenuated CO2 reduction activity. The electrochemical kinetics were probed by varying CO2 substrate and proton concentrations. Products of CO2 reduction are observed in infrared spectra obtained from spectroelectrochemical experiments. The two major species observed were a Ni(I) carbonyl, [Ni(cyclam)(CO)]+, and a Ni(II) coordinated bicarbonate, [Ni(cyclam)(CO2OH)] +. The rate-limiting step during electrocatalysis was determined to be CO loss from the deactivated species, [Ni(cyclam)(CO)]+, to produce the active catalyst, [Ni(cyclam)]+. Another macrocyclic complex, [Ni(TMC)]+, was deployed as a CO scavenger in order to inhibit the deactivation of [Ni(cyclam)] + by CO. Addition of the CO scavenger was shown to dramatically increase the catalytic current observed for CO2 reduction by [Ni(cyclam)] +. Evidence for the [Ni(TMC)]+ acting as a CO scavenger includes the observation of [Ni(TMC)(CO)]+ by IR. Density functional theory calculations, probing the optimized geometry of the [Ni(cyclam)(CO)] + species, are also presented. These findings have implications on the increased activity for CO2 reduction when [Ni(cyclam)] + is adsorbed on a mercury electrode. The [Ni(cyclam)(CO)] + structure has significant distortion of the Ni center out of the plane of the cyclam nitrogens. This distortion

  12. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agents Antidiarrheal Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics Pharmacologic, or drug, therapy is best ... Agents Antidiarrheal Agents Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications ... Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral ...

  13. The Medical Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth The Medical Home KidsHealth > For Parents > The Medical Home Print A ... for your child. What Does the Term "Medical Home" Mean? A medical home isn't a place ...

  14. Recent advances in the understanding of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massines, F.; Gherardi, N.; Naudé, N.; Ségur, P.

    2009-08-01

    This paper is a state of the art of the understanding on the physics of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure. It is based on the analysis of present and previous work about the behavior of these discharges and the conditions to get them. Mechanisms controlling the homogeneity during gas breakdown and discharge development are successively discussed. The breakdown has to be a Townsend one, the ionization has to be slow enough to avoid a large avalanche development. During the breakdown, the discharge homogeneity is related to the ratio of the secondary emission at the cathode (γ coefficient) on the ionization in the gas bulk (α coefficient). Higher is this ratio, higher is the pressure × gas gap product (Pd) value for which a Townsend breakdown is obtained. Among the phenomena enhancing the secondary emission there is the negative charge of the dielectric on the cathode surface, the trapping of ions in the gas and the existence of excited state having a long lifetime compared to the time between two consecutive discharges. The first phenomenon is always present when the electrodes are covered by a solid dielectric, the second one is related to the formation of a positive column and the third one is specific of the gas. During the discharge development, the homogeneity is mainly controlled by the voltage or the current imposed by the electrical circuit/electrode configuration and by the gas ability to be slowly ionized. Larger is the contribution of a multiple step ionization process like Penning ionization, higher will be the working domain of the discharge. A decrease of the gas voltage during the discharge development is a solution to enhance the contribution of this process. After 20 years of research a lot of mechanisms have been understood however there is still open questions like the nature of the Inhibited homogeneous DBD, surface energy transfers, role of attachment and detachment...

  15. Magnetic stimulation for non-homogeneous biological structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic stimulation has gained relatively wide application in studying nervous system structures. This technology has the advantage of reduced excitation of sensory nerve endings, and hence results in quasi-painless action. It has become clinically accepted modality for brain stimulation. However, theoretical and practical solutions for assessment of induced current distribution need more detailed and accurate consideration. Some possible analyses are proposed for distribution of the current induced from excitation current contours of different shape and disposition. Relatively non-difficult solutions are shown, applicable for two- and three-dimensional analysis. Methods The boundary conditions for field analysis by the internal Dirichlet problem are introduced, based on the vector potential field excited by external current coils. The feedback from the induced eddy currents is neglected. Finite element modeling is applied for obtaining the electromagnetic fields distribution in a non-homogeneous domain. Results The distributions were obtained in a non-homogeneous structure comprised of homogeneous layers. A tendency was found of the induced currents to follow paths in lower resistivity layers, deviating from the expected theoretical course for a homogeneous domain. Current density concentrations occur at the boundary between layers, suggesting the possibility for focusing on, or predicting of, a zone of stimulation. Conclusion The theoretical basis and simplified approach for generation of 3D FEM networks for magnetic stimulation analysis are presented, applicable in non-homogeneous and non-linear media. The inconveniences of introducing external excitation currents are avoided. Thus, the possibilities are improved for analysis of distributions induced by time-varying currents from contours of various geometry and position with respect to the medium.

  16. Detergency of stainless steel surface soiled with human brain homogenate: an XPS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, M. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France) and Laboratoires ANIOS, 59 260 Lille-Hellemmes (France)]. E-mail: marlene.richard@ec-lyon.fr; Le Mogne, Th. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France); Perret-Liaudet, A. [Hopital Neurologique de Lyon et INSERM U512, 69 394 Lyon (France); Rauwel, G. [Laboratoires ANIOS, 59 260 Lille-Hellemmes (France); Criquelion, J. [Laboratoires ANIOS, 59 260 Lille-Hellemmes (France); De Barros, M.I. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France); Cetre, J.C. [Unite d' Hygiene et d' Epidemiologie, Hopital de la Croix Rousse, 69 317 Lyon (France); Martin, J.M. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, UMR 5513 LTDS, 69 134 Ecully (France)

    2005-02-15

    In the detergency field of re-usable medical devices, a special attention is focused on the non conventional transmissible agent called prions which is a proteinaceous infectious agent. Few cleaning procedures are effective against prions and few techniques are available to study cleaning effectiveness with respect to proteins in general. In our study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of detergent formulations to remove proteins from stainless steel surface soiled with a brain homogenate (BH) from human origin. Our results showed that XPS is a reliable surface analysis technique to study chemical species remaining on surface and substrate properties after cleaning procedures. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the detergency effectiveness could also be performed.

  17. Detergency of stainless steel surface soiled with human brain homogenate: an XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the detergency field of re-usable medical devices, a special attention is focused on the non conventional transmissible agent called prions which is a proteinaceous infectious agent. Few cleaning procedures are effective against prions and few techniques are available to study cleaning effectiveness with respect to proteins in general. In our study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to evaluate the effectiveness of detergent formulations to remove proteins from stainless steel surface soiled with a brain homogenate (BH) from human origin. Our results showed that XPS is a reliable surface analysis technique to study chemical species remaining on surface and substrate properties after cleaning procedures. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the detergency effectiveness could also be performed

  18. Determination of lead equivalent thickness, dose reduction and homogeneity through WRP-glove used in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of lead equivalent thickness was conducted on set of rubber gloves that were formulated for used in medical applications. A narrow beam of scattered radiation was employed for the transmission measurement. Radcal corporation ionisation chamber of 6 cc was used to measure the incident and transmitted x-ray beam. The lead equivalent thickness for the gloves were determined at 50 kV, 80 kV, 100 kV and 125 kV. The homogeneity of the gloves and its efficiency for dose reduction were also measured. A knowledge on photon mass attenuation coefficient of lead in incident x-ray energy is essential in the measurement. The measurements were carried out based on the procedure as outlined by IEC 1331-1 with a minor modification to suit the facilities in MINT. (Author)

  19. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.

  20. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment. PMID:27215115

  1. DEHYDRATION CONDENSATION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinman, Gary; Kenyon, Dean H.; Calvin, Melvin

    1965-04-01

    EARLIER investigations have demonstrated that di-cyandiamide (DCDA), the dimer of cyanamide, can successfully promote the dehydration condensation of: (1) glucose and orthophosphate to give glucose-6-phosphate; (2) adenosine and orthophosphate to give adenosine-5'-monophosphate; (3) orthophosphate to give pyrophosphate; (4) alanine to give alanylalanine and alanylalanylalanine. These reactions were carried out in dilute aqueous solutions in the dark. (It was also demonstrated that the combination of ultra-violet light and dicyandiamide could promote the synthesis of dipeptides. This observation has since been confirmed by other investigators.) These experiments were designed to demonstrate one possible means by which such compounds could have been formed on the prebiotic Earth, thus providing materials needed for the origin of living systems. Dicyandiamide itself could have been, present on the primitive Earth as was demonstrated with the ultra-violet irradiation of cyanide solution.

  2. Soft matter at aqueous interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the science of interfaces between an aqueous phase and a solid, another liquid or a gaseous phase, starting from the basic physical chemistry all the way to state-of-the-art research developments. Both experimental and theoretical methods are treated thanks to the contributions of a distinguished list of authors who are all active researchers in their respective fields. The properties of these interfaces are crucial for a wide variety of processes, products and biological systems and functions, such as the formulation of personal care and food products, paints and coatings, microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip applications, cell membranes, and lung surfactants. Accordingly, research and expertise on the subject are spread over a broad range of academic disciplines and industrial laboratories. This book brings together knowledge from these different places with the aim of fostering education, collaborations and research progress.

  3. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. How does the dehydration change the host-guest association under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, G; Bonal, C; Malfreyt, P

    2014-05-14

    In this study, the thermodynamic properties of association of some inorganic ions (ClO4(-) and SO4(2-)) with β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) in aqueous solution are determined under both free β-CD and surface confined β-CD conditions using atomistic simulations. The potential of mean force (PMF) is calculated as a function of the environment and the thermodynamic properties of association are deduced by integrating the free energy profiles. No inclusion complex between SO4(2-) and β-CD is detected. Nevertheless, the PMF curve obtained for gold-confined CD seems to evidence a small minimum at a larger separation distance that shows specific interactions such as hydrogen bonding outside the cavity. As concerns ClO4(-), our simulations reveal the formation of an inclusion complex with free β-CD in perfect agreement with the available experimental results. Nevertheless, we do not detect any formation of the host-guest inclusion complex under heterogeneous conditions. Finally, the differences observed as a function of the anions are interpreted through an atomistic description. The general trend of weaker complex stabilities with the increasing free energy of hydration of the anions is found in homogeneous systems. PMID:24676343

  5. 27 CFR 21.96 - Ammonia, aqueous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonia, aqueous. 21.96 Section 21.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Ammonia, aqueous. (a) Alkalinity. Strongly alkaline to litmus. (b) Ammonia content. 27 to 30 percent...

  6. Interfacial Thermodynamics of Coexisting Aqueous Polymer Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, M.

    2015-01-01

    Phase separation is commonly observed when two different polymers are present in aqueous solution, forming aqueous two-phase systems which typically consist for 90% of water. It is demonstrated that the presence of charge on one of the polymers results in an electric potential difference between the

  7. Kinetics of ptaquiloside hydrolysis in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala-Luis, Karina B.; Bildsøe Hansen, Pernille; Rasmussen, Lars Holm;

    2006-01-01

    of the toxin, a full understanding of the PTA degradation in aqueous environments is important. The kinetics of PTA hydrolysis was examined at 22C in aqueous buffered solutions (pH 2.88–8.93). The reaction was found to follow first-order kinetics with respect to PTA at all pH and temperature conditions. At p...

  8. Design and In Vitro Evaluation of a New Nano-Microparticulate System for Enhanced Aqueous-Phase Solubility of Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Guzman-Villanueva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a yellow polyphenol derived from the turmeric Curcuma longa, has been associated with a diverse therapeutic potential including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, and anticancer properties. However, the poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability of curcumin have limited its potential when administrated orally. In this study, curcumin was encapsulated in a series of novel nano-microparticulate systems developed to improve its aqueous solubility and stability. The nano-microparticulate systems are based entirely on biocompatible, biodegradable, and edible polymers including chitosan, alginate, and carrageenan. The particles were synthesized via ionotropic gelation. Encapsulating the curcumin into the hydrogel nanoparticles yielded a homogenous curcumin dispersion in aqueous solution compared to the free form of curcumin. Also, the in vitro release profile showed up to 95% release of curcumin from the developed nano-microparticulate systems after 9 hours in PBS at pH 7.4 when freeze-dried particles were used.

  9. Synthesis of Starch-Stabilized Ag Nanoparticles and Hg2+Recognition in Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yingju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The starch-stabilized Ag nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a reduction approach and characterized with SPR UV/Vis spectroscopy, TEM, and HRTEM. By utilizing the redox reaction between Ag nanoparticles and Hg2+, and the resulted decrease in UV/Vis signal, we develop a colorimetric method for detection of Hg2+ion. A linear relationship stands between the absorbance intensity of the Ag nanoparticles and the concentration of Hg2+ion over the range from 10 ppb to 1 ppm at the absorption of 390 nm. The detection limit for Hg2+ions in homogeneous aqueous solutions is estimated to be ~5 ppb. This system shows excellent selectivity for Hg2+over other metal ions including Na+, K+, Ba2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe3+, and Cd2+. The results shown herein have potential implications in the development of new colorimetric sensors for easy and selective detection and monitoring of mercuric ions in aqueous solutions.

  10. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1996-05-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation.

  11. Crystallization and immersion freezing ability of oxalic and succinic acid in multicomponent aqueous organic aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert; Höhler, Kristina; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study reports on heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of immersed oxalic and succinic acid crystals in the temperature range from 245 to 215 K, as investigated with expansion cooling experiments using suspended particles. In contrast to previous laboratory work with emulsified solution droplets where the precipitation of solid inclusions required a preceding freezing/evaporation cycle, we show that immersed solids readily form by homogeneous crystallization within aqueous solution droplets of multicomponent organic mixtures, which have noneutonic compositions with an excess of oxalic or succinic acid. Whereas succinic acid crystals did not act as heterogeneous ice nuclei, immersion freezing by oxalic acid dihydrate crystals led to a reduction of the ice saturation ratio at freezing onset by 0.066-0.072 compared to homogeneous freezing, which is by a factor of 2 higher than previously reported laboratory data. These observations emphasize the importance of oxalic acid in heterogeneous ice nucleation.

  12. Synthesis of SmOHCO3 micro/nano particles from the coupling route of homogeneous precipitation with microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文庆; 瞿芳; 陈浩军; 李卓; 刘斌

    2014-01-01

    SmOHCO3micro/nano particles were prepared in water/oil (W/O) reverse microemulsion composed of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), n-octane, n-butanol, Sm(NO3)3·6H2O and urea aqueous solution by the coupling route of homogeneous precipitation with microemulsion. The nanoparticles were characterized and analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG), Fourier transform infrared absorption spectra (FT-IR) and scan-ning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the phase SmOHCO3 micro/nano particles was in agreement with pure or-thorhombic phase. The different morphologies of SmOHCO3 micro/nano particles with good monodispersity and size were obtained by regulating the reaction temperature and reaction time. Possible formation mechanisms of the morphological structure of SmO-HCO3 were proposed and discussed.

  13. Present status of the use of LEU in aqueous reactors to produce Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Russell M. [Technology Commercialization International, Lynchburg, VA (United States); E-mail: 76130.1301@compuserve.com; Pavshook, V.A.; Khvostionov, V.Ye. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-07-01

    An operating aqueous homogeneous reactor, the ARGUS at Kurchatov Institute, has been used to produce fission product molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), widely used in nuclear medicine to produce technetium-99m (Tc-99m). The Mo-99 has been extracted from the sulfate solution using an organic sorbent after operation at 1 kW/liter. after purification, the material has been assayed and the result is well within required specification of the USPharmacopaeia. Operation calculation are presented to show the sources and quantity of alpha activity when LEU is used. (author)

  14. Physical librations and possible homogeneity of natural moons from astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainey, Valery; Cooper, Nicholas; Murray, Carl; Noyelles, Benoît; Pasewladt, Andreas; Robert, Vincent; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Thuillot, William

    2016-10-01

    Astrometry is the discipline that aims to provide positions of celestial objects in space with the highest accuracy. Thanks to recent space missions like Mars Express and Cassini, astrometric measurements of moons have allowed the probing of the gravity environment of their systems with unprecedented resolution. Here we focus on the possible determination of physical librations on the rotation of the moons, by modelling their effects on the moons' orbits. Assuming a homogeneous density, a theoretical expectation of the main libration can be computed and compared with possible observed values obtained indirectly from the orbit. In this work, we obtain for Phobos a physical libration of 1.04 +/- 0.02 degrees, in agreement with a homogeneous interior. The case of some of the inner moons of Saturn will be addressed, also.

  15. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization of the matrix and the fibers.

  16. Representations of Homogeneous Quantum Lévy Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V P Belavkin; L Gregory

    2006-11-01

    We study homogeneous quantum Lévy processes and fields with independent additive increments over a noncommutative ∗-monoid. These are described by infinitely divisible generating state functionals, invariant with respect to an endomorphic injective action of a symmetry semigroup. A strongly covariant GNS representation for the conditionally positive logarithmic functionals of these states is constructed in the complex Minkowski space in terms of canonical quadruples and isometric representations on the underlying pre-Hilbert field space. This is of much use in constructing quantum stochastic representations of homogeneous quantum Lévy fields on Itô monoids, which is a natural algebraic way of defining dimension free, covariant quantum stochastic integration over a space-time indexing set.

  17. Mixing and chemical reaction in sheared and nonsheared homogeneous turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Andy D.; Hill, James C.

    1992-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations were made to examine the local structure of the reaction zone for a moderately fast reaction between unmixed species in decaying, homogeneous turbulence and in a homogeneous turbulent shear flow. Pseudospectral techniques were used in domains of 64 exp 3 and higher wavenumbers. A finite-rate, single step reaction between non-premixed reactants was considered, and in one case temperature-dependent Arrhenius kinetics was assumed. Locally intense reaction rates that tend to persist throughout the simulations occur in locations where the reactant concentration gradients are large and are amplified by the local rate of strain. The reaction zones are more organized in the case of a uniform mean shear than in isotropic turbulence, and regions of intense reaction rate appear to be associated with vortex structures such as horseshoe vortices and fingers seen in mixing layers. Concentration gradients tend to align with the direction of the most compressive principal strain rate, more so in the isotropic case.

  18. Neutron transport equation - indications on homogenization and neutron diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In PWR nuclear reactor, the practical study of the neutrons in the core uses diffusion equation to describe the problem. On the other hand, the most correct method to describe these neutrons is to use the Boltzmann equation, or neutron transport equation. In this paper, we give some theoretical indications to obtain a diffusion equation from the general transport equation, with some simplifying hypothesis. The work is organised as follows: (a) the most general formulations of the transport equation are presented: integro-differential equation and integral equation; (b) the theoretical approximation of this Boltzmann equation by a diffusion equation is introduced, by the way of asymptotic developments; (c) practical homogenization methods of transport equation is then presented. In particular, the relationships with some general and useful methods in neutronic are shown, and some homogenization methods in energy and space are indicated. A lot of other points of view or complements are detailed in the text or the remarks

  19. Homogeneous Catalysis with Metal Complexes Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duca, Gheorghe

    2012-01-01

    The book about homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes deals with the description of the reductive-oxidative, metal complexes  in a liquid phase (in polar solvents, mainly in water, and less in nonpolar solvents). The exceptional importance of the redox processes in chemical systems, in the reactions occuring in living organisms, the environmental processes, atmosphere, water, soil, and in industrial technologies (especially in food-processing industries) is discussed. The detailed practical aspects of the established regularities are explained for solving the specific practical tasks in various fields of industrial chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, analytical chemistry and ecological chemistry. The main scope of the book is the survey and systematization of the latest advances in homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes. It gives an overview of the research results and practical experience accumulated by the author during the last decade.

  20. The role of material in homogeneities in biological growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillo A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of the material in homogeneities that are generated by an isotropic growth on the source of mass acting within a growing living tissue. In order to do that, we need to study the interaction between these material in homogeneities and the chemical agents dissolved within the tissue. For this purpose, we use some ideas and methods from Condensed Matter Physics (e.g., the Path Integral technique employed in modeling Brownian processes and apply them to the Continuum Mechanics description of volumetric Growth. We believe that this approach may provide new physical insight into the interactions between the macroscopic dynamics of living systems and the evolution of the subsystems which activate biological processes.

  1. Homogeneity of doping with paramagnetic ions by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyu; Celinski, Vinicius R; Weber, Johannes; Kunkel, Nathalie; Kohlmann, Holger; Schmedt auf der Günne, Jörn

    2016-04-14

    In NMR, paramagnetic dopants change the relaxation behavior and the chemical shift of the nuclei in their immediate environment. Based on the concept that the "immediate environment" in a diamagnetic host material can be described as a sphere with radius r0, we developed a function for the fraction of unperturbed nuclei (the fraction of nuclei outside the sphere) which gives a link between the effective radius and the doping concentration. In the case of a homogeneous doping scenario a characteristic dependence is observed in both theory and experiment. We validated the model on a sample series where paramagnetic Eu(II) ions are doped into crystalline SrH2. The fraction of unperturbed nuclei was determined from the (1)H NMR signal and follows the predicted curve for a homogeneous doping scenario where the radius r0 is 17 Å. PMID:27003194

  2. Microfluidic converging/diverging channels optimised for homogeneous extensional deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, K; Pimenta, F; Alves, M A; Oliveira, M S N

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we optimise microfluidic converging/diverging geometries in order to produce constant strain-rates along the centreline of the flow, for performing studies under homogeneous extension. The design is examined for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows where the effects of aspect ratio and dimensionless contraction length are investigated. Initially, pressure driven flows of Newtonian fluids under creeping flow conditions are considered, which is a reasonable approximation in microfluidics, and the limits of the applicability of the design in terms of Reynolds numbers are investigated. The optimised geometry is then used for studying the flow of viscoelastic fluids and the practical limitations in terms of Weissenberg number are reported. Furthermore, the optimisation strategy is also applied for electro-osmotic driven flows, where the development of a plug-like velocity profile allows for a wider region of homogeneous extensional deformation in the flow field. PMID:27478523

  3. Microfluidic converging/diverging channels optimised for homogeneous extensional deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, K.; Oliveira, M. S. N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we optimise microfluidic converging/diverging geometries in order to produce constant strain-rates along the centreline of the flow, for performing studies under homogeneous extension. The design is examined for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows where the effects of aspect ratio and dimensionless contraction length are investigated. Initially, pressure driven flows of Newtonian fluids under creeping flow conditions are considered, which is a reasonable approximation in microfluidics, and the limits of the applicability of the design in terms of Reynolds numbers are investigated. The optimised geometry is then used for studying the flow of viscoelastic fluids and the practical limitations in terms of Weissenberg number are reported. Furthermore, the optimisation strategy is also applied for electro-osmotic driven flows, where the development of a plug-like velocity profile allows for a wider region of homogeneous extensional deformation in the flow field.

  4. Exploring the Kibble-Zurek mechanism with homogeneous Bose gases

    CERN Document Server

    Beugnon, J

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-equilibrium phenomena is a subject of considerable interest in many fields of physics. Ultracold quantum gases, which are extremely clean, well-isolated and highly controllable systems, offer ideal platforms to investigate this topic. The recent progress in tailoring trapping potentials now allows the experimental production of homogeneous samples in custom geometries, which is a key advance for studies of the emergence of coherence in interacting quantum systems. Here we review recent experiments in which temperature quenches have been performed across the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) phase transition in an annular geometry and in homogeneous 3D and quasi-2D gases. Combined, these experiments give a comprehensive picture of the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) scenario through complementary measurements of correlation functions and topological defects density. They also allow the measurement of KZ scaling laws, the direct confirmation of the "freeze-out" hypothesis that underlies the KZ theory, and the extractio...

  5. The IDSA and the homogeneous sphere: Issues and possible improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the study of the Isotropic Diffusion Source Approximation (IDSA) (Baxter et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 046118, 2006) of radiative transfer. After having recalled well-known limits of the radiative transfer equation, we present the IDSA and adapt it to the case of the homogeneous sphere. We then show that for this example the IDSA suffers from severe numerical difficulties. We argue that these difficulties originate in the min-max switch coupling mechanism used in the IDSA. To overcome this problem we reformulate the IDSA to avoid the problematic coupling. This allows us to access the modeling error of the IDSA for the homogeneous sphere test case. The IDSA is shown to overestimate the streaming component, hence we propose a new version of the IDSA which is numerically shown to be more accurate than the old one. Analytical results and numerical tests are provided to support the accuracy of the new proposed approximation.

  6. Voigt waves in electro-optic homogenized composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Tom G.

    2014-08-01

    A study was undertaken into Voigt wave propagation in a homogenized composite material (HCM). The HCM investigated arose from a porous electro-optic host material infiltrated by a fluid of refractive index na, considered in the long-wavelength regime. The extended Bruggeman homogenization formalism was employed to estimate the constitutive parameters of the HCM. In principle, the directions which support Voigt wave propagation in the HCM may be controlled by means of an applied dc electric field; and the degree of control may be sensitive to the porosity of the host material, the shapes, sizes and orientations of the pores, as well as the refractive index na. Here the theoretical methodology is presented; numerical results are presented elsewhere.

  7. Designing homogenization-solution heat treatments for single crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional stepwise solutionizing method is studied for an experimental Ni-base single crystal superalloy using metallography, eutectic fraction analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The temperature range for solutionizing the alloy is determined by combinations of holding time and temperature. The effects of long isothermal holding within and above this solutioning temperature range are presented. Heat treatment steps below the γ'-solvus temperature stabilize the eutectic phase, while steps above the solvus temperature improve the homogenization and reduce eutectic phase fraction. There is a finite nucleation time for incipient melting which is a function of holding temperature above the equilibrium solidus of the alloy. A prolonged isothermal holding above the equilibrium solidus temperature causes up-hill diffusion at the eutectic region leading to incipient melting. A new homogenization-solution heat treatment approach with continuous heating between solvus and solidus is proposed.

  8. Homogenization and simulation for compositional flow in naturally fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangxin

    2007-02-01

    A dual porosity model of multidimensional, multicomponent, multiphase flow in naturally fractured reservoirs is derived by the mathematical theory of homogenization. A fully compositional model is considered where there are N chemical components, each of which may exist in any or all of the three phases: gas, oil, and water. Special attention is paid to developing a general approach to incorporating gravitational forces, pressure gradient effects, and effects of mass transfer between phases. In particular, general equations for the interactions between matrix and fracture systems are obtained under homogenization by a careful scaling of these effects. Using this dual porosity compositional model, numerical experiments are reported for the benchmark problems of the sixth comparative solution project organized by the society of petroleum engineers.

  9. Role of Clustering Coefficient on Cooperation Dynamics in Homogeneous Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gang; GAO Kun; YANG Han-Xin; WANG Bing-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on previous works, we give further investigations on the Prisoners' Dilemma Game (PDG) on two different types of homogeneous networks, i.e. the homogeneous small-world network (HSWN) and the regular ring graph. We find that the so-called resonance-like character can occur on both the networks. Different from the viewpoint in previous publications, we think the small-world effect may be unnecessary to produce this character. Therefore, over these two types of networks, we suggest a common understanding in the viewpoint of clustering coefficient. Detailed simulation results can sustain our viewpoint quite well. Furthermore, we investigate the Snowdrift Game (SG) on the same networks. The difference between the outputs of the PDG and the SG can also sustain our viewpoint.

  10. Can photonic crystals be homogenized in higher bands?

    CERN Document Server

    Markel, Vadim A

    2015-01-01

    We consider the conditions under which photonic crystals (PCs) can be viewed as electromagnetically homogeneous at frequencies in the higher photonic bands and, in particular, near the higher-order $\\Gamma$-points. We show that the observation that a purely real isofrequency line of the PC is close to a mathematical circle is insufficient for establishing homogenizability. Complex dispersion points must be included into consideration even in the case of strictly non-absorbing materials. By applying a more careful analysis to the dispersion relations and complex isofrequency lines, we have found that two-dimensional PCs with $C_4$ and $C_6$ symmetries are not electromagnetically homogeneous in the higher photonic bands in spite of the fact that, at some particular frequencies, the real isofrequency lines of these PCs can be circular with high precision.

  11. Microfluidic converging/diverging channels optimised for homogeneous extensional deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, K.; Oliveira, M. S. N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we optimise microfluidic converging/diverging geometries in order to produce constant strain-rates along the centreline of the flow, for performing studies under homogeneous extension. The design is examined for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows where the effects of aspect ratio and dimensionless contraction length are investigated. Initially, pressure driven flows of Newtonian fluids under creeping flow conditions are considered, which is a reasonable approximation in microfluidics, and the limits of the applicability of the design in terms of Reynolds numbers are investigated. The optimised geometry is then used for studying the flow of viscoelastic fluids and the practical limitations in terms of Weissenberg number are reported. Furthermore, the optimisation strategy is also applied for electro-osmotic driven flows, where the development of a plug-like velocity profile allows for a wider region of homogeneous extensional deformation in the flow field. PMID:27478523

  12. New method to quantitatively evaluate the homogeneity of asphalt mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-liang; ZHANG Xiao-ning; WANG Duan-yi; LI Zhi

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the homogeneity of asphalt mixtures, the images of sections obtained by cutting the as-phah mixtures specimen horizontally or vertically were analyzed with digital image processing techniques, and the particle area ratio was achieved by applying sector scan for horizontal specimen and vertical scan for vertical one. The research result indicates that the influence of random distribution of aggregates in cutting the specimen can be eliminated by using colored aggregates to distinguish coarse and fine aggregates and using color threshold to segment the images. Choosing three typical gradations, proving particle area ratio obeying normal distribution and using the variability of particle area ratio as an index, it is feasible to quantitatively evaluate the homogenei-ty of asphalt mixtures.

  13. Homogeneous modification of carbon nanotubes with cellulose acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Ke

    2009-01-01

    An efficient strategy that comprised shorten, chain extension, active groups introducing and homogeneous reaction tactics, was adopted to modify multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with cellulose acetate (CA). Specially, by utilizing 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine, a reactive intermediate of the MWNTs (MWNT-triazine) was obtained. Suitable solubility of the MWNT-triazine helps make the homogeneous modification become reality. Detailed characterizations further verified that reaction between chloride atoms in the MWNT-triazine and hydroxyl groups in the CA had contributed to the formation of MWNT-CA conjugates. The novel MWNT-CA consists of carbon (76.3%), oxygen (18.4%) and nitrogen (5.3%). With a nanotube-attached CA content of 42.8 wt%, the MWNT-CA is readily soluble in DMSO, NME DMF and DMAc. Confirmation of the CA-based modification route might lead to studies aiming for specific sorption and isolation.

  14. The clock paradox in a static homogeneous gravitational field

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, P; Jones, Preston; Wanex, Lucas F.

    2006-01-01

    The gedanken experiment of the clock paradox is solved exactly using the general relativistic equations for a static homogeneous gravitational field. We demonstrate that the general and special relativistic clock paradox solutions are identical and in particular that they are identical for finite acceleration. Practical expressions are obtained for proper time and coordinate time by using the destination distance as the key observable parameter. This solution provides a formal demonstration of the identity between the special and general relativistic clock paradox with finite acceleration and where proper time is assumed to be the same in both formalisms. By solving the equations of motion for a freely falling clock in a static homogeneous field elapsed times are calculated for realistic journeys to the stars.

  15. Examination of homogeneity of selected Irish pooling groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood frequency analysis is a necessary and important part of flood risk assessment and management studies. Regional flood frequency methods, in which flood data from groups of catchments are pooled together in order to enhance the precision of flood estimates at project locations, is an accepted part of such studies. This enhancement of precision is based on the assumption that catchments so pooled together are homogeneous in their flood producing properties. If homogeneity is assured then a homogeneous pooling group of sites lead to a reduction in the error of quantile estimates, relative to estimators based on single at-site data series alone. Homogeneous pooling groups are selected by using a previously nominated rule and this paper examines how effective one such rule is in selecting homogeneous groups. In this paper a study, based on annual maximum series obtained from 85 Irish gauging stations, examines how successful a common method of identifying pooling group membership is in selecting groups that actually are homogeneous. Each station has its own unique pooling group selected by use of a Euclidean distance measure in catchment descriptor space, commonly denoted dij and with a minimum of 500 station years of data in the pooling group. It was found that dij could be effectively defined in terms of catchment area, mean rainfall and baseflow index. The study then investigated how effective this selected method is in selecting groups of catchments that are actually homogenous as indicated by their L-Cv values. The sampling distribution of L-CV (t2 in each pooling group and the 95% confidence limits about the pooled estimate of t2 are obtained by simulation. The t2 values of the selected group members are compared with these confidence limits both graphically and numerically. Of the 85 stations, only 1 station's pooling group members have

  16. How to determine composite material properties using numerical homogenization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2014-01-01

    the basic code, which computes the effective elasticity tensor of a two material composite, where one material could be void, is easily extended to include more materials. Furthermore, extensions to homogenization of conductivity, thermal expansion, and fluid permeability are described in detail. The unit......Numerical homogenization is an efficient way to determine effective macroscopic properties, such as the elasticity tensor, of a periodic composite material. In this paper an educational description of the method is provided based on a short, self-contained Matlab implementation. It is shown how...... cell of the periodic material can take the shape of a square, rectangle, or parallelogram, allowing for all kinds of 2D periodicities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Homogenization of some evolution problems in domains with small holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bituin Cabarrubias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the asymptotic behavior of the wave and heat equations in periodically perforated domains with small holes and Dirichlet conditions on the boundary of the holes. In the first part we extend to time-dependent functions the periodic unfolding method for domains with small holes introduced in [6]. Therein, the method was applied to the study of elliptic problems with oscillating coefficients in domains with small holes, recovering the homogenization result with a "strange term" originally obtained in [11] for the Laplacian. In the second part we obtain some homogenization results for the wave and heat equations with oscillating coefficients in domains with small holes. The results concerning the wave equation extend those obtained in [12] for the case where the elliptic part of the operator is the Laplacian.

  18. Medical muddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    Nanette Gartrell, MD, is a psychiatrist and researcher whose investigations have documented the mental health and psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people over the past four decades. Nanette is the principal investigator of an ongoing longitudinal study of lesbian families in which the children were conceived by donor insemination. Now in its 27th year, this project has been cited internationally in the debates over equality in marriage, foster care, and adoption. Previously on the faculty at Harvard Medical School and the University of California, San Francisco, Nanette is currently a Visiting Distinguished Scholar at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. In 2013, Nanette received the Association of Women Psychiatrists Presidential Commendation Award for "selfless and enduring vision, leadership, wisdom, and mentorship in the fields of women's mental health, ethics, and gender research." At the age of 63, Nanette experienced a 3 ½ month period of intractable, incapacitating dizziness for which there was never a clear diagnosis. PMID:24400630

  19. Formation of Homogeneous Blocks For Segmentation of Mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a method have been develop to make a supporting tool to easy and less time consuming of identification of abnormal masses in digital mammography images. The identification technique is used forformation of Homogeneous Blocks The type of masses, orientation of masses, shape and distribution of masses, size of masses, position of masses, density of masses, symmetry between two pair etc are clearly sited after proposed method is executed on raw mammogram for easy and early detection abnormality.

  20. Homogenization of a viscoelastic model for plant cell wall biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ptashnyk, Mariya; Seguin, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The microscopic structure of a plant cell wall is given by cellulose microfibrils embedded in a cell wall matrix. In this paper we consider a microscopic model for interactions between viscoelastic deformations of a plant cell wall and chemical processes in the cell wall matrix. We consider elastic deformations of the cell wall microfibrils and viscoelastic Kelvin--Voigt type deformations of the cell wall matrix. Using homogenization techniques (two-scale convergence and periodic unfolding me...

  1. Ferritin-dependent radical generation in rat liver homogenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis of this study was that mammalian ferritin (FER) has the ability of releasing Fe in the tissue to catalyze the generation of free radicals, such as ascorbyl (A·) and hydroxyl radical (·OH), that might lead to the damage of FER itself. The rat liver homogenates exhibited an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal with the spectral features (aH = 1.88 G, g = 2.0054) of A·. The addition to the reaction medium of isolated rat liver FER increased by 3-fold the EPR signal, as compared to the recorded value in its absence. Isolated microsomes from rat liver incubated during 10 min showed a signal with the spectral features (aH = 15 G, g = 2.0062) of ·OH. The addition of FER in the presence of either ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) significantly increased the recorded spectra. The labile Fe pool (LIP) in the homogenate was assessed by EPR. The rat liver homogenates exhibited an EPR signal with the spectral features (g = 4.3) of the Fe2+ and was significantly increased by the addition of FER (3-fold). The oxidation profile of the isolated FER from rat liver was analyzed after incubation with 10 mM ascorbate (AH-). A drastic increase in the width of the band suggested alterations to the protein structure. The FER content of tryptophan (Trp) and thiols was significantly lower when the incubation was performed in the presence of AH- as compared to the recorded effect in its absence. The data in tissue homogenates presented here showed that radical generation is associated to FER Fe release, and moreover that the FER protein itself was affected during this process.

  2. Nickel N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in homogeneous catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berding, Joris

    2009-01-01

    Described in this thesis are the investigations into the chemistry of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands and transition-metal complexes thereof. Specifically, a variety of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of nickel were prepared, characterized and used as catalysts in three types of homogeneous catalytic processes. First, nickel(II) complexes of monodentate NHC ligands were successfully used as catalysts in the hydrosilylation of internal alkynes. Second, nickel(II) complexes bearing bident...

  3. Creation of Tunable Homogeneous Thermal Cloak with Constant Conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tiancheng; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Invisible cloak has long captivated the popular conjecture and attracted intensive research in various communities of wave dynamics, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, etc. However, their inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by transformation-optic method will usually require challenging realization with metamaterials, resulting in narrow bandwidth, loss, polarization-dependence, etc. On the contrary, we demonstrate that tunable thermodynamic cloak can be achieved with homogen...

  4. Homogeneous Thermal Cloak with Constant Conductivity and Tunable Heat Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tiancheng; Yuan, Tao; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Invisible cloak has long captivated the popular conjecture and attracted intensive research in various communities of wave dynamics, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, etc. However, their inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by transformation-optic method will usually require challenging realization with metamaterials, resulting in narrow bandwidth, loss, polarization-dependence, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that thermodynamic cloak can be achieved with homogeneous and f...

  5. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Hurles Matthew E

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Results Here, a statistical test to detect ge...

  6. Homogenization of soil properties map by Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde Arias, Omar; Garrido, Alberto; Villeta, Maria; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    It is widely known that extreme climatic phenomena occur with more intensity and frequency. This fact has put more pressure over farming, becoming very important to implement agriculture risk management policies by governments and institutions. One of the main strategies is transfer risk by agriculture insurance. Agriculture insurance based in indexes has gained importance in the last decade. And consist in a comparison between measured index values with a defined threshold that triggers damage losses. However, based index insurance could not be based on an isolated measurement. It is necessary to be integrated in a complete monitoring system that uses many sources of information and tools. For example, index influence areas, crop production risk maps, crop yields, claim statistics, and so on. To establish index influence area is necessary to have a secondary information that show us homogeneous climatic and soil areas, which inside of each homogeneous classes, index measurements on crops of interest are going to be similar, and in this way reduce basis risk. But it is necessary an efficient method to accomplish this aim, to get homogeneous areas that not depends on only in expert criteria and that could be widely used, for this reason this study asses two conventional agricultural and geographic methods (control and climatic maps) based in expert criteria, and one classical statistical method of multi-factorial analysis (factorial map), all of them to homogenize soil and climatic characteristics. Resulting maps were validated by agricultural and spatial analysis, obtaining very good results in statistical method (Factorial map) that proves to be an efficient and accuracy method that could be used for similar porpoises.

  7. Homogenization of planar elastic checkerboards at finite scales

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Bharath; Ranganathan, Shivakumar

    2014-01-01

    Modern engineering designs demand composite materials tailored for application-specific performance. At length scales comparable to the individual microstructural inhomogeneity, the composite behavior is realization dependent and statistical in nature. Understanding and quantifying the transition from a statistical to a deterministic continuum description is important in the context of multiscale mechanics. A promising approach is to use the Hill-Mandel homogeneity condition to determine uppe...

  8. Advanced homogenization strategies in material modeling of thermally sprayed TBCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC), obtained by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), have a complex microstructure (lamellar, porous, micro-cracked). Process parameters take an influence on this microstructure. Two methods based on the homogenization for periodic structures are presented in this article. The methods are used to calculate the effective material behavior of APS-TBCs made of partially yttria stabilized zirconia (PYSZ) depending on the microstructure. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Homogeneous TIP4P/2005 ice nucleation at low supercooling

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Aleks

    2013-01-01

    We present a partial free energy profile for the homogeneous nucleation of ice using an all-atom model of water at low supercooling, at which ice growth dynamics are reasonably accessible to simulation. We demonstrate that the free energy profile is well described by classical nucleation theory, and that the nucleation barrier is entropic in origin. We also estimate to first order the temperature dependence of the interfacial free energy.

  10. Homogenization of the Schrodinger equation with a time oscillating potential

    OpenAIRE

    Allaire, Grégoire; Vanninathan, M.

    2005-01-01

    International audience We study the homogenization of a Schrodinger equation in a periodic medium with a time dependent potential. This is a model for semiconductors excited by an external electromagnetic wave. We prove that, for a suitable choice of oscillating (both in time and space) potential, one can partially transfer electrons from one Bloch band to another. This justifies the famous "Fermi golden rule" for the transition probability between two such states which is at the basis of ...

  11. Upscaling in vertically fractured oil reservoirs using homogenization

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, H.; Bruining, H.

    2009-01-01

    Flow modeling in fractured reservoirs is largely confined to the so-called sugar cube model. Here, however, we consider vertically fractured reservoirs, i.e., the situation that the reservoir geometry can be approximated by fractures enclosed columns running from the base rock to the cap rock (aggregated columns). This article deals with the application of the homogenization method to derive an upscaled equation for fractured reservoirs with aggregated columns. It turns out that vertical flow...

  12. Comment on evidence for surface-initiated homogenous nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Kay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate theoretical, laboratory, and atmospheric evidence for a recently proposed hypothesis: homogenous ice nucleation occurs at the surface, not in the volume, of supercooled water drops. Using existing thermodynamic arguments, laboratory experiments, and atmospheric data, we conclude that ice embryo formation at the surface cannot be confirmed or disregarded. Ice nucleation rates measured as a function of drop size in an air ambient could help distinguish between volume and surface nucleation rates.

  13. Can spherical eukaryotic microalgae cells be treated as optically homogeneous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Arka; Pilon, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to answer the question of whether spherical unicellular photoautotrophic eukaryotic microalgae cells, consisting of various intracellular compartments with their respective optical properties, can be modeled as homogeneous spheres with some effective complex index of refraction. The spectral radiation characteristics in the photosynthetically active region of a spherical heterogeneous microalgae cell, representative of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and consisting of spherical compartments corresponding to the cell wall, cytoplasm, chloroplast, nucleus, and mitochondria, were estimated using the superposition T-matrix method. The effects of the presence of intracellular lipids and/or starch accumulation caused by stresses, such as nitrogen limitation, were explored. Predictions by the T-matrix method were qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with experimental measurements for various microalgae species. The volume-equivalent homogeneous sphere approximation with volume-averaged effective complex index of refraction gave accurate estimates of the spectral (i) absorption and (ii) scattering cross sections of the heterogeneous cells under both nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-limited conditions. In addition, the effect of a strongly refracting cell wall, representative of Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated. In this case, for the purpose of predicting their integral radiation characteristics, the microalgae should be represented as a coated sphere with a coating corresponding to the cell wall and a homogeneous core with volume-averaged complex index of refraction for the rest of the cell. However, both homogeneous sphere and coated sphere approximations predicted strong resonances in the scattering phase function and spectral backscattering cross section that were not observed in that of the heterogeneous cells. PMID:27505647

  14. SESHOM a program for second-stage homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental cassette homogenization method known as SESHOM is presented. The theory of the method is based on the solution of the diffusion equation (DE) within a cassette - utilizing a slightly modified SNAP algorithm - with prefixed boundary conditions which are selected so that the flux distribution at the boundary of any cassette may be expressed with the help of the authors' prefixed boundary conditions. The present report may serve as a users manual for the SESHOM program. (author)

  15. A homogeneous nucleic acid hybridization assay based on strand displacement.

    OpenAIRE

    Vary, C P

    1987-01-01

    A homogeneous nucleic acid hybridization assay which is conducted in solution and requires no separation steps is described. The assay is based on the concept of strand displacement. In the strand displacement assay, an RNA "signal strand" is hybridized within a larger DNA strand termed the "probe strand", which is, in turn, complementary to the target nucleic acid of interest. Hybridization of the target nucleic acid with the probe strand ultimately results in displacement of the RNA signal ...

  16. Uniqueness, universality, and homogeneity of the noncommutative Gurarij space

    OpenAIRE

    Lupini, Martino

    2016-01-01

    We realize the noncommutative Gurarij space NG defined by Oikhberg as the Fraïssé limit of the class of finite-dimensional 1-exact operator spaces. As a consequence we deduce that the noncommutative Gurarij space is unique up to completely isometric isomorphism, homogeneous, and universal among separable 1-exact operator spaces. We also prove that NG is the unique separable nuclear operator space with the property that the canonical triple morphism from the universal TRO to the triple envelop...

  17. Homogenization principles and effect of mixing on dielectric behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sihvola, Ari

    2013-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. First, a review of classical mixing principles lists the multitude of the various ways to characterize the effective permittivity of heterogeneous materials. Different connections between the various mixing formulas are underlined and the homogenization principles are classified into families of mixing rules. The second part emphasizes and analyzes the richness of the manner how the mixing process is able to create new types of dielectric behaviors, in partic...

  18. On the transition between heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gierens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Box model simulations of an uplifting and adiabatically cooling cloud of aerosol have been performed in order to study the transition between cirrus formation dominated by homogeneous nucleation of ice to that dominated by heterogeneous nucleation. The aerosol was assumed to consist of an internal mixture of sulfuric acid solution droplets with inclusions of soot. The parametrisation of De Mott et al. (1997 was used to simulate the heterogeneous nucleation of ice in such droplets with soot inclusions. The simulations show that the transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous nucleation occurs over a narrow range of soot concentration. Thus it seems to be possible to fix critical concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei which must be exceeded if heterogeneous freezing dominates cirrus formation. A formula has been derived that allows to compute the critical concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei as a function of temperature, updraft speed, ambient pressure, and supersaturation at which heterogeneous freezing occurs. Generally, homogeneous nucleation dominates in regions with updrafts stronger than 20 cm s -1, with the exception of heavily polluted areas which could be common in the northern hemisphere due to air traffic, where updrafts of the order 1 m s-1 may be necessary to render heterogeneous nucleation unimportant. According to the present results it cannot be excluded that heterogeneous nucleation plays a more important role for cirrus formation in the northern midlatitudes than anywhere else. A possible consequence of these results is that air pollution may lead to a higher coverage of cirrus clouds, but then these clouds will be optically thinner than clouds formed by homogeneous freezing, with the exception of regions where condensation trails are frequent.

  19. Homogeneity of Danish Environmental and Clinical Isolates of Shewanella algae

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, Hanne Marie; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Bundvad, Anemone; Søgaard, Per; Gram, Lone

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the prima...

  20. Classical and quantum dissipation in non homogeneous environments

    OpenAIRE

    Illuminati, F.; Patriarca, M.; Sodano, P.

    1994-01-01

    We generalize the oscillator model of a particle interacting with a thermal reservoir by introducing arbitrary nonlinear couplings in the particle coordinates.The equilibrium positions of the heat bath oscillators are promoted to space-time functions, which are shown to represent a modulation of the internal noise by the external forces. The model thus provides a description of classical and quantum dissipation in non homogeneous environments. In the classical case we derive a generalized Lan...

  1. Large Deviation Theory for a Homogenized and "Corrected" Elliptic ODE

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Guillaume; Ghanem, Roger; Langmore, Ian

    2010-01-01

    We study a one-dimensional elliptic problem with highly oscillatory random diffusion coefficient. We derive a homogenized solution and a so-called Gaussian corrector. We also prove a "pointwise" large deviation principle (LDP) for the full solution and approximate this LDP with a more tractable form. These results allow one to access the limits of Gaussian correctors. In general, the corrector does not capture the large deviation behavior. Applications to uncertainty quantification are consid...

  2. Transport equation for plasmas in a stationary-homogeneous turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaojie

    2015-01-01

    For a plasma in a stationary homogeneous turbulence, the Fokker-Planck equation is derived from the nonlinear Vlasov equation by introducing the entropy principle. The ensemble average in evaluating the kinetic diffusion tensor, whose symmetry has been proved, can be computed in a straightforward way when the fluctuating particle trajectories are provided. As an application, it has been shown that a mean electric filed can drive a particle flux through the Stokes-Einstein relation, independent of the details of turbulence.

  3. Diffusional homogenization behavior in finite Ni--Mo couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni--Mo couples were fabricated from foils by diffusion bonding at 9500C for 1 h (2500 psi) in a hydrogen atmosphere. Homogenization treatments were carried out at 11000C (1 atm) and 12000C (1000 psi). Phase layer thicknesses and concentrations were determined from quantitative metallography andelectron microprobe techniques. The experimental values corresponded closely to values calculated from a previously described model based on Fick's Law and interface flux-balance equations. (U.S.)

  4. Homogeneity Property of Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the classical Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces defined via differences and prove a homogeneity property for functions with bounded support in the frame of these spaces. As the proof is based on compact embeddings between the studied function spaces, we present also some results on the entropy numbers of these embeddings. Moreover, we derive some applications in terms of pointwise multipliers.

  5. Fourier-based strength homogenization of porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignonnet, François; Hassen, Ghazi; Dormieux, Luc

    2016-11-01

    An efficient numerical method is proposed to upscale the strength properties of heterogeneous media with periodic boundary conditions. The method relies on a formal analogy between strength homogenization and non-linear elasticity homogenization. The non-linear problems are solved on a regular discretization grid using the Augmented Lagrangian version of Fast Fourier Transform based schemes initially introduced for elasticity upscaling. The method is implemented for microstructures with local strength properties governed either by a Green criterion or a Von Mises criterion, including pores or rigid inclusions. A thorough comparison with available analytical results or finite element elasto-plastic simulations is proposed to validate the method on simple microstructures. As an application, the strength of complex microstructures such as the random Boolean model of spheres is then studied, including a comparison to closed-form Gurson and Eshelby based strength estimates. The effects of the microstructure morphology and the third invariant of the macroscopic stress tensor on the homogenized strength are quantitatively discussed.

  6. Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs

  7. Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Kayo Oliveira [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Bettini, Jefferson [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.br [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs.

  8. Fourier-based strength homogenization of porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignonnet, François; Hassen, Ghazi; Dormieux, Luc

    2016-07-01

    An efficient numerical method is proposed to upscale the strength properties of heterogeneous media with periodic boundary conditions. The method relies on a formal analogy between strength homogenization and non-linear elasticity homogenization. The non-linear problems are solved on a regular discretization grid using the Augmented Lagrangian version of Fast Fourier Transform based schemes initially introduced for elasticity upscaling. The method is implemented for microstructures with local strength properties governed either by a Green criterion or a Von Mises criterion, including pores or rigid inclusions. A thorough comparison with available analytical results or finite element elasto-plastic simulations is proposed to validate the method on simple microstructures. As an application, the strength of complex microstructures such as the random Boolean model of spheres is then studied, including a comparison to closed-form Gurson and Eshelby based strength estimates. The effects of the microstructure morphology and the third invariant of the macroscopic stress tensor on the homogenized strength are quantitatively discussed.

  9. A Monte Carlo Study of Seven Homogeneity of Variance Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard B. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The decision by SPSS (now PASW to use the unmodified Levene test to test homogeneity of variance was questioned. It was compared to six other tests. In total, seven homogeneity of variance tests used in Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA were compared on robustness and power using Monte Carlo studies. The homogeneity of variance tests were (1 Levene, (2 modified Levene, (3 Z-variance, (4 Overall-Woodward Modified Z-variance, (5 O’Brien, (6 Samiuddin Cube Root and (7 F-Max. Approach: Each test was subjected to Monte Carlo analysis through different shaped distributions: (1 normal, (2 platykurtic, (3 leptokurtic, (4 moderate skewed and (5 highly skewed. The Levene Test is the one used in all of the latest versions of SPSS. Results: The results from these studies showed that the Levene Test is neither the best nor worst in terms of robustness and power. However, the modified Levene Test showed very good robustness when compared to the other tests but lower power than other tests. The Samiuddin test is at its best in terms of robustness and power when the distribution is normal. The results of this study showed the strengths and weaknesses of the seven tests. Conclusion/Recommendations: No single test outperformed the others in terms of robustness and power. The authors recommend that kurtosis and skewness indices be presented in statistical computer program packages such as SPSS to guide the data analyst in choosing which test would provide the highest robustness and power.

  10. Broken Ergodicity in Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3-D) homogeneous MHD turbulence.The se features include several ideal invariants, along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity. Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo.Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3-D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was explained. Here, a detailed description of the origins of broken ergodicity in 2-D MHD turbulence is presented. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions.T he origins of broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigen analysis of the covariance matrices of the modal probability density functions.It will also be shown that when the lowest wavenumber magnetic field becomes quasi-stationary, the higher wavenumber modes can propagate as Alfven waves on these almost static large-scale magnetic structures

  11. Medical marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Michael

    1991-08-01

    Solid state lasers are the real highlight of my talk today, and were really the star of the year. In every application area I can think of, people have tried with some success to introduce corturiercial solid state products. I'll go into more detail, but aside from solid state, a very significant event happened in Deceniber when one of the laser angioplasty companies (Advanced Interventional Systens) received FDA clearance to begin marketing the excimer for coronary applications (Figure 1) . This is the first time to my knowledge that an excimer has ever been cleared for a medical application in the United States. It's an event that we didn't really expect to happen so soon. It's extremely significant and we'll see where it goes from here. The system needs to be road-tested a bit but to get past the FDA is the major obstacle. Looking back to solid state laser the importance of solid state lasers is as researchers become more involved with the excimer and conduct more clinical studies in ophthalmology, they realize that it's not going to be a panacea for all refractive surgery or other ophthalmolic applications. In many cases it looks like the solid state laser may be the laser of choice in certain types of surgery; most notably perhaps in refractive surgery. We've all read about the success of the excimer at least in capturing the press's attention for corneal sculpting and vision correction. Well, it could be that actually the next generation will be a solid state laser, so let's keep an open mind here.

  12. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  13. Technetium removal from aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research discussed in this report has compared several ''state of the art'' techniques for the removal of traces of the radionuclide, technetium, from aqueous wastes. The techniques investigated were: electrochemical reduction to an insoluble oxide, electrochemical ion exchange, seeded ultrafiltration and chemical reduction followed by filtration. Each technique was examined using a simulant based upon the waste generated by the Enhanced Actinide Removal Plant (EARP) at Sellafield. The technique selected for further investigation was direct electrochemical reduction which offers an ideal route for the removal of technetium from the stream (DFs 10-100) and can be operated continuously with a low power consumption 25 kW for the waste generated by EARP. Cell designs for scale up have been suggested to treat the 1000m3 of waste produced every day. Future work is proposed to investigate the simultaneous removal of other key radionuclides, such as ruthenium, plutonium and cobalt as well as scale up of the resulting process and to investigate the effect of these other radionuclides on the efficiency of the electrochemical reduction technique for the removal of technetium. Total development and full scale plant costs are estimated to be of the order of 5 pounds - 10M, with a time scale of 5 -8 years to realisation. (author)

  14. Radiolysis of Aqueous Toluene Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous toluene solutions have been irradiated with Co γ-rays. In unbuffered solutions the various cresol isomers are formed in a total yield of 0.45, 0.87 and 0.94 molecules/100 eV absorbed energy in argon-, N2O- and air - saturated solutions, respectively. The yields are reduced in acid (pH 3) solutions (G 0.14, 0.14 and 0.52, respectively) but the reduction is compensated by the formation of 1,2-di-phenylethane in yields of 0.49 and 1.60 in argon- and N2O-saturated solutions, respectively. Benzyl radicals are formed through an acid catalysed water elimination reaction from the initially formed hydroxymethylcyclohexadienyl radical. Phenyltolylmethanes, dimethylbiphenyls and partly reduced dimers are also formed during the radiolysis. Hydrogen is formed in the same yield as the molecular yield, g(H2). Xylene isomers and benzene are formed in trace quantities. The most remarkable effects of the addition of Fe(III) ions to deaerated acid toluene solutions are the formation of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde and an increase in the yield of 1,2-diphenylethane

  15. Experimental study on nucleation process of stick-slip instability on homogeneous and non-homogeneous faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马胜利; 刘力强; 马瑾; 王凯英; 扈小燕; 刘天昌; 吴秀泉

    2003-01-01

    The nucleation process of stick-slip instability was analyzed based on the experimental measurements of strain and fault slip on homogeneous and non-homogeneous faults. The results show that the nucleation process of stick-slip on the homogeneous fault is of weak slip-weakening behavior under constant loading point velocity. The existence of a short "weak segment" on the fault makes slip-weakening phenomenon in nucleation process more obvious, while the existence of a long "weak segment" on the fault makes the nucleation process changed. The nucleation is characterized by accelerating slip in a local region and rapid increase of shear stress along the fault in this case, which is more coincident with the rate and state friction law. During the period when fault is locked, increasing of shear stress causes lateral elastic dilation near the fault, and the rebound of the dilation at the time of instability causes an instantaneous increase of normal stress in the fault plane, which is an important factor making fault be rapidly locked and its strength recovered.

  16. Refined Zigzag Theory for Homogeneous, Laminated Composite, and Sandwich Plates: A Homogeneous Limit Methodology for Zigzag Function Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Alexander; DiSciuva, Marco; Gherlone, marco

    2010-01-01

    The Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) for homogeneous, laminated composite, and sandwich plates is presented from a multi-scale formalism starting with the inplane displacement field expressed as a superposition of coarse and fine contributions. The coarse kinematic field is that of first-order shear-deformation theory, whereas the fine kinematic field has a piecewise-linear zigzag distribution through the thickness. The condition of limiting homogeneity of transverse-shear properties is proposed and yields four distinct sets of zigzag functions. By examining elastostatic solutions for highly heterogeneous sandwich plates, the best-performing zigzag functions are identified. The RZT predictive capabilities to model homogeneous and highly heterogeneous sandwich plates are critically assessed, demonstrating its superior efficiency, accuracy ; and a wide range of applicability. The present theory, which is derived from the virtual work principle, is well-suited for developing computationally efficient CO-continuous finite elements, and is thus appropriate for the analysis and design of high-performance load-bearing aerospace structures.

  17. Impact of medical informatics on medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, S M

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, medical informatics has become a well-recognized branch of medicine. It is a multidisciplinary science that combines information technology and various specialties of medicine. The impact of medical informatics on medical education is advancing along with the rapid developments in computer science. Departments of medical informatics or similar divisions have appeared in schools of medicine in Taiwan in the past 5 years. At National Taiwan University College of Medicine, we offer curricula in basic computer concepts, network concepts, operating systems, word processing, database and data processing, computer media resources, multimedia computer statistics, intelligent health information systems, medical diagnostic support systems, and electronic medical record systems. Distance learning has also been favorably accepted on this campus. Recently, we proposed the concept of a virtual medical campus, which will break the physical barriers of time and space. We expect this revolution to influence every aspect of medicine, especially medical education. PMID:10705693

  18. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  19. Tannin (Polyphenol) Stability in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the chemical stability of tannins (polyphenolics) in soils is critical to understanding their biological activities and fate. We examined the stability of chemically defined tannins in aqueous solutions under conditions simulating natural and laboratory conditions. We evaluated tanni...

  20. Calorimetric studies of macromolecular aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandamer, M.J; Cullis, P.M.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    1996-01-01

    Both titration and differential scanning microcalorimetric techniques are shown to yield important information concerning the properties of macromolecules in aqueous solution. Application of titration calorimetry is examined in me context of deaggregation of canonic micelles (e.g. hexadecyltrimethyl

  1. Enthalpy of dilution and volumetric properties of N-glycylglycine in aqueous xylitol solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Enthalpies of dilution of N-glycylglycine in aqueous xylitol solutions were determined at 298.15 K. → The homogeneous enthalpic interaction coefficients were calculated. → Apparent molar volumes of the ternary systems were calculated from the data of densities. → Limiting partial molar volumes and limiting partial molar volumes of transfer were deduced. - Abstract: The enthalpy of dilution of N-glycylglycine (ΔdilHm) in aqueous xylitol solutions has been determined by means of flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. The homogeneous enthalpic interaction coefficients (h2, h3, and h4) which characterize the interactions of examined N-glycylglycine in aqueous xylitol solutions have been calculated according to the excess enthalpy concept based on the values of dilution enthalpy. It has been found that the enthalpic pair interaction coefficients (h2) in the systems investigated are negative and become less negative as the molality of xylitol increases. Values of the density (ρ) of the ternary homogeneous systems were also measured with a quartz vibrating-tube densimeter at the temperature of 298.15 K. The values of the apparent molar volume (Vφ) of the ternary systems were calculated from the data of density, which have been used to deduce limiting partial molar volumes of N-glycylglycine (Vφo) and limiting partial molar volumes of transfer (ΔtrsVφo) from water to aqueous xylitol solutions at different concentrations. The results have been discussed based on solute-solute interactions and solvation effects.

  2. Enthalpy of dilution and volumetric properties of N-glycylglycine in aqueous xylitol solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Min, E-mail: panpanliumin@163.co [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Wang Lili; Li Guangqian; Dong Lina; Sun Dezhi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Zhu Lanying [College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Di Youying [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: Enthalpies of dilution of N-glycylglycine in aqueous xylitol solutions were determined at 298.15 K. The homogeneous enthalpic interaction coefficients were calculated. Apparent molar volumes of the ternary systems were calculated from the data of densities. Limiting partial molar volumes and limiting partial molar volumes of transfer were deduced. - Abstract: The enthalpy of dilution of N-glycylglycine ({Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m}) in aqueous xylitol solutions has been determined by means of flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. The homogeneous enthalpic interaction coefficients (h{sub 2}, h{sub 3}, and h{sub 4}) which characterize the interactions of examined N-glycylglycine in aqueous xylitol solutions have been calculated according to the excess enthalpy concept based on the values of dilution enthalpy. It has been found that the enthalpic pair interaction coefficients (h{sub 2}) in the systems investigated are negative and become less negative as the molality of xylitol increases. Values of the density ({rho}) of the ternary homogeneous systems were also measured with a quartz vibrating-tube densimeter at the temperature of 298.15 K. The values of the apparent molar volume (V{sub {phi}}) of the ternary systems were calculated from the data of density, which have been used to deduce limiting partial molar volumes of N-glycylglycine (V{sub {phi}}{sup o}) and limiting partial molar volumes of transfer ({Delta}{sub trs}V{sub {phi}}{sup o}) from water to aqueous xylitol solutions at different concentrations. The results have been discussed based on solute-solute interactions and solvation effects.

  3. Precipitation of neptunium dioxide from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, K E

    1999-12-01

    Tens of thousands of metric tons of highly radioactive, nuclear waste have been generated in the US. Currently, there is no treatment or disposal facility for these wastes. Of the radioactive elements in high-level nuclear waste, neptunium (Np) is of particular concern because it has a long half-life and may potentially be very mobile in groundwaters associated with a proposed underground disposal site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Aqueous Np concentrations observed in previous, short-term solubility experiments led to calculated potential doses exceeding proposed long-term regulatory limits. However, thermodynamic data for Np at 25 C showed that these observed aqueous Np concentrations were supersaturated with respect to crystalline NpO{sub 2}. It was hypothesized that NpO{sub 2} is the thermodynamically stable solid phase in aqueous solution, but it is slow to form in an aqueous solution of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} on the time scale of previous experiments. The precipitation of NpO{sub 2} would provide significantly lower aqueous Np concentrations leading to calculated doses below proposed regulatory limits. To test this hypothesis, solubility experiments were performed at elevated temperature to accelerate any slow precipitation kinetics. Ionic NpO{sub 2}{sup +} (aq) was introduced into very dilute aqueous solutions of NaCl with initial pH values ranging from 6 to 10. The reaction vessels were placed in an oven and allowed to react at 200 C until steady-state aqueous Np concentrations were observed. In all cases, aqueous Np concentrations decreased significantly from the initial value of 10{sup {minus}4} M. The solids that formed were analyzed by x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The solids were determined to be high-purity crystals of NpO{sub 2}. This is the first time that crystalline NpO{sub 2} has been observed to precipitate from NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq) in near-neutral aqueous solutions. The results obtained

  4. Stabilized aqueous gels and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B.L.

    1978-08-29

    New improved aqueous gels, and methods of using same in contacting subterranean formations, are provided. The gels are prepared by gelling an aqueous brine having incorporated therein a water-soluble cellulose ether such as a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and are rendered more stable to decomposition by incorporating a sulfoalkylated tannin stabilizing agent, such as a sulfomethylated quebracho (SMQ), in the gel during the preparation thereof.

  5. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  6. Medications After the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICU) > Medications after the NICU Medications after the NICU E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... go home from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on medication for apnea, reflux or respiratory problems. ...

  7. Medications: Myths Versus Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications: Myths Versus Facts Updated:Aug 30,2016 Taking medication ... Association volunteer. Here are some of the top myths about taking cardiovascular medication: I feel OK, so ...

  8. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Asthma and Pregnancy: Asthma Medications We would like to avoid all medicine ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...

  9. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will be able to find. Medical identification products can help ensure proper treatment in an ...

  10. Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerated and deaerated aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with 60Co γ-rays. The products of radiolysis in deaerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were phenol, biphenyl, hydrogen and in acid solutions also hydrogen peroxide with the following yields: G(phenol) = 0. 37 (0. 37), G(biphenyl) = 1.3 (1.7), G(H2) = 0.44 (0. 43) and G(H2O2) = 0 (0.60), the figures in brackets giving the results for acid solutions. The results are shown to agree with the conclusion that k(e-aq + H2O2) >> k(H + H2O2). Furthermore, the results indicate that a competition takes place between the reactions: 2 C6H6OH · -> dimer -> biphenyl. C6H7 · + C6H6OH · -> dimer -> biphenyl. The yields in aerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were: G(phenol) = 2.1 (2.3), G(biphenyl) = 0 (0), and G(H2O2) = 2.2 (3.1), the figures in brackets being valid for acid solutions. The ratio k(H + C6H6)/k(H + O2) was 1.4x10-2. The results indicate that peroxides, or more probably hydroperoxides, take part in the reactions. After the addition of Fe2+ or Fe3+ to aerated acid solutions G(phenol) was increased to 6.6 and 3.4 respectively. Oxygen was consumed more rapidly in the presence of Fe. Reaction mechanisms are discussed

  11. Aqueous Photochemistry of Glyoxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Alexis J; Xia, Sha-Sha; Guzman, Marcelo I

    2016-06-01

    Aerosols affect climate change, the energy balance of the atmosphere, and public health due to their variable chemical composition, size, and shape. While the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from gas phase precursors is relatively well understood, studying aqueous chemical reactions contributing to the total SOA budget is the current focus of major attention. Field measurements have revealed that mono-, di-, and oxo-carboxylic acids are abundant species present in SOA and atmospheric waters. This work explores the fate of one of these 2-oxocarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid, which can photogenerate reactive species under solar irradiation. Additionally, the dark thermal aging of photoproducts is studied by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies to reveal that the optical properties are altered by the glyoxal produced. The optical properties display periodicity in the time domain of the UV-visible spectrum of chromophores with absorption enhancement (thermochromism) or loss (photobleaching) during nighttime and daytime cycles, respectively. During irradiation, excited state glyoxylic acid can undergo α-cleavage or participate in hydrogen abstractions. The use of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis shows that glyoxal is an important intermediate produced during direct photolysis. Glyoxal quickly reaches a quasi-steady state as confirmed by UHPLC-MS analysis of its corresponding (E) and (Z) 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The homolytic cleavage of glyoxylic acid is proposed as a fundamental step for the production of glyoxal. Both carbon oxides, CO2(g) and CO(g) evolving to the gas-phase, are quantified by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally, formic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid photoproducts are identified by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity and electrospray (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) detection and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A reaction mechanism is proposed based on all experimental observations. PMID:27192089

  12. A brief introduction to homogenization and miscellaneous applications*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaire Grégoire

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a set of lecture notes for a short introductory course on homogenization. It covers the basic tools of periodic homogenization (two-scale asymptotic expansions, the oscillating test function method and two-scale convergence and briefly describes the main results of the more general theory of G−  or H−convergence. Several applications of the method are given: derivation of Darcy’s law for flows in porous media, derivation of the porosity model and long time behavior of a diffusion equation. Numerical agorithms for homogenization are also discussed, including multiscale finite element methods. Cet article reprend des notes de cours, d’un niveau introductif, sur l’homogénéisation. Ces notes couvrent la théorie de l’homogénéisation périodique (développements asymptotiques à deux échelles, méthode de la fonction test oscillante, convergence à deux échelles et décrivent brièvement les principaux résultats de la théorie plus générale de la G− ou H− convergence. Plusieurs applications de la méthode sont données : dérivation de la loi de Darcy pour des écoulements en milieux poreux, dérivation du modèle de double porosité et comportement en temps grand d’une équation de diffusion. Des algorithmes numériques pour l’homogénéisation sont aussi présentés, dont, en particulier, les méthodes d’éléments finis multi-échelles.

  13. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  14. Water oxidation catalysis with nonheme iron complexes under acidic and basic conditions: homogeneous or heterogeneous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dachao; Mandal, Sukanta; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo; Llobet, Antoni; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-08-19

    Thermal water oxidation by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) was catalyzed by nonheme iron complexes, such as Fe(BQEN)(OTf)2 (1) and Fe(BQCN)(OTf)2 (2) (BQEN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)ethane-1,2-diamine, BQCN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)cyclohexanediamine, OTf = CF3SO3(-)) in a nonbuffered aqueous solution; turnover numbers of 80 ± 10 and 20 ± 5 were obtained in the O2 evolution reaction by 1 and 2, respectively. The ligand dissociation of the iron complexes was observed under acidic conditions, and the dissociated ligands were oxidized by CAN to yield CO2. We also observed that 1 was converted to an iron(IV)-oxo complex during the water oxidation in competition with the ligand oxidation. In addition, oxygen exchange between the iron(IV)-oxo complex and H2(18)O was found to occur at a much faster rate than the oxygen evolution. These results indicate that the iron complexes act as the true homogeneous catalyst for water oxidation by CAN at low pHs. In contrast, light-driven water oxidation using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) as a photosensitizer and S2O8(2-) as a sacrificial electron acceptor was catalyzed by iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from the iron complexes under basic conditions as the result of the ligand dissociation. In a buffer solution (initial pH 9.0) formation of the iron hydroxide nanoparticles with a size of around 100 nm at the end of the reaction was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS) in situ and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. We thus conclude that the water oxidation by CAN was catalyzed by short-lived homogeneous iron complexes under acidic conditions, whereas iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from iron complexes act as a heterogeneous catalyst in the light-driven water oxidation reaction under basic conditions.

  15. HOMOGENIZATION OF SEMILINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS IN PERFORATED DOMAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.DONATO; A. NABIL

    2004-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the homogenization of a semilinear parabolic equation with rapidly oscillating coefficients in a domain periodically perforated by e-periodic holes of size ε. A Neumann condition is prescribed on the boundary of the holes.The presence of the holes does not allow to prove a compactness of the solutions in L2. To overcome this difficulty, the authors introduce a suitable auxiliary linear problem to which a corrector result is applied. Then, the asymptotic behaviour of the semilinear problem as e → 0 is described, and the limit equation is given.

  16. Transport equation for plasmas in a stationary-homogeneous turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaojie, E-mail: wangsj@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-02-15

    For a plasma in a stationary homogeneous turbulence, the Fokker-Planck equation is derived from the nonlinear Vlasov equation by introducing the entropy principle. The ensemble average in evaluating the kinetic diffusion tensor, whose symmetry has been proved, can be computed in a straightforward way when the fluctuating particle trajectories are provided. As an application, it has been shown that a mean parallel electric filed can drive a particle flux through the Stokes-Einstein relation, independent of the details of the fluctuations.

  17. Homogenization of a double porosity model in deformable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Ainouz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the homogenization of a family of micro-models for the flow of a slightly compressible fluid in a poroelastic matrix containing periodically distributed poroelastic inclusions, with low permeabilities and with imperfect contact on the interface. The micro-models are based on Biot's system for consolidation processes in each phase, with interfacial barrier formulation. Using the two-scale convergence technique, it is shown that the derived system is a general model of that proposed by Aifantis, plus an extra memory term.

  18. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of monoacylglycerol in a homogeneous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Julieta B; Nascimento, Maria G; Ninow, Jorge L

    2003-04-01

    The 1,3-regiospecifique lipase, Lipozyme IM, catalyzed the esterification of lauric acid and glycerol in a homogeneous system. To overcome the drawback of the insolubility of glycerol in hexane, which is extensively used in enzymatic synthesis, a mixture of n-hexane/tert-butanol (1:1, v/v) was used leading to a monophasic system. The conversion of lauric acid into monolaurin was 65% in 8 h, when a molar ratio of glycerol to fatty acid (5:1) was used with the fatty acid at 0.1 M, and the phenomenon of acyl migration was minimized.

  19. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction effects in peristalsis through curved geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaadi, Fuad; Alotaibi, Naif D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper looks at the influence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions on the peristaltic transport of non-Newtonian fluid in a curved channel with wall properties. Constitutive relations for thermodynamic third grade material are utilized in the problem development. An electrically conducting fluid in the presence of radial applied magnetic field is considered. The governing flow equations are developed in the presence of viscous heating. Mathematical computations are simplified employing long wavelength and low Reynolds number considerations. The solutions for velocity, temperature, concentration and heat transfer coefficient are obtained and examined. The features of sundry parameters are analyzed by plotting graphs.

  20. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction effects in peristalsis through curved geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the influence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions on the peristaltic transport of non-Newtonian fluid in a curved channel with wall properties. Constitutive relations for thermodynamic third grade material are utilized in the problem development. An electrically conducting fluid in the presence of radial applied magnetic field is considered. The governing flow equations are developed in the presence of viscous heating. Mathematical computations are simplified employing long wavelength and low Reynolds number considerations. The solutions for velocity, temperature, concentration and heat transfer coefficient are obtained and examined. The features of sundry parameters are analyzed by plotting graphs.