WorldWideScience

Sample records for aqueous effluent tritium

  1. Tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    of understanding, blanket design ap- pears somewhat less constrained for ICF than for MCF machines . For both MCF and ICF, adequate tritium breeding is...relatively large tritium breeding ratios is to include neutron mutipliers, notably beryllium (Be) and lead (Pb), in lithium blankets. The most promising...and (19) and representative numerical values for magnetic confinement machines , [N0] = 10 20 m−3, Ti = 20 keV and τ ∗ = 2 s, (21) we find fb = 0.064

  2. Tritium determination in aqueous samples by using LSC Quantulus in CDTN - Brazilian Development Center for Nuclear Technology, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temba, Eliane S.C.; Moreira, Rubens M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Meio Ambiente e Tecnicas Nucleares]. E-mails: esct@cdtn.br; rubens@cdtn.br; Mingote, Raquel M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica]. E-mail: mingote@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Tritium is the radioisotope of hydrogen which disintegrates by emission of beta particle to {sup 3}He. Its determination is important in several applications such as in oil recovery, where tritiated tracers are added to injection fluids, or in groundwater surveys, to estimate the recharging of aquifers, among others applications. Liquid scintillation spectrometry is an appropriate method for determining low-level contents of tritium in aqueous samples. We used a low background liquid scintillation system detector, Perkin Elmer - Wallac QuantulusTM 1220, recently acquired by Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN). The purpose of this work is the optimization of the counting performance for tritium determination in water samples by direct counting. For definition of optimum parameters we compare two cocktails, Instagel Plus{sup TM} and Optiphase Hisafe{sup TM} 3. The ratios of sample/cocktail studied were 8/10, 10/10 and 10/12. The stability of the sample/cocktail mixture was also analysed by the loss of mass and by the luminescence spectrum. The counting conditions were 60 minutes counts for each vial, in the selected counting windows 50-200 and 1-200 channels. The vial used was 20 mL polyethylene. For background estimation we used a very old water (dead water) from Thermas Antonio Carlos, Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. The good results obtained in national and international laboratory intercomparison programs indicate the excellence of the tritium analysis at CDTN. (author)

  3. Tritium Separation from High Volume Dilute Aqueous Streams- Milestone Report for M3FT-15OR0302092

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, S. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. Several silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water. Experiments were performed over a range of tritiated water concentration covering the range of concentration anticipated in nuclear fuel processing where potentially both acid and water streams are recycled. The permeate was recovered under vacuum. The tritium concentration ranged from 0.5 to 1 mCi/mL which is about 0.1 mg/L or 0.1 ppm. The HTO concentration was three orders of magnitude lower than experiments performed with simulated feed containing HDO (>100 ppm) using deuterated water where high separation factors (>10) were obtained using SAPO membranes. Separation factor calculated from the measured tritium concentrations ranged from 0.83-0.98. Although the membrane performance characterization results were lower than expected, they can be explained on the basis of low feed volume and three orders of magnitude lower HTO concentration compared to HDO concentration in deuterated water. We have identified several new approaches, such as tuning the diffusion coefficient of HTO, that may help achieve preferential transport of tritium (HTO) resulting in a substantially more concentrated permeate.

  4. Characterization and use of Moringa oleifera seeds as biosorbent for removing metal ions from aqueous effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cleide S T; Alves, Vanessa N; Rezende, Hélen C; Almeida, Ione L S; de Assunção, Rosana M N; Tarley, César R T; Segatelli, Mariana G; Coelho, Nivia M Melo

    2010-01-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds were investigated as a biosorbent for removing metal ions from aqueous effluents. The morphological characteristics as well as the chemical composition of M. oleifera seeds were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The FT-IR spectra showed the presence of lipids and protein components. Scanning electron micrographs showed that Moringa seeds have an adequate morphological profile for the retention of metal ions. The results suggest that M. oleifera seeds have potential application in Cd(II), Pb(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Ag(I) decontamination from aqueous effluents.

  5. Considerations affecting deep-well disposal of tritium-bearing low-level aqueous waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevorrow, L. E.; Warner, D. L.; Steindler, M. J.

    1977-03-01

    Present concepts of disposal of low-level aqueous wastes (LLAW) that contain much of the fission-product tritium from light water reactors involve dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams at fuel reprocessing plants. These concepts have been challenged in recent years. Deep-well injection of low-level aqueous wastes, an alternative to biospheric dispersal, is the subject of this presentation. Many factors must be considered in assessing its feasibility, including technology, costs, environmental impact, legal and regulatory constraints, and siting. Examination of these factors indicates that the technology of deep-well injection, extensively developed for other industrial wastes, would require little innovation before application to low-level aqueous wastes. Costs would be low, of the order of magnitude of 10/sup -4/ mill/kWh. The environmental impact of normal deep-well disposal would be small, compared with dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams; abnormal operation would not be expected to produce catastrophic results. Geologically suitable sites are abundant in the U.S., but a well would best be co-located with the fuel-reprocessing plant where the LLAW is produced. Legal and regulatory constraints now being developed will be the most important determinants of the feasibility of applying the method.

  6. Management of high level radioactive aqueous effluents in advanced partitioning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochon, Patrick; Sans, Daniele; Lartigaud, Cathy; Bisel, Isabelle [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Marcoule, BP 17171, Bagnols sur Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The context of this study is the development of management strategies for the high level radioactive aqueous effluents generated by advanced minor actinides partitioning processes. In the present nuclear reprocessing plants, high level liquid wastes are concentrated via successive evaporations, with or without de-nitration, to reach the inlet specifications of the downstream processing steps. In contrast to the PUREX process, effluents from advanced actinides partitioning processes contain large amounts of organic compounds (complexing agents, buffers or reducing reagents), which could disrupt concentration operations. Thus, in parallel with new partitioning process development, the compatibility of usual concentration operations with the high level liquid waste issued from them are investigated, and, if necessary, additional treatments to eliminate remaining organic compounds are reviewed. The behaviour of each reagent and related identified by-products is studied in laboratory-scale devices representative of industrial operating conditions. Final concentrated solutions (actinide or fission solutions) and the resulting distillates (i.e. decontaminated effluents) are checked in terms of compatibility with the downstream specifications. Process implementation and safety aspects are also evaluated. Kinetic and thermodynamic constants are measured. After the collection of these data, the effectiveness of the overall continuous process of the effluent treatment (combination of elementary operations) is evaluated through semi-empirical models which are also able to optimize the conditions for implementation. First results indicate that nitric acid streams containing complexing agents (oxalic acid, HEDTA, DTPA) will be managed by usual concentration processes, while buffered solutions ( containing glycolic, citric or malonic acid) will require additional treatments to lower organic carbon concentration. Oxidation process by hydrogen peroxide at boiling temperature has

  7. Environmental Tritium

    OpenAIRE

    百島, 則幸

    2000-01-01

    Environmental tritium was first observed in a helium fraction at a liquid air production facility in Germany in 1949. During the 1950s and early 1960s, huge amounts of artificial tritium were released into the atmosphere by nuclear testing. The environmental tritium level increased to more than 200 times the natural tritium level. Since the signing of a test ban treaty in 1963, the environmental tritium level has decreased, and analysis of recent Japanese rain samples has shown that the envir...

  8. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.

    1978-12-01

    Progress is reported for the second year of this project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in-situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project objectives for Year 2 were pursued through five tasks: literature reviews on process water constituents, possible environmental impacts and potential control technologies; toxicity bioassays on the effects of coal gasification and oil shale retorting process waters and six process water constituents on aquatic biota; biodegradation studies on process water constituents; bioaccumulation factor estimation for the compounds tested in the toxicity bioassays; and recommendations on maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents based on data from the project and from the literature. Results in each of the five areas of research are reported.

  9. Advanced biological treatment of aqueous effluent from the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Jr., W. W.; Hancher, C. W.; Patton, B. D.; Shumate, II, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods are presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. However, a strong case is made for the use of biological processes for removing nitrates and heavy metals fron nuclear fuel cycle effluents. The estimated costs for these methods are as low as, or lower than, those for alternate processes. In addition, the resulting disposal products - nitrogen gas, CO/sub 2/, and heavy metals incorporated into microorganisms - are much more ecologically desirable than the end products of other waste treatment methods.

  10. Advanced biological treatment of aqueous effluent from the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Jr, W W; Hancher, C W; Patton, B D; Shumate, II, S E

    1980-01-01

    Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods will be presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. The fluidized-bed biological denitrification process is an environmentally acceptable and economically sound method for the disposal of nonreusable sources of nitrate effluents. A very high denitrification rate can be obtained in a FBR as the result of a high concentration of denitrification bacteria in the bioreactor and the stagewise operation resulting from plug flow in the reactor. The overall denitrification rate in an FBR ranges from 20- to 100-fold greater than that observed for an STR bioreactor. It has been shown that the system can be operated using Ca/sup 2 +/, Na/sup +/, or NH/sub 4//sup +/ cations at nitrate concentrations up to 1 g/liter without inhibition. Biological sorption of uranium and other radionuclides (particularly the actinides) from dilute aqueous waste streams shows considerable promise as a means of recovering these valuable resources and reducing the environmental impact, however, further development efforts are required.

  11. Report of the Task Group on operation Department of Energy tritium facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the operation of DOE Tritium facilities: Environment, Safety, and Health Aspects of Tritium; Management of Operations and Maintenance Functions; Safe Shutdown of Tritium Facilities; Management of the Facility Safety Envelope; Maintenance of Qualified Tritium Handling Personnel; DOE Tritium Management Strategy; Radiological Control Philosophy; Implementation of DOE Requirements; Management of Tritium Residues; Inconsistent Application of Requirements for Measurement of Tritium Effluents; Interdependence of Tritium Facilities; Technical Communication among Facilities; Incorporation of Confinement Technologies into New Facilities; Operation/Management Requirements for New Tritium Facilities; and Safety Management Issues at Department of Energy Tritium Facilities.

  12. Trends in oil discharged with aqueous effluents from oil refineries in Europe. 2010 survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldoni-Andrey, P.; Girling, A.; Bakker, A.; Muller, A.; Struijk, K.; Fotiadou, I.; Andres Huertas, A.; Negroni, J.; Neal, G.; Den Haan, K.

    2012-10-15

    This report summarises data gathered by CONCAWE in a 2010 survey of effluent water quantity, oil content and treatment processes for refinery installations situated in the EU-27 countries and those in Croatia Norway and Switzerland. Data obtained in previous surveys are included for comparison. Operators of 100 installations completed questionnaires, of which two of these only reported data for water intake and discharge. The number of 100 reporting locations is lower than the 125 locations that reported in 2008. There are several reasons for this. Since the last data gathering exercise several refinery installations have been closed or moth-balled, turning these into fuels depots without any production. Another four sites that are still operating today informed CONCAWE that these would not be in a position to complete the questionnaire for 2010. Finally, the ownership of some installations changed since 2008, leading to CONCAWE being unable to identify an appropriate contact person for timely completion of the questionnaire. The data provided through the completion of the questionnaire have been extracted into an MS-ACCESS Database. This enabled sorting, extraction, analyses and presentation of the information in a range of formats. The information presented in this report relates to a selected range of parameters that have been covered by previous surveys carried out since 1969. Two further reports will cover the results of the complete survey in more detail; one concerning final discharge quality parameters and the other focussing on water use and consumption. The results reported herein show that the volume of process water that was being discharged from EU-27+3 (Norway, Croatia and Switzerland) - located refineries decreased between 2008 and 2010 while the overall volume of aqueous discharges remained about the same or slightly increased over the same period. When expressed relative to refinery capacities and throughputs there is a slight increase in 2010 in

  13. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  14. Desempenho de biomassas na adsorção de hidrocarbonetos leves em efluentes aquosos Performance of biomasses in the adsorption of simple hydrocarbons in aqueous effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Gomes dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Removal of hydrocarbons from aqueous effluents using biosorbents was investigated. The effluent was simulated by a dispersion of gasoline (simple hydrocarbons in water. Corn-cob, wood powder, coconut mesocarp and sugar-cane bagasse were used as adsorbents and their performance verified by means of batch experiments performed in an agitated vessel. The influence of input variables such as hydrocarbon concentration, mass of biomass and agitation level on the adsorbents' capacity was studied by means of factorial design. The results indicated that, among the materials studied, coconut mesocarp and sugar-cane bagasse can be considered promising biomasses for treating aqueous effluents contaminated by hydrocarbons.

  15. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.; Anderson, A.D.

    1977-12-01

    This is the first annual report issued under a project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in-situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. Briefly, the goals of the project are to: evaluate the toxicity of process water effluents on aquatic biota; recommend maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents; and assist DOE in using project data and recommendations to design control technologies and to assess environmental impacts. The project objectives for Year 1 were pursued through the following five tasks: a literature review on process water constituents; toxicity studies on the effect of process waters and six process water constituents on aquatic biota; degradation rate studies on four to six process water constituents; bioaccumulation studies on four to six process water constituents; and recommendations on maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents based on data from the project and from the literature. Progress toward completion of these goals is presented.

  16. Bioprospecting of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) for bioremediation of uranium (VI) from aqueous solution and synthetic nuclear power reactor effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhar, R B; Selvi, S Kalaignana; Vinod, V T P; Kosuri, Tanuja; Raju, D; Karuna, R

    2015-10-01

    An ecofriendly green chemistry method using a natural biopolymer, Gum Kondagogu (GK) for the removal of U (VI) from aqueous, simulated nuclear effluents was studied. The adsorption characteristic of GK towards U (VI) from aqueous solution was studied at varied pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial U (VI) concentration and temperature using UV-Visible spectroscopy and ICP-MS. Maximum adsorption was seen at pH 4, 0.1% GK with 60 min contact time at room temperature. The GK- U (VI) composite was characterized by FT-IR, zeta potential, TEM and SEM-EDAX. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be 487 mg of U (VI) g(-1) of GK. The adsorption capacity and (%) of U (VI) was found to be 490 ± 5.4 mg g(-1) and 98.5%. Moreover adsorption of U (VI) by GK was not influenced by other cations present in the simulated effluents. The adsorbed U (VI) was efficiently stripped from composite using 1 M HCl.

  17. Trends in oil discharged with aqueous effluents from oil refineries in Western Europe, 1993 survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dando, D.A.J.; Martin, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the information gathered by CONCAWE in a survey of Western European oil refineries` effluent water quantity, oil content and treatment processes in 1993. It compares the 1993 data with the results of previous surveys and shows that the trend in the reduction of oil discharges continued, even though the reported refinery throughputs increased by more than 30% since the low point of 1984. The ratio of oil discharged to the amount of oil processed has continued to fall. Furthermore, when allowance is made for changes in the refineries which reported, it is apparent that there was a modest reduction of total effluent discharged in 1993, reinforcing the long-term trend. These two results indicate that overall management of water use in refineries and the efficiency of effluent purification continue to improve. The report indicates that around 85% of the refineries surveyed now include biological treatment in their waste water treatment facilities.

  18. Performance of two liquids scintillation and optimization of a Wallac 1411 counter in the tritium quantification in aqueous samples; Desempeno de dos centelleadores liquidos y optimizacion de un contador Wallac 1411 en la cuantificacion de tritio en muestras acuosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras de la Cruz, E. de J.; Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The optimization of a liquid scintillation counting Wallac 1411 is presented as well as the performance of the liquids scintillation miscible in water OptiPhase Hi Safe 3 and Last Gold Ab, in the tritium quantification in aqueous samples. The luminescence effect, the quenching, the solution ph and the level of pulse amplitude comparator (Pac) were evaluated in the response of both liquids scintillation in the tritium measurement. The quenching and the luminescence modify the scintillators response; in the first of them the counting efficiency decreases and the minimum detectable activity increases; the second interferes in the tritium quantification in the interest window, but the effect disappears after 4 hours of darkness of the samples. The maximum counting efficiency was of 24% for OptiPhase Hi Safe 3 and 31% for Last Gold Ab, diminishing with the quenching until values of 8 and 11%, respectively. For a counting time of 6 hours and lower quenching, the minimum detectable concentration for OptiPhase Hi Safe 3 was of 13.4 ± 0.2 Bq/L and 9.9 ± 0.1 Bq/L for Last Gold Ab. Both scintillators responded appropriately to sour and basic solutions, being only presented chemiluminescence in Last Gold Ab to ph highly basic. The Pac application that varies between 1 and 256 does not have effect in the tritium measurement until values above 90. (Author)

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of dye effluent by titanium dioxide pillar pellets in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-cang; ZOU Lin-da; Eric Hu

    2004-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation(PCO) process is an effective way to deal with organic pollutants in wastewater which could be difficult to be degraded by conventional biological treatment methods. Normally the TiO2 powder in nanometre size range was directly used as photocatalyst for dye degradation in wastewater. However the titanium dioxide powder was arduous to be recovered from the solution after treatment. In this application, a new form of TiO2(i. e. pillar pellets ranging from 2.5 to 5.3 mm long and with a diameter of 3.7 mm) was used and investigated for photocatalytic degradation of textile dye effluent. A test system was built with a flat plate reactor(FPR) and UV light source(blacklight and solar simulator as light source respectively) for investigating the effectiveness of the new form of TiO2. It was found that the photocatalytic process under this configuration could efficiently remove colours from textile dyeing effluent. Comparing with the TiO2 powder, the pellet was very easy to recovered from the treated solution and can be reused in multiple times without the significant change on the photocatalytic property. The results also showed that to achieve the same photocatalytic performance, the FPR area by pellets was about 91% smaller than required by TiO2 powder. At least TiO2 pellet could be used as an alternative form of photocatalyst in applications for textile effluent treatment process, also other wastewater treatment processes.

  20. Coir pith of the green coconut in the decontamination of radioactive aqueous effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Raquel Almeida; Yamaura, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: quequelll_monteiro@yahoo.com.br; myamaura@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Industrial segments as plant of mining, hospitals and university generate considerable volumes of radioactive wastewater containing uranium. The increasing development of the use of the nuclear energy to lead away to an expansion of the sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle, but it leads to security problems and it appears the necessity of control of the removing of uranium and radioactive effluent treatments. Researches evaluate if the technique of the biosorption would promote an alternative process with attractive characteristics of cost-benefit. The residual biomass from agricultural activities has been studied and used as adsorbent of metals and organic composts by low cost, abundance and for being biodegradable. In this work, it is presented the efficiency of the coir pith for the adsorption of ions UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The coir pith is a by-product of the harvest of the coconut, a renewable natural source. The study was accomplished using the batch techniques. The influence from pH 2 to 5, the dose of the coir pith, equilibrium time and the models of kinetic reaction were investigated. It was verified that the adsorption increased with the increase of pH and of the dose. The equilibrium time was of 30 min and the best correspondence with the model of pseudo second-order was observed. The results obtained has been promising, so use as adsorbent of metallic ions represents an economic alternative in relation to the conventional treatment of effluent. (author)

  1. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  2. Microwave-assisted activated carbon from cocoa shell as adsorbent for removal of sodium diclofenac and nimesulide from aqueous effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Caroline; Adebayo, Matthew A; Lima, Eder C; Cataluña, Renato; Thue, Pascal S; Prola, Lizie D T; Puchana-Rosero, M J; Machado, Fernando M; Pavan, Flavio A; Dotto, G L

    2015-05-30

    Microwave-induced chemical activation process was used to prepare an activated carbon from cocoa shell for efficient removal of two anti-inflammatories, sodium diclofenac (DFC) and nimesulide (NM), from aqueous solutions. A paste was obtained from a mixture of cocoa shell and inorganic components; with a ratio of inorganic: organic of 1 (CSC-1.0). The mixture was pyrolyzed in a microwave oven in less than 10 min. The CSC-1.0 was acidified with a 6 mol L(-1) HCl under reflux to produce MWCS-1.0. The CSC-1.0 and MWCS-1.0 were characterized using FTIR, SEM, N2 adsorption/desorption curves, X-ray diffraction, and point of zero charge (pHpzc). Experimental variables such as initial pH of the adsorbate solutions and contact time were optimized for adsorptive characteristics of MWCS-1.0. The optimum pH for removal of anti-inflammatories ranged between 7.0 and 8.0. The kinetic of adsorption was investigated using general order, pseudo first-order and pseu do-second order kinetic models. The maximum amounts of DCF and NM adsorbed onto MWCS-1.0 at 25 °C are 63.47 and 74.81 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorbent was tested on two simulated hospital effluents. MWCS-1.0 is capable of efficient removal of DCF and NM from a medium that contains high sugar and salt concentrations.

  3. Magmatic tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); McMurtry, G.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shevenell, L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Pettit, D.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States); Stimac, J.A. [Union Geothermal Company (United States); Werner, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ({sup 3}H) of deep origin (<0.1 T.U. or <0.32 pCi/kg H{sub 2}O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable {sup 3}H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics.

  4. Microwave-assisted activated carbon from cocoa shell as adsorbent for removal of sodium diclofenac and nimesulide from aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucier, Caroline [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Adebayo, Matthew A. [Department of Chemical Sciences, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Oyo State (Nigeria); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: eder.lima@ufrgs.br [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cataluña, Renato [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Thue, Pascal S. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Ngaoundere, P.O. Box 455, Ngaoundere (Cameroon); Prola, Lizie D.T.; Puchana-Rosero, M.J. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Machado, Fernando M. [Technology Development Center, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPEL), Pelotas (Brazil); Pavan, Flavio A. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bagé, RS (Brazil); Dotto, G.L. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Microwave-assisted cocoa shell activated carbon was prepared and characterized. • The anti-inflammatories, diclofenac and nimesulide, were adsorbed onto MWCS-1.0. • Adsorption maximum values are 63.47 (diclofenac) and 74.81 mg g{sup −1} (nimesulide). • General order kinetic model suitably explained the adsorption process. • MWCS-1.0 was effectively used for treatment of simulated hospital effluents. - Abstract: Microwave-induced chemical activation process was used to prepare an activated carbon from cocoa shell for efficient removal of two anti-inflammatories, sodium diclofenac (DFC) and nimesulide (NM), from aqueous solutions. A paste was obtained from a mixture of cocoa shell and inorganic components; with a ratio of inorganic: organic of 1 (CSC-1.0). The mixture was pyrolyzed in a microwave oven in less than 10 min. The CSC-1.0 was acidified with a 6 mol L{sup −1} HCl under reflux to produce MWCS-1.0. The CSC-1.0 and MWCS-1.0 were characterized using FTIR, SEM, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption curves, X-ray diffraction, and point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}). Experimental variables such as initial pH of the adsorbate solutions and contact time were optimized for adsorptive characteristics of MWCS-1.0. The optimum pH for removal of anti-inflammatories ranged between 7.0 and 8.0. The kinetic of adsorption was investigated using general order, pseudo first-order and pseu do-second order kinetic models. The maximum amounts of DCF and NM adsorbed onto MWCS-1.0 at 25 °C are 63.47 and 74.81 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. The adsorbent was tested on two simulated hospital effluents. MWCS-1.0 is capable of efficient removal of DCF and NM from a medium that contains high sugar and salt concentrations.

  5. Field analyses of tritium at environmental levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Cable, P.R.; Beals, D.M

    1999-02-11

    An automated, remote system to analyze tritium in aqueous solutions at environmental levels has been tested and has demonstrated laboratory quality tritium analysis capability in near real time. The field deployable tritium analysis system (FDTAS) consists of a novel multi-port autosampler, an on-line water purification system, and a prototype stop-flow liquid scintillation counter (LSC) which can be remotely controlled for unmanned operation. Backgrounds of {approx}1.5 counts/min in the tritium channel are routinely measured with a tritium detection efficiency of {approx}25% for the custom 11 ml cell. A detection limit of <0.3 pCi/ml has been achieved for 100-min counts using a 50 : 50 mixture of sample and cocktail. To assess the long-term performance characteristics of the FDTAS, a composite sampler was installed on the Savannah River, downstream of the Savannah River Site, and collected repetitive 12-hour composite samples over a 14 day period. The samples were analyzed using the FDTAS and in the laboratory using a standard bench-top LSC. The results of the tritium analyses by the FDTAS and by the laboratory LSC were consistent for comparable counting times at the typical river tritium background levels ({approx}1 pCi/ml)

  6. Release of tritium from fuel and collection for storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, L.L.; Trevorrow, L.E.

    1976-04-01

    Recent work is reviewed on the technology that has been suggested as applicable to collection and storage of tritium in anticipation of the necessity of that course of action. Collection technology and procedures must be adapted to the tritium-bearing effluent and to the facility from which it emerges. Therefore, this discussion of tritium collection technology includes some information on the processes from which release is expected to occur, the amounts, the nature of the effluent media, and the form in which tritium appears. Recent work on collection and storage concepts has explored, both by experimentation and by feasibility analyses, the operations generally aimed at producing recycle, collection, or storage of tritium from these streams. Storage concepts aimed specifically at tritium involve plans to store volumes ranging from that of the entire effluent stream to only that of a small volume of a concentrate. Decisions between storage of unconcentrated streams and storage of concentrates are expected to be made largely by weighing the cost of storage space against the cost of concentration. The storage of tritium concentrate requires the selection of a form of tritium possessing physical and chemical properties appropriate for the expected storage conditions. This selection of an appropriate storage form has occupied a major portion of recent work concerned with tritium storage concepts. In summary, within the context of present regulations and expected amounts of waste tritium; this waste can be disposed of by dilution and dispersal to the environment. In the future, however, more restrictive regulations might be introduced that could be satisfied only by some collection and storage operations. Technology for this practice is not now available, and the present discussion reviews recent activities devoted to its development.

  7. Corroborative studies of tritium characterization and depth profiles in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochel, R.C.

    2000-05-05

    This report is the second by the authors on characterizing the tritium content of cement and structural concrete. The first report reviewed the literature and used several new methods to characterize tritium on the surface and through the bulk of contaminated concrete at two facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). In both cases, a relatively constant tritium concentration as a function of depth was observed, which has not been previously reported in the literature. These findings were explained as the relatively rapid transport of tritiated liquid through pores of the hydrated cement, and the exchange of tritium with hydrogen found primarily as free and bound water in the hydrated cement binder. The study reported here extended the measurement of surface and bulk tritium in concrete to three other locations at SRS. The purpose of the current study was to characterize locations whose tritium exposure histories were well documented, and to characterize a location exposed exclusively to gaseous tritium, to confirm and possibly extend the knowledge gained from the earlier study. Results of the current study corroborate the earlier findings, in that the tritium concentration was constant through the bulk when exposed to aqueous tritium, even from a single aqueous tritium exposure. Exposure to gaseous tritium, on the other hand, lead to the well-known diffusion controlled variation of tritium concentration reported in the literature. Sufficient exposure history is available to enable a semi-quantitative explanation of the magnitude and depth dependence of the tritium in both the aqueous- and gas-exposed locations. The penetration of tritium from a liquid can be described by a hydraulic flow model, and gaseous tritium permeates in a diffusive manner. The general correlation of properly measured surface tritium activity to that in the underlying bulk found in the earlier study was confirmed. However, the surface and near surface tritium

  8. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  9. Application of biomass in oil and fat reduction content in aqueous effluent; Aplicacao de biomassa na reducao do teor de oleos e graxas presentes em efluentes aquosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Hevelin Tabata; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we have studied the bagasse from sugarcane as an alternative bioadsorbent in the treatment to oils and greases contaminated waters. The synthetic effluent was simulated by a distilled water and decahydronaphthalene dispersion, with initial concentration of 8900 mg . L {sup -1}. Gas chromatography was the analytical operation chosen to quantify the oil residual after the adsorption. The biomass was characterized by moisture analysis, CHNS and SEM. The experiments were carried out in batch process with agitation of 120 rpm, evaluating the equilibrium time of adsorptive process and the influence of pH of aqueous level. Results showed that the adsorption process achieved equilibrium quickly, in just 5 minutes of contact between the dispersion and biomass. No significant influence was noticed in the removal of hydrocarbon with the change in pH. The adsorption isotherm was developed changing by the mass of bioadsorbent, at 25 deg C, pH 6 and 120 rpm of agitation. The experimental results were fitted by Langmuir and Langmuir- Freundlich models. The best fit was obtained with Langmuir-Freundlich, providing a maximum adsorption capacity of 6,65 g hydrocarbon / g biomass. The experiments showed the great potential of the sugarcane bagasse to be used as bioadsorbent in reducing the oil and grease levels in industrial effluents. This alternative presents itself as a sustainable route due to the abundance of sugar cane bagasse in the sugar and alcohol industry, avoided the impact of aqueous sources contamination coming from oil and petrochemical industry. (author)

  10. 2009 EVALUATION OF TRITIUM REMOVAL AND MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUECK KJ; GENESSE DJ; STEGEN GE

    2009-02-26

    Since 1995, a state-approved land disposal site (SALDS) has received tritium contaminated effluents from the Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Tritium in this effluent is mitigated by storage in slow moving groundwater to allow extended time for decay before the water reaches the site boundary. By this method, tritium in the SALDS is isolated from the general environment and human contact until it has decayed to acceptable levels. This report contains the 2009 update evaluation of alternative tritium mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed and updated information is provided on state-of-the-art technologies for control of tritium in wastewaters. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-026-07B (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 2007). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated periodically to determine their feasibility for implementation to control Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwaters to meet the Us. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 20,000 pOll and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy. Since the 2004 evaluation, there have been a number of developments related to tritium separation and control with potential application in mitigating tritium contaminated wastewater. These are primarily focused in the areas of: (1) tritium recycling at a commercial facility in Cardiff, UK using integrated tritium separation technologies (water distillation, palladium membrane reactor, liquid phase catalytic exchange, thermal diffusion), (2) development and demonstration of Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) using hydrogen/water exchange to separate tritium from water, (3) evaporation of tritium contaminated water for dispersion in the

  11. Comparison of Spirulina platensis microalgae and commercial activated carbon as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from aqueous effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Natali F. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: profederlima@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Royer, Betina; Bach, Marta V. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, AV. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dotto, Guilherme L.; Pinto, Luiz A.A. [Unit Operation Laboratory, School of Chemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio Grande, FURG, R. Engenheiro Alfredo Huch 475, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Calvete, Tatiana [Universitary Center La Salle (UNILASALLE), Av. Victor Barreto 2288, 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spirulina platensis (SP) and activated carbon (AC) were used to remove RR-120 dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum adsorption capacities were found at pH 2 and 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for SP and AC, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP and AC were effective to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. - Abstract: Spirulina platensis microalgae (SP) and commercial activated carbon (AC) were compared as adsorbents to remove Reactive Red 120 (RR-120) textile dye from aqueous effluents. The batch adsorption system was evaluated in relation to the initial pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. An alternative kinetic model (general order kinetic model) was compared with the traditional pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Liu isotherm models, and the thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. Finally, the adsorbents were employed to treat a simulated dye-house effluent. The general order kinetic model was more appropriate to explain RR-120 adsorption by SP and AC. The equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of RR-120 dye were found at pH 2 and 298 K, and the values were 482.2 and 267.2 mg g{sup -1} for the SP and AC adsorbents, respectively. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favourable. The SP and AC adsorbents presented good performance for the treatment of simulated industrial textile effluents, removing 94.4-99.0% and 93.6-97.7%, respectively, of the dye mixtures containing high saline concentrations.

  12. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrick, Steven [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA; Cordaro, Joseph [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA; Founds, Nanette [National Nuclear Security Administration, Albuquerque, NM, USA; Chambellan, Curtis [National Nuclear Security Administration, Albuquerque, NM, USA

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  13. Adsorption of lead and copper ions from aqueous effluents on rice husk ash in a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. A. Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the kinetic adsorption of Pb and Cu ions using rice husk ash as adsorbent in a fixed bed. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained for lead and copper ions in the fixed bed were 0.0561 and 0.0682 mmol/g (at 20 ºC, respectively. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the lead adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous, while the copper adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Characterization results indicated the presence of several functional groups, amorphous silica and a fibrous and longitudinal structure of rice husks. Rice husk ash (RHA from northern Brazil can be used as a bioadsorbent for the individual removal of Pb(II and Cu(II ions from metal-containing effluents.

  14. Trends in oil discharged with aqueous effluents from oil refineries in Europe. 2005 and 2008 survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldoni-Andrey, P.; Girling, A.; Garcia Biosca, E.; Struijk, K.; De Borman, F.; Smith, R.; Kitow, I.; Negroni, J.; Neal, G.; Den Haan, K.

    2011-03-15

    This report summarises data gathered by CONCAWE in surveys of effluent water quantity, oil content and treatment processes for refinery locations situated in the EU-27 countries and those in Norway and Switzerland for the years 2005 and 2008. Data obtained in previous surveys are included for comparison. The number of refinery locations reporting in 2008 has increased to 125. The results of the surveys show that the trend for lower volumes of effluent discharge relative to refinery capacity and throughput has continued. Changes in the total amounts of discharged oil, ammonia, total nitrogen (TN), phenols, BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and TOC (Total Organic Carbon) are related to the increase in the number of refineries reporting in these years. The associated slight increases in the ratios of oil, TN, phenol, BOD and COD discharged relative to refining capacity and/or throughput may reflect the inclusion of additional refineries in countries that joined the EU in that period and whose performance may not have been at the same level as those previously surveyed. The results show that 89% of the refineries surveyed in 2005 had at least one stage of biological treatment in their wastewater treatment facilities. For 2008, this number rose to 94% for the reporting refineries. A different system of refinery complexity classification has been adopted for the 2005 and 2008 surveys. The Nelson Complexity Index (NCI) is an industry standard measure that takes account of each piece of refinery equipment on a refinery site. The 2005 and 2008 NCI scores show that the trend towards more complex refineries that was evident in the data set for the years 1969 to 2000 continues.

  15. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.

    1980-01-04

    This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

  16. Tritium protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T. P.; Easterly, C. E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions.

  17. Beneficial use of meat and bone meal combustion residue: "an efficient low cost material to remove lead from aqueous effluent".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deydier, Eric; Guilet, Richard; Sharrock, Patrick

    2003-07-04

    Meat and bone meal (MBM) combustion residues, a natural apatite-rich substance, was evaluated as a low cost substitute for hydroxyapatite in lead sequestration from water effluents. The thermal behaviour of crude meat and bone meal was followed by TGA and 24% inorganic residue was collected. The resulting ashes were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size distribution, specific surface area (BET), and elemental analysis confirming apatite contents, with high level of phosphate (56.3%) and calcium (36.8%). Mechanism and kinetics of lead removal by this bioinorganic material were investigated and compared to mechanisms and kinetics involved with synthetic apatite. Batch metal removal experiments were carried out with 500 and 1500ppm (mg/kg) Pb(2+) solutions. Lead concentration, calcium and pH were monitored. We observed that the mechanism is similar to that occurring for pure apatite, and involved both surface complexation and calcium hydroyapatite (CaHA), Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2), dissolution followed by less soluble Pb(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2) precipitation, as confirmed by XRD analysis of ashes after incubation with lead solution. Our results show that this natural apatite-rich material removes in a few minutes a large quantity of lead (275mg/g capacity) which remains however lower than the theoretical maximum capacity (if calcium were totally substituted by lead). Meat and bone meal combustion residues represent a valuable alternative apatite source for environmental application.

  18. Hazards of exposure to tritium and tritium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.C.; Kornberg, H.A.

    1954-01-01

    Experimental data pertinent to the evaluation of hazards involved in the exposure of personnel to tritium and tritium oxide are reviewed. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations made with regard to the control of these hazards.

  19. Visible Light Induced Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Industrial Effluents (Rhodamine B in Aqueous Media Using TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new textile materials have been developed through the use of nanotechnology-based tools. The development of textile surfaces with self-cleaning properties has a large combined potential to reduce the environmental impact related to pollution. In this research work, three types of textiles substrates (cotton, Entretela, and polylactic acid (PLA were functionalized with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 using chemical and mechanical processes (padding. During the functionalization process, two different methods were used, both of which allowed a good fixation of nanoparticles of TiO2 on textile substrates. The samples were examined for morphology and for photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation. A study aimed at evaluating the effect of pH of the aqueous solution of TiO2 nanoparticles was performed in order to promote interaction between TiO2 and the dye solution rhodamine B (Rh-B. The TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The measurement of the zeta potential of the TiO2 nanoparticle solution proved to be always positive and have low colloidal stability. Chromatography (HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirm that oxalic acid is the intermediate compound formed during the photodegradation process.

  20. RESULTS OF TRITIUM TRACKING AND GROUNDWATER MONITORING AT THE HANFORD SITE 200 AREA STATE APPROVED LAND DISPOSAL SITE FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERB DB

    2008-11-19

    The Hanford Site's 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which cannot be removed by the ETF prior to the wastewater being discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During the first 11 months of fiscal year 2008 (FY08) (September 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008), approximately 75.15 million L (19.85 million gal) of water were discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, as well as water-level measurements, is required for the SALDS by State Waste Discharge Permit Number ST-4500 (Ecology 2000). The current monitoring network consists of three proximal (compliance) monitoring wells and nine tritium-tracking wells. Quarterly sampling of the proximal wells occurred in October 2007 and in January/February 2008, April 2008, and August 2008. The nine tritium-tracking wells, including groundwater monitoring wells located upgradient and downgradient of the SALDS, were sampled in January through April 2008. Water-level measurements taken in the three proximal SALDS wells indicate that a small groundwater mound is present beneath the facility, which is a result of operational discharges. The mound increased in FY08 due to increased ETF discharges from treating groundwater from extraction wells at the 200-UP-l Operable Unit and the 241-T Tank Farm. Maximum tritium activities increased by an order of magnitude at well 699-48-77A (to 820,000 pCi/L in April 2008) but remained unchanged in the other two proximal wells. The increase was due to higher quantities of tritium in wastewaters that were treated and discharged in FY07 beginning to appear at the proximal wells. The FY08 tritium activities for the other two proximal wells were 68,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77C (October 2007) and 120,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77D (October 2007). To date, no indications of a tritium incursion from

  1. Tritium transport calculations for the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Jana, E-mail: jana.freund@kit.edu; Arbeiter, Frederik; Abou-Sena, Ali; Franza, Fabrizio; Kondo, Keitaro

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Delivery of material data for the tritium balance in the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module. • Description of the topological models in TMAP and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). • Computation of release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas. • Computation of the loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line. - Abstract: The IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM) is projected to measure online the tritium release from breeder ceramics and beryllium pebble beds under high energy neutron irradiation. Tritium produced in the pebble bed of TRTM is swept out continuously by a purge gas flow, but can also permeate into the module's metal structures, and can be lost by permeation to the environment. According analyses on the tritium inventory are performed to support IFMIF plant safety studies, and to support the experiment planning. This paper describes the necessary elements for calculation of the tritium transport in the Tritium Release Test Module as follows: (i) applied equations for the tritium balance, (ii) material data from literature and (iii) the topological models and the computation of the five different cases; namely release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas, loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line in detail. The problem of tritium transport in the TRTM has been studied and analyzed by the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). TMAP has been developed at INEEL and now exists in Version 7. FUS-TPC Code was written in MATLAB with the original purpose to study the tritium transport in Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) blanket and in a later version the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket by [6] (Franza, 2012). This code has been further modified to be applicable to the TRTM. Results from the

  2. Tritium Storage Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, Donald F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Metallurgical Science Dept.; Luo, Weifang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Metallurgical Science Dept.; Smugeresky, John E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Metallurgical Science Dept.; Robinson, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Systems Dept.; Fares, Stephen James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Systems Dept.; Ong, Markus D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Systems Dept.; Arslan, Ilke [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Systems Dept.; Tran, Kim L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Systems Dept.; McCarty, Kevin F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics Dept.; Sartor, George B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Thermal/Fluid Science and Engineering; Stewart, Kenneth D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engineered Material Dept.; Clift, W. Miles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engineered Material Dept.

    2008-09-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 nm pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a commercial Pd black were measured.

  3. Labelling of benzocaine with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Sohail (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    A convenient method is described to label a local anesthetic, benzocaine, with tritium. The bromoester of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was prepared from para-nitrotoluene and was reduced with tritium. The generation of isotopic hydrogen and labelling of benzocaine was achieved in one-step. A mixture of sodium borohydride (NaB[sup 3]H[sub 4]) with cobalt (II) chloride was used to generate tritium gas. 5% Pd/C was used as a catalyst. This constitutes the first report of tritium labelled benzocaine. (author).

  4. An analysis of the tritium content in fish from Upper Three Runs Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1991-05-02

    In November of 1988 the F/H-area effluent treatment facility (ETF) began releasing treated waste water to Upper Three Runs Creek. Previous to that time, there has been minimal discharge of plant waste water to this tributary of the Savannah River. The ETF is designed to remove the toxic and radioactive waste materials from the effluent stream and to meet the discharge limits of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The only radioactive nuclide not removed by the process is tritium. Tritium, an isotope of hydrogen, is chemically associated with the water molecules in the waste stream and can not be economically removed at this time. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of tritium in the stream water and the concentration of tritium in the fish. Fish collections were made at two locations. The most upstream location was 50 meters downstream from the SRS Road C bridge. This is immediately downstream of the effluent discharge pipe from the ETF. The other location was at the bridge of SRS Road A (SC Highway 125). The water is removed from the fish by freeze drying under vacuum. This study suggests that, on the average, the tritium concentration of fish in Upper Three Runs Creek will be in equilibrium with the tritium in the water of the creek. The water in the fish comes into equilibrium with the water in the stream quite rapidly and it is quite likely that any single fish sampled will be higher or lower in tritium content of an integrated water sample, such as those collected by the Environmental Monitoring samplers. Both the time of sampling and the sampling of a sufficient number of fish is important in obtaining an accurate estimate of the average tritium concentration in the tissue water of the fish.

  5. Tritium and plants. Le tritium et les vegetaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, H.; Carrere, D.; Marini, T.; Belot, Y. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement et des Installations)

    1993-01-01

    Although tritium is produced naturally in very small quantities and emits only a low energy radiation, its distribution and its behaviour in the environment are studied. This work concerns the organic tritium of plants, its use in environment monitoring and its impact on the doses received by man.

  6. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  7. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Moore, M.L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  8. The potentialities of the complexation ultrafiltration technique for the decontamination of fission product contaminated aqueous effluents; Potentialites de la complexation - ultrafiltration a la decontamination d`effluents radioactifs en produits de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibert, V.

    1995-07-01

    Many nuclear researchers and industrial operators lay emphasis on improving the back end of the fuel cycle. A major problem concerns the liquid wastes generated by the reprocessing plant at La Hague, discharged into the sea after treatment in the Effluent Treatment Station (STE) (3), and which have become crucial matter. The activity of these wastes is well below the current legal limits, and is constantly decreasing these last years. To bring it close to zero, and ambitious goal, entails innovative new reprocessing techniques. We accordingly investigated the possibilities of complexation-ultrafiltration, a technique that uses water-soluble macromolecules to complex the target elements to be separated. We first achieved the strontium (II) separation with poly-acrylic and poly-sulfonic acids. The effects of pH and NaNO{sub 3} concentration influence on Sr (II) complexation were studied. The Sr (II) complexation and concentration phases, followed by cation de-complexation to recover the polymer, were also taken into account. This research, combined with a potentiometric study of the polymers, offered a close understanding of the chemical systems involved, and of the operating conditions and limits of complexation-ultrafiltration. The laboratory results were also validated on a tangential ultrafiltration pilot plant. We then used complexation-ultrafiltration to treat a real effluent generated bu La Hague`s STE 3 plant. This experiment demonstrated minimum 90 % decontamination of Sr (II) (with polyacrylate complexing agent), and also for {sup 134-137}Cs (with simple ultrafiltration). The use of two polyamides allowed partial decontamination of the effluent for {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru. This work therefore offers a global approach to complexation-ultrafiltration, from laboratory to pilot scale, on real and simulated effluents. The future of this technique relies chiefly on the ability to solve the problem of polymer recovery. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. Tritium-field betacells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walko, R.J.; Lincoln, R.C.; Baca, W.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Goods, S.H. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Negley, G.H. (AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Betavoltaic power sources operate by converting the nuclear decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electricity. Since they are not chemically driven, they could operate at temperatures which would either be to hot or too cold for typical chemical batteries. Further, for long lived isotopes, they offer the possibility of multi-decade active lifetimes. Two approaches are being investigated: direct and indirect conversion. Direct conversion cells consist of semiconductor diodes similar to photovoltaic cells. Beta particle directly bombard these cells, generating electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor which are converted to useful power. Many using low power flux beta emitters, wide bandgap semiconductors are required to achieve useful conversion efficiencies. The combination of tritium, as the beta emitter, and gallium phosphide (GaP), as the semiconductor converter, was evaluated. Indirect conversion betacells first convert the beta energy to light with a phosphor, and then to electricity with photovoltaic cells. An indirect conversion power source using a tritium radioluminescent (RL) light is being investigated. Our analysis indicates that this approach has the potential for significant volume and cost savings over the direct conversion method. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Tritium monitoring at the Sandia Tritium Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, T.K.

    1978-10-01

    Sandia Laboratories at Livermore, California, is presently beginning operation of a Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL). The laboratory incorporates containment and cleanup facilities such that any unscheduled tritium release is captured rather than vented to the atmosphere. A sophisticated tritium monitoring system is in use at the TRL to protect operating personnel and the environment, as well as ensure the safe and effective operation of the TRL decontamination systems. Each monitoring system has, in addition to a local display, a display in a centralized control room which, when coupled room which, when coupled with the TRL control computer, automatically provides an immediate assessment of the status of the entire facility. The computer controls a complex alarm array status of the entire facility. The computer controls a complex alarm array and integrates and records all operational and unscheduled tritium releases.

  11. On the conversion of tritium units to mass fractions for hydrologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Andraski, Brain J.; Cooper, Clay A.; Mayers, Charles J.; Michel, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a general equation for converting laboratory-reported tritium levels, expressed either as concentrations (tritium isotope number fractions) or mass-based specific activities, to mass fractions in aqueous systems. Assuming that all tritium is in the form of monotritiated water simplifies the derivation and is shown to be reasonable for most environmental settings encountered in practice. The general equation is nonlinear. For tritium concentrations c less than 4.5×1012 tritium units (TU) - i.e. specific tritium activities11 Bq kg-1 - the mass fraction w of tritiated water is approximated to within 1 part per million by w ≈ c×2.22293×10-18, i.e. the conversion is linear for all practical purposes. Terrestrial abundances serve as a proxy for non-tritium isotopes in the absence of sample-specific data. Variation in the relative abundances of non-tritium isotopes in the terrestrial hydrosphere produces a minimum range for the mantissa of the conversion factor of [2.22287; 2.22300].

  12. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Since operation of the SALDS began in December 1995, discharges of tritium have totaled {approx}304 Ci, only half of what was originally predicted for tritium quantity through 1999. Total discharge volumes ({approx}2.7E+8 L) have been commensurate with predicted volumes to date. This document reports the results of all tritium analyses in groundwater as determined from the SALDS tritium-tracking network since the first SALDS wells were installed in 1992 through July 1999, and provides interpretation of these results as they relate to SALDS operation and its effect on groundwater. Hydrologic and geochemical information are synthesized to derive a conceptual model, which is in turn used to arrive at an appropriate approach to continued groundwater monitoring at the facility.

  13. Development and Verification of Tritium Analyses Code for a Very High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2009-09-01

    . The amount of tritium in the product hydrogen was estimated to be approximately an order less than the gaseous effluent limit for tritium.

  14. Replacing synthetic with microbial surfactants as collectors in the treatment of aqueous effluent produced by acid mine drainage, using the dissolved air flotation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Carlyle T B; Barros, Erilson C; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2011-02-01

    Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a well-established separation process employing micro bubbles as a carrier phase. The application of this technique in the treatment of acid mine drainage, using three yeast biosurfactants as alternative collectors, is hereby analyzed. Batch studies were carried out in a 50-cm high acrylic column with an external diameter of 2.5 cm. High percentages (above 94%) of heavy metals Fe(III) and Mn(II) were removed by the biosurfactants isolated from Candida lipolytica and Candida sphaerica and the values were found to be similar to those obtained with the use of the synthetic sodium oleate surfactant. The DAF operation with both surfactant and biosurfactants, achieved acceptable turbidity values, in accordance with Brazilian standard limits. The best ones were obtained by the biosurfactant from C. lipolytica, which reached 4.8 NTU. The results obtained with a laboratory synthetic effluent were also satisfactory. The biosurfactants removed almost the same percentages of iron, while the removal percentages of manganese were slightly higher compared with those obtained in the acid mine drainage effluent. They showed that the use of low-cost biosurfactants as collectors in the DAF process is a promising technology for the mining industries.

  15. Overview of Recent Tritium Experiments in TPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Shimada; T. Otsuka; R. J. Pawelko; P. Calderoni; J. P. Sharpe

    2010-10-01

    Tritium retention in plasma-facing components influences the design, operation, and lifetime of fusion devices such as ITER. Most of the retention studies were carried out with the use of either hydrogen or deuterium. Tritium Plasma Experiment is a unique linear plasma device that can handle radioactive fusion fuel of tritium, toxic material of beryllium, and neutron-irradiated material. A tritium depth profiling method up to mm range was developed using a tritium imaging plate and a diamond wire saw. A series of tritium experiments (T2/D2 ratio: 0.2 and 0.5 %) was performed to investigate tritium depth profiling in bulk tungsten, and the results shows that tritium is migrated into bulk tungsten up to mm range.

  16. Consequences of tritium release to water pathways from postulated accidents in a DOE production reactor (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Olson, R.L.; Hamby, D.M. (Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-03-01

    A full-scale PRA of a DOE production reactor has been completed that considers full release of tritium as part of the severe accident source term. Two classes of postulated reactor accidents, a loss-of-moderator pumping accident and a loss-of-coolant accident, are used to bound the expected dose consequence from liquid pathway release. Population doses from the radiological release associated with the two accidents are compared for aqueous discharge and atmospheric release modes. The expectation values of the distribution of possible values for the societal effective dose equivalent to the general public, given a tritium release to the atmosphere, is 2.8 person-Sv/PBq (9.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} person-rem/Ci). The general public drinking water dose to downstream water consumers is 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} person-Sv/PBq(2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} person-rem/Ci) for aqueous releases to the surface streams eventually reaching the Savannah River. Negligible doses are calculated for freshwater fish and saltwater invertebrate consumption, irrigation, and recreational use of the river, given that an aqueous release is assumed to occur. Relative to the balance of fission products released in a hypothetical severe accident, the tritium-related dose is small. This paper suggests that application of regional models (1610 km radius) will indicate larger dose consequences from short-term tritium releases to the atmosphere than from comparable tritium source terms to water pathways.

  17. Chromium uptake from aqueous effluents by immobilized Baker's yeast Utilização de leveduras de panificação na remoção de cromo em meio aquoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Beckmann C. Menezes

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Baker’s yeast immobilized in alginate was used to take up chromium from effluents. Chromium in aqueous solutions were used in different concentrations. To evaluate the viability and efficiency the baker’s yeast for chromium uptake from effluents three experiments done in two differents reactor systems: first in system 1 at 17.5 ml/s and with 10, 20, 25 and 30 mg/l Cr; second in system 2 at 38.7 ml/s with 20 mg/l Cr; third in system 2.1 at 6.65 ml/s and with 20, 30 and 40 mg/l Cr. The efficiency of chromium uptake varied between 86 and 100 %.Leveduras de panificação imobilizadas em alginato, foram utilizadas com o objetivo de promover a remoção de cromo presente em efluentes. Trabalhou-se com soluções de cromo de diferentes concentrações. A fim de avaliar a viabilidade e eficiência do uso de leveduras de panificação na remoção de cromo, três experimentos foram realizados em dois diferentes sistemas de reatores: o primeiro no sistema 1 com 17,5 ml/s e 10, 20, 25 e 30 mg/l Cr; o segundo no sistema 2 com 38,7 ml/s e 20 mg/l Cr; o terceiro no sistema 2.1 com 6,65 ml/s e 20, 30 e 40 mg/l Cr. A média das eficiências de retenção do cromo variaram entre 86 e 100%.

  18. TRITIUM PERMEATION AND TRANSPORT IN THE GASOLINE PRODUCTION SYSTEM COUPLED WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS (HTGRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Mike Patterson

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes scoping analyses on tritium behaviors in the HTGR-integrated gasoline production system, which is based on a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) plant. In this system, the HTGR transfers heat and electricity to the MTG system. This system was analyzed using the TPAC code, which was recently developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The global sensitivity analyses were performed to understand and characterize tritium behaviors in the coupled HTGR/MTG system. This Monte Carlo based random sampling method was used to evaluate maximum 17,408 numbers of samples with different input values. According to the analyses, the average tritium concentration in the product gasoline is about 3.05×10-3 Bq/cm3, and 62 % cases are within the tritium effluent limit (= 3.7x10-3 Bq/cm3[STP]). About 0.19% of released tritium is finally transported from the core to the gasoline product through permeations. This study also identified that the following four parameters are important concerning tritium behaviors in the HTGR/MTG system: (1) tritium source, (2) wall thickness of process heat exchanger, (3) operating temperature, and (4) tritium permeation coefficient of process heat exchanger. These four parameters contribute about 95 % of the total output uncertainties. This study strongly recommends focusing our future research on these four parameters to improve modeling accuracy and to mitigate tritium permeation into the gasol ine product. If the permeation barrier is included in the future study, the tritium concentration will be significantly reduced.

  19. Tritium pellet injection sequences for TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.; Attenberger, S.E.; Singer, C.E.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium pellet injection into neutral deuterium, beam heated deuterium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is shown to be an attractive means of (1) minimizing tritium use per tritium discharge and over a sequence of tritium discharges; (2) greatly reducing the tritium load in the walls, limiters, getters, and cryopanels; (3) maintaining or improving instantaneous neutron production (Q); (4) reducing or eliminating deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in non-optimized discharges; and (5) generally adding flexibility to the experimental sequences leading to optimal Q operation. Transport analyses of both compression and full-bore TFTR plasmas are used to support the above observations and to provide the basis for a proposed eight-pellet gas gun injector for the 1986 tritium experiments.

  20. Tritium Burn-up Depth and Tritium Break-Even Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-Yue; DENG Bai-Quan; HUANG Jin-Hua; YAN Jian-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ Similarly to but quite different from the xenon poisoning effects resulting from fission-produced iodine during the restart-up process of a fission reactor, we introduce a completely new concept of the tritium burn-up depth and tritium break-even time in the fusion energy research area. To show what the least required amount of tritium storage is used to start up a fusion reactor and how long a time the fusion reactor needs to be operated for achieving the tritium break-even during the initial start-up phase due to the finite tritium breeding time that is dependent on the tritium breeder, specific structure of breeding zone, layout of coolant flow pipe, tritium recovery scheme, extraction process, the tritium retention of reactor components, unrecoverable tritium fraction in breeder, leakage to the inertial gas container, and the natural decay etc., we describe this new phenomenon and answer this problem by setting up and by solving a set of equations, which express a dynamic subsystem model of the tritium inventory evolution in a fusion experimental breeder (FEB). It is found that the tritium burn-up depth is 317g and the tritium break-even time is approximately 240 full power days for FEB designed detail configuration and it is also found that after one-year operation, the tritium storage reaches 1.18kg that is more than theleast required amount of tritium storage to start up three of FEB-like fusion reactors.

  1. Tritium Movement and Accumulation in the NGNP System Interface and Hydrogen Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirofumi Ohashi; Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01

    Tritium movement and accumulation in a Next Generation Nuclear Plant with a hydrogen plant using a high temperature electrolysis process and a thermochemical water splitting sulfur iodine process are estimated by the numerical code THYTAN as a function of design, operational, and material parameters. Estimated tritium concentrations in the hydrogen product and in process chemicals in the hydrogen plant of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant using the high temperature electrolysis process are slightly higher than the drinking water limit defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the limit in the effluent at the boundary of an unrestricted area of a nuclear plant as defined by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However, these concentrations can be reduced to within the limits through use of some designs and modified operations. Tritium concentrations in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant using the Sulfur-Iodine Process are significantly higher as calculated and are affected by parameters with large uncertainties (i.e., tritium permeability of the process heat exchanger, the hydrogen concentration in the heat transfer and process fluids, the equilibrium constant of the isotope exchange reaction between HT and H2SO4). These parameters, including tritium generation and the release rate in the reactor core, should be more accurately estimated in the near future to improve the calculations for the NGNP using the Sulfur-Iodine Process. Decreasing the tritium permeation through the heat exchanger between the primary and secondary circuits may be an an effective measure for decreasing tritium concentrations in the hydrogen product, the hydrogen plant, and the tertiary coolant.

  2. Radiological training for tritium facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This program management guide describes a recommended implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The standard is to assist those individuals, both within DOE and Managing and Operating contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RCM. This training may also be given to radiological workers using tritium to assist in meeting their job specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  3. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  4. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  5. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  6. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  7. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  8. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in effluents...

  9. Management of Tritium in European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ene, Daniela; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will produce tritium via spallation and activation processes during operational activities. Within the location of ESS facility in Lund, Sweden site it is mandatory to demonstrate that the management strategy of the produced tritium ensures the compliance...... with the country regulation criteria. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the different aspects of the tritium management in ESS facility. Besides the design parameter study of the helium coolant purification system of the target the consequences of the tritium releasing into the environment were also...

  10. Consequences of tritium release to water pathways from postulated accidents in a DOE production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Olson, R.L.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A full-scale PRA of a DOE production reactor has been completed that considers full release of tritium as part of the severe accident source term. Two classes of postulated reactor accidents, a loss-of-moderator pumping accident and a loss-of-coolant accident, are used to bound the expected dose consequence from liquid pathway release. Population doses from the radiological release associated with the two accidents are compared for aqueous discharge and atmospheric release modes. The expectation values of the distribution of possible values for the societal effective dose equivalent to the general public, given a tritium release to the atmosphere, is 2.8 person-Sv/PBq (9.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} person-rem/Ci). The general public drinking water dose to downstream water consumers is 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} person-Sv/Pbq (2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} person-rem/Ci) for aqueous releases to the surface streams eventually reaching the Savannah River. Negligible doses are calculated for freshwater fish and saltwater invertebrate consumption, irrigation, and recreational use of the river, given that an aqueous release is assumed to occur. Relative to the balance of fission products released in a hypothetical severe accident, the tritium-related dose is small. This study suggests that application of regional models (1610 km radius) will indicate larger dose consequences from short-term tritium release to the atmosphere than from comparable tritium source terms to water pathways. However, the water pathways assessment is clearly site-specific, and the overall aqueous dose will be dependent on downstream receptor populations and uses of the river.

  11. Consequences of tritium release to water pathways from postulated accidents in a DOE production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R.; Olson, R.L.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    A full-scale PRA of a DOE production reactor has been completed that considers full release of tritium as part of the severe accident source term. Two classes of postulated reactor accidents, a loss-of-moderator pumping accident and a loss-of-coolant accident, are used to bound the expected dose consequence from liquid pathway release. Population doses from the radiological release associated with the two accidents are compared for aqueous discharge and atmospheric release modes. The expectation values of the distribution of possible values for the societal effective dose equivalent to the general public, given a tritium release to the atmosphere, is 2.8 person-Sv/PBq (9.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} person-rem/Ci). The general public drinking water dose to downstream water consumers is 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} person-Sv/Pbq (2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} person-rem/Ci) for aqueous releases to the surface streams eventually reaching the Savannah River. Negligible doses are calculated for freshwater fish and saltwater invertebrate consumption, irrigation, and recreational use of the river, given that an aqueous release is assumed to occur. Relative to the balance of fission products released in a hypothetical severe accident, the tritium-related dose is small. This study suggests that application of regional models (1610 km radius) will indicate larger dose consequences from short-term tritium release to the atmosphere than from comparable tritium source terms to water pathways. However, the water pathways assessment is clearly site-specific, and the overall aqueous dose will be dependent on downstream receptor populations and uses of the river.

  12. Airborne effluent control for LMFBR fuel reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, O.O.; Groenier, W.S.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    A significant part of the LMFBR fuel reprocessing development program has been devoted to the development of efficient removal systems for the volatile fission products, including /sup 131/I, krypton, tritium, /sup 129/I, and most recently /sup 14/C. Flowsheet studies have indicated that very significant reductions of radioactive effluents can be achieved by integrating advanced effluent control systems with new concepts of containment and ventilation; however, the feasibility of such has not yet been established, nor have the economics been examined. This paper presents a flowsheet for the application of advanced containment systems to the processing of LMFBR fuels and summarizes the status and applicability of specific fission product removal systems.

  13. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  14. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  15. Tritium/ 3He dating of shallow groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Peter; Stute, Martin; Dörr, Helmut; Sonntag, Christian; Münnich, Karl Otto

    1988-08-01

    Combined tritium/ 3He data from three multi-level sampling wells (DFG 1, DFG 4, DFG 7) located at Liedern/ Bocholt, West Germany, are presented and principles of the tritium/ 3He method in shallow groundwater studies are discussed. The 3He excess produced by radioactive decay of bomb tritium (released mainly between 1952 and 1963) is clearly reflected in the data. The tritiogenic 3He signal can be detected with a good resolution (signal/1σ error: ≈ 350). The confinement of the tritiogenic 3He is estimated to approximately 77-85% at site DFG 4. For the bomb tritium peak the deviation of the tritium/ 3He age from the age determined by identifying the groundwater layer recharged between 1962 and 1965 is about 3 years (15%). The deviation can be explained by diffusive 3He loss across the groundwater table and by flow dispersion.

  16. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent Free Oil No discharge. 2 Non-aqueous drilling... Free Oil No discharge. 2 Well Treatment, Workover and Completion Fluids Free Oil No discharge. 2... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  17. PDRD (SR13046) TRITIUM PRODUCTION FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.; Sheetz, S.

    2013-09-30

    Utilizing the results of Texas A&M University (TAMU) senior design projects on tritium production in four different small modular reactors (SMR), the Savannah River National Laboratory’s (SRNL) developed an optimization model evaluating tritium production versus uranium utilization under a FY2013 plant directed research development (PDRD) project. The model is a tool that can evaluate varying scenarios and various reactor designs to maximize the production of tritium per unit of unobligated United States (US) origin uranium that is in limited supply. The primary module in the model compares the consumption of uranium for various production reactors against the base case of Watts Bar I running a nominal load of 1,696 tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) with an average refueling of 41,000 kg low enriched uranium (LEU) on an 18 month cycle. After inputting an initial year, starting inventory of unobligated uranium and tritium production forecast, the model will compare and contrast the depletion rate of the LEU between the entered alternatives. This is an annual tritium production rate of approximately 0.059 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU (g-T/kg-LEU). To date, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license has not been amended to accept a full load of TPBARs so the nominal tritium production has not yet been achieved. The alternatives currently loaded into the model include the three light water SMRs evaluated in TAMU senior projects including, mPower, Holtec and NuScale designs. Initial evaluations of tritium production in light water reactor (LWR) based SMRs using optimized loads TPBARs is on the order 0.02-0.06 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU used. The TAMU students also chose to model tritium production in the GE-Hitachi SPRISM, a pooltype sodium fast reactor (SFR) utilizing a modified TPBAR type target. The team was unable to complete their project so no data is available. In order to include results from a fast reactor, the SRNL

  18. A probability model: Tritium release into the coolant of a light water tritium production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D N

    1992-04-01

    This report presents a probability model of the total amount of tritium that will be released from a core of tritium target rods into the coolant of a light water reactor during a tritium production cycle.The model relates the total tritium released from a core to the release characteristics of an individual target rod within the core. The model captures total tritium release from two sources-release via target rod breach and release via permeation through the target rod. Specifically, under conservative assumptions about the breach characteristics of a target rod, total tritium released from a core is modeled as a function of the probability of a target breach and the mean and standard deviation of the permeation reduction factor (PRF) of an individual target rod. Two dominant facts emerge from the analysis in this report. First, total tritium release cannot be controlled and minimized solely through the PRF characteristics of a target rod. Tritium release via breach must be abated if acceptable tritium production is to be achieved. Second, PRF values have a saturation point to their effectiveness. Specifically, in the presence of any realistic level of PRF variability, increasing PRF values above approximately 1000 wig contribute little to minimizing total tritium release.

  19. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  20. Risks of tritium and their mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Shiba, H.; Ichimasa, M.; Chikuuti, M.; Akita, Y. (Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an antibacterial drug, norfloxacin, and an antibiotic, clindamycin, on in vivo oxidation of tritium gas in rats were investigated. Wistar strain male rats were used. They were provided with a standard diet, water ad libitum, and maintained in glass metabolic cages of approximately 20 liters capacity. The air flow and temperature were controlled. To investigate the availability of norfloxacin and clindamycin on the inhibition effects of the oxidation of tritium gas, two types of the experiments were conducted one was that, before the exposure to tritium gas for 2 hours, norfloxacin or clindamycin was administrated to rats three times a day for 4 days, and the other was administration of a drug after tritium gas exposure. After the exposure to tritium gas, blood, the liver, urine and feces samples were collected from rats and the radioactivity of them was determined after combustion using a sample oxidizer. In the case of norfloxacin, tritium concentration in rat body decreased one fifth of that in non-treated rats. On the other hand, administration of clindamycin shortened the biological half-life of tritium in urine to three fifth of that of non-treated rats. (author).

  1. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.; Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21/degree/K and 9/degree/K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenylalanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritiums are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins.

  2. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.; Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21 K and 9 K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenyl-alanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritium are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Adsorptive Separation and Recovery of Organic Compounds from Purified Terephthalic Acid Plant Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Khachane, P.K.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, G. F.; Pangarkar, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    Several organic impurities formed in the p-xylene oxidation process for manufacture of terephthalic acid are carried into the aqueous effluent from the crystallization section of PTA plant of crystallizers for purified terephthalic acid (PTA). These compounds impose a burden on the effluent treatment plant. Due to the presence of these impurities the recycle of aqueous effluent from crystallization section of PTA plant to the PTA crystallizer is not possible. The aim of this study is to check...

  4. Neutronic Comparison of Tritium-Breeding Performance of Candidate Tritium-Breeding Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿

    2003-01-01

    Tritium self-sustainment, which will meet the fuel requirement of fusion reactor, isone of the key issues of fusion power development. The tritium breeding performances of varioustritium-breeding materials are compared based on a series of neutronics calculations using three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4C with the IAEA FENDL-2data library. The effects of the dimensions of the tritium-breeding zone and the enrichment of 6Lion Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) are analyzed. The effects of Be as a neutron multiplier on TBRare also calculated.

  5. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinnell, J. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Klein, J. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  6. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Mike Patterson

    2010-10-01

    Idaho National Laboratory developed the Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) for tritium permeation in the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR). All the component models in the VHTR were developed and were embedded into the MATHLAB SIMULINK package with a Graphic User Interface. The governing equations of the nuclear ternary reaction and thermal neutron capture reactions from impurities in helium and graphite core, reflector, and control rods were implemented. The TPAC code was verified using analytical solutions for the tritium birth rate from the ternary fission, the birth rate from 3He, and the birth rate from 10B. This paper also provides comparisons of the TPAC with the existing other codes. A VHTR reference design was selected for tritium permeation study from the reference design to the nuclear-assisted hydrogen production plant and some sensitivity study results are presented based on the HTGR outlet temperature of 750 degrees C.

  7. Nuclear Overhauser effects in tritium NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Funke, C.W.; Sperling, E.M.G.; Wagenaars, G.N.

    1987-02-01

    The accuracy of the quantification of the tritium distribution in labelled compounds may be reduced by differential nuclear Overhauser effects, especially for compounds in which the different tritiated positions differ in the number of protons surrounding them.

  8. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  9. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  10. A tritium vessel cleanup experiment in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caorlin, M.; Kamperschroer, J.; Owens, D.K.; Voorhees, D.; Mueller, D.; Ramsey, A.T.; La Marche, P.H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-01

    A simple tritium cleanup experiment was carried out in TFTR following the initial high power deuterium-tritium discharges in December 1993. A series of 34 ohmic and deuterium neutral beam fueled shots was used to study the removal of tritium implanted into the wall and limiters. A very large plasma was created in each discharge to ``scrub`` an area as large as possible. Beam-fueled shots at 2.5 to 7.5 MW of injected power were used to monitor tritium concentration levels in the plasma by detection of DT-neutrons. The neutron signal decreased by a factor of 4 during the experiment, remaining well above the expected T-burnup level. The amount of tritium recovered at the end of the cleanup was about 8% of the amount previously injected with high power DT discharges. The experience gained suggests that measurements of tritium inventory in the torus are very difficult to execute and require dedicated systems with overall accuracy of 1%.

  11. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  12. Tritium means of detection and of protection; Le tritium moyens de detection et de protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutra-Fourcade, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The report is an attempt to correlate present data concerning tritium, especially from the health physics points of view. The various detection and measurement methods are reviewed in turn: measurement of tritium in the atmosphere, in liquids and on surfaces. The operation of various types of apparatus is analyzed and the sensitivity limits deduced from laboratory tests are given. Otter sections are devoted to the means of protection which can be used against inhalation of tritium (ventilation, protective clothing) and to calculations of the changes in atmospheric pollution in a given place and of the time spent in a contaminated zone. The last part deals with the decontamination of equipment contaminated with tritium. (author) [French] Le rapport represente un essai de synthese des connaissances actuelles sur le tritium, essentiellement du point de vue de la radioprotection. Les differents moyens de detection et de mesure sont successivement passes en revue: mesure du tritium dans l'atmosphere, dans les liquides, sur les surfaces. Le fonctionnement de differents types d'appareils est analyse et les limites de sensibilite sont donnees d'apres les essais effectues en laboratoire. D'autres paragraphes sont consacres aux moyens de protection contre l'inhalation du tritium (ventilation, vetements de protection), a des calculs d'evolution de pollution atmospherique dans les locaux et de temps de presence en atmosphere contaminee. La derniere partie se rapporte a la de contamination de materiel contamine par du tritium. (auteur)

  13. Helium irradiation effects on tritium retention and long-term tritium release properties in polycrystalline tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuta, Y., E-mail: y-nobuta@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Hatano, Y.; Matsuyama, M.; Abe, S. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Hino, T. [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    DT{sup +} ion irradiation with energy of 0.5 and 1.0 keV was performed on helium pre-irradiated tungsten and the amount of retained tritium and the long-term release of retained tritium in vacuum was investigated using an IP technique and BIXS. Tritium retention and long-term tritium release were significantly influenced by helium pre-irradiation. The amount of retained tritium increased until it reached 1 × 10{sup 17} He/cm{sup 2}, and at 1 × 10{sup 18} He/cm{sup 2} it became smaller compared to 1 × 10{sup 17} He/cm{sup 2}. The amount of retained tritium in tungsten without helium pre-irradiation largely decreased after several weeks preservation in vacuum, and the long-term release rate during vacuum preservation was retarded by helium pre-irradiation. The results indicate that the long-term tritium release and the helium irradiation effect on it should be taken into account for more precise estimation of tritium retention in the long-term use of tungsten in fusion devices.

  14. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  15. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  16. A compact tritium AMS system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarappa, M L; Dingley, K H; Hamm, R W; Love, A H; Roberts, M L

    1999-09-23

    Tritium ({sup 3}H) is a radioisotope that is extensively utilized in biological and environmental research. For biological research, {sup 3}H is generally quantified by liquid scintillation counting requiring gram-sized samples and counting times of several hours. For environmental research, {sup 3}H is usually quantified by {sup 3}He in-growth which requires gram-sized samples and in-growth times of several months. In contrast, provisional studies at LLNL's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry have demonstrated that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can be used to quantify {sup 3}H in milligram-sized biological samples with a 100 to 1000-fold improvement in detection limits when compared to scintillation counting. This increased sensitivity is expected to have great impact in the biological and environmental research community. However in order to make the {sup 3}H AMS technique more broadly accessible, smaller, simpler, and less expensive AMS instrumentation must be developed. To meet this need, a compact, relatively low cost prototype {sup 3}H AMS system has been designed and built based on a LLNL ion source/sample changer and an AccSys Technology, Inc. Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac. With the prototype system, {sup 3}/{sup 1}H ratios ranging from 1 x 10{sup -10} to 1 x 10{sup -13} have to be measured from milligram sized samples. With improvements in system operation and sample preparation methodology, the sensitivity limit of the system is expected to increase to approximately 1 x 10{sup -15}.

  17. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staack, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gaillard, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coughlin, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Neikirk, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fisher, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  18. Calibration for Radiation Protection Equipment for the Measuring Airborne Tritium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; SHEN; En-wei; WEI; Ke-xin; WANG; Kong-zhao; LI; Hou-wen; GE; Jian-an; LV; Xiao-xia

    2012-01-01

    <正>Monitoring airborne tritium is an important routine work in heavy water reactor nuclear power stations and the units related with tritium. Nowadays direct measuring instruments like hand carrying tritium monitors are more often used in routine workshop environment check. Need for calibrating such monitors was suggested. A trial work about the calibration for radiation protection equipment for measuring airborne tritium was carried out with a domestic standard EJ/T 1077-1998 equivalent that of IEC 710.

  19. Tritium Research Laboratory safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.A.

    1979-03-01

    Design and operational philosophy has been evolved to keep radiation exposures to personnel and radiation releases to the environment as low as reasonably achievable. Each experiment will be doubly contained in a glove box and will be limited to 10 grams of tritium gas. Specially designed solid-hydride storage beds may be used to store temporarily up to 25 grams of tritium in the form of tritides. To evaluate possible risks to the public or the environment, a review of the Sandia Laboratories Livermore (SLL) site was carried out. Considered were location, population, land use, meteorology, hydrology, geology, and seismology. The risks and the extent of damage to the TRL and vital systems were evaluated for flooding, lightning, severe winds, earthquakes, explosions, and fires. All of the natural phenomena and human error accidents were considered credible, although the extent of potential damage varied. However, rather than address the myriad of specific individual consequences of each accident scenario, a worst-case tritium release caused indirectly by an unspecified natural phenomenon or human error was evaluated. The maximum credible radiological accident is postulated to result from the release of the maximum quantity of gas from one experiment. Thus 10 grams of tritium gas was used in the analysis to conservatively estimate the maximum whole-body dose of 1 rem at the site boundary and a maximum population dose of 600 man-rem. Accidental release of this amount of tritium implies simultaneous failure of two doubly contained systems, an occurrence considered not credible. Nuclear criticality is impossible in this facility. Based upon the analyses performed for this report, we conclude that the Tritium Research Laboratory can be operated without undue risk to employees, the general public, or the environment. (ERB)

  20. Tritium migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, R.K.; Weaver, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    Emanation of tritium from waste containers is a commonly known phenomenon. Release of tritium from buried waste packages was anticipated; therefore, a research program was developed to study both the rate of tritium release from buried containers and subsequent migration of tritium through soil. Migration of tritium away from low-level radioactive wastes buried in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site was studied. Four distinct disposal events were investigated. The oldest burial event studied was a 1976 emplacement of 3.5 million curies of tritium in a shallow land burial trench. In another event, 248 thousand curies of tritium was disposed of in an overpack emplaced 6 m below the floor of a low-level waste disposal pit. Measurement of the emanation rate of tritium out of 55 gallon drums to the overpack was studied, and an annual doubling of the emanation rate over a seven year period, ending in 1990, was found. In a third study, upward tritium migration in the soil, resulting in releases in the atmosphere were observed in a greater confinement disposal test. Releases of tritium to the atmosphere were found to be insignificant. The fourth event consisted of burial of 2.2 million curies of tritium in a greater confinement disposal operation. Emanation of tritium from the buried containers has been increasing since disposal, but no significant migration was found four years following backfilling of the disposal hole.

  1. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I. [Atomic Energy of Canad Limited - AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  2. Tritium Transport at the Rulison Site, a Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Cooper; M. Ye; J. Chapman

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability natural gas reservoirs. The second project in the program, Project Rulison, was located in west-central Colorado. A 40-kiltoton nuclear device was detonated 2,568 m below the land surface in the Williams Fork Formation on September 10, 1969. The natural gas reservoirs in the Williams Fork Formation occur in low permeability, fractured sandstone lenses interbedded with shale. Radionuclides derived from residual fuel products, nuclear reactions, and activation products were generated as a result of the detonation. Most of the radionuclides are contained in a cooled, solidified melt glass phase created from vaporized and melted rock that re-condensed after the test. Of the mobile gas-phase radionuclides released, tritium ({sup 3}H or T) migration is of most concern. The other gas-phase radionuclides ({sup 85}Kr, {sup 14}C) were largely removed during production testing in 1969 and 1970 and are no longer present in appreciable amounts. Substantial tritium remained because it is part of the water molecule, which is present in both the gas and liquid (aqueous) phases. The objectives of this work are to calculate the nature and extent of tritium contamination in the subsurface from the Rulison test from the time of the test to present day (2007), and to evaluate tritium migration under natural-gas production conditions to a hypothetical gas production well in the most vulnerable location outside the DOE drilling restriction. The natural-gas production scenario involves a hypothetical production well located 258 m horizontally away from the detonation point, outside the edge of the current drilling exclusion area. The production interval in the hypothetical well is at the same elevation as the nuclear chimney created by the detonation, in order to evaluate the location most vulnerable to

  3. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants at a tritium processing facility in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihok, S.; St-Amanat, N.; Kwamena, N.O. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (Canada); Clark, I.; Wilk, M.; Lapp, A. [University of Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The dynamics of tritium released as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into environmental models such as CSA N288.1 used for regulatory purposes in Canada. The dispersion of tritiated gas (HT) and rates of oxidation to HTO have been studied under controlled conditions, but there are few studies under natural conditions. HT is a major component of the tritium released from a gaseous tritium light manufacturing facility in Canada (CNSC INFO-0798). To support the improvement of models, a garden was set up in one summer near this facility in a spot with tritium in air averaging ∼ 5 Bq/m{sup 3} HTO (passive diffusion monitors). Atmospheric stack releases (575 GBq/week) were recorded weekly. HT releases occur mainly during working hours with an HT:HTO ratio of 2.6 as measured at the stack. Soils and plants (leaves/stems and roots/tubers) were sampled for HTO and organically-bound tritium (OBT) weekly. Active day-night monitoring of air was conducted to interpret tritium dynamics relative to weather and solar radiation. The experimental design included a plot of natural grass/soil, contrasted with grass (sod) and Swiss chard, pole beans and potatoes grown in barrels under different irrigation regimes (in local topsoil at 29 Bq/L HTO, 105 Bq/L OBT). All treatments were exposed to rain (80 Bq/L) and atmospheric releases of tritium (weekdays), and reflux of tritium from soils (initial conditions of 284 Bq/L HTO, 3,644 Bq/L OBT) from 20 years of operations. Three irrigation regimes were used for barrel plants to mimic home garden management: rain only, low tritium tap water (5 Bq/L), and high tritium well water (mean 10,013 Bq/L). This design provided a range of plants and starting conditions with contrasts in initial HTO/OBT activity in soils, and major tritium inputs from air versus water. Controls were two home gardens far from any tritium sources. Active air monitoring indicated that the plume was only occasionally present for

  4. Analysis of tritium and its compounds; Analyse du tritium et de ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pialot, H.; Guidon, H.; Marty, P. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Demange, D. [Universite de Franche Comte CREST IRMA, 25 - Montbeliard (France)

    2001-12-01

    I order to get more reliable and precise the analysis of tritium and tritiated compounds, it is necessary to develop adapted analytical techniques. Concerning gaseous media, we describe the methods for tritium determination by mass spectrometry and chromatography. For liquids and solids materials, we give the principles of acid dissolution and scintillation counting, calorimetry, fusion, and on indirect approach which consists in detecting very low concentrations of {sup 3}He. (authors)

  5. Experimental setup for the determination of exchangeable hydrogen in environmental samples using deuterium and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, L.; Siclet, F. [EDF R et D (France); Peron, O.; Gegout, C.; Montavon, G.; Landesman, C. [Laboratoire SUBATECH, IN2P3/CNRS, EMN, Universite de Nantes (France); Fourre, E.; Jean-Baptiste, P. [LSCE, UMR 8112 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL (France)

    2014-07-01

    Tritium ({sup 3}H or T) is a radioactive isotope of the element hydrogen with a half-life of 12.32 yrs. It is naturally produced in the upper atmosphere, but also by the nuclear industry. It is used in many fields like medical research and watch making. It is thus released in the environment on gaseous and liquid form by these facilities and is currently the major released radionuclide in liquid effluent from French nuclear power plants (in HTO form). Current studies dealing with the fate and behavior of tritium in the environment focus mainly on its organic form, i.e. the organically bound tritium (OBT). It is indeed more resilient in the environment than the tritiated water (HTO) as it is part of the organic matter cycle. There is nevertheless a distinction to be made between the exchangeable and the non-exchangeable fraction of OBT. When hydrogen is linked to nitrogen, sulfur or oxygen, it is considered to be exchangeable with the H contained in the surrounding solution or in the atmospheric water phase. Thus, its residence time within the molecule will be reduced and closely linked to the surrounding parameters. When hydrogen is linked to carbon, it is assumed that the link is more stable and thus the residence time in the molecule will be enhanced. It is thus important to know the fraction of exchangeable OBT when addressing the residence time of tritium in the environment. The present study aims at assessing this fraction in different environmental matrixes using deuterium and/or tritium. Compared to several others studies on exchangeable hydrogen where experiments were conducted at high temperature and/or high pressure, this study follows a different approach with experiments conducted at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure (natural conditions) with a controlled hygrometric value within the system. The system itself consists in a glove box modified to fulfill the requirements for an efficient control on the experimental parameters (temperature

  6. Standardization of Tritium Water by TDCR Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永乐; 梁珺成; 柳加成; 熊文俊; 姚顺和; 郭晓清; 陈细林; 杨元第; 袁大庆

    2012-01-01

    The triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method of liquid scintillation count- ing is an absolute measurement method of radioactivity. The formulation of the TDCR method and the established TDCR liquid scintillation counter are presented in this paper. The NIST standard reference material (SRM) of tritium water was measured to verify the performance of the TDCR liquid scintillation counter.

  7. Preliminary Tritium Management Design Activities at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Logsdon, Randall J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlane, Joanna [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Interest in salt-cooled and salt-fueled reactors has increased over the last decade (Forsberg et al. 2016). Several private companies and universities in the United States, as well as governments in other countries, are developing salt reactor designs and/or technology. Two primary issues for the development and deployment of many salt reactor concepts are (1) the prevention of tritium generation and (2) the management of tritium to prevent release to the environment (Holcomb 2013). In 2016, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a research project under the Advanced Reactor Technology Program to (1) experimentally assess the feasibility of proposed methods for tritium mitigation and (2) to perform an engineering demonstration of the most promising methods. This document describes results from the first year’s efforts to define, design, and build an experimental apparatus to test potential methods for tritium management. These efforts are focused on producing a final design document as the basis for the apparatus and its scheduled completion consistent with available budget and approvals for facility use.

  8. Apparatus and method for stripping tritium from molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-02-07

    A method of stripping tritium from flowing stream of molten salt includes providing a tritium-separating membrane structure having a porous support, a nanoporous structural metal-ion diffusion barrier layer, and a gas-tight, nonporous palladium-bearing separative layer, directing the flowing stream of molten salt into contact with the palladium-bearing layer so that tritium contained within the molten salt is transported through the tritium-separating membrane structure, and contacting a sweep gas with the porous support for collecting the tritium.

  9. Characteristics of tritium release behavior from solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinjyo, T.; Nishikawa, M.; Yamashita, N.; Koyama, T.; Suematsu, K.; Fukada, S. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Enoeda, M. [Naka Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    A tritium release model has been developed by the present authors. The tritium release curves estimated by this tritium model give good agreement with experimental curves for Li {sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} or LiAlO{sub 2} under various purge gas conditions in our out-of-pile bred tritium release. The characteristics of tritium release behavior from various solid breeder materials carried out by us and in EXOTIC experiments at Petten are discussed in this study. (authors)

  10. Tritium release from advanced beryllium materials after loading by tritium/hydrogen gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, Rolf; Moeslang, Anton; Kurinskiy, Petr; Vladimirov, Pavel [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dorn, Christopher [Materion Beryllium & Composites, 6070 Parkland Boulevard, Mayfield Heights, OH 44124-4191 (United States); Kupriyanov, Igor [Bochvar Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova str., 5, 123098 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • A major tritium release peak for beryllium samples occurs at temperatures higher than 1250 K. • A beryllium grade with comparatively smaller grain size has a comparatively higher tritium release compared to the grade with larger grain size. • The pebbles of irregular shape with the grain size of 10–30 μm produced by the crushing method demonstrate the highest tritium release rate. - Abstract: Comparison of different beryllium samples on tritium release and retention properties after high-temperature loading by tritium/hydrogen gas mixture and following temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) tests has been performed. The I-220-H grade produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) having the smallest grain size, the pebbles of irregular shape with the smallest grain size (10–30 μm) produced by the crushing method (CM), and the pebbles with 1 mm diameter produced by the fluoride reduction method (FRM) having a highly developed inherent porosity show the highest release rate. Grain size and porosity are considered as key structural parameters for comparison and ranking of different beryllium materials on tritium release and retention properties.

  11. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  12. Preliminary dimensioning of the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeiter, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.arbeiter@kit.edu; Abou-Sena, Ali; Chen, Yuming; Freund, Jana; Klix, Axel; Kondo, Keitaro; Vladimirov, Pavel

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The design of the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module is explained. • Nuclear responses in the module and specimens are calculated. • Temperature fields during irradiation are calculated by 1D methods. • The tritium budget is calculated by 1D methods. -- Abstract: As part of the ongoing Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), an experimental device suitable for the irradiation and online tritium release measurements of solid breeder ceramics and beryllium is investigated. This experimental device is called the Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM). In the preliminary design phase, the possible thermal conditions, the tritium diffusion budgets, and the mechanical loads have been studied by analytical calculations and numerical codes. The most important results concern the tritium production and nuclear heating induced in the structures, the temperature distribution in the specimen region and the structure, and the diffusion of tritium through the safety barriers.

  13. Adsorptive Separation and Recovery of Organic Compounds from Purified Terephthalic Acid Plant Effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachane, P.K.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, G.F.; Pangarkar, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    Several organic impurities formed in the p-xylene oxidation process for manufacture of terephthalic acid are carried into the aqueous effluent from the crystallization section of PTA plant of crystallizers for purified terephthalic acid (PTA). These compounds impose a burden on the effluent treatmen

  14. Study of the {sup 60}Co speciation in the aqueous radioactive waste of the la Hague nuclear reprocessing plant; environmental behaviour after discharges in the waters of the channel; Etude de la speciation du {sup 60}Co dans les effluents de l'usine de retraitement de combustibles irradies de la Hague; devenir apres rejet dans les eaux de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudaire, J.M

    1999-07-01

    {sup 60}Co is produced as an activation product and is present in the low-level aqueous radioactive waste released from the La Hague plant. At present, the concentration in the sea (non filtered at 0.45 {mu}m) at the Goury site are close to or even below, the detection limit: 0.2 mBq.l{sup -1}. The {sup 60}Co speciation depends on the type of effluent considered: in the effluent A ('active'), the cobalt is in the form of a stable trivalent complex; in the effluent V (to be checked), the cobalt is in majority (50% of the activity release) in the form of particles (>0.45 {mu}m), and then in the form of two soluble species: ionic divalent (Co{sup 2+}) and some stable complexes. The evolution of the reprocessing techniques used does not affect the speciation. So, since the nuclear reprocessing plant started at the La Hague plant in 1966, the chemical species discharged in the sea shows time variation related to the evolution of the type of effluent discharged. Thus, since 1994, the particles of cobalt are the main species discharged in the Channel (the V effluents represent more than 85% of the total {sup 60}Co activity released). The effect of instantaneous dilution into the marine conditions involving a variation of pH, oxido-reduction, ionic strength, a gradient of salinity, does not interfere with the evolution of the chemical species discharged. Nevertheless, during the discharge of the V effluent, the main constituents of the sea water (Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}) go through a precipitation. This comes with the coprecipitation of the ion Co{sup 2+} and with the particles of cobalt (complexes are not affected), and it can be responsible for an increase in the concentration in the particles. The chemical behaviour of the cobalt in the Channel is different from those of conservative element such as antimony. The ionic cobalt and the particles have a small dispersion in the water (cobalt has a very high particle/dissolved distribution factor, it is a non

  15. Tritium in Australian precipitation: A 50 year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Hughes, Catherine E.; Crawford, Jagoda; Hollins, Suzanne E.; Chisari, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Tritium in precipitation has been measured in Australia over the past 50 years, as an essential research tool in hydro-climate studies, and to contribute to the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Tritium, a component of the water molecule (HTO), is the only true age tracer for waters. The elevated level of tritium in the environment as a result of last century’s atmospheric thermonuclear testing delivers the benefit of tracing groundwater systems over a 100 year timeframe. The concentration of tritium in Australian precipitation reached a maximum of 160 Tritium Units (TU) in 1963, during one of the most intense periods of nuclear weapons testing. From 1963 to present we observe a rapid drop in the concentration of tritium, more than expected from natural decay, and this can be attributed to the wash out of tritium into the oceans and groundwater. Spikes in the tritium level are superimposed over this general trend; the first around 1969, with levels ranging from 39.4 to 84.4 TU was due to French atmospheric weapon testing, and again in 1990, levels peaked between 6.6 and 12.9 TU, which is attributed to tritium leaking from underground tests in the French Pacific. Since 1990 the levels of tritium have declined globally and regionally. Currently the levels of tritium in Australia are stabilising to around 2-3 TU increasing with latitude across the continent, suggesting that today the tritium in precipitation is predominantly natural. The spatial distribution of tritium is presented and found to be dominated by the annual stratosphere-troposphere exchange in combination with latitude and continental effects. A precipitation amount effect is also observed for inland sites.

  16. Fixation of tritium gas by rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Ichimasa, M.; Shiba, T.; Oda, M.; Akita, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation rate of tritium gas (HT) in the rat was determined using a one-way circuit inhalation apparatus. To eliminate tritiated water (HTO) produced by the apparatus, three traps (a -60/sup 0/C cold trap, a silica gel column and molecular sieves) were used. The oxidation rate was found to be 15.2 Bq per kg of blood per hour for each Bq or HT per ml of inhaled air. This rate was approximately one-third that obtained previously by other workers using a closed circuit inhalation system. No significant differences in tritium concentration were detected between blood and tissues. The fixation of HT by rat faecal suspension under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was determined. Fixation under anaerobic conditions was greater than under aerobic conditions.

  17. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  18. Optimization of simultaneous tritium-radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference.

  19. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  20. Study and Application of Foreign Gaseous Tritium Light Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Bei; LI; Si-jie; ZHANG; Li-feng; SUN; Yu-hua; HAN; Shi-quan

    2013-01-01

    Light is given out by the phosphor material which is excited by theβrays from tritium,as is the way tritium light sources work.For tritium light sources,there is no need for maintenance and additional power,and it is not affected by temperature,humidity,altitude and use technology,which makes it widely used in some special areas of national economy,just like the sight lighting of varieties of instrument panel,

  1. Technical aspects of the first JET tritium experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet, M.; Bell, A.C.; Booth, S.J.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Carmichael, A.; Chuilon, R.; Davies, N.; Dietz, K.J.; Delvart, F.; Erhorn, F.; Falter, H.; Green, B.J.; Grieveson, B.; Haange, R.; Haigh, A.; Hemmerich, J.L.; Holland, D.; How, J.; Jones, T.T.C.; Laesser, R.; Laveyry, M.; Lupo, J.; Miller, A.; Milverton, P.; Newbert, G.; Orchard, J.; Peacock, A.; Russ, R.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Serio, L.; Stagg, R.; Svensson, S.L.; Thompson, E.; Trevalion, P.; Usselmann, E.; Winkel, T.; Wykes, M.E.P. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom))

    1992-09-01

    In November 1991, for the first time a controlled fusion experiment involving mixed deuterium/tritium plasmas was carried out resulting in the release of a peak D-T fusion power of approximately 1.7 MW. The preparations for this First Tritium Experiment, the equipment used for introduction of the tritium and the collection of the exhaust gas as well as the implementation of the experiment and the subsequent clean-up phase are described. (orig.).

  2. Oxidation of molecular tritium in austenitic stainless steel containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blet, V.; Brossard, P.; Falanga, A.; Guidon, H.; Le Sergent, C. (CEA, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (FR)); Clavier, B. (USSI Ingenierie, BP 72, 92223 Bagneux (FR))

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the rate of oxidation of molecular tritium. determined at room temperature in closed austenitic stainless steel containments versus the tritium concentration of tritium-oxygen gaseous mixtures. With our experimental conditions, the overall rate of oxidation is found to depend not only on tritium concentration but also on initial oxygen concentration. The tritiated water which is produced, does not remain in the gaseous phase but is partially trapped on the surface oxides. In addition, kinetics of reaction are strongly dependent on the geometry of the cylindrical containments. When the vessel diameter is smaller than 4 mm, tritiated water formation is significantly reduced.

  3. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Hans A. Schmutz

    2013-03-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  4. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-10-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  5. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  6. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  7. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  8. Treatment of industrial effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahey, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    The textbook is designed for students of water resources technology and as a guide for water quality engineers and those concerned with industrial effluents. The authors come from water authorities, industry and the academic world. Among the subjects considered are microbes and effluent treatments; legal aspects of pollution; analytical techniques; bio-oxidation; physical treatment; biological and ecological aspects of waste treatment; biological treatment of coke-oven liquors; water tracing.

  9. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  10. Synthesis of tritium labelled 24-epibrassinolide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, A.; Marquardt, V.; Adam, G. (Inst. of Plant Biochemistry Halle, Halle/Saale (Germany))

    1992-10-01

    Deuterium and tritium 5,7,7-tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolide were prepared by base catalyzed exchange reaction using 24-epicastasterone tetraacetate 1 or bis-isopropylidenedioxy-24-epicastasterone 8 and labelled water. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the obtained labelled 6-ketones 2 and 3 with CF[sub 3]CO[sub 3]H gave after alkaline deacetylation of the resulting 4 and 5 the desired tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolides 6 and 7, respectively, or starting from 9 under simultaneous oxidation and deprotection in one step the same final products. (author).

  11. Spectroscopic diagnostics of tritium recycling in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.H.; Stotler, D.P.; Adler, H.; Ramsey, A.T.

    1995-03-01

    The authors present the first spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (T{sub {alpha}}) emission from a fusion plasma. A Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to measure the H{sub {alpha}}, D{sub {alpha}}, T{sub {alpha}} spectrum in the current D-T a experimental campaign on TFTR and the contributions of H, D and T are separated by spectral analysis. The T{sub {alpha}} line was measurable at concentrations T{sub {alpha}}/(H{sub {alpha}} + D{sub {alpha}} + T{sub {alpha}}) down to 2%.

  12. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  13. Influence of neutron irradiation on the tritium retention in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolli, R.; Ruebel, S.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wu, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon-based materials and beryllium are the candidates for protective layers on the components of fusion reactors facing plasma. In contact with D-T plasma, these materials absorb tritium, and it is anticipated that tritium retention increases with the neutron damage due to neutron-induced traps. Because of the poor data base for beryllium, the work was concentrated on it. Tritium was loaded into the samples from stagnant T{sub 2}/H{sub 2} atmosphere, and afterwards, the quantity of the loaded tritium was determined by purged thermal annealing. The specification of the samples is shown. The samples were analyzed by SEM before and after irradiation. The loading and the annealing equipments are contained in two different glove boxes with N{sub 2} inert atmosphere. The methods of loading and annealing are explained. The separation of neutron-produced and loaded tritium and the determination of loaded tritium in irradiated samples are reported. Also the determination of loaded tritium in unirradiated samples is reported. It is evident that irradiated samples contained much more loaded tritium than unirradiated samples. The main results of this investigation are summarized in the table. (K.I.)

  14. Model improvements for tritium transport in DEMO fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santucci, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.santucci@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione – ENEA C. R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Tosti, Silvano [Unità Tecnica Fusione – ENEA C. R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Franza, Fabrizio [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • T inventory and permeation of DEMO blankets have been assessed under pulsed operation. • 1-D model for T transport has been developed for the HCLL DEMO blanket. • The 1-D model evaluated T partial pressure and T permeation rate radial profiles. - Abstract: DEMO operation requires a large amount of tritium, which is directly produced inside the reactor by means of Li-based breeders. During its production, recovering and purification, tritium comes in contact with large surfaces of hot metallic walls, therefore it can permeate through the blanket cooling structure, reach the steam generator and finally the environment. The development of dedicated simulation tools able to predict tritium losses and inventories is necessary to verify the accomplishment of the accepted tritium environmental releases as well as to guarantee a correct machine operation. In this work, the FUS-TPC code is improved by including the possibility to operate in pulsed regime: results in terms of tritium inventory and losses for three pulsed scenarios are shown. Moreover, the development of a 1-D model considering the radial profile of the tritium generation is described. By referring to the inboard segment on the equatorial axis of the helium-cooled lithium–lead (HCLL) blanket, preliminary results of the 1-D model are illustrated: tritium partial pressure in Li–Pb and tritium permeation in the cooling and stiffening plates by assuming several permeation reduction factor (PRF) values. Future improvements will consider the application of the model to all segments of different blanket concepts.

  15. Development and Verification of Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Young; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    VHTR, one of the Generation IV reactor concepts, has a relatively high operation temperature and is usually suggested as a heat source for many industrial processes, including hydrogen production process. Thus, it is vital to trace tritium behavior in the VHTR system and the potential permeation rate to the industrial process. In other words, tritium is a crucial issue in terms of safety in the fission reactor system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of tritium and the development of the tool to enable this is vital.. In this study, a Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC) an analytic tool which is capable of analyzing tritium behavior is developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. BOTANIC was then further verified using the analytic solutions and benchmark codes such as Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) and COMSOL. In this study, the Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code, BOTANIC, has been developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. The code has several distinctive features including non-diluted assumption, flexible applications and adoption of distributed permeation model. Due to these features, BOTANIC has the capability to analyze a wide range of tritium level systems and has a higher accuracy as it has the capacity to solve distributed models. BOTANIC was successfully developed and verified using analytical solution and the benchmark code calculation result. The results showed very good agreement with the analytical solutions and the calculation results of TPAC and COMSOL. Future work will be focused on the total system verification.

  16. Fast Tritium Separation From the Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Xiao-hu; YANG; Su-liang; YANG; Lei; YANG; Jin-ling

    2012-01-01

    <正>Due to the needed of high efficiency monitoring and controlling of the waste water generated from the spent fuel reprocessing process, analyzing work need to be done quickly. Tritium is an important nuclide in the liquid waste and its content must be determined. But the existing tritium analysis method

  17. Thermomigration of tritium in V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Kenichi, E-mail: hashi@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ogushi, Kazuhiro; Otsuka, Teppei; Tanabe, Tetsuo [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    In order to obtain heat of transport, Q*, of tritium in V-4Cr-4Ti alloy (NIFS-HEAT-2), thermomigration experiments have been carried out at a temperature ranging from 333 to 471 K. Tritium homogeneously distributed in the specimen bar was forced to migrate by an applied temperature gradient. The resulting tritium profile was visualized by an imaging plate technique and Q* was determined from the profile according to a thermomigration theory. The obtained value of Q* was about +20 kJ/mol for the initial hydrogen concentration of 0.008 at.%, and no appreciable temperature dependence was observed. In order to examine the effect of thermomigration on tritium retentions in pure V and the alloy used as cooling tubes or first walls of the blanket, a simple model calculation was made under designed temperature gradients in fusion reactors. The result showed that tritium retention could be enhanced about 10-20% compared with the case without thermomigration.

  18. Effect of Tritium on Cracking Threshold in 7075 Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Morgan, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-02-28

    The effect of long-term exposure to tritium gas on the cracking threshold (KTH) of 7075 Aluminum Alloy was investigated. The alloy is the material of construction for a cell used to contain tritium in an accelerator at Jefferson Laboratory designed for inelastic scattering experiments on nucleons. The primary safety concerns for the Jefferson Laboratory tritium cell is a tritium leak due to mechanical failure of windows from hydrogen isotope embrittlement, radiation damage, or loss of target integrity from accidental excessive beam heating due to failure of the raster or grossly mis-steered beam. Experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for embrittlement of the 7075 Aluminum alloy from tritium gas.

  19. Tritium//sup 3/He dating of shallow groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, P.; Stute, M.; Doerr, H.; Sonntag, C.; Muennich, K.O.

    1988-08-01

    Combined tritium//sup 3/He data from three multi-level sampling wells (DFG 1, DFG 4, DFG 7) located at Liedern/Bocholt, West Germany, are presented and principles of the tritium//sup 3/He method in shallow groundwater studies are discussed. The /sup 3/He excess produced by radioactive decay of bomb tritium (released mainly between 1952 and 1963) is clearly reflected in the data. The tritiogenic /sup 3/He signal can be detected with a good resolution (signal/1sigma error: approx. = 350). The confinement of the tritiogenic /sup 3/He is estimated to approximately 77-85% at site DFG 4. For the bomb tritium peak the deviation of the tritium//sup 3/He age from the age determined by identifying the groundwater layer recharged between 1962 and 1965 is about 3 years (15%). The deviation can be explained by diffusive /sup 3/He loss across the groundwater table and by flow dispersion.

  20. Preliminary Experimental Results for Tritium Accountancy Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Do Yeon; Chung, Hong Suk; Chung, Dong You; Koo, Dae Seo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The SDS (storage and delivery system) is one of the major components of ITER fuel cycle. The main function of the SDS is to store the hydrogen isotopes and deliver them to the fuel injection system. The tritium inventory of the bed is determined from the decay heat of the tritium without removing the inventory from bed. The decay heat is measured by the in-bed calorimetry. He through the ZrCo bed and measuring the resultant temperature increase of the He flow. Korea has been various test results for the experimental ZrCo beds. Based on this result, we propose concept of tray type ZrCo bed. ZrCo was reacted with the hydrogen ingressed through SUS filter(120mesh) placed in the tray. The heating coils and the helium loop for the inbed calorimetry are installed bottom of the tray. In this paper, we performed thermo analysis on the in-bed calorimetry performance of the bed. Using the software, LABVIEW, the time-dependent temperature distribution of the bed, the temperature difference ({Delta} T) between the inlet and outlet of the flow through the helium loop

  1. Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglan, N. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Arpajon (France); Kim, S.B. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Cossonnet, C. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/STEME/LMRE, Orsay (France); Croudace, I.W.; Warwick, P.E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Fournier, M. [IRSN/DG/DMQ, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Galeriu, D. [IFIN-HH, Horia-Hulubei, Inst. Phys. and Nucl. Eng., Bucharest (Romania); Momoshima, N. [Kyushu University, Radioisotope Ctr., Fukuoka (Japan); Ansoborlo, E. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/CETAMA, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2015-03-15

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.

  2. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B. [Institute of Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karsruhe - TLK, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  3. Tritium distribution modeling in a Light Water New Production Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckle, J.W.

    1989-05-01

    The tritium distribution and tritium release pathways in a new light water production reactor were examined. A computer model was developed to track the tritium as it makes its way through the various plant systems and ends up either as a release to the atmosphere, the cooling tower blowdown or to the solid waste system. The model was designed to predict the integrated yearly tritium releases and provide estimated airborne tritium concentrations in various locations within the plant. WNP-1 was used as a representative model for a Light Water New Production Reactor (LWNPR). The Tritium Distribution Model solves for the time dependent tritium concentration in a system of nodes. These nodes are connected to one another via a set of internodal flow paths and to various sources and sinks. For example, plant systems such as the primary system are the nodes, piping and leaks are the internodal flow paths, make-up water is a source, and release to the atmosphere is a sink. The expected water mass of each node; the flow rates between nodes, sources, and sinks; and tritium source rates are provided as input. The code will solve for the time dependent tritium concentration in each node and the amount of tritium ''released'' to the sinks. Preliminary calculations have been performed using WNP-1 plant specific information obtained primarily from the WNP-1 FSAR. Further work is currently in progress to refine the model and provide a more realistic set of input values which will better represent an operating LWNPR. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Gaseous Tritium Light Sources in armament and watches industries; Tritium-Gas-Lichtquellen in der Ruestungs- und Uhrenindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amme, Marcus; Siegenthaler, Roger [mb-microtec ag, Niederwangen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The industrial application of Tritium gas enclosed in glass tubes is a modern way illuminating instruments and items wherever instant and independent readability is prerequisite. The GTLS (Gaseous Tritium Light Sources) technology follows the principle of radiation-induced luminescence and supersedes the luminous radioactive paints and their hazards such as particles erasure or heavy isotope use. Enclosure of tritium in glass is a demanding micro technology process and work needs to be performed in controlled areas due to handling of open sources. The storage and transport of the Tritium is done via licensed B(U)-containers coming from heavy water reactor sites, and disposal of radioactive Tritium wastes has to be compliant with national and international regulations for transport and waste management.

  5. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a health risk assessment that addresses continuous releases of tritium to the environment from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The NTLF contributes approximately 95% of all tritium releases from LBL. Transport and transformation models were used to determine the movement of tritium releases from the NRLF to the air, surface water, soils, and plants and to determine the subsequent doses to humans. These models were calibrated against environmental measurements of tritium levels in the vicinity of the NTLF and in the surrounding community. Risk levels were determined for human populations in each of these zones. Risk levels to both individuals and populations were calculated. In this report population risks and individual risks were calculated for three types of diseases--cancer, heritable genetic effects, and developmental and reproductive effects.

  6. Tritium and helium release from beryllium pebbles neutron-irradiated up to 230appm tritium and 3000appm helium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Chakin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of tritium and helium release from beryllium pebbles with diameters of 0.5 and 1mm after high-dose neutron irradiation at temperatures of 686–968K was performed. The release rate always has a single peak, and the peak temperatures at heating rates of 0.017K/s and 0.117K/s lie in the range of 1100–1350K for both tritium and helium release. The total tritium release from 1mm pebbles decreases considerably by increasing the irradiation temperature. The total tritium release from 0.5mm pebbles is less than that from 1mm pebbles and remains constant regardless of the irradiation temperature. At high irradiation temperatures, open channels are formed which contribute to the enhanced tritium release.

  7. Tritium: An analysis of key environmental and dosimetric questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, J E; Meyer, H R; Etnier, E L; Bomar, E S; Gentry, R D; Killough, G G; Rohwer, P S; Tennery, V J; Travis, C C

    1980-05-01

    This document summarizes new theoretical and experimental data that may affect the assessment of environmental releases of tritium and analyzes the significance of this information in terms of the dose to man. Calculated doses resulting from tritium releases to the environment are linearly dependent upon the quality factor chosen for tritium beta radiation. A reevaluation of the tritium quality factor by the ICRP is needed; a value of 1.7 would seem to be more justifiable than the old 1.0 value. A new exposure model is proposed, based primarily upon the approach recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Employing a /open quotes/typical/close quotes/ LMFBR reprocessing facility source term, a /open quotes/base case/close quotes/ dose commitment to total body (for a maximally exposed individual) was calculated to be 4.0 /times/ 10/sup /minus/2/ mSv, with 3.2 /times/ 10/sup /minus// mSv of the dose due to intake of tritium. The study analyzes models which exist for evaluating the buildup of global releases of tritium from man-made sources. Scenarios for the release of man-made tritium to the environment and prediction of collective dose commitment to future generations suggest that the dose from nuclear weapons testing will be less than that from nuclear energy even though the weapons source term is greater than that for any of our energy scenarios.

  8. Tritium Removal by Laser Heating and Its Application to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; G. Guttadora; A. Carpe; S. Langish; K.M. Young; M. Nishi; W. Shu

    2001-11-16

    A novel laser heating technique has recently been applied to removing tritium from carbon tiles that had been exposed to deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR). A continuous wave neodymium laser, of power up to 300 watts, was used to heat the surface of the tiles. The beam was focused to an intensity, typically 8 kW/cm{sup 2}, and rapidly scanned over the tile surface by galvanometer-driven scanning mirrors. Under the laser irradiation, the surface temperature increased dramatically, and temperatures up to 2,300 degrees C were recorded by an optical pyrometer. Tritium was released and circulated in a closed-loop system to an ionization chamber that measured the tritium concentration. Most of the tritium (up to 84%) could be released by the laser scan. This technique appears promising for tritium removal in a next-step DT device as it avoids oxidation, the associated deconditioning of the plasma facing surfaces, and the expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. Some engineering aspects of the implementation of this method in a next-step fusion device will be discussed.

  9. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF TRITIUM FROM NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okula, K

    2007-01-17

    Tritium source term analysis and the subsequent dispersion and consequence analyses supporting the safety documentation of Department of Energy nuclear facilities are especially sensitive to the applied software analysis methodology, input data and user assumptions. Three sequential areas in tritium accident analysis are examined in this study to illustrate where the analyst should exercise caution. Included are: (1) the development of a tritium oxide source term; (2) use of a full tritium dispersion model based on site-specific information to determine an appropriate deposition scaling factor for use in more simplified, broader modeling, and (3) derivation of a special tritium compound (STC) dose conversion factor for consequence analysis, consistent with the nature of the originating source material. It is recommended that unless supporting, defensible evidence is available to the contrary, the tritium release analyses should assume tritium oxide as the species released (or chemically transformed under accident's environment). Important exceptions include STC situations and laboratory-scale releases of hydrogen gas. In the modeling of the environmental transport, a full phenomenology model suggests that a deposition velocity of 0.5 cm/s is an appropriate value for environmental features of the Savannah River Site. This value is bounding for certain situations but non-conservative compared to the full model in others. Care should be exercised in choosing other factors such as the exposure time and the resuspension factor.

  10. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  11. Recent Upgrades at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles [Idaho National Laboratory; Merrill, Brad Johnson [Idaho National Laboratory; Stewart, Dean Andrew [Idaho National Laboratory; Loftus, Larry Shayne [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-03-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility operated by the Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). FSP researchers use the STAR facility to carry out experiments in tritium permeation and retention in various fusion materials, including wall armor tile materials. FSP researchers also perform other experimentation as well to support safety assessment in fusion development. This lab, in its present two-building configuration, has been in operation for over ten years. The main experiments at STAR are briefly described. This paper discusses recent work to enhance personnel safety at the facility. The STAR facility is a Department of Energy less than hazard category 3 facility; the personnel safety approach calls for ventilation and tritium monitoring for radiation protection. The tritium areas of STAR have about 4 to 12 air changes per hour, with air flow being once through and then routed to the facility vent stack. Additional radiation monitoring has been installed to read the laboratory room air where experiments with tritium are conducted. These ion chambers and bubblers are used to verify that no significant tritium concentrations are present in the experiment rooms. Standby electrical power has been added to the facility exhaust blower so that proper ventilation will now operate during commercial power outages as well as the real-time tritium air monitors.

  12. The lichens, tritium and carbon 14 integrators; Les lichens, integrateurs de tritium et de carbone 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daillant, O

    2007-07-01

    The present report concerns a research for the tritium and for the carbon 14 in lichens in a spirit of bio-indication: the first results appear in Daillant and al (2004 ) and additional results were presented to the congress B.I.O.M.A.P. in Slovenia, organized collectively by the institute Josef Stefan from Ljubljana and the international atomic energy agency from Vienna (Daillant and al 2003). (N.C.)

  13. Long-term permeator experiment PETRA at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe: commissioning tests with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzhorn, R.D.; Berndt, U.; Kirste, E.; Hellriegel, W.; Jung, W.; Pejsa, R.; Romer, O. [Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    During the commissioning of the PETRA facility, the PETRA PdAg permeator was characterized using hydrogen isotopes by determining the hydrogen curves for H{sub 2}, D{sub 2} and DT as well as He curves for various H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}/He gas mixtures at 300 and 400{degree}C. A method was developed to verify the mechanical integrity of the permeator during runs with the tritium. The H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} permeation losses into the isolation vacuum of the permeator were quantified. Hydrogen permeation into the isolation vacuum could be kept at levels low enough to permit an undisturbed continuous operation of the permeator using a ZrCo tritium storage vessel. It was shown that the combination of the PETRA facility with a Normetex scroll pump, it is possible to extract at <320{degree}C >98% of the hydrogen isotopes from the ZrCo storage vessel with (a) negligible permeation losses, (b) without the danger of disproportionation of the intermetallic compound and (c) with the minimization of the tritium inventory in the facility. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHood, M D

    2000-10-12

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  15. Synthesis of some useful tritium labelled auxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchman, O.; Pri-Bar, I.; Shimoni, M.; Azran, J. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev)

    1992-06-01

    The synthesis of six useful auxins labelled with tritium is described. The following compounds were prepared: 3-indoleacetic acid-5-[sup 3]H (28.9 Ci-1.07 TBq/mmol), 3-indolebutyric acid-5-[sup 3]H (7.3 Ci-270 GBq/mmol), 1-naphthylacetic acid-4-[sup 3]H (27.6 Ci-1.02 TBq/mmol), 2,4-dichloropheno-xyacetic acid-5-[sup 3]H (18.5 Ci-685 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy-5-[sup 3]H) -propionic acid (20.7 Ci-766 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid-3-[sup 3]H (0.39 Ci-14.4 GMq/mmol), and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid-2-[sup 3]H (13.3 Ci-492 GBq/mmol). (author).

  16. Tritium-powered radiation sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, Marc S.; Russo, Johnny A.; Katsis, Dimos

    2016-05-01

    Isotope power supplies offer long-lived (100 years using 63Ni), low-power energy sources, enabling sensors or communications nodes for the lifetime of infrastructure. A tritium beta-source (12.5-year half-life) encapsulated in a phosphor-lined vial couples directly to a photovoltaic (PV) to generate a trickle current into an electrical load. An inexpensive design is described using commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) components that generate 100 μWe for nextgeneration compact electronics/sensors. A matched radiation sensor has been built for long-duration missions utilizing microprocessor-controlled sleep modes, low-power electronic components, and a passive interrupt driven environmental wake-up. The low-power early-warning radiation detector network and isotope power source enables no-maintenance mission lifetimes.

  17. Tritium analyses of COBRA-1A2 beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Selected tritium measurements have been completed for the COBRA-1A2 experiment C03 and D03 beryllium pebbles. The completed results, shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, include the tritium assay results for the 1-mm and 3-mm C03 pebbles, and the 1-mm D03 pebbles, stepped anneal test results for both types of 1-mm pebbles, and the residual analyses for the stepped-anneal specimens. All results have been reported with date-of-count and are not corrected for decay. Stepped-anneal tritium release response is provided in addenda.

  18. Glovebox stripper system tritium capture efficiency-literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, D. W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poore, A. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-28

    Glovebox Stripper Systems (GBSS) are intended to minimize tritium emissions from glovebox confinement systems in Tritium facilities. A question was raised to determine if an assumed 99% stripping (decontamination) efficiency in the design of a GBBS was appropriate. A literature review showed the stated 99% tritium capture efficiency used for design of the GBSS is reasonable. Four scenarios were indicated for GBSSs. These include release with a single or dual stage setup which utilizes either single-pass or recirculation for stripping purposes. Examples of single-pass as well as recirculation stripper systems are presented and reviewed in this document.

  19. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-08-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. In order to prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this paper examines the root causes and potential solutions for the production of this radionuclide, including materials selection and inert gas sparging. A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750°C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for one steadystate value of tritium production in the reactor.

  20. Recommendations for Tritium Science and Technology Research and Development in Support of the Tritium Readiness Campaign, TTP-7-084

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senor, David J.

    2013-10-30

    Between 2006 and 2012 the Tritium Readiness Campaign Development and Testing Program produced significant advances in the understanding of in-reactor TPBAR performance. Incorporating these data into existing TPBAR performance models has improved permeation predictions, and the discrepancy between predicted and observed tritium permeation in the WBN1 coolant has been decreased by about 30%. However, important differences between predicted and observed permeation still remain, and there are significant knowledge gaps that hinder the ability to reliably predict other aspects of TPBAR performance such as tritium distribution, component integrity, and performance margins. Based on recommendations from recent Tritium Readiness Campaign workshops and reviews coupled with technical and programmatic priorities, high-priority activities were identified to address knowledge gaps in the near- (3-5 year), middle- (5-10 year), and long-term (10+ year) time horizons. It is important to note that there are many aspects to a well-integrated research and development program. The intent is not to focus exclusively on one aspect or another, but to approach the program in a holistic fashion. Thus, in addition to small-scale tritium science studies, ex-reactor tritium technology experiments such as TMED, and large-scale in-reactor tritium technology experiments such as TMIST, a well-rounded research and development program must also include continued analysis of WBN1 performance data and post-irradiation examination of TPBARs and lead use assemblies to evaluate model improvements and compare separate-effects and integral component behavior.

  1. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code and Tritium Transport in a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Coupled with Hydrogen Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Mike Patterson

    2010-06-01

    Abstract – A tritium permeation analyses code (TPAC) was developed by Idaho National Laboratory for the purpose of analyzing tritium distributions in very high temperature reactor (VHTR) systems, including integrated hydrogen production systems. A MATLAB SIMULINK software package was used in developing the code. The TPAC is based on the mass balance equations of tritium-containing species and various forms of hydrogen coupled with a variety of tritium sources, sinks, and permeation models. In the TPAC, ternary fission and neutron reactions with 6Li, 7Li 10B, and 3He were taken into considerations as tritium sources. Purification and leakage models were implemented as main tritium sinks. Permeation of tritium and H2 through pipes, vessels, and heat exchangers were considered as main tritium transport paths. In addition, electroyzer and isotope exchange models were developed for analyzing hydrogen production systems, including high temperature electrolysis and sulfur-iodine processes.

  2. Increasing the performance of tritium analysis by electrolytic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groning, M; Auer, R; Brummer, D; Jaklitsch, M; Sambandam, C; Tanweer, A; Tatzber, H

    2009-06-01

    Several improvements are described for the existing tritium enrichment system at the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency for processing natural water samples. The improvements include a simple method for pretreatment of electrolytic cells to ensure a high tritium separation factor, an improved design of the exhaust system for explosive gases, and a vacuum distillation line for faster initial preparation of water samples for electrolytic enrichment and for tritium analysis. Achievements included the reduction of variation of individual enrichment parameters of all cells to less than 1% and an improvement of 50% of the stability of the background mean. It resulted in an improved detection limit of less than 0.4 TU (at 2s), important for application of tritium measurements in the future at low concentration levels, and resulted in measurement precisions of+/-0.2 TU and+/-0.15 TU for liquid scintillation counting and for gas proportional counting, respectively.

  3. Assessment of tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R. [and others

    1993-10-01

    This report is the first revision to a series of reports on radionuclides inn the SRS environment. Tritium was chosen as the first radionuclide in the series because the calculations used to assess the dose to the offsite population from SRS releases indicate that the dose due to tritium, through of small consequence, is one of the most important the radionuclides. This was recognized early in the site operation, and extensive measurements of tritium in the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water exist due to the effort of the Environmental Monitoring Section. In addition, research into the transport and fate of tritium in the environment has been supported at the SRS by both the local Department of Energy (DOE) Office and DOE`s Office of Health and Environmental Research.

  4. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, A.; Kato, Y.; Akai, R.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO{sub 3}H and -NH{sub 2} groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D{sub 2}O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D{sub 2}O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D{sub 2}O with bare SBA. (authors)

  5. Tritium Systems Test Assembly: design for major device fabrication review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.L.; Sherman, R.H.

    1977-06-01

    This document has been prepared for the Major Device Fabrication Review for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). The TSTA is dedicated to the development, demonstration, and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle for fusion reactor systems. The principal objectives for TSTA are: (a) demonstrate the fuel cycle for fusion reactor systems; (b) develop test and qualify equipment for tritium service in the fusion program; (c) develop and test environmental and personnel protective systems; (d) evaluate long-term reliability of components; (e) demonstrate long-term safe handling of tritium with no major releases or incidents; and (f) investigate and evaluate the response of the fuel cycle and environmental packages to normal, off-normal, and emergency situations. This document presents the current status of a conceptual design and cost estimate for TSTA. The total cost to design, construct, and operate TSTA through FY-1981 is estimated to be approximately $12.2 M.

  6. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)

    2015-03-15

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10{sup 4} Bq/ml - 5*10{sup 8} Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10{sup -14} A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R{sup 2} = 0.998.

  7. [Internal contamination by tritium caused by radioluminescent paints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J; Doniec, J

    1985-01-01

    The internal contamination investigations covered 23 persons using radioluminescence paints containing tritium, assembling devices painted with those paints, and those having no contact with active paints but working next to the painting room. Determined were concentrations of tritium excreted with urine, air contamination at workplaces, contamination of workplace areas and hand skin. At the time covered by the investigations, the mean annual equivalent doses for those using tritium paints were reduced from 14-20 mSv to about 5 mSv. In those working next to the painting room they were reduced from 5.8-15 to 0.23 mSv. The exposure of those assembling the devices does not exceed 1 mSv. It was demonstrated that the main cause of the tritium exposure level was air contamination in working rooms.

  8. Determination of tritium and carbon-14 in accelerator waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argentini, M.; Weinreich, R. [Lab. of Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    In dismounted parts of the accelerator facilities of paul scherrer institute, tritium and {sup 14}C were determined by low-level counting after chemical separation. In graphite targets used for the production of {pi}-mesons, tritium amounts from 1.7.10{sup 8} to 6.10{sup 8} Bq/g were found; the corresponding {sup 14}C data were 6 and 9 Ci/g, respectively. In the dismantled copper beam dump of Target E, the tritium content extended up to 2.8.10{sup 6} Bq/g, but no {sup 14}C could be detected. In mechanical parts of the beam dump, consisting of iron and stainless steel, respectively, the tritium amount ranged up to 5.3.10{sup 3} Bq/g, the {sup 14}C amount from 1 to 800 Bq/g. The separation procedures are described in detail. (orig.)

  9. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  10. A novel portable system for detecting and measuring tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, Domenico

    2007-06-01

    A novel tritium detector configuration is described based on the anthracene scintillation method. Tritium-bearing samples are applied to a plate-bearing finely sublimed anthracene crystals and viewed in a field-able PMT-based reader against a standard plate. A microprocessor-based control and signal analysis system delivers a reading with a sensitivity of better than 5 nCi 3H in approximately 3 min, and 2.3 nCi in 10 min of counting.

  11. Analysis of Tritium Breeding in the Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, SeongHee; Park, YunSeo; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, neutronic analyses are conducted on redesign of TMs which have high tritium breeding performance based on results of previous study. Calculation model is simplified, there is no effect to cover very complex geometry of fusion reactor for this study. As spent fuel disposal problem is issued in nuclear industry, FFHR is one of the most fascinating candidates for solving this problem through waste transmutation. Our research team also was designed a full core FFHR for waste transmutation. However, in this study, Test Module (TM) as test bed of FFHR for various purposes are analyzed. Analysis of tritium breeding on the TM was conducted as a first phase among TMs having various purposes. Because there are no fissionable materials in the TM for tritium breeding, geometry and neutronic reactions of its simpler compared to TM for waste transmutation and power production. Additionally, it is important database for tritium self-sufficiency as basic design condition of TM. In the previous study, neutronic analyses are conducted on these various TMs: Helium cooled solid breeder (HCSB), water cooled solid breeder (WCSB), Helium cooled dual breeder (HCDB) and molten-salt cooled liquid breeder (MSLB) in order to understand design characteristics. Neutronics calculations are performed with MCNPX 2.6.0 with ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron cross section library and activity and time-dependent tritium production calculations are performed with CINDER'90. In this paper, analysis of tritium breeding on WCHESL and WCHELL as TM is conducted. WCHESL is designed for effective tritium breeding performance and it satisfies design conditions. On the other hand WCHELL is designed for tritium breeding as much as possible and it also satisfies design conditions. However, neutron multiplication performance with these TM is not outstanding. WCHESL consist ceramic Li breeder, its period is 4.15E+08 sec.

  12. Distribution of tritium in precipitation and surface water in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Patrick A.; Visser, Ate; Moran, Jean E.; Esser, Brad K.

    2016-03-01

    The tritium concentration in the surface hydrosphere throughout California was characterized to examine the reasons for spatial variability and to enhance the applicability of tritium in hydrological investigations. Eighteen precipitation samples were analyzed and 148 samples were collected from surface waters across California in the Summer and Fall of 2013, with repeat samples from some locations collected in Winter and Spring of 2014 to examine seasonal variation. The concentration of tritium in present day precipitation varied from 4.0 pCi/L near the California coast to 17.8 pCi/L in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Concentrations in precipitation increase in spring due to the 'Spring Leak' phenomenon. The average coastal concentration (6.3 ± 1.2 pCi/L) in precipitation matches estimated pre-nuclear levels. Surface water samples show a trend of increasing tritium with inland distance. Superimposed on that trend, elevated tritium concentrations are found in the San Francisco Bay area compared to other coastal areas, resulting from municipal water imported from inland mountain sources and local anthropogenic sources. Tritium concentrations in most surface waters decreased between Summer/Fall 2013 and Winter/Spring 2014 likely due to an increased groundwater signal as a result of drought conditions in 2014. A relationship between tritium and electrical conductivity in surface water was found to be indicative of water provenance and anthropogenic influences such as agricultural runoff. Despite low initial concentrations in precipitation, tritium continues to be a valuable tracer in a post nuclear bomb pulse world.

  13. Description of tritium release from lithium titanate at constant temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, L.; Lagos, S.; Jimenez, J.; Saravia, E. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1998-03-01

    Lithium Titanate Ceramics have been prepared by the solid-state route, pebbles and pellets were fabricated by extrusion and their microstructure was characterized in our laboratories. The ceramic material was irradiated in the La Reina Reactor, RECH-1. A study of post-irradiation annealing test, was performed measuring Tritium release from the Lithium Titanate at constant temperature. The Bertone`s method modified by R. Verrall is used to determine the parameters of Tritium release from Lithium Titanate. (author)

  14. A study of low-cost adsorbent materials for removing Cr(VI from aqueous waste effluent Estudio de materiales adsorbentes de bajo costo para remover Cr(VI de efluentes acuosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Serna Elianna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  

    The present paper shows very high potential for two types of solid (a commercial alumina and material obtained by composting, i.e. matured compost on Cr(VI adsorption/elimination in aqueous solution using a concentration range close to those previously detected in waste-water from Colombian industries. Both had important properties for eliminating Cr(VI, the compost being more important as it represents low-cost material. Optimal conditions for chromium adsorption on alumina and compost were established. Initial Cr(VI alumina concentration was 10 mgL-1, with 100 mL/g volume of solution per adsorbent mass, pH=2.0, 1 hour equilibrium time and 150 rpm stirring. For compost, initial Cr(VI concentration was = 3 mg L-1, 50 mL/g volume of solution per adsorbent mass, pH=2.5, 3 hour equilibrium time and 150 rpm stirring. The experiments showed that compost adsorption properties could be enhanced by adding small quantities of alumina. Compost could thus be chosen as a promising material for use in bioremediation chromium-containing waste water in a management programme for using solid waste in for minimising environmental impact.

     

     

    Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  15. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Ambiente; Vasselli, R. [ANPA, Roma (Italy); Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Energia

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10{sup 1}1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed.

  16. Tritium trapping states induced by lithium-depletion in Li2TiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Oya, Yasuhisa; Okuno, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    Identifications of tritium trapping states in neutron-irradiated Li1.8TiO2.9 (lithium-depleted Li2TiO3) were carried out by the out-of-pile tritium release behavior. Tritium release behaviors for neutron-irradiated Li2TiO3 and tritium gas-exposed TiO2 were also measured for comparison. Among the tritium release spectra for these samples, three tritium release peaks were appeared. By the kinetic analyses of tritium release behaviors, the Arrhenius parameters for three peaks were evaluated. Especially for Li1.8TiO2.9, there were two tritium release peaks, and the peak in lower temperature region was assigned to the tritium release controlled by the diffusion process in Li2TiO3 structure. The other tritium release peak, which was hardly appeared for Li2TiO3, was assigned to the release of tritium trapped as hydroxyl groups in Li1.8TiO2.9, indicating that lithium-depletion would result in the formation of hydroxyl groups in Li2TiO3. Lithium vacancies existed in Li2TiO3 crystal structure would promote the tritium trapping as hydroxyl groups due to the decreased charge repulsion between lithium ions and tritium ion, resulting in the difficulty of recovering tritium from Li2TiO3 effectively.

  17. Problems bound to the tritium in materials for the nuclear - some illustrations; Problematiques liees au tritium dans les materiaux dans le domaine nucleaire - quelques illustrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldi, O. [CEA Cadarache (DTN/STPA/LPC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2007-07-01

    The tritium control takes more and more importance in the nuclear industry because of the release more and more limited, in the environment. After a presentation on the tritium sources in the environment, the author presents the different ways of its production. Then for each reactor channel, the main problems are presented (fission and fusion). The last part deals with the behavior of the tritium in materials: the tritium inventory control in a fusion system, the tritium management after the reactor exploitation. (A.L.B.)

  18. Reducing the tritium inventory in waste produced by fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamela, J., E-mail: jerome.pamela@cea.fr [CEA, Agence ITER-France, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Decanis, C. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Canas, D. [CEA, DEN/DADN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Liger, K.; Gaune, F. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Fusion devices including ITER will generate tritiated waste, some of which will need to be detritiated before disposal. • Interim storage is the reference solution offering an answer for all types of tritiated radwaste. • Incineration is very attractive for VLLW and possibly SL-LILW soft housekeeping waste, since it offers higher tritium and waste volume reduction than the alternative thermal treatment technique. • For metallic waste, further R&D efforts should be made to optimize tritium release management and minimize the need for interim storage. - Abstract: The specific issues raised by tritiated waste resulting from fusion machines are described. Of the several categories of tritium contaminated waste produced during the entire lifespan of a fusion facility, i.e. operating phase and dismantling phase, only two categories are considered here: metal components and solid combustible waste, especially soft housekeeping materials. Some of these are expected to contain a high level of tritium, and may therefore need to be processed using a detritiation technique before disposal or interim storage. The reference solution for tritiated waste management in France is a 50-year temporary storage for tritium decay, with options for reducing the tritium content as alternatives or complement. An overview of the strategic issues related to tritium reduction techniques is proposed for each radiological category of waste for both metallic and soft housekeeping waste. For this latter category, several options of detritiation techniques by thermal treatment like heating up or incineration are described. A comparison has been made between these various technical options based on several criteria: environment, safety, technical feasibility and costs. For soft housekeeping waste, incineration is very attractive for VLLW and possibly SL-LILW. For metallic waste, further R&D efforts should be conducted.

  19. Three tritium systems test assembly (TSTA) off-loop experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talcott, C.L.; Anderson, J.L.; Carlson, R.V.; Coffin, D.O.; Walthers, C.R.; Hamerdinger, D.; Binning, K.; Trujillo, R.D.; Moya, J.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hayashi, T.; Okuno, K.; Yamanishi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-11-01

    This report contains the results from three different experiments. Experiment one was initiated to establish the possibility of using a soft elastomer in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) applications. Used in this application, the sealing material is anticipated to be in tritium at pressures in the range of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} torr for many years. Here two O-ring valve seals each of Viton-A, Buna-N, and EDPM were exposed to 1, 40, or 400 torr of tritium while being cycled open and closed approximately 11,500 times in 192 days. EDPM is the least susceptible to damage from the tritium. Both Buna-N and Viton-A showed deterioration following the first cycling at 400 torr. Using commercially available materials, the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) designed and built a Portable Water Removal (PWR) Unit to reduce tritium oxide emissions during glovebox breaches. The PWR removes 99.9% of all tritium and saves between 0.7 and 3.5 curies of tritium oxide from being stacked during each of the five tests. Finally, a series of tests are done to determine whether the presence of SF{sub 6} changes the ability of palladium and platinum to catalyze the T{sub 2}-O{sub 2} reaction to form T{sub 2}O. No deterioration of the catalytic activity is observed. This is important because the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) requires information about the effect of SF{sub 6}, an electrical insulator, on the catalytic behavior of Pt and Pd in a T{sub 2} environment. This information is necessary for the accident analysis in the Safety Analysis Report for TFTR. This study is done using an apparatus supplied to TSTA by TFTR.

  1. Operational Readiness Review: Savannah River Replacement Tritium Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    The Operational Readiness Review (ORR) is one of several activities to be completed prior to introducing tritium into the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Secretary of Energy will rely in part on the results of this ORR in deciding whether the startup criteria for RTF have been met. The RTF is a new underground facility built to safely service the remaining nuclear weapons stockpile. At RTF, tritium will be unloaded from old components, purified and enriched, and loaded into new or reclaimed reservoirs. The RTF will replace an aging facility at SRS that has processed tritium for more than 35 years. RTF has completed construction and is undergoing facility startup testing. The final stages of this testing will require the introduction of limited amounts of tritium. The US Department of Energy (DOE) ORR was conducted January 19 to February 4, 1993, in accordance with an ORR review plan which was developed considering previous readiness reviews. The plan also considered the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendations 90-4 and 92-6, and the judgements of experienced senior experts. The review covered three major areas: (1) Plant and Equipment Readiness, (2) Personnel Readiness, and (3) Management Systems. The ORR Team was comprised of approximately 30 members consisting of a Team Leader, Senior Safety Experts, and Technical Experts. The ORR objectives and criteria were based on DOE Orders, industry standards, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations guidelines, recommendations of external oversight groups, and experience of the team members.

  2. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  3. Limitation of tritium outgassing from tritiated solid waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liger, K.; Trabuc, P.; Lefebvre, X.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C. [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STPA/LIPC, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the development of fusion thermonuclear reactors, tritiated solid waste is foreseen and will have to be managed. The management of tritiated waste implies limitations in terms of activity and tritium degassing. The degassing tritium can be under the form of tritiated hydrogen, tritiated water and, in some specific cases, negligible amount of tritiated volatile organic compound. Hence, considering the major forms of degassing tritium, CEA has developed a mixed-compound dedicated to tritium trapping in drums. Based on several experiments, the foreseen mixed compound is composed of MnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}O, Pt and molecular sieve, the three first species having the ability to convert tritiated hydrogen into tritiated water and the last one acting as a trap for tritiated water. To assess the performance of the trapping mixture, experimental tests were performed at room temperature on tritiated dust composed of beryllium and carbon. It was shown that the metallic oxides mixture used for tritiated hydrogen conversion is efficient and that tritiated water adsorption was limited due to an inefficient regeneration of the molecular sieve prior to its use. Apart from this point, the tritium release from waste was reduced by a factor of 5.5, which can be improved up to 87 if the adsorption step is efficient.

  4. Removal of Pyrethrin from Aqueous Effluents by Adsorptive Micellar Flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardon K. Kuipa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium adsorption of pyrethrin onto aggregates formed by the flocculation of micelles of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS with aluminium sulphate is reported. The experimental results were analysed using different adsorption isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Radke-Prausnitz, Temkin, linear equilibrium, and the Dubin-Radushkevich isotherms. The Freundlich and linear equilibrium isotherms best describe the adsorption of pyrethrin onto SDS micellar flocs, with the Freundlich adsorption constant, KF, and the mass distribution coefficient, KD, of 64.266 ((mg/g(L/mg1/n and 119.65 L/g, respectively. Applicability of the Freundlich adsorption model suggests that heterogeneous surface adsorption affects the adsorption. The mean free energy value estimated using the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was 0.136 kJ/mol indicating that physisorption may be predominant in the adsorption process.

  5. Evaluation of Tritium Content and Release from Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chattin, Marc Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giaquinto, Joseph [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    It is expected that tritium pretreatment will be required in future reprocessing plants to prevent the release of tritium to the environment (except for long-cooled fuels). To design and operate future reprocessing plants in a safe and environmentally compliant manner, the amount and form of tritium in the used nuclear fuel (UNF) must be understood and quantified. Tritium in light water reactor (LWR) fuel is dispersed between the fuel matrix and the fuel cladding, and some tritium may be in the plenum, probably as tritium labelled water (THO) or T2O. In a standard processing flowsheet, tritium management would be accomplished by treatment of liquid streams within the plant. Pretreating the fuel prior to dissolution to release the tritium into a single off-gas stream could simplify tritium management, so the removal of tritium in the liquid streams throughout the plant may not be required. The fraction of tritium remaining in the cladding may be reduced as a result of tritium pretreatment. Since Zircaloy® cladding makes up roughly 25% by mass of UNF in the United States, processes are being considered to reduce the volume of reprocessing waste for Zircaloy® clad fuel by recovering the zirconium from the cladding for reuse. These recycle processes could release the tritium in the cladding. For Zircaloy-clad fuels from light water reactors, the tritium produced from ternary fission and other sources is expected to be divided between the fuel, where it is generated, and the cladding. It has been previously documented that a fraction of the tritium produced in uranium oxide fuel from LWRs can migrate and become trapped in the cladding. Estimates of the percentage of tritium in the cladding typically range from 0–96%. There is relatively limited data on how the tritium content of the cladding varies with burnup and fuel history (temperature, power, etc.) and how pretreatment impacts its release. To gain a better understanding of how tritium in cladding

  6. Characteristics of microstructure and tritium release properties of different kinds of beryllium pebbles for application in tritium breeding modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurinskiy, P., E-mail: petr.kurinskiy@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Rolli, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics (IAM-WBM), P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Tritium release properties and characteristics of microstructure of beryllium pebbles having different sizes of grains were studied. • Fine-grained beryllium pebbles showed the best ability to release tritium compared to pebbles from another charges. • Be pebbles with the grain sizes exceeding 100 μm contain a great number of small pores and inclusions presumably referring to the history of material fabrication. • The sizes of grains are one of a key characteristic of microstructure which influences the parameters of tritium release. - Abstract: Beryllium pebbles with diameters of 1 mm are considered to be perspective material for the use as neutron multiplier in tritium breeding modules of fusion reactors. Up to now, the design of helium-cooled breeding blanket in ITER project foresees the use of 1 mm beryllium pebbles fabricated by NGK Insulators Ltd., Japan. It is notable that beryllium pebbles from Russian Federation and USA are also available and the possibility of their large-scale fabrication is under study. Presented work is dedicated to a study of characteristics of microstructure and parameters of tritium release of beryllium pebbles produced by Bochvar Institute, Russian Federation, and Materion Corporation, USA.

  7. Status and commissioning of the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment KATRIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuemmler, Thomas; Katrin Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Neutrino properties, and especially the determination of the neutrino rest mass, play an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. At present there are two complementary approaches to address this topic in laboratory experiments. The search for neutrinoless double β decay probes whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determines an effective neutrino mass value. Experiments based on single β decay investigate electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino mass by a modelindependent method. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β spectroscopy close to the tritium endpoint with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/c2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino mass.

  8. A programmable autosampler for a field deployable tritium analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Cable, P.R.; Beals, D.M.; Jones, J.

    1996-08-01

    Researchers in the Environmental Technology Section of the Savannah River Technology Center, in cooperation with Sampling Systems, Inc. are developing a fully programmable, remotely operated, fixed volume, automatic sampler for use with the field deployable tritium analysis system currently under development at U. of GA`s Center for Applied Isotope Studies. The sampler will collect a limited-volume sample and perform on-line sample purification for tritium analyses from multiple collection sites. Pneumatically operated stainless steel samplers operate satisfactorily upon remote activation. The one-step purification system removes all impurities with interfere with tritium analysis by liquid scintillation. Field testing has confirmed system operation. The autosampler may act as a stand-alone device and is enclosed in a rugged, field-portable case with wheels. The system weighs about 40 lbs.

  9. Alternate Tritium Production Methods Using A Liquid Lithium Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    For over 60 years, the Savannah River Site’s primary mission has been the production of tritium. From the beginning, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided the technical foundation to ensure the successful execution of this critical defense mission. SRNL has developed most of the processes used in the tritium mission and provides the research and development necessary to supply this critical component. This project was executed by first developing reactor models that could be used as a neutron source. In parallel to this development calculations were carried out testing the feasibility of accelerator technologies that could also be used for tritium production. Targets were designed with internal moderating material and optimized target was calculated to be capable of 3000 grams using a 1400 MWt sodium fast reactor, 850 grams using a 400 MWt sodium fast reactor, and 100 grams using a 62 MWt reactor, annually.

  10. Tritium activity levels in environmental water samples from different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat

    2007-09-15

    Tritium activity was determined in environmental waters from different areas of Catalonia, using a distillation procedure before liquid scintillation counting. The developed method was validated by analysing two samples from proficiency tests. In most of water samples (from rivers, rain, mineral bottled waters and tap waters) analysed, the activity values were lower or close to the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for our method which has a value of 0.6 Bq/l. However, the Ebro river samples had a mean activity around 3.6{+-}0.6Bq/l. The nuclear power station of Asco, which is located on the banks of this river, can be a source of tritium production and introduction into the environment, so a more exhaustive study of these waters was carried out. Tritium activities in this river were a long way above the normative limit in Spain for waters intended for human consumption, which is 100 Bq/l.

  11. Multiphase transport of tritium in unsaturated porous media-bare and vegetated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Martínez, Joaquín; Tamoh, Karim; Candela Lledó, Lucila; Elorza, F. J.; Hunkeler, D.

    2012-01-01

    Tritium is a short-lived radioactive isotope (T 1/2=12.33 yr) produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic radiation but also released into the atmosphere and hydrosphere by nuclear activities (nuclear power stations, radioactive waste disposal). Tritium of natural or anthropogenic origin may end up in soils through tritiated rain, and may eventually appear in groundwater. Tritium in groundwater can be re-emitted to the atmosphere through the vadose zone. The tritium concentration in soil v...

  12. Tritium and helium retention and release from irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Oates, M.A.; Pawelko, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental effort to anneal irradiated beryllium specimens and characterize them for steam-chemical reactivity experiments. Fully-dense, consolidated powder metallurgy Be cylinders, irradiated in the EBR-II to a fast neutron (>0.1 MeV) fluence of {approx}6 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, were annealed at temperatures from 450degC to 1200degC. The releases of tritium and helium were measured during the heat-up phase and during the high-temperature anneals. These experiments revealed that, at 600degC and below, there was insignificant gas release. Tritium release at 700degC exhibited a delayed increase in the release rate, while the specimen was at 700degC. For anneal temperatures of 800degC and higher, tritium and helium release was concurrent and the release behavior was characterized by gas-burst peaks. Essentially all of the tritium and helium was released at temperatures of 1000degC and higher, whereas about 1/10 of the tritium was released during the anneals at 700degC and 800degC. Measurements were made to determine the bulk density, porosity and specific surface area for each specimen before and after annealing. These measurements indicated that annealing caused the irradiated Be to swell, by as much as 14% at 700degC and 56% at 1200degC. Kr gas adsorption measurements for samples annealed at 1000degC and 1200degC determined specific surface areas between 0.04 m{sup 2}/g and 0.1 m{sup 2}/g for these annealed specimens. The tritium and helium gas release measurements and the specific surface area measurements indicated that annealing of irradiated Be caused a porosity network to evolve and become surface-connected to relieve internal gas pressure. (author)

  13. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2012-07-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950°C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm)—three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  14. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2011-09-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950 C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm) - three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  15. Tritium recovery from nanostructured LiAlO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, L.M. E-mail: lcg@nuclear.inin.mx; Jimenez-Becerril, J.; Basurto, R.; Arenas, J.; Lopez M, B.E.; Bulbulian, S.; Bosch, P

    2001-12-01

    In this work, a complex superlattice is obtained from a simple synthesis method. A detailed study by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy is presented to determine the structural composition and the nanostructure of the obtained LiAlO{sub 2} mixtures. To establish the influence of the superlattice presence in the tritium recovery, the obtained samples were irradiated with a mixed thermal and fast neutron flux in the nuclear reactor Triga Mark III (NRTMIII) at Salazar, Mexico. The study is focused on the superlattice effect on tritium mobility.

  16. Computer simulation of tritium systems for fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabowitsch, E.; Spannagel, G. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Institut fur Datenverarbeitung in der Technik Postfach 3640, D-7500 Karlsruhe 1 (DE))

    1989-09-01

    The KATRIM computer code is presented. It calculates key values of tritium systems, especially those related to complete fuel cycles. First, a deterministic model is discussed. Then, a stochastic model is presented based on dynamic systems with different dynamic states, each with its own system of equations. Such an approach allows the modeling of reactors with different degrees of availability and/or different operational strategies. Results of simulations for different availabilities, variable frequencies of interruptions in reactor operation, and changing tritium burnup in the plasma are presented.

  17. Parametric expressions of tritium flow rates and inventories in a target factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherohman, J.W.

    1980-12-29

    Parametric expressions have been derived for tritium flow rates and inventories in a target factory. The expressions are based on a tritium system that interfaces with a generalized target production process. The relationship of flow rates and inventories to target production form a basis for parametric study to determine the amount of tritium involved in the target factory of an ICF power plant.

  18. Methods for the measuring surface tritium inside TFTR using beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Ku, L.P.; Lemunyan, G.; Loesser, D.; Owens, D.K.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Timberlake, J. [and others

    1995-03-01

    Three potential methods for evaluating the surface tritium content of the TFTR vacuum vessel are described, each based on a different technique for measuring the in situ beta emission from tritium. These methods should be able to provide both a local and a global assessment of the tritium content within the top {approximately}1{mu}m of the inner wall surface.

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  20. Knowledge status for the impact of tritium on health; Etat des connaissances de l'impact du tritium sur la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [CEA Cadarache, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Protection Sanitaire contre les rayonnements ionisants et les toxiques nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2009-07-01

    The author proposes a review about the presence of tritium in water and in food under different forms (HTO or tritiated water, OBT or organically bound tritium, or tritiated gas), and of its possible effects on health due to its behaviour in relationship with other molecules. She also evokes the assessment of the received dose, gives an assessment of the elimination delay of the three different forms of tritium for an adult. She discusses the risk assessment and some epidemiological studies

  1. Test of potential homogeneity in the KATRIN gaseous tritium source

    CERN Document Server

    Rysavy, M

    2005-01-01

    83mKr is supposed to be used to study the properties of the windowless gaseous tritium source of the experiment KATRIN. In this work we deduce the amount of 83mKr which is necessary to determine possible potential inhomogeneities via conversion-electron-line broadening.

  2. Tritium production assessment for the DCLL EUROfusion DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Iole; Rapisarda, David; Fernández-Berceruelo, Iván; Ibarra, Angel

    2016-10-01

    The viability of a fusion reactor is preeminently conditioned by the tritium self-sufficiency. An assessment of different parameters representing the tritium production, as the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the tritium production rate (TPR) density and their poloidal and radial variations along the PbLi breeder zones has been performed for the last DCLL DEMO designs developed in the frame of the EUROfusion Programme. The final overall value of 1.104 obtained allows accomplishing the fuel self-sufficiency requirement. This TBR value includes not only the contribution of the breeding blanket (BB) modules but also of the back supporting structure (BSS). The BSS design resulted fundamental to reach the 1.1 criterion. Lastly, the influence of the integration in the reactor of the heating and current drive (H&CD) systems that will penetrate the breeder volume has been evaluated. Assuming different configurations for them, the TBR loss has been determined. All the calculations have entailed the use of the particle transport Monte Carlo code MCNP5.

  3. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  4. Anthropogenic tritium in the Loire River estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, O.; Gégout, C.; Reeves, B.; Rousseau, G.; Montavon, G.; Landesman, C.

    2016-12-01

    This work is carried out in the frame of a radioecological monitoring of anthropogenic tritium from upstream and downstream of several nuclear power plants along the Loire River to its estuary. This paper studies the variation of anthropogenic tritium species in the Loire River system from upstream to the mouth of the estuary. Tritiated water (HTO and HTO in sediment pore water) and organically bound tritium (OBT) forms were analysed after dedicated pre-treatments. The collected environmental samples consist in (i) surface-sediment and core samples from the river floor, (ii) surface and water column samples. A maximum 3H activity concentration of 26 ± 3 Bq·L- 1 in the Loire River estuary is obtained whereas an environmental background level around 1 Bq·L- 1 is determined for a non influenced continental area by anthropogenic activities. The European follow-up indicator used as a screening value is 100 Bq·L- 1. The conservative tritium behaviour was used in order to characterize the tidal regime and river flow influences in the mixing zone of the Loire River estuary. Furthermore, OBT levels and total organically carbon (TOC) content are explored. Finally, ratios of OBT relative to HTO in sediment pore water in surface-sediment and core samples are also discussed.

  5. Tritium contamination and decontamination of sealing oil for vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, T.; Kotoh, K.; Kawabata, Y.; Tanaka, J.I. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Kawamura, S.; Iwata, M. [ATOX Co. Ltd, Technoly Development Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The existence of tritium-contaminated oils from vacuum pumps used in tritium facilities, is becoming an important issue since there is no disposal way for tritiated waste oils. On recovery of tritiated water vapor in gas streams, it is well-known that the isotope exchange reaction between the gas phase and the liquid phase occurs effectively at room temperature. We have carried out experiments using bubbles to examine the tritium contamination and decontamination of a volume of rotary-vacuum-pump oil. The contamination of the pump oil was made by bubbling tritiated water vapor and tritiated hydrogen gas into the oil. Subsequently the decontamination was processed by bubbling pure water vapor and dry argon gas into the tritiated oil. Results show that the water vapor bubbling was more effective than dry argon gas. The experiment also shows that the water vapor bubbling in an oil bottle can remove and transfer tritium efficiently from the tritiated oil into another water-bubbling bottle.

  6. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods.

  7. Tritium NMR in the analysis of tritiated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Funke, C.W.; Vader, Jan; Wagenaars, G.N. (Organon Int. B.V., Oss (Netherlands). Akzo-Pharma Div.)

    1993-05-01

    An overview is given of the possibilities of [sup 3]H NMR in the characterisation of [sup 3]H-labelled compounds. This technique gives information on the identity of the tritiated compounds, the position of the tritium, the distribution of the label and even the radiochemical purity of the labelled products. (author).

  8. Uncertainty evaluation in tritium activity assay in water by using direct liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel Maia; Rocha, Zildete [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica]. E-mails: mingote@cdtn.br; rochaz@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Tritium-labeled water is often applied to studies in environmental science, hydrology, biology, oil resources and other research areas. In most cases, the tritium activity is determined by using direct liquid scintillation spectrometry without tritium enrichment. A comprehensive uncertainty quantification is so important as accuracy and precision for analysing the results. This paper presents a discussion about the uncertainty propagation law and the partial derivatives method in the tritium assay. It also includes the relations between the tritium activity results and several input parameters. (author)

  9. In-vessel tritium retention and removal in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, G. [ITER JWS Garching Co-Center (Germany); Anderl, R.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Andrew, P. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1998-06-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is envisioned to be the next major step in the world`s fusion program from the present generation of tokamaks and is designed to study fusion plasmas with a reactor relevant range of plasma parameters. During normal operation, it is expected that a fraction of the unburned tritium, that is used to routinely fuel the discharge, will be retained together with deuterium on the surfaces and in the bulk of the plasma facing materials (PFMs) surrounding the core and divertor plasma. The understanding of he basic retention mechanisms (physical and chemical) involved and their dependence upon plasma parameters and other relevant operation conditions is necessary for the accurate prediction of the amount of tritium retained at any given time in the ITER torus. Accurate estimates are essential to assess the radiological hazards associated with routine operation and with potential accident scenarios which may lead to mobilization of tritium that is not tenaciously held. Estimates are needed to establish the detritiation requirements for coolant water, to determine the plasma fueling and tritium supply requirements, and to establish the needed frequency and the procedures for tritium recovery and clean-up. The organization of this paper is as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of the design and operating conditions of the main components which define the plasma boundary of ITER. Section 3 reviews the erosion database and the results of recent relevant experiments conducted both in laboratory facilities and in tokamaks. These data provide the experimental basis and serve as an important benchmark for both model development (discussed in Section 4) and calculations (discussed in Section 5) that are required to predict tritium inventory build-up in ITER. Section 6 emphasizes the need to develop and test methods to remove the tritium from the codeposited C-based films and reviews the status and the prospects of the

  10. Tritium permeation characterization of Al2O3/FeAl coatings as tritium permeation barriers on 321 type stainless steel containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feilong; Xiang, Xin; Lu, Guangda; Zhang, Guikai; Tang, Tao; Shi, Yan; Wang, Xiaolin

    2016-09-01

    Accurate tritium transport properties of prospective tritium permeation barriers (TPBs) are essential to tritium systems in fusion reactors. By passing a temperature and rate-controlled sweeping gas over specimen surfaces to carry the permeated tritium to an ion chamber, the gas-driven permeation of tritium has been performed on 321 type stainless steel containers with Al2O3/FeAl barriers, to determine the T-permeation resistant performance and mechanism of the barrier. The tritium permeability of the Al2O3/FeAl coated container was reduced by 3 orders of magnitude at 500-700 °C by contrast with that of the bare one, which meets the requirement of the tritium permeation reduction factor (PRF) of TPBs for tritium operating components in the CN-HCCB TBM. The Al2O3/FeAl barrier resists the tritium permeation by the diffusion in the bulk substrate at a limited number of defect sites with an effective area and thickness, suggesting that the TPB quality is a very important factor for efficient T-permeation resistance.

  11. Tritium issues to be solved for establishment of a fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Tetsuo, E-mail: tanabe@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overview of Japanese tritium researches. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduction of necessary works for establishment of tritium safety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tritium researches for burning plasma. - Abstract: In order to establish a D-T fusion reactor as an energy source, economical conversion of fusion energy to electricity and/or heat, attaining enough margins in tritium breeding, and insuring tritium safety must be simultaneously achieved. Scientists and researchers working on Tritium in Japan are now tackling with T related problems. Their research subjects can be categorized into two, i.e. researches on 'Science and technology' to establish safe and economic Tritium fuel cycle for fusion reactors and 'Tritium safety'. Many researchers from various universities, and institutes such as NIFS, JAEA and IEA (Inst. Environmental Science) in Japan are involved in various research programs. In this report, after brief introduction on Tritium related researches in Japan, important T issues to be solved for establishment of a fusion reactor will be summarized considering the handling of large amount of tritium, i.e. fuelling, D-T burning, T inventory, exhausting, refinement, confinement, permeation, leakage, contamination, regulation and tritium accountancy.

  12. Measurement of tritium penetration through concrete material covered by various paints coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.; Kurata, R.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Technology Group, Fusion Researdch and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura (Japan); Fukada, S.; Takeishi, T. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The present study aims at obtaining fundamental data on tritium migration in porous materials, which include soaking effect, interaction between tritium and cement paste coated with paints and transient tritium sorption in porous cement. The amounts of tritium penetrated into or released from cement paste with epoxy and urethane paint coatings were measured. The tritium penetration amounts were increased with the HTO (tritiated water) exposure time. Time to achieve a saturated value of tritium sorption was more than 60 days for cement paste coated with epoxy paint and with urethane paint, while that for cement paste without any paint coating took 2 days to achieve it. The effect of tritium permeation reduction by the epoxy paint was higher than that of the urethane. Although their paint coatings were effective for reduction of tritium penetration through the cement paste which was exposed to HTO for a short period, it was found that the amount of tritium trapped in the paints became large for a long period. Tritium penetration rates were estimated by an analysis of one-dimensional diffusion in the axial direction of a thickness of a sample. Obtained data were helpful for evaluation of tritium contamination and decontamination. (authors)

  13. Correlation of rates of tritium migration through porous concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, S.; Katayama, K.; Takeishi, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T. [JAEA-TPL, Muramatsu, Tokai-mura (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    In a nuclear facility when tritium leaks from a glovebox to room accidentally, an atmosphere detritiation system (ADS) starts operating, and HTO released is recovered by ADS. ADS starts when tritium activity in air becomes higher than its controlled level. Before ADS operates, the laboratory walls are the final enclosure facing tritium and are usually made of porous concrete coated with a hydrophobic paint. In the present study, previous data on the diffusivity and adsorption coefficient of concrete and paints are reviewed. Tritium penetrates and migrates into concrete by following 3 ways. First, gaseous HT or T{sub 2} easily penetrates into porous concrete. Its diffusivity is almost equal to that of H{sub 2}. When a gaseous molecule diffuses through pores with a smaller diameter than a mean free path, its migration rate is described by the Knudsen diffusion formula. The second mechanism is H{sub 2}O vapor diffusion in pores. Concrete holds a lot of structural water. Therefore, H{sub 2}O or HTO vapor can diffuse inside concrete pores along with adsorption-desorption and isotopic exchange with structural water, which is the third mechanism. Literature shows that the diffusivity of HTO through the epoxy-resin paint is determined as D(HTO)=1.0*10{sup -16} m{sup 2}/s. We have used this data to set a model and we have applied it to estimate residual tritium in laboratory walls. We have considered 2 accidental cases and a normal case: first, ADS starts operating 1 hour after 100 Ci HTO is released in the room, secondly, ADS starts 24 hours after 100 Ci HTO release and thirdly, when the walls are exposed to HTO for 10 years of normal operation. It appears that the immediate start up of ADS is indispensable for safety.

  14. Tritium permeation behavior through pyrolytic carbon in tritium production using high-temperature gas-cooled reactor for fusion reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ushida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under tritium production method using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor loaded Li compound, Li compound has to be coated by ceramic materials in order to suppress the spreading of tritium to the whole reactor. Pyrolytic carbon (PyC is a candidate of the coating material because of its high resistance for gas permeation. In this study, hydrogen permeation experiments using a PyC-coated isotropic graphite tube were conducted and hydrogen diffusivity, solubility and permeability were evaluated. Tritium permeation behavior through PyC-coated Li compound particles was simulated by using obtained data. Hydrogen permeation flux through PyC in a steady state is proportional to the hydrogen pressure and is larger than that through Al2O3 which is also candidate coating material. However, total tritium leak within the supposed reactor operation period through the PyC-coated Li compound particles is lower than that through the Al2O3-coated ones because the hydrogen absorption capacity in PyC is considerably larger than that in Al2O3.

  15. Enumeration and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in effluent from municipal, hospital, and secondary treatment facility sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Sandra; Boyle, Fiona; Hickey, Paul; Vellinga, Akke; Morris, Dearbháile; Cormican, Martin

    2010-07-01

    We describe a modification of the most probable number (MPN) method for rapid enumeration of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in aqueous environmental samples. E. coli (total and antimicrobial-resistant) bacteria were enumerated in effluent samples from a hospital (n = 17) and municipal sewers upstream (n = 5) and downstream (n = 5) from the hospital, effluent samples from throughout the treatment process (n = 4), and treated effluent samples (n = 13). Effluent downstream from the hospital contained a higher proportion of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli than that upstream from the hospital. Wastewater treatment reduced the numbers of E. coli bacteria (total and antimicrobial resistant); however, antimicrobial-resistant E. coli was not eliminated, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime (including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] producers), ciprofloxacin, and cefoxitin was present in treated effluent samples.

  16. Evidence for tritium production in the Earth's interior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG SongSheng; HE Ming

    2008-01-01

    We have made a new investigation on the vertical profiles of tritium and helium isotopes in Lakes Van and Nemrut (Eastern Turkey), using experimental data from the reference by Kipfer et al. for study of long-term vertical mixing and deep water renewal in Lake Van. Lakes Van and Nemrut are crater lakes. Lake Nemrut is at the western border of Lake Van. The 3He and 4He are injected at the bottom of Lakes Van and Nemrut, and the both helium isotopes are confirmed from the mantle source. From 3H (tritium) data in Lakes Van and Nemrut, we have observed "3H anomaly" at the vertical profile of 3H concentrations in Lake Nemrut. The 3H concentration at the lake bottom is 10% higher than at the surface. The difference of 3H concentrations between surface and bottom is about 3.7±1.2 TU. This excess 3H should be injected from the lake bottom. An investigation on the origin of the injected tritium has been made. The results show the conventional origins are excluded, such as residence of precipitation tritium from nuclear testing in the early 1950s-1960s and tritium from known nuclear reactions. Based on the correlation of excess 3H with 3He and heat flow in Lake Nemrut, we infer that the 3He and 3H might be all from the mantle source, and produced by the supposed natural-nuclear-fusion, which might occur in an environment rich in water (H) and (U + Th) at high temperature and high pressure in the deep Earth. Detection of tritium in the Earth's interior is a key evidence for exploration of natural nuclear fusion in the deep Earth. Based on the published data, we have found that the excess 3He and 3H injected at the bottom of Lake Laacher (Germany) were also released from the mantle source. The present work will be helpful to the further study of mechanism of natural nuclear fusion in the Earth's interior.

  17. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-05-17

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  18. Radiospectroscopic method for determining contents of deuterium and tritium in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, R. Y.; Fadeev, G. N.; Gerasimov, Y. V.; Kondratova, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    Radio-wave emission spectra in the microwave region are registered for the first time for ordinary water (H2O), heavy water (D2O), and D2O with a low content of T2O. The obtained spectra are analyzed according to a special program using a hardware-software complex. Measurement results show that the proposed method allows us not only to determine differences between substances in terms of composition and concentration, but to determine the presence of heavy and superheavy hydrogen isotopes in ordinary water as well.

  19. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 430.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink Subcategory § 430.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  1. Scoping Analyses on Tritium Permeation to VHTR Integarted Industrial Application Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2011-03-01

    Tritium permeation is a very important current issue in the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) because tritium is easily permeated through high temperature metallic surfaces. Tritium permeations in the VHTR-integrated systems were investigated in this study using the tritium permeation analysis code (TPAC) that was developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL TPAC is a numerical tool that is based on the mass balance equations of tritium containing species and hydrogen (i.e. HT, H2, HTO, HTSO4, TI) coupled with a variety of tritium sources, sink, and permeation models. In the TPAC, ternary fission and thermal neutron caption reactions with 6Li, 7Li 10B, 3He were taken into considerations as tritium sources. Purification and leakage models were implemented as main tritium sinks. Permeation of tritium and H2 through pipes, vessels, and heat exchangers were considered as main tritium transport paths. In addition, electroyzer and isotope exchange models were developed for analyzing hydrogen production systems including high temperature electrolysis (HTSE) and sulfur-iodine processes.

  2. Problematics due to tritium in materials in the nuclear field - some examples; Problematiques liees au tritium dans les materiaux dans le domaine nucleaire - quelques illustrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldi, O. [CEA Cadarache (DEN/DTN/STPA/LPC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2007-07-01

    After a presentation of the tritium sources in our environment, is evoked succinctly the different ways to produce it. Then, for each reactor type, are presented the main problematics due to tritium. In this part, the questions of tritium transfer are illustrated for fission reactors: pressurized water reactors, CANDU reactors and for fast neutrons reactors. The case of fusion tokamaks is described more particularly. Several aspects are presented successively: the requirement to produce it in-situ with fitted materials, the definition of a short fuel cycle allowing to recover important quantities of tritium having not react...In a last part, are presented the aspects directly induced by the behaviour of tritium in materials. The first point concerned is the control of the tritium inventory in a fusion tokamak, for safety reasons. Examples are given from experiment feedback on running fusion tokamaks. A projection at the ITER case is proposed. The mechanisms leading to tritium retention according to the materials considered at the present time are analyzed and synthesized. The second important point is the tritium management at the end of the tokamak running. The specific problematics of this management are presented. (O.M.)

  3. Analysis of tritium behaviour and recovery from a water-cooled Pb17Li blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Institute Regional des Materiaux Avances, Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering and Informatics Institute, JRC Ispra, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Viola, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The question of the tritium recovery in water-cooled Pb17Li blankets has been under investigation for several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analysed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging or vacuum degassing in a suited process apparatus. A computerized model of the tritium behaviour in the blanket units and in the extraction system was developed. It includes four submodels: (1) tritium permeation process from the breeder to the cooling water as a function of the local operative conditions (tritium concentration in Pb17Li, breeder temperature and flow rate); (2) tritium mass balance in each breeding unit; (3) tritium desorption from the breeder material to the gas phase of the extraction system; (4) tritium extraction efficiency as a function of the design parameters of the recovery apparatus. In the present paper, on the basis of this model, a parametric study of the tritium permeation rate in the cooling water and of the tritium inventory in the blanket is carried out. Results are reported and discussed in terms of dimensionless groups which describe the relative effects of the overall resistance on tritium transfer to the cooling water (with and without permeation barriers), circulating Pb17Li flow rate and extraction efficiency of the tritium recovery unit. The parametric study is extended to the recovery unit in the case of tritium extraction by helium purge or vacuum degassing in a droplet spray unit. (orig.).

  4. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  5. Health physics manual of good practices for tritium facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blauvelt, R.K.; Deaton, M.R.; Gill, J.T. [and others

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide written guidance defining the generally accepted good practices in use at Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities. A {open_quotes}good practice{close_quotes} is an action, policy, or procedure that enhances the radiation protection program at a DOE site. The information selected for inclusion in this document should help readers achieve an understanding of the key radiation protection issues at tritium facilities and provide guidance as to what characterizes excellence from a radiation protection point of view. The ALARA (As Low as Reasonable Achievable) program at DOE sites should be based, in part, on following the good practices that apply to their operations.

  6. Results from deuterium-tritium tokamak confinement experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.

    1997-02-01

    Recent scientific and technical progress in magnetic fusion experiments has resulted in the achievement of plasma parameters (density and temperature) which enabled the production of significant bursts of fusion power from deuterium-tritium fuels and the first studies of the physics of burning plasmas. The key scientific issues in the reacting plasma core are plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, and the confinement and loss of energetic fusion products from the reacting fuel ions. Progress in the development of regimes of operation which have both good confinement and are MHD stable have enabled a broad study of burning plasma physics issues. A review of the technical and scientific results from the deuterium-tritium experiments on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is given with particular emphasis on alpha-particle physics issues.

  7. Tritium calibration of the LUX dark matter experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Beltrame, P; Bernard, E P; Bernstein, A; Biesiadzinski, T P; Boulton, E M; Bradley, A; Bramante, R; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Currie, A; Cutter, J E; Davison, T J R; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J E Y; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B N; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C R; Hanhardt, M; Haselschwardt, S J; Hertel, S A; Hogan, D P; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ignarra, C M; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Ji, W; Kazkaz, K; Khaitan, D; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lenardo, B G; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Manalaysay, A G; Mannino, R L; Marzioni, M F; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J A; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H N; Neves, F; O`Sullivan, K; Oliver-Mallory, K C; Ott, R A; Palladino, K J; Pangilinan, M; Pease, E K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Rhyne, C; Shaw, S; Shutt, T A; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stephenson, S; Sumner, T J; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D J; Taylor, W; Tennyson, B P; Terman, P A; Tiedt, D R; To, W H; Tripathi, M; Tvrznikova, L; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Webb, R C; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Young, S K; Zhang, C

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of the electron-recoil (ER) response of the LUX dark matter detector based upon 170,000 highly pure and spatially-uniform tritium decays. We reconstruct the tritium energy spectrum using the combined energy model and find good agreement with expectations. We report the average charge and light yields of ER events in liquid xenon at 180 V/cm and 105 V/cm and compare the results to the NEST model. We also measure the mean charge recombination fraction and its fluctuations, and we investigate the location and width of the LUX ER band. These results provide input to a re-analysis of the LUX Run3 WIMP search.

  8. Elastic Electron Scattering from Tritium and Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, H.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Johansson, A.; Yearian, M. R.; Day, R. B.; Wagner, R. T.

    1964-10-01

    The mirror nuclei of tritium and helium-3 have been studied by the method of elastic electron scattering. Absolute cross sections have been measured for incident electron energies in the range 110 - 690 MeV at scattering angles lying between 40 degrees and 135 degrees in this energy range. The data have been interpreted in a straightforward manner and form factors are given for the distributions of charge and magnetic moment in the two nuclei over a range of four-momentum transfer squared 1.0 - 8.0 F{sup -2}. Model-independent radii of the charge and magnetic moment distributions are given and an attempt is made to deduce form factors describing the spatial distribution of the protons in tritium and helium-3.

  9. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Kondo, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Roux, N. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Tanaka, S. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Vollath, D. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig.

  10. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, J.

    2010-06-02

    The Bulk Tritium Shipping Package was designed by Savannah River National Laboratory. This package will be used to transport tritium. As part of the requirements for certification, the package must be shown to meet the scenarios of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) defined in Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 Part 71 (10CFR71). The conditions include a sequential 30-foot drop event, 30-foot dynamic crush event, and a 40-inch puncture event. Finite Element analyses were performed to support and expand upon prototype testing. Cases similar to the tests were evaluated. Additional temperatures and orientations were also examined to determine their impact on the results. The peak stress on the package was shown to be acceptable. In addition, the strain on the outer drum as well as the inner containment boundary was shown to be acceptable. In conjunction with the prototype tests, the package was shown to meet its confinement requirements.

  11. IN-LINE CHEMICAL SENSOR DEPLOYMENT IN A TRITIUM PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovo, L.; Wright, J.; Torres, R.; Peters, B.

    2013-10-02

    The Savannah River Tritium Plant (TP) relies on well understood but aging sensor technology for process gas analysis. Though new sensor technologies have been brought to various readiness levels, the TP has been reluctant to install technologies that have not been tested in tritium service. This gap between sensor technology development and incorporating new technologies into practical applications demonstrates fundamental challenges that exist when transitioning from status quo to state-of-the-art in an extreme environment such as a tritium plant. These challenges stem from three root obstacles: 1) The need for a comprehensive assessment of process sensing needs and requirements; 2) The lack of a pick-list of process-compatible sensor technologies; and 3) The need to test technologies in a tritium-contaminated process environment without risking production. At Savannah River, these issues are being addressed in a two phase project. In the first phase, TP sensing requirements were determined by a team of process experts. Meanwhile, Savannah River National Laboratory sensor experts identified candidate technologies and related them to the TP processing requirements. The resulting roadmap links the candidate technologies to actual plant needs. To provide accurate assessments of how a candidate sensor technology would perform in a contaminated process environment, an instrument demonstration station was established within a TP glove box. This station was fabricated to TP process requirements and designed to handle high activity samples. The combination of roadmap and demonstration station provides the following assets: Creates a partnership between the process engineers and researchers for sensor selection, maturation, and insertion, Selects the right sensors for process conditions Provides a means for safely inserting new sensor technology into the process without risking production, and Provides a means to evaluate off normal occurrences where and when they occur

  12. Analysis of a global database containing tritium in precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Rabun, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Heath, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-17

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) directed the collection of tritium in water samples from the mid-1950s to 2009. The Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) data examined the airborne movement of isotope releases to the environment, with an objective of collecting spatial data on the isotope content of precipitation across the globe. The initial motivation was to monitor atmospheric thermonuclear test fallout through tritium, deuterium, and oxygen isotope concentrations, but after the 1970s the focus changed to being an observation network of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope data for hydrologic studies. The GNIP database provides a wealth of tritium data collections over a long period of time. The work performed here primarily examined data features in the past 30 years (after much of the effects of above-ground nuclear testing in the late 1950s to early 1960s decayed away), revealing potentially unknown tritium sources. The available data at GNIP were reorganized to allow for evaluation of trends in the data both temporally and spatially. Several interesting cases were revealed, including relatively high measured concentrations in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, Russia, Norway, as well as an increase in background concentration at a collector in South Korea after 2004. Recent data from stations in the southeastern United States nearest to the Savannah River Site do not indicate any high values. Meteorological impacts have not been considered in this study. Further research to assess the likely source location of interesting cases using transport simulations and/or literature searches is warranted.

  13. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  14. Tritium Cycle Design for He-cooled Blankets for Demo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedano, L. A.

    2007-09-27

    Final goal of COMPU task is to develop a reliable tritium Process Flow Diagram (PFD) modelling tool for DEMO tritium cycle. With this aim, the COMPU task is devoted to: (1) Review of existing available documentation related on configuration layouts, and systems and tritium control process key technologies. (2) To select those validated and considered relevant as basis for code development. (3) Implement results from (1), and (2) in the PFD TRICICLO. This fi rst deliverable focuses on item (1) and is conceived as a managerial tool to: (1) establish and discuss the correct inputs, (2) to identify existing lack of basic information and (3) to establish the general demands and characteristics for the development of an advanced PFD model. Thus, in order to discuss and determine the basic information required for future new developments of the task, this report presents a review of the documentation of: (1) The outline of total cycle and system configuration with the main tritium system design specifications. (2) The ultimate processing technologies with the associated design of their implementing units. (3) Key parameters needed to describe processes and modes of operation of the system units. (4) An overview of the existing models for cycle and units with a general analysis of their performances and limitations. Thus, this report is a direct review of the base information generated previously in the context of tasks of the EU FT Programmers (reported in EFDA Green Books) and available results in open fields literature provided by parallel Programmes abroad (JP, US, RF). (Author) 102 refs.

  15. Mercury and tritium removal from DOE waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, E.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work covers the investigation of vacuum extraction as a means to remove tritiated contamination as well as the removal via sorption of dissolved mercury from contaminated oils. The radiation damage in oils from tritium causes production of hydrogen, methane, and low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. When tritium gas is present in the oil, the tritium atom is incorporated into the formed hydrocarbons. The transformer industry measures gas content/composition of transformer oils as a diagnostic tool for the transformers` condition. The analytical approach (ASTM D3612-90) used for these measurements is vacuum extraction of all gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, etc.) followed by analysis of the evolved gas mixture. This extraction method will be adapted to remove dissolved gases (including tritium) from the SRS vacuum pump oil. It may be necessary to heat (60{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C) the oil during vacuum extraction to remove tritiated water. A method described in the procedures is a stripper column extraction, in which a carrier gas (argon) is used to remove dissolved gases from oil that is dispersed on high surface area beads. This method appears promising for scale-up as a treatment process, and a modified process is also being used as a dewatering technique by SD Myers, Inc. (a transformer consulting company) for transformers in the field by a mobile unit. Although some mercury may be removed during the vacuum extraction, the most common technique for removing mercury from oil is by using sulfur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC). SIAC is currently being used by the petroleum industry to remove mercury from hydrocarbon mixtures, but the sorbent has not been previously tested on DOE vacuum oil waste. It is anticipated that a final process will be similar to technologies used by the petroleum industry and is comparable to ion exchange operations in large column-type reactors.

  16. The design of an automated electrolytic enrichment apparatus for tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Radiation Analytical Sciences Section at Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory performs analysis of low-level tritium concentrations in various natural water samples from the Tri-Valley Area, DOE Nevada Test Site, Site 300 in Tracy, CA, and other various places around the world. Low levels of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, which is pre-concentrated in the RAS laboratory using an electrolytic enrichment apparatus. Later these enriched waters are analyzed by liquid scintillation counting to determine the activity of tritium. The enrichment procedure and the subsequent purification process by vacuum distillation are currently undertaken manually, hence being highly labor-intensive. The whole process typically takes about 2 to 3 weeks to complete a batch of 30 samples, with a dedicated personnel operating the process. The goal is to automate the entire process, specifically having the operation PC-LabVIEW{trademark} controlled with real-time monitoring capability. My involvement was in the design and fabrication of a prototypical automated electrolytic enrichment cell. Work will be done on optimizing the electrolytic process by assessing the different parameters of the enrichment procedure. Hardware and software development have also been an integral component of this project.

  17. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  18. Assessment of the importance of neutron multiplication for tritium production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiovaro, P.; Di Maio, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major requirements for a fusion power plant in the future is tritium self-sufficiency. For this reason the scientific community has dedicated a lot of effort to research activity on reactor tritium breeding blankets. In the framework of the international project DEMO, many concepts of breeding blanket have been taken into account and some of them will be tested in the experimental reactor ITER by means of appropriate test blanket modules (TBMs). All the breeding blanket concepts rely on the adoption of binary systems composed of a material acting as neutronic multiplier and another as a breeder. This paper addresses a neutronic feature of these kinds of systems. In particular, attention has been focused on the assessment of the importance of neutrons coming from multiplication reactions for the production of tritium. A theoretical framework has been set up and a procedure to evaluate the performance of the multiplier-breeder systems, under the aforementioned point of view, has been developed. Moreover, the model set up has been applied to helium cooled lithium lead and helium cooled pebble bad TBMs under irradiation in ITER and the results have been critically discussed.

  19. Hydrogen permeation through tritium permeation barrier in Pb-17Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, A. E-mail: aiello@brasimone.enea.ie; Benamati, G.; Chini, M.; Fazio, C.; Serra, E.; Yao, Z

    2001-11-01

    One of the main problems in the development of water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) DEMO fusion reactor is the reduction of the tritium permeation from the Pb-17Li, or the plasma, into the cooling water. The control of tritium losses is an important issue in fusion technology because of its safety and operational implications. This goal can be achieved using a tritium permeation barrier (TPB). The use of aluminium rich coatings, which forms Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at their surface, has been selected as reference solution for WCLL blanket in order to produce reliable TPB. The hot dipping process is one of the two candidates for the production of coatings on large blanket segments. The effectiveness of hot dipped aluminium coating on MANET II steel has been verified in gas phase and in liquid Pb-17Li, using a test apparatus named Corelli II. The permeation rate measured in gas phase is one order of magnitude lower than the one in liquid metal phase. Performing SEM-EDS analysis on the specimen, it was observed that micro cracks on the coating surface were present. The permeation curves in gas and Pb-17Li are reported and discussed. The characteristics of the new experimental device Vivaldi will be briefly described.

  20. Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Oji, L.N.

    1997-11-14

    Under the Tritium Facility Modernization {ampersand} Consolidation (TFM{ampersand}C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM{ampersand}C Project also provides for a new replacement R&D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H.

  1. Tritium permeation characterization of materials for fusion and generation IV very high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, S.; Pilatzke, K.; McCrimmon, K.; Castillo, I.; Suppiah, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    The objective of this work is to establish the tritium-permeation properties of structural alloys considered for Fusion systems and very high temperature reactors (VHTR). A description of the work performed to set up an apparatus to measure permeation rates of hydrogen and tritium in 304L stainless steel is presented. Following successful commissioning with hydrogen, the test apparatus was commissioned with tritium. Commissioning tests with tritium suggest the need for a reduction step that is capable of removing the oxide layer from the test sample surfaces before accurate tritium-permeation data can be obtained. Work is also on-going to clearly establish the temperature profile of the sample to correctly estimate the tritium-permeability data.

  2. Method and device for secure, high-density tritium bonded with carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wertsching, Alan Kevin; Trantor, Troy Joseph; Ebner, Matthias Anthony; Norby, Brad Curtis

    2016-04-05

    A method and device for producing secure, high-density tritium bonded with carbon. A substrate comprising carbon is provided. A precursor is intercalated between carbon in the substrate. The precursor intercalated in the substrate is irradiated until at least a portion of the precursor, preferably a majority of the precursor, is transmutated into tritium and bonds with carbon of the substrate forming bonded tritium. The resulting bonded tritium, tritium bonded with carbon, produces electrons via beta decay. The substrate is preferably a substrate from the list of substrates consisting of highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite, carbon fibers, carbon nanotunes, buckministerfullerenes, and combinations thereof. The precursor is preferably boron-10, more preferably lithium-6. Preferably, thermal neutrons are used to irradiate the precursor. The resulting bonded tritium is preferably used to generate electricity either directly or indirectly.

  3. Tritium processing for the European test blanket systems: current status of the design and development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Y. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A.; Utili, M. [ENEA, Camugnano (Italy); Demange, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Tritium processing technologies of the two European Test Blanket Systems (TBS), HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed), play an essential role in meeting the main objectives of the TBS experimental campaign in ITER. The compliancy with the ITER interface requirements, in terms of space availability, service fluids, limits on tritium release, constraints on maintenance, is driving the design of the TBS tritium processing systems. Other requirements come from the characteristics of the relevant test blanket module and the scientific programme that has to be developed and implemented. This paper identifies the main requirements for the design of the TBS tritium systems and equipment and, at the same time, provides an updated overview on the current design status, mainly focusing onto the tritium extractor from Pb-16Li and TBS tritium accountancy. Considerations are also given on the possible extrapolation to DEMO breeding blanket. (authors)

  4. Lithium ceramics: sol-gel preparation and tritium release; Ceramiques lithiees: elaboration sol-gel et relachement du tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoult, O.

    1994-04-01

    Ceramics based on lithium aluminate (LiA1O{sub 2}), lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) and lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) are candidates as tritium breeder blanket materials for forthcoming nuclear fusion reactors. Lithium silico-aluminate Li{sub 4+x}A1{sub 4-3x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 8} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0,25) powders were synthetized from alkoxyde-hydroxyde sol-gel route. By direct sintering at 850-1100 deg C (without prior calcination), ceramics with controlled stoichiometry and homogenous microstructure were obtained. We have also prepared, using a comparable method, Li{sub 2}Zr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0, x = 0,1 et x = 1) materials. All these ceramics, with different microstructures and compositions, have been tested in out-of-reactor experiments. Concerning lithium aluminate microporous ceramics, the silicon substitution leads to a significant improvement of the tritrium release. Classical models taking into account independent surface mechanisms are not able to describe correctly the observed tritium release kinetics. We show, using a simple model, that the release kinetics is in fact limited by an intergranular diffusion followed by a desorption. The delay in tritium release, which occurs when the ceramic compacity increases, is explained in terms of an enhancement of the ionic T{sup +} diffusion path length. The energy required for desorption includes a leading term independent of hydrogen contained in the sweep gas. This term is attributed to the limiting recombination step of T{sup +} in molecular species HTO. For similar microstructures, the facility of tritium release for the different studied materials is explained by three properties: the crystal structure of the ceramic, the acidity of oxides and finally the presence of electronic non-stoichiometric defects. (author). 89 refs., 50 figs., 2 tabs., 1 annexe.

  5. A system dynamics model for stock and flow of tritium in fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kwon, Saerom [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Tobita, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • System dynamics model of tritium fuel cycle was developed for analyzing stock and flow of tritium in fusion power plants. • Sensitivity of tritium build-up to breeding ratio parameters has been assessed to two plant concepts having 3 GW and 1.5 GW fusion power. • D-D start-up absolutely without initial loading of tritium is possible for both of the 3 GW and 1.5 GW fusion power plant concepts. • Excess stock of tritium is generated by the steady state operation with the value of tritium breeding ratio over unity. - Abstract: In order to analyze self-efficiency of tritium fuel cycle (TFC) and share the systems thinking of TFC among researchers and engineers in the vast area of fusion reactor technology, we develop a system dynamics (SD) TFC model using a commercial software STELLA. The SD-TFC model is illustrated as a pipe diagram which consists of tritium stocks, such as plasma, fuel clean up, isotope separation, fueling with storage and blanket, and pipes connecting among them. By using this model, we survey a possibility of D-D start-up without initial loading of tritium on two kinds of fusion plant having different plasma parameters. The D-D start-up scenario can reduce the necessity of initial loading of tritium through the production in plasma by D-D reaction and in breeding blanket by D-D neutron. The model is also used for considering operation scenario to avoid excess stock of tritium which must be produced at tritium breeding ratio over unity.

  6. Tritium labelling of PACAP-38 using a synthetic diiodinated precursor peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg; Baun, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the interest of developing efficient methods for tritium labelling peptides, we here demonstrate the successful labelling of PACAP-38 (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide), a 38-mer peptide, using a synthetic diiodinated PACAP-38 precursor. In this example, we employ standard hy...... hydrogenation chemistry with the use of a heterogeneous palladium catalyst and carrier-free tritium gas on a tritium manifold system....

  7. Optimizing tritium extraction from a Permeator Against Vacuum (PAV) by dimensional design using different tritium transport modeling tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, P., E-mail: pablomiguel.martinez@ciemat.es [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C. [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain); Martinez, I. [SENER Ingenieria y Sistemas, Provenca 392, 4a 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, L. [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    The Permeator Against Vacuum (PAV) has been conceived as the simplest, cost effective and reliable technology system dedicated to tritium extraction from breeding liquid metals. An optimal design of a PAV requires a detailed hydraulic design optimization for established operational ranges (HCLL at low velocities of {approx}1 mm/s or DCLL in the ranges of tens of cm/s). The present work analyses the PAV extraction efficiency dependency on the design parameters as optimum on-line Tritium Extraction System (TES). Three different models have been built for that purpose: one through physically refined 1D tritium transport computation using TMAP7 (unique simulation tool with QA for ITER); and two further detailed models on 2D/3D FEM tool (COMSOL Multi-physics 4.0). The geometry used in this work is a simplification of Fuskite{sup Registered-Sign} conceptual design developed at CIEMAT, consisting of a set of cylindrical and concentric {alpha}-Fe double membranes enclosing a vacuumed space and in contact with in-pipe flowing LiPb eutectic. The aim of this paper is to give the first steps to establish the optimal design parameters of a PAV and evaluate the state-of-the-art of these models.

  8. Hydrate-based heavy metal separation from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongchen; Dong, Hongsheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Mingjun; Li, Yanghui; Ling, Zheng; Zhao, Jiafei

    2016-02-01

    A novel hydrate-based method is proposed for separating heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. We report the first batch of experiments and removal characteristics in this paper, the effectiveness and feasibility of which are verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis and cross-experiment. 88.01-90.82% of removal efficiencies for Cr3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ were obtained. Further study showed that higher R141b-effluent volume ratio contributed to higher enrichment factor and yield of dissociated water, while lower R141b-effluent volume ratio resulted in higher removal efficiency. This study provides insights into low-energy, intensive treatment of wastewater.

  9. Passive secondary biological treatment systems reduce estrogens in dairy shed effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Jennifer B; Northcott, Grant L; Tremblay, Louis A

    2010-10-01

    Steroid estrogens are found at high concentrations in untreated dairy shed effluents. Reduction of estrogenic activity and steroid estrogen concentrations was assessed in two systems used to treat dairy shed effluents: the two-pond system and the advanced pond system. Both include anaerobic and aerobic treatment stages. Samples of effluent were collected from the systems and analyzed for free estrogens, conjugated estrogens and total estrogenic activity using E-Screen assay. Both systems showed increases of up to 8000% in aqueous free estrogens and estrogenic activity after anaerobic treatment, followed by decreases after aerobic treatment (36-83%). The complete systems decreased total steroid estrogen concentrations by 50-100% and estrogen activity by 62-100%, with little difference between systems. Removal rates were lower in winter for both systems. Final effluents from the advanced pond system contained total estrogens at <15-1400 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.2-43 ng/L. Final effluent from the two-pond system contained total estrogens at <15-300 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.3-25 ng/L. At times the final effluent EEQs exceeded guideline values for protection of freshwater fish and suggest further treatment may be required.

  10. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Carson, S.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States); Peterson, P.K. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States)

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  11. Recent progress on tritium technology research and development for a fusion reactor in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Iwai, Y.; Isobe, K.; Yamada, M.; Kurata, R.; Edao, Y. [Tritium Technology Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura (Japan); Suzuki, T.; Oyaizu, M.; Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Technology Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) manages 2 tritium handling laboratories: Tritium Processing Laboratory (TPL) in Tokai and DEMO-RD building in Rokkasho. TPL has been accumulating a gram level tritium safety handling experiences without any accidental tritium release to the environment for more than 25 years. Recently, our activities have focused on 3 categories, as follows. First, the development of a detritiation system for ITER. This task is the demonstration test of a wet Scrubber Column (SC) as a pilot scale (a few hundreds m{sup 3}/h of processing capacity). Secondly, DEMO-RD tasks are focused on investigating the general issues required for DEMO-RD design, such as structural materials like RAFM (Reduced Activity Ferritic/Martensitic steels) and SiC/SiC, functional materials like tritium breeder and neutron multiplier, and tritium. For the last 4 years, we have spent a lot of time and means to the construction of the DEMO-RD facility and to its licensing, so we have just started the actual research program with tritium and other radioisotopes. This tritium task includes tritium accountancy, tritium basic safety research such as tritium interactions with various materials, which will be used for DEMO-RD and durability. The third category is the recovery work from the Great East Japan earthquake (2011 earthquake). It is worth noting that despite the high magnitude of the earthquake, TPL was able to confine tritium properly without any accidental tritium release.

  12. Effects of helium and ambient water vapor on tritium release from Li2TiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Uchimura, Hiromichi; Toda, Kensuke; Oya, Yasuhisa

    2014-12-01

    The effects of hydrogen isotopes in tritium recovery gas and the presence of helium on the tritium release behaviors were investigated for lithium meta-titanate (Li2TiO3) to develop a tritium migration model. The tritium trapping sites as oxygen vacancies and oxygen atoms with dangling bonds were formed by energetic tritium ion implantation. Isotope exchange processes with water vapor in purge gas enhanced the recovery of tritium adsorbed on the surface of Li2TiO3 and trapped in oxygen vacancies. Replacement of tritium as hydroxyl groups with hydrogen isotopes from purge gas was hardly occurred due to the higher trapping energy of tritium as hydroxyl groups. Helium implantation would induce the formation of helium bubbles, which would occupy irradiation damages, contributing to the decrease in the densities of trapping site for tritium. Consequently, the addition of hydrogen isotopes in the tritium recovery gas and the presence of helium in tritium breeding materials can contribute to the efficient tritium recovery for tritium breeding materials.

  13. VAPOR PRESSURE ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRITIUM SAMPLES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, W.

    2012-12-03

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The magnitude of the vapor pressure isotope effect is characterized as functions of the amount of water distilled from the sample aliquot and the heat settings for the distillation process. The tritium concentration in the distillate is higher than the tritium concentration in the sample early in the distillation process, it then sharply decreases due to the vapor pressure isotope effect and becomes lower than the tritium concentration in the sample, until the high tritium concentration retained in the boiling flask is evaporated at the end of the process. At that time, the tritium concentration in the distillate again overestimates the sample tritium concentration. The vapor pressure isotope effect is more pronounced the slower the evaporation and distillation process is conducted; a lower heat setting during the evaporation of the sample results in a larger bias in the tritium measurement. The experimental setup used and the fact that the current study allowed for an investigation of the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process distinguish it from and extend previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.034 {+-} 0.033, 1.052 {+-} 0.025, and 1.066 {+-} 0.037, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples, this implies that

  14. Sample preparation for quantitation of tritium by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L; Dingley, Karen H; Roberts, Mark L; Velsko, Carol A; Love, Adam H

    2002-12-15

    The capability to prepare samples accurately and reproducibly for analysis of tritium (3H) content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) greatly facilitates isotopic tracer studies in which attomole levels of 3H can be measured in milligram-sized samples. A method has been developed to convert the hydrogen of organic samples to a solid, titanium hydride, which can be analyzed by AMS. Using a two-step process, the sample is first oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. In the second step, the water is transferred within a heated manifold into a quartz tube, reduced to hydrogen gas using zinc, and reacted with titanium powder. The 3H/1H ratio of the titanium hydride is measured by AMS and normalized to standards whose ratios were determined by decay counting to calculate the amount of 3H in the original sample. Water, organic compounds, and biological samples with 3H activities measured by liquid scintillation counting were utilized to develop and validate the method. The 3H/1H ratios were quantified in samples that spanned 5 orders of magnitude, from 10(-10) to 10(-15), with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10(-15), which is equivalent to 0.02 dpm tritium/mg of material. Samples smaller than 2 mg were analyzed following addition of 2 mg of a tritium-free-hydrogen carrier. Preparation of organic standards containing both 14C and 3H in 2-mg organic samples demonstrated that this sample preparation methodology can also be applied to quantify both of these isotopes from a single sample.

  15. Physics of High Performance Dueterium-Tritium Plasmas in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, K. M.; White, R.; Wieland, R. M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Wong, K. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Batha, S.; Lamarche, P.; LeBlanc, B.; Levinton, F. M.; Beer, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Belov, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Furth, H. P.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Krasilnikov, A. V.; Meade, D. M.; Medley, S. S.; Mika, R.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mirnov, S. V.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G. L.; Scott, S. D.; Semenov, I.; Berk, H.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Breizman, B.; Dorland, W.; Phillips, P.; Bretz, N. L.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.E.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L. R.; Hammett, G. W.; Herrmann, H. W.; Herrmann, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hogan, G. R.; Hosea, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production,isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high -li) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF-heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-li discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier.It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed.

  16. Physics of high performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, K.M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Batha, S. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Torrance, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production, isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high-I{sub i}) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF- heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-I{sub i} discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier. It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed.

  17. Sandia, California Tritium Research Laboratory transition and reutilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T.B. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a project within Sandia National Laboratory to convert the shut down Tritium Research Laboratory into a facility which could be reused within the laboratory complex. In the process of decommissioning and decontaminating the facility, the laboratory was able to save substantial financial resources by transferring much existing equipment to other DOE facilities, and then expeditiously implementing a decontamination program which has resulted in the building being converted into laboratory space for new lab programs. This project of facility reuse has been a significant financial benefit to the laboratory.

  18. An improved method for preparing tritium labeled fluoxetine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi, R.S.P.; Stolle, W.T. [Pharmacia and Upjohn Inc., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Palladium-on-charcoal catalyzed reduction of N-methyl-3-(3-bromo) phenyl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxypropylamine (1) with tritium gas produces a mixture of the debrominated product [{sup 3}H]fluoxetine (2) and N-methyl-3-[3-{sup 3}H]phenylpropylamine (3), which results from cleavage of the benzylic carbon-oxygen bond. Carrying out this reaction in the presence of pyridine eliminates hydrogenolysis and produces [{sup 3}H]fluoxetine as the sole product. (author).

  19. Synthesis of pentamidine labelled with tritium and carbon-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesk, D.; Jones, J.R. (Surrey Univ., Guildford (UK). Dept. of Chemistry); Lockley, W.J.S.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1990-11-01

    Tritium labelled pentamidine has been prepared with a specific activity of 90 mCi mmol{sup -1} using a one-step exchange reaction between the unlabelled drug and tritiated water. The labelling utilised a homogeneous rhodium trichloride catalyst and yielded pentamidine regiospecifically labelled in the positions ortho to the amidine groups. Carbon-14 labelled pentamidine was prepared via a seven-step procedure in which the isotope was introduced via a nucleophilic substitution of 4-bromo-phenol with copper(I) ({sup 14}C)cyanide. (author).

  20. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project`s multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition.

  1. Tritium-based age/streamflow relationships and catchment function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M. K.; Morgenstern, U.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding runoff generation is important for management of freshwater systems. Determining transit time distributions (TTDs) of streamwaters and how they change with flow gives information on the flowpaths and water storages in catchments - fundamental for understanding the responses of streams to stressors such as pollution, land use change and climate change. This work uses tritium measurements on single samples to determine TTDs and how they change with flow. Such use of tritium is only practical so far in the Southern Hemisphere, because of its much-lower input of bomb-tritium in the 1960s. Another advantage of tritium is that it reveals the full spectrum of ages present in streams, whereas oxygen-18 or chloride variations only show younger ages (i.e. truncated TTDs). Case studies are presented for two New Zealand catchments, both with volcanic ash substrates. The first (Toenepi) is a dairy catchment near Hamilton, which shows well-constrained power law relationships between mean transit time (MTT) and flow, and between silica concentration and flow. Baseflow MTTs vary from 2.5 to 157 years. The second (Tutaeuaua) is a pastoral farming catchment near Taupo. Results for nested catchments along the stream also show power law relationships for both MTT and silica with flow. Baseflow MTTs vary from 1 to 11 years. Although the MTT data could be represented approximately by straight lines in log-log plots, hysteresis effects due to catchment wetness variations did disturb the relationships. Having TTDs from individual samples focusses attention on the nature of the water storages supplying the stream at the times of sampling. The flow record contains information on catchment function, which can enhance the value of the age data, provided such information can be satisfactorily interpreted. A new baseflow estimation method is used to determine the slow storage (aka groundwater) fraction in the stream. The age data is showing that slow storages have mean ages of

  2. Diagnosing radiative shocks from deuterium and tritium implosions on NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, A; Divol, L; Weber, S; Döppner, T; Kyrala, G A; Kilne, J; Izumi, N; Glenn, S; Ma, T; Town, R P; Bradley, D K; Glenzer, S H

    2012-10-01

    During the recent ignition tuning campaign at the National Ignition Facility, layered cryogenic deuterium and tritium capsules were imploded via x-ray driven ablation. The hardened gated x-ray imager diagnostic temporally and spatially resolves the x-ray emission from the core of the capsule implosion at energies above ~8 keV. On multiple implosions, ~200-400 ps after peak compression a spherically expanding radiative shock has been observed. This paper describes the methods used to characterize the radial profile and rate of expansion of the shock induced x-ray emission.

  3. Health physics problems due to tritium around heavy-water reactors; Les problemes de radioprotection poses par le tritium aupres des piles a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.; Roux, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    A review is made, after one year operation, of the protection against tritium in a heavy-water reactor: - nature of the tritium risk, particular to this type of installation; - detection and measurement equipment; - working method; - results obtained concerning the supervision of the personnel, the installation, and the servicing operations. (authors) [French] Le bilan de la protection contre le tritium dans une pile a eau lourde, a l'issue d'une annee de fonctionnement, est presente: - nature du risque tritium specifique d'une telle installation; - moyens de detection et de mesure; - methode de travail; - resultats obtenus quant a la surveillance du personnel, de l'installation et des interventions. (auteurs)

  4. Trace tritium recovery from the residue of liquid Li17Pb83 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The liquid Li17Pb83 alloy is a prominent breeder material for use in a fusion reactor.In the design of an effective tritium extraction system for the liquid lithium lead bubbler of the test blanket module of such a reactor,finding ways to strictly limit the losses of tritium and to minimize radioactive risks is very important.For this purpose,the isotope exchange process has been investigated as a means of trace tritium recovery from a model of the residue from Li17Pb83 alloy.The results indicate that the isotope exchange process is an effective means of tritium recovery from the residue of Li17Pb83 alloy,and the optimum composition of the exchange carrier gas is He + 0.1% D2.The exchange temperature and number of exchange steps are the main factors influencing the efficiency of tritium recovery from the residue.Trace tritium recovery efficiency increases with increasing exchange temperature and number of times of exchange.Tritium recovery efficiency can approach 80% when the residue is treated six times at 823 K.A gas-liquid two-phase contact model to describe the proceeding of tritium release from the liquid Li17Pb83 alloy has been derived on the basis of this experiment.

  5. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  6. Evaluation of tritium transport in the biomass-fusion hybrid system and its environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Kyosuke [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We assumed that tritium migrates from biomass hybrid fusion system to fuel cell vehicles. • We developed a seven-compartment model to describe the water flow and tritium in an urban area Osaka. • Tritium concentration of surface soil water run by 4 Bq/L level after 60 years later. • The tritium does not deserve health hazard but easily detectable in the environment. - Abstract: The behavior of tritium contained in the biofuel produced by the fusion energy is analyzed. Hydrogen product is contaminated with tritium from breeding blanket of fusion plant within the regulation limit and released to atmosphere when used for fuel cell vehicles. In the model city, Osaka, seven-compartment model describes the behavior of exhausted tritium by adapting the environment water flow and its migration was analyzed with STELLA system dynamics code. Tritium (HTO) with a concentration of 5000 Bq//m{sup 3} exhausted from the running vehicle increases decades and reaches steady state after about 50 years, at around 40 Bq/m{sup 3} in atmosphere and 4 Bq/L in surface soil water that does not deserve health hazard, however causes contamination of large populated area.

  7. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems FY16 EOY Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staack, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gaillard, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-12

    The goal of this work is to increase the power output of tritium powered betavoltaic batteries and investigate the change in power output and film resistance in real-time during tritium loading of adsorbent films. To this end, several tritium compatible test vessels with the capability of measuring both the resistivity of a tritium trapping film and the power output of a betavoltaic device in-situ have been designed and fabricated using four electrically insulated feedthroughs in tritium compatible load cells. Energy conversion devices were received from Widetronix, a betavoltaic manufacturing firm based in Ithaca, NY. Thin films were deposited on the devices and capped with palladium to facilitate hydrogen loading. Gold contacts were then deposited on top of the films to allow resistivity measurements of the film during hydrogen loading. Finally, the chips were wire bonded and installed in the test cells. The cells were then baked-out under vacuum and leak checked at temperature to reduce the chances of tritium leaks during loading. Following the bake-out, IV curves were measured to verify no internal wires were compromised, and the cells were delivered to Tritium for loading. Tritium loading is anticipated in October, 2017.

  8. Preparation of tritium labelled synthanecine A and its bis-N-ethylcarbamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattocks, A.R. (Medical Research Council, Carshalton (UK))

    1982-04-01

    A procedure is described for incorporating tritium into the 3-CH/sub 2/ side chain of synthanecine A, and preparing the carbamate, 2,3-bis-N-ethylcarbamoyloxymethyl-1-methyl-3-pyrroline, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid analogue. The pyrrolizidine amino alcohol, retronecine, can be tritium labelled in a similar way.

  9. Tritium labelling and characterization of the antimalarial drug (+/-)-chloroquine by several methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, J.A.Judith A.; Laseter, Anne G.; Filer, C.N.Crist N. E-mail: crist.filer@perkinelmer.com

    2002-09-01

    To study its mechanism of antimalarial action, a tritium labelled analogue of (+/-)-chloroquine was required at high specific activity. Two synthetic methods were successfully employed. [3-{sup 3}H] (+/-)-Chloroquine 2 was prepared by the catalytic tritium dehalogenation of an iodo precursor and [N-ethyl-{sup 3}H] (+/-)-chloroquine 4 was synthesized by the alkylation of (+/-)-desethylchloroquine with [{sup 3}H] ethyl iodide.

  10. Tritium in Japanese precipitation following the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Shimoda, Gen; Obata, Hajime; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Yamamoto, Koshi; Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hagino, Kyoko; Tomioka, Naotaka; Sambandam, Chinmaya; Brummer, Daniela; Klaus, Philipp Martin; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    We have measured the concentrations of tritium in Japanese precipitation samples collected after the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1). Tritium concentrations exceeding the pre-accident background level were detected at three out of seven localities (Tsukuba, Kashiwa and Hongo) southwest of the FNPP1, with their distances varying between 170 and 220 km from the source. The highest tritium content was found in the first rainfall in Tsukuba after the accident, but its tritium content was about 500 times less than the regulatory limit for tritium in drinking water, so that the risk of radiation from tritium released in the accident can be considered negligible. Tritium levels at the localities studied here decreased steadily and rapidly with time and became indistinguishable from the pre-accident values within five weeks. The atmospheric tritium level in the vicinity of the FNPP1 during the earliest stage of the accident was roughly estimated to be 1.5 × 103 Bq/m3, which is potentially capable of producing rainwater exceeding the regulatory limit, but only in the immediate vicinity of the source.

  11. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems FY16 EOY Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staack, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gaillard, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-12

    The goal of this work is to increase the power output of tritium-powered betavoltaic batteries and investigate the change in power output and film resistance in real-time during tritium loading of adsorbent films. To this end, several tritium-compatible test vessels with the capability of measuring both the resistivity of a tritium trapping film and the power output of a betavoltaic device in-situ have been designed and fabricated using four electrically insulated feedthroughs in tritium-compatible load cells. Energy conversion devices were received from Widetronix, a betavoltaic manufacturing firm based in Ithaca, NY. Thin films were deposited on the devices and capped with palladium to facilitate hydrogen loading. Gold contacts were then deposited on top of the films to allow resistivity measurements of the film during hydrogen loading. Finally, the chips were wire bonded and installed in the test cells. The cells were then baked-out under vacuum and leak checked at temperature to reduce the chances of tritium leaks during loading. Following the bake-out, IV curves were measured to verify no internal wires were compromised, and the cells were delivered to Tritium for loading. Tritium loading is anticipated in October, 2017.

  12. Trapping and depth profile of tritium in surface layers of metallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, M., E-mail: masao@ctg.u-toyama.ac.jp [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Chen, Z. [The Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Nisimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Akamaru, S.; Torikai, Y.; Hatano, Y. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Ashikawa, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Oya, Y.; Okuno, K. [Radiochemistry Research Laboratory, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Hino, T. [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Tritium amount retained in surface layers and release behavior from surface layers were examined using SS316L samples exposed to plasmas in the Large Helical Device and a commercial Cu-Be alloy plate. BIXS analyses and observation by SEM indicate that carbon and titanium deposited on the plasma-facing surface of the SS316L samples. Larger amount of tritium was trapped in the plasma-facing surface in comparison with the polished surface. Higher enrichment of tritium in surface layers was similarly found in the polished surface of both samples. The amount of surface tritium in both samples was almost same, while the bulk concentration of tritium in Cu-Be was much lower than that in SS316L. Tritium release from the SS316L and Cu-Be samples into water was examined by immersion experiments. Tritium elution was observed for both samples, but changes in the residual tritium amount in surface layers were different from each other.

  13. Proceedings of 2nd Internaitonal workshop on tritium effects in plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Kenji [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering; Noda, Nobuaki [eds.

    1994-08-01

    This workshop was held at Nagoya University on May 19 and 20, 1994. Approximately 1/3 of the lectures discussed the migration and retention of tritium in graphite and the other forms of carbon. As to this topic, most of the different aspects of the tritium reactions with carbon were generally agreed on. At the temperature lower than 800 K, tritium plasma interacts with graphite by forming a saturated layer on the surface, by forming a codeposited layer of sputtered carbon and tritium, and by allowing tritium diffusion through Pores. At the temperature higher than 800 K, the principal reaction of tritium with carbon is intergranular diffusion with high energy trapping. Because beryllium is the reference plasma-facing material for the ITER, several presentations on the reactions of tritium with beryllium were made. Also the tritium permeation through other metals was the topics. The results of TFTR D-T experiment were reported in the first talk. In this book, the gists of these lectures are collected. (K.I.).

  14. Modeling tritium behavior in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Fusion Power Program

    1998-03-01

    Lithium metazirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) is a promising tritium breeder material for fusion reactors because of its excellent tritium release characteristics. In particular, for water-cooled breeding blankets (e.g., ITER), Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} is appealing from a design perspective because of its good tritium release at low operating temperatures. The steady-state and transient tritium release/retention database for Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} is reviewed, along with conventional diffusion and first-order surface desorption models which have been used to match the database. A first-order surface desorption model is recommended in the current work both for best-estimate and conservative (i.e., inventory upper-bound) predictions. Model parameters are determined and validated for both types of predictions, although emphasis is placed on conservative design predictions. The effects on tritium retention of ceramic microstructure, protium partial pressure in the purge gas and purge gas flow rate are discussed, along with other mechanisms for tritium retention which may not be dominant in the experiments, but may be important in blanket design analyses. The proposed tritium retention/release model can be incorporated into a transient thermal performance code to enable whole-blanket predictions of tritium retention/release during cyclic reactor operation. Parameters for the ITER driver breeding blanket are used to generate a numerical set of model predictions for steady-state operation. (author)

  15. Fusion Energy-Production from a Deuterium-Tritium Plasma in the Jet Tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebut, P. H.; Gibson, A.; Huguet, M.; Adams, J. M.; Alper, B.; Altmann, H.; Andersen, A.; Andrew, P.; Angelone, M.; Aliarshad, S.; Baigger, P.; Bailey, W.; Balet, B.; Barabaschi, P.; Barker, P.; Barnsley, R.; Baronian, M.; Bartlett, D. V.; Baylor, L.; Bell, A. C.; Benali, G.; Bertoldi, P.; Bertolini, E.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bickley, A. J.; Binder, D.; Bindslev, H.; Bonicelli, T.; Booth, S. J.; Bosia, G.; Botman, M.; Boucher, D.; Boucquey, P.; Breger, P.; Brelen, H.; Brinkschulte, H.; Brooks, D.; Brown, A.; Brown, T.; Brusati, M.; Bryan, S.; Brzozowski, J.; Buchse, R.; Budd, T.; Bures, M.; Businaro, T.; Butcher, P.; Buttgereit, H.; Caldwellnichols, C.; Campbell, D. J.; Card, P.; Celentano, G.; Challis, C. D.; Chankin, A. V.; Cherubini, A.; Chiron, D.; Christiansen, J.; Chuilon, P.; Claesen, R.; Clement, S.; Clipsham, E.; Coad, J. P.; Coffey, I. H.; Colton, A.; Comiskey, M.; Conroy, S.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, D.; Cooper, S.; Cordey, J. G.; Core, W.; Corrigan, G.; Corti, S.; Costley, A. E.; Cottrell, G.; Cox, M.; Cripwell, P.; Dacosta, O.; Davies, J.; Davies, N.; de Blank, H.; De Esch, H.; Dekock, L.; Deksnis, E.; Delvart, F.; Dennehinnov, G. B.; Deschamps, G.; Dickson, W. J.; Dietz, K. J.; Dmitrenko, S. L.; Dmitrieva, M.; Dobbing, J.; Doglio, A.; Dolgetta, N.; Dorling, S. E.; Doyle, P. G.; Duchs, D. F.; Duquenoy, H.; Edwards, A.; Ehrenberg, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Elevant, T.; Erents, S.K.; Eriksson, L. G.; Fajemirokun, H.; Falter, H.; Freiling, J.; Freville, F.; Froger, C.; Froissard, P.; Fullard, K.; Gadeberg, M.; Galetsas, A.; Gallagher, T.; Gambier, D.; Garribba, M.; Gaze, P.; Giannella, R.; Gill, R. D.; Girard, A.; Gondhalekar, A.; Goodall, D.; Gormezano, C.; Gottardi, N. A.; Gowers, C.; Green, B. J.; Grievson, B.; Haange, R.; Haigh, A.; Hancock, C. J.; Harbour, P. J.; Hartrampf, T.; Hawkes, N. C.; Haynes, P.; Hemmerich, J. L.; Hender, T.; Hoekzema, J.; Holland, D.; Hone, M.; Horton, L.; How, J.; Huart, M.; Hughes, I.; Hughes, T. P.; Hugon, M.; Huo, Y.; Ida, K.; Ingram, B.; Irving, M.; Jacquinot, J.; Jaeckel, H.; Jaeger, J. F.; Janeschitz, G.; Jankovicz, Z.; Jarvis, O. N.; Jensen, F.; Jones, E. M.; Jones, H. D.; Jones, Lpdf; Jones, S.; Jones, T. T. C.; Junger, J. F.; Junique, F.; Kaye, A.; Keen, B. E.; Keilhacker, M.; Kelly, G. J.; Kerner, W.; Khudoleev, A.; Konig, R.; Konstantellos, A.; Kovanen, M.; Kramer, G.; Kupschus, P.; Lasser, R.; Last, J. R.; Laundy, B.; Laurotaroni, L.; Laveyry, M.; Lawson, K.; Lennholm, M.; Lingertat, J.; Litunovski, R. N.; Loarte, A.; Lobel, R.; Lomas, P.; Loughlin, M.; Lowry, C.; Lupo, J.; Maas, A. C.; Machuzak, J.; Macklin, B.; Maddison, G.; Maggi, C. F.; Magyar, G.; Mandl, W.; Marchese, V.; Marcon, G.; Marcus, F.; Mart, J.; Martin, D.; Martin, E.; Martinsolis, R.; Massmann, P.; Matthews, G.; McBryan, H.; McCracken, G.; McKivitt, J.; Meriguet, P.; Miele, P.; Miller, A.; Mills, J.; Mills, S. F.; Millward, P.; Milverton, P.; Minardi, E.; Mohanti, R.; Mondino, P. L.; Montgomery, D.; Montvai, A.; Morgan, P.; Morsi, H.; Muir, D.; Murphy, G.; Myrnas, R.; Nave, F.; Newbert, G.; Newman, M.; Nielsen, P.; Noll, P.; Obert, W.; Obrien, D.; Orchard, J.; Orourke, J.; Ostrom, R.; Ottaviani, M.; Pain, M.; Paoletti, F.; Papastergiou, S.; Parsons, W.; Pasini, D.; Patel, D.; Peacock, A.; Peacock, N.; Pearce, R. J. M.; Pearson, D.; Peng, J. F.; Desilva, R. P.; Perinic, G.; Perry, C.; Petrov, M.; Pick, M. A.; Plancoulaine, J.; Poffe, J. P.; Pohlchen, R.; Porcelli, F.; Porte, L.; Prentice, R.; Puppin, S.; Putvinskii, S.; Radford, G.; Raimondi, T.; Deandrade, M. C. R.; Reichle, R.; Reid, J.; Richards, S.; Righi, E.; Rimini, F.; Robinson, D.; Rolfe, A.; Ross, R. T.; Rossi, L.; Russ, R.; Rutter, P.; Sack, H. C.; Sadler, G.; Saibene, G.; Salanave, J. L.; Sanazzaro, G.; Santagiustina, A.; Sartori, R.; Sborchia, C.; Schild, P.; Schmid, M.; Schmidt, G.; Schunke, B.; Scott, S. M.; Serio, L.; Sibley, A.; Simonini, R.; Sips, A.C.C.; Smeulders, P.; Smith, R.; Stagg, R.; Stamp, M.; Stangeby, P.; Stankiewicz, R.; Start, D. F.; Steed, C. A.; Stork, D.; Stott, P.E.; Stubberfield, P.; Summers, D.; Summers, H.; Svensson, L.; Tagle, J. A.; Talbot, M.; Tanga, A.; Taroni, A.; Terella, C.; Terrington, A.; Tesini, A.; Thomas, P. R.; Thompson, E.; Thomsen, K.; Tibone, F.; Tiscornia, A.; Trevalion, P.; Tubbing, B.; Vanbelle, P.; Vanderbeken, H.; Vlases, G.; von Hellermann, M.; Wade, T.; Walker, C.; Walton, R.; Ward, D.; Watkins, M. L.; Watkins, N.; Watson, M. J.; Weber, S.; Wesson, J.; Wijnands, T. J.; Wilks, J.; Wilson, D.; Winkel, T.; Wolf, R.; Wong, D.; Woodward, C.; Wu, Y.; Wykes, M.; Young, D.; Young, I. D.; Zannelli, L.; Zolfaghari, A.; Zwingmann, W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a series of experiments in the Joint European Torus (JET), culminating in the first tokamak discharges in deuterium-tritium fuelled mixtures. The experiments were undertaken within limits imposed by restrictions on vessel activation and tritium usage. The objectives were: (i) to

  16. Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodríguez, A; Sanromán, M A; Deive, F J

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached.

  17. Detection of atmospheric tritium by scintillation. Variations in its concentration in France; Detection du tritium atmospherique par scintillation. Evolution de sa concentration en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibron, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    The tritium released into the atmosphere as a result of the explosion of thermonuclear devices is a useful radioactive tracer for the study of certain geophysical problems. The low concentrations found however call for the use of extremely sensitive detectors. Two detection methods using liquid scintillators are described. In the first method, the sample is introduced into the scintillator in liquid form, after prior concentration of the tritium by electrolysis. In the second method the tritium is incorporated into the scintillator solvent molecule by chemical synthesis. In the last part of the report are examined the variations in the tritium concentration in rain-water and of the free hydrogen in the air in France. A discussion is then made of the seasonal variations in the case of rain-water and these are compared to the variations in the strontium-90 concentrations. (author) [French] Le tritium introduit dans l'atmosphere par les explosions d'armes thermonucleaires est un traceur radioactif Interessant pour l'etude de certains problemes de geophysique. Les faibles concentrations rencontrees obligent toutefois a utiliser des detecteurs extremement sensibles. On decrit deux methodes de detection utilisant des scintillateurs liquides. Dans la premiere methode, l'echantillon est introduit dans le scintillateur, sous forme aqueuse, apres une concentration prealable du tritium par electrolyse. Dans la seconde methode, le tritium est incorpore a la molecule du solvant du scintillateur par synthese chimique. Dans la derniere partie du rapport, on examine l'evolution de la concentration du tritium dans les eaux de precipitation et l'hydrogene libre de l'air en France. On discute ensuite les variations saisonnieres dans le cas des eaux de precipitation et on les compare aux variations du strontium 90. (auteur)

  18. ACUTRI a computer code for assessing doses to the general public due to acute tritium releases

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, S; Noguchi, H; Ryufuku, S; Sasaki, T

    2002-01-01

    Tritium, which is used as a fuel of a D-T burning fusion reactor, is the most important radionuclide for the safety assessment of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor such as ITER. Thus, a computer code, ACUTRI, which calculates the radiological impact of tritium released accidentally to the atmosphere, has been developed, aiming to be of use in a discussion of licensing of a fusion experimental reactor and an environmental safety evaluation method in Japan. ACUTRI calculates an individual tritium dose based on transfer models specific to tritium in the environment and ICRP dose models. In this calculation it is also possible to analyze statistically on meteorology in the same way as a conventional dose assessment method according to the meteorological guide of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. A Gaussian plume model is used for calculating the atmospheric dispersion of tritium gas (HT) and/or tritiated water (HTO). The environmental pathway model in ACUTRI considers the following internal exposures: i...

  19. Surface erosion and tritium inventory analysis for CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J.N. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Dylla, H.F. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Pontau, A.E.; Wilson, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The expected buildup of co-deposited tritium on the CIT carbon divertor and first wall surfaces and operational methods of minimizing the inventory have been examined. The analysis uses impurity transport computer codes, and associated plasma and tritium retention models, to compute the thickness of redeposited sputtered carbon and the resulting co-deposited tritium inventory on the divertor plates and first wall. Predicted erosion/growth rates are dominated by the effect of gaps between carbon tiles. The overall results appear favorable, showing stable operation (finite self-sputtering) and acceptably low ({approximately}25 Ci/pulse) co-deposited tritium rates, at high surface temperature (1700{degree}C) design conditions. These results, however, are highly speculative due to serious model inadequacies at the high sputtering rates predicted. If stable operation is obtainable, the prospects appear good for adequate tritium inventory control via helium-oxygen glow discharge cleaning. 25 refs.

  20. Tritium isotope effect in high-performance liquid chromatography of eicosanoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, U.H.; Lo, S.-L.; Iles, J.; Rosenberger, T.; Tam, P.; Hong, Y.; Ahern, D. [DuPont, NEN Products, Boston (United States). Lipids Group

    1994-07-01

    A significant difference in retention time between unlabeled and the corresponding multi-tritium-labeled eicosanoid has been observed in the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of 11 eicosanoids. Variations in retention time range from 3-7%, depending on the separation conditions as well as the number and position of the tritium substitution. Multi-tritium-labeled eicosanoids were eluted earlier than the corresponding unlabeled eicosanoid in reversed phase HPLC, whereas no isotope effect was seen with {sup 14}C- and {sup 3}H{sub 2}-eicosanoids. Considerations must be given to this tritium isotope effect whenever both multi-tritium-labeled and unlabeled eicosanoids are used for HPLC cochromatography or recovery studies. (author).

  1. Design and tritium permeation analysis of China HCCB TBM port cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiangfeng, S.; Guoqiang, H.; Zhiyong, H.; Chang' an, C.; Deli, L. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

    2015-03-15

    China is planning to develop a helium-cooled ceramic breeder (HCCB) test blanket module (TBM) on ITER to test key blanket technologies. In this paper, the design and tritium permeation analysis of China HCCB TBM port cell are introduced. A theoretical model has been developed to estimate tritium permeation rates and leak rates from the components and pipes which China has scheduled to house in the port cell. It is shown that on normal working conditions, the permeation and leak rate of the systems in the port cell will be no higher than 1.58 Ci/d without the use of tritium permeation barriers, and 0.10 Ci/d with the use of tritium permeation barriers. It also appears that tritium permeation barriers are necessary for high temperature components such as the reduction bed and the heater.

  2. Tritium recovery in Pb17Li-water cooled blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Safety Technology Inst., Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering & Information Inst., Ispra (Italy); Viola, A. [Univ. of Cagliari (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The question of tritium recovery in Pb17Li, water cooled blankets is under investigation since several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analyzed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging in a suited process apparatus. The design features of the process systems are related to: (1) the very low tritium solubility in Pb17Li which implies high permeation rates through the containment structures; (2) the need of keeping as low as possible the tritium concentration in the cooling water both for safety and economical reasons. A computerized model of the tritium behavior in the blanket units and in the extraction system has been developed.

  3. Study on a method for loading a Li compound to produce tritium using high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaya, Hiroyuki, E-mail: nakaya@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 8190395 (Japan); Matsuura, Hideaki [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 8190395 (Japan); Katayama, Kazunari [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga 8168580 (Japan); Goto, Minoru; Nakagawa, Shigeaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Tritium production by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor was studied. • The loading method considering tritium outflow suppression was estimated. • A reactor with 600 MWt produced 400–600 g of tritium for 180 days. • A possibility that tritium outflow can be sufficiently suppressed was shown. - Abstract: Tritium production using high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and its outflow from the region loading Li compound into the helium coolant are estimated when considering the suppression of tritium outflow. A Li rod containing a cylindrical Li compound placed in an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cladding tube is assumed as a method for loading Li compound. A gas turbine high-temperature reactor of 300 MW electrical nominal capacity (GTHTR300) with 600 MW thermal output power is considered and modeled using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code MVP-BURN, where burn-up simulations are carried out. Tritium outflow is estimated from equilibrium solution for the tritium diffusion equation in the cladding tube. A GTHTR300 can produce 400–600 g of tritium over a 180-day operation using the chosen method of loading the Li compound while minimizing tritium outflow from the cladding tube. Optimizing tritium production while suppressing tritium outflow is discussed.

  4. Effect of surfactant-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on the effluent water quality from a simulated sequencing batch reactor treating domestic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sangchul, E-mail: sangchul.hwang@upr.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Martinez, Diana [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Perez, Priscilla [Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Rinaldi, Carlos [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico)

    2011-12-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available engineered iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a surfactant (ENP{sub Fe-surf}) on effluent water quality from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor as a model secondary biological wastewater treatment. Results showed that {approx}8.7% of ENP{sub Fe-surf} applied were present in the effluent stream. The stable presence of ENP{sub Fe-surf} was confirmed by analyzing the mean particle diameter and iron concentration in the effluent. Consequently, aqueous ENP{sub Fe-surf} deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05) with respect to soluble chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and apparent color. This implied that ENP{sub Fe-surf} would be introduced into environmental receptors through the treated effluent and could potentially impact them. - Highlights: > Surfactant-coated engineered iron oxide nanoparticles (ENP{sub Fe-surf}) were assessed. > Effluent quality was analyzed from a sequencing batch reactor with ENP{sub Fe-surf}. > {approx}8.7% of ENP{sub Fe-surf} applied was present in the effluent. > ENP{sub Fe-surf} significantly (p < 0.05) deteriorated the effluent water quality. > Stable fraction of ENP{sub Fe-surf} will be introduced into environmental receptors. - Stable presence of surfactant-coated engineered iron oxides nanoparticles deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05).

  5. Radioactive waste tank ventilation system incorporating tritium control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.D. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a ventilation system for radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The unique design of the system is aimed at cost-effective control of tritiated water vapor. The system includes recirculation ventilation and cooling for each tank in the facility and a central exhaust air clean-up train that includes a low-temperature vapor condenser and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME). A one-seventh scale pilot plant was built and tested to verify predicted performance of the low-temperature tritium removal system. Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the removal of condensable vapor and soluble and insoluble aerosols and to estimate the operating life of the mist eliminator. Definitive design of the ventilation system relied heavily on the test data. The unique design features of the ventilation system will result in far less release of tritium to the atmosphere than from conventional high-volume dilution systems and will greatly reduce operating costs. NESHAPs and TAPs NOC applications have been approved, and field construction is nearly complete. Start-up is scheduled for late 1996. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. SHINE Tritium Nozzle Design: Activity 6, Task 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okhuysen, Brett S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-05

    In FY14, we studied the qualitative and quantitative behavior of a SHINE/PNL tritium nozzle under varying operating conditions. The result is an understanding of the nozzle’s performance in terms of important flow features that manifest themselves under different parametric profiles. In FY15, we will consider nozzle design with a focus on nozzle geometry and integration. From FY14 work, we will understand how the SHINE/PNL nozzle behaves under different operating scenarios. The first task for FY15 is to evaluate the FY14 model as a predictor of the actual flow. Considering different geometries is more time-intensive than parameter studies, therefore we recommend considering any relevant flow features that were not included in the FY14 model. In the absence of experimental data, it is particularly important to consider any sources of heat in the domain or boundary conditions that may affect the flow and incorporate these into the simulation if they are significant. Additionally, any geometric features of the beamline segment should be added to the model such as the orifice plate. The FY14 model works with hydrogen. An improvement that can be made for FY15 is to develop CFD properties for tritium and incorporate those properties into the new models.

  7. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

    2009-12-16

    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation

  8. Tritium and ignition target management at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draggoo, Vaughn

    2013-06-01

    Isotopic mixtures of hydrogen constitute the basic fuel for fusion targets of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A typical NIF fusion target shot requires approximately 0.5 mmoles of hydrogen gas and as much as 750 GBq (20 Ci) of 3H. Isotopic mix ratios are specified according to the experimental shot/test plan and the associated test objectives. The hydrogen isotopic concentrations, absolute amounts, gas purity, configuration of the target, and the physical configuration of the NIF facility are all parameters and conditions that must be managed to ensure the quality and safety of operations. An essential and key step in the preparation of an ignition target is the formation of a ~60 μm thick hydrogen "ice" layer on the inner surface of the target capsule. The Cryogenic Target Positioning System (Cryo-Tarpos) provides gas handling, cyro-cooling, x-ray imaging systems, and related instrumentation to control the volumes and temperatures of the multiphase (solid, liquid, and gas) hydrogen as the gas is condensed to liquid, admitted to the capsule, and frozen as a single spherical crystal of hydrogen in the capsule. The hydrogen fuel gas is prepared in discrete 1.7 cc aliquots in the LLNL Tritium Facility for each ignition shot. Post-shot hydrogen gas is recovered in the NIF Tritium Processing System (TPS). Gas handling systems, instrumentation and analytic equipment, material accounting information systems, and the shot planning systems must work together to ensure that operational and safety requirements are met.

  9. Tritium Specific Adsorption Simulation Utilizing the OSPREY Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica Rutledge; Lawrence Tavlarides; Ronghong Lin; Austin Ladshaw

    2013-09-01

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel, volatile radionuclides will be discharged to the atmosphere if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Methods are being developed, via adsorption and absorption unit operations, to capture these radionuclides. It is necessary to model these unit operations to aid in the evaluation of technologies and in the future development of an advanced used nuclear fuel processing plant. A collaboration between Fuel Cycle Research and Development Offgas Sigma Team member INL and a NEUP grant including ORNL, Syracuse University, and Georgia Institute of Technology has been formed to develop off gas models and support off gas research. This report is discusses the development of a tritium specific adsorption model. Using the OSPREY model and integrating it with a fundamental level isotherm model developed under and experimental data provided by the NEUP grant, the tritium specific adsorption model was developed.

  10. THE TRITIUM UNDERFLOW STUDY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R; Daniel Kaplan,D

    2007-05-21

    An issue of concern at the Savannah River Site (SRS) over the past 20 years is whether tritiated groundwater originating at SRS might be the cause of low levels of tritium measured in certain domestic wells in Georgia. Tritium activity levels in several domestic wells have been observed to occur at levels comparable to what is measured in rainfall in areas surrounding SRS. Since 1988, there has been speculation that tritiated groundwater from SRS could flow under the river and find its way into Georgia wells. A considerable effort was directed at assessing the likelihood of trans-river flow, and 44 wells have been drilled by the USGS and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Also, as part of the data collection and analysis, the USGS developed a numerical model during 1997-98 (Ref. 1) to assess the possibility for such trans-river flow to occur. The model represented the regional groundwater flow system surrounding the Savannah River Site (SRS) in seven layers corresponding to the underlying hydrostratigraphic units, which was regarded as sufficiently detailed to evaluate whether groundwater originating at SRS could possibly flow beneath the Savannah River into Georgia. The model was calibrated against a large database of water-level measurements obtained from wells on both sides of the Savannah River and screened in each of the hydrostratigraphic units represented within the model. The model results verified that the groundwater movement in all hydrostratigraphic units proceeds laterally toward the Savannah River from both South Carolina and Georgia, and discharges into the river. Once the model was calibrated, a particle-track analysis was conducted to delineate areas of potential trans-river flow. Trans-river flow can occur in either an eastward or westward direction. The model indicated that all locations of trans-river flow are restricted to the Savannah River's floodplain, where groundwater passes immediately prior to discharging into the river

  11. Effect of surfactant-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on the effluent water quality from a simulated sequencing batch reactor treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sangchul; Martinez, Diana; Perez, Priscilla; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available engineered iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a surfactant (ENP(Fe-surf)) on effluent water quality from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor as a model secondary biological wastewater treatment. Results showed that ~8.7% of ENP(Fe-surf) applied were present in the effluent stream. The stable presence of ENP(Fe-surf) was confirmed by analyzing the mean particle diameter and iron concentration in the effluent. Consequently, aqueous ENP(Fe-surf) deteriorated the effluent water quality at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05) with respect to soluble chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and apparent color. This implied that ENP(Fe-surf) would be introduced into environmental receptors through the treated effluent and could potentially impact them.

  12. A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: Water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.; Kollet, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes.

  13. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases at the National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Health and Ecological Assessment Div.; Shan, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    1997-04-01

    This risk assessment calculates the probability of experiencing health effects, including cancer incidence due to tritium exposure for three groups of people: (1) LBNL workers near the LBNL facility--Building 75--that uses tritium; (2) other workers at LBNL and nearby neighbors; and (3) people who use the UC Berkeley campus area, and some Berkeley residents. All of these groups share the same probability of health effects from the background radiation from natural sources in the Berkeley area environment, including an increased risk of developing a cancer of 11,000 chances per million. In calculating risk the authors assumed continuous operation in Building 75 for at least a human lifetime. Under this assumption, LBNL workers located near Building 75 have an additional risk of 60 chances out of one million to suffer a cancer; other workers at LBNL and people who live near LBNL have an additional risk of six chances out of one million over a lifetime of exposure; and users of the UC Berkeley campus area and other residents of Berkeley have an additional risk of less than once chance out of one million over a lifetime.

  14. 2016 Accomplishments. Tritium aging studies on stainless steel. Forging process effects on the fracture toughness properties of tritium-precharged stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    Forged austenitic stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for pressure vessels designed to contain tritium at high pressure. These steels are highly resistant to tritium-assisted fracture but their resistance can depend on the details of the forging microstructure. During FY16, the effects of forging strain rate and deformation temperature on the fracture toughness properties of tritium-exposed-and-aged Type 304L stainless steel were studied. Forgings were produced from a single heat of steel using four types of production forging equipment – hydraulic press, mechanical press, screw press, and high-energy-rate forging (HERF). Each machine imparted a different nominal strain rate during the deformation. The objective of the study was to characterize the J-Integral fracture toughness properties as a function of the industrial strain rate and temperature. The second objective was to measure the effects of tritium and decay helium on toughness. Tritium and decay helium effects were measured by thermally precharging the as-forged specimens with tritium gas at 34.5 MPa and 350°C and aging for up to five years at -80°C to build-in decay helium prior to testing. The results of this study show that the fracture toughness properties of the as-forged steels vary with forging strain rate and forging temperature. The effect is largely due to yield strength as the higher-strength forgings had the lower toughness values. For non-charged specimens, fracture toughness properties were improved by forging at 871°C versus 816°C and Screw-Press forgings tended to have lower fracture toughness values than the other forgings. Tritium exposures reduced the fracture toughness values remarkably to fracture toughness values averaging 10-20% of as-forged values. However, forging strain rate and temperature had little or no effect on the fracture toughness after tritium precharging and aging. The result was confirmed by fractography which indicated that fracture modes

  15. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM EXPOSURE ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

    2006-05-31

    Samples of three polymers, Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, also known as Teflon{reg_sign}), and Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide were exposed to 1 atmosphere of tritium gas at ambient temperature for varying times up to 2.3 years in closed containers. Sample mass and size measurements (to calculate density), spectra-colorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the effects of tritium exposure on these samples. Changes of the tritium exposure gas itself were characterized at the end of exposure by measuring total pressure and by mass spectroscopic analysis of the gas composition. None of the polymers exhibited significant changes of density. The color of initially white UHMW-PE and PTFE dramatically darkened to the eye and the color also significantly changed as measured by colorimetry. The bulk of UHMW-PE darkened just like the external surfaces, however the fracture surface of PTFE appeared white compared to the PTFE external surfaces. The white interior could have been formed while the sample was breaking or could reflect the extra tritium dose at the surface directly from the gas. The dynamic mechanical response of UHMW-PE was typical of radiation effects on polymers- an initial stiffening (increased storage modulus) and reduction of viscous behavior after three months exposure, followed by lowering of the storage modulus after one year exposure and longer. The storage modulus of PTFE increased through about nine months tritium exposure, then the samples became too weak to handle or test using DMA. Characterization of Vespel{reg_sign} using DMA was problematic--sample-to-sample variations were significant and no systematic change with tritium exposure could be discerned. Isotopic exchange and incorporation of tritium into UHMW-PE (exchanging for protium) and into PTFE (exchanging for fluorine) was observed by FT-IR using an attenuated

  16. The effects of dual-domain mass transfer on the tritium-helium-3 dating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Labolle, Eric M; Harvey, Charles F

    2008-07-01

    Diffusion of tritiated water (referred to as tritium) and helium-3 between mobile and immobile regions in aquifers (mass transfer) can affect tritium and helium-3 concentrations and hence tritium-helium-3 (3H/3He) ages that are used to estimate aquifer recharge and groundwater residence times. Tritium and helium-3 chromatographically separate during transport because their molecular diffusion coefficients differ. Simulations of tritium and helium-3 transport and diffusive mass transfer along stream tubes show that mass transfer can shift the 3H/3He age of the tritium and helium-3 concentration ([3H + 3He]) peak to dates much younger than the 1963 peak in atmospheric tritium. Furthermore, diffusive mass-transfer can cause the 3H/3He age to become younger downstream along a stream tube, even as the mean water-age must increase. Simulated patterns of [3H + 3He] versus 3H/3He age using a mass transfer model appear consistent with a variety of field data. These results suggest that diffusive mass transfer should be considered, especially when the [3H + 3He] peak is not well defined or appears younger than the atmospheric peak. 3H/3He data provide information about upstream mass-transfer processes that could be used to constrain mass-transfer models; however, uncritical acceptance of 3H/3He dates from aquifers with immobile regions could be misleading.

  17. A Next Generation Digital Counting System For Low-Level Tritium Studies (Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-03

    Since the early seventies, SRNL has pioneered low-level tritium analysis using various nuclear counting technologies and techniques. Since 1999, SRNL has successfully performed routine low-level tritium analyses with counting systems based on digital signal processor (DSP) modules developed in the late 1990s. Each of these counting systems are complex, unique to SRNL, and fully dedicated to performing routine tritium analyses of low-level environmental samples. It is time to modernize these systems due to a variety of issues including (1) age, (2) lack of direct replacement electronics modules and (3) advances in digital signal processing and computer technology. There has been considerable development in many areas associated with the enterprise of performing low level tritium analyses. The objective of this LDRD project was to design, build, and demonstrate a Next Generation Tritium Counting System (NGTCS), while not disrupting the routine low-level tritium analyses underway in the facility on the legacy counting systems. The work involved (1) developing a test bed for building and testing new counting system hardware that does not interfere with our routine analyses, (2) testing a new counting system based on a modern state of the art DSP module, and (3) evolving the low-level tritium counter design to reflect the state of the science.

  18. A remotely operated, field deployable tritium analysis system for surface and groundwater measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, P.R.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Beals, D.M.; Jones, J.D.; Collins, S.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.D.; Neary, M.P. [Center for Applied Isotope Studies, Athens, GA (United States); Peterson, R. [Sampling Systems, Inc., Old Ocean, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A prototype system for the remote, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground waters has been developed at the Savannah River Site through the combined efforts of university, private industry, and government laboratory personnel under a project funded by the DOE/OTD. Using automated liquid scintillation counting techniques, the Field Deployable Tritium Analysis System (FDTAS) has been shown in laboratory and limited field tests to have sufficient sensitivity to measure tritium in water samples at environmental levels (10 Bq/L [{approximately}300 pCi/L] for a 100-minute count) on a near-real time basis. These limits are well below the EPA drinking water standard for tritium at 740 Bq/L (1) and lower than the normal upstream Savannah River tritium concentration of {approximately}40 Bq/L (2). The FDTAS consists of a fixed volume sampler (50 mL), an on-line water purification system, and a stop-flow liquid scintillation counter for detecting tritium in the purified sample. All operations are controlled and monitored by a remote computer using standard telephone line modem communications. The FDTAS offers a cost-effective alternative to the expensive and time-consuming methods of field sample collection and laboratory analyses for tritium in contaminated groundwater.

  19. A Next Generation Digital Counting System For Low-Level Tritium Studies (Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-03

    Since the early seventies, SRNL has pioneered low-level tritium analysis using various nuclear counting technologies and techniques. Since 1999, SRNL has successfully performed routine low-level tritium analyses with counting systems based on digital signal processor (DSP) modules developed in the late 1990s. Each of these counting systems are complex, unique to SRNL, and fully dedicated to performing routine tritium analyses of low-level environmental samples. It is time to modernize these systems due to a variety of issues including (1) age, (2) lack of direct replacement electronics modules and (3) advances in digital signal processing and computer technology. There has been considerable development in many areas associated with the enterprise of performing low-level tritium analyses. The objective of this LDRD project was to design, build, and demonstrate a Next Generation Tritium Counting System (NGTCS), while not disrupting the routine low-level tritium analyses underway in the facility on the legacy counting systems. The work involved (1) developing a test bed for building and testing new counting system hardware that does not interfere with our routine analyses, (2) testing a new counting system based on a modern state of the art DSP module, and (3) evolving the low-level tritium counter design to reflect the state of the science.

  20. Milestone report - M4FT-14OR0302102b - Evaluation of Tritium Content and Release from Surry-2 Fuel Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chattin, Marc Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giaquinto, Joseph M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    To design and operate future reprocessing plants in a safe and environmentally compliant manner, the amount and form of tritium in the used nuclear fuel (UNF) must be understood and quantified.To gain a better understanding of how tritium in cladding will behave during processing, scoping tests are being performed to determine the tritium content in the cladding pre- and post-tritium pretreatment. A sample of Surry-2 pressurized water reactor (PWR) cladding was heated to 1100–1200°C to oxidize the zirconium and release all of the tritium in the cladding sample. The tritium content was measured to be ~240 µCi/g. Cladding samples were heated to 500ºC, which is within the temperature range (480 - 600ºC) expected for standard air tritium pretreatment systems, and to a slightly higher temperature (700ºC) to determine the impact of tritium pretreatment on tritium release from the cladding. Heating at 500°C for 24 hr removes ~0.2% of the tritium from the cladding, and heating at 700°C for 24 hr removes ~9%. Thus, a significant fraction of the tritium remains bound in the cladding and must be considered in operations involving cladding recycle.

  1. Measurements of tritium (HTO, TFWT, OBT) in environmental samples at varying distances from a nuclear generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotzer, T.G.; Workman, W.J.G

    1999-12-01

    Concentrations of tritium have been measured in environmental samples (vegetation, water, soil, air) from sites distal and proximal to a CANDU nuclear generating station in Southern Ontario (OPG-Pickering). Levels of tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) in vegetation are as high as 24,000 TU immediately adjacent to the nuclear generating station and rapidly decrease to levels of tritium which are comparable to natural ambient concentrations for tritium in the environment (approximately {<=} 60 TU). Tritium concentrations (OBT, TFTW) have also been measured in samples of vegetation and tree rings growing substantial distances away from nuclear generating stations and are within a factor of 1 to 2 of the ambient levels of tritium measured in precipitation in several parts of Canada (approximately {<=}30 TU). (author)

  2. 氚化学与工艺%Tritium Chemistry and Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭述明; 王和义; 傅依备

    2011-01-01

    氚作为一种重要的资源,在国防科技和国民经济领域有着广泛的应用。伴随着国防科技发展需求的不断提高,中国工程物理研究院在氚化学与工艺研究方面取得了一定的成就,研究领域涉及到氚的整个生命周期,包括生产、分离、储存、应用及氚废物治理等。本文重点介绍了中国工程物理研究院近年来在金属氚化物、储氚材料、氢同位素分离技术、含氚重水提氚关键技术和ITER相关氚技术等方面的研究进展。%As one of the most important resources,tritium is widely used in the scientific researches of national defense and national economy.To satisfy the development of national defense,China Academy of Engineering Physics(CAEP)has obtained great progress in the tritium chemistry and techniques,and the research fields are focused on the whole period of the tritium,including tritium production,isotopes separation,tritium storage,tritium application and tritium waste treatment,etc.Some of the recently progress in the fundamental research of CAEP are reviewed in this paper,which mainly introduces the physical and chemical property of metal tritide,tritium storage materials,hydrogen isotopes separation techniques,tritide heavy water treatment techniques and ITER related tritium techniques,and some directions for further researches have also been proposed.

  3. The transport, dispersion, and cycling of tritium in the environment. [Contains Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The processes which determine transport, dispersion, and cycling of tritium are identified for atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic, and groundwater systems. The processes are discussed in terms of the storage capacity for tritium in each component of each system and ranges of residence times are derived. The residence times of each component of the systems are discussed in terms of the residence time of the whole system for transient releases of tritium into different components of the systems. The role of the ocean as a sink for tritium is described. The concentration of tritium in the system at steady state is described in terms of the inputs and outputs to the components of the systems. The analysis indicates that the key residence time for a specific release of tritium into the environment is dependent on both the residence time of the components and the means of introduction into the environment. The initial concentration ad residence time of tritium in the terrestrial system after an exposure to tritiated water vapor are determined by the atmospheric and vegetative conditions at the time of the release. The dominant residence time is that of the vegetation. On the other hand, the initial concentration and residence time of tritium in the terrestrial system after an exposure to tritiated hydrogen are determined by the atmospheric and soil conditions at the time of the release. The dominant residence time is that of the soil. The initial concentration and residence time after a liquid release to the soil surface are determined by the diluting soil water content and the residence time for water in the rooting zone of the soil. Little tritium enters the organic fraction of terrestrial systems from transient releases of gases or liquid water. 102 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report Tritium Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the specific radiological characterization information on Building 968, the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Complex and Facility. We performed the characterization as outlined in its Radiological Characterization Plan. The Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report (RC&FFSR) provides historic background information on each laboratory within the TRL complex as related to its original and present radiological condition. Along with the work outlined in the Radiological Characterization Plan (RCP), we performed a Radiological Soils Characterization, Radiological and Chemical Characterization of the Waste Water Hold-up System including all drains, and a Radiological Characterization of the Building 968 roof ventilation system. These characterizations will provide the basis for the Sandia National Laboratory, California (SNL/CA) Site Termination Survey .Plan, when appropriate.

  5. Tritium $\\beta$-decay in pionless effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    De-Leon, Hilla; Gazit, Doron

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the $\\beta$-decay of tritium, i.e., of its $^3$H nucleus (triton), at next-to-leading order in pionless effective field theory. At this order a low-energy parameter $L_{1A}$ enters the calculation that is also relevant for a high-accuracy prediction of the solar proton-proton fusion rate. We show proper renormalization of our perturbative calculation by an analysis of the residual cutoff dependence in observables. We find that next-to-leading order corrections contribute about $1\\%$ to the triton decay Gamow-Teller strength. We show that these conclusions are insensitive to different arrangements of the effective range expansion. We use these to fix $L_{1A}$ to high accuracy, and provide reliable theoretical and experimental uncertainty estimates.

  6. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M R

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  7. An Estimate of the History of Tritium Inventory in Wood Following Irrigation with Tritiated Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E.

    2001-06-15

    Some of the groundwater and surface water at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with tritium as a legacy of nuclear materials production. An analysis of tritium remediation alternatives suggests that the most practical remediation alternative is to change in the path of tritium exposure to the public. Calculations based on many years of experience at the Savannah River Site indicate that a 40 percent reduction in dose can be achieved by releasing tritiated water to the atmosphere, as water vapor, as opposed to allowing it to flow off site in surface water streams.

  8. Tritium/Helium-3 Apparent Ages of Shallow Ground Water, Portland Basin, Oregon, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples for tritium/helium-3 age dating were collected from 12 shallow monitoring wells in the Portland basin, Oregon, in 1997, and again in 1998. Robust tritium/helium-3 apparent (piston-flow) ages were obtained for water samples from 10 of the 12 wells; apparent ages ranged from 1.1 to 21.2 years. Method precision was demonstrated by close agreement between data collected in 1997 and 1998. Tritium/helium-3 apparent ages generally increase with increasing depth below the water table, and agree well with age/depth relations based on assumptions of effects of recharge rate on vertical ground-water movement.

  9. Preparatory steps for a robust dynamic model for organically bound tritium dynamics in agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melintescu, A.; Galeriu, D. [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Diabate, S.; Strack, S. [Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    The processes involved in tritium transfer in crops are complex and regulated by many feedback mechanisms. A full mechanistic model is difficult to develop due to the complexity of the processes involved in tritium transfer and environmental conditions. First, a review of existing models (ORYZA2000, CROPTRIT and WOFOST) presenting their features and limits, is made. Secondly, the preparatory steps for a robust model are discussed, considering the role of dry matter and photosynthesis contribution to the OBT (Organically Bound Tritium) dynamics in crops.

  10. Evaluation of tritium diffusion through the Neutral Beam Injector calorimeter panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgognoni, Fabio [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (RM) I-00044 (Italy)], E-mail: fabio.borgognoni@frascati.enea.it; Moriani, Andrea [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (RM) I-00044 (Italy); Sandri, Sandro [ENEA, Dipartimento Biotecnologie, Agroindustria e Protezione della Salute Istituto di Radioprotezione - C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (RM) I-00044 (Italy); Tosti, Silvano [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (RM) I-00044 (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF) to be realized in Padoa will test the Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), one of the Heating and Current Drive Systems foreseen for ITER. The NBI is based on the acceleration of hydrogen or deuterium negative ions up to 1 MeV. This work has been aimed at assessing the tritium release from the NBTF in order to provide data for the safety analysis. In particular, the diffusion of the tritium through the neutral beam target material (the CuCrZr alloy calorimeter panels) has been assessed by using literature data of the diffusion coefficient. The tritium generated inside the calorimeter panels moves into both the vacuum and water side: the tritium diffusion flux has been evaluated during the beam-on (200 deg. C) and the beam-off (20 deg. C) phases of the NBTF experiments consisting of an interim campaign and a final test. The penetration depth of the tritium through the 2 mm thick CuCrZr alloy material has been also evaluated by using a Monte-Carlo code. As main result, the assessed diffusion flux of tritium during both the beam-on and the beam-off phases are modest. In fact, at the end of the interim campaign (100 days), about the 96% of the all generated tritium (626.5 MBq) exits the calorimeter while the residual tritium inventory (25 MBq) leaves the copper alloy with a diffusion time of about 1 month. At the end of the final test (14 days) about the 99% of the total generated tritium (1.023 x 10{sup 4} MBq) leaves the copper alloy and the remaining tritium inventory (152.2 MBq) is released by about 32 days. In both the interim campaign and the final test, more than the 99% of the total tritium is transferred into the vacuum side of the calorimeter panel while negligible tritium amounts enter the cooling water system thus showing a very low impact on the environ0010me.

  11. Color removal from textile effluents by electrochemical destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeguetveren, U.B.; Koparal, S. (Anadolu Ueniversitesi, Eskisehir (Turkey))

    1994-01-01

    In this work, aqueous solutions of three azo dyes and a waste water sample taking from a local textile plant have been studied. Effect of several factors such as color, pH, presence of NaCl, applied potential, initial dye concentration and solution flow rate on the removal rate has been investigated. Energy consumption values have been calculated for different initial dye concentrations and flow rates, and shown as the function of applied potential. Removal rates of 98%, 86% and 85% have been achieved with energy consumption values of 0.044 kWhg[sup [minus]1], 0.106 kWhg[sup [minus]1] and 0.044 kWhg[sup [minus]1] for Ostazin Rod H3B, Ostazin Black HN and Ostazin Olive HG respectively. Removal rate of 82% with energy consumption value of 2 kWhm[sup [minus]3] has been observed for textile effluent. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Plating effluent management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, P. [Environment Canada, Hull, PQ (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    There are some 600 firms in Canada classified as metal finishers, employing about 8,000 people; 60 per cent of these firms are located in Ontario. Annual sales are in the range of $800 million. About 25 per cent of the total effort is devoted to the automotive industry. Regulatory initiatives are based on the Toxic Substance Management Policy 1995 Framework, and involve multi-stakeholder consultation to identify, evaluate and recommend goals, targets, and management options to reduce exposure to hexavalent chromium, maximize the recycling of nickel and minimize the releases of cadmium from industry operations by promoting and encouraging appropriate P2 practices. Other regulatory initiatives follow from the Fisheries Act of 1970, the Metal Finishing Liquid Effluent Guidelines of 1977, and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1988. There are also non-regulatory initiatives, such as the Metal Finishing Industry Pollution Project, a voluntary cooperative effort directed towards formulating plans to reduce toxic effluents from metal finishing operations and to develop and implement site-specific P2 plans. The various treatment technologies such as physico-chemical treatment of multi-metal rinse waters and periodic bath dumpings at on-site waste water treatment plants, water reduction practices to make more effective use of rinse water, evaporation, ion exchange, packed bed scrubbers, fume suppressants, composite mesh pads and separate ventilation for degreasing are also described. Specific case studies are cited to illustrate the various treatment technologies.

  13. Rapid determination of tritium in groundwater. Colour and chemical quenching studies - Rapid determination of tritium in groundwater. Color and chemical quenching study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fons, Jordi; Diaz, Vladimir; Badia, Andrea; Tent-Petrus, Joana; Llaurado, Montserrat [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11 3th floor, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The determination of tritium in natural waters is useful in a wide range of environmental studies such as aquifer dating. Furthermore, tritiated water is used as a substance to trace groundwater flow systems, as well as in lab or in-situ studies of sorption and diffusion of water in clays or soils. Tritium has also an important interest for human and environmental health. For this reason it is included as a parameter in international legislation on the quality of drinking water [Council Directive 98/83/EC]. Tritium determination is performed using liquid scintillation counting. Do to the fact that tritium is a low energy beta emitter, its measurement is high greatly affected by quenching. Quenching in groundwater samples may result from a wide variety of components in a sample. To avoid it, it is usual to determine tritium applying a previous distillation step but, when rapid measurement is needed, a direct method is necessary and may leave quenching agents that interfere with the measurement. In this study quench effects in tritium determination are examined in order to correct the direct measurements. To fulfil this aim, different types of quenchers had been studied. Inorganic coloured solutions, organic inks, uncoloured organic substances and acids were used as quenching agents in vials with an approximately 30 Bq of {sup 3}H activity. The measurements were performed with Ultima Gold AB as a cocktail in a Wallac Quantulus'T'M 1220 counter. Counting efficiency was related to the SQP[E] quenching parameter for each type of quenching agent. In order to validate the usefulness of these quenching curves, coloured water samples from acid metalliferous drainage collected near Barcelona were spiked with a known amount of tritium. Determination was carried out by liquid scintillation counting applying the efficiency obtained with the quenching curve for the SQP[E] for each sample. These results are in complete accordance with both the amount of tritium added

  14. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  15. Direct nanofiltration of wastewater treatment plant effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, Guillo Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration, is seen as a suitable technology to polish WWTP effluent to EU WFD standards and consequently produce an effluent quality suitable for agricultural or (in)direct potable usage. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of direct nanofiltr

  16. Inventory of tritium concentration of waters in the Manche department; Inventaire des concentrations en tritium des eaux du Departement de La Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    For the inventory of water tritium concentration in the Manche department, it is the complementarity that animated the work opened during year 2001. To answer to a commune sensitivity such water quality, particularly drinking water at tap, the A.C.R.O. laboratory brought its know how to make and its technical means in the area of tritium analysis and the general council brought its know how to make and its logistics means in matter of sanitary control. This collaboration has allowed to supply an indication on the tritium content of the distribution waters of thirty of the most important cities of the department. Then, it allowed to inform on the radiological situation (in relation with the tritium presence) of coast waters and principal rivers waters. More than 160 controls have been realised between the months of march 2001 and february 2002. Only the tritium under the shape of tritiated water has been measured. The measures have been made by liquid scintillation according to the regulatory agreement. (N.C.)

  17. 40 CFR 420.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  18. 40 CFR 430.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.102 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 430.104 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.104 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  20. Calibration of a transient transport model to tritium measurements in rivers and streams in the Western Lake Taupo catchment, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Gusyev, M. A.; Toews, M.; U. Morgenstern; Stewart, M.; C. Daughney; Hadfield, J.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present a general approach of calibrating transient transport models to tritium concentrations in river waters developed for the MT3DMS/MODFLOW model of the Western Lake Taupo catchment, New Zealand. Tritium is a time-dependent tracer with radioactive half-life of 12.32 yr. In the transport model, the tritium input (measured in rain) passes through the groundwater system, and the modelled tritium concentrations are compared to the measured tritium concentrations in the river outl...

  1. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  2. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  3. Selection of a Tritium Dose Model: Defensibility and Reasonableness for DOE Authorization Basis Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); O`Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    This paper highlights the logic used to select a dispersion/consequence methodology, describes the collection of tritium models contained in the suite of analysis options (the `tool kit`), and provides application examples.

  4. Status and practicality of detritiation and tritium production strategies for environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulbright, H.H.; Schwirian-Spann, A.L.; Brunt, V. van [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (US); Jerome, K.M.; Looney, B.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (US)

    1996-02-26

    Operation of nuclear facilities throughout the world generates wastewater, groundwater and surface water contaminated with tritium. Because of a commitment to minimize radiation exposures to ''levels as low as reasonably achievable'', the US Department of Energy supports development of tritium isotope separation technologies. Also, DOE periodically documents the status and potential viability of alternative tritium treatment technologies and management strategies. The specific objectives of the current effort are to evaluate practical engineering issues, technology acceptability issues, and costs for realistic tritium treatment scenarios. A unique feature of the assessment is that the portfolio of options was expanded to include various management strategies rather than only evaluating detritiation technologies. The ultimate purpose of this effort is to assist Environmental Restoration and its support organizations in allocating future investments.

  5. Calibration of a liquid scintillation counter to assess tritium levels in various samples

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Haddad, M N; Abu-Jarad, F A

    1999-01-01

    An LKB-Wallac 1217 Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was calibrated with a newly adopted cocktail. The LSC was then used to measure tritium levels in various samples to assess the compliance of tritium levels with the recommended international levels. The counter was calibrated to measure both biological and operational samples for personnel and for an accelerator facility at KFUPM. The biological samples include the bioassay (urine), saliva, and nasal tests. The operational samples of the light ion linear accelerator include target cooling water, organic oil, fomblin oil, and smear samples. Sets of standards, which simulate various samples, were fabricated using traceable certified tritium standards. The efficiency of the counter was obtained for each sample. The typical range of the efficiencies varied from 33% for smear samples down to 1.5% for organic oil samples. A quenching curve for each sample is presented. The minimum detectable activity for each sample was established. Typical tritium levels in bio...

  6. Modeling and validating tritium transfer in a grassland ecosystem in response to {sup 3}H releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dizes, S. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LM2E, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Maro, D.; Rozet, M.; Hebert, D. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC, Cherbourg-Octeville (France)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper a radioecological model (TOCATTA) for tritium transfer in a grassland ecosystem developed on an hourly time-step basis is proposed and compared with the first data set obtained in the vicinity of the AREVA-NC reprocessing plant of La Hague (France). The TOCATTA model aims at simulating dynamics of tritium transfer in agricultural soil and plant ecosystems exposed to time-varying HTO concentrations in air water vapour and possibly in irrigation and rain water. In the present study, gaseous releases of tritium from the AREVA NC nuclear reprocessing plant in normal operation can be intense and intermittent over a period of less than 24 hours. A first comparison of the model predictions with the field data has shown that TOCATTA should be improved in terms of kinetics of tritium transfer.

  7. Tritium labeling of gonadotropin releasing hormone in its proline and histidine residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauschenz, E.; Bienert, M.; Egler, H.; Pleiss, U.; Niedrich, H.; Nikolics, K.

    3,4-dehydroproline9-GnRH prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis was tritiated catalytically under various conditions yielding 3H-GnRH with specific radioactivities in the range from 35-60 Ci/mmol and full LH releasing activity in vitro. Using palladium/alumina catalyst, the tritiation of the double bond occurs within ten minutes. Investigation of the tritium distribution between the amino acid residues showed a remarkably high incorporation of tritium into the histidine residue (11 to 37%). On the basis of this observation, the tritium labeling of GnRH and angiotensin I by direct catalytic hydrogen-tritium exchange was found to be useful for the labeling of these peptides at remarkably high specific radioactivity.

  8. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... tube mills, carbon and specialty. Subpart G Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  10. 40 CFR 430.93 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink Subcategory § 430.93 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  11. 40 CFR 415.512 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Iodide Production Subcategory § 415.512 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Subpart AY—Potassium Iodide Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 469.14 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Semiconductor Subcategory § 469.14 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): Subpart A—Semiconductor...

  13. 40 CFR 469.19 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BCT Effluent Limitations Pollutant...

  14. 40 CFR 424.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  15. 40 CFR 424.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  16. 40 CFR 424.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.47 Effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 424.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.43 Effluent...

  18. Tritium excretion after intravenous administration of tritium labelled adrenaline and noradrenaline and digital vascular reactivity to adrenaline and noradrenaline in normotensive and labile hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guia, D; Mendlowitz, M; Vlachakis, N D; Gitlow, S E; Nissenbaum, M

    1980-01-01

    1. The 24-h urinary excretion of tritium after tritiated adrenaline administration and digital vascular reactivity to exogenously administered adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured in ten normotensive and in twenty-eight labile essential hypertensive subjects. Tritiated noradrenaline excretion and apparent noradrenaline secretion rate were also measured in ten and eleven of these subjects, respectively. 2. Despite overlapping, the mean 24-h tritium excretion after 3H-adrenaline administration as well as reactivity to adrenaline were significantly greater in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects, whether or not they had increased responsiveness to noradrenaline. Significant correlation, however, was observed between tritium excretion of adrenaline and reactivity to adrenaline in both labile hypertensive and normotensive subjects. These measurements were also both significantly correlated with percentage variability in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the labile hypertensive subjects. 3. No significant correlation was observed between adrenaline as against noradrenaline measurements, whether physiological or biochemical, in either hypertensive or normotensive subjects.

  19. Modeling and validating tritium transfer in a grassland ecosystem in response to {sup 3}H releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dizes, S.; Maro, D.; Rozet, M.; Hebert, D.; Solier, L.; Nicoulaud, V. [Institut de radioportection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN (France); Vermorel, F.; Aulagnier, C. [Electricite de France - EDF (France)

    2014-07-01

    Tritium ({sup 3}H) is a major radionuclide released in several forms (HTO, HT) by nuclear facilities under normal operating conditions. In terrestrial ecosystems, tritium can be found under two forms: tritium in tissue free water (TFWT) following absorption of tritiated water by leaves or roots and Organically Bound Tritium (OBT) resulting from TFWT incorporation by the plant organic matter during photosynthesis. In order to study transfers of tritium from atmospheric releases to terrestrial ecosystem such as grasslands, an in-situ laboratory has been set up by IRSN on a ryegrass field plot located 2 km downwind the AREVA NC La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (North-West of France), as was done in the past for the assessment of transfer of radiocarbon in grasslands. The objectives of this experimental field are: (i) to better understand the OBT formation in plant by photosynthesis, (ii) to evaluate transfer processes of tritium in several forms (HT, HTO) from the atmosphere (air and rainwater) to grass and soil, (iii) to develop a modeling allowing to reproduce the dynamic response of the ecosystem to tritium atmospheric releases depending of variable environmental conditions. For this purpose, tritium activity measurements will be carried out in grass (monthly measurements of HTO, OBT), in air, rainwater, soil (daily measurements of HT, HTO) and CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O fluxes between soil and air compartments will be carried out. Then, the TOCATTA-c model previously developed to simulate {sup 14}C transfers to pasture on a hourly time-step basis will be adapted to take account for processes specific to tritium. The model will be tested by a comparison between simulated results and measurements. The objectives of this presentation are (1) to present the organization of the experimental design of the VATO study (Validation of TOCATTA) dedicated to transfers of tritium in a grassland ecosystem, (2) to document the major assumptions, conceptual modelling and

  20. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma;

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  1. A Study on the Tritium Behavior in the Rice Plant after a Short-Term Exposure of HTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, D-S.; Lee, K. J.; Choi, Y-H.

    2002-02-26

    In many Asian countries including Korea, rice is a very important food crop. Its grain is consumed by humans and its straw is used to feed animals. In Korea, there are four CANDU type reactors that release relatively large amounts of tritium into the environment. Since 1997, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has carried out the experimental studies to obtain domestic data on various parameters concerning the direct contamination of plant. In this study, the behavior of tritium in the rice plant is predicted and compared with the measurement performed at KAERI. Using the conceptual model of the soil-plant-atmosphere tritiated water transport system which was suggested by Charles E. Murphy, tritium concentrations in the soil and in leaves to time were derived. If the effect of tritium concentration in the soil is considered, the tritium concentration in leaves is described as a double exponential model. On the other hand if the tritium concentration in the soil is disregarded, the tritium concentration in leaves is described by a single exponential term as other models (e.g. Belot's or STAR-H3 model). Also concentration of organically bound tritium in the seed is predicted and compared with measurements. The results can be used to predict the tritium concentration in the rice plant at a field around the site and the ingestion dose following the release of tritium to the environment.

  2. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIAL R.A.; CHAUDHARY M.F.; ABBAS S.T.; LATIF M.I.; KHAN A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry.These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine ifthese effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH,electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher

  3. Tritiation of protein hormones. Progress report. [Stability of tritium-labelled protein hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A non-catalytic tritium exchange system using a microwave discharge technique was bult and calibrated in order to optomize the labelling of small organic molecules such as benzoic acid. Analytical and preparative chromatographic procedures, including ion exchange and molecular sieve chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were standardized for use in the publication of tritium and labelled bovine ACTH. Results are reported from extensive studies of the control of chemical and biologic stability of labelled and unlabelled ACTH were carried out.

  4. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL POLYIMIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

    2006-11-01

    Samples of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and the polyimide Vespel{reg_sign} were exposed to tritium gas in closed containers initially at 101 kPa (1 atmosphere) pressure and ambient temperature for various times up to 2.3 years. Tritium exposure effects on the samples were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and radiolysis products were characterized by measuring the total final pressure and composition in the exposure containers at the end of exposure period.

  5. A novel approach radiolabeling detonation nanodiamonds through the tritium thermal activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Semenenko, Mikhail N.; Lisichkin, Georgii V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.; Yakovlev, Ruslan Yu.; Leonidov, Nikolai B. [Pavlov Ryazan State Medical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Tritium labeling was introduced into detonation nanodiamonds (ND) through the tritium thermal activation method. Two target preparation techniques were developed to increase the radioactivity and the specific radioactivity of the labeled product: the desiccation of the waterless solvent suspension and the lyophilization of the hydrosol. The specific radioactivity of the labeled product was shown to correlate with the hydrogen content in the starting material and to achieve 2.6 TBq/g.

  6. Development of a tritium transport analysis code for the LMFBR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Torii, Tatsuo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tsuruga Head Office, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A tritium transport analysis code for the LMFBR system, TTT code, has been developed and validated using data from a power rising test conducted at Monju in 1995. The behavior of tritium during future long-term full power operation of Monju has been estimated. The TTT code was created from the tritium and hydrogen transport model devised by R. Kumar and ANL. Actual data from some plants has been used to improve the code. In this study, we used data from Monju to increase the accuracy of the calculated to measured ratio, the C/E ratio. As a result of the study, we were able to: 1. show that the calculated tritium concentration distribution and the change in the primary and secondary sodium, steam and water correlated sufficiently closely with the measured, C/E ratio of 1.1; 2. propose a transport model between sodium and the cover gas system taking into account the mechanisms affecting the partial pressure difference and the isotopic exchange of H and H3; 3. examine the considerable effect of the hydrogen source within the sodium cooling system of Monju on tritium behavior and clarify the characteristics at the initial stage of plant; 4. estimate the tritium transport and distribution for the long-term full power operation of Monju. The tritium release from the core will be 7,400 TBq during 30 years of operation. The primary and secondary cold trap will capture 99% of this and 1% or less will be released to the environment as gaseous radioactive waste from stack and its drainage water from SG; and 5. compare the best fitted tritium source rates from cores in Phenix and Monju and estimate the major release from Monju's helium bond closed type control rods. (author)

  7. Neutronics Optimization of Tritium Breeding Blan-ket for the FDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿; 黄群英

    2002-01-01

    Neutronics optimization calculations have been performed for thc tritium breeding blankets with solid ceramic breeder Li2O and liquid eutectie breeder Li17Pb83, respectively,based on a 2-D geometrical configuration using the Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4B. The effects of beryllium, 6Li enrichment and various structural materials on Tritium Breeding Ratio have been systematically analyzed.

  8. The Bremen mass spectrometric facility for the measurement of helium isotopes, neon, and tritium in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Roether, Wolfgang; Rhein, Monika

    2009-06-01

    We describe the mass spectrometric facility for measuring helium isotopes, neon, and tritium that has been operative at this institute since 1989, and also the sampling and sample preparation steps that precede the mass spectrometric analysis. For water samples in a near-equilibrium with atmospheric air, the facility achieves precision for (3)He/(4)He ratios of+/-0.4% or better, and+/-0.8 % or better for helium and neon concentrations. Tritium precision is typically+/-3 % and the detection limit 10 mTU ( approximately 1.2.10(-3) Bq/kg of pure water). Sample throughputs can reach some thousands per year. These achievements are enabled, among other features, by automation of the measurement procedure and by elaborate calibration, assisted by continual development in detail. To date, we have measured more than 15,000 samples for tritium and 23,000 for helium isotopes and neon, mostly in the context of oceanographic and hydrologic work. Some results of such work are outlined. Even when atmospheric tritium concentrations have become rather uniform, tritium provides water ages if (3)He data are taken concurrently. The technique can resolve tritium concentrations in waters of the pre-nuclear era.

  9. Safety and environmental advantages of using tritium-lean targets for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Meier, W.R.; Moir, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Atzeni, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Sanz, J. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Dept. Ingenieria Energetica, Bilbao (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    While traditional inertial fusion energy target designs typically use equimolar portions of deuterium and tritium and have areal densities ({rho}r) of {approx} 3 g/cm{sup 2}, significant safety and environmental (S and E) advantages may be obtained through the use of high-density ({rho}r {approx} 10 g/cm{sup 2}) targets with tritium components as low as 0.5%. Such targets would absorb much of the neutron energy within the target and could be self-sufficient from a tritium breeding point of view. Tritium self-sufficiency within the target would free target chamber designers from the need to use lithium-bearing blanket materials, while low inventories within each target would translate into low inventories in target fabrication facilities. Absorption of much of the neutron energy within the target, the extremely low tritium inventories, and the greatly moderated neutron spectrum, make 'tritium-lean' targets appear quite attractive from an S and E perspective. (authors)

  10. A method to quantify tritium inside waste drums: He{sup 3} ingrowth method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A.; Lepeytre, C.; Hubinois, J.C. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Traitement Materiaux Nucleaires, Service Analyses- Dechets, Lab. Chimie Analytique, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Arseguel, A.; Daclin, J.P.; Douche, C. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Traitement Materiaux Nucleaires, Service Analyses- Dechets, Lab. de Gestion des Dechets Trities, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-15

    This method enables an indirect, non intrusive and non destructive measurement of the Tritium activity in wastes drums. The amount of tritium enclosed inside a wastes drum can be determined by the measurement of the leak rate of {sup 3}He of this latter. The simulation predicts that a few months are necessary for establishing the equilibrium between the {sup 3}He production inside the drum and the {sup 3}He drum leak. In practice, after one year of storage, sampling {sup 3}He outside the drum can be realized by the mean of a confining chamber that collect the {sup 3}He outflow. The apparatus, the experimental procedure and the calculation of tritium activity from mass spectrometric {sup 3}He measurements are detailed. The industrial device based on a confinement cell and the automated process to measure the {sup 3}He amount at the initial time and after the confinement time is described. Firstly, reference drums containing a certified tritium activity (HTO) in addition to organic materials have been measured to qualify the method and to evaluate its performances. Secondly, tritium activity of organic wastes drums issued from the storage building in Valduc have been determined. Results of the qualification and optimised values of the experimental parameters are reported in order to determine the performances of this industrial device. As a conclusion, the apparatus enables the measurement of an activity as low as 1 GBq of tritium in a 200 liters drum containing organic wastes. (authors)

  11. The requirements for processing tritium recovered from liquid lithium blankets: The blanket interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse

    1988-03-01

    We have initiated a study to define a blanket processing mockup for Tritium Systems Test Assembly. Initial evaluation of the requirements of the blanket processing system have been started. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. The key discoveries are: the throughput of the blanket gas stream (including the helium carrier gas) is about two orders of magnitude higher than the plasma exhaust stream;the protium to tritium ratio is about 1, the deuterium to tritium ratio is about 0.003;the corrosion chemicals are dominated by halides;the radionuclides are dominated by C-14, P-32, and S-35;their is high level of nitrogen contamination in the blanket stream. 77 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Assessment of Tritium Activity in Groundwater at the Nuclear Objects Sites in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigilija Cidzikienė

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of nuclear objects sites in Lithuania, including groundwater characterization, took place in the last few years. Tritium activity in groundwater is a very useful tool for determining how groundwater systems function. Natural and artificial tritium was measured in 8 wells in different layers (from 1.5 to 15 meters depth. The results were compared with other regions of Lithuania also. The evaluated tritium activities varied from 1.8 to 6.4 Bq/L at nuclear objects sites in Lithuania and they are coming to background level (1.83 Bq/L and other places in Lithuania. The data show, that groundwater at the nuclear power objects sites is not contaminated with artificial tritium. In this work, the vertical tritium transfer from soil water to the groundwater well at nuclear objects site was estimated. The data show that the main factor for vertical tritium transfer to the well depends on the depth of wells.

  13. Robotics development for the accelerator production of tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.R.

    2000-01-18

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) has been proposed as the source of tritium for the United States in the next century. The APT will accelerate protons that will strike replaceable tungsten target modules. The tungsten target modules generate neutrons that interact with blanket modules and other modules where {sup 3}He gas is turned into tritium. The target and blanket modules are predicted to require replacement every one to ten years, depending on their location. The target modules may weigh as much as 85 tons (77 metric tons) each. All of the modules will be contained in a target/blanket vessel, which is in a shielded facility. The spent modules will be radioactive, so that remote replacement of the modules will be required. The modules will be 27 feet (8.23 m) high and the top of the modules, where most of the remote operations will occur, will be approximately 20 feet (6.1 m) down into the target/blanket vessel. The immense weights of the modules, the long reaches required and the requirement for completely remote operation of at least part of the operation, make this a unique and challenging task. Initially, manual fastening and unfastening of the jumper flanges on the modules as well as manual valve operation was proposed followed by remote replacement of the modules. This manual/remote operation was demonstrated with a computer-generated, dynamic, 3-D simulation. After review of the simulation, this operation was changed to be a complete remote operation. Complete remote operation brought about the concept of a remotely operated bridge crane and a remotely operated, bridge-mounted, manipulator to perform the entire replacement operation. A second simulation showed the intended operation of the remote concept and was instrumental in developing the requirements for the equipment and end effectors for this concept. The concept included development of end effectors for the following tasks: flange nut fastening and unfastening, flange lifting and latch

  14. Verification and Validation of The Tritium Transport Code TMAP7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst; James Ambrosek

    2004-09-01

    The TMAP Code was written at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in the late 1980s as a tool for safety analysis of systems involving tritium. Since then it has been upgraded several times and has been used in numerous applications including experiments supporting fusion safety, predictions for advanced systems such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and estimates involving tritium production technologies. Its most recent upgrade to TMAP7 was accomplished in response to several needs. Prior versions had the capacity to deal with only a single trap for diffusing gaseous species in solid structures. TMAP7 includes up to three separate traps and up to 10 diffusing species. The original code had difficulty dealing with heteronuclear molecule formation such as HD and DT. That has been removed. Under pre-specified boundary enclosure conditions and solution-law dependent diffusion boundary conditions, such as Sieverts' law, TMAP7 automatically generates heteronuclear molecular partial pressures when solubilities and partial pressures of the homonuclear molecular species are provided for law-dependent diffusion boundary conditions. A further sophistication is the addition of non-diffusing surface species. Atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen or formation of hydroxyl radicals on metal surfaces are sometimes important in molecule formation with diffusing hydrogen isotopes but do not, themselves, diffuse appreciably in the material. TMAP7 will accommodate up to 30 such surface species, allowing the user to specify relationships between those surface concentrations and partial pressures of gaseous species above the surfaces or to form them dynamically by combining diffusion species or other surface species. Additionally, TMAP7 allows the user to include a surface binding energy and an adsorption barrier energy and includes asymmetrical diffusion between the surface sites and regular diffusion sites in the bulk. All of the

  15. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vara Saritha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two fungi (unidentified were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of these fungi was also tested, and the clearance zone was obtained in the plate assay.

  16. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vara Saritha; Avasn Maruthi; Mukkanti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Two fungi (unidentified) were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of t...

  17. Revision of by-laws about effluents of EdF's nuclear power plants; Revision des arretes de rejets des centrales nucleaires d'EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, {sup 14}C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)

  18. Modeling and analysis of tritium dynamics in a DT fusion fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, William

    1998-11-01

    A number of crucial design issues have a profound effect on the dynamics of the tritium fuel cycle in a DT fusion reactor, where the development of appropriate solutions to these issues is of particular importance to the introduction of fusion as a commercial system. Such tritium-related issues can be classified according to their operational, safety, and economic impact to the operation of the reactor during its lifetime. Given such key design issues inherent in next generation fusion devices using the DT fuel cycle development of appropriate models can then lead to optimized designs of the fusion fuel cycle for different types of DT fusion reactors. In this work, two different types of modeling approaches are developed and their application to solving key tritium issues presented. For the first approach, time-dependent inventories, concentrations, and flow rates characterizing the main subsystems of the fuel cycle are simulated with a new dynamic modular model of a fusion reactor's fuel cycle, named X-TRUFFLES (X-Windows TRitiUm Fusion Fuel cycLE dynamic Simulation). The complex dynamic behavior of the recycled fuel within each of the modeled subsystems is investigated using this new integrated model for different reactor scenarios and design approaches. Results for a proposed fuel cycle design taking into account current technologies are presented, including sensitivity studies. Ways to minimize the tritium inventory are also assessed by examining various design options that could be used to minimize local and global tritium inventories. The second modeling approach involves an analytical model to be used for the calculation of the required tritium breeding ratio, i.e., a primary design issue which relates directly to the feasibility and economics of DT fusion systems. A time-integrated global tritium balance scheme is developed and appropriate analytical expressions are derived for tritium self-sufficiency relevant parameters. The easy exploration of the large

  19. Comparison of zinc complexation properties of dissolved organic matter from surface waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Tao

    2005-01-01

    Unlike natural organic matter(NOM), wastewater organic matter(WWOM) from wastewater treatment plant effluents has not been extensively studied with respect to complexation reactions with heavy metals such as copper or zinc. In this study, organic matter from surface waters and a wastewater treatment plant effluent were concentrated by reverse osmosis(RO) method. The samples were treated in the laboratory to remove trace metals and major cations. The zinc complexing properties of both NOM and the WWOM were studied by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry(SWASV). Experimental data were compared to predictions using the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model(WHAM) Version VI. We found that the zinc binding of WWOM was much stronger than that of NOM and not well predicted by WHAM. This suggests that in natural water bodies that receive wastewater treatment plant effluents the ratio of WWOM to NOM must be taken into account in order to accurately predict free zinc activities.

  20. Tritium $\\beta$-decay in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Baroni, A; Kievsky, A; Marcucci, L E; Schiavilla, R; Viviani, M

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the Fermi and Gamow-Teller (GT) matrix elements in tritium \\beta-decay by including in the charge-changing weak current the corrections up to one loop recently derived in nuclear chiral effective field theory (\\chi EFT). The trinucleon wave functions are obtained from hyperspherical-harmonics solutions of the Schrodinger equation with two- and three-nucleon potentials corresponding to either \\chi EFT (the N3LO/N2LO combination) or meson-exchange phenomenology (the AV18/UIX combination). We find that contributions due to loop corrections in the axial current are, in relative terms, as large as (and in some cases, dominate) those from one-pion exchange, which nominally occur at lower order in the power counting. We also provide values for the low-energy constants multiplying the contact axial current and three-nucleon potential, required to reproduce the experimental GT matrix element and trinucleon binding energies in the N3LO/N2LO and AV18/UIX calculations.

  1. A history of atmospheric tritium gas (HT) 1950 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, James D.; Östlund, Göte; Mason, Allen S.

    2004-07-01

    Data collected as a part of this study from 1968 2002 and data from other studies from 1950 1967 show that the maximum atmospheric concentration of tritium gas (HT) occurred in the early to mid 1970s, which corresponds to the era of frequent, large underground nuclear tests. These data clearly show that the major source of HT to the atmosphere between 1962 and the early 1990s was the underground testing of nuclear weapons. Samples collected at both our Alaska and Miami stations clearly show marked increases in the autumn of each year between 1970 and 1975 that were associated with large underground explosions conducted by the former Soviet Union at the Novaya Zemlya test site. Other significant sources of HT include accidental releases of HT used in the manufacture and maintenance of nuclear weapons stockpiles, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel rods and emissions from nuclear power plants. Since the early 1990s, when underground testing largely ceased, emission estimates from our data agree very well with United Nations estimates of worldwide releases from fuel reprocessing and nuclear power plants, suggesting that the nuclear power industry is now the major source of HT to the atmosphere.

  2. Comparison of different strategies for decommissioning a tritium laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylst, Kris, E-mail: Kris.Dylst@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Dismantling, Decontamination and Waste, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Slachmuylders, Frederik; Gilissen, Bart [SCK-CEN, Dismantling, Decontamination and Waste, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Decontamination to below the free release limits is very labour intensive. ► Disposing of contaminated steel to a nuclear melting facility is cost effective. ► It can be advantageous to invest in decontamination of non-steel materials. -- Abstract: Between 2003 and 2009 two rooms that served as tritium laboratory at SCK• CEN and its ventilation system were decommissioned. Initially, the decommissioning strategy was to free release as much materials as possible. However, due to the imposed free release limit this was very labour intensive. Timing restrictions forced us to use a different strategy for the ventilation system. Most of the steel was disposed of to a nuclear melting facility. As a result there was a significant decrease in the required man labour. For the second laboratory room a similar strategy as for the ventilation was used: contaminated steel was disposed of to a nuclear melting facility and other materials that could not be easily decontaminated were disposed of as nuclear waste. At the expense of extra waste generation compared to the first laboratory the decommissioning was done using merely one third of the man hours. Comparison of the used strategies indicated opportunities for cost optimization. Even in absence of time constraints it is best to foresee a safe disposal of metals to a nuclear melting facility, whilst it is worth to invest in the labour intensive decontamination of the other materials to free release them.

  3. Vacuum Permeator Analysis for Extraction of Tritium from DCLL Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse, Paul Weston [Idaho National Laboratory; Merrill, Brad Johnson [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-11-01

    It is envisioned that tritium will be extracted from DCLL blankets using a vacuum permeator. We derive here an analytical solution for the extraction efficiency of a permeator tube, which is a function of only two dimensionless numbers: one that indicates whether radial transport is limited in the PbLi or in the solid membrane, and another that is the ratio of axial and radial transport times in the PbLi. The permeator efficiency is maximized by decreasing the velocity and tube diameter, and increasing the tube length. This is true regardless of the mass transport correlation used; we review several here and find that they differ little, and the choice of correlation is not a source of significant uncertainty here. The PbLi solubility, on the other hand, is a large source of uncertainty, and we identify upper and lower bounds from the literature data. Under the most optimistic assumptions, we find that a ferritic steel permeator operating at 550 °C will need to be at least an order of magnitude larger in volume than previous conceptual designs using niobium and operating at higher temperatures.

  4. Hypervelocity Impact Fusion with Compressed Deuterium-Tritium Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, S

    1998-01-01

    The neutron yields observed in inertial confinement fusion experiments for higher convergence ratios are about two orders of magnitude smaller than the neutron yields predicted by one-dimensional models, the discrepancy being attributed to the development of instabilities. We consider the possibility that ignition and a moderate gain could be achieved with existing laser facilities if the laser driver energy is used to produce only the radial compression of the fuel capsule to high densities but relatively low temperatures, while the ignition of the fusion reactions in the compressed fuel capsule will be effected by a synchronized hypervelocity impact. A positively-charged incident projectile can be accelerated to velocities of 3.5 x 10^6 m/s, resulting in ignition temperatures of about 4 keV, by a conventional low-beta linac having a length of 13 km if deuterium-tritium densities of 570 g/cm^3 could be obtained by laser-driven compression.

  5. Multiple-linac approach for tritium production and other applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1995-01-10

    This report describes an approach to tritium production based on the use of multiple proton linear accelerators. Features of a single APTT Linac as proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory are presented and discussed. An alternative approach to the attainment of the same total proton beam power of 200 MW with several lower-performance superconducting Linacs is proposed and discussed. Although each of these accelerators are considerable extrapolations of present technology, the latter can nevertheless be built at less technical risk when compared to the single high-current APT Linac, particularly concerning the design and the performance of the low-energy front-end. The use of superconducting cavities is also proposed as a way of optimizing the accelerating gradient, the overall length, and the operational costs. The superconducting technology has already been successfully demonstrated in a number of large-size projects and should be seriously considered for the acceleration of intense low-energy beams of protons. Finally, each linear accelerator would represent an ideal source of very intense beams of protons for a variety of applications, such as: weapons and waste actinide transmutation processes, isotopes for medical application, spallation neutron sources, and the generation of intense beams of neutrinos and muons for nuclear and high-energy physics research. The research community at large has obviously an interest in providing expertise for, and in having access to, the demonstration, the construction, the operation, and the exploitation of these top-performance accelerators.

  6. High performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbagh, S.A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; Batha, S.H. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Torrance, CA (United States); Bell, M.G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Plasmas composed of nominally equal concentrations of deuterium and tritium (DT) have been created in TFTR with the goals of producing significant levels of fusion power and of examining the effects of DT fusion alpha particles. Conditioning of the limiter by the injection of lithium pellets has led to an approximate doubling of the energy confinement time, {tau}{sub E}, in supershot plasmas at high plasma current (I{sub p} {le} 2.5 MA) and high heating power (P{sub b} {le} 33 MW). Operation with DT typically results in an additional 20% increase in {tau}{sub E}. In the high poloidal beta, advanced tokamak regime in TFTR, confinement enhancement H {triple_bond} {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub E ITER-89P} > 4 has been obtained in a limiter H-mode configuration at moderate plasma current I{sub p} = 0.85 {minus} 1.5 MA. By peaking the plasma current profile, {beta}{sub N dia} {triple_bond} 10{sup 8} < {beta}{sub t{perpendicular}} > aB{sub 0}/I{sub p} = 3 has been obtained in these plasmas, exceeding the {beta}{sub N} limit for TFTR plasmas with lower internal inductance, l{sub i}. Confinement of alpha particles appears to be classical and losses due to collective effects have not been observed. While small fluctuations in fusion product loss were observed during ELMs, no large loss was detected in DT plasmas.

  7. TRANSBOUNDARY IMPACT OF THE CHERNAVODSKA NPP ON TRITIUM POLLUTION OF THE DANUBE RIVER ON THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. VIT`KO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the influence of the Chernavodska nuclear power plant on the aquatic environment of the Danube River in the transboundary context. Data of tritium discharges, dependence of volume activity of tritium in the Danube River, and its inflows from the surrounding areas to its mouth. The average annual volume activities of tritium are provided. Assessments of the impact of the Chernavodska NPP in conditions that are different from the norm have been given.

  8. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  9. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking was successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full......-scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS...... was not applied). The difference in reagent concentration at the range of 5-25% w/w in ammonia did not affect that much the overall methane yield resulting to an increase of 104-110% compared to the non AAS-treated fibers. Thus, an ammonia concentration as low as 5% is adequate for achieving the same increase...

  10. MIPs in Aqueous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ying-chun; Ma, Hui-ting; Lu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    When organic solvent-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are used in aqueous environment, how to reduce nonspecific binding is a major challenge. By modifying the binding solvents and introducing appropriate washing and elution steps, even relatively hydrophobic MIPs can gain optimal rebinding selectivity in aqueous conditions. Furthermore, water-compatible MIPs that can be used to treat aqueous samples directly have been prepared. The use of hydrophilic co-monomers, the controlled surface modification through controlled radical polymerization, and the new interfacial molecular imprinting methods are different strategies to prepare water-compatible MIPs. By combining MIPs with other techniques, both organic solvent-compatible and water-compatible MIPs can display better functional performances in aqueous conditions. Intensive studies on MIPs in aqueous conditions can provide new MIPs with much-improved compatibilities that will lead to more interesting applications in biomedicine and biotechnology.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1990-06-01

    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  12. Development of CROPTRIT Model: The Dynamics of Tritium in Agricultural Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeriu, Dan; Melintescu, Anca [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Environmental Physics and Life, 30 Reactorului St., POB MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania); Lazar, Catalin [National Agricultural Research and Development Institute Fundulea, 915200 Fundulea, Calarasi County (Romania)

    2014-07-01

    Tritium has a complex behaviour once released into the environment. Tritium can be effectively incorporated into biological systems, including the human body, as organically bound tritium (OBT) with a larger residence time than tritiated water (HTO). In the last years robust models were developed for tritium dynamics in mammals (human included), birds and fish but all of them depend on the knowledge of intake for both terrestrial or aquatic food chain. The uncertainty of the present models for tritium in crops following an accidental atmospheric release, is very high and has impacts on the engineering actions for handling and decreasing the nuclear risk. The gaps in knowledge or the local variability of key parameters were recognised as source of uncertainty. Based on an interdisciplinary approach, CROPTRIT model was gradually developed in the last decade focusing on the detecting of the uncertainty sources. Crops of interest depends on each specific case but wheat and rice cover the majority of the practical needs for radiological risk modelling (the major food in Europe and Asia). An analysis of the processes involved in the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) of tritium was done in connection with the available experimental results. The agricultural research is focused on the improving of the yield and the crop growth models were developed in relation with the genotype, weather and management of fertilisation and water. For the radiological purposes, the interest lies in the pollutant concentration at harvest and the CROPTRIT model is focused on the influence of various processes contributing to variability and uncertainty of tritium (OBT and HTO) at harvest. The current results evidentiate the role of the stomatal conductance and difficulties at the day/night transitions, as well as the complex behaviour of the maintenance respiration. A review of the experimental results demonstrates the importance of OBT formation in night conditions and difficulties

  13. Assessing Pathways to Tritium Production and its Detailed Spatial Distribution Throughout the VHTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaspoehler, Timothy; Petrovic, Bojan

    2016-02-01

    The content of this work focused on calculating tritium production in the active core region as well as the surrounding components of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) using detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. This is one of VHTR operational issues that need to be addressed. Permeation models of tritium in the VHTR plant have high levels of uncertainty associated with the initial tritium source from different pathways. In the past, the sources were generally derived from simple neutronics calculations in one dimension and one group. While providing a good estimate for integral pathways such as ternary fission, quantifying system-wide production via impurities in surrounding components may be largely inaccurate. To reduce this inaccuracy, the MAVRIC sequence of the SCALE 6.1 code package was used to calculate tritium production rates using a highly detailed Monte-Carlo model for neutron transport simulations covering the whole volume inside the reactor pressure vessel. It was found that assumptions about impurity concentrations in the graphite reflector and helium coolant could lead to larger tritium production rates than previously assumed from more simplified neutronics models. Previous studies showed that tritium permeation to secondary systems already exceeded EPA standards. Using a more detailed neutronics/shielding model in this study, even higher production rates were calculated than before. Based on these results, more work needs to be done to reduce leakage to secondary systems by improving helium purification systems and reducing impurities in structural components. Sophisticated transport theory simulations are necessary to support such analyses. The knowledge obtained in this study will also be used in tritium production studies related to liquid salt cooled reactors (LSCRs). Finally, it will inform design and selection of appropriate dosimetry needed to validate simulations.

  14. Assessing Pathways to Tritium Production and its Detailed Spatial Distribution Throughout the VHTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaspoehler Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of this work focused on calculating tritium production in the active core region as well as the surrounding components of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR using detailed Monte Carlo (MC simulations. This is one of VHTR operational issues that need to be addressed. Permeation models of tritium in the VHTR plant have high levels of uncertainty associated with the initial tritium source from different pathways. In the past, the sources were generally derived from simple neutronics calculations in one dimension and one group. While providing a good estimate for integral pathways such as ternary fission, quantifying system-wide production via impurities in surrounding components may be largely inaccurate. To reduce this inaccuracy, the MAVRIC sequence of the SCALE 6.1 code package was used to calculate tritium production rates using a highly detailed Monte-Carlo model for neutron transport simulations covering the whole volume inside the reactor pressure vessel. It was found that assumptions about impurity concentrations in the graphite reflector and helium coolant could lead to larger tritium production rates than previously assumed from more simplified neutronics models. Previous studies showed that tritium permeation to secondary systems already exceeded EPA standards. Using a more detailed neutronics/shielding model in this study, even higher production rates were calculated than before. Based on these results, more work needs to be done to reduce leakage to secondary systems by improving helium purification systems and reducing impurities in structural components. Sophisticated transport theory simulations are necessary to support such analyses. The knowledge obtained in this study will also be used in tritium production studies related to liquid salt cooled reactors (LSCRs. Finally, it will inform design and selection of appropriate dosimetry needed to validate simulations.

  15. Pre-Conceptual Design for Northstar ⁹⁹Mo Process Tritium Removal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobile, Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reichert, Heidi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hollis, William Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Taylor, Craig Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gordon, John Cameron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-12

    In this report we describe a preliminary concept for a Tritium Removal System (TRS) to remove tritium that is generated in the ⁹⁹Mo production process. Preliminary calculations have been performed to evaluate an approximate size for the system. The concept described utilizes well-established detritiation technology based on catalytic oxidation of tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons to water in a high temperature (400 °C) reactor and capture of water in a molecular sieve bed. The TRS concept involves use of a single system that would cycle through each of the seven online target systems and remove tritium that has been accumulated after one week’s run time. The TRS would perform cleanup operations on each target system for a period of approximately 24 hours. This would occur while the system is still online and just prior to target replacement, so tritium levels would at their minimum values for target replacement. In the concept, during normal operation a small fraction (1%) of the helium recirculating in the system would be diverted through the TRS and returned to the flow loop. With this approach sufficient levels of detritiation can be accomplished in a 24 hour period. In the study it was found that because of the need to maintain low oxygen levels in the system (<100 ppm) this increases the size of the catalytic reactor. As a result of this finding, consideration should be given to other methods for removing tritium from the system. Other methods such as catalytic exchange of tritium with an unsaturated organic compound and subsequent trapping on activated carbon or molecular sieve could offer advantages of reducing reactor size and operation at lower reactor temperature. However the most significant advantage of such an approach would be the ability to operate in very low oxygen environments, which would eliminate any concerns for oxidation of the target.

  16. Aqueous mercury adsorption by activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Pejman; To, Ming-Ho; Hui, Chi-Wai; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; McKay, Gordon

    2015-04-15

    Due to serious public health threats resulting from mercury pollution and its rapid distribution in our food chain through the contamination of water bodies, stringent regulations have been enacted on mercury-laden wastewater discharge. Activated carbons have been widely used in the removal of mercuric ions from aqueous effluents. The surface and textural characteristics of activated carbons are the two decisive factors in their efficiency in mercury removal from wastewater. Herein, the structural properties and binding affinity of mercuric ions from effluents have been presented. Also, specific attention has been directed to the effect of sulfur-containing functional moieties on enhancing the mercury adsorption. It has been demonstrated that surface area, pore size, pore size distribution and surface functional groups should collectively be taken into consideration in designing the optimal mercury removal process. Moreover, the mercury adsorption mechanism has been addressed using equilibrium adsorption isotherm, thermodynamic and kinetic studies. Further recommendations have been proposed with the aim of increasing the mercury removal efficiency using carbon activation processes with lower energy input, while achieving similar or even higher efficiencies.

  17. Solar photo-degradation of a pharmaceutical wastewater effluent in a semi-industrial autonomous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Antonio J; Durán, Antonio; Monteagudo, José M; Acevedo, Alba

    2016-05-01

    An industrial wastewater effluent coming from a pharmaceutical laboratory has been treated in a semi-industrial autonomous solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) plant. A photo-Fenton process assisted with ferrioxalate has been used. Up to 79% of TOC can be removed in 2 h depending on initial conditions when treating an aqueous effluent containing up to 400 ppm of initial organic carbon concentration (TOC). An initial ratio of Fe(II)/TOC higher than 0.5 guarantees a high removal. It can be seen that most of TOC removal occurs early in the first hour of reaction. After this time, mineralization was very slow, although H2O2 was still present in solution. Indeed it decomposed to form oxygen in inefficient reactions. It is clear that remaining TOC was mainly due to the presence of acetates which are difficult to degrade.

  18. Biological processes for environmental control of effluent streams in the nuclear fuel cycle. [Denitrification; removal of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumate, II, S E; Hancher, C W; Strandberg, G W; Scott, C D

    1978-01-01

    Nitrates and radioactive heavy metals need to be removed from aqueous effluent streams in the fuel cycle. Biological methods are being developed for reducing nitrate or nitrite to N/sub 2/ gas and for decreasing dissolved metal concentration to less than 1 g/m/sup 3/. Fluidized-bed denitrification bioreactors are being tested. Removal of uranium from solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. (DLC)

  19. Investigation of the potential impacts from tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hysong, R. J.

    1998-12-21

    Based on a review of available data, significant contributions to low-level tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard have been made by airborne tritium fallout and rainout from the CP-5 ventilation system stack. Based on the distribution of tritium in the yard, it is also likely that leaks in secondary system piping which lead to the cooling towers were a significant contributor to tritium in CP-5 yard subsurface soil. Based on the foregoing analysis, low-level tritium contamination will not prohibit the release of the yard for unrestricted use in the future. Worst case dose estimates based on very conservative assumptions indicate that a 25 rmem annual effective dose equivalent limit will not be exceeded under the most restrictive residential-use family farm scenario. Given the impermeable nature of the glacial till under CP-5, low-level concentrations of tritium may be occasionally detected in the deep well (3300 12D), but the peak concentration will not approach the levels calculated by RESRAD; however, continued monitoring of the deep well is recommended. To ensure that all sources of potential tritium release have been removed from the CP-5 complex, removal of tritiated water from each rod-out hole and an evaluation of the physical integrity of the rod-out holes is recommended. This will also allow for an evaluation of tritium concentrations in shallow groundwater under CP-5 by sampling groundwater that is currently being forced into the drain tile system. Additional surface and subsurface soil sampling and analysis will be required to determine the final release status of soils around the Building 330 complex relative to elevated concentrations of CS-137, CO-60,Co-57, and Eu-152 identified during the 1993 IT Corporation characterization. The potential radiological impact from isolated elevations of the latter radionuclides is relatively low and can be evaluated as part of the final status survey of outdoor areas surrounding the Building 330 complex. In

  20. Long-term tritium transport through field-scale compacted soil liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupiol, C.; Willingham, T.W.; Valocchi, A.J.; Werth, C.J.; Krapac, I.G.; Stark, T.D.; Daniel, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    A 13-year study of tritium transport through a field-scale earthen liner was conducted by the Illinois State Geological Survey to determine the long-term performance of compacted soil liners in limiting chemical transport. Two field-sampling procedures (pressure-vacuum lysimeter and core sampling) were used to determine the vertical tritium concentration profiles at different times and locations within the liner. Profiles determined by the two methods were similar and consistent. Analyses of the concentration profiles showed that the tritium concentration was relatively uniformly distributed horizontally at each sampling depth within the liner and thus there was no apparent preferential transport. A simple one-dimensional analytical solution to the advective-dispersive solute transport equation was used to model tritium transport through the liner. Modeling results showed that diffusion was the dominant contaminant transport mechanism. The measured tritium concentration profiles were accurately modeled with an effective diffusion coefficient of 6 ?? 10-4 mm2/s, which is in the middle of the range of values reported in the literature.

  1. An open-walled ionization chamber appropriate to tritium monitoring for glovebox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhilin; Chang, Ruiming; Mu, Long; Song, Guoyang; Wang, Heyi; Wu, Guanyin; Wei, Xiye

    2010-07-01

    An open-walled ionization chamber is developed to monitor the tritium concentration in gloveboxes in tritium processing systems. Two open walls are used to replace the sealed wall in common ionization chambers, through which the tritium gas can diffuse into the chamber without the aid of pumps and pipelines. Some basic properties of the chamber are examined to evaluate its performance. Results turn out that an open-walled chamber of 1 l in volume shows a considerably flat plateau over 700 V for a range of tritium concentration. The chamber also gives a good linear response to gamma fields over 4 decades under a pressure condition of 1 atm. The pressure dependence characteristics show that the ionization current is only sensitive at low pressures. The pressure influence becomes weaker as the pressure increases mainly due to the decrease in the mean free path of beta particles produced by tritium decay. The minimum detection limit of the chamber is 3.7x10(5) Bq/m(3).

  2. Export Control Requirements for Tritium Processing Design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, William Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maynard, Sarah-Jane Wadsworth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This document will address requirements of export control associated with tritium plant design and processes. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working in the area of tritium plant system design and research and development (R&D) since the early 1970’s at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). This work has continued to the current date with projects associated with the ITER project and other Office of Science Fusion Energy Science (OS-FES) funded programs. ITER is currently the highest funding area for the DOE OS-FES. Although export control issues have been integrated into these projects in the past a general guidance document has not been available for reference in this area. To address concerns with currently funded tritium plant programs and assist future projects for FES, this document will identify the key reference documents and specific sections within related to tritium research. Guidance as to the application of these sections will be discussed with specific detail to publications and work with foreign nationals.

  3. Tritium in the German Bight 1980 to 1995. Trends of activity and balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, C. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Since 1980 seawater samples have been taken yearly in the German Bight on 9 fixed stations for tritium analysis. The initial mean value of 1.9 Bq/l measured in 1980 changed to a concentration of 1.1 Bq/l in 1992 and is now increasing to 2.8 Bq/l in 1995. The accumulated effect to the German Bight derived from the tritium sources discharging into the adjacent seas is calculated by transfer factors. The calculations take into account the yearly liquid discharges from the nuclear reprocessing plants and power stations into the British and French coastal waters as well as the tritium concentration in the Atlantic and North Sea water, the rain water input and the freshwater tributaries to the southern North Sea. The activity values used are taken both from literature and own measurements. The results show that the nuclear weapons fallout was the predominant source in 1980. Nowadays the nuclear power industry is the main source of tritium concentration in the German Bight. The poster demonstrates the temporal development of the activity concentration measured in relation to the calculated contributions. The geographic locations of the sample stations and the sites of the sources are displayed. Moreover, the individual sources and their tritium discharges (in 1993, as an example) as well as the transfer factors used are listed

  4. The effect of water on tritium release behavior from solid breeder candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suematsu, K.; Nishikawa, M.; Fukada, S.; Kinjyo, T.; Koyama, T.; Yamashita, N. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka, 812-8581 (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    The authors have made a tritium release model to represent the release behavior of bred tritium from solid breeder materials using a series of studies. It has been observed that a large amount of adsorbed water and water produced by water formation reaction are released to the purge gas even though dry purge gas with hydrogen is introduced to solid breeder materials. According to our tritium release model, the presence of water in the purge gas and surface water on the material has a large effect on the tritium release behavior. In this study, the authors quantified the amount of adsorbed water and the capacity of the water formation reaction for various solid breeder materials (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, LiAlO{sub 2}). The effect of surface water on the chemical form of tritium released from the LiAlO{sub 2} blanket is also discussed in this study. (authors)

  5. Efficiency of tritium measurement in the environmental water by electrolysis enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koganezawa, T.; Iida, T. [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Sakuma, Y.; Yamanishi, H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Ogata, Y. [Nagoya Univ., School of Health Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Tsuji, N. [Japan Air-conditioning Service Co. and Ltd., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Kakiuchi, M. [Gakushuin Univ., Faculty of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Satake, H. [Toyama Univ., Faculty of Science, Toyama (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Now tritium concentration in the environmental water is 0.5-2 Bq{center_dot}L{sup -1} in Japan. Tritium concentration cannot be measured accurately by liquid scintillation method, because the minimum detectable limits of liquid scintillation method is 0.5 Bq{center_dot}L{sup -1}. Therefore, one needs to enrich tritium concentration in the environmental water. Although the most popular method for tritium enrichment is electrolysis, the electrolysis takes much time and labor for distilling sample water at before and after the electrolysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of more convenient method for tritium measurement. The method substitutes filtration for distillation at before electrolysis and omits distillation at after electrolysis. The method enables by using the electrolysis with solid polymer electrode. We performed two kinds of experiment to confirm the possibility of the method. First, impurities eluted from electrolysis installation with ultra pure water as sample was measured. Some impurities were eluted into the sample, but they brought noneffective quenching. Secondly, we applied new method to the environmental waters. Substituting for distillation, two filtration, 0.1 {mu}m filtration and reverse osmosis method, were investigated. Impurities in the samples by the filtrations were somewhat higher than that by the distillation, they brought noneffective quenching. We, however, observed distemper of the electrolysis happened by electrolysing filtered sample. Distillation is substituted filtration at before enrichment and omitted at after enrichment, leaving the influence of quenching out of consideration. (author)

  6. Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun; Du, Liang; Li, Weiyi; Tan, Zhaoyi

    2015-04-28

    The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium-hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T-H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T-H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with OH and COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T-H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T2 or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products.

  7. Tritium removal from various lithium aluminates irradiated by fast and thermal neutrons (COMPLIMENT experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvani, C.; Carconi, P. L.; Casadio, S.; Moauro, A.

    1994-02-01

    Within the frame of the COMPLIMENT experiment, γ-LiAlO 2 specimens with different microstructures (grain size distributions) were tested in the same environmental conditions to compare the effects caused by 6Li(n, α)T reaction and by fast neutron scattering, the damaging dose being held at about the same level (1.6-1.8 dpa). The tritium retention times were obtained by the tritium removal of isothermal annealing under He + 0.1% H 2 sweeping gas. In spite of the different Li burnups (2.5% and 0.25%) and the residual tritium concentrations which were found in the irradiated specimens (4.3 Ci/g and 0.09 Ci/g, respectively, for specimens held at 450°C during the irradiations), the kinetics of tritium removal was not found to be discriminated by the two different irradiations. Moreover, the results were found to agree with those previously obtained by the "in-situ" TEQUILA experiment, performed on the same type of Li ceramics. Hence, the apparent first order desorption mechanism has been confirmed to control the kinetics of tritium removal from the porous fine grain γ-LiAlO 2 ceramics.

  8. ACUTRI: a computer code for assessing doses to the general public due to acute tritium releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Sumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ryufuku, Susumu; Sasaki, Toshihisa; Kurosawa, Naohiro [Visible Information Center, Inc., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Tritium, which is used as a fuel of a D-T burning fusion reactor, is the most important radionuclide for the safety assessment of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor such as ITER. Thus, a computer code, ACUTRI, which calculates the radiological impact of tritium released accidentally to the atmosphere, has been developed, aiming to be of use in a discussion of licensing of a fusion experimental reactor and an environmental safety evaluation method in Japan. ACUTRI calculates an individual tritium dose based on transfer models specific to tritium in the environment and ICRP dose models. In this calculation it is also possible to analyze statistically on meteorology in the same way as a conventional dose assessment method according to the meteorological guide of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. A Gaussian plume model is used for calculating the atmospheric dispersion of tritium gas (HT) and/or tritiated water (HTO). The environmental pathway model in ACUTRI considers the following internal exposures: inhalation from a primary plume (HT and/or HTO) released from the facilities and inhalation from a secondary plume (HTO) reemitted from the ground following deposition of HT and HTO. This report describes an outline of the ACUTRI code, a user guide and the results of test calculation. (author)

  9. Tritium removal from various lithium aluminates irradiated by fast and thermal neutrons (COMPLIMENT experiment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvani, C. (ENEA CRE Casaccia, INN/NUMA, Rome (Italy)); Carconi, P.L. (ENEA CRE Casaccia, INN/NUMA, Rome (Italy)); Casadio, S. (ENEA CRE Casaccia, INN/NUMA, Rome (Italy)); Moauro, A. (ENEA CRE Casaccia, INN/NUMA, Rome (Italy))

    1994-02-01

    Within the frame of the COMPLIMENT experiment, [gamma]-LiAlO[sub 2] specimens with different microstructures (grain size distributions) were tested in the same environmental conditions to compare the effects caused by [sup 6]Li(n, [alpha])T reaction and by fast neutron scattering, the damaging dose being held at about the same level (1.6-1.8 dpa). The tritium retention times were obtained by the tritium removal of isothermal annealing under He + 0.1% H[sub 2] sweeping gas. In spite of the different Li burnups (2.5% and 0.25%) and the residual tritium concentrations which were found in the irradiated specimens (4.3 Ci/g and 0.09 Ci/g, respectively, for specimens held at 450 C during the irradiations), the kinetics of tritium removal was not found to be discriminated by the two different irradiations. Moreover, the results were found to agree with those previously obtained by the ''in-situ'' TEQUILA experiment, performed on the same type of Li ceramics. Hence, the apparent first order desorption mechanism has been confirmed to control the kinetics of tritium removal from the porous fine grain [gamma]-LiAlO[sub 2] ceramics. (orig.)

  10. Tritium release kinetics of Li{sub 2}O with radiation defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishmanov, V.; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The study of an influence of radiation defects on tritium release behavior from polycrystalline Li{sub 2}O was performed by the in-pile and out-of-pile tritium release experiments. The samples were pre-irradiated by accelerated electrons to various absorbed doses up to 140 MGy and then exposed to the fluence of 10{sup 17} thermal neutrons/m{sup 2}. The radiation defects introduced by electron irradiation in Li{sub 2}O cause the retention of tritium. The linear temperature increase of the electron-irradiated samples disclosed two tritium release peaks: first starts at {approx}600 K with the maximum at {approx}800 K and second appears at {approx}950 K with the maximum at {approx}1200 K. It is thought that the tritium release at high temperatures (> 950 K) is due to the thermal decomposition of LiT. In order to further investigated the formation of lithium hydrides, the diffuse-reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy was applied. The Li{sub 2}O powder was irradiated by electron accelerator under D{sub 2} containing atmosphere (N{sub 2} + 10% D{sub 2}). An absorption band specific to the Li{sub 2}O was observed at 668 cm{sup -1} and attributed to the Li-D stretching vibration. (author)

  11. Fire analysis for compartment of ITER tritium SDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Bang, Kyoung Sik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yon; Yun, Sei Hun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The objective of the fire accident analysis for the compartment where the ITER tritium storage and delivery system (hereafter SDS) glove boxes are installed is to estimate the integrity of the glove box. Fires in grouped electrical cable trays pose distinct fire hazards within the compartment where the SDS glove boxes are installed. The nuclear industry has defined two general types of electrical cables, referred to as IEEE 383 qualified and unqualified. According to NUREG/CR 4679 and DOT TSC UMAT 83 4 1, a damage threshold temperature of 370 .deg. C and a critical heat flux of 10 kW/m2 have been selected for IEEE 383 qualified cable. A damage threshold temperature of 218 .deg. C and a critical heat flux of 5 kW/m2 have been selected for IEEE 383 unqualified cable. Cable tray fires can occur from various sources. The scenarios of concern include a fire within a cable tray and as exposure fire. However, fire within the compartment where the SDS glove boxes are installed could be happened due to over currents. Therefore, it is common practice to consider only self ignited cable fires to occur in power cable trays since they carry enough electrical energy for ignition. In general, electrical cables typically do not carry enough electrical energy for self ignition. According to NUREG/CR 5384, it was concluded that electrical cables which passed the IEEE 383 74 flame test were less likely to propagate electrically initiated fires. However, the scenario in this fire accident analysis assumed that the IEEE 383 qualified cable is burned completely.

  12. The requirement for proper storage of nuclear and related decommissioning samples to safeguard accuracy of tritium data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daeji, E-mail: kimdj@kins.re.kr [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong, Yuseong, Daejeon, 303-338 (Korea, Republic of); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phillip E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, University of Southampton, NOC, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of variation in tritium loss rates in concrete samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification of variation in tritium loss rates under different storage conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification of tritium cross-contamination rates for a range of matrix types. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Storage strategies for routine waste characterisation involving tritium. - Abstract: Large volumes of potentially tritium-contaminated waste materials are generated during nuclear decommissioning that require accurate characterisation prior to final waste sentencing. The practice of initially determining a radionuclide waste fingerprint for materials from an operational area is often used to save time and money but tritium cannot be included because of its tendency to be chemically mobile. This mobility demands a specific measurement for tritium and also poses a challenge in terms of sampling, storage and reliable analysis. This study shows that the extent of any tritium redistribution during storage will depend on its form or speciation and the physical conditions of storage. Any weakly or moderately bound tritium (e.g. adsorbed water, waters of hydration or crystallisation) may be variably lost at temperatures over the range 100-300 Degree-Sign C whereas for more strongly bound tritium (e.g. chemically bound or held in mineral lattices) the liberation temperature can be delayed up to 800 Degree-Sign C. For tritium that is weakly held the emanation behaviour at different temperatures becomes particularly important. The degree of {sup 3}H loss and cross-contamination that can arise after sampling and before analysis can be reduced by appropriate storage. Storing samples in vapour tight containers at the point of sampling, the use of triple enclosures, segregating high activity samples and using a freezer all lead to good analytical practice.

  13. Experimental investigation and modelling of tritium washout by precipitation in the area of the nuclear power plant of Paks, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koello, Z., E-mail: kolloz42@gmail.co [Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem ter 18/c, Debrecen 4026 (Hungary); Palcsu, L.; Major, Z.; Papp, L.; Molnar, M. [Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem ter 18/c, Debrecen 4026 (Hungary); Ranga, T.; Dombovari, P.; Manga, L. [Department of Radiation Protection, Nuclear Power Plant of Paks, Paks (Hungary)

    2011-01-15

    Tritium occurs in nature in trace amounts, but its concentration is changing due to natural and artificial sources. Studies focusing on natural tritium have to take into account the effect of artificial sources. Also, the impact of tritium is an important issue in environmental protection, e.g. in connection with the emissions from nuclear power plants. The present work focuses on the rain washout of tritium emitted from the Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary. Rainwater collectors were placed around the plant and after a period of precipitation, rainwater was collected and analysed for tritium content. Samples were analysed using low-level liquid scintillation counting, with some also subject to the more accurate {sup 3}He ingrowth method. The results clearly show the trace of the tritium plume emitted from the plant; however, values are only about one order of magnitude higher than environmental background levels. A washout model was devised to estimate the distribution of tritium around the plant. The model gives slightly higher concentrations than those measured in the field, but in general the agreement is satisfactory. The modelled values demonstrate that the effect of the plant on rainwater tritium levels is negligible over a distance of some kilometres. - Research highlights: {yields}The rainwater around a nuclear power plant was collected with a special rainwater collector {yields}The rainwater after a rain event was analysed for tritium with LSC and with the helium ingrowth method. {yields}The trace of the tritium plume is clearly detectable in the rainwater. {yields}The agreement between a reversible washout model and experimental data is satisfactory. {yields}According to the model the tritium plume is hardly detectable over some kilometers from the plant

  14. 40 CFR 434.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable (BAT). 434.53 Section 434.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS...

  15. 40 CFR 471.52 - Effluent limitations representating the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representating... economically achievable (BAT). 471.52 Section 471.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT...

  16. A small and compact AMS facility for tritium depth profiling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Friedrich; W Pilz; N Bekris; M Glugla; M Kiisk; V Liechtenstein

    2002-12-01

    Depth profiling measurements of tritium in carbon samples have been performed during the past seven years at the AMS facility installed at the Rossendorf 3 MV Tandetron. The samples have been cut from the inner walls of the fusion experiments ASDEX-upgrade/Garching and JET/Culham. The tritium content of the samples from JET required a dedicated AMS facility to prevent any contamination of the versatile 3 MV Tandetron. On the basis of an air-insulated 100 kV tandem accelerator equipped with a gas stripper an AMS facility exclusively devoted to tritium depth profiling was installed, tested and used for routine measurements. After additional successful tests employing diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils at this accelerator, another small and compact 100 kV tandem accelerator with SF6 insulation and a DLC stripper has been installed at the AMS facility. Results obtained with the different tandem accelerators are presented.

  17. A general method for tritium labelling of benzimidazole carbamates by catalytic exchange in dioxane solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacey, E. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Glebe, NSW (Australia). Div. of Animal Health, McMaster Lab.); Dawson, M. (Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Pharmacy); Long, M.A.; Than, C. (New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). School of Chemistry)

    1989-12-01

    Benzimidazole carbamates (BZCs) act as inhibitors of the tubulin-microtubule equilibria in eukaryotic organisms. Recently drug resistance to this class of compounds in helminth parasites has been shown to be due to a reduced ability of resistant tubulin to bind BZCs. In order to quantitate the nature of the tubulin-BZC interaction a general method for the specific tritium labelling of BZCs has been developed. The BZCs: mebendazole, oxfendazole, parbendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole and fenbendazole were labelled by catalytic exchange using palladium on calcium carbonate in pure dioxane at 60{sup 0}C under tritium gas. The position of label incorporation for tritiated albendazole was determined by tritium-NMR as the 4-position of benzimadazole nucleus. The yields for individual BZCs varied from 8 to 68% for a range of specific activity of 0.44 to 13.4 Ci/mmole. (author).

  18. Assessment of airborne release methodology for tritium from US DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.; Murphy, C.E. Jr. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    There are numerous nonreactor facilities in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex that contain and/or process large inventories of tritium. The primary safety analysis context for these facilities above key threshold quantities of tritium is the safety analysis report (SAR) format. As a means of identifying safe operating margins and ensuring low levels of risk to on-site workers and the general public, a licensing process analogous to a commercial reactor format is followed. The ultimate goal of this process is a DOE-approved SAR, developed in the framework contained in DOE Order 5480.23. The SAR for the particular DOE facility in question addresses dose consequences and subsequent health effects caused by the release of tritium under normal, abnormal, and accident conditions. Dose assessment codes are thus critical to the completion of the overall safety evaluation.

  19. Theoretical study of Jesse effect in tritium measurements using ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhilin; Peng, Shuming; Lu, Hanghang; Tan, Zhaoyi; Wang, Heyi; Long, Xingui; Masao, Matsuyama

    2016-01-01

    Jesse effect caused by impurities in helium might enhance the output signal significantly in tritium measurements with ionization chamber, which will lead to overestimation of tritium concentration in experiments. A theoretical method was proposed to evaluate Jesse effect quantitatively. Results indicate that besides Penning ionization, sub-excitation electrons also place very important influence on ionization enhancement by Jesse effect. An experiential expression about the relationship between enhancement factor and impurity concentration was established, in which second order of it fits experimental results very well. Theoretical calculation method in this paper is also applicable to evaluate Jesse effect in other kinds of mixtures besides hydrogen as impurities in helium. In addition, Jesse effects about tritium molecules as impurities have also been investigated.

  20. Enhancing radiolytic stability upon concentration of tritium-labeled pharmaceuticals utilizing centrifugal evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosemary; Helmy, Roy; Waterhouse, David

    2015-05-30

    Tritium radiopharmaceuticals are often used in drug development because of their desirable specific activity. The inherent instability of these radioactive tracers often leads to a requirement to purify prior to use. Purification methodologies such as preparative chromatography and solid/liquid extractions often utilize water as a solvent, which is not suitable for long-term storage and necessitates removal. Rotary evaporation has traditionally been utilized for the removal of this unwanted solvent, however, this method has been shown to lead to decomposition of the tritium species in some cases. Centrifugal evaporation is a milder concentration method which has been demonstrated to effectively remove solvents. In this study, we show that centrifugal evaporation leads to effective concentration of tritium samples without the decomposition typically observed by rotary evaporation.

  1. An experiment to measure the electron neutrino mass using a cryogenic tritium source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fackler, O.; Jeziorski, B.; Kolos, W.; Monkhorst, H.; Mugge, M.; Sticker, H.; Szalewicz, K.; White, R.M.; Woerner, R.

    1985-06-25

    An experiment has been performed to determine the electron neutrino mass with the precision of a few eV by measuring the tritium beta decay energy distribution near the endpoint. Key features of the experiment are a 2 eV resolution electrostatic spectrometer and a high-activity frozen tritium source. It is important that the source have electronic wavefunctions which can be accurately calculated. These calculations have been made for tritium and the HeT/sup +/ daughter ion and allow determination of branching fractions to 0.1% and energy of the excited states to 0.1 eV. The excited final molecular state calculations and the experimental apparatus are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Radiation damage and tritium release from Li-Zr-Si oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, H.; Bosch, P. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Dept. de Quimica (Mexico); Lopez, B.; Jimenez-Becerril, J.; Bulbulian, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Dept. de Quimica (Mexico)

    2002-04-01

    Li-Zr-Si mixed oxides were irradiated in a mixed radiation field in order to produce tritium through the Li{sup 6}(n, {alpha})H{sup 3} reaction. The LiZrSiO{sub 4} samples, prepared with different Li:Zr molar ratios (1, 3, 5 and 6), presented high tritium diffusion compared with other lithium ceramics like Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Furthermore, their composition and structure were not modified after irradiation. It was also found that Li{sub 2}ZrSi{sub 6}O{sub 15} was damaged by irradiation, and that tritium release was moderate in this compound. (authors)

  3. Simultaneous catalytic regime of tritium and helium-3 in D–D fusion without external breeding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Mahdavi; T Koohrokhi

    2010-03-01

    A catalytic regime of tritium and helium-3 in deuterium–deuterium fusion, including ion–electron collisions, mechanical expansion, bremsstrahlung radiation, inverse Compton scattering losses and reacting particles energy effect has been investigated. In this paper a new fuel configuration, DT 3He, is formed by adding 3He to DT fuel. According to our calculations this fuel (DT=0.0112 3He=0.0399) has greater energy gain than the fuel (DT=0.0112) used by Eliezer et al [Eliezer et al, Nucl. Fusion 40, 195 (2000)] and also it does not require external tritium and helium-3 breeding. Furthermore, neutron yields in D–D and D–T reactions are reduced due to the reduced quantity of initial amount of deuterium and tritium.

  4. Transporter Development for the Tritium Extraction Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.

    1998-12-17

    The Commercial Light Water Reactor-Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) is planned for location at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the US Department of Energy CLWR tritium production alternative. This new facility will rely on processes and equipment that are significantly different from those proven in the past or currently in use at SRS. For instance, the CLWR-TEF reference design employs remote modules to provide an inert processing atmosphere, secondary confinement for tritium and the primary confinement for particulate contamination. The primary component of this modular system is the Transporter. A Transporter mock-up was developed to demonstrate concept feasibility of the required processing functions (sealing, attachment/alignment and materials handling). The module design, the seal door selection, and the planned test program are discussed.

  5. Halonitromethanes formation in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hocheol; Addison, Jesse W; Hu, Jia; Karanfil, Tanju

    2010-03-01

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs) constitute one class of emerging disinfection by-products with high potential health risks. This study investigated the formation and occurrence of HNMs under different disinfection scenarios and the presence of their precursors in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) effluents. Formation potential tests performed on WWTP effluents revealed that HNM formation occurred in the order of ozonation-chlorination > ozonation-chloramination > chlorination > chloramination. Ozonation alone did not produce any HNM. Municipal WWTP effluents contained some reactive HNM precursors, possibly the by-products of biological treatment processes and/or some moiety of industry or household origin. No effects of nitrate on the formation of HNMs were observed in this study, and nitrification in WWTPs appears to remove appreciable portion of HNM precursors, especially those reactive to chlorine. UV disinfection using low pressure lamps in municipal WWTPs had negligible impact on HNM formation potential. HNM concentrations in the effluents of selected WWTPs were either non-detectable or less than minimum reporting level, except for one WWTP that gave trichloronitromethane concentrations in the range of 0.9-1.5 microg L(-1). No HNMs were observed in the effluents disinfected with UV radiation. Therefore, it appears the typical wastewater disinfection processes involving chlorination or UV treatment in WWTPs do not produce significant amounts of HNMs.

  6. Isotopes. Veritas in vino. [Vintage wines produced useful data of nuclear fallout and levels of natural tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, B. Th. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Nuclear Physics Research Unit); Nichola, A.

    1982-07-01

    Vintage wines, provide useful dated samples of atmospheric water from which the history of nuclear fallout and the levels of natural tritium before the nuclear test period can be reconstructed. As a result of the study, there is now a much improved estimate of the pre-bomb tritium level which is of importance for hydrological studies and estimating the cosmic ray production rate.

  7. Tissue-specific incorporation and genotoxicity of different forms of tritium in the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C., E-mail: ben@ecology.su.s [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Millward, Geoffrey E. [Consolidated Radio-isotope Facility, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Moody, A. John; Jha, Awadhesh N. [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to seawater spiked with tritiated water (HTO) at a dose rate of 122 and 79 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} for 7 and 14 days, respectively, and tritiated glycine (T-Gly) at a dose rate of 4.9 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} over 7 days. This was followed by depuration in clean seawater for 21 days. Tissues (foot, gills, digestive gland, mantle, adductor muscle and byssus) and DNA extracts from tissues were analysed for their tritium activity concentrations. All tissues demonstrated bio-accumulation of tritium from HTO and T-Gly. Tritium from T-Gly showed increased incorporation into DNA compared to HTO. About 90% of the initial activity from HTO was depurated within one day, whereas T-Gly was depurated relatively slowly, indicating that tritium may be bound with different affinities in tissues. Both forms of tritium caused a significant induction of micronuclei in the haemocytes of mussels. Our findings identify significant differential impacts on Mytilus edulis of the two chemical forms of tritium and emphasise the need for a separate classification and control of releases of tritiated compounds, to adequately protect the marine ecosystem. - Tritium from tritiated glycine demonstrates greater accumulation and persistence in tissues and enhanced genotoxicity in haemocytes of marine mussels, compared to tritium from tritiated water.

  8. Combustion method for assay of biological materials labeled with carbon-14 or tritium, or double-labeled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, L. G.; Kisieleski, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Dry catalytic combustion at high temperatures is used for assaying biological materials labeled carbon-14 and tritium, or double-labeled. A modified oxygen-flask technique is combined with standard vacuum-line techniques and includes convenience of direct in-vial collection of final combustion products, giving quantitative recovery of tritium and carbon-14.

  9. An explanation of the "negative neutrino mass squared" anomaly in tritium $ \\beta$-decay based on a theory of mass

    CERN Document Server

    Ingraham, R L; Wilkes, J M

    2000-01-01

    A proposed solution of the anomalous behavior of the electron spectrum near the endpoint of tritium $\\beta$-decay is offered. It is based on a new theory of mass in which mass becomes a dynamical variable, and the electron in the tritium $\\beta$-decay has a narrow mass distribution. The predicted Kurie plots explain the main feature (``$m_{\

  10. Application of tritium in precipitation and baseflow in Japan: a case study of groundwater transit times and storage in Hokkaido watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Gusyev, Maksym A.; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Michael K.; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Terumasa; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya; Iwami, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the application of tritium in precipitation and baseflow to estimate groundwater transit times and storage volumes in Hokkaido, Japan. To establish the long-term history of tritium concentration in Japanese precipitation, we used tritium data from the global network of isotopes in precipitation and from local studies in Japan. The record developed for Tokyo area precipitation was scaled for Hokkaido using tritium values for precipitation based o...

  11. 2014-2015 Tritium values in small and shallow aquifers in northern Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, Manuela; Mussi, Mario; Ronchetti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Tritium data relating to actual rainfall in north of Italy and in particular in the northern Apennines are rare or missing. The reasons of this lack of data frequently depends on the high cost of analysis and the necessity of high amount of water to perform the analysis itself. In order to obtain these data a valid alternative can be analyze the amount of Tritium in unconfined, shallow and small aquifer not affect by human activities (such as sewage). Recent studies, applied to the hydrogeology of the Po plain or of the Apennine slopes, highlight, in rainfall water recharging shallow aquifer, tritium values ranging between 6 T.U. and 12 T.U., higher than those detected in other and different areas of Italy or of the South Europe. The aim of this paper is to highlight first results of tritium analyses performed on spring draining shallow aquifers in northern Apennines, characterized by the absence of human activities. The peculiarity of sampling point (spring are characterized by small and well defined catchment areas as well small differences between the infiltration/recharge elevation and the spring elevation) makes results representative of mean tritium value of rainfall recharge in the studied area. In detail, during 2014-2015 three springs located at different elevation in Secchia Valley have been sampled and analyzed. Tritium analyses performed on a total of 5 samples highlight the following results: the maximum value (5.0±0.7 T.U.) is detected in water collected in November whereas the minimum value ( 3.7±0.6 T.U.) is obtained in May. Therefore a mean annual value of 4.2±0.7 T.U. in the studied area have been highlighted.

  12. Planned Operation of Tritium Recovery System Based on Investigation of LHD Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yamato; Suzuki, Naoyuki

    To understand the conditions of exhaust gas treatment at the transition point between the Large Helical Device (LHD) vacuum pumping system and the exhaust gas tritium recovery system, the gas flow rate and hydrogen concentration were measured. Simultaneous measurement of the exhaust gas flow rate and hydrogen concentration was made possible by applying two types of hydrogen monitors: a thermal conductivity sensor and a combustible gas sensor. The obtained results have led to remodeling of the LHD vacuum pumping system and an optimised plan of operation for the tritium recovery system.

  13. The present status and recent applications of the accidental tritium assessment code UFOTRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskob, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The computer program UFOTRI can be used for assessing the impact of accidental released tritium in the two chemical forms tritiated water vapour and tritium gas. By applying UFOTRI to potential European sites for ITER, it could be demonstrated that the main goal, the nonevacuation criteria, is fulfilled for the present release limits. Contributions in international studies together with the re-evaluation of experimental data showed that the plant sub-model as well as the soil sub-model are areas for further improvement. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Causey

    1999-02-01

    The 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 14-15, 1998. This workshop occurs every two years, and has previously been held in Livermore/California, Nagoya/Japan, and the JRC-Ispra Site in Italy. The purpose of the workshop is to gather researchers involved in the topic of tritium migration, retention, and recycling in materials used to line magnetic fusion reactor walls and provide a forum for presentation and discussions in this area. This document provides an overall summary of the workshop, the workshop agenda, a summary of the presentations, and a list of attendees.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of tritium and radiocarbon by ultra-low-background proportional counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Alexander, Tom; Back, Henning; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Keillor, Martin; Moran, Jim; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen

    2016-12-21

    Use of ultra-low-background capabilities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provide enhanced sensitivity for measurement of low-activity sources of tritium and radiocarbon using proportional counters. Tritium levels are nearly back to pre-nuclear test backgrounds (~2-8 TU in rainwater), which can complicate their dual measurement with radiocarbon due to overlap in the beta decay spectra. We present results of single-isotope proportional counter measurements used to analyze a dual-isotope methane sample synthesized from ~120mg of H2O and present sensitivity results.

  16. Computation of hyperfine energies of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Bekir; Özmen, Ayhan; Yakar, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The hyperfine energies and hyperfine constants of the ground and excited states of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots(QDs) are calculated. Quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) methods are employed to calculate the unperturbed wave functions and energy eigenvalues. The results show that in the medium and strong confinement regions the hyperfine energy and hyperfine constant are strongly affected by dot radius, impurity charge, electron spin orientation, impurity spin and impurity magnetic moment. Besides, in all dot radii, the hyperfine splitting and hyperfine constant of the confined hydrogen and tritium atoms are approximately equivalent to each other and they are greater than the confined deuterium atom.

  17. Computation of hyperfine energies of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: bcakir@selcuk.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: yuyakar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus 68100, Aksaray (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    The hyperfine energies and hyperfine constants of the ground and excited states of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots(QDs) are calculated. Quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan (HFR) methods are employed to calculate the unperturbed wave functions and energy eigenvalues. The results show that in the medium and strong confinement regions the hyperfine energy and hyperfine constant are strongly affected by dot radius, impurity charge, electron spin orientation, impurity spin and impurity magnetic moment. Besides, in all dot radii, the hyperfine splitting and hyperfine constant of the confined hydrogen and tritium atoms are approximately equivalent to each other and they are greater than the confined deuterium atom.

  18. The study of vial and cocktail for tritium radioactivity analysis of rain water by liquid scintillation counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sung Jin; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Man Woo; Jeong, Dong Hyeok; Yang, Kwang Mo; Kang, Yeong Rok [Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Sang Hee [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Even though the current method for tritium (3H) analysis is routine, for the case of the low level of tritium in the environment, special conditions have to be fulfilled in order to obtain accurate and reliable tritium measurements. There are very little comparative data concerning commercial scintillating cocktails. The best cocktails for measuring tritium are those based on benzene derived solvent, and the worse cocktails are those which have complex chemical composition or contain too small concentration of scintillators. The aim of study was to investigate various vials and cocktails by comparison with the combination of few different scintillation cocktails and vials in our routine measurements according to count, efficiency, and the figure of merit (FOM). The comparison of three types of vials with scintillation cocktails for tritium activity analysis of rain water shows that glass vials have higher count rates and HiSafe 3 cocktails have lower FOM.

  19. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  20. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15

  1. POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

  2. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Juanes, L.; Amat, A.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Arques, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain)], E-mail: aarques@txp.upv.es; Bernabeu, A.; Silvestre, M.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Ano, E. [Departamento de Gestion e Innovacion, Area de producto y desarrollo sostenible, Asociacion de Investigacion de la Industria del Juguete, Conexas y Afines (AIJU), Avda. de la industria, 23, 03440 Ibi (Spain)], E-mail: m.ambiente@aiju.info

    2008-05-30

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC{sub 50} of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN{sup -} and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO{sub 2}, but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu{sup 2+} and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay.

  3. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. 40 CFR 420.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  5. 40 CFR 420.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  6. 40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  7. 40 CFR 420.73 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). The Agency has determined...

  8. Using high resolution tritium profiles to quantify the effects of melt on two Spitsbergen ice cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, L.G.; Streurman, H.J.; Isaksson, E.; Helsen, M.M.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Martma, T.; Pohjola, V.A.; Moore, J.C.; Meijer, H.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ice cores from small ice caps provide valuable climatic information, additional to that of Greenland and Antarctica. However, their integrity is usually compromised by summer meltwater percolation. To determine to what extent this can affect such ice cores, we performed high-resolution tritium measu

  9. Annual Report of Airborne Discharge Station for Treated Radioactive Waste Water with Tritium in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Yi-dan; FENG; Chun-xiao; LONG; Bo-kang; ZHAO; Yu-hang; WANG; Jian-xin

    2015-01-01

    The airborne discharge station for radioactive purity liquid waste water is officially put into operation in 2010,and it is the first facility for treated radioactive waste water with tritium in China.The station is primarily based on the"air humidification"principle for treated waste water

  10. Tritium Removal from Codeposits on Carbon Tiles by a Scanning Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; A. Carpe; G. Guttadora; S. Langish; K.M. Young; W.M. Shu; and H. Nakamura

    2001-09-28

    A novel method for tritium release has been demonstrated on codeposited layers on graphite and carbon-fiber-composite tiles from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A scanning continuous wave Nd laser beam heated the codeposits to a temperature of 1200-2300 degrees C for 10 to 200 milliseconds in an argon atmosphere. The temperature rise of the codeposit was significantly higher than that of the manufactured tile material (e.g., 1770 degrees C cf. 1080 degrees C). A major fraction of tritium was thermally desorbed with minimal change to the surface appearance at a laser intensity of 8 kW/cm(superscript ''2''), peak temperatures above 1230 degrees C and heating duration 10-20 milliseconds. In two experiments, 46% and 84% of the total tritium was released during the laser scan. The application of this method for tritium removal from a tokamak reactor appears promising and has significant advantages over oxidative techniques.

  11. Wall tritium contamination as a factor in fusion-reactor wall design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, P.A.; Leonard, R.A.; Rogers, M.L.; Sienkiewicz, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of either concrete or stainless steel walls on the cleanup time required to attain tritium (HTO) atmospheric levels less than or equal to 0.5 mCi/m/sup 3/ was assessed. Calculations were performed for concrete; experimental results are presented for stainless steel.

  12. Synthesis of tritium-labelled imipramine and desipramine with high specific activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, L.A.; Kaminski, Ju.L.; Sosnova, L.P.; Kudelin, B.K. (Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1992-09-01

    [G-[sup 3]H]imipramine and [G-[sup 3]H] desipramine with specific activities 110-160 and 80-100 kCi/mol, respectively were synthesized by high temperature solid-phase catalytic isotope exchange with gaseous tritium. (author).

  13. The measurement of tritium in water samples with electrolytic enrichment using liquid scintillation counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tritium (3H present in the environment decreased in the last decades and nowadays it has low activity concentrations. Measurement of low-level tritium activities in natural waters, e. g. in precipitation, groundwater, and river water requires special techniques for water pretreatment and detection of low-level radioactivity. In order to increase the tritium concentration to an easily measurable level, electrolytic enrichment must be applied. This paper presents the enrichment method performed by electrolysis in a battery of 18 cells, giving an enrichment factor of 5.84 (calculated from 59 electrolyses. The calculated mean values of the separation factor and enrichment parameter were 4.10 and 0.84, respectively. Results for tritium activity in precipitation and surface water collected in Belgrade during 2008 and 2009 are presented. The Radiation and Environmental Protection Department of the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, participated in the IAEA TRIC2008 international intercomparison exercise. The participation in the intercomparisons for any laboratory doing low-level 3H measurements in the waters is very important and useful. It is considered the best way to check the entire procedure and methods of the measurements and the reliability of the standard used. The analysis of the reported 3H activity results showed that all results for five intercomparison samples, for which electrolytic enrichment were applied prior to the 3H measurement, are acceptable.

  14. TRITIUM UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SURFACE WATER SAMPLES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, R.

    2012-07-31

    Radiochemical analyses of surface water samples, in the framework of Environmental Monitoring, have associated uncertainties for the radioisotopic results reported. These uncertainty analyses pertain to the tritium results from surface water samples collected at five locations on the Savannah River near the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Uncertainties can result from the field-sampling routine, can be incurred during transport due to the physical properties of the sample, from equipment limitations, and from the measurement instrumentation used. The uncertainty reported by the SRS in their Annual Site Environmental Report currently considers only the counting uncertainty in the measurements, which is the standard reporting protocol for radioanalytical chemistry results. The focus of this work is to provide an overview of all uncertainty components associated with SRS tritium measurements, estimate the total uncertainty according to ISO 17025, and to propose additional experiments to verify some of the estimated uncertainties. The main uncertainty components discovered and investigated in this paper are tritium absorption or desorption in the sample container, HTO/H{sub 2}O isotopic effect during distillation, pipette volume, and tritium standard uncertainty. The goal is to quantify these uncertainties and to establish a combined uncertainty in order to increase the scientific depth of the SRS Annual Site Environmental Report.

  15. Project 8: Determining neutrino mass from tritium beta decay using a frequency-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doe, Peter J.; Kofron, Jared N.; MCBride, Lisa; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Doelman, S.; Rogers, Alan E.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel; Oblath, Noah S.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; Monreal, Ben; Bahr, Matthew; Asner, David M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Fernandes, Justin L.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Patterson, Ryan B.; Bradley, Rich; Thummler, Thomas

    2013-10-04

    A general description is given of Project 8, a new approach to measuring the neutrino mass scale via the beta decay of tritium. In Project 8, the energy of electrons emitted in beta decay is determined from the frequency of cyclotron radiation emitted as the electrons spiral in a uniform magnetic field

  16. A possible origin of the endpoint anomaly in tritium $\\beta$-spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Rizek, J; Dragoun, O; Rysavy, M; Spalek, A

    1998-01-01

    The influence of the residual T atoms appearing after the decay of T_2 molecule on the beta-spectrum shape is considered. Recent experiments performed in Mainz, Troitsk, and Livermore are briefly reviewed from this viewpoint. Aspects connected with the possible time dependent change of the tritium source composition are discussed.

  17. LLNL review of the 1994 accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Barnard, J.J.; Booth, R. [and others

    1995-03-08

    LLNL was asked in September 1994 to review the accelerator production of tritium (APT) concept as it had evolved up to the fall of 1994. The purpose was not to compare it to other sources of tritium, but to identify possible technical flaws in the concept and to assess feasibility. The APT concept reviewed was based on a 1.0 GeV normal conducting proton linac operating CW at currents up to 200 mA with a target of tungsten and blanket of {sup 3}He and lead. The LLNL review group concurs with the conclusions of four previous reviews (1989 to 1994) that this concept can meet the tritium requirements of a reduced stockpile of approximately 3,500 {+-} 1,500 warheads. The authors believe that the predicted tritium production rate is based on sound nuclear and transport models and that the schedules for technology demonstrations, design, and construction are realistic. They conclude that the technical risk of the concept is low and can be managed within the risk reduction program. The risk reduction program should focus on risk to the schedule and on cost reduction.

  18. UNCLASSIFIED TPBAR RELEASES, INCLUDING TRITIUM TTQP-1-091 Rev 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruel, Robert L.; Love, Edward F.; Thornhill, Cheryl K.

    2012-07-01

    This document provides a listing of unclassified tritium release values that should be assumed for unclassified analysis. Much of the information is brought forth from the related documents listed in Section 5.0 to provide a single-source listing of unclassified release values. This information has been updated based on current design analysis and available experimental data.

  19. Deuterium–tritium catalytic reaction in fast ignition: Optimum parameters approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Khanbabaei; A Ghasemizad; S Khoshbinfar

    2014-09-01

    One of the main concerns about the currentworking on nuclear power reactors is the potential hazard of their radioactive waste. There is hope that this issue will be reduced in next generation nuclear fusion power reactors. Reactors will release nuclear energy through microexplosions that occur in a mixture of hydrogen isotopes of deuterium and tritium. However, there exist radiological hazards due to the accumulation of tritium in the blanket layer. A catalytic fusion reaction of DT mixture may stand between DD and an equimolar DT approach in which the fusion process continues with a small amount of tritium seed. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of DT reaction in the fast ignition (FI) scheme. The kinematic study of the main mechanism of the energy gain–loss term, which may disturb the ignition and burn process, was performed in FI and the optimum values of precompressed fuel and proton beam driver were derived. The recommended values of fuel parameters are: areal density $ρ R ≥ 5\\cdot$cm-2 and initial tritium fraction ≤ 0.025. For the proton beam, the corresponding optimum interval values are proton average energy $3≤ E_p ≤ 10$ MeV, pulse duration $5 ≤ t_p ≤ 15$ ps and power $5≤ W_p ≤ 12 × 10^{22}$ (keV$\\cdot$cm3$\\cdot$ps-1). It was proved that under the above conditions, a fast ignition DT reaction stays in the catalytic regime.

  20. Thermal ramp tritium release in COBRA-1A2 C03 beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Tritium release kinetics, using the method of thermal ramp heating at three linear ramp rates, were measured on the COBRA-1A2 C03 1-mm beryllium pebbles. This report includes a brief discussion of the test, and the test data in graph format.

  1. Capture of Tritium Released from Cladding in the Zirconium Recycle Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Walker, T. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, S. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Zirconium may be recovered from the Zircaloy® cladding of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for recycle or to reduce the quantities of high-level waste destined for a geologic repository. Recovery of zirconium using a chlorination process is currently under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The approach is to treat the cladding with chlorine gas to convert the zirconium in the alloy (~98 wt % of the alloy mass) to zirconium tetrachloride. A significant fraction of the tritium (0–96%) produced in nuclear fuel during irradiation may be found in zirconium-based cladding and could be released from the cladding when the solid matrix is destroyed by the chlorination reaction. To prevent uncontrolled release of radioactive tritium to other parts of the plant or to the environment, a method to recover the tritium may be required. The focus of this effort was to (1) identify potential methods for the recovery of tritium from the off-gas of the zirconium recycle process, (2) perform scoping tests on selected recovery methods using nonradioactive gas simulants, and (3) select a process design appropriate for testing on radioactive gas streams generated by the engineering-scale zirconium recycle demonstrations on radioactive used cladding.

  2. Capture of Tritium Released from Cladding in the Zirconium Recycle Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Walker, T. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report is issued as the first revision to FCRD-MRWFD-2016-000297. Zirconium may be recovered from the Zircaloy® cladding of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for recycle or to reduce the quantities of high-level waste destined for a geologic repository. Recovery of zirconium using a chlorination process is currently under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The approach is to treat the cladding with chlorine gas to convert the zirconium in the alloy (~98 wt % of the alloy mass) to zirconium tetrachloride. A significant fraction of the tritium (0–96%) produced in nuclear fuel during irradiation may be found in zirconium-based cladding and could be released from the cladding when the solid matrix is destroyed by the chlorination reaction. To prevent uncontrolled release of radioactive tritium to other parts of the plant or to the environment, a method to recover the tritium may be required. The focus of this effort was to (1) identify potential methods for the recovery of tritium from the off-gas of the zirconium recycle process, (2) perform scoping tests on selected recovery methods using non-radioactive gas simulants, and (3) select a process design appropriate for testing on radioactive gas streams generated by the engineering-scale zirconium recycle demonstrations on radioactive used cladding.

  3. Tritium speciation in nuclear reactor bioshield concrete and its impact on accurate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Ji; E Warwick, Phillip; Croudace, Ian W

    2008-07-15

    Tritium ((3)H) is produced in nuclear reactors via several neutron-induced reactions [(2)H(n, gamma)(3)H, (6)Li(n, alpha)(3)H, (10)B(n, 2alpha)(3)H, (14)N(n, (3)H)(12)C, and ternary fission (fission yield reactor bioshield using combustion and liquid scintillation analysis has identified two forms of (3)H, one weakly bound and one strongly bound. The strongly bound tritium, which originates from neutron capture on trace lithium ((6)Li) within mineral phases, requires temperatures in excess of 350 degrees C to achieve quantitative recovery. The weakly bound form of tritium can be liberated at significantly lower temperatures (100 degrees C) as HTO and is associated with dehydration of hydrous mineral components. Without an appreciation that two forms of tritium can exist in reactor bioshields, the (3)H content of samples may be severely underestimated using conventional analytical approaches. These findings exemplify the need to develop robust radioactive waste characterization procedures in support of nuclear decommissioning programs.

  4. Construction and commissioning of a hydrogen cryogenic distillation system for tritium recovery at ICIT Rm. Valcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, George, E-mail: george.ana@icsi.ro [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Cristescu, Ion [Karlsruhe Istitute for Technologies, Tritium Laboratory, Eggenstein-Leopoldshaffen (Germany); Draghia, Mirela [ISTECH, Timisoara (Romania); Bucur, Ciprian; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Vijulie, Mihai; Popescu, Gheorghe; Costeanu, Claudiu; Sofilca, Nicolae; Stefan, Iulia; Daramus, Robert; Niculescu, Alina; Oubraham, Anisoara; Spiridon, Ionut; Vasut, Felicia; Moraru, Carmen; Brad, Sebastian [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Pasca, Gheorghe [ISTECH, Timisoara (Romania)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Cryogenic distillation (CD) process is being employed for tritium separation from tritiated hydrogen mixtures. • Process control and safety phylosophy with the detritiation plant from Rm. Vâlcea. • Tests undertaken prior to commissioning of the CD system from Rm. Vâlcea. • Preliminary experiments with the CD system (non-radiological). - Abstract: Cryogenic distillation (CD) of hydrogen in combination with Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) or Combined Electrolytic Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process is used for tritium removal/recovery from tritiated water. Tritiated water is being obtained after long time operation of CANDU reactors, or in case of ITER mainly by the Detritiation System (DS). The cryogenic distillation system (CDS) used to remove/recover tritium from a hydrogen stream consists of a cascade of cryogenic distillation columns and a refrigeration unit which provides the cooling capacity for the condensers of CD columns. The columns, together with the condensers and the process heat-exchangers are accommodated in a vacuumed cold box. In the particularly case of the ICIT Plant, the cryogenic distillation cascade consists of four columns with diameters between 100–7 mm and it has been designed to process up to 10 mc/h of tritiated deuterium. This paper will present the steps undertaken for construction and commissioning of a pilot plant for tritium removal/recovery by cryogenic distillation of hydrogen. The paper will show besides preliminary data obtained during commissioning, also general characteristics of the plant and its equipments.

  5. Radiation quality of tritium: a comparison with 60Co gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-09-01

    In a previous study, microdosimetric simulations were performed for tritium uniformly distributed in a medium, and for tritium bound to biologically critical sites of dimensions from 10 nm to 2 µm. Results of local energy density, i.e. energy deposition in microscopic regions, are different for these two cases. Based on the spatial distribution of energy deposition, dose mean lineal energies are calculated for tritium in the forms of tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT). The dose mean lineal energies of OBT are about a factor of 1.7 higher than those of HTO in a wide range of target dimensions of biological interest. The results are consistent with radiobiological findings that OBT is about twice as effective as HTO. In this study, the same calculations were performed for (60)Co gamma rays in a wide range of target dimensions of biological interest (10 nm to 2 µm). Compared with (60)Co gamma rays, the estimated relative biological effectiveness could vary from 1.3 to 3.5 for HTO, and 2.3 to 5.6 for OBT. The results are consistent with radiobiological findings for various biological endpoints in different biological systems that OBT is about twice as effective as HTO.

  6. Studies on the Use of Oyster, Snail and Periwinkle Shells as Adsorbents for the Removalof Pb2+ Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens A. Odoemelam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of increasing rate of lead pollution resulting from discharge of lead containing effluents by industries into the environment, this study was carried out to investigate the removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions by oyster, snail and periwinkle shells. The effects of contact time and concentration on adsorption, thermodynamics of sorption and distribution coefficients of the adsorbents were examined to optimize the conditions to be utilized for decontamination of effluents containing Pb2+. The study revealed that these materials are good adsorbents that can be used for the removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solution. Adsorption of Pb2+ by oyster, snail and periwinkle shells were found to conform to the classical models of Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms. Thermodynamic consideration revealed that adsorption of Pb2+ by these materials was spontaneous and proceeded via chemical adsorption. The use of these materials for the removal of lead ion from aqueous solution is therefore advocated

  7. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 mi

  8. BIOEQUIVALENCE APPROACH FOR WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current...

  9. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium: Kinetics, long-time annealing and effect or crack formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Since beryllium is considered as one of the best neutron multiplier materials in the blanket of the next generation fusion reactors, several studies have been started to evaluate its behaviour under irradiation during both operating and accidental conditions. Based on safety considerations, tritium produced in beryllium during neutron irradiation represents one important issue, therefore it is necessary to investigate tritium transport processes by using a comprehensive mathematical model and comparing its predictions with well characterized experimental tests. Because of the difficulties in extrapolating the short-time tritium release tests to a longer time scale, also long-time annealing experiments with beryllium samples from the SIBELIUS irradiation. have been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Samples were annealed up to 12 months at temperatures up to 650{degrees}C. The inventory after annealing was determined by heating the samples up to 1050{degrees}C with a He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2} purge gas. Furthermore, in order to investigate the likely effects of cracks formation eventually causing a faster tritium release from beryllium, the behaviour of samples irradiated at low temperature (40-50{degrees}C) but up to very high fast neutron fluences (0.8-3.9{center_dot}10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, E{sub n}{ge}1 MeV) in the BR2 reactor has been investigated. Tritium was released by heating the beryllium samples up to 1050{degrees}C and purging them with He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2}. Tritium release from high-irradiated beryllium samples showed a much faster kinetics than from the low-irradiated ones, probably because of crack formation caused by thermal stresses in the brittle material and/or by helium bubbles migration. The obtained experimental data have been compared with predictions of the code ANFIBE with the goal to better understand the physical mechanisms governing tritium behaviour in beryllium and to assess the prediction capabilities of the code.

  11. Heat Exchanger Design Options and Tritium Transport Study for the VHTR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to consider heat exchanger options and tritium transport in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The heat exchanger options include types, arrangements, channel patterns in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE), coolant flow direction, and pipe configuration in shell-and-tube designs. Study considerations include: three types of heat exchanger designs (PCHE, shell-and-tube, and helical coil); single- and two-stage unit arrangements; counter-current and cross flow configurations; and straight pipes and U-tube designs in shell-and-tube type heat exchangers. Thermal designs and simple stress analyses were performed to estimate the heat exchanger options, and the Finite Element Method was applied for more detailed calculations, especially for PCHE designs. Results of the options study show that the PCHE design has the smallest volume and heat transfer area, resulting in the least tritium permeation and greatest cost savings. It is theoretically the most reliable mechanically, leading to a longer lifetime. The two-stage heat exchanger arrangement appears to be safer and more cost effective. The recommended separation temperature between first and second stages in a serial configuration is 800oC, at which the high temperature unit is about one-half the size of the total heat exchanger core volume. Based on simplified stress analyses, the high temperature unit will need to be replaced two or three times during the plant’s lifetime. Stress analysis results recommend the off-set channel pattern configuration for the PCHE because stress reduction was estimated at up to 50% in this configuration, resulting in a longer lifetime. The tritium transport study resulted in the development of a tritium behavior analysis code using the MATLAB Simulink code. In parallel, the THYTAN code, previously performed by Ohashi and Sherman (2007) on the Peach Bottom data, was revived

  12. Phosphorus leaching in soils amended with piggery effluent or lime residues from effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D M; Ritchie, G S

    1994-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in wastes from piggeries may contribute to the eutrophication of waterways if not disposed of appropriately. Phosphorus leaching, from three soils with different P sorption characteristics (two with low P retention and one with moderate P retention) when treated with piggery effluent (with or without struvite), was investigated using batch and leaching experiments. The leaching of P retained in soil from the application of struvite effluent was determined. In addition, P leaching from lime residues (resulting from the treatment of piggery effluent with lime to remove P) was determined in comparison to superphosphate when applied to the same three soils. Most P was leached from sandy soils with low P retention when effluent with or without struvite was applied. More than 100% of the filterable P applied in struvite effluent was leached in sandy soils with low P retention. Solid, inorganic forms of P (struvite) became soluble and potentially leachable at pHdissolution if there were sufficient sorption sites. In sandy soils with low P retention, more than 39% of the total filterable P applied in recycled effluent (without struvite) was leached. Soil P increased mainly in surface layers after treatment with effluent. Sandy soils pre-treated with struvite effluent leached 40% of the P retained in the previous application. Phosphorus decreased in surface layers and increased at depth in the soil with moderate P retention after leaching the struvite effluent pre-treated soil with water. The soils capacity to adsorb P and the soil pH were the major soil properties that affected the rate and amount of P leaching, whereas the important characteristics of the effluent were pH, P concentration and the forms of P in the effluent. Phosphorus losses from soils amended with hydrated lime and lime kiln dust residues were much lower than losses from soils amended with superphosphate. Up to 92% of the P applied as superphosphate was leached from sandy soils with low P

  13. Feedback on the radiological management of a urban site contaminated with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprieur, F.; Pierrard, O. [Institut de radioportection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: In November 2010, the IRSN is reached on a rare case of environmental tritium contamination on a site located in an urban area near Paris (Saint-Maur-des-Fosses - dpt 94). This contamination resulted from the presence in an enterprise's premises of an experimental device containing molecular sieve from the Valduc nuclear site, wrongly considered as un-used. First actions: IRSN has quickly performed an initial characterization of tritium contamination in the premises of the company and its close environment. The first results showed the existence of a strong local contamination (tritium activity> 150 000 Bq/m{sup 3} in air) and a important labeling in samples collected in the close vicinity of the company premises (between 1000 and 10000 Bq/kg f.w. in plants, between 500 and 1500 Bq/L in water). These results led IRSN to conduct multiple investigations: - tritium measurements on samples of water, air and plants collected in the area close to the building to know the importance and extent of environmental marking and follow its evolution over time. In this aim, 450 measurements were made between 2010 and 2013; - measurements of tritium in the urine of residents living near the contaminated building: the results showed traces of tritium for some of them but the assessments conducted by the IRSN from these results led to extremely low dosimetry estimates without consequences for the health of these people; - dosimetric evaluations of tritium exposure of employees and visitors of the company contaminated. Informing the public and stakeholders In November 2010, IRSN has collaborated with the mayor to facilitate early interventions in urban areas and in particular to facilitate contacts for access to private property. In this perspective, the IRSN participated in public meetings to explain the cause of this accident and the results of tritium measurements to residents. IRSN also published regularly on its web site briefing notes reflecting the results

  14. Isotope exchange reactions on ceramic breeder materials and their effect on tritium inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, M.; Baba, A. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawamura, Y.; Nishi, M.

    1998-03-01

    Though lithium ceramic materials such as Li{sub 2}O, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} are considered as breeding materials in the blanket of a D-T fusion reactor, the release behavior of the bred tritium in these solid breeder materials has not been fully understood. The isotope exchange reaction rate between hydrogen isotopes in the purge gas and tritium on the surface of breeding materials have not been quantified yet, although helium gas with hydrogen or deuterium is planned to be used as the blanket purge gas in the recent blanket designs. The mass transfer coefficient representing the isotope exchange reaction between H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}O or that between D{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O in the ceramic breeding materials bed is experimentally obtained in this study. Effects of isotope exchange reactions on the tritium inventory in the bleeding blanket is discussed based on data obtained in this study where effects of diffusion of tritium in the grain, absorption of water in the bulk of grain, and adsorption of water on the surface of grain, together with two types of isotope exchange reactions are considered. The way to estimate the tritium inventory in a Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} blanket used in this study shows a good agreement with data obtained in such in-situ experiments as MOZART, EXOTIC-5, 6 and TRINE experiments. (author)

  15. 40 CFR 420.137 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best control technology for... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best control technology for conventional...

  16. 40 CFR 417.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.22 Effluent limitations guidelines... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  17. 40 CFR 417.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available...

  18. 40 CFR 471.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (k) Tube reducing spent lubricants—Subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 471.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent... 0.006 Cyanide 0.010 0.004 Nickel 0.066 0.044 Ammonia 4.57 2.01 Fluoride 2.04 0.906 (g) Tube...

  20. 40 CFR 405.127 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... Whey Subcategory § 405.127 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  1. 40 CFR 405.117 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... Condensed Whey Subcategory § 405.117 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  2. 40 CFR 421.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—Reduction of Tantalum Salt to Metal Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or... Columbium-Tantalum Subcategory § 421.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... application of the best available technology economically achievable: (a) Subpart K—Concentrate Digestion...

  3. Simulated tritium concentrations in river waters of the western Lake Taupo catchment, New Zealand with MODPATH particle tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gusyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We simulated in a previous study tritium concentrations in the river waters of the western Lake Taupo catchment (WLTC using MODFLOW/MT3DMS model (Gusyev et al., 2013. The model was calibrated to match simulated tritium to measured tritium in river waters at baseflows of the Waihaha, Whanganui, Whareroa, Kuratau and Omori river catchments of the WLTC. Following from this work we now utilized the same MODFLOW model for the WLTC to calculate the pathways of groundwater particles (and their corresponding tritium concentrations using steady-state particle tracking with MODPATH. In order to simulate baseflow tritium concentrations with MODPATH, transit time distributions (TTDs such as cumulative frequency distribution (CFD and probability density function (PDF are generated with particle tracking for the river networks of the five WLTC catchment outflows. Then, PDFs are used in the convolution integral with tritium concentration time series obtained in the precipitation. The resulting MODPATH tritium concentrations yield a very good match to measured tritium concentrations and are similar to the MT3DMS simulated tritium concentrations, with the greatest variation occurring around the bomb peak. MODPATH and MT3DMS also yield similar Mean Transit Times (MTT of groundwater contribution to river baseflows, but the actual shape of the TTDs is strikingly different. While both distributions provide valuable information, the methodologies used to derive the TTDs are fundamentally different and hence must be interpreted differently. With the current models setting, only the methodology used with MODPATH provides the true TTD for use with the convolution integral.

  4. Effluent Zero Release Concept——The Brazilian Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Carlos Mierzwa; Sandra Mara Garcia Bello; Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity is pushing the government, industries and researchers to the development of new strategies for water and wastewater management. An approach aimed at the optimization of the water use and minimization of effluent generation was developed at the Centro Experimental ARAMAR (CEA), a nuclear research facility, located in the State of Sao Paulo,Brazil. Bench scale tests followed by a pilot plant treating effluents from some nuclear research facilities have shown the results leading to the conclusion that the effluent zero release concept is feasible. Based on the gathered data, a project of an integrated effluent treatment system focusing on water recovery and environmental effluent release reduction has been developed.

  5. Treatment of Aqueous Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Spronsen, J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the recovery or removal of one or more crystallizable compounds from an aqueous solution containing, apart from the said crystallizable compounds, one or more organic or inorganic scale- forming or scale-inducing materials having a lower solubility in water

  6. METHOD FOR IN SITU VISUALIZATION OF TRITIUM DIFFUSED IN STAINLESS STEEL USING A DIGITAL AUTORADIOGRAPHIC IMAGING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, K; Carol Kestin, C

    2006-09-20

    At the end of their service lives, various stainless steel components of nuclear weapons that have been exposed to tritium gas are evaluated to determine the extent of the tritium permeation. This information is then used to assess the decrement to performance caused by hydrogen (tritium) embrittlement. This evaluation is currently performed using a photo-emulsion based method and requires 24 hours or longer to complete. A system based on digital imaging technology has recently been designed and built at the Savannah River National Laboratory that performs this evaluation in 10 minutes or less on typical samples.

  7. Estimating subsurface water volumes and transit times in Hokkaido river catchments, Japan, using high-accuracy tritium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusyev, Maksym; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate subsurface water transit times and volumes in headwater catchments of Hokkaido, Japan, using the New Zealand high-accuracy tritium analysis technique. Transit time provides insights into the subsurface water storage and therefore provides a robust and quick approach to quantifying the subsurface groundwater volume. Our method is based on tritium measurements in river water. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface after the water enters the groundwater system. Therefore, tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses and can provide information on mean water transit times up to 200 years. Only in recent years has it become possible to use tritium for dating of stream and river water, due to the fading impact of the bomb-tritium from thermo-nuclear weapons testing, and due to improved measurement accuracy for the extremely low natural tritium concentrations. Transit time of the water discharge is one of the most crucial parameters for understanding the response of catchments and estimating subsurface water volume. While many tritium transit time studies have been conducted in New Zealand, only a limited number of tritium studies have been conducted in Japan. In addition, the meteorological, orographic and geological conditions of Hokkaido Island are similar to those in parts of New Zealand, allowing for comparison between these regions. In 2014, three field trips were conducted in Hokkaido in June, July and October to sample river water at river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations have altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL and drainage areas between 45 and 377 km2. Each sampled point is located upstream of MLIT dams, with hourly measurements of precipitation and river water levels enabling us to distinguish between the snow melt and baseflow contributions

  8. Drought Assessment Using Tritium River Water Measurements for Existing Dam Infrastructure in the Ishikari River basin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusyev, M.; Morgenstern, U.; Stewart, M. K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kashiwaya, K.; Kuribayashi, D.; Sawano, H.; Iwami, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A proposed methodology is based on estimated groundwater volumes from tritium river water measurements in the Ishikari River basin of Hokkaido Island, Japan. In our drought assessment, we characterize a groundwater storage that is available and can be used for the water supply during prolonged droughts. For the groundwater storage estimation, we utilized tritium river water measurements obtained during baseflows to estimate water mean transit times (MTTs). Tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses in river water samples with MTTs times up to 200 years. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface. In Hokkaido, river water samples were collected in June, July and October 2014 at selected river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations record hourly water levels, have catchment areas between 45 and 377 km2 and are located upstream of MLIT dams at altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL. The measured tritium ranged between 4.065 TU (±0.07) and 5.290 TU (±0.09) with both lowest and highest tritium values analysed in June river samples at Tougeshita and Okukatsura stations, respectively. For the MTT estimation, we selected exponential(80%)-piston(20%) Lumped Parameter Model (LPM) with constructed tritium in Hokkaido precipitation and obtained a non-unique fit of young (1-11 years) and old (16-98 years) groundwater MTTs. This result indicates that the bomb-peak tritium is still present in Japanese groundwater and may take several years to flush out. From the MTTs and baseflow discharges, the calculated groundwater volume ranges between 13 MCM and 12500 MCM and indicates potentially available groundwater storage during prolonged droughts in the Hokkaido headwater catchments. In the future studies, the accuracy of the estimated groundwater volume can be increased by conducting another tritium sampling at

  9. WBN-1 Cycle 10 TPBAR Tritium Release, Deduced From Analysis of RCS Data TTP-1-3046-00, Rev 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Niehus, Mark T.; Love, Edward F.

    2012-02-19

    This document contains the calculation of the TPBAR tritium release from the Mark 9.2 design TPBARs irradiated in WBN cycle 10. The calculation utilizes the generalized cycle analysis methodology given in TTP-1-3045 Rev. 0.

  10. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, R. D.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Meenashisundaram, V.

    2012-04-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  11. Effluent metering and liquid gas ratio analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, L.M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Howell, K. [Intricate Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Industry Measurement Group (IMG) launched a 2 year initiative in 2007 focused on creating technically based regulations to improve the economics on low pressure, low liquid gas plays in western Canada. The IMG is the liaison between the petroleum industry and regulatory agencies in the development of industry accepted standards for measuring activities. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) supported the IMG's initiative, which led to a joint CAPP/IMG review of effluent metering applications and the associated testing requirements for gas wells in British Columbia and Alberta. The primary objectives of the joint CAPP/IMG review were to bring all parties together to form a common framework for effluent metering application and testing expectations, based on a risk and volumetric approach; and to support an economical approach to the continued development of unconventional gas resource plays in Alberta and British Columbia, with a focus on well-site infrastructure and operational cost optimization. This paper focused primarily on the well testing requirements and discussed the benefits of creating technically based, pragmatic regulations. Existing regulations were used to help the CAPP/IMG project team to develop a new practical and pragmatic regulatory framework and policy for effluent metering and well testing. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  12. Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, L D; Houk, V S; Hughes, T J

    1998-06-01

    In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly used genotoxicity assay has been the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Results with this system have shown that the genotoxic potency of industrial wastes can vary over 10 orders of magnitude, from virtually nondetectable to highly potent. Industries employing similar industrial processes generally release wastes of similar potency. Extremely high potency wastes include those from furazolidone and nitrofurfural production. Pulp and paper mills, steel foundries, and organic chemical manufacturing facilities also discharge wastes of noteworthy potency. Treatment and remediation of some wastes, such as pulp and paper mill effluents, have been shown to reduce or eliminate genotoxicity. However, in other cases, treatment and remediation have been shown to enhance genotoxicity, such as for fungal treatment of oils. Analyses of samples collected from areas known to receive industrial wastes and effluents have shown that genotoxins can accumulate in the receiving environment and have adverse effects on indigenous biota. The evaluation of hazardous wastes and effluents by genotoxicity assays may provide data useful not only for hazard identification but for comparative risk assessment.

  13. 2014 Accomplishments-Tritium aging studies on stainless steel: Fracture toughness properties of forged stainless steels-Effect of hydrogen, forging strain rate, and forging temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-02-01

    Forged stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. During service, tritium diffuses into the reservoir walls and radioactively decays to helium-3. Tritium and decay helium cause a higher propensity for cracking which could lead to a tritium leak or delayed failure of a tritium reservoir. The factors that affect the tendency for crack formation and propagation include: Environment; steel type and microstructure; and, vessel configuration (geometry, pressure, residual stress). Fracture toughness properties are needed for evaluating the long-term effects of tritium on their structural properties. Until now, these effects have been characterized by measuring the effects of tritium on the tensile and fracture toughness properties of specimens fabricated from experimental forgings in the form of forward-extruded cylinders. A key result of those studies is that the long-term cracking resistance of stainless steels in tritium service depends greatly on the interaction between decay helium and the steels’ forged microstructure. New experimental research programs are underway and are designed to measure tritium and decay helium effects on the cracking properties of stainless steels using actual tritium reservoir forgings instead of the experimental forgings of past programs. The properties measured should be more representative of actual reservoir properties because the microstructure of the specimens tested will be more like that of the tritium reservoirs. The programs are designed to measure the effects of key forging variables on tritium compatibility and include three stainless steels, multiple yield strengths, and four different forging processes. The effects on fracture toughness of hydrogen and crack orientation were measured for type 316L forgings. In addition, hydrogen effects on toughness were measured for Type 304L block forgings having two different yield strengths. Finally, fracture toughness properties of type 304L

  14. Monitoring of tritium purity during long-term circulation in the KATRIN test experiment LOOPINO using laser Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Sebastian; Schlösser, Magnus; Bornschein, Beate; Drexlin, Guido; Priester, Florian; Lewis, Richard J; Telle, Helmut H

    2012-01-01

    The gas circulation loop LOOPINO has been set up and commissioned at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) to perform Raman measurements of circulating tritium mixtures under conditions similar to the inner loop system of the neutrino-mass experiment KATRIN, which is currently under construction. A custom-made interface is used to connect the tritium containing measurement cell, located inside a glove box, with the Raman setup standing on the outside. A tritium sample (purity > 95%, 20 kPa total pressure) was circulated in LOOPINO for more than three weeks with a total throughput of 770 g of tritium. Compositional changes in the sample and the formation of tritiated and deuterated methanes CT_(4-n)X_n (X=H,D; n=0,1) were observed. Both effects are caused by hydrogen isotope exchange reactions and gas-wall interactions, due to tritium {\\beta} decay. A precision of 0.1% was achieved for the monitoring of the T_2 Q_1-branch, which fulfills the requirements for the KATRIN experiment and demonstrates the feasibility ...

  15. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON THE GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE OF EPDM ELASTOMER AND ON THE CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYANILINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E; Marie Kane, M

    2008-12-12

    Four formulations of EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) elastomer were exposed to tritium gas initially at one atmosphere and ambient temperature for between three and four months in closed containers. Material properties that were characterized include density, volume, mass, appearance, flexibility, and dynamic mechanical properties. The glass transition temperature was determined by analysis of the dynamic mechanical property data per ASTM standards. EPDM samples released significant amounts of gas when exposed to tritium, and the glass transition temperature increased by about 3 C. during the exposure. Effects of ultraviolet and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of polyaniline films are also documented as complementary results to planned tritium exposures. Future work will determine the effects of tritium gas exposure on the electrical conductivity of polyaniline films, to demonstrate whether such films can be used as a sensor to detect tritium. Surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma rays and ultraviolet light. The results of the gamma and UV experiments will be correlated with the tritium exposure results.

  16. Tritium Retention and Permeation in Ion- and Neutron-Irradiated Tungsten under US-Japan PHENIX Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masashi; Taylor, Chase N.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Buchenauer, Dean A.; Chikada, Takumi; Oya, Yasuhisa; Hatano, Yuji

    2015-11-01

    A critical challenge for long-term operation of ITER and beyond to a FNSF, a DEMO and future fusion reactor will be the development of plasma-facing components (PFCs) that demonstrate erosion resistance to intense heat and neutral/ion particle fluxes under the extreme fusion nuclear environment, while minimizing in-vessel inventories and ex-vessel permeation of tritium. Recent work at Tritium Plasma Experiment demonstrated that tritium diffuses in bulk tungsten at elevated temperatures, and can be trapped in radiation-induced trap site (up to 1 at. % T/W) in tungsten [M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. US-Japan PHENIX collaboration (2013-2019) investigates irradiation response on tritium behavior in tungsten, and performs one-of-a-kind neutron-irradiation with Gd thermal neutron shield at High Flux Isotope Reactor, ORNL. This presentation describes the challenge in elucidating tritium behavior in neutron-irradiated PFCs, the PHENIX plans for neutron-irradiation and post irradiation examination, and the recent findings on tritium retention and permeation in 14MeV neutron-irradiated and Fe ion irradiated tungsten. This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  17. Research and development of the tritium recovery system for the blanket of the fusion reactor in JAEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Y.; Isobe, K.; Iwai, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Nakamura, H.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T.

    2009-05-01

    A water-cooling solid breeder blanket is a prime candidate for the blanket of the fusion reactor in Japan. In this case, the blanket tritium recovery system will be composed of three processes: tritium recovery from helium sweep gas as hydrogen, that as water vapour and tritium recovery from coolant water. The authors have proposed a set of advanced systems. For tritium recovery as hydrogen, an electrochemical hydrogen pump with a ceramic proton conductor has been proposed. The correlation between the proton concentration in the ceramic and the hydrogen gas pressure has been investigated to describe the pumping performance specifically. A ceramic electrolysis cell has been proposed to process the tritiated water vapour. The authors have developed a new electrode containing cerium oxide, and it has shown fairly good electrolysis efficiency. For tritium recovery from coolant water, reduction in the processing water by tritium concentration is necessary. The authors have proposed to apply the fixed-bed adsorption process of synthetic zeolite, and have developed new zeolite. It showed unique characteristics for water adsorption and desorption. The authors have determined the potential of these systems for the blanket of the fusion DEMO reactor.

  18. Preliminary risks associated with postulated tritium release from production reactor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Horton, W.H.

    1988-09-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor operation is evaluating the offsite risk due to tritium releases during postulated full or partial loss of heavy water moderator accidents. Preliminary determination of the frequency of average partial moderator loss (including incidents with leaks as small as 0.5 kg) yields an estimate of --1 per reactor-year. The full moderator loss frequency is conservatively chosen as 5x10/sup -3/ per reactor-year. Conditional consequences, determined with a version of the MACCS code modified to handle tritium, are found to be insignificant. The 95th percentile individual cancer risk is 2x10/sup -8/ per reactor-year within 16 km of the release point. The full moderator loss accident contributes about 80% of the evaluated risks.

  19. Monte Carlo calculation of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, Chen; Shuming, Peng; Dan, Meng; Yuehong, He; Heyi, Wang

    2014-10-01

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements has been theoretically studied using Monte Carlo code MCNP 5. The influence of many factors, including carrier gas, chamber size, wall materials and gas pressure, has been evaluated in the simulations. It is found that β rays emitted by tritium deposit much more energy into chambers flowing through with argon than with deuterium in them, as much as 2.7 times higher at pressure 100 Pa. As chamber size gets smaller, energy deposition decreases sharply. For an ionization chamber of 1 mL, β rays deposit less than 1% of their energy at pressure 100 Pa and only 84% even if gas pressure is as high as 100 kPa. It also indicates that gold plated ionization chamber results in the highest deposition ratio while aluminum one leads to the lowest. In addition, simulations were validated by comparison with experimental data. Results show that simulations agree well with experimental data.

  20. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom (Savannah River National Labs, Aiken, SC)

    2012-01-01

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  1. Suppression of tritium retention in remote areas of ITER by nonperturbative reactive gas injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarés, F L; Ferreira, J A; Ramos, A; van Rooij, G; Westerhout, J; Al, R; Rapp, J; Drenik, A; Mozetic, M

    2010-10-22

    A technique based on reactive gas injection in the afterglow region of the divertor plasma is proposed for the suppression of tritium-carbon codeposits in remote areas of ITER when operated with carbon-based divertor targets. Experiments in a divertor simulator plasma device indicate that a 4  nm/min deposition can be suppressed by addition of 1  Pa·m³ s⁻¹ ammonia flow at 10 cm from the plasma. These results bolster the concept of nonperturbative scavenger injection for tritium inventory control in carbon-based fusion plasma devices, thus paving the way for ITER operation in the active phase under a carbon-dominated, plasma facing component background.

  2. Planned Operation of Tritium Recovery System Based on Investigation of LHD Exhaust System

    OpenAIRE

    ASAKURA, Yamato; Suzuki, Naoyuki

    2012-01-01

    o understand the conditions of exhaust gas treatment at the transition point between the Large Helical Device (LHD) vacuum pumping system and the exhaust gas tritium recovery system, the gas flow rate and hydrogen concentration were measured. Simultaneous measurement of the exhaust gas flow rate and hydrogen concentration was made possible by applying two types of hydrogen monitors: a thermal conductivity sensor and a combustible gas sensor. The obtained results have led to remodeling of the ...

  3. Teratogenic effect of fission neutron and tritium water on rat embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio; Hori, Hiroshi; Lee, Juing-Yi

    1989-03-01

    A single whole body irradiation of Cf-252 was given at various doses in pregnant rats on Day 8 or 9 of pregnancy. Cobalt-60 gamma-ray irradiation was given at the same dose rate (one rad/min) to another group of pregnant rats as controls. When modified straight lines were obtained for the frequency of anomalous fetuses in the total implants and of survived embryos exposed to Cf-252 of 20-120 rad or to Co-60 of 80-220 rad on Day 8 of pregnancy, relative biological effects (RBE) ranged from 2.3 to 2.7. Malformation types were similar in the Cf-252 group and the Co-60 group. Using fetal LD/sub 50/ as an index, RBE was 2.4 in rats irradiated on Day 8 of pregnancy and 3.1 in rats irradiated on Day 9. Teratogenic effects of tritium water (HTO) on rat embryos were also examined, and the results were compared with those of tritium simulator (Cs-137 gamma-rays). Six groups of pregnant rats were injected intraperitoneally with HTO, containing 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 mCi HTO/300 g body weight, on Day 9. Malformations were seen in 100% of the survived embryos and 81.3% of the total implants in the group given 100 mCi (accumulated doses of 451 rad) of HTO. Accumulated tritium simulator doses of 680 rad induced malformations in 98.4% of survived embryos and in 71.7% of the total implants. Both kinds of radiation induced similar anomalies of the cardiovascular system in rat embryos. A comparison of HTO and tritium simulator showed the teratogenic effect of RBE to be greater than 1.8 and to reach approximately 2.6. (Namekawa, K).

  4. Limits of a tritium battery based on charged particle collection (CPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalch, D.; Scharmann, A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a long-lived tritium powered battery using plane electrodes with an inorganic thin-film insulator is reported. The aim of our work was to show that in principle this type of battery can be realized by the use of improved deposition techniques. In addition, the limits of this conversion system were defined with respect to the actual level of thin-film technology.

  5. High efficiency 4H-SiC betavoltaic power sources using tritium radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Christopher; Portnoff, Samuel [Widetronix Corp., Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States); Spencer, M. G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Realization of an 18.6% efficient 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) large area betavoltaic power source using the radioisotope tritium is reported. A 200 nm 4H-SiC P{sup +}N junction is used to collect high-energy electrons. The electron source is a titanium tritide (TiH{sup 3}{sub x}) foil, or an integrated titanium tritide region formed by the diffusion of tritium into titanium. The specific activity of the source is directly measured. Dark current measured under short circuit conditions was less than 6.1 pA/cm{sup 2}. Samples measured with an external tritium foil produced an open circuit voltage of 2.09 V, short circuit current of 75.47 nA/cm{sup 2}, fill factor of 0.86, and power efficiency of 18.6%. Samples measured with an integrated source produced power efficiencies of 12%. Simulations were done to determine the beta spectrum (modified by self absorption) exiting the source and the electron hole pair generation function in the 4H-SiC. The electron-hole pair generation function in 4H-SiC was modeled as a Gaussian distribution, and a closed form solution of the continuity equation was used to analyze the cell performance. The effective surface recombination velocity in our samples was found to be 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6 }cm/s. Our analysis demonstrated that the surface recombination dominates the performance of a tritium betavoltaic device but that using a thin P{sup +}N junction structure can mitigate some of the negative effects.

  6. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Johnson, M.J.; Michel, R.L.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil-plant-atmosphere interactions strongly infl uence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but litile is known about how such interactions aff ect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantifi ed the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fl uxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fl uxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L-1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley-Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the diff erence between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 ??g d-1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 ?? 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium fl ux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  7. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Andraski, Brian J.; Johnson, Michael J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Michel, Robert L.; Cooper, C.A.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil–plant–atmosphere interactions strongly influence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but little is known about how such interactions affect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantified the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fluxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fluxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L−1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley–Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the difference between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 μg d−1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 × 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium flux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone.

  8. Separation and formation of ryanodine from dehydroryanodine. Preparation of tritium-labelled ryanodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutko, J.L.; Thompson, L.J.; Schlatterer, R.G. and others

    1986-02-01

    The commercially available preparation of the naturally occurring diterpene ester ryanodine contains several compounds in addition to ryanodine. These compounds were separated and purified using high performance liquid chromatography. The two major components, ryanodine and dehydroryanodine represented 90% of the material present. A method for the efficient reduction of dehydroryanodine to ryanodine was developed and used to produce ryanodine having tritium atoms at positions 19 and 20 and a specific activity of 60.8 Ci/mmole.

  9. Cellular responses to tritium exposure in rainbow trout: HTO- and OBT-spiked feed exposure experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festarini, A.; Shultz, C.; Stuart, M.; Kim, S.B., E-mail: amy.festarini@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Ferreri, C. [National Research Council of Italy, Dept. of Chemical Sciences and Materials Technologies, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Biological effects were evaluated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to tritiated water (HTO) or food spiked with organically bound tritium (OBT). An HTO exposure study was conducted using a tritium activity concentration of 7000 Bq/L, and an OBT exposure study was conducted using a tritium activity concentration of 30 000 Bq/L. Following 140 days of in vivo HTO exposure, liver, heart, spleen, kidney, and brain cells did not show statistically significant differences in viability; kidney, liver, and spleen cells did not show significant differences in DNA double-strand break repair activity compared with control cells. Membrane fatty acid composition analysis was conducted on liver cells and no effects of HTO exposure could be detected. Following 140 days of in vivo OBT exposure, viability and DNA double-strand break repair activity were not statistically different from controls in liver, heart, spleen, kidney, and brain cells. Changes, however, were noted in the fatty acid composition of liver and muscle tissues. For both studies, all measurements were performed on each tissue and on a fraction of the same tissue that was exposed to a gamma 4 Gy dose in vitro to test for adaptive responses, and no effects were observed except for fatty acid composition. The findings demonstrated that membrane fatty acid composition is a sensitive marker and that microscopic evaluation of gamma-H2AX foci is more sensitive than the flow cytometric approach. These studies are the first to correlate uptake and depuration with biological health indicators in edible fish for tritium exposures within worldwide drinking water guidelines. (author)

  10. Intercomparison run for uranium and tritium determination in urine samples, organised by Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Serdeiro, N H; Equillor, H E

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), Argentina, has carried out an intercomparison run for tritium and uranium determination in urine, in November 2002. The aim of this exercise was to assess the performance of the laboratories that usually inform these radionuclides and to provide technical support in order to have an appropriate occupational monitoring in vitro. In the present work, the results of the intercomparison and the assessment of each laboratory are published.

  11. SIRIUS-T: A study of a symmetrically illuminated inertial confinement fusion tritium production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, B.; Sviatoslavksy, I.N.; Bruggink, D.; Engelstad, R.L.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Larsen, E.M.; Lovell, E.G.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Mogahed, E.A.; Moses, G.A.; Moucha, A.; Peterson, R.R.; Powers, J.; Sawan, M.E.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1990-12-01

    The aging US tritium production reactors are slowly being phased out and the US Department of Energy has initiated a New Production Reactors Program'' which will provide for the design, construction and operation of new facilities for the production of tritium and other special nuclear materials. Preliminary requirements are currently being prepared, leading to construction and operation by the year 2000. Unfortunately, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) cannot possibly be ready to perform such a task on this short time scale. However, it is instructive to see how well it can do in producing tritium when ICF has been demonstrated and a comparison with the proposed production schemes is conducted here. SIRIUS-T is conceptual design study of a tritium production facility utilizing direct drive symmetrically illuminated inertial confinement fusion. The T'' designation distinguishes it from SIRIUS-M, a materials facility, and SIRIUS-C, a commercial power plant. As in any other fusion related design study, a certain amount of technical extrapolation has been made in SIRIUS-T. It should be said early on, however, that in areas of uncertainty, we have always taken the conservative approach. This is evident in our choice of target gain, number of beams selected for symmetric illumination and elsewhere throughout the study. In performing the economic analysis we have also attempted to err on the conservative side. This too is evident in our costing of the driver and the reactor chamber. For these reasons, we feel that this study projects enough confidence as to make it worthy of comparison with the other proposed production systems.

  12. Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Du, Liang [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Radiation Medicine and Protection (SRMP), School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Suzhou 215000 (China); Li, Weiyi [School of Physics and Chemistry, Xihua University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Tan, Zhaoyi, E-mail: zhyitan@126.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • This is the first theoretical investigation about T–H exchange in vacuum oil. • T–H isotope exchange is accomplished through two different change mechanisms. • Isotope exchange is selective, molecules with −OH and −COOH exchange more easily. • The methyl and methylene radicals in waste oil were observed by {sup 1}HNMR. - Abstract: The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium–hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T–H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation–dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation–dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T–H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with −OH and −COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T–H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T{sub 2} or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products.

  13. Teratogenic effects on tritiated water and tritium simulator on rat embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juing-Yi; Satow, Yukio

    1987-01-01

    Five groups of pregnant rats were injected intraperitoneally with HTO containing 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 mCi HTO/300 g b.w. on day 9 of gestation. To obtain accurate RBE values of HTO in rats, five groups of pregnant rats were exposed to Cs-137 ..gamma..-rays on days 9 - 18 of gestation at decreasing doses in accordance with body tritium concentration exponential decrease by tritium simulator. The rats were sacrificed on day 18 and the offspring were examined for external and visceral malformations (Sperm day = day 0). Teratogenicity and effects on fetal growth were dosage-dependent in both radiation groups. Thirteen (4.0 %) of the 327 survived embryos from control litters was grossly malformed. Malformations were seen at the highest incidence of 100 % of the survived embryos and 81.3 % of implanted ones in the group given 100 mCi (4.0 Gy) of HTO on day 9 of gestation. Growth retardation and generalized edema were observed in experimental embryos. By the tritium simulator accumulated doses of Cs-137 ..gamma..-rays irradiation at 6.8 Gy induced of 98.4 % malformation of survival embryos and 71.7 % of the implanted ones on day 9 of gestation. Both radiations (HTO and Cs-137 ..gamma..-rays) induced similar anomalies of the cardiovascular, respiratory and skeletal system in rat embryos. These included VSD, hypoplasia of the pulmonary trunk, right aortic arch, riding aorta, coarctation of the aorta, aberrant right subclavian artery, hypoplasia or incomplete of the lungs as well as limb and tail malformation. Only a number of embryos given HTO exhibited persistent atrioventricular canal and malformation of the eye. In the present study, comparisons between HTO and tritium similator showed the teratogenic effect of RBE to be greater than 1.8 and to reach approximately 2.6. It is proposed that RBE of HTO increased to over 3 in the low dose range. (J.P.N.).

  14. Production of {sup 4}He and tritium from Be in the COBRA-1A2 irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The production of {sup 4}He and tritium has been calculated for beryllium irradiated in the COBRA-1A2 experiment in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Reaction rates were based on adjusted neutron spectra determined from reactor dosimetry measurements at three different elevations in the region of the beryllium capsules. Equations are given so that gas production can be calculated for any specific capsule elevation.

  15. High-energy tritium beams as current drivers in tokamak reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Grisham, L.R.

    1983-04-01

    The effect on neutral-beam design and reactor performance of using high-energy (approx. 3-10 MeV) tritium neutral beams to drive steady-state tokamak reactors is considered. The lower current of such beams leads to several advantages over lower-energy neutral beams. The major disadvantage is the reduction of the reactor output caused by the lower current-drive efficiency of the high-energy beams.

  16. Phase 1 Testing Results of Immobilization of WTP Effluent Management Facility Evaporator Bottoms Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, Alex D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-05

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate, along with entrained, volatile, and semi-volatile metals, such as Hg, As, and Se. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate that get recycled to the melter and is a key objective of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of earlier tasks was to formulate and prepare a

  17. Cryogenic tritium-hydrogen-deuterium and deuterium-tritium layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meezan, N. B., E-mail: meezan1@llnl.gov; Hopkins, L. F. Berzak; Pape, S. Le; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); and others

    2015-06-15

    High Density Carbon (or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 × 10{sup 15} neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  18. Preliminary risks associated with postulated tritium release from production reactor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Horton, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor operation is assessing the off-site risk due to tritium releases during postulated full or partial loss of heavy water moderator accidents. Other sources of tritium in the reactor are less likely to contribute to off-site risk in non-fuel melting accident scenarios. Preliminary determination of the frequency of average partial moderator loss (including incidents with leaks as small as .5 kg) yields an estimate of /approximately/1 per reactor year. The full moderator loss frequency is conservatively chosen as 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/3/ per reactor year. Conditional consequences, determined with a version of the MACCS code modified to handle tritium, are found to be insignificant. The 95th percentile individual cancer risk is 4 /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/ per reactor year within 16 km of the release point. The full moderator loss accident contributes about 75% of the evaluated risks. 13 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Development of wet-proofed catalyst and catalytic exchange process for tritium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Chung, Yang Gun; Lee, Gab Bock [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    To apply a liquid phase catalytic exchange(LPCE) process for the tritium extraction from tritiated heavy water, the wet proofed catalyst to allow the hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction between liquid water and hydrogen gas was developed. A styrene divinyl benzene copolymer was selected as am effective catalyst support and prepared by suspension copolymerization. After post-treatment, final catalyst supports were dipped in chloroplatinic acid solution. The catalyst support had a good physical properties at a particular preparation condition. The catalytic performance was successfully verified through hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction in the exchange column. A mathematical model for the tritium removal process consisted of LPCE front-ended process and cryogenic distillation process was established using the NTU-HTU method for LPCE column and the FUG method for cryogenic distillation column, respectively. A computer program was developed using the model and then used to investigate optimum design variables which affect the size of columns and tritium inventory (author). 84 refs., 113 figs.

  20. Relative biological effectiveness of tritium for induction of myeloid leukemia in CBA/H mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R; Myers, D K; Jackson, J S; Dunford, D W; Gragtmans, N J; Wyatt, H M; Jones, A R; Percy, D H

    1995-10-01

    To help resolve uncertainties as to the most appropriate weighting factor for tritium beta rays, a large experiment was carried out to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water compared to X rays for the induction of myeloid leukemia in male mice of the CBA/H strain. The study was designed to estimate the lifetime incidence of myeloid leukemia in seven groups of about 750 mice each; radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2 and 3 Gy both for tritiated water and for X rays. The lifetime incidence of leukemia in these mice increased from 0.13% in the control group to 6-8% in groups exposed to higher radiation doses. The results were fitted to various equations relating leukemia incidence to radiation dose, using both the raw data and data corrected for cumulative mouse-days at risk. The calculated RBE values for tritium beta rays compared to X rays ranged from 1.0 +/- 0.5 to 1.3 +/- 0.3. A best estimate of the RBE for this experiment was about 1.2 +/- 0.3. A wR value of 1 would thus appear to be more appropriate than a wR of 2 for tritium beta rays.