WorldWideScience

Sample records for aqueous droplet evaporation

  1. Water Evaporation from Acoustically Levitated Aqueous Solution Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Nicole A; Donaldson, D James

    2017-09-28

    We present a systematic study of the effect of solutes on the evaporation rate of acoustically levitated aqueous solution droplets by suspending individual droplets in a zero-relative humidity environment and measuring their size as a function of time. The ratios of the early time evaporation rates of six simple salts (NaCl, NaBr, NaNO 3 , KCl, MgCl 2 , CaCl 2 ) and malonic acid to that of water are in excellent agreement with predictions made by modifying the Maxwell equation to include the time-dependent water activity of the evaporating aqueous salt solution droplets. However, the early time evaporation rates of three ammonium salt solutions (NH 4 Cl, NH 4 NO 3 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) are not significantly different from the evaporation rate of pure water. This finding is in accord with a previous report that ammonium sulfate does not depress the evaporation rate of its solutions, despite reducing its water vapor pressure, perhaps due to specific surface effects. At longer evaporation times, as the droplets approach crystallization, all but one (MgCl 2 ) of the solution evaporation rates are well described by the modified Maxwell equation.

  2. Experimental study of geometrical characteristics of distilled water and aqueous ethanol solution droplets evaporating on aluminum surface

    OpenAIRE

    Islamova Anastasiya; Orlova Evgeniya; Zykov Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Change of geometrical characteristics of distilled water and aqueous ethanol solution droplets was studied under their evaporation on aluminum surface. According to change in the contact diameter three evaporation modes of distilled water droplet on polished aluminum surface were detected: increase in the contact area, pinning of a droplet (constant contact area), and droplet depinning (decrease in the contact diameter). During evaporation of aqueous ethanol solution droplets, two evaporation...

  3. Volatility of organic aerosol: evaporation of ammonium sulfate/succinic acid aqueous solution droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Juuti, Taina; Zardini, Alessandro A; Eriksson, Axel C; Hansen, Anne Maria K; Pagels, Joakim H; Swietlicki, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Glasius, Marianne; Worsnop, Douglas R; Riipinen, Ilona; Bilde, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol.

  4. Volatility of Organic Aerosol: Evaporation of Ammonium Sulfate/Succinic Acid Aqueous Solution Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol. PMID:24107221

  5. Surface-induced patterns from evaporating droplets of aqueous carbon nanotube dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Hongbo

    2011-06-07

    Evaporation of aqueous droplets of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with a physisorbed layer of humic acid (HA) on a partially hydrophilic substrate induces the formation of a film of CNTs. Here, we investigate the role that the global geometry of the substrate surfaces has on the structure of the CNT film. On a flat mica or silica surface, the evaporation of a convex droplet of the CNT dispersion induces the well-known "coffee ring", while evaporation of a concave droplet (capillary meniscus) of the CNT dispersion in a wedge of two planar mica sheets or between two crossed-cylinder sheets induces a large area (>mm 2) of textured or patterned films characterized by different short- and long-range orientational and positional ordering of the CNTs. The resulting patterns appear to be determined by two competing or cooperative sedimentation mechanisms: (1) capillary forces between CNTs giving micrometer-sized filaments parallel to the boundary line of the evaporating droplet and (2) fingering instability at the boundary line of the evaporating droplet and subsequent pinning of CNTs on the surface giving micrometer-sized filaments of CNTs perpendicular to this boundary line. The interplay between substrate surface geometry and sedimentation mechanisms gives an extra control parameter for manipulating patterns of self-assembling nanoparticles at substrate surfaces. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Evaporation of sessile droplets of dilute aqueous solutions containing sodium n-alkylates from polymer surfaces: influences of alkyl length and concentration of solute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ahn, Sung Il; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jong Soo; Cho, Kilwon; Jung, Jin Chul; Chang, Taihyun; Ree, Moonhor; Zin, Wang-Cheol

    2008-10-21

    The evaporation of sessile droplets placed on polymer surfaces was studied by microscopic observation of the changes in shape of aqueous solution droplets in which the alkyl lengths and the initial concentrations of sodium n-alkylates were varied. Although the initial contact angles of the droplets were not significantly different, the evaporation process varied significantly with the alkyl length of the sodium n-alkylate employed. For the sodium dodecanoate (C 12), showing the highest surface activity, the concentration was found to have a significant effect on the evaporation process of the droplets. In the evaporation of water droplets, variations in the three distinct stages were caused by the different concentration of solutes distributed near or at the air/water interface. It is revealed that the concentration of droplet solute near the air/water interface requires not only solvent evaporation but also some affinity of the solute for the interface. The initial C 12 concentration-dependence of the evaporation of C 12 solution droplets is discussed with particular emphasis on the sudden spreading or sudden contraction of the contact area near the end of evaporation. It is suggested that the cluster formation by C 12 molecules at the air/liquid interface during the evaporation causes Marangoni instability in an evaporating droplet, and the clusters are expected to move dynamically, depending on the droplet concentration of C 12, from the droplet center to the contact line and vice versa, showing Marangoni flow along the air/water interface.

  7. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642

  8. Evaporation and boiling crisis of droplets alcohol solution

    OpenAIRE

    Misyura S.Y.; Morozov V.S.

    2017-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling crisis of droplets ethanol aqueous solution were studied experimentally. The evaporation intensity depends on the nucleate boiling, solution diffusion, a change in physical characteristics with time and droplet interfacial surface area. At nucleate boiling in a droplet, most evaporation relates to a growth in the droplet surface area and only 20 % relates to the diffusion effect and a variation in the thermophysical coefficients. At boiling crisis, experimental depende...

  9. New models for droplet heating and evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Sazhin, Sergei S.

    2013-02-01

    A brief summary of new models for droplet heating and evaporation, developed mainly at the Sir Harry Ricardo Laboratory of the University of Brighton during 2011-2012, is presented. These are hydrodynamic models for mono-component droplet heating and evaporation, taking into account the effects of the moving boundary due to evaporation, hydrodynamic models of multi-component droplet heating and evaporation, taking and not taking into account the effects of the moving boundary, new kinetic models of mono-component droplet heating and evaporation, and a model for mono-component droplet evaporation, based on molecular dynamics simulation. The results, predicted by the new models are compared with experimental data and the prehctions of the previously developed models where possible. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

  10. Evaporation and boiling crisis of droplets alcohol solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misyura S.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation and boiling crisis of droplets ethanol aqueous solution were studied experimentally. The evaporation intensity depends on the nucleate boiling, solution diffusion, a change in physical characteristics with time and droplet interfacial surface area. At nucleate boiling in a droplet, most evaporation relates to a growth in the droplet surface area and only 20 % relates to the diffusion effect and a variation in the thermophysical coefficients. At boiling crisis, experimental dependence for vapor layer height on overheating was observed. At Leidenfrost temperature, the height of the vapor layer was many times higher than the surface microroughness value of the wall. There are oscillates of liquid-vapor interface, and this increases the transitional temperature range associated with a boiling crisis of droplets.

  11. Spheroid droplets evaporation of water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misyura S.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Droplet film boiling on a horizontal heating surface was studied experimentally. The heat transfer coefficient of droplet water solution in the spheroidal state decreases with a rise of wall overheating and spheroid diameter. Evaporation of small spheroid (diameter d 20 mm. At the evaporation of large spheroids a spheroid shape changes in time that significantly affect coefficients of generalizing curves that use dimensionless numbers.

  12. Snap evaporation of droplets on smooth topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary G; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Le Lirzin, Youen; Nourry, Anthony; Orme, Bethany V; Pradas, Marc; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2018-04-11

    Droplet evaporation on solid surfaces is important in many applications including printing, micro-patterning and cooling. While seemingly simple, the configuration of evaporating droplets on solids is difficult to predict and control. This is because evaporation typically proceeds as a "stick-slip" sequence-a combination of pinning and de-pinning events dominated by static friction or "pinning", caused by microscopic surface roughness. Here we show how smooth, pinning-free, solid surfaces of non-planar topography promote a different process called snap evaporation. During snap evaporation a droplet follows a reproducible sequence of configurations, consisting of a quasi-static phase-change controlled by mass diffusion interrupted by out-of-equilibrium snaps. Snaps are triggered by bifurcations of the equilibrium droplet shape mediated by the underlying non-planar solid. Because the evolution of droplets during snap evaporation is controlled by a smooth topography, and not by surface roughness, our ideas can inspire programmable surfaces that manage liquids in heat- and mass-transfer applications.

  13. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of droplet evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2014-09-04

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. We study the utility and validity of lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations to explore droplet evaporation driven by a concentration gradient. Using a binary-fluid lattice-Boltzmann algorithm based on Cahn-Hilliard dynamics, we study the evaporation of planar films and 3D sessile droplets from smooth solid surfaces. Our results show that LB simulations accurately reproduce the classical regime of quasi-static dynamics. Beyond this limit, we show that the algorithm can be used to explore regimes where the evaporative and diffusive timescales are not widely separated, and to include the effect of boundaries of prescribed driving concentration. We illustrate the method by considering the evaporation of a droplet from a solid surface that is chemically patterned with hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. This journal is

  14. Crystallization of urea from an evaporative aqueous solution sessile droplet at sub-boiling temperatures and surfaces with different wettability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, J.; Zarikos, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413577473; Terzis, A.; Roth, N.; Weigand, B.

    The injection of urea-water-solution sprays in the exhaust pipe of modern diesel engines eliminates NOx emissions in a very great extent. However, as water evaporates from the solution, urea is crystallized and causes walldeposit formations hindering the performance of selective-catalytic-reaction.

  15. Evaporation of nanofluid droplets on hydrophilic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Hwan; Lee, Seong Hyuk

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the evaporation characteristics and wetting dynamics of nanofluid droplets on hydrophilic surfaces. The evaporation processes of Al 2 O 3 nanofluid droplets are visualized for different liquid volumes and particle concentrations, and the in-situ measured total evaporation time, contact radius, and contact angle are presented by using a digital image analysis technique. In addition, the measurements are compared with the theoretical estimation of total evaporation time and the edge shrinking velocities are measured for examining the formation of nanoparticles strains. It is found that the measured initial contact angles decreases as the volume fraction of nanofluid increases, resulting in the decrease in the center-height of droplet, and the total evaporation time decreases with increase in the volume fraction of nanofluid. In particular, the rapid increase in the droplet edge shrinking velocity near a last stage of evaporation can be observed, and it would affect some inward movement of nanoparticles suspended in a base fluid.

  16. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahidzadeh, N.; Schut, M.F.L.; Desarnaud, J.; Prat, M.; Bonn, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls, but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, deicing of

  17. Diffusion and evaporation of a liquid droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, K. N.

    1980-06-01

    The process of evaporation and diffusion of a spherical liquid droplet in an atmosphere of noncondensable gas is studied theoretically. An equation for the shrinkage of the radius of the droplet is derived on the basis of continuity and momentum equations. Further, a conjugate problem consisting of the energy and mass balance for the gaseous environment is formulated. An approximation of thin thermal and diffusion boundary-layers is introduced to simplify the analysis. Results are presented for methanol-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, and sodium-argon systems. It has been observed that the droplet of highly viscous fluid exhibits rapid contraction.

  18. Water droplet evaporation from sticky superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonchan; Kim, Wuseok; Lee, Sanghee; Baek, Seunghyeon; Yong, Kijung; Jeon, Sangmin

    2017-07-01

    The evaporation dynamics of water from sticky superhydrophobic surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microresonator and an optical microscope. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) layers with different pore sizes were directly fabricated onto quartz crystal substrates and hydrophobized via chemical modification. The resulting AAO layers exhibited hydrophobic or superhydrophobic characteristics with strong adhesion to water due to the presence of sealed air pockets inside the nanopores. After placing a water droplet on the AAO membranes, variations in the resonance frequency and Q-factor were measured throughout the evaporation process, which were related to changes in mass and viscous damping, respectively. It was found that droplet evaporation from a sticky superhydrophobic surface followed a constant contact radius (CCR) mode in the early stage of evaporation and a combination of CCR and constant contact angle modes without a Cassie-Wenzel transition in the final stage. Furthermore, AAO membranes with larger pore sizes exhibited longer evaporation times, which were attributed to evaporative cooling at the droplet interface.

  19. An evaporation model of colloidal suspension droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Silvana; Li\\ Nán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2009-11-01

    Colloidal suspensions of polymers in water or other solvents are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to coat tablets with different agents. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or physical appearance. The coating is performed by simultaneously spraying and drying the tablets with the colloidal suspension at moderately high temperatures. The spreading of the coating on the pills surface depends on the droplet Webber and Reynolds numbers, angle of impact, but more importantly on the rheological properties of the drop. We present a model for the evaporation of a colloidal suspension droplet in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the carrier fluid. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface, a compacting front advances into the droplet faster than the liquid surface regresses, forming a shell of a porous medium where the particles reach their maximum packing density. While the surface regresses, the evaporation rate is determined by both the rate at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and the rate at which liquid vapor is diffused away from it. This regime continues until the compacting front reaches the center of the droplet, at which point the evaporation rate is drastically reduced.

  20. Droplet evaporation on a soluble substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailleur, Alexandra; Pirat, Christophe; Colombani, Jean; CNES Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Stains left by evaporated droplets are ubiquitous in everyday life as well as in industrial processes. Whatever the composition of the evaporating liquid (colloidal suspensions, biological fluids...), the stains are mostly constituted by a deposit at the periphery of the dried drop, similar to a coffee stain (Deegan, 1997). All these studies have been carried with non-reacting solids. In this presentation, we focus on the behavior of a pure-water droplet evaporating on a soluble substrate which is more complex, since three phenomena are strongly interacting: the dissolution of the substrate, the diffusion/convection of the dissolved species into the drop and the evaporation of the liquid. NaCl and KCl single crystals have been chosen for this experimental study as they are fast-dissolving solids. We have observed that the dissolution induces a pinning of the triple line from the beginning of the evaporation, leading to a decrease of the contact angle in time. At the end of the evaporation, a peripheral deposit is always formed, proof of an outward flow inside the drop (coffee-ring effect). The authors would like to thank the CNES for the financial support.

  1. Decreasing luminescence lifetime of evaporating phosphorescent droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, D. D.; Dam, N. J.; Sweep, A. M.; Kunnen, R. P. J.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; Clercx, H. J. H.; van de Water, W.

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced phosphorescence has been used extensively to study spray dynamics. It is important to understand the influence of droplet evaporation in the interpretation of such measurements, as it increases luminescence quenching. By suspending a single evaporating n-heptane droplet in an acoustic levitator, the properties of lanthanide-complex europium-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-trioctylphosphine oxide (Eu-TTA-TOPO) phosphorescence are determined through high-speed imaging. A decrease was found in the measured phosphorescence decay coefficient (780 → 200 μs) with decreasing droplet volumes (10-9 → 10-11 m3) corresponding to increasing concentrations (10-4 → 10-2 M). This decrease continues up to the point of shell-formation at supersaturated concentrations. The diminished luminescence is shown not to be attributable to triplet-triplet annihilation, quenching between excited triplet-state molecules. Instead, the pure exponential decays found in the measurements show that a non-phosphorescent quencher, such as free TTA/TOPO, can be attributable to this decay. The concentration dependence of the phosphorescence lifetime can therefore be used as a diagnostic of evaporation in sprays.

  2. Modeling Evaporation and Particle Assembly in Colloidal Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingfei; Yong, Xin

    2017-06-13

    Evaporation-induced assembly of nanoparticles in a drying droplet is of great importance in many engineering applications, including printing, coating, and thin film processing. The investigation of particle dynamics in evaporating droplets can provide fundamental hydrodynamic insight for revealing the processing-structure relationship in the particle self-organization induced by solvent evaporation. We develop a free-energy-based multiphase lattice Boltzmann method coupled with Brownian dynamics to simulate evaporating colloidal droplets on solid substrates with specified wetting properties. The influence of interface-bound nanoparticles on the surface tension and evaporation of a flat liquid-vapor interface is first quantified. The results indicate that the particles at the interface reduce surface tension and enhance evaporation flux. For evaporating particle-covered droplets on substrates with different wetting properties, we characterize the increase of evaporate rate via measuring droplet volume. We find that droplet evaporation is determined by the number density and circumferential distribution of interfacial particles. We further correlate particle dynamics and assembly to the evaporation-induced convection in the bulk and on the surface of droplet. Finally, we observe distinct final deposits from evaporating colloidal droplets with bulk-dispersed and interface-bound particles. In addition, the deposit pattern is also influenced by the equilibrium contact angle of droplet.

  3. The Evaporation of Liquid Droplets in Highly Turbulent Gas Streams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Single acetone and heptane droplets were suspended from a hypodermic needle in turbulent airflow, and the Nusselt number was obtained from direct measurements of the droplet diameter and evaporation rate...

  4. Prediction of water droplet evaporation on zircaloy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Young; In, Wang Kee

    2014-01-01

    In the present experimental study, the prediction of water droplet evaporation on a zircaloy surface was investigated using various initial droplet sizes. To the best of our knowledge, this may be the first valuable effort for understanding the details of water droplet evaporation on a zircaloy surface. The initial contact diameters of the water droplets tested ranged from 1.76 to 3.41 mm. The behavior (i.e., time-dependent droplet volume, contact angle, droplet height, and contact diameter) and mode-transition time of the water droplet evaporation were strongly influenced by the initial droplet size. Using the normalized contact angle (θ*) and contact diameter (d*), the transitions between evaporation modes were successfully expressed by a single curve, and their criteria were proposed. To predict the temporal droplet volume change and evaporation rate, the range of θ* > 0.25 and d* > 0.9, which mostly covered the whole evaporation period and the initial contact diameter remained almost constant during evaporation, was targeted. In this range, the previous contact angle functions for the evaporation model underpredicted the experimental data. A new contact angle function of a zircaloy surface was empirically proposed, which represented the present experimental data within a reasonable degree of accuracy. (author)

  5. Universal evaporation dynamics of a confined sessile droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Hatte, Sandeep; Basu, Saptarshi; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-09-01

    Droplet evaporation under confinement is ubiquitous to multitude of applications such as microfluidics, surface patterning, and ink-jet printing. However, the rich physics governing the universality in the underlying dynamics remains grossly elusive. Here, we bring out hitherto unexplored universal features of the evaporation dynamics of a sessile droplet entrapped in a 3D confined fluidic environment. We show, through extensive set of experiments and theoretical formulations, that the evaporation timescale for such a droplet can be represented by a unique function of the initial conditions. Moreover, using same theoretical considerations, we are able to trace and universally merge the volume evolution history of the droplets along with evaporation lifetimes, irrespective of the extent of confinement. We also showcase the internal flow transitions caused by spatio-temporal variation of evaporation flux due to confinement. These findings may be of profound importance in designing functionalized droplet evaporation devices for emerging engineering and biomedical applications.

  6. Droplet evaporation dynamics on a superhydrophobic surface with negligible hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Susmita; Garimella, Suresh V

    2013-08-27

    We report on experiments of droplet evaporation on a structured superhydrophobic surface that displays very high contact angle (CA ∼ 160 deg), and negligible contact angle hysteresis (evaporation is observed to occur in a constant-contact-angle mode, with contact radius shrinking for almost the entire duration of evaporation. Experiments conducted on Teflon-coated smooth surface (CA ∼ 120 deg) as a baseline also support an evaporation process that is dominated by a constant-contact-angle mode. The experimental results are compared with an isothermal diffusion model for droplet evaporation from the literature. Good agreement is observed for the Teflon-coated smooth surface between the analytical expression and experimental results in terms of the total time for evaporation, transient volume, contact angle, and contact radius. However, for the structured superhydrophobic surface, the experiments indicate that the time taken for complete evaporation of the droplet is greater than the predicted time, across all droplet volumes. This disparity is attributed primarily to the evaporative cooling at the droplet interface due to the high aspect ratio of the droplet and also the lower effective thermal conductivity of the substrate due to the presence of air gaps. This hypothesis is verified by numerically evaluating the temperature distribution along the droplet interface. We propose a generalized relation for predicting the instantaneous volume of droplets with initial CA > 90 deg, irrespective of the mode of evaporation.

  7. Numerical simulation of droplet evaporation between two circular plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bam, Hang Jin; Son, Gi Hun

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulation is performed for droplet evaporation between two circular plates. The flow and thermal characteristics of the droplet evaporation are numerically investigated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and mass fraction in the liquid and gas phases. The liquid-gas interface is tracked by a sharp-interface level-set method which is modified to include the effects of evaporation at the liquid-gas interface and contact angle hysteresis at the liquid-gas-solid contact line. An analytical model to predict the droplet evaporation is also developed by simplifying the mass and vapor fraction equations in the gas phase. The numerical results demonstrate that the 1-D analytical prediction is not applicable to the high rate evaporation process. The effects of plate gap and receding contact angle on the droplet evaporation are also quantified.

  8. A new stationary droplet evaporation model and its validation

    OpenAIRE

    Fang WANG; Jie YAO; Shaofeng YANG; Rui LIU; Jie JIN

    2017-01-01

    The liquid droplet evaporation character is important for not only combustion chamber design process but also high-accuracy spray combustion simulation. In this paper, the suspended droplets’ evaporation character was measured in a quiescent high-temperature environment by micro high-speed camera system. The gasoline and kerosene experimental results are consistent with the reference data. Methanol, common kerosene and aviation kerosene droplet evaporation characteristics, as well as their ev...

  9. A new stationary droplet evaporation model and its validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang WANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The liquid droplet evaporation character is important for not only combustion chamber design process but also high-accuracy spray combustion simulation. In this paper, the suspended droplets’ evaporation character was measured in a quiescent high-temperature environment by micro high-speed camera system. The gasoline and kerosene experimental results are consistent with the reference data. Methanol, common kerosene and aviation kerosene droplet evaporation characteristics, as well as their evaporation rate changing with temperature, were obtained. The evaporation rate experimental data were compared with the prediction result of Ranz-Marshall boiling temperature model (RMB, Ranz-Marshall low-temperature model (RML, drift flux model (DFM, mass analogy model (MAM, and stagnant film model (SFM. The disparity between the experimental data and the model prediction results was mainly caused by the neglect of the natural convection effect, which was never introduced into the droplet evaporation concept. A new droplet evaporation model with consideration of natural convection buoyancy force effect was proposed in this paper. Under the experimental conditions in this paper, the calculation results of the new droplet evaporation model were agreed with the experimental data for kerosene, methanol and other fuels, with less than 20% relative deviations. The relative deviations between the new evaporation model predictions for kerosene and the experimental data from the references were within 10%.

  10. Monitoring sessile droplet evaporation on a micromechanical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A; Lin, A T-H; Rao, V R; Seshia, A A

    2014-11-07

    A bulk acoustic mode micro-electro-mechanical dual resonator platform is utilised to study the evaporation of sub-microliter water droplets from the surface of the resonator. An analytical formulation for the observed frequency shift and the measure dependence of resonant frequency on the modes of evaporation which is consistent with the optically derived data. The resonators access only a thin layer of the liquid through shear contact and, hence, the response is not affected by the bulk mass of the droplet to first order. A relationship between the droplet contact area and the elapsed time was established for the evaporation process and is used to derive a value of the diffusion coefficient of water in air that is found to be in reasonable agreement with literature values. This work introduces a new tool for the electro-mechanical monitoring of droplet evaporation with relevance to applications such as biosensing in liquid samples of sub-microliter volumes.

  11. Running droplets of gallium from evaporation of gallium arsenide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersoff, J; Jesson, D E; Tang, W X

    2009-04-10

    High-temperature annealing of gallium arsenide in vacuum causes excess evaporation of arsenic, with accumulation of gallium as liquid droplets on the surface. Using real-time in situ surface electron microscopy, we found that these droplets spontaneously run across the crystal surface. Running droplets have been seen in many systems, but they typically require special surface preparation or gradient forces. In contrast, we show that noncongruent evaporation automatically provides a driving force for running droplets. The motion is predicted and observed to slow and stop near a characteristic temperature, with the speed increasing both below and above this temperature. The same behavior is expected to occur during the evaporation of similar III-V semiconductors such as indium arsenide.

  12. Assembly of open clusters of colloidal dumbbells via droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham Van, Hai; Fortini, Andrea; Schmidt, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the behavior of a mixture of asymmetric colloidal dumbbells and emulsion droplets by means of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The evaporation of the droplets and the competition between droplet-colloid attraction and colloid-colloid interactions lead to the formation of clusters built up of colloid aggregates with both closed and open structures. We find that stable packings and hence complex colloidal structures can be obtained by changing the relative size of the colloidal spheres and/or their interfacial tension with the droplets.

  13. Expressions for the evaporation of sessile liquid droplets incorporating the evaporative cooling effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilin; Ma, Liran; Xu, Xuefeng; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-12-15

    The evaporation along the surface of pinned, sessile droplets is investigated numerically by using the combined field approach. In the present model, the evaporative cooling at the droplet surface which leads to a reduction in the evaporation is taken into account. Simple, yet accurate analytical expressions for the local evaporation flux and for the total evaporation rate of sessile droplets are obtained. The theoretical analyses indicate that the reduction in the evaporation becomes more pronounced as the evaporative cooling number Ec increases. The results also reveal that the variation of total evaporation rate with contact angle will change its trend as the intensity of the evaporative cooling changes. For small values of Ec, the total evaporation rate increases with the contact angle, the same as predicted by Deegan et al. and by Hu and Larson in their isothermal models in which the evaporative cooling is neglected. Contrarily, when the evaporative cooling effect is strong enough, the total evaporation rate will decrease as the contact angle increases. The present theory is corroborated experimentally, and found in good agreement with the expressions proposed by Hu and Larson in the limiting isothermal case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A study on particle deposition of an evaporating colloidal droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Sang Kwon; Lee, Jung Yong [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    The presented study aims to investigate the colloidal droplet deposition caused by evaporation of the liquid. In the numerical analysis, the evaporation is carried out by using different evaporation function intended to obtain different shape of solute deposition. In the experiment, the colloidal droplets of different solvents are placed on a glass plate and the surface profiles are measured after drying the solvents of the droplets to investigate the effect of the solvent evaporation on the final deposition profile. Comparing the surface profiles obtained under different conditions, the optimum drying conditions of colloidal droplets are determined to obtain uniform surface profiles. The numerical results showed that ring-shaped deposition of solute was formed at the edge of the droplet due to the coffee stain effect and the height of the ring was reduced at the lower evaporation rate. The experiments showed that the boiling point of a solvent was critical to the surface uniformity of the deposition profile and the mixture of solvents with different boiling points influenced the uniformity as well.

  15. Ionic solubility and solutal advection governed augmented evaporation kinetics of salt solution pendant droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Vivek; Harikrishnan, A. R.; Khurana, Gargi; Dhar, Purbarun

    2018-01-01

    The presence of dispersed inclusions is known to modify the interfacial characteristics in liquids by adsorption-desorption of the ions at interfaces. The present article reports the influencing role of dissolved ions in a polar fluid on its evaporation dynamics. The evaporation dynamics of pendant droplets of aqueous solutions of variant simple salts and concentrations have been experimentally studied. The presence of salts is observed to enhance the evaporation rate (obeying the classical D2 law), and the enhancement has been found to hold a direct proportionality to the concentration of the dissolved salt. Furthermore, it is observed that the degree of enhancement in the evaporation rate is also directly proportional to the solubility of the salt in question. The phenomenon is explained based on the chemical kinetics and thermodynamics of hydration of the ionic species in the polar fluid. The classical evaporation rate constant formulation is found to be inadequate in modeling the enhanced species transport. Additional probing via particle image velocimetry reveals augmented internal circulation within the evaporating salt based drops compared to pure water. Mapping the dynamic surface tension reveals that a salt concentration gradient is generated between the bulk and periphery of the droplet and it could be responsible for the internal advection cells visualized. A thermo-solutal Marangoni and Rayleigh convection based mathematical formulation has been put forward, and it is shown that the enhanced solute-thermal convection could play a major role in enhanced evaporation. The internal circulation mapped from experiments is found to be in good quantitative agreement with the model predictions. Scaling analysis further reveals that the stability of the solutal Marangoni convection surpasses the thermal counterpart with higher salt concentration and solubility. The present article sheds insight into the possible domineering role of conjugate thermohydraulic and

  16. Thermodynamic Behaviors of Macroscopic Liquid Droplets Evaporation from Heated Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Evaporation of a macroscopic-scale sessile droplet on different hot isothermal substrates has been experimentally investigated, for the framework of planning space experiments onboard Chinese recoverable satellite to explore the interface effect, heat and mass transfer during the phase transition process. Undoubtedly, the evaporation phenomenon of a sessile drop on heated substrates is a complex problem which involves the behavior of triple line, heat transfer with thermal conduction and convection, mass transfer into the vapor phase. Therefore, preparations from scientific view have been carried out to validate setup of the space experiment modes. Based on the experiments performed in the terrestrial gravity, we found that the evolution of a water droplet could be separated into three stages, began with the constant contact area, then switched to the depin stage and ended up with the flushing stage. The average evaporation rate was measured and the thermal effects of different substrates were studied. Results revealed a linear variation of contact diameter with its average evaporation rate, which has the similar tendency with small drops. The varieties of the heat flux density during evaporating showed that droplet absorbed energy from the heated substrate, then with the help of the internal flow of thermocaplliry and buoyant convection, heat was transported to the liquid-vapor interface providing the energy for evaporation.

  17. Multicomponent Droplet Evaporation on Chemical Micro-Patterned Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Minghao; Liao, Dong; Qiu, Huihe

    2017-01-01

    The evaporation and dynamics of a multicomponent droplet on a heated chemical patterned surface were presented. Comparing to the evaporation process of a multicomponent droplet on a homogenous surface, it is found that the chemical patterned surface can not only enhance evaporation by elongating the contact line, but also change the evaporation process from three regimes for the homogenous surface including constant contact line (CCL) regime, constant contact angle (CCA) regime and mix mode (MM) to two regimes, i.e. constant contact line (CCL) and moving contact line (MCL) regimes. The mechanism of contact line stepwise movement in MCL regimes in the microscopic range is investigated in detail. In addition, an improved local force model on the contact line was employed for analyzing the critical receding contact angles on homogenous and patterned surfaces. The analysis results agree well for both surfaces, and confirm that the transition from CCL to MCL regimes indicated droplet composition changes from multicomponent to monocomponent, providing an important metric to predict and control the dynamic behavior and composition of a multicomponent droplet using a patterned surface. PMID:28157229

  18. Evaporation Dynamics of Mixed-Nanocolloidal Sessile Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Binita; Hatte, Sandeep; Basu, Saptarshi

    2017-12-12

    Evaporation dynamics of a particle-laden droplet has been a topic of interest in recent times owing to its widespread applications, ranging from surface patterning to drug delivery systems. The interplay of evaporation-induced internal flow dynamics, contact line dynamics, and nanoparticle self-assembly govern the morphologies of the residual structures. Fine-tuning of these residual structures is thus possible by controlling the governing parameters. A nanoparticle-laden sessile droplet placed on a hydrophobic substrate undergoes buckling phenomenon that results in a domelike structure with cavity on the surface. In the present work, it is shown that the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant in minute concentrations (0.005-0.02 wt %) can affect the contact line dynamics and subsequent buckling dynamics of a nanoparticle-laden droplet evaporating on a hydrophobic substrate. With increase in the initial SDS concentration, the morphologies of the residual structures show transition from a buckled dome structure to a flat flowerlike shape. Moreover, a critical SDS concentration (>0.0075 wt % in 20 wt % silica) is identified for the complete suppression of buckling instabilities. Last, the effects of droplet spreading on the surface crack dynamics are discussed.

  19. Evaporation of ethanol/water droplets: examining the temporal evolution of droplet size, composition and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Rebecca J; Reid, Jonathan P

    2005-09-08

    The evolving size, composition, and temperature of evaporating ethanol/water aerosol droplets 25-57 microm in radius are probed by cavity enhanced Raman scattering (CERS) and laser induced fluorescence. This represents the first study in which the evolving composition of volatile droplets has been probed with spatial selectivity on the millisecond time scale, providing a new strategy for exploring mass and heat transfer in aerosols. The Raman scattering intensity is shown to depend exponentially on species concentration due to the stimulated nature of the CERS technique, providing a sensitive measure of the concentration of the volatile ethanol component. The accuracy with which we can determine droplet size, composition, and temperature is discussed. We demonstrate that the CERS measurements of evolving size and composition of droplets falling in a train can be used to characterize, and thus avoid, droplet coagulation. By varying the surrounding gas pressure (7-77 kPa), we investigate the dependence of the rate of evaporation on the rate of gas diffusion, and behavior consistent with gas diffusion-limited evaporation is observed. We suggest that such measurements can allow the determination of the vapor pressures of components within the droplet and can allow the determination of activity coefficients of volatile species.

  20. Influence of the wall on the droplet evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misyura S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporative influence of the wall material and its thickness has been investigated in the present study. The wall influence for heat exchangers is particularly important in the boiling transition regime and in the event of the Leidenfrost temperature. The experimental points significantly diverge in the transition area of the boiling crisis. This fact can be explained by a different residence time of droplet on the wall surface. The discrepancy between the experimental data also takes place at the Leidenfrost temperature. The lower the thermal diffusivity of the wall material (high thermal inertia, the more the wall is cooled under a droplet.

  1. Suppression of the Coffee-Ring Effect and Evaporation-Driven Disorder to Order Transition in Colloidal Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamashis; Dey, Atreya; Reddy, Govardhan; Sarma, D D

    2017-10-05

    The formation of a ring-like deposit at the periphery of a drying colloidal droplet is a vexing problem in many applications. We show a complete suppression of such deposits when a droplet of aqueous colloidal suspension, deposited on a glass substrate coated with a thin layer of silicone oil, is evaporated. This coating prevents the periphery of the aqueous droplet from getting pinned to the substrate and helps in suppressing the ring formation. It also decreases the surface area of the droplet, thereby decreasing the evaporation rate. These two factors together, driving the colloidal particles slowly to the center of the droplet, contribute to form an ordered crystallite at the end of the evaporation process. Brownian dynamics simulations performed to study ordering in the aggregate show that the spherical colloidal particles form face-centered cubic structures. Experiments and simulations show that slow rates of droplet evaporation and smaller-sized colloidal particles further lead to high-quality ordered colloidal crystallites.

  2. Facile formation of ordered vertical arrays by droplet evaporation of Au nanorod organic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Alfonso; Schopf, Carola; Pescaglini, Andrea; Wang, Jin Jin; Iacopino, Daniela

    2014-09-02

    Droplet evaporation is a simple method to induce organization of Au nanorods into ordered superstructures. In general, the self-assembly process occurs by evaporation of aqueous suspensions under strictly controlled experimental conditions. Here we present formation of large area ordered vertical arrays by droplet evaporation of Au nanorod organic suspensions. The uncontrolled (free air) evaporation of such suspensions yielded to formation of ordered nanorod domains covering the entire area of a 5 mm diameter droplet. Detailed investigation of the process revealed that nanorods organized into highly ordered vertical domains at the interface between solvent and air on a fast time scale (minutes). The self-assembly process mainly depended on the initial concentration of nanorod solution and required minimal control of other experimental parameters. Nanorod arrays displayed distinct optical properties which were analyzed by optical imaging and spectroscopy and compared to results obtained from theoretical calculations. The potential use of synthesized arrays as surface-enhanced Raman scattering probes was demonstrated with the model molecule 4-aminobenzenthiol.

  3. Direct numerical simulations of evaporating droplets in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, John; Desjardins, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    This work demonstrates direct numerical simulations of evaporating two phase flows, with applications to studying combustion in aircraft engines. Inside the engine, liquid fuel is injected into the combustion chamber where it atomizes into droplets and evaporates. Combustion occurs as the fuel vapor mixes with the surrounding flow of turbulent gas. Understanding combustion, therefore, requires studying evaporation in a turbulent flow and the resulting vapor distribution. We study the problem using a finite volume framework to solve the Navier-Stokes and scalar transport equations under a low-Mach assumption [Desjardins et al., J. Comp. Phys., 2008]. The liquid-gas interface is tracked using a conservative level-set method [Desjardins et al., J. Comp. Phys., 2008] which allows for a sharp reconstruction of the discontinuity across the interface. Special care is taken in the discretization of cells near the liquid-gas interface to ensure the stability and accuracy of the solution. Results are discussed for non-reacting simulations of liquid droplets evaporating into a turbulent field of inert gas.

  4. A theoretical study of the spheroidal droplet evaporation in forced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    In many applications, the shape of a droplet may be assumed to be an oblate spheroid. A theoretical study is conducted on the evaporation of an oblate spheroidal droplet under forced convection conditions. Closed-form analytical expressions of the mass evaporation rate for an oblate spheroid are derived, in the regime of controlled mass-transfer and heat-transfer, respectively. The variation of droplet size during the evaporation process is presented in the regime of shrinking dynamic model. Comparing with the droplets having the same surface area, an increase in the aspect ratio enhances the mass evaporation rate and prolongs the burnout time. - Highlights: • Fully algebraic solutions for the spheroidal droplet evaporation rate is obtained. • We examine the effect of aspect ratio on the droplet evaporation. • We propose a calculation method of Nusselt number for spheroidal droplet

  5. Solvent exchange module for LC-NMR hyphenation using machine vision-controlled droplet evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, J.W.; Vulto, P.; Roo, de N.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Linden, van der H.; Hankemeier, T.

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of pendant droplet evaporation for exchange of eluents for 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) purposes. Analytes are fed and retained in 500 nL droplets, which are concentrated by evaporation and subsequently redissolved in deuterated solvent. Droplet size is monitored by

  6. Velocity field measurements in an evaporating sessile droplet by means of micro-PIV technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagodnitsyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Velocity fields are measured in evaporating sessile droplets on two substrates with different contact angles and contact angle hysteresis using micro resolution particle image velocimetry technique. Different flow patterns are observed in different stages of droplet evaporation: a flow with vortices and a radial flow. Flow structure is found to be similar for droplets on different substrates.

  7. Evaporation and wetted area of single droplets on waxy and hairy leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H; Yu, Y; Ozkan, H E; Derksen, R C; Krause, C R

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the evaporation of pesticide droplets and wetting of Leaf surfaces can increase foliar application efficiency and reduce pesticide use. Evaporation time and wetted area of single pesticide droplets on hairy and waxy geranium leaf surfaces were measured under the controlled conditions for five droplet sizes and three relative humidities. The sprays used to form droplets included water, a nonionic colloidal polymer drift retardant, an alkyl polyoxyethylene surfactant, and an insecticide. Adding the surfactant into spray mixtures greatly increased droplet wetted area on the surfaces while droplet evaporation time was greatly reduced. Adding the drift retardant into spray mixture slightly increased the droplet evaporation time and the wetted area. Also, droplets had Longer evaporation times on waxy leaves than on hairy leaves for all droplet diameters and all relative humidity conditions. Increasing relative humidity could increase the droplet evaporation time greatly but did not change the the wetted area. The droplet evaporation time and wetted area increased exponentially as the droplet size increased. Therefore, droplet size, surface characteristics of the target, relative humidity, and chemical composition of the spray mixtures (water alone, pesticide, additives) should be included as important factors that affect the efficacy and efficiency of pesticide applications.

  8. Controlled shrinkage and re-expansion of a single aqueous droplet inside an optical vortex trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Gavin D M; Kuo, Jason S; Chiu, Daniel T

    2007-03-22

    This paper describes the shrinkage and re-expansion of individual femtoliter-volume aqueous droplets that were suspended in an organic medium and held in an optical vortex trap. To elucidate the mechanism behind this phenomenon, we constructed a heat- and mass-transfer model and carried out experimental verifications of our model. From these studies, we conclude that an evaporation mechanism sufficiently describes the shrinkage of aqueous droplets held in a vortex trap, whereas a mechanism based on the supersaturation of the organic phase by water that surrounds the droplet adequately explains the re-expansion of the shrunk droplet. The proposed mechanisms correlated well with experimental observations using different organic media, when H2O was replaced with D2O and when an optical tweezer was used to induce droplet shrinkage rather than an optical vortex trap. For H2O droplets, the temperature rise within the droplet during shrinkage was on the order of 1 K or less, owing to the rapid thermal conduction of heat away from the droplet at the microscale and the sharp increase in solubility for water by the organic phase with slight elevations in temperature. Because most chemical species confined to droplets can be made impenetrable to the aqueous/organic interface, a change in the volume of aqueous droplets translates into a change in concentration of the dissolved species within the droplets. Therefore, this phenomenon should find use in the study of fundamental chemical processes that are sensitive to concentration, such as macromolecular crowding and protein nucleation and crystallization.

  9. Volatility of methylglyoxal cloud SOA formed through OH radical oxidation and droplet evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Montalvo, Diana L.; Schwier, Allison N.; Lim, Yong B.; McNeill, V. Faye; Turpin, Barbara J.

    2016-04-01

    The volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed through cloud processing (aqueous hydroxyl radical (radOH) oxidation and droplet evaporation) of methylglyoxal (MGly) was studied. Effective vapor pressure and effective enthalpy of vaporization (ΔHvap,eff) were determined using 1) droplets containing MGly and its oxidation products, 2) a Vibrating Orifice Aerosol Generator (VOAG) system, and 3) Temperature Programmed Desorption Aerosol-Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TPD Aerosol-CIMS). Simulated in-cloud MGly oxidation (for 10-30 min) produces an organic mixture of higher and lower volatility components with an overall effective vapor pressure of (4 ± 7) × 10-7 atm at pH 3. The effective vapor pressure decreases by a factor of 2 with addition of ammonium hydroxide (pH 7). The fraction of organic material remaining in the particle-phase after drying was smaller than for similar experiments with glycolaldehyde and glyoxal SOA. The ΔHvap,eff of pyruvic acid and oxalic acid + methylglyoxal in the mixture (from TPD Aerosol-CIMS) were smaller than the theoretical enthalpies of the pure compounds and smaller than that estimated for the entire precursor/product mix after droplet evaporation. After 10-30 min of aqueous oxidation (one cloud cycle) the majority of the MGly + radOH precursor/product mix (even neutralized) will volatilize during droplet evaporation; neutralization and at least 80 min of oxidation at 10-12 M radOH (or >12 h at 10-14 M) is needed before low volatility ammonium oxalate exceeds pyruvate.

  10. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of acetone inside evaporating and burning fuel droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shringi, D. S.; Shaw, B. D.; Dwyer, H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence was used to visualize acetone fields inside individual droplets of pure acetone as well as droplets composed of methanol or 1-propanol initially mixed with acetone. Droplets were supported on a horizontal wire and two vaporization conditions were investigated: (1) slow evaporation in room air and (2) droplet combustion, which leads to substantially faster droplet surface regression rates. Acetone was preferentially gasified, causing its concentration in droplets to drop in time with resultant decreases in acetone fluorescence intensities. Slowly vaporizing droplets did not exhibit large spatial variations of fluorescence within droplets, indicating that these droplets were relatively well mixed. Ignition of droplets led to significant variations in fluorescence intensities within droplets, indicating that these droplets were not well mixed. Ignited droplets composed of mixtures of 1-propanol and acetone showed large time-varying changes in shapes for higher acetone concentrations, suggesting that bubble formation was occurring in these droplets.

  11. Evaporation of a sessile water drop and a drop of aqueous salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyura, S Y

    2017-11-07

    The influence of various factors on the evaporation of drops of water and aqueous salt solution has been experimentally studied. Typically, in the studies of drop evaporation, only the diffusive vapor transfer, radiation and the molecular heat conduction are taken into account. However, vapor-gas convection plays an important role at droplet evaporation. In the absence of droplet boiling, the influence of gas convection turns out to be the prevailing factor. At nucleate boiling, a prevailing role is played by bubbles generation and vapor jet discharge at a bubble collapse. The gas convection behavior for water and aqueous salt solution is substantially different. With a growth of salt concentration over time, the influence of the convective component first increases, reaches an extremum and then significantly decreases. At nucleate boiling in a salt solution it is incorrect to simulate the droplet evaporation and the heat transfer in quasi-stationary approximation. The evaporation at nucleate boiling in a liquid drop is divided into several characteristic time intervals. Each of these intervals is characterized by a noticeable change in both the evaporation rate and the convection role.

  12. Flow within an evaporating glycerol-water binary droplet: Segregation by gravitational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaxing; Lv, Pengyu; Diddens, Christian; Wijshoff, Herman; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-11-01

    The flow within an evaporating glycerol-water binary droplet with Bond number Bo PIV for both sessile and pendant droplets during evaporation process, which surprisingly show opposite radial flow directions - inward and outward, respectively. This observation clearly reveals that gravitational effects play a crucial role in controlling flow fields within the evaporating droplets. We theoretically analyse that this gravity-driven effect is caused by density gradients due to the local concentration difference of glycerol within the droplet triggered by different volatilities of the two components during evaporation. Finally, for confirmation, we numerically simulate the process, revealing a good agreement with experimental results.

  13. Formation of nitrogen-containing oligomers by methylglyoxal and amines in simulated evaporating cloud droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haan, David O; Hawkins, Lelia N; Kononenko, Julia A; Turley, Jacob J; Corrigan, Ashley L; Tolbert, Margaret A; Jimenez, Jose L

    2011-02-01

    Reactions of methylglyoxal with amino acids, methylamine, and ammonium sulfate can take place in aqueous aerosol and evaporating cloud droplets. These processes are simulated by drying droplets and bulk solutions of these compounds (at low millimolar and 1 M concentrations, respectively) and analyzing the residuals by scanning mobility particle sizing, nuclear magnetic resonance, aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS), and electrospray ionization MS. The results are consistent with imine (but not diimine) formation on a time scale of seconds, followed by the formation of nitrogen-containing oligomers, methylimidazole, and dimethylimidazole products on a time scale of minutes to hours. Measured elemental ratios are consistent with imidazoles and oligomers being major reaction products, while effective aerosol densities suggest extensive reactions take place within minutes. These reactions may be a source of the light-absorbing, nitrogen-containing oligomers observed in urban and biomass-burning aerosol particles.

  14. [Dynamics of Irreversible Evaporation of a Water-Protein Droplet and a Problem of Structural and Dynamical Experiments with Single Molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaitan, K V; Armeev, G A; Shaytan, A K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the effect of isothermal and adiabatic evaporation of water on the state of a water-protein droplet. The discussed problem is of current importance due to development of techniques to perform single molecule experiments using free electron lasers. In such structure-dynamic experiments the delivery of a sample into the X-ray beam is performed using the microdroplet injector. The time between the injection and delivery is in the order of microseconds. In this paper we developed a specialized variant of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for the study of irreversible isothermal evaporation of the droplet. Using in silico experiments we determined the parameters of isothermal evaporation of the water-protein droplet with the sodium and chloride ions in the concentration range of 0.3 M at different temperatures. The energy of irreversible evaporation determined from in silico experiments at the initial stages of evaporation virtually coincides with the specific heat of evaporation for water. For the kinetics of irreversible adiabatic evaporation an exact analytical solution was obtained in the limit of high thermal conductivity of the droplet (or up to the droplet size of -100 Å). This analytical solution incorporates parameters that are determined using in silico. experiments on isothermal droplet evaporation. We show that the kinetics of adiabatic evaporation and cooling of the droplet scales with the droplet size. Our estimates of the water-protemi droplet. freezing rate in the adiabatic regime in a vacuum chamber show that additional techniques for stabilizing the temperature inside the droplet should be used in order to study the conformational transitions of the protein in single molecules. Isothermal and quasi-isothermal conditions are most suitable for studying the conformational transitions upon object functioning. However, in this case it is necessary to take into account the effects of dehydration and rapid increase of ionic strength in an

  15. PDF Modeling of Evaporating Droplets in Isotropic Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayek, F.; Pandya, R. V. R.

    2000-11-01

    We use a statistical closure scheme of Van Kampen [1] to obtain an approximate equation for probability density function p(τ_d, t) to predict the time (t) evolution of statistical properties related to particle time constant τd of collisionless evaporating droplets suspended in isothermal isotropic turbulent flows. The resulting Fokker-Planck equation for p(τ_d, t) has non-linear, time-dependent drift and diffusion coefficients that depend on the statistical properties of droplet's slip velocity. Approximate analytical expressions for these properties are derived and the equation is solved numerically after implementing a numerical method based on path-integral formalism. Time evolution of various droplet diameter related statistical properties are then calculated and are compared with the data available from the stochastic and direct numerical simulations (DNS) studies performed by Mashayek[2]. A good agreement for temporal evolution of mean and standard deviation of particle diameter is observed with DNS results. Reference [1] Van Kampen, N.G., Stochastic Processes in Physics and Chemistry, Elsevier Science Publishers, North Holland, Amsterdam, 1992. [2] Mashayek, F., Stochastic Simulations of Particle-Laden Isotropic Turbulent Flow, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 25(8):1575-1599 (1999).

  16. Dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation based on thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dong In; Kwak, Ho Jae; Doh, Seung Woo; Ahn, Ho Seon; Park, Hyun Sun; Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2015-02-17

    For several decades, evaporation phenomena have been intensively investigated for a broad range of applications. However, the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation has only been inductively inferred on the basis of experimental data and remains unclear. This study focuses on the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation based on thermodynamics. Considering the decrease in the Gibbs free energy of a system with different evaporation modes, a theoretical model was developed to estimate the receding contact angle during contact line depinning as a function of surface conditions. Comparison of experimentally measured and theoretically modeled receding contact angles indicated that the dynamics of contact line depinning during droplet evaporation was caused by the most favorable thermodynamic process encountered during constant contact radius (CCR mode) and constant contact angle (CCA mode) evaporation to rapidly reach an equilibrium state during droplet evaporation.

  17. Contact angle and droplet heat transfer during evaporation on structured and smooth surfaces of heated wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyura, S. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Water evaporation in a wide range of droplet diameters and wall temperatures on the structured and smooth surfaces were studied experimentally. Linear dependence of evaporation rate (dV/dt) on a droplet radius varies when the volume is greater than 40-60 μl. The static contact angles on the structured surface vary with a droplet diameter for high wall superheating. Dependence of the contact angle on diameter for the corrugated surface is defined by a change in both potential energy barrier U and three-phase contact line tension τcl. This energy barrier for the structured wall changes with an increase in the initial droplet diameter and becomes constant for the large droplets. For high wall superheating, the power in the law of evaporation increases from 1 to 1.45 with an increase in the initial droplet diameter. Depending on the droplet radius, number of droplets and heater length, four different characters of evaporation are realized. Complete droplet evaporation time on structured surface is less than smooth wall. Heat transfer coefficient is greater for structured wall than smooth one. When simulating droplet evaporation and heat transfer, it is necessary to take into account free convection of air and vapor.

  18. Evaporation and discharge dynamics of highly charged multicomponent droplets generated by electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Ronald L; Beauchamp, J L

    2010-01-28

    We investigate the Rayleigh discharge and evaporation dynamics of highly charged two-component droplets consisting principally of methanol with 2-methoxyethanol, tert-butanol, or m-nitrobenzyl alcohol. A phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) characterizes droplets generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) according to size, velocity, and charge as they move through a uniform electric field within an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). Repeated field reversals result in droplet "ping-pong" through the PDA. This generates individual droplet histories of solvent evaporation behavior and the dynamics of charge loss to progeny droplets during Rayleigh discharge events. On average, methanol droplets discharge at 127% their Rayleigh limit of charge, q(R), and release 25% of the net charge. Charge loss from methanol/2-methoxyethanol droplets behaves similarly to pure 2-methoxyethanol droplets which release approximately 28% of their net charge. Binary methanol droplets containing up to 50% tert-butanol discharge at a lower percent q(R) than pure methanol and release a greater fraction of their net charge. Mixed 99% methanol/1% m-nitrobenzyl alcohol droplets possess discharge characteristics similar to those of methanol. However, droplets of methanol containing 2% m-nitrobenzyl evaporate down to a fixed size and charge that remains constant with no observable discharges. Quasi-steady-state evaporation models accurately describe observed evaporation phenomena in which methanol/tert-butanol droplets evaporate at a rate similar to that of pure methanol and methanol/2-methoxyethanol droplets evaporate at a rate similar to that of 2-methoxyethanol. We compare these results to previous Rayleigh discharge experiments and discuss the implications for binary solvents in electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and field-induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry (FIDI-MS).

  19. Formation of light absorbing organo-nitrogen species from evaporation of droplets containing glyoxal and ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex K Y; Zhao, Ran; Li, Richard; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2013-11-19

    In the atmosphere, volatile organic compounds such as glyoxal can partition into aqueous droplets containing significant levels of inorganic salts. Upon droplet evaporation, both the organics and inorganic ions become highly concentrated, accelerating reactions between them. To demonstrate this process, we investigated the formation of organo-nitrogen and light absorbing materials in evaporating droplets containing glyoxal and different ammonium salts including (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and NH4Cl. Our results demonstrate that evaporating glyoxal-(NH4)2SO4 droplets produce light absorbing species on a time scale of seconds, which is orders of magnitude faster than observed in bulk solutions. Using aerosol mass spectrometry, we show that particle-phase organics with high N:C ratios were formed when ammonium salts were used, and that the presence of sulfate ions promoted this chemistry. Since sulfate can also significantly enhance the Henry's law partitioning of glyoxal, our results highlight the atmospheric importance of such inorganic-organic interactions in aqueous phase aerosol chemistry.

  20. A technique based on droplet evaporation to recognize alcoholic drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Pérez-Isidoro, Rosendo; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    2017-07-01

    Chromatography is, at present, the most used technique to determine the purity of alcoholic drinks. This involves a careful separation of the components of the liquid elements. However, since this technique requires sophisticated instrumentation, there are alternative techniques such as conductivity measurements and UV-Vis and infrared spectrometries. We report here a method based on salt-induced crystallization patterns formed during the evaporation of alcoholic drops. We found that droplets of different samples form different structures upon drying, which we characterize by their radial density profiles. We prove that using the dried deposit of a spirit as a control sample, our method allows us to differentiate between pure and adulterated drinks. As a proof of concept, we study tequila.

  1. Evaporation of droplets in a Champagne wine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabache, Elisabeth; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Antkowiak, Arnaud; Séon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a single glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall and rise towards the surface. When these bubbles reach the surface and rupture, they project a multitude of tiny droplets in the form of a particular aerosol holding a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in idealized champagnes, the key features of the champagne aerosol are identified. In particular, we show that film drops, critical in sea spray for example, are here nonexistent. We then demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. There, conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue for the sparkling wine industry. PMID:27125240

  2. Drag of evaporating or condensing droplets in low Reynolds number flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukowicz, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state drag of evaporating or condensing droplets in low Reynolds number flow is computed. Droplet drag in air is obtained for five representative liquids (water, methanol, benzene, heptane, octane) for a range of ambient temperatures, pressures, and vapor concentrations. The drag is in general increased for a condensing droplet, and decreased for an evaporating droplet. The changes in drag can be quite large and depend in detail on the degree of evaporation or condensation, and on the individual liquid and vapor properties. The present results are used to test the existing experimentally derived correlations of Eisenklam and Yuen and Chen in the low Reynolds number regime. The Yuen and Chen correlation is found to be quite successful, but only in the case of condensation or mild evaporation. An improved correlation is suggested for evaporating droplets

  3. Marangoni Convection in Evaporating Organic Liquid Droplets on a Nonwetting Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Aditya; Dash, Susmita; Weibel, Justin A; Chen, Xuemei; Garimella, Suresh V

    2016-05-17

    We quantitatively characterize the flow field inside organic liquid droplets evaporating on a nonwetting substrate. A mushroom-structured surface yields the desired nonwetting behavior with methanol droplets, while use of a cooled substrate (5-15 °C) slows the rate of evaporation to allow quasi-static particle image velocimetry. Visualization reveals a toroidal vortex within the droplet that is characteristic of surface tension-driven flow; we demonstrate by means of a scaling analysis that this recirculating flow is Marangoni convection. The velocities in the droplet are on the order of 10-45 mm/s. Thus, unlike in the case of evaporation on wetting substrates where Marangoni convection can be ignored for the purpose of estimating the evaporation rate, advection due to the surface tension-driven flow plays a dominant role in the heat transfer within an evaporating droplet on a nonwetting substrate because of the large height-to-radius aspect ratio of the droplet. We formulate a reduced-order model that includes advective transport within the droplet for prediction of organic liquid droplet evaporation on a nonwetting substrate and confirm that the predicted temperature differential across the height of the droplet matches experiments.

  4. Spatiotemporal infrared measurement of interface temperatures during water droplet evaporation on a nonwetting substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Aditya; Weibel, Justin A.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2017-01-01

    High-fidelity experimental characterization of sessile droplet evaporation is required to understand the interdependent physical mechanisms that drive the evaporation. In particular, cooling of the interface due to release of the latent heat of evaporation, which is not accounted for in simplified vapor-diffusion-based models of droplet evaporation, may significantly suppress the evaporation rate on nonwetting substrates, which support tall droplet shapes. This suppression is counteracted by convective mass transfer from the droplet to the air. While prior numerical modeling studies have identified the importance of these mechanisms, there is no direct experimental evidence of their influence on the interfacial temperature distribution. Infrared thermography is used here to simultaneously measure the droplet volume, contact angle, and spatially resolved interface temperatures for water droplets on a nonwetting substrate. The technique is calibrated and validated to quantify the temperature measurement accuracy; a correction is employed to account for reflections from the surroundings when imaging the evaporating droplets. Spatiotemporally resolved interface temperature data, obtained via infrared thermography measurements, allow for an improved prediction of the evaporation rate and can be utilized to monitor temperature-controlled processes in droplets for various lab-on-a-chip applications.

  5. Analysis of the effects of evaporative cooling on the evaporation of liquid droplets using a combined field approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuefeng; Ma, Liran

    2015-01-01

    During liquid evaporation, the equations for the vapor concentration in the atmosphere and for the temperature in the liquid are coupled and must be solved in an iterative manner. In the present paper, a combined field approach which unifies the coupled fields into one single hybrid field and thus makes the iteration unnecessary is proposed. By using this approach, the influences of the evaporative cooling on the evaporation of pinned sessile droplets are investigated, and its predictions are found in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results. A dimensionless number Ec which can evaluate the strength of the evaporative cooling is then introduced, and the results show that both the evaporation flux along the droplet surface and the total evaporation rate of the droplet decrease as the evaporative cooling number Ec increases. For drying droplets, there exists a critical value EcCrit below which the evaporative cooling effect can be neglected and above which the significance of the effect increases dramatically. The present work may also have more general applications to coupled field problems in which all the fields have the same governing equation. PMID:25721987

  6. Evaporation of Liquid Droplet in Nano and Micro Scales from Statistical Rate Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fei; He, Bin; Wei, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The statistical rate theory (SRT) is applied to predict the average evaporation flux of liquid droplet after the approach is validated in the sessile droplet experiments of the water and heavy water. The steady-state experiments show a temperature discontinuity at the evaporating interface. The average evaporation flux is evaluated by individually changing the measurement at a liquid-vapor interface, including the interfacial liquid temperature, the interfacial vapor temperature, the vapor-phase pressure, and the droplet size. The parameter study shows that a higher temperature jump would reduce the average evaporation flux. The average evaporation flux can significantly be influenced by the interfacial liquid temperature and the vapor-phase pressure. The variation can switch the evaporation into condensation. The evaporation flux is found to remain relative constant if the droplet is larger than a micro scale, while the smaller diameters in nano scale can produce a much higher evaporation flux. In addition, a smaller diameter of droplets with the same liquid volume has a larger surface area. It is suggested that the evaporation rate increases dramatically as the droplet shrinks into nano size.

  7. Evaporation dynamics of a sessile droplet on glass surfaces with fluoropolymer coatings: focusing on the final stage of thin droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatapova, Elizaveta Ya; Shonina, Anna M; Safonov, Alexey I; Sulyaeva, Veronica S; Kabov, Oleg A

    2018-03-07

    The evaporation dynamics of a water droplet with an initial volume of 2 μl from glass surfaces with fluoropolymer coatings are investigated using the shadow technique and an optical microscope. The droplet profile for a contact angle of less than 5° is constructed using an image-analyzing interference technique, and evaporation dynamics are investigated at the final stage. We coated the glass slides with a thin film of a fluoropolymer by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition method at different deposition modes depending on the deposition pressure and the temperature of the activating wire. The resulting surfaces have different structures affecting the wetting properties. Droplet evaporation from a constant contact radius mode in the early stage of evaporation was found followed by the mode where both contact angle and contact radius simultaneously vary in time (final stage) regardless of wettability of the coated surfaces. We found that depinning occurs at small contact angles of 2.2-4.7° for all samples, which are smaller than the measured receding contact angles. This is explained by imbibition of the liquid into the developed surface of the "soft" coating that leads to formation of thin droplets completely wetting the surface. The final stage, which is little discussed in the literature, is also recorded. We have singled out a substage where the contact line velocity is abruptly increasing for all coated and uncoated surfaces. The critical droplet height corresponding to the transition to this substage is about 2 μm with R/h = 107. The duration of this substage is the same for all coated and uncoated surfaces. Droplets observed at this substage for all the tested surfaces are axisymmetric. The specific evaporation rate clearly demonstrates an abrupt increase at the final substage of the droplet evaporation. The classical R 2 law is justified for the complete wetting situation where the droplet is disappearing in an axisymmetric manner.

  8. Water and Ethanol Droplet Wetting Transition during Evaporation on Omniphobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Weibel, Justin A.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2015-01-01

    Omniphobic surfaces with reentrant microstructures have been investigated for a range of applications, but the evaporation of high- and low-surface-tension liquid droplets placed on such surfaces has not been rigorously studied. In this work, we develop a technique to fabricate omniphobic surfaces on copper substrates to allow for a systematic examination of the effects of surface topography on the evaporation dynamics of water and ethanol droplets. Compared to a water droplet, the ethanol droplet not only evaporates faster, but also inhibits Cassie-to-Wenzel wetting transitions on surfaces with certain geometries. We use an interfacial energy-based description of the system, including the transition energy barrier and triple line energy, to explain the underlying transition mechanism and behaviour observed. Suppression of the wetting transition during evaporation of droplets provides an important metric for evaluating the robustness of omniphobic surfaces requiring such functionality. PMID:26603940

  9. Evaporation of Water Droplets in a High-Temperature Gaseous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysokomornaya, O. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical solution of the problem of heat and mass transfer in evaporation of a droplet of water moving in a stream of high-temperature (up to 1200 K) gases is done on the basis of a system of nonlinear nonstationary partial differential equations describing conductive and radiative heat transfer in the droplet, as well as composite heat transfer at the ″liquid-gas″ interface. The values of the water evaporation rate have been determined. It is shown that the dependence of the evaporation rate on the droplet surface temperature has a nonlinear character. Characteristic relationships between the convective and radiative heat fluxes on the droplet surface (the radiative flux substantially exceeds the convective one; on decrease in the difference between the gas and droplet surface temperatures the difference between the radiative and convective heat fluxes decreases), the lifetimes (total evaporation) of droplets, as well as of the temperature and concentration of steam and gases in the vicinity of droplets have been determined. The calculated characteristics of the water droplet evaporation under conditions of high temperatures of the gas medium differ considerably from those obtained within the framework of the "diffusional" model of evaporation. A comparison of the results of numerical simulation with the experimental data obtained with the use of high-velocity panoramic optical methods of visualization by ″tracing particles″ is carried out.

  10. New approaches to the modelling of multi-component fuel droplet heating and evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Sazhin, Sergei S

    2015-02-25

    The previously suggested quasi-discrete model for heating and evaporation of complex multi-component hydrocarbon fuel droplets is described. The dependence of density, viscosity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of liquid components on carbon numbers n and temperatures is taken into account. The effects of temperature gradient and quasi-component diffusion inside droplets are taken into account. The analysis is based on the Effective Thermal Conductivity/Effective Diffusivity (ETC/ED) model. This model is applied to the analysis of Diesel and gasoline fuel droplet heating and evaporation. The components with relatively close n are replaced by quasi-components with properties calculated as average properties of the a priori defined groups of actual components. Thus the analysis of the heating and evaporation of droplets consisting of many components is replaced with the analysis of the heating and evaporation of droplets consisting of relatively few quasi-components. It is demonstrated that for Diesel and gasoline fuel droplets the predictions of the model based on five quasi-components are almost indistinguishable from the predictions of the model based on twenty quasi-components for Diesel fuel droplets and are very close to the predictions of the model based on thirteen quasi-components for gasoline fuel droplets. It is recommended that in the cases of both Diesel and gasoline spray combustion modelling, the analysis of droplet heating and evaporation is based on as little as five quasi-components.

  11. Evaporation of sessile droplets affected by graphite nanoparticles and binary base fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Duan, Fei

    2014-11-26

    The effects of ethanol component and nanoparticle concentration on evaporation dynamics of graphite-water nanofluid droplets have been studied experimentally. The results show that the formed deposition patterns vary greatly with an increase in ethanol concentration from 0 to 50 vol %. Nanoparticles have been observed to be carried to the droplet surface and form a large piece of aggregate. The volume evaporation rate on average increases as the ethanol concentration increases from 0 to 50 vol % in the binary mixture nanofluid droplets. The evaporation rate at the initial stage is more rapid than that at the late stage to dry, revealing a deviation from a linear fitting line, standing for a constant evaporation rate. The deviation is more intense with a higher ethanol concentration. The ethanol-induced smaller liquid-vapor surface tension leads to higher wettability of the nanofluid droplets. The graphite nanoparticles in ethanol-water droplets reinforce the pinning effect in the drying process, and the droplets with more ethanol demonstrate the depinning behavior only at the late stage. The addition of graphite nanoparticles in water enhances a droplet baseline spreading at the beginning of evaporation, a pinning effect during evaporation, and the evaporation rate. However, with a relatively high nanoparticle concentration, the enhancement is attenuated.

  12. Evaporation kinetics of surfactant solution droplets on rice (Oryza sativa) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Dong; Zheng, Li; Xu, Jun; Li, Feng-Min; Huang, Qi-Liang

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of evaporating sessile droplets on hydrophilic or hydrophobic surfaces is widely studied, and many models for these processes have been developed based on experimental evidence. However, few research has been explored on the evaporation of sessile droplets of surfactant or pesticide solutions on target crop leaves. Thus, in this paper the impact of surfactant concentrations on contact angle, contact diameter, droplet height, and evolution of the droplets’ evaporative volume on rice leaf surfaces have been investigated. The results indicate that the evaporation kinetics of surfactant droplets on rice leaves were influenced by both the surfactant concentrations and the hydrophobicity of rice leaf surfaces. When the surfactant concentration is lower than the surfactant CMC (critical micelle concentration), the droplet evaporation time is much longer than that of the high surfactant concentration. This is due to the longer existence time of a narrow wedge region under the lower surfactant concentration, and such narrow wedge region further restricts the droplet evaporation. Besides, our experimental data are shown to roughly collapse onto theoretical curves based on the model presented by Popov. This study could supply theoretical data on the evaporation of the adjuvant or pesticide droplets for practical applications in agriculture. PMID:28472108

  13. Assessment of water droplet evaporation mechanisms on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhenhai; Dash, Susmita; Weibel, Justin A; Garimella, Suresh V

    2013-12-23

    Evaporation rates are predicted and important transport mechanisms identified for evaporation of water droplets on hydrophobic (contact angle ~110°) and superhydrophobic (contact angle ~160°) substrates. Analytical models for droplet evaporation in the literature are usually simplified to include only vapor diffusion in the gas domain, and the system is assumed to be isothermal. In the comprehensive model developed in this study, evaporative cooling of the interface is accounted for, and vapor concentration is coupled to local temperature at the interface. Conjugate heat and mass transfer are solved in the solid substrate, liquid droplet, and surrounding gas. Buoyancy-driven convective flows in the droplet and vapor domains are also simulated. The influences of evaporative cooling and convection on the evaporation characteristics are determined quantitatively. The liquid-vapor interface temperature drop induced by evaporative cooling suppresses evaporation, while gas-phase natural convection acts to enhance evaporation. While the effects of these competing transport mechanisms are observed to counterbalance for evaporation on a hydrophobic surface, the stronger influence of evaporative cooling on a superhydrophobic surface accounts for an overprediction of experimental evaporation rates by ~20% with vapor diffusion-based models. The local evaporation fluxes along the liquid-vapor interface for both hydrophobic and superhydrophobic substrates are investigated. The highest local evaporation flux occurs at the three-phase contact line region due to proximity to the higher temperature substrate, rather than at the relatively colder droplet top; vapor diffusion-based models predict the opposite. The numerically calculated evaporation rates agree with experimental results to within 2% for superhydrophobic substrates and 3% for hydrophobic substrates. The large deviations between past analytical models and the experimental data are therefore reconciled with the

  14. Fluid flow and thin-film evolution near the triple line during droplet evaporation of self-rewetting fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhou, Leping; Du, Xiao-Ze; Yang, Yongping

    2018-03-07

    The microscopic region near the triple line plays an important role in the heat and mass transfer of droplets, while the mechanisms of evaporation and internal flow remain unclear. This paper describes an experimental study of fluid flow and thin-film evolution near the triple line in sessile droplets of self-rewetting fluids, aqueous solutions of alcohols with number of carbon atoms varies from 1 to 7, to analyze the influence of various factors on the mesoscale flows. The mechanism of internal flow for self-rewetting fluid droplets was different from that of conventional fluids, and hence a novel expression of in-plane average velocity was fitted for them. The temporal and spatial evolution of thin-film thickness near the triple line during droplet evaporation was obtained by using a proposed sub-region method, which was developed from an evanescent wave based multilayer nanoparticle image velocimetry technique. The self-rewetting fluids are conducive to increase the microscopic critical contact angle and the energy barrier of contact line, which reduces the rate of thin-film thickness variation. The inhibited impact of self-rewetting fluids on the evaporation increases gradually with increasing number of carbon atoms.

  15. Evaluation of evaporation coefficient for micro-droplets exposed to low pressure: A semi-analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Prodyut R., E-mail: pchakraborty@iitj.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, 342011 (India); Hiremath, Kirankumar R., E-mail: k.r.hiremath@iitj.ac.in [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, 342011 (India); Sharma, Manvendra, E-mail: PG201283003@iitj.ac.in [Defence Laboratory Jodhpur, Defence Research & Development Organisation, 342011 (India)

    2017-02-05

    Evaporation rate of water is strongly influenced by energy barrier due to molecular collision and heat transfer limitations. The evaporation coefficient, defined as the ratio of experimentally measured evaporation rate to that maximum possible theoretical limit, varies over a conflicting three orders of magnitude. In the present work, a semi-analytical transient heat diffusion model of droplet evaporation is developed considering the effect of change in droplet size due to evaporation from its surface, when the droplet is injected into vacuum. Negligible effect of droplet size reduction due to evaporation on cooling rate is found to be true. However, the evaporation coefficient is found to approach theoretical limit of unity, when the droplet radius is less than that of mean free path of vapor molecules on droplet surface contrary to the reported theoretical predictions. Evaporation coefficient was found to reduce rapidly when the droplet under consideration has a radius larger than the mean free path of evaporating molecules, confirming the molecular collision barrier to evaporation rate. The trend of change in evaporation coefficient with increasing droplet size predicted by the proposed model will facilitate obtaining functional relation of evaporation coefficient with droplet size, and can be used for benchmarking the interaction between multiple droplets during evaporation in vacuum.

  16. Evaluation of evaporation coefficient for micro-droplets exposed to low pressure: A semi-analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Prodyut R.; Hiremath, Kirankumar R.; Sharma, Manvendra

    2017-02-01

    Evaporation rate of water is strongly influenced by energy barrier due to molecular collision and heat transfer limitations. The evaporation coefficient, defined as the ratio of experimentally measured evaporation rate to that maximum possible theoretical limit, varies over a conflicting three orders of magnitude. In the present work, a semi-analytical transient heat diffusion model of droplet evaporation is developed considering the effect of change in droplet size due to evaporation from its surface, when the droplet is injected into vacuum. Negligible effect of droplet size reduction due to evaporation on cooling rate is found to be true. However, the evaporation coefficient is found to approach theoretical limit of unity, when the droplet radius is less than that of mean free path of vapor molecules on droplet surface contrary to the reported theoretical predictions. Evaporation coefficient was found to reduce rapidly when the droplet under consideration has a radius larger than the mean free path of evaporating molecules, confirming the molecular collision barrier to evaporation rate. The trend of change in evaporation coefficient with increasing droplet size predicted by the proposed model will facilitate obtaining functional relation of evaporation coefficient with droplet size, and can be used for benchmarking the interaction between multiple droplets during evaporation in vacuum.

  17. Evaluation of evaporation coefficient for micro-droplets exposed to low pressure: A semi-analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Prodyut R.; Hiremath, Kirankumar R.; Sharma, Manvendra

    2017-01-01

    Evaporation rate of water is strongly influenced by energy barrier due to molecular collision and heat transfer limitations. The evaporation coefficient, defined as the ratio of experimentally measured evaporation rate to that maximum possible theoretical limit, varies over a conflicting three orders of magnitude. In the present work, a semi-analytical transient heat diffusion model of droplet evaporation is developed considering the effect of change in droplet size due to evaporation from its surface, when the droplet is injected into vacuum. Negligible effect of droplet size reduction due to evaporation on cooling rate is found to be true. However, the evaporation coefficient is found to approach theoretical limit of unity, when the droplet radius is less than that of mean free path of vapor molecules on droplet surface contrary to the reported theoretical predictions. Evaporation coefficient was found to reduce rapidly when the droplet under consideration has a radius larger than the mean free path of evaporating molecules, confirming the molecular collision barrier to evaporation rate. The trend of change in evaporation coefficient with increasing droplet size predicted by the proposed model will facilitate obtaining functional relation of evaporation coefficient with droplet size, and can be used for benchmarking the interaction between multiple droplets during evaporation in vacuum.

  18. Evaporation and crystallization of a droplet of desulfurization wastewater from a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhengxing; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhongqing; Qiang, Tang; Pu, Ge; Ran, Jingyu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaporation and crystallization characteristics of the droplets of desulfurization wastewater. • TGA and DSC methods were used to investigate the evaporation and crystallization processes. • Evaporation and crystallization rates increase with the increase of temperature increasing rate. • Increasing volume of the droplet increases the evaporation rate, but decreases the crystallization rate. • Structure of the crystals changes significantly when the temperature increasing rate and the volume of the droplet change. - Abstract: Relationship between evaporation and crystallization characteristics of a droplet of desulfurization wastewater from a coal-fired power plant and some operating conditions was studied experimentally using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) function and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results shows that, between 15 °C/min and 45 °C/min, a higher temperature increasing rate leads to higher evaporation and crystallization rates. The increment in the evaporation rate, caused by the same increment of temperature increasing rate, is larger, when the temperature increasing rate is lower. In addition, the final temperatures, ranging from 90 °C to 150 °C, have little impact on the evaporation and crystallization rates of the 0.5 μL droplet. Ultimately, for the droplets, ranging from 0.2 μL to 2.5 μL, evaporation rate increases with increasing volumes of the droplets, but the crystallization rate decreases. From the SEM results, it can be observed that the quantity of cracks on the surface of the crystals also declines with the increase in volumes. Furthermore, the Stefan flow becomes a significant and unneglectable factor in order to decrease the evaporation rate at the end of the evaporation period.

  19. Insights into Evaporative Droplet Dynamics in the High-Wind Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T.; Richter, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    Sea-spray droplets ejected into the air-sea boundary layer take part in a series of complex transport processes. To model the air-sea exchange of heat and moisture under high-wind conditions, it is important yet challenging to understand influences of evaporative droplets in the atmospheric boundary layer. We implement a high-resolution Eulerian-Lagrangian algorithm with droplets laden in a turbulent open-channel flow to reveal the dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of evaporating sea spray. Our past numerical simulations demonstrated an overall weak modification to the total heat flux by evaporative droplets. This is due to redistributed sensible and latent heat fluxes from relatively small droplets that respond rapidly to the ambient environment or the limited residence time of larger droplets. However, droplets with a slower thermodynamic response to the environment indicate a potential to enhance the total heat flux, but this is dependent on concentration and suspension time. In the current study, we focus on correlations between the residence time and thermodynamic statistics of droplets in order to better understand how best to parameterize in large-scale models. In addition, we focus in detail on the different scales of turbulence to further characterize the range of influence that evaporating droplets have on the surrounding fluid.

  20. The Image Processing of Droplet for Evaporation Experiment in SJ-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Changbin; Feng, Yanhui; Yu, Qiang

    2017-06-01

    We have completed an experiment for droplet evaporation processing using Young-Laplace fitting, exponent fitting, polynomial fitting and ellipse fitting, which could be used for multiple shapes of droplets. The droplet evaporation experiment test was an important science experiment in SJ-10. In order to get the change process of the physical parameter, such as the touching edges and the droplet evaporation rate, we had gained the contour edge image of the droplet and used mathematic method to do the fitting analysis. The accuracy of the physical parameter was depended on the accuracy of the mathematic fitting. Using the original Young-Laplace fitting method could not process all the images of evaporation and liquid interface from the space experiment facility of SJ-10, especially the smaller droplet images. We could get more accurate contour fitting and result using the new method described in this article. This article proposes a complete solution, including edge detecting and contour fitting. In edge detecting, Canny detector was applied to extract droplet edge. In contour fitting, Young-Laplace fitting, exponent fitting, polynomial fitting and ellipse fitting are designed to fit the contour of droplets, which make the solution apply to all of droplets in SJ-10.

  1. Development of the mathematical model of heat and mass transfer for researching the processes of evaporation of inhomogeneous water droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of experimental date the heat and mass transfer models are developed in ANSYS Fluent software package for researching the processes of evaporation of inhomogeneous water droplets. The influence of the temperature of the gases (550-850 K on the evaporation of inhomogeneous water droplets is estimated. Times of complete liquid evaporation from free surface of inhomogeneous water droplets and explosive vaporization of water droplets at different gas temperatures are established.

  2. Development of the mathematical model of heat and mass transfer for researching the processes of evaporation of inhomogeneous water droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Antonov Dmitry; Voytkov Ivan; Piskunov Maxim

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of experimental date the heat and mass transfer models are developed in ANSYS Fluent software package for researching the processes of evaporation of inhomogeneous water droplets. The influence of the temperature of the gases (550-850 K) on the evaporation of inhomogeneous water droplets is estimated. Times of complete liquid evaporation from free surface of inhomogeneous water droplets and explosive vaporization of water droplets at different gas temperatures are established.

  3. Detailed finite element method modeling of evaporating multi-component droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diddens, Christian, E-mail: C.Diddens@tue.nl

    2017-07-01

    The evaporation of sessile multi-component droplets is modeled with an axisymmetic finite element method. The model comprises the coupled processes of mixture evaporation, multi-component flow with composition-dependent fluid properties and thermal effects. Based on representative examples of water–glycerol and water–ethanol droplets, regular and chaotic examples of solutal Marangoni flows are discussed. Furthermore, the relevance of the substrate thickness for the evaporative cooling of volatile binary mixture droplets is pointed out. It is shown how the evaporation of the more volatile component can drastically decrease the interface temperature, so that ambient vapor of the less volatile component condenses on the droplet. Finally, results of this model are compared with corresponding results of a lubrication theory model, showing that the application of lubrication theory can cause considerable errors even for moderate contact angles of 40°. - Graphical abstract:.

  4. Development of a model for spray evaporation based on droplet analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Q.

    2016-08-20

    Extreme flash evaporation occurs when superheated liquid is sprayed into a low pressure zone. This method has high potential to improve the performance of thermally-driven desalination plants. To enable a more in-depth understanding on flash evaporation of a superheated feed water spray, a theoretical model has been developed with key considerations given to droplet motion and droplet size distribution. The model has been validated against 14 experimental data sets from literature sources to within 12% discrepancy. This model is capable of accurately predicting the water productivity and thermal efficiency of existing spray evaporator under specific operating conditions. Employing this model, the effect of several design parameters on system performance was investigated. Key results revealed that smaller droplet enabled faster evaporation process while higher initial droplet velocity promoted water productivity. Thermal utilization marginally changes with the degree of superheat, which renders a quick design calculation of the brine temperature without the need for iterations. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Source of temperature and pressure pulsations during sessile droplet evaporation into multicomponent atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Aaron H; Sefiane, Khellil; Ward, Charles A

    2013-10-29

    During sessile droplet evaporation, studies with IR thermography and shadowgraphs have indicated temperature pulsations. We confirm those observations with microthermocouples, but microthermocouples also indicate temperature pulsations in the atmosphere of the droplet. The pressure in this atmosphere pulsated as well and was correlated with the temperature pulsations in the droplet. Also, we find that if a droplet evaporates into its own vapor, there are no temperature or pressure pulsations. The pulsations occur only if the droplet evaporates into an atmosphere with a component having a heat of solution with the droplet when it adsorbs-absorbs. None of the currently proposed mechanisms for the temperature pulsations provide an explanation for the coupling between the temperature pulsations in the droplet and the vapor-phase pressure pulsations, and for the absence of the pulsations when the system is single-component. As a mechanism for the pulsations, we propose that when a droplet is exposed to an atmosphere containing a component that has a heat of solution with the droplet, energy will be released from adsorption-absorption. This energy will cause pulsations in the evaporation flux, and these pulsations could cause the observed temperature and pressure pulsations. We examine this mechanism by showing that, if the measured temperature pulsations in a water droplet exposed to a methanol atmosphere are used as the input to a theory of evaporation kinetics (statistical rate theory), the pressure pulsations of the water vapor in the methanol atmosphere are predicted and agree with those measured with a quadrupole mass analyzer. When the inputs and outputs are reversed in the theory, we find that the temperature pulsations in the droplet are correctly predicted from the measured water vapor pulsations in the atmosphere.

  6. Thermal management of metallic surfaces: evaporation of sessile water droplets on polished and patterned stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiec, T.; Tsareva, S.; Andrieux, A.; Bortolini, G. A.; Bolzan, P. H.; Castanet, G.; Gradeck, M.; Marcos, G.

    2017-10-01

    This communication focus on the evaporation of sessile water droplets on different states of austenitic stainless steel surfaces: mirror polished, mirror polished and aged and patterned by sputtering. The evolution of the contact angle and of the droplet diameter is presented as a function of time at room temperature. For all the surface states, a constant diameter regime (CCR) is observed. An important aging effect on the contact angle is measured on polished surfaces due to atmospheric contamination. The experimental observations are compared to a quasi-static evaporation model assuming spherical caps. The evolution of the droplet volume as a function of time is almost linear with the evaporation time for all the observed surfaces. This is in accordance with the model prediction for the CCR mode for small initial contact angles. In our experiments, the evaporation time is found to be linearly dependent on the initial contact angle. This dependence is not correctly described by the evaporation model

  7. Transient heating and evaporation of moving mono-component liquid fuel droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a complete description of a model for transient heating and evaporation of moving mono-component liquid fuel droplets. The model mainly consists of gas phase heat and mass transfer analysis, liquid phase analysis, and droplet dynamics analysis, which address the interaction be...

  8. Confinement-induced alterations in the evaporation dynamics of sessile droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Suman; Basu, Saptarshi

    2017-02-07

    Evaporation of sessile droplets has been a topic of extensive research. However, the effect of confinement on the underlying dynamics has not been well explored. Here, we report the evaporation dynamics of a sessile droplet in a confined fluidic environment. Our findings reveal that an increase in the channel length delays the completion of the evaporation process and leads to unique spatio-temporal evaporation flux and internal flow. The evaporation modes (constant contact angle and constant contact radius) during the droplet lifetime however exhibit global similarity when normalized by appropriate length and timescales. These results are explained in light of an increase in vapor concentration inside the channel due to greater accumulation of water vapor on account of increased channel length. We have formulated a theoretical framework which introduces two key parameters namely an enhanced concentration of the vapor field in the vicinity of the confined droplet and a corresponding accumulation lengthscale over which the accumulated vapor relaxes to the ambient concentration. Using these two parameters and modified diffusion based evaporation we are able to show that confined droplets exhibit a universal behavior in terms of the temporal evolution of each evaporation mode irrespective of the channel length. These results may turn out to be of profound importance in a wide variety of applications, ranging from surface patterning to microfluidic technology.

  9. Experimental Investigation Evaporation of Liquid Mixture Droplets during Depressurization into Air Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Bi, Q. C.; Terekhov, Victor I.; Shishkin, Nikolay E.

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop experimental method to study the evaporation process of liquid mixture droplets during depressurization and into air stream. During the experiment, a droplet was suspended on a thermocouple; an infrared thermal imager was used to measure the droplet surface temperature transition. Saltwater droplets were used to investigate the evaporation process during depressurization, and volatile liquid mixtures of ethanol, methanol and acetone in water were applied to experimentally research the evaporation into air stream. According to the results, the composition and concentration has a complex influence on the evaporation rate and the temperature transition. With an increase in the share of more volatile component, the evaporation rate increases. While, a higher salt concentration in water results in a lower evaporation rate. The shape variation of saltwater droplet also depends on the mass concentration in solution, whether it is higher or lower than the eutectic point (22.4%). The results provide important insight into the complex heat and mass transfer of liquid mixture during evaporation.

  10. Influence of surface wettability on transport mechanisms governing water droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhenhai; Weibel, Justin A; Garimella, Suresh V

    2014-08-19

    Prediction and manipulation of the evaporation of small droplets is a fundamental problem with importance in a variety of microfluidic, microfabrication, and biomedical applications. A vapor-diffusion-based model has been widely employed to predict the interfacial evaporation rate; however, its scope of applicability is limited due to incorporation of a number of simplifying assumptions of the physical behavior. Two key transport mechanisms besides vapor diffusion-evaporative cooling and natural convection in the surrounding gas-are investigated here as a function of the substrate wettability using an augmented droplet evaporation model. Three regimes are distinguished by the instantaneous contact angle (CA). In Regime I (CA ≲ 60°), the flat droplet shape results in a small thermal resistance between the liquid-vapor interface and substrate, which mitigates the effect of evaporative cooling; upward gas-phase natural convection enhances evaporation. In Regime II (60 ≲ CA ≲ 90°), evaporative cooling at the interface suppresses evaporation with increasing contact angle and counterbalances the gas-phase convection enhancement. Because effects of the evaporative cooling and gas-phase convection mechanisms largely neutralize each other, the vapor-diffusion-based model can predict the overall evaporation rates in this regime. In Regime III (CA ≳ 90°), evaporative cooling suppresses the evaporation rate significantly and reverses entirely the direction of natural convection induced by vapor concentration gradients in the gas phase. Delineation of these counteracting mechanisms reconciles previous debate (founded on single-surface experiments or models that consider only a subset of the governing transport mechanisms) regarding the applicability of the classic vapor-diffusion model. The vapor diffusion-based model cannot predict the local evaporation flux along the interface for high contact angle (CA ≥ 90°) when evaporative cooling is strong and the

  11. Internal flow and evaporation characteristic inside a water droplet on a vertical vibrating hydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Hun; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand the internal flow and the evaporation characteristics of a deionized water droplet subjected to vertical forced vibrations. To predict and evaluate its resonance frequency, the theories of Lamb, Strani, and Sabetta have been applied. To visualize the precise mode, shape, and internal flow inside a droplet, the experiment utilizes a combination of a high-speed camera, macro lens, and continuous laser. As a result, a water droplet on a hydrophobic surface has its typical shape at each mode, and complicated vortices are observed inside the droplet. In particular, large symmetrical flow streams are generated along the vertical axis at each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In addition, a bifurcation-shaped flow pattern is formed at modes 2 and 4, whereas a large ellipsoid-shape flow pattern forms at modes 6 and 8. Mode 4 has the fastest internal flow speed and evaporation rate, followed by modes 8 then 6, with 2 having the slowest of these properties. Each mode has the fastest evaporation rate amongst its neighboring frequencies. Finally, the droplet evaporation under vertical vibration would lead to more rapid evaporation, particularly for mode 4

  12. Experimental investigation of evaporation enhancement for water droplet containing solid particles in flaming combustion area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study of integral characteristics of extinguishing liquid (water droplet evaporation in flaming combustion area has been held. Optical methods of two-phase and heterogeneous mixtures diagnostics (“Particle Image Velocimetry” and “Interferometric Particle Imaging” have been used for heat and mass transfer process investigation. It was established that small-size solid particles (for example, carbon particles in droplet structure can enhance water evaporation in flame area. It was shown that the rate of evaporation process depends on concentration and sizes of solid particles in a water droplet. The correlations have been determined between the sizes of solid particles and water droplets for maximum efficiency of fire extinguishing. The physical aspects of the problem have been discussed.

  13. Stick-Jump (SJ) Evaporation of Strongly Pinned Nanoliter Volume Sessile Water Droplets on Quick Drying, Micropatterned Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuisson, Damien; Merlen, Alain; Senez, Vincent; Arscott, Steve

    2016-03-22

    We present an experimental study of stick-jump (SJ) evaporation of strongly pinned nanoliter volume sessile water droplets drying on micropatterned surfaces. The evaporation is studied on surfaces composed of photolithographically micropatterned negative photoresist (SU-8). The micropatterning of the SU-8 enables circular, smooth, trough-like features to be formed which causes a very strong pinning of the three phase (liquid-vapor-solid) contact line of an evaporating droplet. This is ideal for studying SJ evaporation as it contains sequential constant contact radius (CCR) evaporation phases during droplet evaporation. The evaporation was studied in nonconfined conditions, and forced convection was not used. Micropatterned concentric circles were defined having an initial radius of 1000 μm decreasing by a spacing ranging from 500 to 50 μm. The droplet evaporates, successively pinning and depinning from circle to circle. For each pinning radius, the droplet contact angle and volume are observed to decrease quasi-linearly with time. The experimental average evaporation rates were found to decrease with decreasing pining radii. In contrast, the experimental average evaporation flux is found to increase with decreasing droplet radii. The data also demonstrate the influence of the initial contact angle on evaporation rate and flux. The data indicate that the total evaporation time of a droplet depends on the specific micropattern spacing and that the total evaporation time on micropatterned surfaces is always less than on flat, homogeneous surfaces. Although the surface patterning is observed to have little effect on the average droplet flux-indicating that the underlying evaporation physics is not significantly changed by the patterning-the total evaporation time is considerably modified by patterning, up to a factor or almost 2 compared to evaporation on a flat, homogeneous surface. The closely spaced concentric circle pinning maintains a large droplet radius and

  14. Sound Propagation in Gas-Vapor-Droplet Suspensions with Evaporation and Nonlinear Particle Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2012-01-01

    The Sound attenuation and dispersion in saturated gas-vapor-droplet mixture in the presence of evaporation has been investigated theoretically. The theory is based on an extension of the work of Davidson to accommodate the effects of nonlinear particle relaxation processes of mass, momentum and energy transfer on sound attenuation and dispersion. The results indicate the existence of a spectral broadening effect in the attenuation coefficient (scaled with respect to the peak value) with a decrease in droplet mass concentration. It is further shown that for large values of the droplet concentration the scaled attenuation coefficient is characterized by a universal spectrum independent of droplet mass concentration.

  15. EVAPORATIVE DROPLETS IN ONE-COMPONENT FLUIDS DRIVEN BY THERMAL GRADIENTS ON SOLID SUBSTRATES

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2013-03-20

    A continuum hydrodynamic model is presented for one-component liquid-gas flows on nonisothermal solid substrates. Numerical simulations are carried out for evaporative droplets moving on substrates with thermal gradients. For droplets in one-component fluids on heated/cooled substrates, the free liquid-gas interfaces are nearly isothermal. Consequently, a thermal singularity occurs at the contact line while the Marangoni effect due to interfacial temperature variation is suppressed. Through evaporation/condensation near the contact line, the thermal singularity makes the contact angle increase with the increasing substrate temperature. Due to this effect, droplets will move toward the cold end on substrates with thermal gradients. The droplet migration velocity is found to be proportional to the change of substrate temperature across the droplet. It follows that for two droplets of different sizes on a substrate with temperature gradient, the larger droplet moves faster and will catch up with the smaller droplet ahead. As soon as they touch, they coalesce rapidly into an even larger droplet that will move even faster. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  16. Probing the evaporation of ternary ethanol-methanol-water droplets by cavity enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, Chris R; Homer, Chris J; Hopkins, Rebecca J; Reid, Jonathan P

    2007-10-21

    Cavity enhanced Raman scattering is used to characterise the evolving composition of ternary aerosol droplets containing methanol, ethanol and water during evaporation into a dry nitrogen atmosphere. Measurements made using non-linear stimulated Raman scattering from these ternary alcohol-water droplets allow the in situ determination of the concentration of the two alcohol components with high accuracy. The overlapping spontaneous Raman bands of the two alcohol components, arising from C-H stretching vibrational modes, are spectrally-resolved in stimulated Raman scattering measurements. We also demonstrate that the evaporation measurements are consistent with a quasi-steady state evaporation model, which can be used to interpret the evaporation dynamics occurring at a range of pressures at a particular evaporation time.

  17. Specificity Switching Pathways in Thermal and Mass Evaporation of Multicomponent Hydrocarbon Droplets: A Mesoscopic Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Rasoul; Luo, Kai H

    2017-07-10

    For well over one century, the Hertz-Knudsen equation has established the relationship between thermal - mass transfer coefficients through a liquid - vapour interface and evaporation rate. These coefficients, however, have been often separately estimated for one-component equilibrium systems and their simultaneous influences on evaporation rate of fuel droplets in multicomponent systems have yet to be investigated at the atomic level. Here we first apply atomistic simulation techniques and quantum/statistical mechanics methods to understand how thermal and mass evaporation effects are controlled kinetically/thermodynamically. We then present a new development of a hybrid method of quantum transition state theory/improved kinetic gas theory, for multicomponent hydrocarbon systems to investigate how concerted-distinct conformational changes of hydrocarbons at the interface affect the evaporation rate. The results of this work provide an important physical concept in fundamental understanding of atomistic pathways in topological interface transitions of chain molecules, resolving an open problem in kinetics of fuel droplets evaporation.

  18. Effect of Marangoni Flows on the Shape of Thin Sessile Droplets Evaporating into Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumpas, Yannis; Dehaeck, Sam; Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    With the help of Mach-Zehnder interferometry, we study the (largely) axisymmetric shapes of freely receding evaporating sessile droplets of various HFE liquids. The droplets evaporate into ambient air and, although the liquids are perfectly wetting, possess small finite contact angles reckoned to be evaporation-induced. The experimentally determined droplet profiles are shown here to deviate, under some conditions, from the classical macroscopic static profile of a sessile droplet, as this is determined by gravity and capillarity. These deviations are attributed to a Marangoni flow, due to evaporation-induced thermal gradients along the liquid-air interface, and are mostly observed in conditions of high evaporation. Unlike the classical static shapes, the distorted experimental profiles exhibit an inflection point at the contact line area. When a poorly volatile liquid is considered, however, the temperature differences and the Marangoni stresses are weak, and the measurements are found to be in a good agreement with the classical static shape. Overall, the experimental findings are quantitatively confirmed by the predictions of a lubrication model accounting for the impact of the Marangoni effect on the droplet shape. Financial support of FP7 Marie Curie MULTIFLOW Network (PITNGA-2008-214919), ESA/BELSPO-PRODEX, BELSPO- μMAST (IAP 7/38) & FRS-FNRS is gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Effect of surfactant concentration on the evaporation of droplets on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhaolu; Cao, Chong; Cao, Lidong; Zheng, Li; Xu, Jun; Li, Fengmin; Huang, Qiliang

    2018-04-05

    The evaporation kinetics of pesticide droplets deposited on a leaf surface can affect their application efficiency. Evaporation of droplets on the hydrophobic leaves has received considerable attention, but little is known about hydrophilic leaf surfaces. In this study, the effect of surfactant concentration on the evaporation of droplets deposited on cotton leaves was investigated. The evaporation time is roughly decreased for concentrations ranging from 0% to 0.01% and increased from 0.01% to 0.10%. Contrary to the widely held belief that pesticide retention on target crops can rapidly be formed only with surfactant concentrations exceeding the CMC (critical micelle concentration), this study demonstrates that, on hydrophilic cotton leaves, fast evaporation of the droplet at surfactant concentrations of 0.01% (CMC) can reduce the volume quickly, lower the loss point and enhance pesticide retention. In addition, the evolution of droplet volume, height and contact angle on the cotton leaf surface were measured to confirm this conclusion. The result presented herein can be used to guide the use of surfactants and pesticides in agriculture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluid flow and particle dynamics inside an evaporating droplet containing live bacteria displaying chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokchom, Ashish Kumar; Swaminathan, Rajaram; Singh, Anugrah

    2014-10-21

    Evaporation-induced particle deposition patterns like coffee rings provide easy visual identification that is beneficial for developing inexpensive and simple diagnostic devices for detecting pathogens. In this study, the effect of chemotaxis on such pattern formation has been realized experimentally in drying droplets of bacterial suspensions. We have investigated the velocity field, concentration profile, and deposition pattern in the evaporating droplet of Escherichia coli suspension in the presence and absence of nutrients. Flow visualization experiments using particle image velocimetry (PIV) were carried out with E. coli bacteria as biological tracer particles. Experiments were conducted for suspensions of motile (live) as well as nonmotile (dead) bacteria. In the absence of any nutrient gradient like sugar on the substrate, both types of bacterial suspension showed two symmetric convection cells and a ring like deposition of particles after complete evaporation. Interestingly, the droplet containing live bacterial suspension showed a different velocity field when the sugar was placed at the base of the droplet. This can be attributed to the chemoattractant nature of the sugar, which induced chemotaxis among live bacteria targeted toward the nutrient site. Deposition of the suspended bacteria was also displaced toward the nutrient site as the evaporation proceeded. Our experiments demonstrate that both velocity fields and concentration patterns can be altered by chemotaxis to modify the pattern formation in evaporating droplet containing live bacteria. These results highlight the role of bacterial chemotaxis in modifying coffee ring patterns.

  1. Dynamic Roughness Ratio-Based Framework for Modeling Mixed Mode of Droplet Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjan, Madhu Ranjan; Raj, Rishi

    2017-07-18

    The spatiotemporal evolution of an evaporating sessile droplet and its effect on lifetime is crucial to various disciplines of science and technology. Although experimental investigations suggest three distinct modes through which a droplet evaporates, namely, the constant contact radius (CCR), the constant contact angle (CCA), and the mixed, only the CCR and the CCA modes have been modeled reasonably. Here we use experiments with water droplets on flat and micropillared silicon substrates to characterize the mixed mode. We visualize that a perfect CCA mode after the initial CCR mode is an idealization on a flat silicon substrate, and the receding contact line undergoes intermittent but recurring pinning (CCR mode) as it encounters fresh contaminants on the surface. The resulting increase in roughness lowers the contact angle of the droplet during these intermittent CCR modes until the next depinning event, followed by the CCA mode of evaporation. The airborne contaminants in our experiments are mostly loosely adhered to the surface and travel along with the receding contact line. The resulting gradual increase in the apparent roughness and hence the extent of CCR mode over CCA mode forces appreciable decrease in the contact angle observed during the mixed mode of evaporation. Unlike loosely adhered airborne contaminants on flat samples, micropillars act as fixed roughness features. The apparent roughness fluctuates about the mean value as the contact line recedes between pillars. Evaporation on these surfaces exhibits stick-jump motion with a short-duration mixed mode toward the end when the droplet size becomes comparable to the pillar spacing. We incorporate this dynamic roughness into a classical evaporation model to accurately predict the droplet evolution throughout the three modes, for both flat and micropillared silicon surfaces. We believe that this framework can also be extended to model the evaporation of nanofluids and the coffee-ring effect, among

  2. Towards universal buckling dynamics in nanocolloidal sessile droplets: the effect of hydrophilic to superhydrophobic substrates and evaporation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Saptarshi; Bansal, Lalit; Miglani, Ankur

    2016-06-14

    The evaporation of a nanocolloidal sessile droplet exhibits preferential particle assembly, nanoporous shell formation and buckling to form cavities with unique morphological features. Here, we have established many universal trends that explain the buckling dynamics under one umbrella irrespective of hydrophobicity, evaporation mode and particle loading. We provide a regime map explaining the droplet morphology and buckling characteristics for droplet evaporation on various substrates. Specifically, we find that the final droplet volume and the radius of curvature at the buckling onset are universal functions of particle concentration. Furthermore, we establish that post-buckling cavity growth is evaporation driven regardless of the substrate.

  3. Evaporation of Water Droplets on “Lock-and-Key” Structures with Nanoscale Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Xiaohan

    2012-01-01

    Highly ordered poly(dimethylsiloxane) microbowl arrays (MBAs) and microcap arrays (MCAs) with “lock-and-key” properties are successfully fabricated by self-assembly and electrochemical deposition. The wetting properties and evaporation dynamics of water droplets for both cases have been investiga......Highly ordered poly(dimethylsiloxane) microbowl arrays (MBAs) and microcap arrays (MCAs) with “lock-and-key” properties are successfully fabricated by self-assembly and electrochemical deposition. The wetting properties and evaporation dynamics of water droplets for both cases have been...... investigated. For the MBAs case, the wetting radius of the droplets remains unchanged until the portion of the droplet completely dries out at the end of the evaporation process. The pinning state extends for more than 99.5% of the total evaporation time, and the pinning–shrinking transition is essentially...... prevented whereas in the case of the MCAs the contact radius exhibits distinct stages during evaporation and the contact line retreats significantly in the middle of the evaporation process. We explain the phenomenon by a qualitative energy balance argument based on the different shrinkage types...

  4. Temperature measurement of single evaporating water droplets in a nitrogen flow using spontaneous Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinisch, Christian; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Tschudi, Theo; Tropea, Cameron

    2009-11-14

    The evaporation dynamics of stationary water droplets held within an electrodynamic trap are investigated in a nitrogen flow of variable velocity. In particular, the influence of the nitrogen gas flow on the temperature of the evaporating water droplets is studied. By applying a contact free measurement technique, based on spontaneous Raman scattering, time averaged and time resolved measurements of temperature in the droplet volume are compared. This technique determines the temperature from an intensity ratio in the OH stretching band of the Stokes-Raman scattering after calibration. The measured trends in temperature over the first 5 s of evaporation are found to be in agreement with theoretical calculations of the heat and mass transfer rates.

  5. A kinetic model of droplet heating and evaporation: Effects of inelastic collisions and a non-unity evaporation coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Sazhin, Sergei S.

    2013-01-01

    The previously developed kinetic model for droplet heating and evaporation into a high pressure air is generalised to take into account the combined effects of inelastic collisions between molecules in the kinetic region, a non-unity evaporation coefficient and temperature gradient inside droplets. It is pointed out that for the parameters typical for Diesel engine-like conditions, the heat flux in the kinetic region is a linear function of the vapour temperature at the outer boundary of this region, but practically does not depend on vapour density at this boundary for all models, including and not including the effects of inelastic collisions, and including and not including the effects of a non-unity evaporation coefficient. For any given temperature at the outer boundary of the kinetic region the values of the heat flux are shown to decrease with increasing numbers of internal degrees of freedom of the molecules. The rate of this decrease is strong for small numbers of these degrees of freedom but negligible when the number of these degrees exceeds 20. This allows us to restrict the analysis to the first 20 arbitrarily chosen degrees of freedom of n-dodecane molecules when considering the effects of inelastic collisions. The mass flux at this boundary decreases almost linearly with increasing vapour density at the same location for all above-mentioned models. For any given vapour density at the outer boundary of the kinetic region the values of the mass flux are smaller for the model, taking into account the contribution of internal degrees of freedom, than for the model ignoring these degrees of freedom. It is shown that the effects of inelastic collisions lead to stronger increase in the predicted droplet evaporation time in Diesel engine-like conditions relative to the hydrodynamic model, compared with the similar increase predicted by the kinetic model considering only elastic collisions. The effects of a non-unity evaporation coefficient are shown to be

  6. Development of Apparatus for Microgravity Experiments on Evaporation and Combustion of Palm Methyl Ester Droplet in High-Pressure Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masato; Nomura, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Nozomu

    New apparatus for microgravity experiments was developed in order to obtain fundamental data of single droplet evaporation and combustion of palm methyl ester (PME) for understanding PME spray combustion in internal combustion engines. n-hexadecane droplet combustion and evaporation experiments were also performed to obtain single-component fuel data. Combustion experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For droplet evaporation experiments, ambient temperature and pressure were varied from 473 to 873 K and 0.10 to 4.0 MPa, respectively. Microgravity conditions were employed for evaporation experiments to prevent natural convection. Droplet diameter history of a burning PME droplet is similar to that of n-hexadecane. Droplet diameter history of an evaporating PME droplet is different from that of n-hexadecane at low ambient temperatures. In the latest stage of PME droplet evaporation, temporal evaporation constant decreases remarkably. At ambient temperatures sufficiently above the boiling temperature of PME components, droplet diameter history of PME and n-hexadecane are similar to each other. Corrected evaporation lifetime τ of PME at 873 K as a function of ambient pressure was obtained at normal and microgravity. At normal gravity, τ monotonically decreases with ambient pressure. On the other hand, at microgravity, τ increases with ambient pressure, and then decreases.

  7. Evaporation-induced particle microseparations inside droplets floating on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Suk Tai; Velev, Orlin D

    2006-02-14

    We describe phenomena of colloidal particle transport and separation inside single microdroplets of water floating on the surface of dense fluorinated oil. The experiments were performed on microfluidic chips, where single droplets were manipulated with alternating electric fields applied to arrays of electrodes below the oil. The particles suspended in the droplets were collected in their top region during the evaporation process. Experimental results and numerical simulations show that this microsepration occurs as a result of a series of processes driven by mass and heat transfer. An interfacial tension gradient develops on the surface of the droplet as a result of the nonuniform temperature distribution during the evaporation. This gradient generates an internal convective Marangoni flow. The colloidal particles transported by the flow are collected in the top of the droplets by the hydrodynamic flux, compensating for evaporation through the exposed top surface. The internal flow pattern and temperature distribution within evaporating droplets were simulated using finite element calculations. The results of the simulation were consistent with experiments using tracer particles. Such microseparation processes can be used for on-chip synthesis of advanced particles and innovative microbioassays.

  8. Secondary organic aerosol formation during evaporation of droplets containing atmospheric aldehydes, amines, and ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Melissa M; Powelson, Michelle H; Sedehi, Nahzaneen; Wood, Stephanie E; Millage, Katherine D; Kononenko, Julia A; Rynaski, Alec D; De Haan, David O

    2014-12-16

    Reactions of carbonyl compounds in cloudwater produce organic aerosol mass through in-cloud oxidation and during postcloud evaporation. In this work, postcloud evaporation was simulated in laboratory experiments on evaporating droplets that contain mixtures of common atmospheric aldehydes with ammonium sulfate (AS), methylamine, or glycine. Aerosol diameters were measured during monodisperse droplet drying experiments and during polydisperse droplet equilibration experiments at 75% relative humidity, and condensed-phase mass was measured in bulk thermogravimetric experiments. The evaporation of water from a droplet was found to trigger aldehyde reactions that increased residual particle volumes by a similar extent in room-temperature experiments, regardless of whether AS, methylamine, or glycine was present. The production of organic aerosol volume was highest from droplets containing glyoxal, followed by similar production from methylglyoxal or hydroxyacetone. Significant organic aerosol production was observed for glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde only at elevated temperatures in thermogravimetric experiments. In many experiments, the amount of aerosol produced was greater than the sum of all solutes plus nonvolatile solvent impurities, indicating the additional presence of trapped water, likely caused by increasing aerosol-phase viscosity due to oligomer formation.

  9. Sound Propagation in Saturated Gas-Vapor-Droplet Suspensions Considering the Effect of Transpiration on Droplet Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2012-01-01

    The Sound attenuation and dispersion in saturated gas-vapor-droplet mixtures with evaporation has been investigated theoretically. The theory is based on an extension of the work of Davidson (1975) to accommodate the effects of transpiration on the linear particle relaxation processes of mass, momentum and energy transfer. It is shown that the inclusion of transpiration in the presence of mass transfer improves the agreement between the theory and the experimental data of Cole and Dobbins (1971) for sound attenuation in air-water fogs at low droplet mass concentrations. The results suggest that transpiration has an appreciable effect on both sound absorption and dispersion for both low and high droplet mass concentrations.

  10. An experimental investigation of evaporating sessile droplet on super-hydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Hwan; Lee, Seong Hyuk; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the evaporation process of a water droplet on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. Time-dependent contact angle, height, radius, surface area, and volume were measured for three different surfaces, such as glass, OctadecylTrichloroSilane(OTS), and AlkylKetene Dimmer(AKD) using a digital image analysis technique. For hydrophilic surfaces, the measured contact angle, liquid volume, and height are also compared with numerical estimation. It is found that for super-hydrophobic surfaces, the contact line becomes no longer pinned during evaporation, and three distinct stages for hydrophobic surface cannot be found. For the super-hydrophobic surface, it takes the longest time for evaporation because the droplet maintains spherical shape even near the end of evaporation process

  11. Water droplet condensation and evaporation in turbulent channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, E; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; van der Geld, C.W.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    We propose a point-particle model for two-way coupling of water droplets dispersed in the turbulent flow of a carrier gas consisting of air and water vapour. We adopt an Euler–Lagrangian formulation based on conservation laws for the mass, momentum and energy of the continuous phase and on empirical

  12. Pining phenomena of an evaporated droplet on the hydrophobic micro-textured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Dong In; Doh, Seung Woo; Park, Hyun Sun; Moriyama Kiyofumia; Kim, Moo Hwan; Kwak, Ho Jae; Ahn, Ho Seon

    2015-01-01

    When the decreased contact angle reaches the receding contact angle, the contact radius is reduced while maintaining a constant contact angle, i.e., this evaporation mode is known as the constant contact angle (CCA) mode. The emphasis of the droplet evaporation is that the transition from CCR to CCA modes is relative with the rate of the droplet evaporation, and it is markedly influenced by the surface wettability. In this study, it is focused on the evaporation mode transition. Especially, the transition from CCR to CCA modes is investigated on the hydrophobic microtextured surfaces. On the basis of the thermodynamics, the transition from CCR to CCA mode is theoretically analyzed. The thermodynamic model is developed to estimate the receding contact angle at the evaporation mode transition. Additionally, to compare between the theoretical model and experimental results, it is shown that the experimental receding contact angle is well estimated by the receding contact angle with the theoretical model. This study was performed to investigate the pinning phenomena of an evaporated droplet on the hydrophobic micro-textured surfaces. The pinning phenomena at the contact line were shown theoretically to be due to the most favorable thermodynamics process that caused the Gibbs free energy to rapidly reach an equilibrium state during droplet evaporation. The evaporation mode underwent a transition when the decrease in the Gibbs free energy was equivalent for the CCR and CCA modes. On the basis of the analysis described here, a theoretical model was developed to estimate the receding contact angle at the mode transition as a function of the surface conditions

  13. Droplet evaporation and spread on waxy and hairy leaves associated with type and concentration of adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linyun; Zhu, Heping; Ozkan, H Erdal; Bagley, William E; Krause, Charles R

    2011-07-01

    Adjuvants can improve pesticide application efficiency and effectiveness. However, quantifications of the adjuvant-amended pesticide droplet actions on foliage, which could affect application efficiencies, are largely unknown. Droplet evaporation rates and spread on waxy or hairy leaves varied greatly with the adjuvant types tested. On waxy leaves, the wetted areas of droplets containing crop oil concentrate (COC) were significantly smaller than those containing modified seed oil (MSO), non-ionic surfactant (NIS) or oil surfactant blend (OSB), whereas the evaporation rates of COC-amended droplets were significantly higher. On hairy leaves, COC-amended droplets remained on top of the hairs without wetting the epidermis. When the relative concentration was 1.50, the wetted area of droplets with NIS was 9.2 times lower than that with MSO and 6.1 times lower than that with OSB. The wetted area increased as the adjuvant concentration increased. MSO- or OSB-amended droplets spread extensively on the hairy leaf surface until they were completely dried. These results demonstrated that the proper concentration of MSO, NIS or OSB in spray mixtures improved the homogeneity of spray coverage on both waxy and hairy leaf surfaces and could reduce pesticide use. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Single-Droplet Experimentation on Spray Drying: Evaporation of a Sessile Droplet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The basis for the development of a platform for high-throughput experimentation on spray drying is formed. To mimic the drying of single droplets during spray drying, individual droplets are dispensed and dried on a flat surface. A dispensing process is used that is able to dispense viscous liquids

  15. Evaporation of a sessile droplet: Inside the coffee stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Anna; Berteloot, Guillaume; Daerr, Adrian; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Lequeux, Francois; Limat, Laurent

    2010-11-01

    The deposition of uniform layers of colloids on a solid surface is a major challenge for several industrial processes such as glass surface treatment and creating optical filters. A possible strategy involves the deposition of the colloids behind a contact line that recedes due to hydrodynamic reasons and evaporation (drying). We have investigated a drop of colloidal suspension evaporating on a flat surface where the contact line remains strongly pinned on the surface. We have observed that the deposit grows from the contact line following a t^23 law and then accelerates with surprising spatial and temporal modulations. The power law can be recovered by a ballistic model, in which the particles are driven to contact line by the evaporation field that diverges near the contact line.

  16. Modelling of heating and evaporation of n-Heptane droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    This study is a part of a project that is targeted to optimize the pyrolysis process of biomass pellets for bio-oil production and to develop new technology to upgrade the bio-oil for use in transportation. Among others, study of pyrolysis of the biomass pellets and evaporation of the pyrolysis b...

  17. A computational study of droplet evaporation with fuel vapor jet ejection induced by localized heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2015-05-12

    Droplet evaporation by a localized heat source under microgravity conditions was numerically investigated in an attempt to understand the mechanism of the fuel vapor jet ejection, which was observed experimentally during the flame spread through a droplet array. An Eulerian-Lagrangian method was implemented with a temperature-dependent surface tension model and a local phase change model in order to effectively capture the interfacial dynamics between liquid droplet and surrounding air. It was found that the surface tension gradient caused by the temperature variation within the droplet creates a thermo-capillary effect, known as the Marangoni effect, creating an internal flow circulation and outer shear flow which drives the fuel vapor into a tail jet. A parametric study demonstrated that the Marangoni effect is indeed significant at realistic droplet combustion conditions, resulting in a higher evaporation constant. A modified Marangoni number was derived in order to represent the surface force characteristics. The results at different pressure conditions indicated that the nonmonotonic response of the evaporation rate to pressure may also be attributed to the Marangoni effect.

  18. Dynamics of Water Absorption and Evaporation During Methanol Droplet Combustion in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.

    2012-01-01

    The combustion of methanol droplets is profoundly influenced by the absorption and evaporation of water, generated in the gas phase as a part of the combustion products. Initially there is a water-absorption period of combustion during which the latent heat of condensation of water vapor, released into the droplet, enhances its burning rate, whereas later there is a water-evaporation period, during which the water vapor reduces the flame temperature suffciently to extinguish the flame. Recent methanol droplet-combustion experiments in ambient environments diluted with carbon dioxide, conducted in the Combustion Integrated Rack on the International Space Station (ISS), as a part of the FLEX project, provided a method to delineate the water-absorption period from the water-evaporation period using video images of flame intensity. These were obtained using an ultra-violet camera that captures the OH* radical emission at 310 nm wavelength and a color camera that captures visible flame emission. These results are compared with results of ground-based tests in the Zero Gravity Facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center which employed smaller droplets in argon-diluted environments. A simplified theoretical model developed earlier correlates the transition time at which water absorption ends and evaporation starts. The model results are shown to agree reasonably well with experiment.

  19. A numerical investigation of the evaporation process of a liquid droplet impinging onto a hot substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolopoulos, N.; Bergeles, G. [National Technical University of Athens (Greece). Department Mechanical Engineering; Theodorakakos, A. [Fluid Research, Co (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    A numerical investigation of the evaporation process of n-heptane and water liquid droplets impinging onto a hot substrate is presented. Three different temperatures are investigated, covering flow regimes below and above Leidenfrost temperature. The Navier-Stokes equations expressing the flow distribution of the liquid and gas phases, coupled with the Volume of Fluid Method (VOF) for tracking the liquid-gas interface, are solved numerically using the finite volume methodology. Both two-dimensional axisymmetric and fully three-dimensional domains are utilized. An evaporation model coupled with the VOF methodology predicts the vapor blanket height between the evaporating droplet and the substrate, for cases with substrate temperature above the Leidenfrost point, and the formation of vapor bubbles in the region of nucleate boiling regime. The results are compared with available experimental data indicating the outcome of the impingement and the droplet shape during the impingement process, while additional information for the droplet evaporation rate and the temperature and vapor concentration fields is provided by the computational model. (author)

  20. Evaporation of Ventilated Water Droplet: Connection Between Heat and Mass Transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Ondráčková, Lucie; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Kulmala, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 6 (2001), s. 739-748 ISSN 0021-8502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : droplet evaporation * heat and mass transfer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2001

  1. Clustering and entrainment effects on the evaporation of dilute droplets in a turbulent jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Barba, Federico; Picano, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    The evaporation of droplets within turbulent sprays involves unsteady, multiscale, and multiphase processes which make its comprehension and modeling capabilities still limited. The present work aims to investigate the dynamics of droplet vaporization within a turbulent spatial developing jet in dilute, nonreacting conditions. We address the problem considering a turbulent jet laden with acetone droplets and using the direct numerical simulation framework based on a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian approach and the point droplet approximation. A detailed statistical analysis of both phases is presented. In particular, we show how crucial is the preferential sampling of the vapor phase induced by the inhomogeneous localization of the droplets through the flow. Strong droplet preferential segregation develops suddenly downstream from the inflow section both within the turbulent core and the jet mixing layer. Two distinct mechanisms have been found to drive this phenomenon: the inertial small-scale clustering in the jet core and the intermittent dynamics of droplets across the turbulent-nonturbulent interface in the mixing layer, where dry air entrainment occurs. These phenomenologies strongly affect the overall vaporization process and lead to an impressive widening of the droplet size and vaporization rate distributions in the downstream evolution of the turbulent spray.

  2. Influence of Evaporating Droplets in the Turbulent Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tianze; Richter, David

    2017-12-01

    Sea-spray droplets ejected into the marine atmospheric boundary layer take part in a series of complex transport processes. By capturing the air-droplet coupling and feedback, we focus on how droplets modify the total heat transfer across a turbulent boundary layer. We implement a high-resolution Eulerian-Lagrangian algorithm with varied droplet size and mass loading in a turbulent open-channel flow, revealing that the influence from evaporating droplets varies for different dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of droplets. Droplets that both respond rapidly to the ambient environment and have long suspension times are able to modify the latent and sensible heat fluxes individually, however the competing signs of this modification lead to an overall weak effect on the total heat flux. On the other hand, droplets with a slower thermodynamic response to the environment are less subjected to this compensating effect. This indicates a potential to enhance the total heat flux, but the enhancement is highly dependent on the concentration and suspension time.

  3. Local Heat Transfer to an Evaporating Sessile Droplet in an Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M. J.; Howe, C. M.; Di Marco, P.; Robinson, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    Local heat transfer of an evaporating sessile droplet under a static electric field is an underdeveloped topic. In this research an 80 μl water droplet is placed in the centre of a 25 μm thick stainless steel substrate. A static electric field is applied by an electrode positioned 10 mm above the substrate. A high speed thermal imaging camera is placed below the substrate to capture the thermal footprint of the evaporating droplet. Four electric fields were characterised; 0, 5, 10 and 11 kV/cm. As the electric field is increased the contact angle was observed to decrease. The local heat flux profile, peak and radial location of this peek were observed to be independent of the applied electric field for all test points for this working fluid and surface combination.

  4. Experimental investigation of evaporation from low-contact-angle sessile droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhavaleswarapu, Hemanth K; Migliaccio, Christopher P; Garimella, Suresh V; Murthy, Jayathi Y

    2010-01-19

    Evaporating sessile drops remain pinned at the contact line during much of the evaporation process, and leave a ring of residue on the surface upon dryout. The intensive mass loss near the contact line causes solute particles to flow to the edge of the droplet and deposit at the contact line. The high vapor diffusion gradient and the low thermal resistance of the film near the contact line are responsible for very efficient mass transfer in this region. Although heat and mass transfer at the contact line have been extensively studied, well-characterized experiments remain scarce. The local mass transport in a 100-400 microm region near the contact line of a water droplet of radius 1810 microm on a glass substrate is experimentally quantified in the present work. Microparticle image velocimetry measurements of the three-dimensional flow field near the contact line are conducted to map the velocity field. Combined with high-resolution transient liquid profile shapes, the measured velocity field yields transient local evaporative mass fluxes near the contact line. The spatial and temporal distribution of the local evaporative flux is also documented. The temperature distribution in the droplet near the contact line is deduced from the local evaporative fluxes and interface mass transport theory.

  5. Transient heating and evaporation of moving fuel droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2014-01-01

    In combustion devices involving direct injection of low-volatility liquid fuel (e.g., bio-oils from pyrolysis process) into the combustor, transient heating and vaporization is an important controlling factor in ignition and combustion of the fuel vapor/air mixture. As a result, quite many...... experimental and numerical efforts have been made on this topic. In this paper, a comprehensive 3D model that addresses the internal circulation, heat and mass transfer within a moving droplet has been successfully developed. The model is calibrated by analytical solutions for simplified cases and validated...

  6. Self-assembled nanoparticle deposits formed at the contact line of evaporating micrometer-size droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govor, Leonid V.; Reiter, Günter; Parisi, Jürgen; Bauer, Gottfried H.

    2004-06-01

    We report on the formation of self-assembled rings of Co Pt3 nanoparticles (ring diameter ranging from 0.6 to 1.5 μm , particle diameter 6 nm ) formed in an evaporating thin film. The latter was achieved on the surface of water by spreading a binary mixture composed of two solutions: nitrocellulose dissolved in amyl acetate and Co Pt3 particles stabilized by hexadecylamine dissolved in hexane. The self-assembly process of the nanometer-sized particles into micrometer-sized rings results from phase separation in a thin film of the mixed solutions, leading to a bilayer, and the subsequent decomposition during solvent evaporation of the top hexadecylamine-rich layer into droplets. Finally, the evaporation of the remaining solvent from these droplets gives rise to a retraction of their contact line. The Co Pt3 particles located at the contact line follow its motion and self-assemble along this line.

  7. Forced Spreading of Aqueous Solutions on Zwitterionic Sulfobetaine Surfaces for Rapid Evaporation and Solute Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Singh, Vickramjeet; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2017-08-01

    Solute separation of aqueous mixtures is mainly dominated by water vaporization. The evaporation rate of an aqueous drop grows with increasing the liquid-gas interfacial area. The spontaneous spreading behavior of a water droplet on a total wetting surface provides huge liquid-gas interfacial area per unit volume; however, it is halted by the self-pinning phenomenon upon addition of nonvolatile solutes. In this work, it is shown that the solute-induced self-pinning can be overcome by gravity, leading to anisotropic spreading much faster than isotropic spreading. The evaporation rate of anisotropic spreading on a zwitterionic sulfobetaine surface is 25 times larger as that on a poly(methyl methacrylate) surface. Dramatic enhancement of evaporation is demonstrated by simultaneous formation of fog atop liquid film. During anisotropic spreading, the solutes are quickly precipitated out within 30 s, showing the rapid solute-water separation. After repeated spreading process for the dye-containing solution, the mean concentration of the collection is doubled, revealing the concentration efficiency as high as 100%. Gravity-enhanced spreading on total wetting surfaces at room temperature is easy to scale-up with less energy consumption, and thus it has great potentials for the applications of solute separation and concentration.

  8. Investigation of Droplet Atomization and Evaporation in Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbing Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS is a novel and promising technique in producing nanostructured coatings. This technique involves complex heat, mass and momentum transfer among the liquid feedstock, droplets, plasma jet and the coating material. Nevertheless, the droplet atomization and evaporation in the plasma jet is one of the most essential parts to obtain the desired coating architecture. In the present work, a three-dimensional two-way-coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian code is used to simulate the interactions between the solution precursor and plasma. In order to obtain a more realistic understanding regarding droplet atomization and vaporization, the flash-boiling effect is modeled by an improved vaporization model. This model could provide accurate details for the droplet pyrolysis and help to optimize the solution precursor plasma spray process. We show that the fragmentation of the liquid stock and its vaporization mainly dominate the spraying details and can be decisive to the coating quality. We further investigate their role in SPPS and separately probe their inner link with the flow field relating to the distinctive area when droplets are flying through the thermal flow field. Our studies reveal that ethanol droplets, compared to those of water, show a superior characteristics in SPPS, owing to the low boiling point and low surface tension, conducive to the evaporation and atomization of droplets. In addition, the mixture of the plasma gas with hydrogen breaks the droplets more thoroughly compared to the pure plasma. The numerical results were compared and found to agree well with previous experimental and simulation work.

  9. Evaporation of freely suspended single droplets: experimental, theoretical and computational simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hołyst, R; Litniewski, M; Jakubczyk, D; Kolwas, K; Kolwas, M; Kowalski, K; Migacz, S; Palesa, S; Zientara, M

    2013-01-01

    Evaporation is ubiquitous in nature. This process influences the climate, the formation of clouds, transpiration in plants, the survival of arctic organisms, the efficiency of car engines, the structure of dried materials and many other phenomena. Recent experiments discovered two novel mechanisms accompanying evaporation: temperature discontinuity at the liquid–vapour interface during evaporation and equilibration of pressures in the whole system during evaporation. None of these effects has been predicted previously by existing theories despite the fact that after 130 years of investigation the theory of evaporation was believed to be mature. These two effects call for reanalysis of existing experimental data and such is the goal of this review. In this article we analyse the experimental and the computational simulation data on the droplet evaporation of several different systems: water into its own vapour, water into the air, diethylene glycol into nitrogen and argon into its own vapour. We show that the temperature discontinuity at the liquid–vapour interface discovered by Fang and Ward (1999 Phys. Rev. E 59 417–28) is a rule rather than an exception. We show in computer simulations for a single-component system (argon) that this discontinuity is due to the constraint of momentum/pressure equilibrium during evaporation. For high vapour pressure the temperature is continuous across the liquid–vapour interface, while for small vapour pressures the temperature is discontinuous. The temperature jump at the interface is inversely proportional to the vapour density close to the interface. We have also found that all analysed data are described by the following equation: da/dt = P 1 /(a + P 2 ), where a is the radius of the evaporating droplet, t is time and P 1 and P 2 are two parameters. P 1 = −λΔT/(q eff ρ L ), where λ is the thermal conductivity coefficient in the vapour at the interface, ΔT is the temperature difference between the liquid droplet

  10. Solvent exchange module for LC-NMR hyphenation using machine vision-controlled droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonen, Jan-Willem; Vulto, Paul; de Roo, Niels; van Duynhoven, John; van der Linden, Heiko; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2013-06-18

    We report the use of pendant droplet evaporation for exchange of eluents for (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) purposes. Analytes are fed and retained in 500 nL droplets, which are concentrated by evaporation and subsequently redissolved in deuterated solvent. Droplet size is monitored by machine vision (MV), and heating rates are adjusted concordingly to maintain a stable droplet volume. Evaporation control is independent of solvent properties, and the setup handles feed rates up to 7 μL min(-1). The interface is capable of exchanging up to 90% of solvent for deuterated solvent, with a good recovery and repeatability for tomato extracts (Solanum lycopersicum). The system was capable of handling both polar and nonpolar analytes in one run. Volatiles such as formate, acetate, and lactate and the thermosensitive compound epigallocatechin gallate were recovered without significant losses. Ethanol and propionate were recovered with significant losses due to the formation of a minimum boiling azeotrope. The current setup is ideally suited for on- and off-line hyphenation of liquid chromatography and NMR, as it is comprehensive, fully automated, and easy to operate.

  11. Instability and droplet formation in evaporating thin films of a binary solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govor, Leonid V.; Parisi, Jürgen; Bauer, Gottfried H.; Reiter, Günter

    2005-05-01

    We consider an instability phenomenon in a bilayer structure resulting from phase separation in a thin film of mixed solutions located on a water surface. The top layer consists of a hexane/hexadecylamine solution with thickness d2 , the lower one of an amyl acetate/cellulose solution with thickness d1 . During evaporation of the solvents from both layers, their thickness, surface tension, and viscosity change continuously with time. The thickness d2 decreases significantly faster than the thickness d1 , because the evaporation rate of hexane is much larger than that of amyl acetate. Eventually, the top layer decomposes into droplets when its thickness d2 was only a few nm, while the thickness d1 was still some 100nm . In addition to the experiments, we present calculations based on energetic arguments which are in good agreement with experimentally determined geometrical parameters of the droplet pattern, such as droplet diameter, droplet height, interdroplet distance, and number of droplets per unit area.

  12. Surface diagnostics of evaporating droplets of nanosphere suspension: Fano interference and surface pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolwas, Maciej; Kolwas, Krystyna; Derkachov, Gennadiy; Jakubczyk, Daniel

    2015-03-14

    The evaporation of a single, levitating microdroplet of glycols containing SiO2 nanospheres, both of similar refraction indices, was studied by observing changes in the interference pattern and intensities of polarized and depolarized scattered laser light. The evolution of the effective radius of the droplet has been found on the basis of Mie scattering theory supplemented by the "electrical weighting" measurement of droplet mass evolution. During formation of a layer of nanospheres on the droplet surface, the asymmetric Fano profile was observed which was found to be due to the destructive and constructive interference of overlapping processes: (i) the scattering on single nanospheres emerging on the droplet surface and (ii) the scattering on ensembles of closely spaced (comparing to the light wavelength) nanospheres of an evolving surface film. Therefore we report the first observation of the Fano interference in the time domain rather than in the spectral domain. The optical surface diagnostics was complemented with the thermodynamics-like analysis in terms of the effective droplet surface pressure isotherm and with numerical simulations illustrating evaporation driven changes in the distribution of nanospheres. The reported study can serve as the basis for a wide range of novel diagnostic methods for studying configuration changes in complex systems of nano- and microparticles evolving at the sub-wavelength scale.

  13. Transparent arrays of silver nanowire rings driven by evaporation of sessile droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Kang, Giho; Seong, Baekhoon; Chae, Illkyeong; Yudistira, Hadi Teguh; Lee, Hyungdong; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Hyunggun

    2017-01-01

    A coffee-ring pattern can be yielded on the three-phase contact line following evaporation of sessile droplets with suspended insoluble solutes, such as particles, DNA molecules, and mammalian cells. The formation of such coffee-ring, together with their suppression has been applied in printing and coating technologies. We present here an experimental study on the assembly of silver nanowires inside an evaporating droplet of a colloidal suspension. The effects of nanowire length and concentration on coffee-ring formation of the colloidal suspension were investigated. Several sizes of NWs with an aspect ratio between 50 and 1000 were systematically investigated to fabricate coffee-ring patterns. Larger droplets containing shorter nanowires formed clearer ring deposits after evaporation. An order-to-disorder transition of the nanowires’ alignment was found inside the rings. A printing technique with the evaporation process enabled fabrication of arrays of silver nanowire rings. We could manipulate the patterns silver nanowire rings, which might be applied to the transparent and flexible electrode. (paper)

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations for the motion of evaporative droplets driven by thermal gradients along nanochannels

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Congmin

    2013-04-04

    For a one-component fluid on a solid substrate, a thermal singularity may occur at the contact line where the liquid-vapor interface intersects the solid surface. Physically, the liquid-vapor interface is almost isothermal at the liquid-vapor coexistence temperature in one-component fluids while the solid surface is almost isothermal for solids of high thermal conductivity. Therefore, a temperature discontinuity is formed if the two isothermal interfaces are of different temperatures and intersect at the contact line. This leads to the so-called thermal singularity. The localized hydrodynamics involving evaporation/condensation near the contact line leads to a contact angle depending on the underlying substrate temperature. This dependence has been shown to lead to the motion of liquid droplets on solid substrates with thermal gradients (Xu and Qian 2012 Phys. Rev. E 85 061603). In the present work, we carry out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as numerical experiments to further confirm the predictions made from our previous continuum hydrodynamic modeling and simulations, which are actually semi-quantitatively accurate down to the small length scales in the problem. Using MD simulations, we investigate the motion of evaporative droplets in one-component Lennard-Jones fluids confined in nanochannels with thermal gradients. The droplet is found to migrate in the direction of decreasing temperature of solid walls, with a migration velocity linearly proportional to the temperature gradient. This agrees with the prediction of our continuum model. We then measure the effect of droplet size on the droplet motion. It is found that the droplet mobility is inversely proportional to a dimensionless coefficient associated with the total rate of dissipation due to droplet movement. Our results show that this coefficient is of order unity and increases with the droplet size for the small droplets (∼10 nm) simulated in the present work. These findings are in semi

  15. Application of a droplet evaporation model to aerodynamic size measurement of drug aerosols generated by a vibrating mesh nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nagaraja; Kadrichu, Nani; Ament, Brian

    2010-10-01

    Droplet evaporation has been known to bias cascade impactor measurement of aerosols generated by jet nebulizers. Previous work suggests that vibrating mesh nebulizers behave differently from jet nebulizers. Unlike jet nebulizers, vibrating mesh nebulizers do not rely on compressed air to generate droplets. However, entrained air is still required to transport the generated droplets through the cascade impactor during measurement. The mixing of the droplet and entrained air streams, and heat and mass transfer occurring downstream determines the final aerosol size distribution actually measured by the cascade impactor. This study is aimed at quantifying the effect of these factors on droplet size measurements for the case of vibrating mesh nebulizers. A simple droplet evaporation model has been applied to investigate aerodynamic size measurement of drug aerosol droplets produced by a proprietary vibrating mesh nebulizer. The droplet size measurement system used in this study is the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) cascade impactor. Comparison of modeling results with experiment indicates that droplet evaporation remains a significant effect when sizing aerosol generated by a vibrating mesh nebulizer. Results from the droplet evaporation model shows that the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) measured by the NGI is strongly influenced not only by the initial droplet size, but also by factors such as the temperature and humidity of entrained air, the nebulizer output rate, and the entrained air flow rate. The modeling and experimental results indicate that the influence of these variables on size measurements may be reduced significantly by refrigerating the impactor down to 5°C prior to measurement. The same data also support the conclusion that for the case of nebulized drug solutions, laser diffraction spectrometry provides a meaningful droplet sizing approach, that is simpler and less susceptible to such droplet evaporation artifacts.

  16. Bitumen immobilization of aqueous radwaste by thin-film evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.K.; Buckley, L.P.

    1996-05-01

    In the early 1980s, AECL built a Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) for managing low-level solid and aqueous liquid wastes for converting CANDU wastes. At present, two liquid waste streams are being treated at the WTC. The liquid waste streams are volume-reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO) and tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) membrane technologies. The concentrate produced from the TRO system and the volume-reduced MF backwash solutions are evaporated while simultaneously adding bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. A water-free product of chemical and radiochemical salts and bitumen is removed in 200-L galvanized steel drums for storage. The radiation field of product drums on contact typically has a value of 0.5 to 3 R/h depending upon the feed concentration of radioactivity to the evaporator. The total solids content in the 200-L drum ranges from 25 to 35%. Encapsulated in the bitumen matrix are a variety of nonradiochemical salts, which comprise the bulk of the total solids that are in the product drum. This report discusses the immobilization of the aqueous waste with bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. Simulated bituminized waste forms were leached in accordance with the ANS/ANSI 16.1 leach test. In this test, the waste form is immersed under water for an extended period of time, and the leachate is periodically removed and chemically analysed. The Leachability index varied between 7 and 9 for the emulsified bitumen waste forms produced at the WTC. Bitumen samples were unconfined and subjected to immersion and frequent leachate replenishment. The results of leach tests will be a lower bound for the performance of the bitumen waste product in an unsaturated environment. The Leachability indexes reported exceeds the USNRC minimum requirement for wasteform criteria. Adding protective overcoats of either Portland cement or oxidized bitumen enhanced the Leachability index. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Evaporation and Degradation of a Sessile Droplet of VX on an Impermeable Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    droplets are deposited on the surfaces of materials, they can spread, evaporate, and potentially absorb into the underlying material. Quantifying...Based on auxiliary chemical analysis performed in this work (Fourier transform infrared [ FTIR ] spectroscopy, vial reactor), it is believed that the...ATR accessory (Specac Golden Gate, diamond ATR crystal; Fort Washington, PA) and analyzed on a Thermo-Nicolet 670 FTIR spectrometer (Thermo Scientific

  18. Measurement and interpretation of growth and evaporation of monodispersed droplets in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, F.; Paikert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A special gasdynamic shock tube process in combination with a Mie light scattering method is used to study growth and subsequent evaporation of monodispersed droplets carried in argon or air. The droplets are generated by homogeneous nucleation and observed in the micrometer range (0.15-6 micrometer radius). Droplet concentrations range from 10-1000/cu mm. Four different substances, i.e. water, n-propanol, methanol and n-hexane are tested for a wide range of properties. A model covering the entire range between large (Kn much greater than 1) and small Knudsen numbers (K much less than 1) is applied to interpret the experimental data. Excellent agreement is found.

  19. Flow regime and deposition pattern of evaporating binary mixture droplet suspended with particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Duan, Fei

    2016-02-01

    The flow regimes and the deposition pattern have been investigated by changing the ethanol concentration in a water-based binary mixture droplet suspended with alumina nanoparticles. To visualize the flow patterns, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been applied in the binary liquid droplet containing the fluorescent microspheres. Three distinct flow regimes have been revealed in the evaporation. In Regime I, the vortices and chaotic flows are found to carry the particles to the liquid-vapor interface and to promote the formation of particle aggregation. The aggregates move inwards in Regime II as induced by the Marangoni flow along the droplet free surface. Regime III is dominated by the drying of the left water and the capillary flow driving particles radially outward is observed. The relative weightings of Regimes I and II, which are enhanced with an increasing load of ethanol, determine the motion of the nanoparticles and the formation of the final drying pattern.

  20. Controllable two-stage droplet evaporation method and its nanoparticle self-assembly mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Guo, Shengming; Guo, Chuanfei; He, Meng; Chen, Dongxue; Ji, Yinglu; Chen, Ziyu; Wu, Xiaochun; Liu, Qian; Xie, Sishen

    2013-05-28

    Bottom-up self-assembly is able to constitute a variety of structures and has been thought to be a promising way for advanced nanofabrication. Droplet evaporation, as the simplest method, has been used in various self-assemblies. However, the assembled area is not large enough and the order is still not well controlled. Here we show a facile and controllable two-stage droplet evaporation method by adjusting the humidity and temperature of the evaporating droplet. Taking the highly monodispersed gold nanorods (GNRs) as an example, large-area, self-assembly monolayer arrays are reproducibly achieved. To understand the self-assembly mechanism, we adopted simplified models to analyze the interactions between the nanorods. The results show that a metastable state of secondary-energy-minimum exists, especially in the latter stage of the assembly process, leading to the ordered arrays. A large electrostatic barrier between the assembled arrays prevents the formation of the multilayer structures and thereby leads to the preferential monolayers. Moreover, we predict possibilities of different types of assemblies of the nanorods, and a schematic phase diagram is finally given. The results here may offer a way toward high-quality self-assembled nanoparticles superlattices for use in enhanced spectroscopy, sensors, or nanodevices.

  1. Evaporation-induced monolayer compression improves droplet interface bilayer formation using unsaturated lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Guru A; Taylor, Graham J; Basham, Colin M; Brady, Nathan G; Collier, C Patrick; Sarles, Stephen A

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we report on a new experimental methodology to enable reliable formation of droplet interface bilayer (DIB) model membranes with two types of unsaturated lipids that have proven difficult for creating stable DIBs. Through the implementation of a simple evaporation technique to condition the spontaneously assembled lipid monolayer around each droplet, we increased the success rates of DIB formation for two distinct unsaturated lipids, namely 1,2-dioleoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), from less than 10% to near 100%. Separately, using a pendant drop tensiometer, we learned that: (a) DOPC and POPC monolayers do not spontaneously assemble into their tightest possible configurations at an oil-water interface, and (b) reducing the surface area of a water droplet coated with a partially packed monolayer leads to a more tightly packed monolayer with an interfacial tension lower than that achieved by spontaneous assembly alone. We also estimated from Langmuir compression isotherms obtained for both lipids that the brief droplet evaporation procedure prior to DIB formation resulted in a 6%-16% reduction in area per lipid for DOPC and POPC, respectively. Finally, the increased success rates of formation for DOPC and POPC DIBs enabled quantitative characterization of unsaturated lipid membrane properties including electrical resistance, rupture potential, and specific capacitance.

  2. Simple scaling laws for the evaporation of droplets pinned on pillars: Transfer-rate- and diffusion-limited regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Perez, Ruth; García-Cordero, José L.; Escobar, Juan V.

    2017-12-01

    The evaporation of droplets can give rise to a wide range of interesting phenomena in which the dynamics of the evaporation are crucial. In this work, we find simple scaling laws for the evaporation dynamics of axisymmetric droplets pinned on millimeter-sized pillars. Different laws are found depending on whether evaporation is limited by the diffusion of vapor molecules or by the transfer rate across the liquid-vapor interface. For the diffusion-limited regime, we find that a mass-loss rate equal to 3/7 of that of a free-standing evaporating droplet brings a good balance between simplicity and physical correctness. We also find a scaling law for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions. The scaling laws found are validated against experiments of the evaporation of droplets of (1) water, (2) blood plasma, and (3) a mixture of water and polyethylene glycol, pinned on acrylic pillars of different diameters. These results shed light on the macroscopic dynamics of evaporation on pillars as a first step towards the understanding of other complex phenomena that may be taking place during the evaporation process, such as particle transport and chemical reactions.

  3. Simple scaling laws for the evaporation of droplets pinned on pillars: Transfer-rate- and diffusion-limited regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Perez, Ruth; García-Cordero, José L; Escobar, Juan V

    2017-12-01

    The evaporation of droplets can give rise to a wide range of interesting phenomena in which the dynamics of the evaporation are crucial. In this work, we find simple scaling laws for the evaporation dynamics of axisymmetric droplets pinned on millimeter-sized pillars. Different laws are found depending on whether evaporation is limited by the diffusion of vapor molecules or by the transfer rate across the liquid-vapor interface. For the diffusion-limited regime, we find that a mass-loss rate equal to 3/7 of that of a free-standing evaporating droplet brings a good balance between simplicity and physical correctness. We also find a scaling law for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions. The scaling laws found are validated against experiments of the evaporation of droplets of (1) water, (2) blood plasma, and (3) a mixture of water and polyethylene glycol, pinned on acrylic pillars of different diameters. These results shed light on the macroscopic dynamics of evaporation on pillars as a first step towards the understanding of other complex phenomena that may be taking place during the evaporation process, such as particle transport and chemical reactions.

  4. Sizing of single evaporating droplet with Near-Forward Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, M.; Jakubczyk, D.; Derkachov, G.; Archer, J.

    2017-11-01

    We have developed an optical setup and related numerical models to study evolution of single evaporating micro-droplets by analysis of their spectral properties. Our approach combines the advantages of the electrodynamic trapping with the broadband spectral analysis with the supercontinuum laser illumination. The elastically scattered light within the spectral range of 500-900 nm is observed by a spectrometer placed at the near-forward scattering angles between 4.3 ° and 16.2 ° and compared with the numerically generated lookup table of the broadband Mie scattering. Our solution has been successfully applied to infer the size evolution of the evaporating droplets of pure liquids (diethylene and ethylene glycol) and suspensions of nanoparticles (silica and gold nanoparticles in diethylene glycol), with maximal accuracy of ± 25 nm. The obtained results have been compared with the previously developed sizing techniques: (i) based on the analysis of the Mie scattering images - the Mie Scattering Lookup Table Method and (ii) the droplet weighting. Our approach provides possibility to handle levitating objects with much larger size range (radius from 0.5 μm to 30 μm) than with the use of optical tweezers (typically radius below 8 μm) and analyse them with much wider spectral range than with commonly used LED sources.

  5. Droplet evaporation and combustion in a liquid-gas multiphase system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradoglu, Metin; Irfan, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Droplet evaporation and combustion in a liquid-gas multiphase system are studied computationally using a front-tracking method. One field formulation is used to solve the flow, energy and species equations with suitable jump conditions. Both phases are assumed to be incompressible; however, the divergence-free velocity field condition is modified to account for the phase change at the interface. Both temperature and species gradient driven phase change processes are simulated. Extensive validation studies are performed using the benchmark cases: The Stefan and the sucking interface problems, d2 law and wet bulb temperature comparison with the psychrometric chart values. The phase change solver is then extended to incorporate the burning process following the evaporation as a first step towards the development of a computational framework for spray combustion. We used detailed chemistry, variable transport properties and ideal gas behaviour for a n-heptane droplet combustion; the chemical kinetics being handled by the CHEMKIN. An operator-splitting approach is used to advance temperature and species mass fraction in time. The numerical results of the droplet burning rate, flame temperature and flame standoff ratio show good agreement with the experimental and previous numeric.

  6. Encapsulation of Single Nanoparticle in Fast-Evaporating Micro-droplets Prevents Particle Agglomeration in Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ming; Shi, Xinjian; Lyu, Fengjiao; Levy-Wendt, Ben Louis; Zheng, Xiaolin; Tang, Sindy K Y

    2017-08-09

    This work describes the use of fast-evaporating micro-droplets to finely disperse nanoparticles (NPs) in a polymer matrix for the fabrication of nanocomposites. Agglomeration of particles is a key obstacle for broad applications of nanocomposites. The classical approach to ensure the dispersibility of NPs is to modify the surface chemistry of NPs with ligands. The surface properties of NPs are inevitably altered, however. To overcome the trade-off between dispersibility and surface-functionality of NPs, we develop a new approach by dispersing NPs in a volatile solvent, followed by mixing with uncured polymer precursors to form micro-droplet emulsions. Most of these micro-droplets contain no more than one NP per drop, and they evaporate rapidly to prevent the agglomeration of NPs during the polymer curing process. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of TiO 2 NP@PDMS nanocomposites for solar fuel generation reactions with high photocatalytic efficiency and recyclability arising from the fine dispersion of TiO 2 . Our simple method eliminates the need for surface functionalization of NPs. Our approach is applicable to prepare nanocomposites comprising a wide range of polymers embedded with NPs of different composition, sizes, and shapes. It has the potential for creating nanocomposites with novel functions.

  7. Surfactat’s Impact on the Evaporation Intensity and a Vapor Embryos Generation Kinetics within the Water Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M. P.; Terekhov, V. I.; Shishkin, N. E.

    2017-09-01

    The research of water-surfactant droplets evaporation was provided. The sodium dodecylsulfate was taken as a surfactant (SAS). The initial SAS mass contain was ~ 0,15%. Water and water-surfactant solution droplets were evaporated under the dry air flow blowing at temperatures T0 ~ (20 ÷ 90)0C and air linear velocity VO ~ 2 ÷ 5 m/s. The droplet initial diameter (d0) was equal to ~ 2 mm, Reynolds number was within the interval of Re = 500 ÷ 2000. The droplet evaporation rate and their surface temperature were measured by an Infrared Microscope. The measurements display that the temperature heterogeneity on the droplet surface is initiated by the vapor fluctuating bursts at the local centers. A surfactant admixture into the base liquid (water) has a considerable impact on the vapor centre generation kinetics as well as on the time behavior of the droplets evaporating surfaces. The environmental conditions have the weak impact on the vapor formation, but the inner conditions, i.e. droplet’s temperature and pressure in it and physical properties of the base liquid have the considerable impact on the vapor generation kinetics. A surfactant adding makes surface tension higher. That depresses a heat-mass transfer and rises an average temperature of droplets.

  8. Energetics and dynamics of droplet evaporation in high temperature intermediate Reynolds number flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renksizbulut, M.

    Nusselt Numbers and drag coefficients of single-component liquid droplets and solid spheres in high temperature, intermediate Reynolds Number flows were investigated. The evaporation of suspended water, Methanol and n-Heptane droplets were followed in laminar air streams up to 1059 K in temperature using a steady-state measurement technique. It is found that the dynamic blowing effect of evaporation causes large reductions in heat transfer rates, and that the film conditions constitute an appropriate reference state for the evaluation of thermophysical properties. The numerical results indicate that the blowing effect of evaporation on momentum transfer is to reduce friction drag very significantly but at the same time increase pressure drag by almost an equal amount; the net effect on the total drag force being only a marginal reduction. In all cases, it is found that thermophysical property variations play a very dominant role in reducing the drag forces acting on cold particles. Results are analysed and a correlation for stagnation-point heat transfer is also presented.

  9. Impact of droplet evaporation rate on resulting in vitro performance parameters of pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Poonam; Grimes, Matthew R; Stein, Stephen W; Myrdal, Paul B

    2017-08-07

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are widely used for the treatment of pulmonary diseases. The overall efficiency of pMDI drug delivery may be defined by in vitro parameters such as the amount of drug that deposits on the model throat and the proportion of the emitted dose that has particles that are sufficiently small to deposit in the lung (i.e., fine particle fraction, FPF). The study presented examines product performance of ten solution pMDI formulations containing a variety of cosolvents with diverse chemical characteristics by cascade impaction with three inlets (USP induction port, Alberta Idealized Throat, and a large volume chamber). Through the data generated in support of this study, it was demonstrated that throat deposition, cascade impactor deposition, FPF, and mass median aerodynamic diameter of solution pMDIs depend on the concentration and vapor pressure of the cosolvent, and the selection of model throat. Theoretical droplet lifetimes were calculated for each formulation using a discrete two-stage evaporation process model and it was determined that the droplet lifetime is highly correlated to throat deposition and FPF indicating that evaporation kinetics significantly influences pMDI drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A surrogate fuel formulation to characterize heating and evaporation of light naphtha droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Kabil, I.

    2018-03-08

    Light naphtha (LN) is gaining interest in internal combustion (IC) engine applications due to its low refining cost and higher heating values compared to commercial gasoline. To properly describe the chemical and physical behavior of the LN fuel under IC engine conditions, a systematic procedure to develop unified physical and chemical surrogates is described. The reduced component models to describe the chemical characteristics of LN are combined with the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity (ETC/ED) model to represent the accurate evaporation behavior. Three surrogate fuels consisting of three to five components are presented and their performance in heating and evaporation of a single LN droplet is compared against the conventional primary reference fuel (PRF65) surrogate which is based on chemical aspects only. Unlike the previous approaches, the new surrogates also target matching the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and research octane number in order to accurately describe the chemical behavior of the fuel. Subsequently, the performance of the surrogates in describing spray characteristics is tested by computational simulations compared with experimental measurements. The simulations were carried out using CONVERGE CFD package. The ETC/ED model was implemented into CONVERGE using user-defined functions. The predicted spray penetration length for the developed surrogates shows good agreement with the experimental data. At engine-like conditions, the ETC/ED model predicts higher vapor mass than the infinite thermal conductivity/infinite diffusivity model, hence showing the expected trend by incorporating the realistic droplet heating process.

  11. How do non-covalent complexes dissociate in droplets? A case study of the desolvation of dsDNA from a charged aqueous nanodrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawy, Mahmoud; Consta, Styliani

    2015-10-14

    We present the desolvation mechanism of a double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (dsDNA) from an aqueous nanodrop studied by using atomistic molecular dynamics methods. The central theme of this study is the stability of a non-covalently bound complex, in general, and that of a dsDNA in particular, in a droplet environment. Among the factors that may affect the stability of a complex in an evaporating droplet we examine the increase in ion concentration and the distinct droplet morphologies arising from the charge-induced instability. We explore in detail a large set of aqueous nanodrops with excess negative charge, which comprise a dsDNA and Na(+), Cl(-) ions at various concentrations. We find that for a square of the charge to volume ratio above that of the Rayleigh limit the droplet attains distinct "spiky" morphologies that disperse the charge in larger volume relative to that of the spherical drop. Moreover, it is found that it is possible for a non-covalent complex to remain associated in an unstable droplet as long as there is enough solvent to accommodate the instability. In the presence of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions, the Na(+) ions form adducts with the double helical DNA in the minor groove, which help stabilise the duplex state in the gas phase. The negative ions may be released from the droplet. In a DNA-containing droplet with a net charge that is less negative than 50% of the dsDNA charge, the DNA maintains a double-stranded state in the gas phase. Several of our findings are in good agreement with experiments, while the spiky droplet morphology due to the charge-induced instability calls for new experiments. The results shed light on the association properties of complexes of macromolecules in droplet environments, which are critical intermediates in electrospray ionisation experiments.

  12. Adaptive Chemical Networks under Non-Equilibrium Conditions: The Evaporating Droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armao, Joseph J; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2016-10-17

    Non-volatile solutes in an evaporating drop experience an out-of-equilibrium state due to non-linear concentration effects and complex flow patterns. Here, we demonstrate a small molecule chemical reaction network that undergoes a rapid adaptation response to the out-of-equilibrium conditions inside the droplet leading to control over the molecular constitution and spatial arrangement of the deposition pattern. Adaptation results in a pronounced coffee stain effect and coupling to chemical concentration gradients within the drop is demonstrated. Amplification and suppression of network species are readily identifiable with confocal fluorescence microscopy. We anticipate that these observations will contribute to the design and exploration of out-of-equilibrium chemical systems, as well as be useful towards the development of point-of-care medical diagnostics and controlled deposition of small molecules through inkjet printing. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A study of the evaporation of heterogeneous water droplets under active heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Maxim; Legros, Jean Claude; Strizhak, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Using high-speed video registration tools with a sample rate of 102-104 frames per second (fps), we studied the patterns in the evaporation of water droplets containing 1 and 2 mm individual metallic inclusions in a high-temperature gas environment. The materials of choice for the inclusions were steels (AISI 1080 carbon steel and AISI type 316L stainless steel) and pure nickel. We established the lifetimes τh of the liquid droplets under study with a controlled increase in the gas environment temperature up to 900 K. We also considered the physical aspects behind the τh distribution in the experiments conducted and specified the conditions for more effective cooling of metallic inclusions. Following the experimental research findings, a method was devised for effective reactor vessel cooling to avoid a meltdown at a nuclear power plant. The optimization of heat and mass transfer modes was performed within the framework of the strategic plan for the development of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University as one of the world-leading universities.

  14. A Further Indication of the Self-Ordering Capacity of Water Via the Droplet Evaporation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jerman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The droplet evaporation method (DEM is increasingly used for assessing various characteristics of water. In our research we tried to use DEM to detect a possible self-ordering capability of (spring water that would be similar to the already found and described autothixotropic phenomenon, namely increasing order of non-distilled water subject to aging. The output of DEM is a droplet remnant pattern (DRP. For analysis of DRP images we used a specially developed computer program that does the frequency distribution analysis of certain parameters of the images. The results of experiments demonstrated statistically significant differences in both aging of water as well as in the glass exposed surface/volume ratio of the aged water. The most important result supporting the self-ordering character of water was found in an increasing dependence between two analyzed parameters: distance and frequency, at the peak frequency. As the result concerns mostly aging and shows increasing order it further corroborates other findings concerning increasing order by aging. Such further confirmation of self-ordering capacity of water is not important only for physical chemistry, but also for biology.

  15. Modelling of heating and evaporation of gasoline fuel droplets: A comparative analysis of approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2013-09-01

    Modelling of gasoline fuel droplet heating and evaporation processes is investigated using several approximations of this fuel. These are quasi-components used in the quasi-discrete model and the approximations of these quasi-components (Surrogate I (molar fractions: 83.0% n-C 6H14 + 15.6% n-C10H22 + 1.4% n-C14H30) and Surrogate II (molar fractions: 83.0% n-C7H16 + 15.6% n-C11H24 + 1.4% n-C15H32)). Also, we have used Surrogate A (molar fractions: 56% n-C7H16 + 28% iso-C8H 18 + 17% C7H8) and Surrogate B (molar fractions: 63% n-C7H16 + 20% iso-C8H 18 + 17% C7H8), originally introduced based on the closeness of the ignition delay of surrogates to that of gasoline fuel. The predictions of droplet radii and temperatures based on three quasi-components and their approximations (Surrogates I and II) are shown to be much more accurate than the predictions using Surrogates A and B. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaporation of water droplets on Pt-surface in presence of external electric field—A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Abhiram; Biswas, Gautam; De, Sudipta

    2015-09-01

    Evaporation of a sessile droplet on a hot solid substrate is an important problem in fluid mechanics. It is relevant to theoretical issues in heat transfer as well as several practical applications. This study investigates the spreading and evaporation of a nanoscale water droplet on a solid platinum surface. The major objective was to analyze the effect of an external electric field on these phenomena. Varying the intensity and direction of the external electric field, a series of molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to understand these phenomena at a molecular level. The results reveal that a horizontal electric field assists in droplet spreading, whereas a vertical electric field enhances the rate of evaporation for a certain range of field intensities. It also shows that the substrate temperature plays an important role in such processes. It is seen that the effect of an external electric field on droplet evaporation becomes significant at an intermediate range of surface temperatures and this effect is not clearly visible for either very high or very low range of surface temperatures.

  17. Evaporation of water droplets on Pt-surface in presence of external electric field--A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Abhiram; Biswas, Gautam; De, Sudipta

    2015-09-07

    Evaporation of a sessile droplet on a hot solid substrate is an important problem in fluid mechanics. It is relevant to theoretical issues in heat transfer as well as several practical applications. This study investigates the spreading and evaporation of a nanoscale water droplet on a solid platinum surface. The major objective was to analyze the effect of an external electric field on these phenomena. Varying the intensity and direction of the external electric field, a series of molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to understand these phenomena at a molecular level. The results reveal that a horizontal electric field assists in droplet spreading, whereas a vertical electric field enhances the rate of evaporation for a certain range of field intensities. It also shows that the substrate temperature plays an important role in such processes. It is seen that the effect of an external electric field on droplet evaporation becomes significant at an intermediate range of surface temperatures and this effect is not clearly visible for either very high or very low range of surface temperatures.

  18. Molecular origin of contact line stick-slip motion during droplet evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengchao; Wu, Hengan

    2015-12-01

    Understanding and controlling the motion of the contact line is of critical importance for surface science studies as well as many industrial engineering applications. In this work, we elucidate the molecular origin of contact line stick-slip motion during the evaporation of liquid droplets on flexible nano-pillared surfaces using molecular dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that the evaporation-induced stick-slip motion of the contact line is a consequence of competition between pinning and depinning forces. Furthermore, the tangential force exerted by the pillared substrate on the contact line was observed to have a sawtooth-like oscillation. Our analysis also establishes that variations in the pinning force are accomplished through the self-adaptation of solid-liquid intermolecular distances, especially for liquid molecules sitting directly on top of the solid pillar. Consistent with our theoretical analysis, molecular dynamics simulations also show that the maximum pinning force is quantitatively related to both solid-liquid adhesion strength and liquid-vapor surface tension. These observations provide a fundamental understanding of contact line stick-slip motion on pillared substrates and also give insight into the microscopic interpretations of contact angle hysteresis, wetting transitions and dynamic spreading.

  19. Heat and Mass Transfer of the Droplet Vacuum Freezing Process Based on the Diffusion-controlled Evaporation and Phase Transition Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Gao, Jingxin; Zhang, Shiwei

    2016-10-01

    A frozen phase transition model is developed to investigate the heat and mass transfer of a single water droplet during the vacuum freezing process. The model is based on the diffusion-controlled evaporation mechanism and phase transition characteristics. The droplet vacuum freezing process can be divided into three stages according to the droplet states and the time order. It includes the evaporation freezing stage, the isothermal freezing stage and the sublimation freezing stage. A numerical calculation is performed, and the result is analysed. The effects of the vacuum chamber pressure, initial droplet diameter and initial droplet temperature on the heat and mass transfer characteristics at each stage are studied. The droplet experiences supercooling breakdown at the end of the evaporation freezing stage before the isothermal freezing stage begins. The temperature is transiently raised as a result of the supercooling breakdown phenomenon, whose effects on the freezing process and freezing parameters are considered.

  20. A comparative study of the mass and heat transfer dynamics of evaporating ethanol/water, methanol/water, and 1-propanol/water aerosol droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Rebecca J; Reid, Jonathan P

    2006-02-23

    The mass and heat transfer dynamics of evaporating multicomponent alcohol/water droplets have been probed experimentally by examining changes in the near surface droplet composition and average droplet temperature using cavity-enhanced Raman scattering (CERS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The CERS technique provides a sensitive measure of the concentration of the volatile alcohol component in the outer shell of the droplet, due to the exponential relationship between CERS intensity and species concentration. Such volatile droplets, which are probed on a millisecond time scale, evaporate nonisothermally, resulting in both temperature and concentration gradients, as confirmed by comparisons between experimental measurements and quasi-steady state model calculations. An excellent agreement between the experimental evaporation trends and quasi-steady state model predictions is observed. An unexpectedly slow evaporation rate is observed for the evaporation of 1-propanol from a multicomponent droplet when compared to the model; possible explanations for this observation are discussed. In addition, the propagation depth of the CERS signal, and, therefore, the region of the droplet from which compositional measurements are made, can be estimated. Such measurements, when considered in conjunction with quasi-steady state theory, can allow droplet temperature gradients to be measured and vapor pressures and activity coefficients of components within the droplet to be determined.

  1. Predictive Determination of the Integral Characteristics of Evaporation of Water Droplets in Gas Media with a Varying Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysokomornaya, O. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-05-01

    The possibility of using three heat-transfer models based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) has been analyzed with account taken of the relevant endothermic phase transformations to predict the integral characteristics of evaporation of liquid droplets (with the example of water) in gas media with a varying temperature. The existing formulations with "diffusive" and "kinetic" approximations to the description of the process of evaporation have been considered, and a new model has been developed according to approximations obtained from the results of conducted experiments (with the use of high-speed cameras and cross-correlation software and hardware systems). Two integral characteristics of the process of evaporation were monitored: the mass rate of vaporization and the lifetime (time of complete evaporation) of a droplet. A comparison of simulation results and experimental data allowed us to draw the conclusion on the expediency of use of ODE-based "diffusive" and "phase-transition" models in a limited temperature range (to 600 K). At high gas temperatures (particularly, higher than 1000 K), a satisfactory correlation with experimental data can be provided by a model that takes account of the substantially nonlinear dependence of the vaporization rate on temperature, the formation of a buffer (steam) layer between the droplet and the gas medium, and the basic mechanisms of heat transfer in the liquid and in the gas medium.

  2. Numerical Investigation of AdBlue Droplet Evaporation and Thermal Decomposition in the Context of NOx-SCR Using a Multi-Component Evaporation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Nishad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To cope with the progressive tightening of the emission regulations, gasoline and diesel engines will continuously require highly improved exhaust after-treatment systems. In the case of diesel engines, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR appears as one of the widely adopted technologies to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides emissions. Thereby, with the help of available heat from exhaust gas, the injected urea–water solution (UWS turns inside the exhaust port immediately into gaseous ammonia (NH3 by evaporation of mixture and thermal decomposition of urea. The reaction and conversion efficiency mostly depend upon the evaporation and subsequent mixing of the NH3 into the exhaust gas, which in turn depends upon the engine loading conditions. Up to now, the aggregation of urea after evaporation of water and during the thermal decomposition of urea is not clearly understood. Hence, various scenarios for the urea depletion in the gaseous phase that can be envisaged have to be appraised under SCR operating conditions relying on an appropriate evaporation description. The objective of the present paper is therefore fourfold. First, a reliable multi-component evaporation model that includes a proper binary diffusion coefficient is developed for the first time in the Euler–Lagrangian CFD (computational fluid dynamics framework to account properly for the distinct evaporation regimes of adBlue droplets under various operating conditions. Second, this model is extended for thermal decomposition of urea in the gaseous phase, where, depending on how the heat of thermal decomposition of urea is provided, different scenarios are considered. Third, since the evaporation model at and around the droplet surface is based on a gas film approach, how the material properties are evaluated in the film influences the process results is reported, also for the first time. Finally, the impact of various ambient temperatures on the adBlue droplet depletion characteristics

  3. Inhibition of ice crystallisation in highly viscous aqueous organic acid droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Murray

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous nucleation of ice within aqueous solution droplets and their subsequent crystallisation is thought to play a significant role in upper tropospheric ice cloud formation. It is normally assumed that homogeneous nucleation will take place at a threshold supersaturation, irrespective of the identity of the solute, and that rapid growth of ice particles will follow immediately after nucleation. However, it is shown here through laboratory experiments that droplets may not readily freeze in the very cold tropical tropopause layer (TTL, typical temperatures of 186–200 K. In these experiments ice crystal growth in citric acid solution droplets did not occur when ice nucleated below 197±6 K. Citric acid, 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxyllic acid, is a molecule with similar functionality to oxygenated organic compounds which are ubiquitous in atmospheric aerosol. It is therefore thought to be a sensible proxy for atmospheric organic material. Evidence is presented that suggests citric acid solution droplets become ultra-viscous and form glassy solids under atmospherically relevant conditions. Diffusion of liquid water molecules to ice nuclei is expected to be very slow in ultra-viscous solution droplets and nucleation is negligible in glassy droplets; this most likely provides an explanation for the experimentally observed inhibition of ice crystallisation. The implications of ultra-viscous and glassy solution droplets for ice cloud formation and supersaturations in the TTL are discussed.

  4. Study of the Internal Flow and Evaporation Characteristic Inside a Water Droplet on a Vertical Vibrating Hydrophobic Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang-Seok; Lim, Hee-Chang [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Thermal Marangoni flow has been observed inside droplets on heated surfaces, finally resulting in a coffee stain effect. This study aims to visualize and control the thermal Marangoni flow by employing periodic vertical vibration. The variations in the contact angle and internal volume of the droplet as it evaporates is observed by using a combination of continuous light and a still camera. With regard to the internal velocity, the particle image velocimetry system is applied to visualize the internal thermal Marangoni flow. In order to estimate the internal temperature gradient and surface tension on the surface of a droplet, the theoretical model based on the conduction and convection theory of heat transfer is applied. Thus, the internal velocity increases with an increase in plate temperature. The flow directions of the Marangoni and gravitational flows are opposite, and hence, it may be possible to control the coffee stain effect.

  5. Intensive evaporation and boiling of a heterogeneous liquid droplet with an explosive disintegration in high-temperature gas area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskunov Maxim V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The using of the high-speed (not less than 105 frames per second video recording tools (“Phantom” and the software package ("TEMA Automotive" allowed carrying out an experimental research of laws of intensive vaporization with an explosive disintegration of heterogeneous (with a single solid nontransparent inclusion liquid droplet (by the example of water in high-temperature (500-800 K gases (combustion products. Times of the processes under consideration and stages (liquid heat-up, evaporation from an external surface, bubble boiling at internal interfaces, growth of bubble sizes, explosive droplet breakup were established. Necessary conditions of an explosive vaporization of a heterogeneous droplet were found out. Mechanisms of this process and an influence of properties of liquid and inclusion material on them were determined.

  6. Self-organized crystallization patterns from evaporating droplets of common wheat grain leakages as a potential tool for quality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; Dinelli, Giovanni; Marotti, Ilaria; Benedettelli, Stefano; Nani, Daniele; Betti, Lucietta

    2011-01-01

    We studied the evaporation-induced pattern formation in droplets of common wheat kernel leakages prepared out of ancient and modern wheat cultivars as a possible tool for wheat quality analysis. The experiments showed that the substances which passed into the water during the soaking of the kernels created crystalline structures with different degrees of complexity while the droplets were evaporating. The forms ranged from spots and simple structures with single ramifications, through dendrites, up to highly organized hexagonal shapes and fractal-like structures. The patterns were observed and photographed using dark field microscopy in small magnifications. The evaluation of the patterns was performed both visually and by means of the fractal dimension analysis. From the results, it can be inferred that the wheat cultivars differed in their pattern-forming capacities. Two of the analyzed wheat cultivars showed poor pattern formation, whereas another two created well-formed and complex patterns. Additionally, the wheat cultivars were analyzed for their vigor by means of the germination test and measurement of the electrical conductivity of the grain leakages. The results showed that the more vigorous cultivars also created more complex patterns, whereas the weaker cultivars created predominantly poor forms. This observation suggests a correlation between the wheat seed quality and droplet evaporation patterns.

  7. Self-Organized Crystallization Patterns from Evaporating Droplets of Common Wheat Grain Leakages as a Potential Tool for Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olga Kokornaczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the evaporation-induced pattern formation in droplets of common wheat kernel leakages prepared out of ancient and modern wheat cultivars as a possible tool for wheat quality analysis. The experiments showed that the substances which passed into the water during the soaking of the kernels created crystalline structures with different degrees of complexity while the droplets were evaporating. The forms ranged from spots and simple structures with single ramifications, through dendrites, up to highly organized hexagonal shapes and fractal-like structures. The patterns were observed and photographed using dark field microscopy in small magnifications. The evaluation of the patterns was performed both visually and by means of the fractal dimension analysis. From the results, it can be inferred that the wheat cultivars differed in their pattern-forming capacities. Two of the analyzed wheat cultivars showed poor pattern formation, whereas another two created well-formed and complex patterns. Additionally, the wheat cultivars were analyzed for their vigor by means of the germination test and measurement of the electrical conductivity of the grain leakages. The results showed that the more vigorous cultivars also created more complex patterns, whereas the weaker cultivars created predominantly poor forms. This observation suggests a correlation between the wheat seed quality and droplet evaporation patterns.

  8. Simultaneous ion and neutral evaporation in aqueous nanodrops: Experiment, theory, and molecular dynamics simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Higashi, Hidenori; Tokumi, Takuya; Hogan, Christopher J. Jr.; Suda, Horoshi; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We use a combination of tandem ion mobility spectrometry (IMS-IMS, with differential mobility analyzers), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and analytical models to examine both neutral solvent (H2O) and ion (solvated Na+) evaporation from aqueous sodium chloride nanodrops. For experiments, nanodrops were produced via electrospray ionization (ESI) of an aqueous sodium chloride solution. Two nanodrops were examined in MD simulations: a 2500 water molecule nanodrop with 68 Na+ and 60 Cl- ion...

  9. Influence of particle shape on bending rigidity of colloidal monolayer membranes and particle deposition during droplet evaporation in confined geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Peter J; Gratale, Matthew; Lohr, Matthew A; Still, Tim; Lubensky, T C; Yodh, A G

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the influence of particle shape on the bending rigidity of colloidal monolayer membranes (CMMs) and on evaporative processes associated with these membranes. Aqueous suspensions of colloidal particles are confined between glass plates and allowed to evaporate. Confinement creates ribbonlike air-water interfaces and facilitates measurement and characterization of CMM geometry during drying. Interestingly, interfacial buckling events occur during evaporation. Extension of the description of buckled elastic membranes to our quasi-2D geometry enables the determination of the ratio of CMM bending rigidity to its Young's modulus. Bending rigidity increases with increasing particle anisotropy, and particle deposition during evaporation is strongly affected by membrane elastic properties. During drying, spheres are deposited heterogeneously, but ellipsoids are not. Apparently, increased bending rigidity reduces contact line bending and pinning and induces uniform deposition of ellipsoids. Surprisingly, suspensions of spheres doped with a small number of ellipsoids are also deposited uniformly.

  10. Influence of Particle Shape on Bending Rigidity of Colloidal Monolayer Membranes and Particle Deposition during Droplet Evaporation in Confined Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Peter J.; Gratale, Matthew; Lohr, Matthew A.; Still, Tim; Lubensky, T. C.; Yodh, A. G.

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the influence of particle shape on the bending rigidity of colloidal monolayer membranes (CMMs) and on evaporative processes associated with these membranes. Aqueous suspensions of colloidal particles are confined between glass plates and allowed to evaporate. Confinement creates ribbonlike air-water interfaces and facilitates measurement and characterization of CMM geometry during drying. Interestingly, interfacial buckling events occur during evaporation. Extension of the description of buckled elastic membranes to our quasi-2D geometry enables the determination of the ratio of CMM bending rigidity to its Young’s modulus. Bending rigidity increases with increasing particle anisotropy, and particle deposition during evaporation is strongly affected by membrane elastic properties. During drying, spheres are deposited heterogeneously, but ellipsoids are not. Apparently, increased bending rigidity reduces contact line bending and pinning and induces uniform deposition of ellipsoids. Surprisingly, suspensions of spheres doped with a small number of ellipsoids are also deposited uniformly.

  11. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Lauren E.; Aristide, Xavier; Bishop, Dylan P.; Joshi, Ishita; Kharzeev, Julia; Patel, Krishna B.; Santiago, Brianna M.; Joshi, Karan; Dorsinvil, Kahille; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2014-01-01

    A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63–82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations. PMID:25484231

  12. Experimental study of the Marangoni flow in evaporating water droplet placed on vertical vibration and heated hydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Seok; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-11-01

    In general, the heated surface generates a Marangoni flow inside a droplet yielding a coffee stain effect in the end. This study aims to visualize and control the Marangoni flow by using periodic vertical vibration. While the droplet is evaporating, the variation of contact angle and internal volume of droplet was observed by using the combination of a continuous light and a DSLR still camera. Regarding the internal velocity, the PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) system was applied to visualize the internal Marangoni flow. In order to estimate the temperature gradient inside and surface tension on the droplet, a commercial software Comsol Multiphysics was used. In the result, the internal velocity increases with the increase of the plate temperature and both flow directions of Marangoni and gravitational flow are opposite so that there seems to be a possibility to control the coffee stain effect. In addition, the Marangoni flow was controlled at relatively lower range of frequency 30 ~ 50Hz. Work supported by Korea government Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy KETEP grant No. 20134030200290, Ministry of Education NRF grant No. NRF2013R1A1A2005347.

  13. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  14. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  15. Evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard

    1996-01-01

    Type of evaporators. Regulation. Thermal dimensioning. Determination of pressure loss and heat transfer coefficients.......Type of evaporators. Regulation. Thermal dimensioning. Determination of pressure loss and heat transfer coefficients....

  16. Aerodynamic study of a jet of mono-dispersed droplets during evaporation and combustion using optical methods; Etude aerodynamique d'un jet de gouttes monodisperse en evaporation et en combustion a l'aide de methodes optiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castanet, G.

    2004-10-01

    The knowledge of aero-thermal phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber is a key point in order to improve propulsive systems. Non intrusive optical diagnostics are necessary to investigate the mechanisms governing the droplets evaporation. A technique based on two colours laser-induced fluorescence allows obtaining the space averaged temperature of streaming droplets and the temperature distribution inside a droplet for linear monodisperse droplet stream. Sizes of droplets are measured with the use of a Phase Doppler Particle Analyser. An energetic budget allows to determine experimentally Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in combustion. Within droplets motions are modelled by a Hill vortex with an intensity adjusted from space averaged temperature measurements or from experimental temperature maps. Vapour transport phenomena inside the gaseous phase are studied by using the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence technique in order to determine the concentration field of vapour. (author)

  17. Convection and surface tension profiles for aqueous droplet under microwave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Yushin; Asada, Masahiro; Asakuma, Yusuke; Honda, Itsuro; Phan, Chi; Parmar, Harisinh; Pareek, Vishnu; Evans, Geoffrey

    2014-08-01

    Application of microwave irradiation for chemical processes, such as emulsification and polymerization, has been reported [1,2]. Surfactant free emulsion can be produced with the help of microwave irradiation. Surface tension is an important property for the industrial process such as foaming/defoaming, wetting/dewetting and flotation. Similarly, the interfacial tension plays crucial role in separation and mixing process of two immiscible liquids, which are important unit operations of the fundamental chemical engineering. In practice, surface and interfacial tensions are often altered by introducing surfactants. In our previous research [3,4], specific property for surface tension of water droplet with salt under microwave radiation was found. For example, lower surface tension after the radiation was measured. The formation of nano-bubble will explain this behavior. Normally, the surface tension of aqueous solution increases with the salt concentration because cation and anion collect water molecule more strongly as a solvation. However, the exact mechanism of surface tension reduction by microwave radiation is not clear. We tried not only measurement of surface tension but also convection in the droplet during microwave radiation. This study investigates the influence of microwave on surface tension of aqueous solution. Moreover, relation between the concentration, temperature and droplet shape, which are related with surface tension.

  18. On the origin of surface imposed anisotropic growth of salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids crystals during droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Cysewski, Piotr; Pawelec, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Mirosław

    2015-03-01

    In this paper droplet evaporative crystallization of salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) crystals on different surfaces, such as glass, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and paraffin was studied. The obtained crystals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. In order to better understand the effect of the surface on evaporative crystallization, crystals deposited on glass were scraped off. Moreover, evaporative crystallization of a large volume of solution was performed. As we found, paraffin which is non-polar surface promotes formation of crystals morphologically similar to those obtained via bulk evaporative crystallization. On the other hand, when crystallization is carried out on the polar surfaces (glass and PVA), there is a significant orientation effect. This phenomenon is manifested by the reduction of the number of peaks in PXRD spectrum recorded for deposited on the surface crystals. Noteworthy, reduction of PXRD signals is not observed for powder samples obtained after scraping crystals off the glass. In order to explain the mechanism of carboxylic crystals growth on the polar surfaces, quantum-chemical computations were performed. It has been found that crystal faces of the strongest orientation effect can be characterized by the highest surface densities of intermolecular interactions energy (IIE). In case of SA and ASA crystals formed on the polar surfaces the most dominant faces are characterized by the highest adhesive and cohesive properties. This suggests that the selection rules of the orientation effect comes directly from surface IIE densities.

  19. Influence of radiative heat and mass transfer mechanism in system “water droplet-high-temperature gases” on integral characteristics of liquid evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and mathematical (system of differential equations in private derivatives models of heat and mass transfer were developed to investigate the evaporation processes of water droplets and emulsions on its base moving in high-temperature (more than 1000 K gas flow. The model takes into account a conductive and radiative heat transfer in water droplet and also a convective, conductive and radiative heat exchange with high-temperature gas area. Water vapors characteristic temperature and concentration in small wall-adjacent area and trace of the droplet, numerical values of evaporation velocities at different surface temperature, the characteristic time of complete droplet evaporation were determined. Experiments for confidence estimation of calculated integral characteristics of processes under investigation - mass liquid evaporation velocities were conducted with use of cross-correlation recording video equipment. Their satisfactory fit (deviations of experimental and theoretical velocities were less than 15% was obtained. The influence of radiative heat and mass transfer mechanism on characteristics of endothermal phase transformations in a wide temperature variation range was established by comparison of obtained results of numerical simulation with known theoretical data for “diffusion” mechanisms of water droplets and other liquids evaporation in gas.

  20. Simultaneous ion and neutral evaporation in aqueous nanodrops: experiment, theory, and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hidenori; Tokumi, Takuya; Hogan, Christopher J; Suda, Hiroshi; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio

    2015-06-28

    We use a combination of tandem ion mobility spectrometry (IMS-IMS, with differential mobility analyzers), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and analytical models to examine both neutral solvent (H2O) and ion (solvated Na(+)) evaporation from aqueous sodium chloride nanodrops. For experiments, nanodrops were produced via electrospray ionization (ESI) of an aqueous sodium chloride solution. Two nanodrops were examined in MD simulations: a 2500 water molecule nanodrop with 68 Na(+) and 60 Cl(-) ions (an initial net charge of z = +8), and (2) a 1000 water molecule nanodrop with 65 Na(+) and 60 Cl(-) ions (an initial net charge of z = +5). Specifically, we used MD simulations to examine the validity of a model for the neutral evaporation rate incorporating both the Kelvin (surface curvature) and Thomson (electrostatic) influences, while both MD simulations and experimental measurements were compared to predictions of the ion evaporation rate equation of Labowsky et al. [Anal. Chim. Acta, 2000, 406, 105-118]. Within a single fit parameter, we find excellent agreement between simulated and modeled neutral evaporation rates for nanodrops with solute volume fractions below 0.30. Similarly, MD simulation inferred ion evaporation rates are in excellent agreement with predictions based on the Labowsky et al. equation. Measurements of the sizes and charge states of ESI generated NaCl clusters suggest that the charge states of these clusters are governed by ion evaporation, however, ion evaporation appears to have occurred with lower activation energies in experiments than was anticipated based on analytical calculations as well as MD simulations. Several possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  1. Coupling multicomponent droplet evaporation and tabulated chemistry combustion models for large-eddy simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahiques, E. I.; Dederichs, S.; Beck, R.C.R.; Kaufmann, P.; Kok, J. B.W.

    2017-01-01

    An evaporation model for multicomponent fuels and emulsions is implemented in OpenFOAM within the Euler–Lagrangian formulation. The model is suitable for pressures typical of heavy duty gas turbines, up to 30 bar, and considers an increased evaporation rate of the most volatile component when the

  2. Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, B.T.; Turner, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Evaporation has long been used as a unit operation in the manufacture of various products in the chemical-process industries. In addition, it is currently being used for the treatment of hazardous wastes such as radioactive liquids and sludges, metal-plating wastes, and other organic and inorganic wastes. Design choice is dependent on the liquid to be evaporated. The three most common types of evaporation equipment are the rising-film, falling-film, and forced-circulation evaporators. The first two rely on boiling heat transfer and the latter relies on flash vaporization. Heat exchangers, flash tanks, and ejectors are common auxiliary equipment items incorporated with evaporator bodies to complete an evaporator system. Properties of the liquid to be evaporated are critical in final selection of an appropriate evaporator system. Since operating costs are a significant factor in overall cost, heat-transfer characteristics and energy requirements are important considerations. Properties of liquids which are critical to the determination of final design include: heat capacity, heat of vaporization, density, thermal conductivity, boiling point rise, and heat-transfer coefficient. Evaporation is an expensive technology, both in terms of capital costs and operating costs. Additionally, mechanical evaporation produces a condensate and a bottoms stream, one or both of which may require further processing or disposal. 3 figs

  3. Aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone in cloud droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Fuchs, C.; Järvinen, E.; Saathoff, H.; Dias, A.; El Haddad, I.; Gysel, M.; Coburn, S. C.; Tröstl, J.; Bernhammer, A.-K.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Corbin, J. C.; Craven, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Duplissy, J.; Ehrhart, S.; Frege, C.; Gordon, H.; Höppel, N.; Heinritzi, M.; Kristensen, T. B.; Molteni, U.; Nichman, L.; Pinterich, T.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Simon, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Steiner, G.; Tomé, A.; Vogel, A. L.; Volkamer, R.; Wagner, A. C.; Wagner, R.; Wexler, A. S.; Williamson, C.; Winkler, P. M.; Yan, C.; Amorim, A.; Dommen, J.; Curtius, J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Flagan, R. C.; Hansel, A.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Möhler, O.; Stratmann, F.; Worsnop, D. R.; Baltensperger, U.

    2016-02-01

    The growth of aerosol due to the aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone was measured in laboratory-generated clouds created in the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Experiments were performed at 10 and -10 °C, on acidic (sulfuric acid) and on partially to fully neutralised (ammonium sulfate) seed aerosol. Clouds were generated by performing an adiabatic expansion - pressurising the chamber to 220 hPa above atmospheric pressure, and then rapidly releasing the excess pressure, resulting in a cooling, condensation of water on the aerosol and a cloud lifetime of approximately 6 min. A model was developed to compare the observed aerosol growth with that predicted using oxidation rate constants previously measured in bulk solutions. The model captured the measured aerosol growth very well for experiments performed at 10 and -10 °C, indicating that, in contrast to some previous studies, the oxidation rates of SO2 in a dispersed aqueous system can be well represented by using accepted rate constants, based on bulk measurements. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first laboratory-based measurements of aqueous phase oxidation in a dispersed, super-cooled population of droplets. The measurements are therefore important in confirming that the extrapolation of currently accepted reaction rate constants to temperatures below 0 °C is correct.

  4. Aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone in cloud droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Hoyle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of aerosol due to the aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone was measured in laboratory-generated clouds created in the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN. Experiments were performed at 10 and −10 °C, on acidic (sulfuric acid and on partially to fully neutralised (ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. Clouds were generated by performing an adiabatic expansion – pressurising the chamber to 220 hPa above atmospheric pressure, and then rapidly releasing the excess pressure, resulting in a cooling, condensation of water on the aerosol and a cloud lifetime of approximately 6 min. A model was developed to compare the observed aerosol growth with that predicted using oxidation rate constants previously measured in bulk solutions. The model captured the measured aerosol growth very well for experiments performed at 10 and −10 °C, indicating that, in contrast to some previous studies, the oxidation rates of SO2 in a dispersed aqueous system can be well represented by using accepted rate constants, based on bulk measurements. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first laboratory-based measurements of aqueous phase oxidation in a dispersed, super-cooled population of droplets. The measurements are therefore important in confirming that the extrapolation of currently accepted reaction rate constants to temperatures below 0 °C is correct.

  5. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Dynamics and Evaporative Cooling of Water Droplets Impinging onto Heated Surfaces: An Effective Approach To Identify Spray Cooling Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Rui-Na; Ouyang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Pei-Xue

    2016-09-13

    Numerical investigations of the dynamics and evaporative cooling of water droplets impinging onto heated surfaces can be used to identify spray cooling mechanisms. Droplet impingement dynamics and evaporation are simulated using the presented numerical model. Volume-of-fluid method is used in the model to track the free surface. The contact line dynamics was predicted from a dynamic contact angle model with the evaporation rate predicted by a kinetic theory model. A species transport equation was solved in the gas phase to describe the vapor convection and diffusion. The numerical model was validated by experimental data. The physical effects including the contact angle hysteresis and the thermocapillary effect are analyzed to offer guidance for future numerical models of droplet impingement cooling. The effects of various parameters including surface wettability, surface temperature, droplet velocity, droplet size, and droplet temperature were numerically studied from the standpoint of spray cooling. The numerical simulations offer profound analysis and deep insight into the spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms.

  6. Droplet evaporation on a horizontal substrate under gravity field by mesoscopic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chiyu; Zhang, Jianying; Bertola, Volfango; Wang, Moran

    2016-02-01

    The evaporation of water drop deposited on a horizontal substrate is investigated using a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for multiphase flows with a large-density ratio. To account for the variation of evaporation flux distribution along the drop interface, a novel evaporation scheme is introduced into the LBM framework, and validated by comparison with experimental data. We aim at discovering the effect of gravity on the evaporating drop in detail, and various evaporation conditions are considered as well as different wetting properties of the substrates. An effective diameter is introduced as an indicator of the critical drop size under which gravity is negligible. Our results show that such critical diameter is much smaller than the capillary length, which has been widely accepted as the critical size in previous and current works. The critical diameter is found to be almost independent of the evaporation conditions and the surface wettability. A correlation between this critical diameter and the capillary length is also proposed for easy use in applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling water droplet condensation and evaporation in DNS of turbulent channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, E; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; van der Geld, C.W.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    In this paper a point particle model for two-way coupling in water droplet-laden incompressible turbulent flow of air is proposed. The model is based on conservation laws and semi-empirical correlations. It has been implemented and tested in a DNS code based for turbulent channel flow with an

  8. Drying droplet deposited on poor wetting substrate: beyond the lubrication approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev-Stepanov, P.; Efimov, S.; Kobelev, A.

    2017-11-01

    Evaporating sessile droplet of aqueous solution deposited on hydrophobic surface is an urgent object of theoretical modeling (evaporation dynamics, microfluidics inside the drop, particle dynamics in evaporating drop, etc) and applied researches (printing technologies, nanoparticle ensemble self-assembly processes, hydrophobic coatings, etc). Although self-assembly investigation in evaporating droplet of colloidal solution on smooth surfaces with quite acute contact angles has been widely studied recently for liquids of different properties, nanoparticles ensemble self-assembly processes in droplet deposited on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces has not received much attention up to date. This work includes the analysis of application of existing droplet evaporation models, the boundary conditions for the hydrodynamic flows on the drop surface, as well as the nanoparticle dynamics in the volume of aqueous solution droplet deposited on hydrophobic flat surface, and the dried pattern formation processes modelling.

  9. Evaluation of thin-film evaporation for decontamination and immobilization of aqueous nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen Gupta, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    In the early 1980's, AECL, at the Chalk River Laboratory (CRL) site, built a Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) for managing low level solid and aqueous liquid wastes. The objective was to demonstrate processes for converting Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) waste to a form suitable for disposal while meeting or exceeding current environmental regulations. At present, two liquid waste streams are being treated at the Waste Treatment Centre. The liquid waste streams are volume reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO), and tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) membrane technologies [1]. The solutions are evaporated while simultaneously adding bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. A water-free product of chemical and radiochemical salts and bitumen is removed in 200 L galvanized steel drums for storage and eventual disposal in the CRL Waste Management Area. The feed stream to the thin-film evaporator typically has a β/γ activity of about 1 - 3 μCi/mL. This intermediate-level radioactive stream is concentrated by a factor of about 10, while simultaneously being immobilized. The radiation field of product drums on contact typically has a value of 0.5 to 3 R/h depending upon the feed concentration of radioactivity to the evaporator. The total solids content in the 200 L drum ranges from 25% to 35%. Encapsulated in the bitumen matrix are a variety of non-radiochemical salts (including sodium phosphate, sodium sulphate, and sodium carbonate) which comprise the bulk of the total solids in the product drum. The drum contains less than 1% of free water. The paper will discuss the volume reduction capability of the plant, with an emphasis on the immobilization of the aqueous waste with bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. Operations experience gained from over 200 campaigns is documented in the paper. (author)

  10. Nanostructured Colloidal Particles by Confined Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers in Evaporative Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoo P. Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Block copolymers (BCPs can create various morphology by self-assembly in bulk or film. Recently, using BCPs in confined geometries such as thin film (one-dimension, cylindrical template (two-dimension, or emulsion droplet (three-dimension, nanostructured BCP particles have been prepared, in which unique nanostructures of the BCP are formed via solvent annealing process and can be controlled depending on molecular weight ratio and interaction parameter of the BCPs, and droplet size. Moreover, by tuning interfacial property of the BCP particles, anisotropic particles with unique nanostructures have been prepared. Furthermore, for practical application such as drug delivery system, sensor, self-healing, metamaterial, and optoelectronic device, functional nanoparticles can be incorporated inside BCP particles. In this article, we summarize recent progress on the production of structured BCP particles and composite particles with metallic nanoparticles.

  11. A multi-dimensional quasi-discrete model for the analysis of Diesel fuel droplet heating and evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Sazhin, Sergei S.

    2014-08-01

    A new multi-dimensional quasi-discrete model is suggested and tested for the analysis of heating and evaporation of Diesel fuel droplets. As in the original quasi-discrete model suggested earlier, the components of Diesel fuel with close thermodynamic and transport properties are grouped together to form quasi-components. In contrast to the original quasi-discrete model, the new model takes into account the contribution of not only alkanes, but also various other groups of hydrocarbons in Diesel fuels; quasi-components are formed within individual groups. Also, in contrast to the original quasi-discrete model, the contributions of individual components are not approximated by the distribution function of carbon numbers. The formation of quasi-components is based on taking into account the contributions of individual components without any approximations. Groups contributing small molar fractions to the composition of Diesel fuel (less than about 1.5%) are replaced with characteristic components. The actual Diesel fuel is simplified to form six groups: alkanes, cycloalkanes, bicycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes, indanes & tetralines, and naphthalenes, and 3 components C19H34 (tricycloalkane), C13H 12 (diaromatic), and C14H10 (phenanthrene). It is shown that the approximation of Diesel fuel by 15 quasi-components and components, leads to errors in estimated temperatures and evaporation times in typical Diesel engine conditions not exceeding about 3.7% and 2.5% respectively, which is acceptable for most engineering applications. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aqueous citric acid as a promising cleaning agent of whey evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; P. Johansen, Nikolaj; Garcia, André Castilho

    2017-01-01

    Scale in evaporators for lactose production was identified as mainly calcium citrate tetrahydrate with phosphate contaminations. Dissolution of 3.00 g of scale in aqueous solutions of 0.100, 0.500, and 1.00 mol L−1 citric acid with final volumes of 100, 50, and 25 mL was investigated. The highest...... concentration of citric acid was the most effective for all the investigated volumes. From the citric acid solutions, spontaneously supersaturated in calcium citrate tetrahydrate during scale dissolution in the smaller volumes for all citric acid concentrations, calcium citrate tetrahydrate slowly precipitated...... in acceptable purity for technical use. Dissolution efficiency of aqueous solutions of 0.200 mol L−1 nitric acid combined with 0.100, 0.500, and 1.00 mol L−1 citric acid with final volumes of 100, 50, and 25 mL showed synergistic effect especially for the higher concentrations and lower volumes of two acids...

  13. Numerical modeling of turbulent evaporating gas-droplet two-phase flows in an afterburner diffusor of turbo-fan jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lixing; Zhang, Jian

    1990-11-01

    Two-dimensional turbulent evaporating gas-droplet two-phase flows in an afterburner diffusor of turbofan jet engines are simulated here by a k-epsilon turbulence model and a particle trajectory model. Comparison of predicted gas velocity and temperature distributions with experimental results for the cases without liquid spray shows good agreement. Gas-droplet two-phase flow predictions give plausible droplet trajectories, fuel-vapor concentration distribution, gas-phase velocity and temperature field in the presence of liquid droplets. One run of computation with this method is made for a particular afterburner. The results indicate that the location of the atomizers is not favorable to flame stabilization and combustion efficiency. The proposed numerical modeling can also be adopted for optimization design and performance evaluation of afterburner combustors of turbofan jet engines.

  14. Partitioning of metals between the aqueous phase and suspended insoluble material in fog droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Valeriana; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Mangani, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    This paper discusses the partitioning of metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) between the aqueous phase and the suspended insoluble material in fog samples collected in the Po Valley during two extensive fields campaigns. Metals represent on average 11% of the mass of suspended insoluble matter, while the main component is carbon (both organic carbon, OC = 35%, and black carbon, BC = 8%). The unaccounted suspended matter mass is very high, on average 46%, and is attributable to non metallic species, such as O and N and of Si. The principal metals in the insoluble suspended fraction are Fe and Al (2-5%), while the contributions of other metals (Na, Mg, Cu, Pb and Zn) are lower than 1%. Ca and K exhibited high blank values and could not be detected above blank detection limit threshold. The main components in the aqueous phase are NO3- (34%), WSOC (23%), SO4(2-) (18%) and NH4+ (19%), while trace metals and remaining cations and anions accounted for less than 1% of solute mass. The main dissolved trace metals in fog droplets are Zn, Al and Fe, while the main metallic cations are Na and Ca. Fe and Al are the only metals preferentially distributed in the suspended insoluble matter of fog droplets (partitioning ratio respectively 37% and 33%). All other metals are mostly dissolved in the aqueous phase (mean partitioning ratios of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu and Na are 69%, 70%, 77%, 81% and 87%). These findings are in agreement with literature data on metal speciation in cloud and rain samples. The dependence of partitioning ratios on pH is investigated for the different metals, with only Al showing a clear partitioning ratio decrease with increasing pH. Conversely, the other metals show no dependence or a complex and highly variable behaviour. The partitioning ratio of iron (mean 37%) observed in the Po Valley fog samples is much higher than the water extractable iron in aerosol particles (typically 1-2 %): this fact can be explained by differences in the aerosol sources

  15. Ice nucleation from aqueous NaCl droplets with and without marine diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alpert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ice formation in the atmosphere by homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation is one of the least understood processes in cloud microphysics and climate. Here we describe our investigation of the marine environment as a potential source of atmospheric IN by experimentally observing homogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous NaCl droplets and comparing against heterogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous NaCl droplets containing intact and fragmented diatoms. Homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation are studied as a function of temperature and water activity, aw. Additional analyses are presented on the dependence of diatom surface area and aqueous volume on heterogeneous freezing temperatures, ice nucleation rates, ωhet, ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, and differential and cumulative ice nuclei spectra, k(T and K(T, respectively. Homogeneous freezing temperatures and corresponding nucleation rate coefficients are in agreement with the water activity based homogeneous ice nucleation theory within experimental and predictive uncertainties. Our results confirm, as predicted by classical nucleation theory, that a stochastic interpretation can be used to describe the homogeneous ice nucleation process. Heterogeneous ice nucleation initiated by intact and fragmented diatoms can be adequately represented by a modified water activity based ice nucleation theory. A horizontal shift in water activity, Δaw, het = 0.2303, of the ice melting curve can describe median heterogeneous freezing temperatures. Individual freezing temperatures showed no dependence on available diatom surface area and aqueous volume. Determined at median diatom freezing temperatures for aw from 0.8 to 0.99, ωhet~0.11+0.06−0.05 s−1, Jhet~1.0+1.16−0.61×104 cm−2

  16. Differences in Infiltration and Evaporation of Diesel and Gasoline Droplets Spilled onto Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Adrià Mora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pollution at gas stations due to small spills that occur during vehicle refueling have received little attention. We have performed laboratory experiments to assess evaporation and infiltration of fuel spilled onto concrete. Changes in the concrete mass after small amounts of diesel and gasoline were spilled have been analyzed. Variation in humidity, among other parameters, clearly affects the measured mass since condensed water is constantly added to or released from the concrete. This mass experiences an about exponential decay in time. The difference in behavior between both fuel types is important as the percentage of evaporated mass is much larger for gasoline, while infiltration is more significant for diesel. A statistical analysis suggests that the initial spill amount does not significantly affect the fraction of infiltrated fuel over time. This finding is in agreement with pore-scale simulations that we performed. A significant amount of fuel could be seeping into soil and groundwater underneath concrete pavement at gas stations or could be released to the atmosphere. Possible solutions for pavement and groundwater pollution are considered.

  17. Combining Catalytic Microparticles with Droplets Formed by Phase Coexistence: Adsorption and Activity of Natural Clays at the Aqueous/Aqueous Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pir Cakmak, Fatma; Keating, Christine D

    2017-06-12

    Natural clay particles have been hypothesized as catalysts on the early Earth, potentially facilitating the formation of early organic (bio) molecules. Association of clay particles with droplets formed by liquid-liquid phase separation could provide a physical mechanism for compartmentalization of inorganic catalysts in primitive protocells. Here we explore the distribution of natural clay mineral particles in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/dextran (Dx) aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). We compared the three main types of natural clay: kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite, all of which are aluminosilicates of similar composition and surface charge. The three clay types differ in particle size, crystal structure, and their accumulation at the ATPS interface and ability to stabilize droplets against coalescence. Illite and kaolinite accumulated at the aqueous/aqueous interface, stabilizing droplets against coalescence but not preventing their eventual sedimentation due to the mass of adsorbed particles. The ability of each clay-containing ATPS to catalyze reaction of o-phenylenediamine with peroxide to form 2,3-diaminophenazone was evaluated. We observed modest rate increases for this reaction in the presence of clay-containing ATPS over clay in buffer alone, with illite outperforming the other clays. These findings are encouraging because they support the potential of combining catalytic mineral particles with aqueous microcompartments to form primitive microreactors.

  18. The production of HTR-fuel kernels by microwave hardening of aqueous metal-salt-resin droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotik, K.; Leichter, P.

    1981-04-01

    The construction and function of the microwave equipment for the hardening of free falling salt-resin-droplets, the preparation of solutions, their treatment and conditioning of the hardening process, the appearance and properties of the hardened ''green'' kernels and the transformation of ''green'' kernels of HTR-fuel kernels, i.e. sintered UO 2 -particles are described. With a suitable microwave equipment it is possible to harden aqueous droplets containing metal-salts (e.g. uranylnitrate), resorcinol and formaldehyde. The hardening occurs while the mentioned droplets are falling under gravity. These particles are suitable for the production of HTR-fuel kernels, e.g. high density UO 2 -particles. The entire process has the advantage of minimising the process specific waste. (author)

  19. Dielectric properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films deposited by mist plasma evaporation using aqueous solution precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Shi, Peng; Wang, Minqiang; Yao, Xi; Tan, O. K.

    2006-06-01

    Mist plasma evaporation (MPE) technique has been developed to deposit Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) thin films on SiO2/Si and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at atmospheric pressure using metal nitrate aqueous solution as precursor. MPE is characterized by the injection of liquid reactants into thermal plasma where the source materials in the droplets are evaporated by the high temperature of the thermal plasma. Nanometer-scale clusters are formed in the tail flame of the plasma, and then deposited and rearranged on the substrate at a lower temperature. Due to the high temperature annealing process of the thermal plasma before deposition, well-crystallized BST films were deposited at substrate temperature of 630 °C. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the film at 100 kHz are 715 and 0.24, respectively. Due to the good crystallinity of the BST films deposited by MPE, high dielectric tunability up to 39.3% is achieved at low applied electric field of 100 kV cm-1.

  20. submitter Aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone in cloud droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyle, C R; Järvinen, E; Saathoff, H; Dias, A; El Haddad, I; Gysel, M; Coburn, S C; Tröstl, J; Bernhammer, A -K; Bianchi, F; Breitenlechner, M; Corbin, J C; Craven, J; Donahue, N M; Duplissy, J; Ehrhart, S; Frege, C; Gordon, H; Höppel, N; Heinritzi, M; Kristensen, T B; Molteni, U; Nichman, L; Pinterich, T; Prévôt, A S H; Simon, M; Slowik, J G; Steiner, G; Tomé, A; Vogel, A L; Volkamer, R; Wagner, A C; Wagner, R; Wexler, A S; Williamson, C; Winkler, P M; Yan, C; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Curtius, J; Gallagher, M W; Flagan, R C; Hansel, A; Kirkby, J; Kulmala, M; Möhler, O; Stratmann, F; Worsnop, D R; Baltensperger, U

    2016-01-01

    The growth of aerosol due to the aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by ozone was measured in laboratory-generated clouds created in the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Experiments were performed at 10 and −10 °C, on acidic (sulfuric acid) and on partially to fully neutralised (ammonium sulfate) seed aerosol. Clouds were generated by performing an adiabatic expansion – pressurising the chamber to 220 hPa above atmospheric pressure, and then rapidly releasing the excess pressure, resulting in a cooling, condensation of water on the aerosol and a cloud lifetime of approximately 6 min. A model was developed to compare the observed aerosol growth with that predicted using oxidation rate constants previously measured in bulk solutions. The model captured the measured aerosol growth very well for experiments performed at 10 and −10 °C, indicating that, in contrast to some previous studies, the oxidation rates of SO2 in ...

  1. Influence of the "Self-Radiation" of Combustion Products on the Intensity of Evaporation of an Inhomogeneous Water Droplet in the Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysokomornaya, O. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Piskunov, M. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-07-01

    The processes of heat transfer during the heating, evaporation, and boiling of an inhomogeneous (with a solid inclusion) droplet of a liquid (water) in a high-temperature (800-1500 K) gas medium have been modeled numerically. The inclusion (carbonaceous particle) in the shape of a disk of height and diameter 2 mm has been considered. The volume of the water enveloping the inclusion ranged within 5-20 μL. It has been shown that the ″self-radiation″ of triatomic gases in combustion products (using commercial alcohol as an example) significantly intensifies (compared to the air heated to the same temperatures) the heating of the inhomogeneous liquid droplet. A comparative analysis of the influence of the temperature of the gas medium and of the thickness in the liquid film enveloping the inclusion on the basic characteristic of the process under study, i.e., the time of existence (complete evaporation) of the droplet, has been made. The reliability of the results of theoretical investigations and the legitimacy of the conclusions drawn have been assessed experimentally.

  2. Evaporation of Droplets in Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition Based on Energy Compensation Between Self-Cooling and Plasma Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Jun; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2017-10-01

    In the plasma spray-physical vapor deposition process (PS-PVD), there is no obvious heating to the feedstock powders due to the free molecular flow condition of the open plasma jet. However, this is in contrast to recent experiments in which the molten droplets are transformed into vapor atoms in the open plasma jet. In this work, to better understand the heating process of feedstock powders in the open plasma jet of PS-PVD, an evaporation model of molten ZrO2 is established by examining the heat and mass transfer process of molten ZrO2. The results reveal that the heat flux in PS-PVD open plasma jet (about 106 W/m2) is smaller than that in the plasma torch nozzle (about 108 W/m2). However, the flying distance of molten ZrO2 in the open plasma jet is much longer than that in the plasma torch nozzle, so the heating in the open plasma jet cannot be ignored. The results of the evaporation model show that the molten ZrO2 can be partly evaporated by self-cooling, whereas the molten ZrO2 with a diameter <0.28 μm and an initial temperature of 3247 K can be completely evaporated within the axial distance of 450 mm by heat transfer.

  3. Effect of solvent on the charging mechanisms of poly(ethylene glycol) in droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Sepideh; Oh, Myong In; Consta, Styliani

    2015-03-01

    We examine the effect of solvent on the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in a droplet by using molecular dynamics simulations. The droplet contains excess charge that is carried by sodium ions. To investigate the principles of the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in a droplet, we simulate aqueous and methanol droplets that contain a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecule. We find that the solvent plays a critical role in the charging mechanism and in the manner that the sodiated PEG emerges from a droplet. In the aqueous droplets, the sodiated PEG is released from the droplet while it is being charged at a droplet charge state below the Rayleigh limit. The charging of PEG occurs on the surface of the droplet. In contrast to the aqueous droplets, in the methanol droplet, the sodiated PEG resides in the interior of the droplet and it may become charged at any location in the droplet, interior or surface. The sodiated PEG emerges from the droplet by drying-out of the solvent. Even though these two mechanisms appear to be phenomenologically similar to the widely accepted ion-evaporation and charge-residue mechanisms, they have fundamental differences from those. An integral part of the mechanism that the macromolecular ions emerge from droplets is the droplet morphology. Droplet morphologies give rise to different solvation interactions between the solvent and the macromolecule. In the water-sodiated PEG system, we find the extrusion of the PEG morphology, while in methanol-sodiated droplet, we find the "pearl-on-the-necklace" morphology and the extrusion of the sodiated PEG in the last stage of the desolvation process. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that macromolecules acquire their charge in droplets produced in electrospray ionization experiments.

  4. Evaporation of biomass fast pyrolysis oil: evaluation of char formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.; van Rossum, G.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Evaporation experiments of biomass fast pyrolysis oil and its aqueous fractions at low (TGA-10°C/min, Glass tube-100°C/min) and high (atomization ~10 6°C/min) heating rates are performed. Slow heating of pyrolysis oil produced ~28% char (on carbon basis), whereas atomization of oil droplets (~117µm)

  5. A water activity based model of heterogeneous ice nucleation kinetics for freezing of water and aqueous solution droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Daniel A; Alpert, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Immersion freezing of water and aqueous solutions by particles acting as ice nuclei (IN) is a common process of heterogeneous ice nucleation which occurs in many environments, especially in the atmosphere where it results in the glaciation of clouds. Here we experimentally show, using a variety of IN types suspended in various aqueous solutions, that immersion freezing temperatures and kinetics can be described solely by temperature, T, and solution water activity, a(w), which is the ratio of the vapour pressure of the solution and the saturation water vapour pressure under the same conditions and, in equilibrium, equivalent to relative humidity (RH). This allows the freezing point and corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, J(het), to be uniquely expressed by T and a(w), a result we term the a(w) based immersion freezing model (ABIFM). This method is independent of the nature of the solute and accounts for several varying parameters, including cooling rate and IN surface area, while providing a holistic description of immersion freezing and allowing prediction of freezing temperatures, J(het), frozen fractions, ice particle production rates and numbers. Our findings are based on experimental freezing data collected for various IN surface areas, A, and cooling rates, r, of droplets variously containing marine biogenic material, two soil humic acids, four mineral dusts, and one organic monolayer acting as IN. For all investigated IN types we demonstrate that droplet freezing temperatures increase as A increases. Similarly, droplet freezing temperatures increase as the cooling rate decreases. The log10(J(het)) values for the various IN types derived exclusively by Tand a(w), provide a complete description of the heterogeneous ice nucleation kinetics. Thus, the ABIFM can be applied over the entire range of T, RH, total particulate surface area, and cloud activation timescales typical of atmospheric conditions. Lastly, we demonstrate that ABIFM can

  6. Formation and Mechanism of Superhydrophobic/Hydrophobic Surfaces Made from Amphiphiles through Droplet-Mediated Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fangyuan; Zhang, Mi; Tang, Wai-Wa; Wang, Yi

    2015-04-23

    Superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surfaces have attracted wide attention because of their broad applications in various regions, including coating, textile, packaging, electronic devices, and bioengineering. Many studies have been focused on the fabrication of superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surfaces using natural materials. In this paper, superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surfaces were formed by an amphiphilic natural protein, zein, using electrospinning. Water contact angle (WCA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the hydrophobicity and surface morphology of the electrospun structures. The highest WCA of the zein electrospun surfaces could reach 155.5 ± 1.4°. To further understand the mechanism of superhydrophobic surface formation from amphiphiles using electrospinning, a synthetic amphiphilic polymer was selected, and also, a method similar to electrospinning, spray drying, was tried. The electrospun amphiphilic polymer surface showed a high hydrophobicity with a WCA of 141.4 ± 0.7°. WCA of the spray-dried zein surface could reach 125.3 ± 2.1°. The secondary structures of the zein in the electrospun film and cast-dried film were studied using ATR-FTIR, showing that α-helix to β-sheet transformation happened during the solvent evaporation in the cast drying process but not in the electrospinning process. A formation mechanism was proposed on the basis of the orientation of the amphiphiles during the solvent evaporation of different fabrication methods. The droplet-based or jet-based evaporation during electrospinning and spray drying led to the formation of the superhydrophobic/hydrophobic surface by the accumulation of the hydrophobic groups of the amphiphiles on the surface, while the surface-based evaporation during cast drying led to the formation of the hydrophilic surface by the accumulation of the hydrophilic groups of the amphiphiles on the surface.

  7. Approximate bilateral symmetry in evaporation-induced polycrystalline structures from droplets of wheat grain leakages and fluctuating asymmetry as quality indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; Dinelli, Giovanni; Betti, Lucietta

    2013-01-01

    The present paper reports on an observation that dendrite-like polycrystalline structures from evaporating droplets of wheat grain leakages exhibit bilateral symmetry. The exactness of this symmetry, measured by means of fluctuating asymmetry, varies depending on the cultivar and stress factor influence, and seems to correspond to the seed germination rate. In the bodies of plants, animals, and humans, the exactness of bilateral symmetry is known to reflect the environmental conditions of an organism's growth, its health, and its success in sexual selection. In polycrystalline structures, formed under the same conditions, the symmetry exactness depends on the properties of the crystallizing solution such as the composition and viscosity; however, it has never been associated with sample quality. We hypothesize here that, as in living nature, the exactness of approximate bilateral symmetry might be considered a quality indicator also in crystallographic methods applied to food quality analysis.

  8. Crater Formation on Electrodes during Charge Transfer with Aqueous Droplets or Solid Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Eric S.; Rosenberg, Ethan R.; Ristenpart, William D.

    2017-11-01

    We report that metallic electrodes are physically pitted during charge transfer events with water droplets or other conductive objects moving in strong electric fields (>1 kV/cm). Post situ microscopic inspection of the electrode shows that an individual charge transfer event yields a crater approximately 1 to 3 microns wide, often with features similar to splash coronae. We interpret the crater formation in terms of localized melting of the electrode via resistive heating concurrent with dielectric breakdown through the surrounding insulating fluid. A scaling analysis indicates that the crater diameter scales as the inverse cube root of the melting point temperature Tm of the metal, in accord with measurements on several metals (660°C <=Tm <= 3414°C). The process of crater formation provides a possible explanation for the longstanding difficulty in quantitatively corroborating Maxwell's prediction for the amount of charge acquired by spheres contacting a planar electrode.

  9. The influence of the surface composition of mixed monolayer films on the evaporation coefficient of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Rachael E H; Davies, James F; Reid, Jonathan P

    2016-07-20

    We explore the dependence of the evaporation coefficient of water from aqueous droplets on the composition of a surface film, considering in particular the influence of monolayer mixed component films on the evaporative mass flux. Measurements with binary component films formed from long chain alcohols, specifically tridecanol (C13H27OH) and pentadecanol (C15H31OH), and tetradecanol (C14H29OH) and hexadecanol (C16H33OH), show that the evaporation coefficient is dependent on the mole fractions of the two components forming the monolayer film. Immediately at the point of film formation and commensurate reduction in droplet evaporation rate, the evaporation coefficient is equal to a mole fraction weighted average of the evaporation coefficients through the equivalent single component films. As a droplet continues to diminish in surface area with continued loss of water, the more-soluble, shorter alkyl chain component preferentially partitions into the droplet bulk with the evaporation coefficient tending towards that through a single component film formed simply from the less-soluble, longer chain alcohol. We also show that the addition of a long chain alcohol to an aqueous-sucrose droplet can facilitate control over the degree of dehydration achieved during evaporation. After undergoing rapid gas-phase diffusion limited water evaporation, binary aqueous-sucrose droplets show a continued slow evaporative flux that is limited by slow diffusional mass transport within the particle bulk due to the rapidly increasing particle viscosity and strong concentration gradients that are established. The addition of a long chain alcohol to the droplet is shown to slow the initial rate of water loss, leading to a droplet composition that remains more homogeneous for a longer period of time. When the sucrose concentration has achieved a sufficiently high value, and the diffusion constant of water has decreased accordingly so that bulk phase diffusion arrest occurs in the monolayer

  10. Evaporation influences on the crystallization of an aqueous dihydrate cupric chloride solution with additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busscher, Nicolaas; Kahl, Johannes; Doesburg, Paul; Mergardt, Gaby; Ploeger, Angelika

    2010-04-15

    The overall structure of the crystallization results of dihydrate cupric chloride with additives in a petri dish is affected by the duration between the beginning of the evaporation and the start of the crystallization. Experiments done with polyvinylpyrrolidone and freeze-dried carrot as additive are compared with those of the additive free case. The dependency of dewetting on the dihydrate cupric chloride amount is discussed in terms of depletion of the solution and the surface tension properties of the system. The possible influence of the depletion is depending on the moment the crystallization starts. This is defined by the size of the evaporated area on the dish. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Probing the surface of aqueous surfactant-perfume mixed solutions during perfume evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Penfold, J; Thomas, RK; Bradbury, R; Tucker, I; Petkov, JT; Jones, CW; Webster, JRP

    2017-01-01

    The rate of release or evaporation of perfume molecules from surfaces is a key factor in determining the impact of the perfume in a range of applications relating to home and personal care products. For mixtures of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate and the model perfume linalool the rate of change of adsorption with time due to forced air flow over a fixed headspace was evaluated using neutron reflectivity over a period of up to ∼250 min. The measurements were made in the limit of ...

  12. Full evaporation dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for uniform enrichment of odor compounds in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Hoffmann, Andreas; Okanoya, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    A method for analysis of a wide range of odor compounds in aqueous samples at sub-ng mL⁻¹ to μg mL⁻¹ levels was developed by full evaporation dynamic headspace (FEDHS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compared to conventional DHS and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), FEDHS provides more uniform enrichment over the entire polarity range for odor compounds in aqueous samples. FEDHS at 80°C using 3 L of purge gas allows complete vaporization of 100 μL of an aqueous sample, and trapping and drying it in an adsorbent packed tube, while providing high recoveries (85-103%) of the 18 model odor compounds (water solubility at 25°C: log0.54-5.65 mg L⁻¹, vapor pressure at 25°C: 0.011-3.2 mm Hg) and leaving most of the low volatile matrix behind. The FEDHS-GC-MS method showed good linearity (r²>0.9909) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.21-5.2 ng mL⁻¹) for the model compounds even with the scan mode in the conventional MS. The feasibility and benefit of the method was demonstrated with analyses of key odor compounds including hydrophilic and less volatile characteristics in beverages (whiskey and green tea). In a single malt whiskey sample, phenolic compounds including vanillin could be determined in the range of 0.92-5.1 μg mL⁻¹ (RSDfuraneol, indole, maltol, and pyrazine congeners) were determined in the range of 0.21-110 ng mL⁻¹ (RSD<10%, n=6). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nano-crater Formation on Electrodes during the Electrical Charging of Aqueous Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Eric; Rosenberg, Ethan; Ristenpart, William

    2015-11-01

    A water drop in an insulating fluid acquires charge when it contacts an electrode, but the exact mechanism of charge transfer has remained obscure. Previous work, dating back to Maxwell, has implicitly assumed that the electrode remains unaltered by the charging process. Here we demonstrate that, contrary to this assumption, water drops and other conducting objects create ``nano-craters'' on the electrode surface during the charging process. We used optical microscopy, SEM, and atomic force microscopy to characterize the electrode surfaces before and after water drops were electrically bounced on them. We show that each drop contact creates an approximately micron wide and 30-nm deep crater to form on the electrode surface. Given enough time, the drop will form enough nano-craters to effectively `eat through' a sufficiently thin electrode. We discuss possible physical mechanisms for the nano-crater formation, including localized melting caused by Joule heating during the charge transfer event. The observations reported here are of particular interest in the development of microfluidic devices that use thin film electrodes to control the motion of aqueous drops.

  14. Convection-enhanced water evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Weon; J. H. Je; C. Poulard

    2011-01-01

    Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL) water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive) evaporation in nanoliter water droplet...

  15. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    not only with coffee droplets but also with all droplets containing non-volatile solutes. There are a number of interesting physical processes going on within the droplets during evaporation to form the 'coffee stains'. In this article, we will see what they are. Introduction. Studying wetting phenomena is important in many cases.

  16. Reactive Leidenfrost droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufaste, C.; Bouret, Y.; Celestini, F.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally investigate the reactivity of Leidenfrost droplets with their supporting substrates. Several organic liquids are put into contact with a copper substrate heated above their Leidenfrost temperature. As the liquid evaporates, the gaseous flow cleans the superficial copper oxide formed at the substrate surface and the reaction maintains a native copper spot below the evaporating droplet. The copper spot can reach several times the droplet size for the most reactive organic compounds. This study shows an interesting coupling between the physics of the Leidenfrost effect and the mechanics of reactive flows. Different applications are proposed such as drop motion tracking and vapor flow monitoring.

  17. Microextraction in a tetrabutylammonium bromide/ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase system and electrohydrodynamic generation of a micro-droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Soo; Choi, Young Hoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2007-08-31

    Microextraction of methyl orange in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) formed by dissolving tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) and ammonium sulfate (AS) is reported. Methyl orange was transported from the AS-rich phase to TBAB-rich phase across the interface of the two immiscible phases. The electrohydrodynamic effect on the shape of the interface of two immiscible flows was also observed by applying dc voltage at the T-junction of the microchannel and the generation of a droplet of AS-rich phase was observed when the potential difference between positive and negative electrodes exceeds a threshold voltage. The minimum voltage necessary for the droplet generation depends on pH due to the degree of dissociation and charge accumulation.

  18. The abbreviated impactor measurement (AIM) concept: part II--Influence of evaporation of a volatile component-evaluation with a "droplet-producing" pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI)-based formulation containing ethanol as cosolvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J P; Nagel, M W; Avvakoumova, V; MacKay, H; Ali, R

    2009-01-01

    The abbreviated impactor measurement (AIM) concept is a potential solution to the labor-intensive full-resolution cascade impactor (CI) methodology for inhaler aerosol aerodynamic particle size measurement. In this validation study, the effect of increasing the internal dead volume on determined mass fractions relating to aerodynamic particle size was explored with two abbreviated impactors both based on the Andersen nonviable cascade impactor (ACI) operating principle (Copley fast screening Andersen impactor [C-FSA] and Trudell fast screening Andersen impactor [T-FSA]). A pressurized metered dose inhaler-delivered aerosol producing liquid ethanol droplets after propellant evaporation was chosen to characterize these systems. Measures of extrafine, fine, and coarse particle mass fractions from the abbreviated systems were compared with corresponding data obtained by a full-resolution ACI. The use of liquid ethanol-sensitive filter paper provided insight by rendering locations visible where partly evaporated droplets were still present when the "droplet-producing" aerosol was sampled. Extrafine particle fractions based on impactor-sized mass were near equivalent in the range 48.6% to 54%, comparing either abbreviated system with the benchmark ACI-measured data. The fine particle fraction of the impactor-sized mass determined by the T-FSA (94.4 +/- 1.7%) was greater than using the C-FSA (90.5 +/- 1.4%) and almost identical with the ACI-measured value (95.3 +/- 0.4%). The improved agreement between T-FSA and ACI is likely the result of increasing the dead space between the entry to the induction port and the uppermost impaction stage, compared with that for the C-FSA. This dead space is needed to provide comparable conditions for ethanol evaporation in the uppermost parts of these impactors.

  19. Convection-enhanced water evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Weon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive evaporation in nanoliter water droplets. This suggests that convection of water vapor would enhance water evaporation at nanoliter scales, for instance, on microdroplets or inside nanochannels.

  20. An adaptable model for growth and/or shrinkage of droplets in the respiratory tract during inhalation of aqueous particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Niels; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.

    2016-01-01

    The site of deposition of pulmonary delivered aerosols is dependent on the aerosol[U+05F3]s droplet size distribution, which may change during inhalation. The aim of this study was to develop a freely accessible and adaptable model that describes the growth (due to condensation) and shrinkage (due

  1. The influence of various factors on the droplet desorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyura, S. Y.; Morozov, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental data on sessile droplet desorption of aqueous salt solution of LiBr on a heated wall were implemented. High-temperature desorption of water-salt solutions in air atmosphere leads to significant difficulties at modeling heat and mass transfer. In this case, the evaporation rate multiply decreases with time and the diffusion coefficient, the desorption heat and the salt concentration change significantly. With the growth of salt concentration in solution from 10 % to 65 %, the steam partial pressure at the interface falls by dozens of times. In this study, we performed experiments in a wide range of salt concentrations and proposed a simple estimated method for calculating the mass flow. The resulting technique can predict the droplet solution behavior with a significant change in the partial vapor pressure on the droplet interphase with time.

  2. In situ observation on the dynamic process of evaporation and crystallization of sodium nitrate droplets on a ZnSe substrate by FTIR-ATR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Nuan; Zhang, Yun; Cai, Chen; Guo, Yu-Cong; Reid, Jonathan P; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2014-04-17

    Sodium nitrate is a main component of aging sea salt aerosol, and its phase behavior has been studied repeatedly with wide ranges observed in the efflorescence relative humidity (RH) in particular. Studies of the efflorescence dynamics of NaNO3 droplets deposited on a ZnSe substrate are reported, using an in situ Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) technique. The time-dependence of the infrared spectra of NaNO3 aerosols accompanying step changes in RH have been measured with high signal-to-noise ratio. From the IR difference spectra recorded, changes of the time-dependent absorption peak area of the O-H stretching band (ν-OH, ∼3400 cm(-1)) and the nitrate out-of-plane bending band (ν2-NO3(-), ∼836 cm(-1)) are obtained. From these measurements, changes in the IR signatures can be attributed to crystalline and solution phase nitrate ions, allowing the volume fraction of the solution droplets that have crystallized to be determined. Then, using these clear signatures of the volume fraction of droplets that have yet to crystallize, the homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation kinetics can be studied from conventional measurements using a steady decline in RH. The nucleation rate measurements confirm that the rate of crystallization in sodium nitrate droplets is considerably less than in ammonium sulfate droplets at any particular degree of solute supersaturation, explaining the wide range of efflorescence RHs observed for sodium nitrate in previous studies. We demonstrate that studying nucleation kinetics using the FTIR-ATR approach has many advantages over brightfield imaging studies on smaller numbers of larger droplets or measurements made on single levitated particles.

  3. Technologies That Enable Accurate and Precise Nano- to Milliliter-Scale Liquid Dispensing of Aqueous Reagents Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackmann, Eric K; Majlof, Lars; Hahn-Windgassen, Annett; Eaton, Brent; Bandzava, Temo; Daulton, Jay; Vandenbroucke, Arne; Mock, Matthew; Stearns, Richard G; Hinkson, Stephen; Datwani, Sammy S

    2016-02-01

    Acoustic liquid handling uses high-frequency acoustic signals that are focused on the surface of a fluid to eject droplets with high accuracy and precision for various life science applications. Here we present a multiwell source plate, the Echo Qualified Reservoir (ER), which can acoustically transfer over 2.5 mL of fluid per well in 25-nL increments using an Echo 525 liquid handler. We demonstrate two Labcyte technologies-Dynamic Fluid Analysis (DFA) methods and a high-voltage (HV) grid-that are required to maintain accurate and precise fluid transfers from the ER at this volume scale. DFA methods were employed to dynamically assess the energy requirements of the fluid and adjust the acoustic ejection parameters to maintain a constant velocity droplet. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the HV grid enhances droplet velocity and coalescence at the destination plate. These technologies enabled 5-µL per destination well transfers to a 384-well plate, with accuracy and precision values better than 4%. Last, we used the ER and Echo 525 liquid handler to perform a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to demonstrate an application that benefits from the flexibility and larger volume capabilities of the ER. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. Multi-layer solid-phase extraction and evaporation-enrichment methods for polar organic chemicals from aqueous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köke, Niklas; Zahn, Daniel; Knepper, Thomas P; Frömel, Tobias

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of polar organic chemicals in the aquatic environment is exacerbated by the lack of suitable and widely applicable enrichment methods. In this work, we assessed the suitability of a novel combination of well-known solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials in one cartridge as well as an evaporation method and for the enrichment of 26 polar model substances (predominantly log D evaporation method were investigated for the recovery and matrix effects of the model substances and analyzed with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). In total, 65% of the model substances were amenable (> 10% recovery) to the mlSPE method with a mean recovery of 76% while 73% of the model substances were enriched with the evaporation method achieving a mean recovery of 78%. Target and non-target screening comparison of both methods with a frequently used reversed-phase SPE method utilizing "hydrophilic and lipophilic balanced" (HLB) material was performed. Target analysis showed that the mlSPE and evaporation method have pronounced advantages over the HLB method since the HLB material retained only 30% of the model substances. Non-target screening of a ground water sample with the investigated enrichment methods showed that the median retention time of all detected features on a HILIC system decreased in the order mlSPE (3641 features, median t R 9.7 min), evaporation (1391, 9.3 min), HLB (4414, 7.2 min), indicating a higher potential of the described methods to enrich polar analytes from water compared with HLB-SPE. Graphical abstract Schematic of the method evaluation (recovery and matrix effects) and method comparison (target and non-target analysis) of the two investigated enrichment methods for very polar chemicals in aqueousmatrices.

  5. In situ droplet size and speed determination in a fluid-bed granulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Henrik; Larjo, Jussi; Antikainen, Osmo; Räikkönen, Heikki; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-05-31

    The droplet size affects the final product in fluid-bed granulation and coating. In the present study, spray characteristics of aqueous granulation liquid (purified water) were determined in situ in a fluid-bed granulator. Droplets were produced by a pneumatic nozzle. Diode laser stroboscopy (DLS) was used for droplet detection and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) was used for determination of droplet size and speed. Increased atomization pressure decreased the droplet size and the effect was most strongly visible in the 90% size fractile. The droplets seemed to undergo coalescence after which only slight evaporation occurred. Furthermore, the droplets were subjected to a strong turbulence at the event of atomization, after which the turbulence reached a minimum value in the lower halve of the chamber. The turbulence increased as speed and droplet size decreased due to the effects of the fluidizing air. The DLS and PTV system used was found to be a useful and rapid tool in determining spray characteristics and in monitoring and predicting nozzle performance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reversing Coffee-Ring Effect by Laser-Induced Differential Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tony M; Fu, Xin; Wei, Tao; Nayak, Roshan U; Shi, Yuesong; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2018-02-16

    The coffee-ring effect, ubiquitously present in the drying process of aqueous droplets, impedes the performance of a myriad of applications involving precipitation of particle suspensions in evaporating liquids on solid surfaces, such as liquid biopsy combinational analysis, microarray fabrication, and ink-jet printing, to name a few. We invented the methodology of laser-induced differential evaporation to remove the coffee-ring effect. Without any additives to the liquid or any morphology modifications of the solid surface the liquid rests on, we have eliminated the coffee-ring effect by engineering the liquid evaporation profile with a CO 2 laser irradiating the apex of the droplets. The method of laser-induced differential evaporation transitions particle deposition patterns from coffee-ring patterns to central-peak patterns, bringing all particles (e.g. fluorescent double strand DNAs) in the droplet to a designated area of 100 μm diameter without leaving any stains outside. The technique also moves the drying process from the constant contact radius (CCR) mode to the constant contact angle (CCA) mode. Physical mechanisms of this method were experimentally studied by internal flow tracking and surface evaporation flux mapping, and theoretically investigated by development of an analytical model.

  7. Millifluidic droplet analyser for microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baraban, L.; Bertholle, F.; Salverda, M.L.M.; Bremond, N.; Panizza, P.; Baudry, J.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Bibette, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel millifluidic droplet analyser (MDA) for precisely monitoring the dynamics of microbial populations over multiple generations in numerous (=103) aqueous emulsion droplets (100 nL). As a first application, we measure the growth rate of a bacterial strain and determine the minimal

  8. Interfacial Instabilities in Evaporating Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Ross; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of substrate thermal properties on the evaporation of sessile drops of various liquids. An infra-red imaging technique was used to record the interfacial temperature. This technique illustrates the non-uniformity in interfacial temperature distribution that characterises the evaporation process. Our results also demonstrate that the evaporation of methanol droplets is accompanied by the formation of wave-trains in the interfacial temperature field; similar patterns, however, were not observed in the case of water droplets. More complex patterns are observed for FC-72 refrigerant drops. The effect of substrate thermal conductivity on the structure of the complex pattern formation is also elucidated.

  9. On the application of the classic Kessler and Berry schemes in Large Eddy Simulation models with a particular emphasis on cloud autoconversion, the onset time of precipitation and droplet evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghosh

    Full Text Available Many Large Eddy Simulation (LES models use the classic Kessler parameterisation either as it is or in a modified form to model the process of cloud water autoconversion into precipitation. The Kessler scheme, being linear, is particularly useful and is computationally straightforward to implement. However, a major limitation with this scheme lies in its inability to predict different autoconversion rates for maritime and continental clouds. In contrast, the Berry formulation overcomes this difficulty, although it is cubic. Due to their different forms, it is difficult to match the two solutions to each other. In this paper we single out the processes of cloud conversion and accretion operating in a deep model cloud and neglect the advection terms for simplicity. This facilitates exact analytical integration and we are able to derive new expressions for the time of onset of precipitation using both the Kessler and Berry formulations. We then discuss the conditions when the two schemes are equivalent. Finally, we also critically examine the process of droplet evaporation within the framework of the classic Kessler scheme. We improve the existing parameterisation with an accurate estimation of the diffusional mass transport of water vapour. We then demonstrate the overall robustness of our calculations by comparing our results with the experimental observations of Beard and Pruppacher, and find excellent agreement.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure · Cloud physics and chemistry · Pollution · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · Precipitation

  10. Self-propelled oil droplets consuming "fuel" surfactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyota, Taro; Maru, Naoto; Hanczyc, Martin M

    2009-01-01

    A micrometer-sized oil droplet of 4-octylaniline containing 5 mol % of an amphiphilic catalyst exhibited a self-propelled motion, producing tiny oil droplets, in an aqueous dispersion of an amphiphilic precursor of 4-octylaniline. The tiny droplets on the surface of the self-propelled droplet wer...

  11. Take off of small Leidenfrost droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestini, Franck; Frisch, Thomas; Pomeau, Yves

    2012-07-20

    We put in evidence the unexpected behavior of Leidenfrost droplets at the later stage of their evaporation. We predict and observe that, below a critical size Rl, the droplets spontaneously take off due to the breakdown of the lubrication regime. We establish the theoretical relation between the droplet radius and its elevation. We predict that the vapor layer thickness increases when the droplets become smaller. A satisfactory agreement is found between the model and the experimental results performed on droplets of water and of ethanol.

  12. Comparison of powder produced by evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS) and spray freezing into liquid (SFL) technologies using novel Z-contrast STEM and complimentary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Jason M; Gao, Xiaoxia; Yacaman, Miguel-Jose; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the properties of particles formed by nucleation and polymer stabilization (e.g. evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS)) versus rapid freezing (e.g. spray freezing into liquid (SFL)). Powders formed by EPAS and SFL, composed of danazol and PVP K-15 in a 1:1 ratio, were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), contact angle determination, dissolution, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), BET specific surface area, and Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Large differences in particle morphologies and properties were observed and explained in terms of the particle formation mechanisms. Both techniques produced amorphous powders with high T(g) and low contact angle values. However, STEM analysis showed highly porous bicontinuous nanostructured 30nm particles connected by narrow bridges for SFL versus aggregated 500 nm primary particles for EPAS. The combination of STEM and other characterization techniques indicates solid solutions were formed for the SFL powders consistent with rapid freezing. In contrast, the EPAS particle cores are enriched in hydrophobic API and the outer surface is enriched in the hydrophilic polymer, with less miscibility than in the SFL powders. Consequently, dissolution rates are faster for the SFL particles, although both techniques enhanced dissolution rates of the API.

  13. Leidenfrost boiling of water droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orzechowski Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned a large water droplet at the heating surface temperature above the Leidenfrost point. The heating cylinder was the main component of experimental stand on which investigations were performed. The measurement system was placed on the high-sensitivity scales. Data transmission was performed through RS232 interface. The author-designed program, with extended functions to control the system, was applied. The present paper examines the behaviour of a large single drop levitating over a hot surface, unsteady mass of the drop, and heat transfer. In computations, the dependence, available in the literature, for the orthogonal droplet projection on the heating surface as a function of time was employed. It was confirmed that the local value of the heat transfer coefficient is a power function of the area of the droplet surface projection. Also, a linear relationship between the flux of mass evaporated from the droplet and the droplet orthogonal projection was observed.

  14. Leidenfrost boiling of water droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Tadeusz

    The investigations concerned a large water droplet at the heating surface temperature above the Leidenfrost point. The heating cylinder was the main component of experimental stand on which investigations were performed. The measurement system was placed on the high-sensitivity scales. Data transmission was performed through RS232 interface. The author-designed program, with extended functions to control the system, was applied. The present paper examines the behaviour of a large single drop levitating over a hot surface, unsteady mass of the drop, and heat transfer. In computations, the dependence, available in the literature, for the orthogonal droplet projection on the heating surface as a function of time was employed. It was confirmed that the local value of the heat transfer coefficient is a power function of the area of the droplet surface projection. Also, a linear relationship between the flux of mass evaporated from the droplet and the droplet orthogonal projection was observed.

  15. A review on laser diagnostics on atomization and evaporation of liquid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyin; Li, Shiyan; Lin, Baiyang; Liu, Yang; Wu, Jian; Xu, Bin

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the atomization and evaporation processes of liquid fuel, there are several laser diagnostics available in present. In this paper, the recent progress in laser diagnostics for atomization and evaporation will be introduced, as two categories: atomization and evaporation. The diagnostics for the former includes the primary breakup from liquid jet to ligaments or droplets and the secondary atomization from a bigger droplet to a smaller one, and the latter includes the droplet evaporation and the vapor distributions in a spray.

  16. Secondary organic aerosol formation in cloud droplets and aqueous particles (aqSOA: a review of laboratory, field and model studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ervens

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress has been made over the past decade in predicting secondary organic aerosol (SOA mass in the atmosphere using vapor pressure-driven partitioning, which implies that SOA compounds are formed in the gas phase and then partition to an organic phase (gasSOA. However, discrepancies in predicting organic aerosol oxidation state, size and product (molecular mass distribution, relative humidity (RH dependence, color, and vertical profile suggest that additional SOA sources and aging processes may be important. The formation of SOA in cloud and aerosol water (aqSOA is not considered in these models even though water is an abundant medium for atmospheric chemistry and such chemistry can form dicarboxylic acids and "humic-like substances" (oligomers, high-molecular-weight compounds, i.e. compounds that do not have any gas phase sources but comprise a significant fraction of the total SOA mass. There is direct evidence from field observations and laboratory studies that organic aerosol is formed in cloud and aerosol water, contributing substantial mass to the droplet mode.

    This review summarizes the current knowledge on aqueous phase organic reactions and combines evidence that points to a significant role of aqSOA formation in the atmosphere. Model studies are discussed that explore the importance of aqSOA formation and suggestions for model improvements are made based on the comprehensive set of laboratory data presented here. A first comparison is made between aqSOA and gasSOA yields and mass predictions for selected conditions. These simulations suggest that aqSOA might contribute almost as much mass as gasSOA to the SOA budget, with highest contributions from biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants (i.e. NOx at high relative humidity and cloudiness. Gaps in the current understanding of aqSOA processes are discussed and further studies (laboratory, field, model

  17. Steady Method for the Analysis of Evaporation Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, A Alperen; Sett, Soumyadip; Oh, Junho; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-10-31

    Droplet evaporation is an important phenomenon governing many man-made and natural processes. Characterizing the rate of evaporation with high accuracy has attracted the attention of numerous scientists over the past century. Traditionally, researchers have studied evaporation by observing the change in the droplet size in a given time interval. However, the transient nature coupled with the significant mass-transfer-governed gas dynamics occurring at the droplet three-phase contact line makes the classical method crude. Furthermore, the intricate balance played by the internal and external flows, evaporation kinetics, thermocapillarity, binary-mixture dynamics, curvature, and moving contact lines makes the decoupling of these processes impossible with classical transient methods. Here, we present a method to measure the rate of evaporation of spatially and temporally steady droplets. By utilizing a piezoelectric dispenser to feed microscale droplets (R ≈ 9 μm) to a larger evaporating droplet at a prescribed frequency, we can both create variable-sized droplets on any surface and study their evaporation rate by modulating the piezoelectric droplet addition frequency. Using our steady technique, we studied water evaporation of droplets having base radii ranging from 20 to 250 μm on surfaces of different functionalities (45° ≤ θ a,app ≤ 162°, where θ a,app is the apparent advancing contact angle). We benchmarked our technique with the classical unsteady method, showing an improvement of 140% in evaporation rate measurement accuracy. Our work not only characterizes the evaporation dynamics on functional surfaces but also provides an experimental platform to finally enable the decoupling of the complex physics governing the ubiquitous droplet evaporation process.

  18. Demonstration of droplet size and vaporization rate measurements in the near field of a two-phase jet with droplet lasing spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, P J; Flowers, D; Kennedy, I M

    1998-08-20

    Droplet lasing spectroscopy has been applied to the measurement of droplet size and evaporation rate in a spray. A single droplet, doped with laser dye, was injected along the centerline of a liquid spray. Filters were used to block the strong elastic-scattering signal. The lasing emission from the doped droplet could be detected against the background with mass loadings of liquid in the spray as high as 20%. An analysis of the spectrum of droplet lasing was used to evaluate the droplet diameter. The evaporation rate of the droplet was obtained from consecutive lasing spectra that were obtained from the same droplet. An error analysis of the drop size and drop evaporation measurements was carried out and showed that accurate measurements of evaporation rates were feasible.

  19. Enhanced droplet control by transition boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounds, Alex; Still, Richard; Takashina, Kei

    2012-01-01

    A droplet of water on a heated surface can levitate over a film of gas produced by its own evaporation in the Leidenfrost effect. When the surface is prepared with ratchet-like saw-teeth topography, these droplets can self-propel and can even climb uphill. However, the extent to which the droplets can be controlled is limited by the physics of the Leidenfrost effect. Here, we show that transition boiling can be induced even at very high surface temperatures and provide additional control over the droplets. Ratchets with acute protrusions enable droplets to climb steeper inclines while ratchets with sub-structures enable their direction of motion to be controlled by varying the temperature of the surface. The droplets' departure from the Leidenfrost regime is assessed by analysing the sound produced by their boiling. We anticipate these techniques will enable the development of more sophisticated methods for controlling small droplets and heat transfer.

  20. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  1. Sessile Drop Evaporation and Leidenfrost Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Mozumder; M. R. Ullah; A. Hossain; M. A. Islam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Quenching and cooling are important process in manufacturing industry for controlling the mechanical properties of materials, where evaporation is a vital mode of heat transfer. Approach: This study experimentally investigated the evaporation of sessile drop for four different heated surfaces of Aluminum, Brass, Copper and Mild steel with a combination of four different liquids as Methanol, Ethanol, Water and NaCl solution. The time of evaporation for the droplet on the hot...

  2. Growth of solid conical structures during multistage drying of sessile poly(ethylene oxide) droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, David; Baldwin, Kyle Anthony; Kwartnik, Charles; Fairhurst, David John

    2010-04-28

    Sessile droplets of aqueous poly(ethylene oxide) solution, with average molecular weight of 100 kDa, are monitored during evaporative drying at ambient conditions over a range of initial concentrations c(0). For all droplets with c(0) > or = 3%, central conical structures, which can be hollow and nearly 50% taller than the initial droplet, are formed during a growth stage. Although the formation of superficially similar structures has been explained for glass-forming polymers using a skin-buckling model which predicts the droplet to have constant surface area during the growth stage (L. Pauchard and C. Allain, Europhys. Lett., 2003, 62, 897-903), we demonstrate that this model is not applicable here as the surface area is shown to increase during growth for all c(0). We interpret our experimental data using a proposed drying and deposition process comprising the four stages: pinned drying; receding contact line; "bootstrap" growth, during which the liquid droplet is lifted upon freshly-precipitated solid; and late drying. Additional predictions of our model, including a criterion for predicting whether a conical structure will form, compare favourably with observations. We discuss how the specific chemical and physical properties of PEO, in particular its amphiphilic nature, its tendency to form crystalline spherulites rather than an amorphous glass at high concentrations and its anomalous surface tension values for MW = 100 kDa may be critical to the observed drying process.

  3. Droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling for simpler and faster PCR assay using wire-guided manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, David J; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2012-09-04

    A computer numerical control (CNC) apparatus was used to perform droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling on a single superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater. Droplets were manipulated using "wire-guided" method (a pipette tip was used in this study). This methodology can be easily adapted to existing commercial robotic pipetting system, while demonstrated added capabilities such as vibrational mixing, high-speed centrifuging of droplets, simple DNA extraction utilizing the hydrophobicity difference between the tip and the superhydrophobic surface, and rapid thermocycling with a moving droplet, all with wire-guided droplet manipulations on a superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater (i.e., not on a 96-well plate). Serial dilutions were demonstrated for diluting sample matrix. Centrifuging was demonstrated by rotating a 10 μL droplet at 2300 round per minute, concentrating E. coli by more than 3-fold within 3 min. DNA extraction was demonstrated from E. coli sample utilizing the disposable pipette tip to cleverly attract the extracted DNA from the droplet residing on a superhydrophobic surface, which took less than 10 min. Following extraction, the 1500 bp sequence of Peptidase D from E. coli was amplified using rapid droplet thermocycling, which took 10 min for 30 cycles. The total assay time was 23 min, including droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction and rapid droplet thermocycling. Evaporation from of 10 μL droplets was not significant during these procedures, since the longest time exposure to air and the vibrations was less than 5 min (during DNA extraction). The results of these sequentially executed processes were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Thus, this work demonstrates the adaptability of the system to replace many common laboratory tasks on a single platform (through re-programmability), in rapid succession (using droplets), and with a high level of

  4. Droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling for simpler and faster PCR assay using wire-guided manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You David J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A computer numerical control (CNC apparatus was used to perform droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction, and rapid droplet thermocycling on a single superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater. Droplets were manipulated using “wire-guided” method (a pipette tip was used in this study. This methodology can be easily adapted to existing commercial robotic pipetting system, while demonstrated added capabilities such as vibrational mixing, high-speed centrifuging of droplets, simple DNA extraction utilizing the hydrophobicity difference between the tip and the superhydrophobic surface, and rapid thermocycling with a moving droplet, all with wire-guided droplet manipulations on a superhydrophobic surface and a multi-chambered PCB heater (i.e., not on a 96-well plate. Serial dilutions were demonstrated for diluting sample matrix. Centrifuging was demonstrated by rotating a 10 μL droplet at 2300 round per minute, concentrating E. coli by more than 3-fold within 3 min. DNA extraction was demonstrated from E. coli sample utilizing the disposable pipette tip to cleverly attract the extracted DNA from the droplet residing on a superhydrophobic surface, which took less than 10 min. Following extraction, the 1500 bp sequence of Peptidase D from E. coli was amplified using rapid droplet thermocycling, which took 10 min for 30 cycles. The total assay time was 23 min, including droplet centrifugation, droplet DNA extraction and rapid droplet thermocycling. Evaporation from of 10 μL droplets was not significant during these procedures, since the longest time exposure to air and the vibrations was less than 5 min (during DNA extraction. The results of these sequentially executed processes were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Thus, this work demonstrates the adaptability of the system to replace many common laboratory tasks on a single platform (through re-programmability, in rapid succession (using droplets

  5. Windswept droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bico, Jose

    2005-11-01

    A small droplet impacting a glass window usually remains stuck on the pane. How can we expel it? One possible solution consists in coating the glass surface with a hydrophobic layer. Another solution is to blow it off. We explore this last solution (partly combined with the first one). The droplet starts moving when the wind exceeds a threshold velocity, depending essentially on the surface wettability and the drop size. Above this threshold, the drift speed of the droplet results from a balance between aerodynamic drag and viscous dissipation near the contact lines. The results for different experimental conditions collapse on a master curve, once the wind speed is rescaled as a Weber number and the droplet velocity as a capillary number. While small droplets remain almost spherical caps, larger ones are strongly deformed and take the shape of a sausage, perpendicular to the wind direction. We finally determine the conditions in which satellite droplets are left at the rear of the moving drop, an issue crucial for blow drying processes.

  6. Room temperature water Leidenfrost droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestini, Franck; Frisch, Thomas; Pomeau, Yves

    2013-10-28

    We experimentally investigate the Leidenfrost effect at pressures ranging from 1 to 0.05 atmospheric pressure. As a direct consequence of the Clausius–Clapeyron phase diagram of water, the droplet temperature can be at ambient temperature in a non-sophisticated lab environment. Furthermore, the lifetime of the Leidenfrost droplet is significantly increased in this low pressure environment. The temperature and pressure dependence of the evaporation rate is successfully tested against a recently proposed model. These results may pave the way for reaching efficient Leidenfrost micro-fluidic and milli-fluidic applications.

  7. Microdroplet evaporation with a forced pinned contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Kevin; Putnam, Shawn A

    2014-09-02

    Experimental and numerical investigations of water microdroplet evaporation on heated, laser patterned polymer substrates are reported. The study is focused on both (i) controlling a droplet's contact line dynamics during evaporation to identifying how the contact line influences evaporative heat transfer and (ii) validating numerical simulations with experimental data. Droplets are formed on the polymer surface using a bottom-up methodology, where a computer-controlled syringe pump feeds water through a 200 μm diameter fluid channel within the heated polymer substrate. This methodology facilitates precise control of the droplet's growth rate, size, and inlet temperature. In addition to this microchannel supply line, the substrate surfaces are laser patterned with a moatlike trench around the fluid-channel outlet, adding additional control of the droplet's contact line motion, area, and contact angle. In comparison to evaporation on a nonpatterned polymer surface, the laser patterned trench increases contact line pinning time by ∼60% of the droplet's lifetime. Numerical simulations of diffusion controlled evaporation are compared the experimental data with a pinned contact line. These diffusion based simulations consistently over predict the droplet's evaporation rate. In efforts to improve this model, a temperature distribution along the droplet's liquid-vapor interface is imposed to account for the concentration distribution of saturated vapor along the interface, which yields improved predictions within 2-4% of the experimental data throughout the droplet's lifetime on heated substrates.

  8. The behavior of volatile droplets in a controlled atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrault, Gerard

    1971-01-01

    A technique permitting constant temperature and atmospheric composition to be obtained in a few minutes in a closed container allowed the equilibrium, evaporation and growth of several types of droplets to be studied. A critical review is presented on the thermodynamics of equilibria and the kinetics of evaporation and growth in the different cases. Fair agreement was reached between theory and experiment. Coefficients of evaporation, condensation, and accommodation were calculated for water and water-ClNa droplets; the theory is extended to a few particular cases of droplets containing two volatile constituents. (author) [fr

  9. Dynamic interactions of Leidenfrost droplets on liquid metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yujie; Liu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Leidenfrost dynamic interaction effects of the isopentane droplets on the surface of heated liquid metal were disclosed. Unlike conventional rigid metal, such conductive and deformable liquid metal surface enables the levitating droplets to demonstrate rather abundant and complex dynamics. The Leidenfrost droplets at different diameters present diverse morphologies and behaviors like rotation and oscillation. Depending on the distance between the evaporating droplets, they attract and repulse each other through the curved surfaces beneath them and their vapor flows. With high boiling point up to 2000 °C, liquid metal offers a unique platform for testing the evaporating properties of a wide variety of liquid even solid.

  10. Effect of Surfactants on the Growth of Individual Cloud Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, A. A.; Li, W.; Gerard, V.; Noziere, B.; Cohen, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    Accurately predicting cloud droplet growth and lifetime remains a large uncertainty in estimates of Earth's changing energy budget. Current findings suggest that surface-active organic compounds and other surfactants in cloud droplets can affect the rate and magnitude of water condensation onto and evaporation from droplets affecting a myriad of cloud properties. This idea represents a significant change from prior thinking that focused solely on solubility as the chemical influence on water uptake to droplets. Recent observations show that surfactants extracted from atmospheric aerosol particles can considerably reduce the surface tension of water, making them important factors in cloud droplet growth that were until recently considered to be negligible. Using the surfactant Igepal CA-630, which has properties similar to that of surfactants extracted from atmospheric aerosol samples, model cloud droplets were created in the laboratory. The evaporation and condensation of the individual droplets were investigated using an aerosol optical trap with Raman spectroscopy. With a change in relative humidity (RH) from 70% to 80%, droplets containing both Igepal and NaCl had much larger changes in droplet radii than droplets containing NaCl only, demonstrating a significant effect of surface tension depression on evaporation and condensation. Given an increase in RH in the atmosphere, this could lead to droplets containing surfactants growing larger than those without surfactants and a substantial change in CCN activity.

  11. Simultaneous spreading and evaporation: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Sergey; Trybala, Anna; Rubio, Ramon G; Kovalchuk, Nina; Starov, Victor; Velarde, Manuel G

    2014-04-01

    The recent progress in theoretical and experimental studies of simultaneous spreading and evaporation of liquid droplets on solid substrates is discussed for pure liquids including nanodroplets, nanosuspensions of inorganic particles (nanofluids) and surfactant solutions. Evaporation of both complete wetting and partial wetting liquids into a nonsaturated vapour atmosphere are considered. However, the main attention is paid to the case of partial wetting when the hysteresis of static contact angle takes place. In the case of complete wetting the spreading/evaporation process proceeds in two stages. A theory was suggested for this case and a good agreement with available experimental data was achieved. In the case of partial wetting the spreading/evaporation of a sessile droplet of pure liquid goes through four subsequent stages: (i) the initial stage, spreading, is relatively short (1-2 min) and therefore evaporation can be neglected during this stage; during the initial stage the contact angle reaches the value of advancing contact angle and the radius of the droplet base reaches its maximum value, (ii) the first stage of evaporation is characterised by the constant value of the radius of the droplet base; the value of the contact angle during the first stage decreases from static advancing to static receding contact angle; (iii) during the second stage of evaporation the contact angle remains constant and equal to its receding value, while the radius of the droplet base decreases; and (iv) at the third stage of evaporation both the contact angle and the radius of the droplet base decrease until the drop completely disappears. It has been shown theoretically and confirmed experimentally that during the first and second stages of evaporation the volume of droplet to power 2/3 decreases linearly with time. The universal dependence of the contact angle during the first stage and of the radius of the droplet base during the second stage on the reduced time has been

  12. Investigation of the charging characteristics of micrometer sized droplets based on parallel plate capacitor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhen; Liu, Yonghong; Wang, Xiaolong; Shen, Yang; Ji, Renjie; Cai, Baoping

    2013-02-05

    The charging characteristics of micrometer sized aqueous droplets have attracted more and more attentions due to the development of the microfluidics technology since the electrophoretic motion of a charged droplet can be used as the droplet actuation method. This work proposed a novel method of investigating the charging characteristics of micrometer sized aqueous droplets based on parallel plate capacitor model. With this method, the effects of the electric field strength, electrolyte concentration, and ion species on the charging characteristics of the aqueous droplets was investigated. Experimental results showed that the charging characteristics of micrometer sized droplets can be investigated by this method.

  13. Aqueous Wetting Films on Fused Quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoco; Wayner

    1999-06-15

    Using an image analyzing interferometer, IAI, the interfacial characteristics of an isothermal constrained vapor bubble, CVB, in a quartz cuvette were studied as a precursor to heat transfer research. The effects of pH and electrolyte concentration on the meniscus properties (curvature and adsorbed film thickness) and the stability of the aqueous wetting films were evaluated. The surface potential in the electric double layer was a function of the cleaning and hydroxylation of the quartz surface. The disjoining pressure isotherm for pure water was very close to that predicted by the Langmuir equation. For aqueous solutions of moderate electrolyte concentration, the Gouy-Chapman theory provided a good representation of the electrostatic effects in the film. The effect of temperature on the film properties of aqueous solutions and pure water was also evaluated: The meniscus curvature decreased with increasing temperature, while Marangoni effects, intermolecular forces, and local evaporation and condensation enhanced waves on the adsorbed film layer. Pure water wetting films were mechanically metastable, breaking into droplets and very thin films (less than 10 nm) after a few hours. Aqueous wetting films with pH 12.4 proved to be stable during a test of several months, even when subjected to temperature and mechanical perturbations. The mechanical stability of wetting films can explain the reported differences between the critical heat fluxes of pure water and aqueous solutions. The IAI-CVB technique is a simple and versatile experimental technique for studying the characteristics of interfacial systems. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Laser Techniques on Acoustically Levitated Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannuli, Antonio; Caccamo, Maria Teresa; Castorina, Giuseppe; Colombo, Franco; Magazù, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    This work reports the results of an experimental study where laser techniques are applied to acoustically levitated droplets of trehalose aqueous solutions in order to perform spectroscopic analyses as a function of concentration and to test the theoretical diameter law. The study of such systems is important in order to better understand the behaviour of trehalose-synthesizing extremophiles that live in extreme environments. In particular, it will be shown how acoustic levitation, combined with optical spectroscopic instruments allows to explore a wide concentration range and to test the validity of the diameter law as a function of levitation lag time, i.e. the D2 vs t law. On this purpose a direct diameter monitoring by a video camera and a laser pointer was first performed; then the diameter was also evaluated by an indirect measure through an OH/CH band area ratio analysis of collected Raman and Infrared spectra. It clearly emerges that D2 vs t follows a linear trend for about 20 minutes, reaching then a plateau at longer time. This result shows how trehalose is able to avoid total water evaporation, this property being essential for the surviving of organisms under extreme environmental conditions.

  15. Laser Techniques on Acoustically Levitated Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannuli Antonio

    2018-01-01

    acoustically levitated droplets of trehalose aqueous solutions in order to perform spectroscopic analyses as a function of concentration and to test the theoretical diameter law. The study of such systems is important in order to better understand the behaviour of trehalose-synthesizing extremophiles that live in extreme environments. In particular, it will be shown how acoustic levitation, combined with optical spectroscopic instruments allows to explore a wide concentration range and to test the validity of the diameter law as a function of levitation lag time, i.e. the D2 vs t law. On this purpose a direct diameter monitoring by a video camera and a laser pointer was first performed; then the diameter was also evaluated by an indirect measure through an OH/CH band area ratio analysis of collected Raman and Infrared spectra. It clearly emerges that D2 vs t follows a linear trend for about 20 minutes, reaching then a plateau at longer time. This result shows how trehalose is able to avoid total water evaporation, this property being essential for the surviving of organisms under extreme environmental conditions.

  16. Generation of native polythiophene/PCBM composite nanoparticles via the combination of ultrasonic micronization of droplets and thermocleaving from aqueous dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nan, Yaxiong; Hu, Xiaolian; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2011-01-01

    -PT/PCBM nanoparticles were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and grazing incidence SAXS (GISAXS), giving an average size of ~ 140 nm. The GISAXS results reveal that n-PT/PCBM nanoparticles pack in an ordered structure as opposed to the P3MHOCT/PCBM nanoparticles......We report the preparation of native polythiophene (n-PT)/[6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) composite nanoparticles from a poly[3-(2-methylhex-2-yl)oxy-carbonyldithiophene] (P3MHOCT)/PCBM aqueous dispersion prepared from an ultrasonically generated emulsion. The subsequent steps....... The successful vapour-phase preparation of phase-separated n-PT/PCBM nanoparticles provides a new route to all-aqueous processing of conjugated materials relevant to efficient polymer solar cells with long operational stability. The use of ultrasound was involved in both liquid and gas phases demonstrating...

  17. Hydrodynamics of Leidenfrost droplets in one-component fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2013-04-24

    Using the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], we numerically investigate the hydrodynamics of Leidenfrost droplets under gravity in two dimensions. Some recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations are confirmed in our simulations. A Leidenfrost droplet larger than a critical size is shown to be unstable and break up into smaller droplets due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the bottom surface of the droplet. Our simulations demonstrate that an evaporating Leidenfrost droplet changes continuously from a puddle to a circular droplet, with the droplet shape controlled by its size in comparison with a few characteristic length scales. The geometry of the vapor layer under the droplet is found to mainly depend on the droplet size and is nearly independent of the substrate temperature, as reported in a recent experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 074301 (2012)]. Finally, our simulations demonstrate that a Leidenfrost droplet smaller than a characteristic size takes off from the hot substrate because the levitating force due to evaporation can no longer be balanced by the weight of the droplet, as observed in a recent experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 034501 (2012)].

  18. Hydrodynamics of Leidenfrost droplets in one-component fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng

    2013-04-01

    Using the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], we numerically investigate the hydrodynamics of Leidenfrost droplets under gravity in two dimensions. Some recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations are confirmed in our simulations. A Leidenfrost droplet larger than a critical size is shown to be unstable and break up into smaller droplets due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the bottom surface of the droplet. Our simulations demonstrate that an evaporating Leidenfrost droplet changes continuously from a puddle to a circular droplet, with the droplet shape controlled by its size in comparison with a few characteristic length scales. The geometry of the vapor layer under the droplet is found to mainly depend on the droplet size and is nearly independent of the substrate temperature, as reported in a recent experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 074301 (2012)]. Finally, our simulations demonstrate that a Leidenfrost droplet smaller than a characteristic size takes off from the hot substrate because the levitating force due to evaporation can no longer be balanced by the weight of the droplet, as observed in a recent experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 034501 (2012)].

  19. Radioactive droplet moisture transfer from nuclear power plant spray pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elokhin, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Problem on transfer of radioactive droplet moisture with an account of its evaporation from the nuclear power plant spray pool (NPP coolant) is considered. Formulae enabling evaluation of droplet and radioactive water admixture lifetime as a whole, as well as the maximum distance (by wind), over which it can extend, are obtained. Recommendations for decrease in the droplet dispersed composition and reduction in scale of radioactive contamination of underlying surface are given. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  20. The dynamics of milk droplet-droplet collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotello, Giulia; Kooiman, Roeland F.; Padding, Johan T.; Buist, Kay A.; Jongsma, Alfred; Innings, Fredrik; Kuipers, J. A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Spray drying is an important industrial process to produce powdered milk, in which concentrated milk is atomized into small droplets and dried with hot gas. The characteristics of the produced milk powder are largely affected by agglomeration, combination of dry and partially dry particles, which in turn depends on the outcome of a collision between droplets. The high total solids (TS) content and the presence of milk proteins cause a relatively high viscosity of the fed milk concentrates, which is expected to largely influence the collision outcomes of drops inside the spray. It is therefore of paramount importance to predict and control the outcomes of binary droplet collisions. Only a few studies report on droplet collisions of high viscous liquids and no work is available on droplet collisions of milk concentrates. The current study therefore aims to obtain insight into the effect of viscosity on the outcome of binary collisions between droplets of milk concentrates. To cover a wide range of viscosity values, three milk concentrates (20, 30 and 46% TS content) are investigated. An experimental set-up is used to generate two colliding droplet streams with consistent droplet size and spacing. A high-speed camera is used to record the trajectories of the droplets. The recordings are processed by Droplet Image Analysis in MATLAB to determine the relative velocities and the impact geometries for each individual collision. The collision outcomes are presented in a regime map dependent on the dimensionless impact parameter and Weber ( We) number. The Ohnesorge ( Oh) number is introduced to describe the effect of viscosity from one liquid to another and is maintained constant for each regime map by using a constant droplet diameter ( d ˜ 700 μ m). In this work, a phenomenological model is proposed to describe the boundaries demarcating the coalescence-separation regimes. The collision dynamics and outcome of milk concentrates are compared with aqueous glycerol

  1. Experimental study of the evaporation of sessile nanoliter liquid drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation of a sessile nanoliter water droplet was investigated experimentally at a temperature difference between the solid substrate and surrounding atmosphere from 30 to 50°C. The studies were performed on the float glass substrate with aluminum nanocoating of optical quality. The research has shown that the specific rate of evaporation (mass loss per unit of the drop surface area increases with the decrease in droplet volume and at the last stage several times exceeds the initial value.

  2. Morphology-controlled preparation of a-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} during evaporating aqueous FeCl{sub 3} solution and investigating the electrochemical properties of various a-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Ling, E-mail: yuling1987@yeah.net; Chen Yuejiao; Qu Baihua; Li Qiuhong, E-mail: liqiuhong2004@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University (China)

    2012-10-15

    Morphology-controlled preparation of a-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been successfully realized by evaporating aqueous FeCl{sub 3} solution. By just simply changing the reaction temperature and time, nanorods, peanut-like and sphere-like morphologies, of a-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could be obtained. The elemental nanorods have a width range of 10-20 nm. On the basis of time-dependent experiments, the formation mechanisms of various nanostructures were proposed. The dynamic formation process showed that with increasing reaction temperature, the outward bending played critical role on the morphology evolution. Furthermore, when tested as anodes, the as-obtained a-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures showed structure-dependent electrochemical properties. Among them, the a-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods exhibited ultrahigh reversible capacity and excellent capacity retention over 50 cycles.

  3. Evaporation induced self-assembly of nanoparticles in realizing hollow microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, D.; Bahadur, J.; Mazumder, S.

    2012-06-01

    Hollow spherical microcapsules are realized using evaporation induced self assembly of silica nanoparticles by spray drying method. Nanoparticles in spray droplets get jammed, during water evaporation, in an anisotropic fashion, at droplet air-water interface by the action of attractive capillary force. Two levels of structural hierarchy of the microcapsules are investigated using small-angle neutron scattering and scanning electron microscopy.

  4. A Full-Scale Study of Exhaled Droplet Dispersion in the Microenvironment around one and two Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Li, Yuguo; Khalegi, Farzad

    Airborne cross infection is based on transmission of microorganisms attached to exhaled droplets or particles. Traditionally two transmission routes are considered, namely via droplet nuclei ( 5-10 μm), and they correspond to two infection routes: droplet infection...... and airborne infection. A transition may take place from droplet-borne infection to airborne infection, because the exhaled droplets may evaporate in the air and droplets become droplet nuclei. Full-scale experiments on the movement of droplet nuclei (airborne infection) have been performed in a number...

  5. Nanospiral Formation by Droplet Drying: One Molecule at a Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Lei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have created nanospirals by self-assembly during droplet evaporation. The nanospirals, 60–70 nm in diameter, formed when solvent mixtures of methanol and m-cresol were used. In contrast, spin coating using only methanol as the solvent produced epitaxial films of stripe nanopatterns and using only m-cresol disordered structure. Due to the disparity in vapor pressure between the two solvents, droplets of m-cresol solution remaining on the substrate serve as templates for the self-assembly of carboxylic acid molecules, which in turn allows the visualization of solution droplet evaporation one molecule at a time.

  6. Fabrication of porous polymer microparticles with tunable pore size and density through the combination of phase separation and emulsion-solvent evaporation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanqin; Cai, Mingle; Deng, Renhua; Wang, Jianying; Liang, Ruijing; Zhu, Jintao

    2014-02-01

    A facile and versatile route to prepare porous polymer microparticles with tunable pore size and density through the combination of phase separation and emulsion-solvent evaporation method is demonstrated. When volatile organic solvent ( e.g., chloroform) diffuses through the aqueous phase containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and evaporates, n-hexadecane (HD) and polystyrene (PS) in oil-in-water emulsion droplets occur to phase separate due to the incompatibility between PS and HD, ultimately yielding microparticles with porous structures. Interestingly, density of the pores (pore number) on the shell of microparticles can be tailored from one to hundreds by simply varying the HD concentration and/ or the rate of solvent evaporation. Moreover, this versatile approach for preparing porous microparticles with tunable pore size and density can be applied to other types of hydrophobic polymers, organic solvents, and alkanes, which will find potential applications in the fields of pharmaceutical, catalyst carrier, separation, and diagnostics.

  7. Light-driven formation and rupture of droplet bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sanhita S; Kim, Hanyoup; Vasilyev, Arseny; Eid, Aya; Faris, Gregory W

    2010-05-04

    We demonstrate the optical manipulation of nanoliter aqueous droplets containing surfactant or lipid molecules and immersed in an organic liquid using near-infrared light. The resulting emulsion droplets are manipulated using both the thermocapillary effect and convective fluid motion. Droplet-pair interactions induced in the emulsion upon optical initiation and control provide direct observations of the coalescence steps in intricate detail. Droplet-droplet adhesion (bilayer formation) is observed under several conditions. Selective bilayer rupture is also realized using the same infrared laser. The technique provides a novel approach to studying thin film drainage and interface stability in emulsion dynamics. The formation of stable lipid bilayers at the adhesion interface between interacting water droplets can provide an optical platform on which to build droplet-based lipid bilayer assays. The technique also has relevance to understanding and improving microfluidics applications by devising Petri dish-based droplet assays requiring no substrate fabrication.

  8. Turbulence and cloud droplets in cumulus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Izumi; Gotoh, Toshiyuki

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the successful and seamless simulation of turbulence and the evolution of cloud droplets to raindrops over 10 minutes from microscopic viewpoints by using direct numerical simulation. Included processes are condensation-evaporation, collision-coalescence of droplets with hydrodynamic interaction, Reynolds number dependent drag, and turbulent flow within a parcel that is ascending within a self-consistently determined updraft inside a cumulus cloud. We found that the altitude and the updraft velocity of the parcel, the mean supersaturation, and the liquid water content are insensitive to the turbulence intensity, and that when the turbulence intensity increases, the droplet number density swiftly decreases while the spectral width of droplets rapidly increases. This study marks the first time the evolution of the mass density distribution function has been successfully calculated from microscopic computations. The turbulence accelerated to form a second peak in the mass density distribution function, leading to the raindrop formation, and the radius of the largest drop was over 300 μm at the end of the simulation. We also found that cloud droplets modify the turbulence in a way that is unlike the Kolmogorov-Obukhov-Corrsin theory. For example, the temperature and water vapor spectra at low wavenumbers become shallower than {k}-5/3 in the inertial-convective range, and decrease slower than exponentially in the diffusive range. This spectra modification is explained by nonlinear interactions between turbulent mixing and the evaporation-condensation process associated with large numbers of droplets.

  9. Effects of droplet interactions on droplet transport at intermediate Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1987-01-01

    Effects of droplet interactions on drag, evaporation, and combustion of a planar droplet array, oriented perpendicular to the approaching flow, are studied numerically. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, with variable thermophysical properties, are solved using finite-difference techniques. Parameters investigated include the droplet spacing, droplet Reynolds number, approaching stream oxygen concentration, and fuel type. Results are obtained for the Reynolds number range of 5 to 100, droplet spacings from 2 to 24 diameters, oxygen concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2, and methanol and n-butanol fuels. The calculations show that the gasification rates of interacting droplets decrease as the droplet spacings decrease. The reduction in gasification rates is significant only at small spacings and low Reynolds numbers. For the present array orientation, the effects of interactions on the gasification rates diminish rapidly for Reynolds numbers greater than 10 and spacings greater than 6 droplet diameters. The effects of adjacent droplets on drag are shown to be small.

  10. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo

    2014-06-10

    Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data. 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

  11. Explosive Leidenfrost droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Pierre; Moreau, Florian; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2017-11-01

    We show that Leidenfrost droplets made of an aqueous solution of surfactant undergo a violent explosion in a wide range of initial volumes and concentrations. This unexpected behavior turns out to be triggered by the formation of a gel-like shell, followed by a sharp temperature increase. Comparing a simple model of the radial surfactant distribution inside a spherical droplet with experiments allows highlighting the existence of a critical surface concentration for the shell to form. The temperature rise (attributed to boiling point elevation with surface concentration) is a key feature leading to the explosion, instead of the implosion (buckling) scenario reported by other authors. Indeed, under some conditions, this temperature increase is shown to be sufficient to trigger nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the highly superheated liquid bulk, stretching the surrounding elastic shell up to its rupture limit. The successive timescales characterizing this explosion sequence are also discussed. Funding sources: F.R.S. - FNRS (ODILE and DITRASOL projects, RD and SRA positions of P. Colinet and S. Dorbolo), BELSPO (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST project).

  12. Water evaporation on highly viscoelastic polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Gang; Severtson, Steven J

    2012-07-03

    Results are reported for a study on the evaporation of water droplets from a highly viscoelastic acrylic polymer surface. These are contrasted with those collected for the same measurements carried out on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For PDMS, the evaporation process involves the expected multistep process including constant drop area, constant contact angle, and finally a combination of these steps until the liquid is gone. In contrast, water evaporation from the acrylic polymer shows a constant drop area mode throughout. Furthermore, during the evaporation process, the drop area actually expands on the acrylic polymer. The single mode evaporation process is consistent with formation of wetting structures, which cannot be propagated by the capillary forces. Expansion of the drop area is attributed to the influence of the drop capillary pressure. Furthermore, the rate of drop area expansion is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the polymer film.

  13. Droplet-based interfacial capacitive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Baoqing; Xing, Siyuan; Brandt, James D; Pan, Tingrui

    2012-03-21

    This paper presented a novel droplet-based pressure sensor using elastic and capacitive electrode-electrolyte interfaces to achieve ultrahigh mechanical-to-electrical sensitivity (1.58 μF kPa(-1)) and resolution (1.8 Pa) with a simple device architecture. The miniature transparent droplet sensors, fabricated by one-step laser micromachining, consisted of two flexible polymer membranes with conductive coating and a separation layer hosting a sensing chamber for an electrolyte droplet. The sensing principle primarily relied on high elasticity of the sensing droplet and large capacitance presented at the electrode-electrolyte interface. A simple surface modification scheme was introduced to the conductive coating, which reduced hysteresis of the droplet deformation without substantially compromising the interfacial capacitance. Moreover, the major concern of liquid evaporation was addressed by a mixture of glycerol and electrolyte with long-term stability in a laboratory environment. Theoretical analyses and experimental investigations on several design parameters (i.e., the dimensions of the sensing chamber and the droplet size) were thoroughly conducted to characterize and optimize the overall sensitivity of the device. Moreover, the environmental influences (e.g., temperature and humidity) on the capacitive measurement were further investigated. Finally, the simply constructed and mechanically flexible droplet sensor was successfully applied to detect minute blood pressure variations on the skin surface (with the maximum value less than 100 Pa) throughout cardiovascular cycles.

  14. Determining the saturation vapour pressures of keto-dicarboxylic acids in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crljenica, Ivica; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Zardini, Alessandro A.; Julin, Jan; Bilde, Merete; Riipinen, Ilona

    2013-05-01

    A two-compartment binary mass transport model with group contribution methods parametrizations for the physical properties of the organic acids (UNIFAC Dortmund method for activity coefficients, GCVOL-OL-60 method for the pure liquid acid density, GC-MG method for the pure acid surface tension at room temperature, Fuller et al. method for the diffusion coefficients) was used to interpret the evaporation experiments of 100 nm sized ketodicarboxylic acid aqueous solutions droplets at ambient temperature. The determined values for the saturation vapour pressure of liquid 2-keto-glutaric acid are in the order of 10-5 Pa.

  15. Reversible, on-demand generation of aqueous two-phase microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick; Retterer, Scott Thomas; Boreyko, Jonathan Barton; Mruetusatorn, Prachya

    2017-08-15

    The present invention provides methods of on-demand, reversible generation of aqueous two-phase microdroplets core-shell microbeads, microparticle preparations comprising the core-shell microbeads, and drug delivery formulation comprising the microparticle preparations. Because these aqueous microdroplets have volumes comparable to those of cells, they provide an approach to mimicking the dynamic microcompartmentation of biomaterial that naturally occurs within the cytoplasm of cells. Hence, the present methods generate femtoliter aqueous two-phase droplets within a microfluidic oil channel using gated pressure pulses to generate individual, stationary two-phase microdroplets with a well-defined time zero for carrying out controlled and sequential phase transformations over time. Reversible phase transitions between single-phase, two-phase, and core-shell microbead states are obtained via evaporation-induced dehydration and water rehydration.

  16. Detection of heavy-metal ions using liquid crystal droplet patterns modulated by interaction between negatively charged carboxylate and heavy-metal cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gyeo-Re; Jang, Chang-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Herein, we demonstrated a simple, sensitive, and rapid label-free detection method for heavy-metal (HM) ions using liquid crystal (LC) droplet patterns on a solid surface. Stearic-acid-doped LC droplet patterns were spontaneously generated on an n-octyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-treated glass substrate by evaporating a solution of the nematic LC, 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), dissolved in heptane. The optical appearance of the droplet patterns was a dark crossed texture when in contact with air, which represents the homeotropic orientation of the LC. This was caused by the steric interaction between the LC molecules and the alkyl chains of the OTS-treated surface. The dark crossed appearance of the acid-doped LC patterns was maintained after the addition of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 8.1 at 25°C). The deprotonated stearic-acid molecules self-assembled through the LC/aqueous interface, thereby supporting the homeotropic anchoring of 5CB. However, the optical image of the acid-doped LC droplet patterns incubated with PBS containing HM ions appeared bright, indicating a planar orientation of 5CB at the aqueous/LC droplet interface. This dark to bright transition of the LC patterns was caused by HM ions attached to the deprotonated carboxylate moiety, followed by the sequential interruption of the self-assembly of the stearic acid at the LC/aqueous interface. The results showed that the acid-doped LC pattern system not only enabled the highly sensitive detection of HM ions at a sub-nanomolar concentration but it also facilitated rapid detection (<10 min) with simple procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanoparticle motion on the surface of drying droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingfei; Yong, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Advances in solution-based printing and surface patterning techniques for additive manufacturing demand a clear understanding of particle dynamics in drying colloidal droplets and its relationship with deposit structure. Although the evaporation-driven deposition has been studied thoroughly for the particles dispersed in the bulk of the droplet, few investigations have focused on the particles strongly adsorbed to the droplet surface. We modeled the assembly and deposition of the surface-active particles in a drying sessile droplet with a pinned contact line by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann-Brownian dynamics method. The particle trajectory and its area density profile characterize the assembly dynamics and deposition pattern development during evaporation. While the bulk-dispersed particles continuously move to the contact line, forming the typical "coffee-ring" deposit, the interface-bound particles migrate first toward the apex and then to the contact line as the droplet dries out. To understand this unexpected behavior, we resolve the droplet velocity field both in the bulk and within the interfacial region. The simulation results agree well with the analytical solution for the Stokes flow inside an evaporating droplet. At different stages of evaporation, our study reveals that the competition between the tangential surface flow and the downward motion of the evaporating liquid-vapor interface governs the dynamics of the interface-bound particles. In particular, the interface displacement contributes to the particle motion toward the droplet apex in a short phase, while the outward advective flow prevails at the late stage of drying and carries the particles to the contact line. The final deposit of the surface-adsorbed particles exhibits a density enhancement at the center, in addition to a coffee ring. Despite its small influence on the final deposit in the present study, the distinct dynamics of surface-active particles due to the interfacial confinement

  18. Phase rainbow refractometry for accurate droplet variation characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingchun; Promvongsa, Jantarat; Saengkaew, Sawitree; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Jia; Gréhan, Gérard

    2016-10-15

    We developed a one-dimensional phase rainbow refractometer for the accurate trans-dimensional measurements of droplet size on the micrometer scale as well as the tiny droplet diameter variations at the nanoscale. The dependence of the phase shift of the rainbow ripple structures on the droplet variations is revealed. The phase-shifting rainbow image is recorded by a telecentric one-dimensional rainbow imaging system. Experiments on the evaporating monodispersed droplet stream show that the phase rainbow refractometer can measure the tiny droplet diameter changes down to tens of nanometers. This one-dimensional phase rainbow refractometer is capable of measuring the droplet refractive index and diameter, as well as variations.

  19. Measurement of droplet vaporization rate enhancement caused by acoustic disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Winter, M.

    1992-10-01

    Advanced laser diagnostics are being applied to quantify droplet vaporization enhancement in the presence of acoustic fields which can lead to instability in liquid-fueled rockets. While models have been developed to describe the interactions between subcritical droplet vaporization and acoustic fields in the surrounding gases, they have not been verified experimentally. In the super critical environment of a rocket engine combustor, little is understood about how the injected fluid is distributed. Experiments in these areas have been limited because of the lack of diagnostic techniques capable of providing quantitative results. Recently, however, extremely accurate vaporization rate measurements have been performed on droplets in a subcritical environment using morphology-dependent resonances (MDR's) in which fluorescence from an individual droplet provides information about its diameter. Initial measurements on methanol droplets behind a pressure pulse with a pressure ratio of 1.2 indicated that the evaporation rate in the first few microsec after wave passage was extremely high. Subsequent measurements have been made to validate these results using MDR's acquired from similarly-sized droplets using a pulse with a 1.1 pressure ratio. A baseline measurement was also made using a non evaporative fluid under similar Weber and Reynolds number conditions. The MDR technique employed for these measurements is explained and the facilities are described. The evaporation measurement results are shown and the rates observed from different droplet materials and different wave strengths are compared.

  20. Evaporation-triggered microdroplet nucleation and the four life phases of an evaporating Ouzo drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huanshu; Diddens, Christian; Lv, Pengyu; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Zhang, Xuehua; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Evaporating liquid droplets are omnipresent in nature and technology, such as in inkjet printing, coating, deposition of materials, medical diagnostics, agriculture, the food industry, cosmetics, or spills of liquids. Whereas the evaporation of pure liquids, liquids with dispersed particles, or even liquid mixtures has intensively been studied over the past two decades, the evaporation of ternary mixtures of liquids with different volatilities and mutual solubilities has not yet been explored. Here we show that the evaporation of such ternary mixtures can trigger a phase transition and the nucleation of microdroplets of one of the components of the mixture. As a model system, we pick a sessile Ouzo droplet (as known from daily life—a transparent mixture of water, ethanol, and anise oil) and reveal and theoretically explain its four life phases: In phase I, the spherical cap-shaped droplet remains transparent while the more volatile ethanol is evaporating, preferentially at the rim of the drop because of the singularity there. This leads to a local ethanol concentration reduction and correspondingly to oil droplet nucleation there. This is the beginning of phase II, in which oil microdroplets quickly nucleate in the whole drop, leading to its milky color that typifies the so-called “Ouzo effect.” Once all ethanol has evaporated, the drop, which now has a characteristic nonspherical cap shape, has become clear again, with a water drop sitting on an oil ring (phase III), finalizing the phase inversion. Finally, in phase IV, all water has evaporated, leaving behind a tiny spherical cap-shaped oil drop. PMID:27418601

  1. An evaporation model of multicomponent solution drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Silvana; Liñán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2010-11-01

    Solutions of polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as tablets coatings. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or appearance. The coating is performed by spraying and drying the tablets at moderate temperatures. The wetting of the coating solution on the pill's surface depends on the droplet Webber and Re numbers, angle of impact and on the rheological properties of the droplet. We present a model for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions droplets in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the solvent. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface the fluid in the drop increases in concentration, until reaching its saturation point. After saturation, precipitation occurs uniformly within the drop. As the surface regresses, a compacting front formed by the precipitate at its maximum packing density advances into the drop, while the solute continues precipitating uniformly. This porous shell grows fast due to the double effect of surface regression and precipitation. The evaporation rate is determined by the rates at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and at which liquid vapor diffuses away from it. When the drop is fully compacted, the evaporation is drastically reduced.

  2. Shape-Shifting Droplet Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Wan, Duanduan; Schwarz, J M; Bowick, M J

    2016-03-11

    We consider a three-dimensional network of aqueous droplets joined by single lipid bilayers to form a cohesive, tissuelike material. The droplets in these networks can be programed to have distinct osmolarities so that osmotic gradients generate internal stresses via local fluid flows to cause the network to change shape. We discover, using molecular dynamics simulations, a reversible folding-unfolding process by adding an osmotic interaction with the surrounding environment which necessarily evolves dynamically as the shape of the network changes. This discovery is the next important step towards osmotic robotics in this system. We also explore analytically and numerically how the networks become faceted via buckling and how quasi-one-dimensional networks become three dimensional.

  3. Influence of surface roughness and porosity of inclusion in water droplet on heat transfer enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova Anastasia G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using high-speed camera, the experiments were performed to research evaporation of 10 μl water droplets containing 2 mm solid inclusions in the shape of cube, when heated (up to 850 K in combustion products of technical ethanol. Adding solid inclusions in water droplets allowed considerably decreasing (by 70% their evaporation times. Also, the artificial irregularities (roughness and porosity at the surfaces of solid inclusions were manufactured to increase heat transfer area. Such approach enabled to decrease evaporation times of heterogeneous liquid droplets in high-temperature gases by 40% (when comparing inclusions with artificial irregularities and smooth surface.

  4. Electrowetting Actuation of Polydisperse Nanofluid Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crismar Patacsil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results of electrowetting experiments employing droplets formed from aqueous suspensions of Au nanoparticles. A planar electrowetting system, consisting of a Pt wire electrode and a bottom Cu electrode with an insulating silicone layer, is used to observe changes in droplet contact angle when an external electric field is applied. The equilibrium contact angle at 0 V decreases with increasing nanoparticle concentration, dropping from 100.4° for pure deionized water to 94.7° for a 0.5 μM nanofluid. Increasing the nanoparticle content also lowers the required voltage for effective actuation. With actuation at 15 V, contact angle decreases by 9% and 35% for droplets formed from pure water and a 0.5 μM nanoparticle suspension, respectively. Contact angle saturation is observed with nanofluid droplets, with the threshold voltage decreasing as nanoparticle concentration rises. Maximum droplet actuation before contact angle saturation is achieved at only 10 V for a concentration of 0.5 μM. A proposed mechanism for the enhanced electrowetting response of a nanofluid droplet involves a reduction in surface tension of the droplet as nanoparticles accumulate at the liquid-vapor interface.

  5. Levitated droplet dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, H.; Alkafadiji, L.; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    We present the first observation, to our knowledge, of lasing from a levitated, dye droplet. The levitated droplets are created by computer controlled pico-liter dispensing into one of the nodes of a standing ultrasonic wave (100 kHz), where the droplet is trapped. The free hanging droplet forms...... a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating...

  6. Evaporation of Particle-Stabilized Emulsion Sunscreen Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Marinopoulos, Ioannis; Crowther, Jonathan M; Thompson, Michael A

    2016-08-24

    We recently showed (Binks et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2016, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b02696) how evaporation of sunscreen films consisting of solutions of molecular UV filters leads to loss of UV light absorption and derived sun protection factor (SPF). In the present work, we investigate evaporation-induced effects for sunscreen films consisting of particle-stabilized emulsions containing a dissolved UV filter. The emulsions contained either droplets of propylene glycol (PG) in squalane (SQ), droplets of SQ in PG or droplets of decane in PG. In these different emulsion types, the SQ is involatile and shows no evaporation, the PG is volatile and evaporates relatively slowly, whereas the decane is relatively very volatile and evaporates quickly. We have measured the film mass and area, optical micrographs of the film structure, and the UV absorbance spectra during evaporation. For emulsion films containing the involatile SQ, evaporation of the PG causes collapse of the emulsion structure with some loss of specular UV absorbance due to light scattering. However, for these emulsions with droplets much larger than the wavelength of light, the light is scattered only at small forward angles so does not contribute to the diffuse absorbance and the film SPF. The UV filter remains soluble throughout the evaporation and thus the UV absorption by the filter and the SPF remain approximately constant. Both PG-in-SQ and SQ-in-PG films behave similarly and do not show area shrinkage by dewetting. In contrast, the decane-in-PG film shows rapid evaporative loss of the decane, followed by slower loss of the PG resulting in precipitation of the UV filter and film area shrinkage by dewetting which cause the UV absorbance and derived SPF to decrease. Measured UV spectra during evaporation are in reasonable agreement with spectra calculated using models discussed here.

  7. Light-Patterned Current Generation in a Droplet Bilayer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo Schild, Vanessa; Booth, Michael J.; Box, Stuart J.; Olof, Sam N.; Mahendran, Kozhinjampara R.; Bayley, Hagan

    2017-04-01

    We have created a 4 × 4 droplet bilayer array comprising light-activatable aqueous droplet bio-pixels. Aqueous droplets containing bacteriorhodopsin (bR), a light-driven proton pump, were arranged on a common hydrogel surface in lipid-containing oil. A separate lipid bilayer formed at the interface between each droplet and the hydrogel; each bilayer then incorporated bR. Electrodes in each droplet simultaneously measured the light-driven proton-pumping activities of each bio-pixel. The 4 × 4 array derived by this bottom-up synthetic biology approach can detect grey-scale images and patterns of light moving across the device, which are transduced as electrical current generated in each bio-pixel. We propose that synthetic biological light-activatable arrays, produced with soft materials, might be interfaced with living tissues to stimulate neuronal pathways.

  8. Streamer Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steven T.; Wang, A. H.; Wu, Shi T.; Nerney, S.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation is the consequence of slow plasma heating near the tops of streamers where the plasma is only weakly contained by the magnetic field. The form it takes is the slow opening of field lines at the top of the streamer and transient formation of new solar wind. It was discovered in polytropic model calculations, where due to the absence of other energy loss mechanisms in magnetostatic streamers, its ultimate endpoint is the complete evaporation of the streamer. This takes, for plausible heating rates, weeks to months in these models. Of course streamers do not behave this way, for more than one reason. One is that there are losses due to thermal conduction to the base of the streamer and radiation from the transition region. Another is that streamer heating must have a characteristic time constant and depend on the ambient physical conditions. We use our global Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model with thermal conduction to examine a few examples of the effect of changing the heating scale height and of making ad hoc choices for how the heating depends on ambient conditions. At the same time, we apply and extend the analytic model of streamers, which showed that streamers will be unable to contain plasma for temperatures near the cusp greater than about 2xl0(exp 6) K. Slow solar wind is observed to come from streamers through transient releases. A scenario for this that is consistent with the above physical process is that heating increases the near-cusp temperature until field lines there are forced open. The subsequent evacuation of the flux tubes by the newly forming slow wind decreases the temperature and heating until the flux tubes are able to reclose. Then, over a longer time scale, heating begins to again refill the flux tubes with plasma and increase the temperature until the cycle repeats itself. The calculations we report here are first steps towards quantitative evaluation of this scenario.

  9. Analytical solution for transient partitioning and reaction of a condensing vapor species in a droplet

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Albert Tianxiang; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the exact analytical solution of the transient equation of gas-phase diffusion of a condensing vapor to, and diffusion and reaction in, an aqueous droplet. Droplet-phase reaction is represented by first-order chemistry. The solution facilitates study of the dynamic nature of the vapor uptake process as a function of droplet size, Henry's law coefficient, and first-order reaction rate constant for conversion in the droplet phase.

  10. Laser diagnostics for microgravity droplet studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Rapid advances have recently been made in numerical simulation of droplet combustion under microgravity conditions, while experimental capabilities remain relatively primitive. Calculations can now provide detailed information on mass and energy transport, complex gas-phase chemistry, multi-component molecular diffusion, surface evaporation and heterogeneous reaction, which provides a clearer picture of both quasi-steady as well as dynamic behavior of droplet combustion. Experiments concerning these phenomena typically result in pictures of the burning droplets, and the data therefrom describe droplet surface regression along with flame and soot shell position. With much more precise, detailed, experimental diagnostics, significant gains could be made on the dynamics and flame structural changes which occur during droplet combustion. Since microgravity experiments become increasingly more expensive as they progress from drop towers and flights to spaceborne experiments, there is a great need to maximize the information content from these experiments. Sophisticated measurements using laser diagnostics on individual droplets and combustion phenomena are now possible. These include measuring flow patterns and temperature fields within droplets, vaporization rates and vaporization enhancement, radical species profiling in flames and gas-phase flow-tagging velocimetry. Although these measurements are sophisticated, they have undergone maturation to the degree where with some development, they are applicable to studies of microgravity droplet combustion. This program beginning in September of 1992, will include a series of measurements in the NASA Learjet, KC-135 and Drop Tower facilities for investigating the range of applicability of these diagnostics while generating and providing fundamental data to ongoing NASA research programs in this area. This program is being conducted in collaboration with other microgravity investigators and is aimed toward supplementing

  11. Comparing the mechanism of water condensation and evaporation in glassy aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, David L; Reid, Jonathan P; Lienhard, Daniel M; Krieger, Ulrich K

    2012-07-17

    Atmospheric models generally assume that aerosol particles are in equilibrium with the surrounding gas phase. However, recent observations that secondary organic aerosols can exist in a glassy state have highlighted the need to more fully understand the kinetic limitations that may control water partitioning in ambient particles. Here, we explore the influence of slow water diffusion in the condensed aerosol phase on the rates of both condensation and evaporation, demonstrating that significant inhibition in mass transfer occurs for ultraviscous aerosol, not just for glassy aerosol. Using coarse mode (3-4 um radius) ternary sucrose/sodium chloride/aqueous droplets as a proxy for multicomponent ambient aerosol, we demonstrate that the timescale for particle equilibration correlates with bulk viscosity and can be ≫10(3) s. Extrapolation of these timescales to particle sizes in the accumulation mode (e.g., approximately 100 nm) by applying the Stokes-Einstein equation suggests that the kinetic limitations imposed on mass transfer of water by slow bulk phase diffusion must be more fully investigated for atmospheric aerosol. Measurements have been made on particles covering a range in dynamic viscosity from  10(13) Pa s. We also retrieve the radial inhomogeneities apparent in particle composition during condensation and evaporation and contrast the dynamics of slow dissolution of a viscous core into a labile shell during condensation with the slow percolation of water during evaporation through a more homogeneous viscous particle bulk.

  12. Influence of contact-line curvature on the evaporation of nanodroplets from solid substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Leroy, Frédéric; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2014-07-25

    The effect of the three-phase contact-line curvature on the evaporation mechanism of nanoscopic droplets from smooth and chemically homogenous substrates is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Spherical droplets, whose three-phase contact line is curved, and cylindrical droplets, whose contact radius is infinite, are compared. It is found that the evaporation of cylindrical droplets takes place at constant contact angle, while spherical droplets evaporate by simultaneous reduction of their contact area and their contact angle. This is independent of the substrate-liquid interaction strength. The dependence of the evaporation mechanism on the contact-line curvature can be rationalized with the help of the concept of a contact-line tension, and the evaporation simulations of the spherical droplets are used to extract the line tension on each surface. The corresponding values for the Lennard-Jones systems studied here are of the order of 10(-11)N, which is in a good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental estimates. With this order of magnitude, the line tension is expected to have an effect on the contact angle of spherical droplets only, when their diameter is less than about 100 nm. The observed difference in evaporation mechanism is interpreted as a manifestation of the line tension whose existence has been controversial.

  13. Droplet networks with incorporated protein diodes show collective properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Heron, Andrew J.; Hwang, William L.; Holden, Matthew A.; Mikhailova, Ellina; Li, Qiuhong; Cheley, Stephen; Bayley, Hagan

    2009-07-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that submicrolitre aqueous droplets submerged in an apolar liquid containing lipid can be tightly connected by means of lipid bilayers to form networks. Droplet interface bilayers have been used for rapid screening of membrane proteins and to form asymmetric bilayers with which to examine the fundamental properties of channels and pores. Networks, meanwhile, have been used to form microscale batteries and to detect light. Here, we develop an engineered protein pore with diode-like properties that can be incorporated into droplet interface bilayers in droplet networks to form devices with electrical properties including those of a current limiter, a half-wave rectifier and a full-wave rectifier. The droplet approach, which uses unsophisticated components (oil, lipid, salt water and a simple pore), can therefore be used to create multidroplet networks with collective properties that cannot be produced by droplet pairs.

  14. Evaporation-induced assembly of biomimetic polypeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, Joseph; Junkin, Michael; Cappello, Joseph; Wu Xiaoyi; Wong, Pak Kin

    2008-01-01

    We report an evaporation assisted plasma lithography (EAPL) process for guided self-assembly of a biomimetic silk-elastinlike protein (SELP). We demonstrate the formation of SELP structures from millimeter to submicrometer range on plasma-treatment surface templates during an evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The self-assembly processes at different humidities and droplet volumes were investigated. The process occurs efficiently in a window of optimized operating conditions found to be at 70% relative humidity and 8 μl volume of SELP solution. The EAPL approach provides a useful technique for the realization of functional devices and systems using these biomimetic materials

  15. Fine structure of the vapor field in evaporating dense sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villermaux, Emmanuel; Moutte, Alexandre; Amielh, Muriel; Meunier, Patrice

    2017-11-01

    Making use of an original technique which permits the simultaneous measurement of both the displacement field of evaporating droplets in a spray, and of their vapor, we investigate the relevance of a scenario introduced earlier to describe the evaporation dynamics of dense sprays. A plume of dense acetone droplets evaporating in air is studied, for which the stirring field is measured by particle image velocimetry of the droplets, and the vapor field is imaged quantitatively by laser-induced fluorescence. We show, thanks to these unique in situ measurements, that the spray boundary with the diluting environment is slaved to the dynamics of its saturating vapor concentration field, whose structure is analyzed for different well defined local flow topologies.

  16. Free-Running Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Fabrice Domingues; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    1995-10-01

    We present a detailed study of an original spreading behavior observed with nonvolatile droplets containing surface-active agents: The droplet moves spontaneously on the surface with velocities on the order of a few centimeters per second. For small droplets, this self-supported motion may be interpreted in terms of capillary models, which gives precise information about the reaction mechanism that occurs at the surface. For large droplets, gravity intervenes and we observed an important change in the profile of the droplets and different spreading regimes.

  17. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, J; Weigand, B

    2007-04-10

    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model.

  18. Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, J.; Weigand, B.

    2007-01-01

    So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model

  19. Influence of surface roughness and porosity of inclusion in water droplet on heat transfer enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Borisova Anastasia G.; Gumerov Vladislav M.; Piskunov Maxim V.

    2016-01-01

    Using high-speed camera, the experiments were performed to research evaporation of 10 μl water droplets containing 2 mm solid inclusions in the shape of cube, when heated (up to 850 K) in combustion products of technical ethanol. Adding solid inclusions in water droplets allowed considerably decreasing (by 70%) their evaporation times. Also, the artificial irregularities (roughness and porosity) at the surfaces of solid inclusions were manufactured to increase heat transfer area. Such approac...

  20. Composition measurement of bicomponent droplets using laser-induced fluorescence of acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Maqua , C.; Depredurand , V.; Castanet , G.; Wolff , M.; Lemoine , F.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Commercial fuels are complex mixtures, the evaporation of which remains particularly difficult to model. Experimental characterization of the differential vaporization of the components is a problem that is seldom addressed. In this paper, the evaporation of binary droplets made of ethyl-alcohol and acetone is investigated using a technique of measurement of the droplet composition developed in purpose. This technique exploits the laser induced fluorescence of acetone ...

  1. Evaporation phase change processes of water/methanol mixtures on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2011-07-01

    Evaporation phenomena are a critical and frequently seen phase change process in many heat transfer applications. In this paper, we study the evaporation process of a sessile droplet on two topologically different surfaces, including smooth and nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructured surface has an array of high-aspect-ratio nanowires (height/diameter ~ 125) and is implemented by using a simple template-based nanofabrication method. It possesses superhydrophobicity (>140°) and low contact angle hysteresis (1.2-2.1°), allowing the liquid droplets to remain in the 'fakir' state throughout the evaporation processes. Sessile droplets of deionized (DI) water and water/methanol binary mixture test liquids with their contact angles and base diameters are monitored. The results show that the nanostructures play a critical role in the droplet dynamics during evaporation.

  2. Evaporation phase change processes of water/methanol mixtures on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation phenomena are a critical and frequently seen phase change process in many heat transfer applications. In this paper, we study the evaporation process of a sessile droplet on two topologically different surfaces, including smooth and nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructured surface has an array of high-aspect-ratio nanowires (height/diameter ∼ 125) and is implemented by using a simple template-based nanofabrication method. It possesses superhydrophobicity (>140°) and low contact angle hysteresis (1.2–2.1°), allowing the liquid droplets to remain in the 'fakir' state throughout the evaporation processes. Sessile droplets of deionized (DI) water and water/methanol binary mixture test liquids with their contact angles and base diameters are monitored. The results show that the nanostructures play a critical role in the droplet dynamics during evaporation

  3. A numerical study of the impacts of volatile component blending on diesel spray evaporation and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.L.; Chang, S.L.; Petrick, M.

    2002-01-01

    A multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is used to simulate the evaporation and combustion processes of a diesel spray blended with a highly volatile component. The CFD code uses an Eulerian approach to model the liquid phase of diesel fuel with components of different boiling temperatures. The approach divides the droplets into size groups and assigns different boiling temperatures for each group. The CFD code accounts for liquid droplet flow, turbulent mixing, interfacial drag and heat transfer, droplet evaporation and combustion, radiation heat transfer, and pollutant kinetics. Using the code, a parametric study was conducted to investigate the impacts of a volatile component on the spray evaporation and combustion characteristics. The results indicate that the blending of a highly volatile component can have an impact on droplet evaporation rate and that thermal radiation is significant in spray combustion due to the formation of soot

  4. Statistical steady states in turbulent droplet condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bec, Jeremie; Krstulovic, Giorgio; Siewert, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the general problem of turbulent condensation. Using direct numerical simulations we show that the fluctuations of the supersaturation field offer different conditions for the growth of droplets which evolve in time due to turbulent transport and mixing. This leads to propose a Lagrangian stochastic model consisting of a set of integro-differential equations for the joint evolution of the squared radius and the supersaturation along droplet trajectories. The model has two parameters fixed by the total amount of water and the thermodynamic properties, as well as the Lagrangian integral timescale of the turbulent supersaturation. The model reproduces very well the droplet size distributions obtained from direct numerical simulations and their time evolution. A noticeable result is that, after a stage where the squared radius simply diffuses, the system converges exponentially fast to a statistical steady state independent of the initial conditions. The main mechanism involved in this convergence is a loss of memory induced by a significant number of droplets undergoing a complete evaporation before growing again. The statistical steady state is characterised by an exponential tail in the droplet mass distribution.

  5. Thin Film Evaporation of Receding Meniscus within Micro Pillar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhosani, Mohamed H.; Alsheghri, Ammar A.; Alghaferi, Amal; Zhang, Tiejun

    2015-03-01

    Evaporation is a key process in power generation, water desalination, and thermal management applications. It has been proved that hydrophilic micro structured surfaces can enhance the convection heat transfer by promoting high-performance thin film evaporation and enlarging the total heat transfer surface area. When depositing a water droplet on hydrophilic structured surfaces, two distinct regions can be observed, a) central region with water level higher than the micro pillar height (droplet region), b) thin film region as a result of liquid meniscus receding among micro structures. In this study, we are able to probe the physics of thin film evaporation of receding liquid meniscus among micro pillar arrays with different pillar heights, spacings and diameters. Heat transfer is systematically studied in the droplet and thin film region for each sample. Also, Young-Laplace equation and kinetic theory of mass transport are used to model the thin film evaporation around micro pillars. With the proposed model, the shape of meniscus around micro pillars and the diameter of droplet/extended thin film region can be predicted and compared with the experimental measurement. The model can also be extended to model thin film evaporation of meniscus within nano structured surfaces. Supported by cooperative agreement between Masdar Inst and MIT.

  6. A 3D printing method for droplet-based biomolecular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challita, Elio J.; Najem, Joseph S.; Freeman, Eric C.; Leo, Donald J.

    2017-04-01

    The field of developing biomolecular droplet-based materials using a bottom-up approach remains underexplored. Producing tissue-like materials, from entirely synthetic components, presents an innovative method to reconstruct the functions of life within artificial materials. Aqueous droplets, encased with lipid monolayers, may be linked via bilayer interfaces to make up structures that resemble biological tissues. Here we present the design and development of an easy-to-build 3D printer for the fabrication of tissue-like biomolecular materials from cell-sized aqueous droplets. The droplets are generated using a snap off technique, capable of generating 30 droplets per minute. The printed network of droplets may also be functionalized with various types of membrane proteins to achieve desired engineering applications like sensing and actuation, or to mimic electrical communication in biological systems. Voltage sensitive channels are introduced into selected droplets to create a conductive path with the material in the presence of an external field.

  7. Modeling and measurement of boiling point elevation during water vaporization from aqueous urea for SCR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Ho Jin; Lee, Joon Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Understanding of water vaporization is the first step to anticipate the conversion process of urea into ammonia in the exhaust stream. As aqueous urea is a mixture and the urea in the mixture acts as a non-volatile solute, its colligative properties should be considered during water vaporization. The elevation of boiling point for urea water solution is measured with respect to urea mole fraction. With the boiling-point elevation relation, a model for water vaporization is proposed underlining the correction of the heat of vaporization of water in the urea water mixture due to the enthalpy of urea dissolution in water. The model is verified by the experiments of water vaporization as well. Finally, the water vaporization model is applied to the water vaporization of aqueous urea droplets. It is shown that urea decomposition can begin before water evaporation finishes due to the boiling-point elevation.

  8. Evaporation dynamics of microdroplets on self-assembled monolayers of dialkyl disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangfen; Flores, Susana Moreno; Vavilala, Chandrasekhar; Schmittel, Michael; Graf, Karlheinz

    2009-12-01

    We present a study of the static wettability and evaporation dynamics of sessile microdroplets of water on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) prepared with unsymmetric dialkyl disulfides CH(3)-(CH(2))(11+m)-S-S-(CH(2))(11)-OH (m = 0, +/- 2, +/- 4, +/- 6) on gold-covered mica. The advancing and receding contact angles decrease linearly with increasing hydrophilicity of the SAM. The latter was changed either via the molar ratio or via the chain length of the hydroxyl-terminated alkyl chains in the monolayer. In contrast to SAMs made of thiols, the contact angle hysteresis was 10 degrees for all disulfides, irrespective of their chain lengths. During evaporation of single droplets, a transition from pinning to constant contact angle mode was observed. The transition time between the modes increases with the surface hydrophilicity, leading to longer pinning. This way, the time for complete droplet evaporation decreases by approximately 30% owing to the fact that during pinning the overall droplet area stays large for a longer time. For single droplets the measured total evaporation times agree well with the calculated ones, showing the validity of the standard evaporation model for both evaporation modes. In contrast to the results for single droplets, many droplets with different initial volumes show a power-law dependence on the total evaporation time with an exponent different from 1.5 as expected from the standard model. For disulfides with m not equal 0, the exponent is in the range of 1.40-1.47 increasing with the surface hydrophilicity. For the SAMs with m = 0 the exponent increases up to 1.61 for the most hydrophilic surface. We explain this deviation from the standard evaporation model with the presence of a liquid precursor film around the droplet, which either enhances or decelerates evaporation. Our results suggest that SAMs of dialkyl disulfides offer the possibility to tune the wettability of gold surfaces in a more controlled way than thiols do.

  9. Controlling the Transient Interface Shape and Deposition Profile Left by Desiccation of Colloidal Droplets on Multiple Polymer Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Peter David

    A colloidal suspension is a small constituent of insoluble solid particles suspended in a liquid medium. Control over the wetting, evaporation, and deposition patterns left by colloidal suspensions is valuable in many biological, medical, industrial, and agricultural applications. Understanding the governing principles of wetting and evaporative phenomena of these colloidal suspensions may lead to greater control over resultant deposition patterns. Perhaps the most familiar pattern forms when an initially heterogeneous colloidal suspension leaves a dark ring pattern at the edge of a drop. This pattern is referred to as a coffee-stain and it can be seen from dried droplets of spilled coffee. This coffee-stain effect was first investigated by Deegan et. al. who discovered that these patterns occur when outward radial flows driven by evaporation at the triple contact line dominate over other effects. While the presence of coffee-stain patterns is undesirable in many printing and medical diagnostic processes, it can also be advantageous in the production of low cost transparent conductive films, the deposition of metal vapor, and the manipulation of biological structures. Controlling the interactions between the substrate, liquid, vapor, and particles can lead to control over the size and morphology of evaporative deposition patterns left by aqueous colloidal suspensions. Several methods have been developed to control the evaporation of colloidal suspensions to either suppress or enhance the coffee stain effect. Electrowetting on Dielectric (EWOD) is one promising method that has been used to control colloidal depositions by applying either an AC or DC electric field. EWOD actuation has the potential to dynamically control colloidal deposition left by desiccated droplets to either suppress or enhance the coffee stain effect. It may also allow for independent control of the fluidic interface and deposition of particles via electrowetting and electrokinetic forces

  10. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronne, Antonio; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Depero, Laura E.; Fanelli, Esther; Federici, Stefania; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2015-05-01

    Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence.

  11. Electrospray droplet exposure to organic vapors: metal ion removal from proteins and protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuth, J Corinne; McLuckey, Scott A

    2015-01-20

    The exposure of aqueous nanoelectrospray droplets to various organic vapors can dramatically reduce sodium adduction on protein ions in positive ion mass spectra. Volatile alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol lead to a significant reduction in sodium ion adduction but are not as effective as acetonitrile, acetone, and ethyl acetate. Organic vapor exposure in the negative ion mode, on the other hand, has essentially no effect on alkali ion adduction. Evidence is presented to suggest that the mechanism by which organic vapor exposure reduces alkali ion adduction in the positive mode involves the depletion of alkali metal ions via ion evaporation of metal ions solvated with organic molecules. The early generation of metal/organic cluster ions during the droplet desolvation process results in fewer metal ions available to condense on the protein ions formed via the charged residue mechanism. These effects are demonstrated with holomyoglobin ions to illustrate that the metal ion reduction takes place without detectable protein denaturation, which might be revealed by heme loss or an increase in charge state distribution. No evidence is observed for denaturation with exposure to any of the organic vapors evaluated in this work.

  12. Duplex Tear Film Evaporation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapf, M R; Braun, R J; King-Smith, P E

    2017-12-01

    Tear film thinning, hyperosmolarity, and breakup can cause irritation and damage to the human eye, and these form an area of active investigation for dry eye syndrome research. Recent research demonstrates that deficiencies in the lipid layer may cause locally increased evaporation, inducing conditions for breakup. In this paper, we explore the conditions for tear film breakup by considering a model for tear film dynamics with two mobile fluid layers, the aqueous and lipid layers. In addition, we include the effects of osmosis, evaporation as modified by the lipid, and the polar portion of the lipid layer. We solve the system numerically for reasonable parameter values and initial conditions and analyze how shifts in these cause changes to the system's dynamics.

  13. Marangoni Flow Induced Evaporation Enhancement on Binary Sessile Drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin; Harmand, Souad; Ouenzerfi, Safouene; Schiffler, Jesse

    2017-06-15

    The evaporation processes of pure water, pure 1-butanol, and 5% 1-butanol aqueous solution drops on heated hydrophobic substrates are investigated to determine the effect of temperature on the drop evaporation behavior. The evolution of the parameters (contact angle, diameter, and volume) during evaporation measured using a drop shape analyzer and the infrared thermal mapping of the drop surface recorded by an infrared camera were used in investigating the evaporation process. The pure 1-butanol drop does not show any thermal instability at different substrate temperatures, while the convection cells created by the thermal Marangoni effect appear on the surface of the pure water drop from 50 °C. Because 1-butanol and water have different surface tensions, the infrared video of the 5% 1-butanol aqueous solution drop shows that the convection cells are generated by the solutal Marangoni effect at any substrate temperature. Furthermore, when the substrate temperature exceeds 50 °C, coexistence of the thermal and solutal Marangoni flows is observed. By analyzing the relation between the ratio of the evaporation rate of pure water and 1-butanol aqueous solution drops and the Marangoni number, a series of empirical equations for predicting the evaporation rates of pure water and 1-butanol aqueous solution drops at the initial time as well as the equations for the evaporation rate of 1-butanol aqueous solution drop before the depletion of alcohol are derived. The results of these equations correspond fairly well to the experimental data.

  14. Origin of supercharging in electrospray ionization of noncovalent complexes from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Harry J; Williams, Evan R

    2009-10-01

    The use of m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) to enhance charging of noncovalent complexes formed by electrospray ionization from aqueous solutions was investigated. Addition of up to 1% m-NBA can result in a significant increase in the average charging of complexes, ranging from approximately 13% for the homo-heptamer of NtrC4-RC (317 kDa; maximum charge state increases from 42+ to 44+) to approximately 49% for myoglobin (17.6 kDa; maximum charge state increases from 9+ to 16+). Charge state distributions of larger complexes obtained from heated solutions to which no m-NBA was added are remarkably similar to those containing small amounts of m-NBA. Dissociation of the complexes through identical channels both upon addition of higher concentrations of m-NBA and heating is observed. These results indicate that the enhanced charging upon addition of m-NBA to aqueous electrospray solutions is a result of droplet heating owing to the high boiling point of m-NBA, which results in a change in the higher-order structure and/or dissociation of the complexes. For monomeric proteins and small complexes, the enhancement of charging is lower for heated aqueous solutions than from solutions with m-NBA because rapid folding of proteins from heated solutions that do not contain m-NBA can occur after the electrospray droplet is formed and is evaporatively cooled.

  15. Sessile droplet de-pinning: new life for gravimetric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwaichow B; Pierce, Scott M

    2007-02-01

    Using three different types of surfaces as exemplars, we report a gravimetric method as a viable tool for studying the de-pinning process. Namely, the de-pin time, tau(d) (the time required for a horizontal sessile droplet to de-pin at the triple phase line on a given substrate), is estimated without using a time consuming and expensive video imaging system. This is made possible by deciphering the non-linear portion of mass vs time data of an evaporating sessile droplet. Typical gravimetric glass-substrate evaporative mass loss vs time data has two regimes: a long, linear regime followed by a short, non-linear regime. Traditionally, researchers extract only the evaporation rate of a droplet from the linear regime but discard (by truncating the data) or ignore (thus deriving no information from) the non-linear regime. The origin of the linear to non-linear transition, found almost universally in gravimetric data, persists unremarked upon. By constructing three very different types of surfaces and comparing gravimetric data with video imaging data taken simultaneously, we report the transition is correlated to the onset of the de-pinning event in each case. This realization enables us to measure the de-pin time, tau(d), with gravimetric data only; i.e., without the video system, gathering more information from gravimetric data than previously considered. The method has application in estimating the de-pin time of a droplet deposited on a substrate that yields poor top-view contrast for videography, such as a water droplets on silicon wafers or glass substrates. Finally, gravimetric data is more accurate for evaporation modeling when substrate/droplet interaction areas are not circular.

  16. Evaporation of pyrolysis oil: Product distribution and residue char analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Matas Güell, B.; Balegedde Ramachandran, P.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2010-01-01

    The evaporation of pyrolysis oil was studied at varying heating rates (∼1–106°C/min) with surrounding temperatures up to 850°C. A total product distribution (gas, vapor, and char) was measured using two atomizers with different droplet sizes. It was shown that with very high heating rates

  17. Butschli Dynamic Droplet System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, R.; Hanczyc, M.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical oil-water systems such as droplets display lifelike properties and may lend themselves to chemical programming to perform useful work, specifically with respect to the built environment. We present Butschli water-in-oil droplets as a model for further investigation into the development ...

  18. Ammonolysis-induced solvent removal: a facile approach for solidifying emulsion droplets into PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayoung; Hong, Dasom; Chung, Younglim; Sah, Hongkee

    2007-12-01

    An ammonolysis-based microencapsulation technique useful for the preparation of biodegradable microspheres was described in this study. A dispersed phase consisting of poly- d, l-lactide- co-glycolide, progesterone, and methyl chloroacetate was emulsified in an aqueous phase. Upon addition of ammonia solution, the emulsion droplets were quickly transformed into poly- d, l-lactide- co-glycolide microspheres laden with progesterone. Rapid solvent removal was accompanied by ammonolysis. The chemical reaction converted water-immiscible methyl chloroacetate to water-miscible chloroacetamide and methanol. Chloroacetamide formation was proved by (1)H NMR and ESI-MS studies. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the microspheres contained only small amounts of residual methyl chloroacetate. Incorporation efficiencies of progesterone ranged from 64.3 +/- 1.1 to 72.8 +/- 0.3%, depending upon microsphere formulations. X-ray powder diffractometry analysis substantiated that no polymorphic transition of progesterone occurred during microencapsulation. To evaluate the feasibility of this new method against the commonly used microencapsulation method, microspheres were also prepared by a typical dichloromethane-based solvent evaporation process. The important attributes of microspheres prepared from both methods were characterized for comparison. The new ammonolysis-based microencapsulation process showed interesting features distinct from those of the solvent evaporation process. The microencapsulation process reported in this study might be applicable in loading pharmaceuticals into various polymeric microspheres.

  19. Molecular investigation of evaporation of biodroplets containing single-strand DNA on graphene surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Fahimeh; Foroutan, Masumeh

    2018-02-14

    In this study, the water droplet behaviour of four different types of single-strand DNA with homogeneous base sequence on a graphene substrate during evaporation of the droplet was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulation results indicated that the evaporation depended on the DNA sequence. The observed changes can be divided into four parts: (i) vaporization mode, (ii) evaporation flux, (iii) mechanism of single-strand placement on the surface, and (iv) consideration of remaining single strands after evaporation. Our simulation observations indicated different evaporation modes for thymine biodroplets as compared to those for other biodroplets. The evaporation of the thymine biodroplets occurred with an increase in the contact angle, while that of the other biodroplets occur in a constant contact angle mode. Moreover, thymine biodroplets generate the lowest contact line compared to other single strands, and it is always placed far away from the centre of the droplets during evaporation. Investigating variations in the evaporation flux shows that thymine has the highest evaporation flux and guanine has the lowest. Moreover, during initial evaporation, the flux of evaporation increases at the triple point of the biodroplets containing thymine single strands, while it decreases in the other biodroplets. The following observation was obtained from the study of the placement of single strands on the substrate: guanine and thymine interacted slower than other single strands during evaporation with graphene, adenine single strand had a higher folding during evaporation, and guanine single strand showed the lowest end-to-end distance. The investigation of single-strand DNA after evaporation shows that adenine produces the most stable structure at the end of evaporation. In addition, cytosine is the most stretched single-strand DNA due to its lack of internal π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding. Therefore, cytosine single strand is more

  20. Backscatter laser depolarization studies of simulated stratospheric aerosols: Crystallized sulfuric acid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie; Yu, Bing-Kun

    1988-01-01

    The optical depolarizing properties of simulated stratospheric aerosols were studied in laboratory laser (0.633 micrometer) backscattering experiments for application to polarization lidar observations. Clouds composed of sulfuric acid solution droplets, some treated with ammonia gas, were observed during evaporation. The results indicate that the formation of minute ammonium sulfate particles from the evaporation of acid droplets produces linear depolarization ratios of beta equivalent to 0.02, but beta equivalent to 0.10 to 0.15 are generated from aged acid cloud aerosols and acid droplet crystallization effects following the introduction of ammonia gas into the chamber. It is concluded that partially crystallized sulfuric acid droplets are a likely candidate for explaining the lidar beta equivalent to 0.10 values that have been observed in the lower stratosphere in the absence of the relatively strong backscattering from homogeneous sulfuric acid droplet (beta equivalent to 0) or ice crystal (beta equivalent to 0.5) clouds.

  1. Backscatter laser depolarization studies of simulated stratospheric aerosols - Crystallized sulfuric acid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie; Yu, Bing-Kun

    1989-01-01

    The optical depolarizing properties of simulated stratospheric aerosols were studied in laboratory laser (0.633 micrometer) backscattering experiments for application to polarization lidar observations. Clouds composed of sulfuric acid solution droplets, some treated with ammonia gas, were observed during evaporation. The results indicate that the formation of minute ammonium sulfate particles from the evaporation of acid droplets produces linear depolarization ratios of beta equivalent to 0.02, but beta equivalent to 0.10 to 0.15 are generated from aged acid cloud aerosols and acid droplet crystalization effects following the introduction of ammonia gas into the chamber. It is concluded that partially crystallized sulfuric acid droplets are a likely candidate for explaining the lidar beta equivalent to 0.10 values that have been observed in the lower stratosphere in the absence of the relatively strong backscattering from homogeneous sulfuric acid droplet (beta equivalent to 0) or ice crystal (beta equivalent to 0.5) clouds.

  2. Engineering Interfacial Processes at Mini-Micro-Nano Scales Using Sessile Droplet Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Sanyal, Apratim; Kabi, Prasenjit; Pathak, Binita; Basu, Saptarshi

    2018-03-01

    Evaporating sessile functional droplets act as the fundamental building block that controls the cumulative outcome of many industrial and biological applications such as surface patterning, 3D printing, photonic crystals, and DNA sequencing, to name a few. Additionally, a drying single sessile droplet forms a high-throughput processing technique using low material volume which is especially suitable for medical diagnosis. A sessile droplet also provides an elementary platform to study and analyze fundamental interfacial processes at various length scales ranging from macroscopically observable wetting and evaporation to microfluidic transport to interparticle forces operating at a nanometric length scale. As an example, to ascertain the quality of 3D printing we must understand the fundamental interfacial processes at the droplet scale. In this article, we review the coupled physics of evaporation flow-contact-line-driven particle transport in sessile colloidal droplets and provide methodologies to control the same. Through natural alterations in droplet vaporization, one can change the evaporative pattern and contact line dynamics leading to internal flow which will modulate the final particle assembly in a nontrivial fashion. We further show that control over particle transport can also be exerted by external stimuli which can be thermal, mechanical oscillations, vapor confinement (walled or a fellow droplet), or chemical (surfactant-induced) in nature. For example, significant augmentation of an otherwise evaporation-driven particle transport in sessile droplets can be brought about simply through controlled interfacial oscillations. The ability to control the final morphologies by manipulating the governing interfacial mechanisms in the precursor stages of droplet drying makes it perfectly suitable for fabrication-, mixing-, and diagnostic-based applications.

  3. Slip of Spreading Viscoplastic Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaal, Maziyar; Balmforth, Neil J; Stoeber, Boris

    2015-11-10

    The spreading of axisymmetric viscoplastic droplets extruded slowly on glass surfaces is studied experimentally using shadowgraphy and swept-field confocal microscopy. The microscopy furnishes vertical profiles of the radial velocity using particle image velocimetry (PIV) with neutrally buoyant tracers seeded in the fluid. Experiments were conducted for two complex fluids: aqueous solutions of Carbopol and xanthan gum. On untreated glass surfaces, PIV demonstrates that both fluids experience a significant amount of effective slip. The experiments were repeated on glass that had been treated to feature positive surface charges, thereby promoting adhesion between the negatively charged polymeric constituents of the fluids and the glass surface. The Carbopol and xanthan gum droplets spread more slowly on the treated surface and to a smaller radial distance. PIV demonstrated that this reduced spreading was associated with a substantial reduction in slip. For Carbopol, the effective slip could be eliminated entirely to within the precision of the PIV measurements; the reduction in slip was less effective for xanthan gum, with a weak slip velocity remaining noticeable.

  4. Genetically tunable M13 phage films utilizing evaporating droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Erik; Warner, Chris; Barnes, Eftihia; Pilkiewicz, Kevin; Perkins, Edward; Poda, Aimee

    2018-01-01

    This effort utilizes a genetically tunable system of bacteriophage to evaluate the effect of charge, temperature and particle concentration on biomaterial synthesis utilizing the coffee ring (CR) effect. There was a 1.6-3 fold suppression of the CR at higher temperatures while maintaining self-assembled structures of thin films. This suppression was observed in phage with charged and uncharged surface chemistry, which formed ordered and disordered assemblies respectively, indicating CR suppression is not dependent on short-range ordering or surface chemistry. Analysis of the drying process suggests weakened capillary flow at elevated temperatures caused CR suppression and could be further enhanced for controlled assembly for advanced biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein Conformation and Supercharging with DMSO from Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Harry J.; Prell, James S.; Cassou, Catherine A.; Williams, Evan R.

    2011-07-01

    The efficacy of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a supercharging reagent for protein ions formed by electrospray ionization from aqueous solution and the mechanism for supercharging were investigated. Addition of small amounts of DMSO to aqueous solutions containing hen egg white lysozyme or equine myoglobin results in a lowering of charge, whereas a significant increase in charge occurs at higher concentrations. Results from both near-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy and solution-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry indicate that DMSO causes a compaction of the native structure of these proteins at low concentration, but significant unfolding occurs at ~63% and ~43% DMSO for lysozyme and myoglobin, respectively. The DMSO concentrations required to denature these two proteins in bulk solution are ~3-5 times higher than the concentrations required for the onset of supercharging, consistent with a significantly increased concentration of this high boiling point supercharging reagent in the ESI droplet as preferential evaporation of water occurs. DMSO is slightly more basic than m-nitrobenzyl alcohol and sulfolane, two other supercharging reagents, based on calculated proton affinity and gas-phase basicity values both at the B3LYP and MP2 levels of theory, and all three of these supercharging reagents are significantly more basic than water. These results provide additional evidence that the origin of supercharging from aqueous solution is the result of chemical and/or thermal denaturation that occurs in the ESI droplet as the concentration of these supercharging reagents increases, and that proton transfer reactivity does not play a significant role in the charge enhancement observed.

  6. Evaporation of Nanosuspensions on Substrates with Different Hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Lionel; Pajor-Swierzy, Anna; Magdassi, Shlomo; Kamyshny, Alexander; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G

    2018-01-24

    Liquid drop evaporation on surfaces is present in many industrial and medical applications, e.g., printed electronics, spraying of pesticides, DNA mapping, etc. Despite this strong interest, a theoretical description of the dynamic of the evaporation of complex liquid mixtures and nanosuspensions is still lacking. Indeed, one of the aspects that have not been included in the current theoretical descriptions is the competition between the kinetics of evaporation and the adsorption of surfactants and/or particles at the liquid/vapor and liquid/solid interfaces. Materials formed by an electrically isolating solid on which a patterned conducting layer was formed by the deposits left after drop evaporation have been considered as very promising for building electrical circuits on flexible plastic substrates. In this work, we have done an exhaustive study of the evaporation of nanosuspensions of latex and hydrophobized silver nanoparticles on four substrates of different hydrophobicity. The advancing and receding contact angles as well as the time dependence of the volume of the droplets have been measured over a broad range of particle concentrations. Also, mixtures of silver particles and a surfactant, commonly used in industrial printing, have been examined. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics at both the air/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces have been measured. Whereas the latex particles do not adsorb at the solid/liquid and only slightly reduce the surface tension, the silver particles strongly adsorb at both interfaces. The experimental results of the evaporation process were compared with the predictions of the theory of Semenov et al. (Evaporation of Sessile Water Droplets: Universal Behavior in the Presence of Contact Angle Hysteresis. Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2011, 391 (1-3), 135-144) and showed surprisingly good agreement despite that the theory was developed for pure liquids. The morphology of the deposits left by the droplets after total

  7. Effect of viscosity on droplet-droplet collisional interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finotello, Giulia; Padding, J.T.; Deen, Niels G.; Jongsma, Alfred; Innings, Fredrik; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    A complete knowledge of the effect of droplet viscosity on droplet-droplet collision outcomes is essential for industrial processes such as spray drying. When droplets with dispersed solids are dried, the apparent viscosity of the dispersed phase increases by many orders of magnitude, which

  8. Modeling of Heating and Evaporation of FACE I Gasoline Fuel and its Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2016-04-05

    The US Department of Energy has formulated different gasoline fuels called \\'\\'Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)\\'\\' to standardize their compositions. FACE I is a low octane number gasoline fuel with research octane number (RON) of approximately 70. The detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) of FACE I shows that it contains 33 components. This large number of components cannot be handled in fuel spray simulation where thousands of droplets are directly injected in combustion chamber. These droplets are to be heated, broken-up, collided and evaporated simultaneously. Heating and evaporation of single droplet FACE I fuel was investigated. The heating and evaporation model accounts for the effects of finite thermal conductivity, finite liquid diffusivity and recirculation inside the droplet, referred to as the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity (ETC/ED) model. The temporal variations of the liquid mass fractions of the droplet components were used to characterize the evaporation process. Components with similar evaporation characteristics were merged together. A representative component was initially chosen based on the highest initial mass fraction. Three 6 components surrogates, Surrogate 1-3, that match evaporation characteristics of FACE I have been formulated without keeping same mass fractions of different hydrocarbon types. Another two surrogates (Surrogate 4 and 5) were considered keeping same hydrocarbon type concentrations. A distillation based surrogate that matches measured distillation profile was proposed. The calculated molar mass, hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio and RON of Surrogate 4 and distillation based one are close to those of FACE I.

  9. Evaporation and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this article the influence of climate change on evaporation is discussed. The emphasis is on open water evaporation. Three methods for calculating evaporation are compared considering only changes in temperature and factors directly dependent on temperature. The Penman-method is used to

  10. A compact and facile microfluidic droplet creation device using a piezoelectric diaphragm micropump for droplet digital PCR platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Naoaki; Nakashoji, Yuta; Koshirogane, Toshihiro; Kondo, Masaki; Tanaka, Yugo; Inoue, Kohei; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2017-10-01

    We have exploited a compact and facile microfluidic droplet creation device consisting of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic chip possessing T-junction channel geometry, two inlet reservoirs, and one outlet reservoir, and a piezoelectric (PZT) diaphragm micropump with controller. Air was evacuated from the outlet reservoir using the PZT pump, reducing the pressure inside. The reduced pressure within the outlet reservoir pulled oil and aqueous solution preloaded in the inlet reservoirs into the microchannels, which then merged at the T-junction, successfully forming water-in-oil emulsion droplets at a rate of ∼1000 per second with minimal sample loss. We confirmed that the onset of droplet formation occurred immediately after turning on the pump (<1 s). Over repeated runs, droplet formation was highly reproducible, with droplet size purity (polydispersity, <4%) comparable to that achieved using other microfluidic droplet preparation techniques. We also demonstrated single-molecule PCR amplification in the created droplets, suggesting that the device could be used for effective droplet digital PCR platforms in most laboratories without requiring great expense, space, or time for acquiring technical skills. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Fuel Evaporation in an Atmospheric Premixed Burner: Sensitivity Analysis and Spray Vaporization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Csemány

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of evaporation requires accurate thermophysical properties of the liquid. Such data are well-known for conventional fossil fuels. In contrast, e.g., thermal conductivity or dynamic viscosity of the fuel vapor are rarely available for modern liquid fuels. To overcome this problem, molecular models can be used. Currently, the measurement-based properties of n-heptane and diesel oil are compared with estimated values, using the state-of-the-art molecular models to derive the temperature-dependent material properties. Then their effect on droplet evaporation was evaluated. The critical parameters were liquid density, latent heat of vaporization, boiling temperature, and vapor thermal conductivity where the estimation affected the evaporation time notably. Besides a general sensitivity analysis, evaporation modeling in a practical burner ended up with similar results. By calculating droplet motion, the evaporation number, the evaporation-to-residence time ratio can be derived. An empirical cumulative distribution function is used for the spray of the analyzed burner to evaluate evaporation in the mixing tube. Evaporation number did not exceed 0.4, meaning a full evaporation prior to reaching the burner lip in all cases. As droplet inertia depends upon its size, the residence time has a minimum value due to the phenomenon of overshooting.

  12. Investigation of Regularities of Heat and Mass Transfer and Phase Transitions during Water Droplets Motion through High-Temperature Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman S. Volkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic regularities of heat and mass transfer and phase transitions during water droplets motion through high-temperature (more than 1000 K gases have been investigated numerically and experimentally. Water droplet evaporation rates have been established. Gas and water vapors concentrations and also temperature values of gas-vapor mixture in small neighborhood and water droplet trace have been singled out. Possible mechanisms of droplet coagulation in high-temperature gas area have been determined. Experiments have been carried out with the optical methods of two-phase gas-vapor-droplet mixtures diagnostics (“Particle Image Velocimetry” and “Interferometric Particle Imaging” usage to assess the adequateness of developed heat and mass transfer models and the results of numerical investigations. The good agreement of numerical and experimental investigation results due to integral characteristics of water droplet evaporation has been received.

  13. Toward Single Enzyme Analysis in a Droplet-based Micro and Nanofluidic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arayanarakool, Rerngchai

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we demonstrate the application of a micro- and nanofluidic device for the single-enzyme analysis by encapsulating single enzymes into the generated aqueous droplets in oil. This thesis consists of the introduction (chapter 1), a review of the generation and manipulation of droplets

  14. Toward single enzyme analysis in a droplet-based micro and nanofluidic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arayanarakool, Rerngchai

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we have demonstrated the application of micro- and nanofluidic devices to generate an array of aqueous droplets in oil phase for single-enzyme encapsulation and activity measurement. We chose droplet-based microfluidics for this purpose of monitoring single-enzyme reactions since the

  15. A poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic sheet reversibly adhered on a glass plate for creation of emulsion droplets for droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashoji, Yuta; Tanaka, Hironari; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    A PDMS microfluidic chip with T-junction channel geometry, two inlet reservoirs, and one outlet reservoir was reversibly adhered on a glass plate through the viscoelastic properties of PDMS. This formed a detachable microfluidic device for creation of water-in-oil emulsion droplets that were used as discrete reaction compartments for the droplet digital PCR. The PDMS/glass device could continuously produce monodisperse droplets without leakage of fluids using a vacuum-driven autonomous micropumping method. This droplet preparation technique only required evacuation of air dissolved in the PDMS before loading of oil and aqueous phases into separate inlet reservoirs. Degassing of the PDMS chip at approximately 300 Pa for 1.5 h in a vacuum desiccator gave 40 000 droplets in 80 min, which corresponded to a generation frequency of up to nine droplets per second. Over multiple runs the droplet creation was very reproducible, and the size reproducibility of generated droplets (polydispersity of up to 4.1%) was comparable to that acquired using other microfluidic droplet preparation techniques. Because the PDMS chip can be peeled off the glass plate, blocked channels can easily be fixed when they arise, and this extends the lifetime of the chip. Single DNA molecules partitioned into the droplets were successfully amplified by PCR. In addition, the droplet digital PCR platform allowed absolute quantification of low copy numbers of target DNA, and was robust against instrumental variance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A new microfluidics-based droplet dispenser for ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboket, Pascal E; Borovinskaya, Olga; Meyer, Nicole; Günther, Detlef; Dittrich, Petra S

    2014-06-17

    In this work, a novel droplet microfluidic sample introduction system for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is proposed and characterized. The cheap and disposable microfluidic chip generates droplets of an aqueous sample in a stream of perfluorohexane (PFH), which is also used to eject them as a liquid jet. The aqueous droplets remain intact during the ejection and can be transported into the ICP with >50% efficiency. The transport is realized via a custom-built system, which includes a membrane desolvator necessary for the PFH vapor removal. The introduction system presented here can generate highly monodisperse droplets in the size range of 40-60 μm at frequencies from 90 to 300 Hz. These droplets produced very stable signals with a relative standard deviation (RSD) comparable to the one achieved with a commercial droplet dispenser. Using the current system, samples with a total volume of <1 μL can be analyzed. Moreover, the capabilities of the setup for introduction and quantitative elemental analysis of single cells were described using a test system of bovine red blood cells. In the future, other modules of the modern microfludics can be integrated in the chip, such as on-chip sample pretreatment or parallel introduction of different samples.

  17. OCS in He droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebenev, V.

    2000-06-01

    Phenomenon of superfluidity of para-hydrogen (pH{sub 2}){sub 1-17} and helium {sup 4}He{sub 1-7000} systems doped with an OCS chromophore molecule was investigated in this work. The study of such systems became possible after the development of the depletion spectroscopy technique in helium droplets. The droplets can be easily created and doped with up to 100 particles such as OCS, para-hydrogen or ortho-hydrogen molecules and {sup 4}He atoms. The measured infrared depletion spectra give the information about the temperature of the droplets and their aggregate state. The depletion spectrum of OCS in pure {sup 4}He droplets was comprehensively studied. The rovibrational OCS spectrum shows well resolved narrow lines. The spectrum is shifted to the red relative to the corresponding gas phase spectrum and the rotational constant of OCS in {sup 4}He droplet is three times smaller than that for free molecule. Different models of OCS rotation in the helium environment were discussed. It was shown that the shapes of the rovibrational lines are defined mainly by inhomogeneous broadening due to the droplet size distribution. The sub-rotational structure of the OCS rovibrational lines was revealed in microwave-infrared double resonance experiments. This structure arises due to the interaction of the OCS with the He environment. However, the information obtained in the experiments was not enough to understand the nature of this interaction. (orig.)

  18. Modulation of Buckling Dynamics in Nanoparticle Laden Droplets Using External Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Binita; Basu, Saptarshi

    2016-03-22

    Dynamics of contact free (levitated) drying of nanofluid droplets is ubiquitous in many application domains ranging from spray drying to pharmaceutics. Controlling the final morphology (macro to micro scales) of the dried out sample poses some serious challenges. Evaporation of solvent and agglomeration of particles leads to porous shell formation in acoustically levitated nanosilica droplets. The capillary pressure due to evaporation across the menisci at the nanoscale pores causes buckling of the shell which leads to ring and bowl shaped final structures. Acoustics plays a crucial role in flattening of droplets which is a prerequisite for initiation of buckling in the shell. Introduction of mixed nanocolloids (sodium dodecyl sulfate + nanosilica) reduces evaporation rate, disrupts formation of porous shell, and enhances mechanical strength of the shell, all of which restricts the process of buckling. Although buckling is completely arrested in such surfactant added droplets, controlled external heating using laser enhances evaporation through the pores in the shell due to thermally induced structural changes and rearrangement of SDS aggregates which reinitializes buckling in such droplets. Furthermore, inclusion of anilinium hydrochloride into the nanoparticle laden droplets produces ions which adsorb and modify the morphology of sodium dodecyl sulfate crystals and reinitializes buckling in the shell (irrespective of external heating conditions). The kinetics of buckling is determined by the combined effect of morphology of the colloidal particles, particle/aggregate diffusion rate within the droplet, and the rate of evaporation of water. The buckling dynamics leads to cavity formation which grows subsequently to yield final structures with drastically different morphological features. The cavity growth is controlled by evaporation through the nanoscale pores and exhibits a universal trend irrespective of heating rate and nanoparticle type.

  19. Pulsating-gliding transition in the dynamics of levitating liquid nitorgen droplets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snezhko, A.; Jacob, E. B.; Aranson, I. S.; Materials Science Division; Tel-Aviv Univ.

    2008-04-21

    Hot surfaces can cause levitation of small liquid droplets if the temperature is kept above the Leidenfrost point (220 C for water) due to the pressure formed because of rapid evaporation. Here, we demonstrate a new class of pulsating-gliding dynamic transitions in a special setting of the Leidenfrost effect at room temperatures and above a viscous fluid for droplets of liquid nitrogen. A whole range of highly dynamic patterns unfolds when droplets of liquid nitrogen are poured on the surface of another, more viscous liquid at room temperature. We also discovered that the levitating droplets induce vortex motion in the supporting viscous liquid. Depending on the viscosity of the supporting liquid, the nitrogen droplets either adopt an oscillating (pulsating) star-like shape with different azimuthal symmetries (from 2-9 petals) or glide on the surface with random trajectories. Thus, by varying the viscosity of the supporting liquid, we achieve controlled morphology and dynamics of Leidenfrost droplets.

  20. Pulsating-gliding transition in the dynamics of levitating liquid nitrogen droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jacob, Eshel Ben [School of Physics and Astronomy, 69978 Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)], E-mail: aranson@msd.anl.gov

    2008-04-15

    Hot surfaces can cause levitation of small liquid droplets if the temperature is kept above the Leidenfrost point (220 {sup 0}C for water) due to the pressure formed because of rapid evaporation. Here, we demonstrate a new class of pulsating-gliding dynamic transitions in a special setting of the Leidenfrost effect at room temperatures and above a viscous fluid for droplets of liquid nitrogen. A whole range of highly dynamic patterns unfolds when droplets of liquid nitrogen are poured on the surface of another, more viscous liquid at room temperature. We also discovered that the levitating droplets induce vortex motion in the supporting viscous liquid. Depending on the viscosity of the supporting liquid, the nitrogen droplets either adopt an oscillating (pulsating) star-like shape with different azimuthal symmetries (from 2-9 petals) or glide on the surface with random trajectories. Thus, by varying the viscosity of the supporting liquid, we achieve controlled morphology and dynamics of Leidenfrost droplets.

  1. Robust fadeout profile of an evaporation stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, T. A.

    2009-06-01

    We propose an explanation for the commonly seen fading in the density of a stain remaining after a droplet has dried on a surface. The density decreases as a power p of the distance from the edge. For thin, dilute drops of general shape this power is determined by a flow stagnation point in the distant interior of the drop. The power p depends on the local evaporation rate J(0) at the stagnation point and the liquid depth h(0) there: p = 1 - 2~ (h(0)/\\bar h)(\\bar J/J(0)) , where \\bar h and \\bar J are averages over the drop surface.

  2. Particle Separation inside a Sessile Droplet with Variable Contact Angle Using Surface Acoustic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Jung, Jin Ho; Park, Jinsoo; Ahmed, Husnain; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-01-03

    A sessile droplet of water carrying polystyrene microparticles of different diameters was uniformly exposed to high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) produced by an interdigitated transducer (IDT). We investigated the concentration behavior of the microparticles as the SAWs generated a strong acoustic streaming flow (ASF) inside the water droplet and exerted a direct acoustic radiation force (ARF) on the suspended particles, the magnitude of which depended upon the particle diameter. As a result of the ARF, the microparticles were concentrated according to their diameters at different positions inside the sessile droplet placed in the path of the SAW, right in front of the IDT. The microparticle concentration behavior changed as the sessile droplet contact angle with the substrate was varied by adding surfactant to the water or by gradually evaporating the water. The positions at which the smaller and larger microparticles were concentrated remained distinguishable, even at very different experimental conditions. The long-term exposure of the droplets to the SAWs was accompanied by the gradual evaporation of the carrier fluid, which dynamically changed the droplet contact angle as well as the concentration of particles. Complete evaporation of the fluid left behind several concentrated yet separated clusters of particles on the substrate surface. The effect of the droplet contact angle on particles' concentration behavior and consequent separation of particles has been uniquely studied in this SAW-based report.

  3. Flooding criterion for evaporative cooling on horizontal semi infinite solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederer, M.A.; Marzo, M. di; Tartarini, P.

    1996-01-01

    The evaporative cooling of a sparse spray impacting on a hot solid is investigated to determine the limiting condition associated with the liquid flooding of the solid surface. The flooding condition is identified when the evaporation rate is insufficient to remove the amount of water being deposited on the surface. The flooding criteria is derived as a function of the initial single droplet volume prior to deposition, the Evaporation-Recovery Cycle (ERC) and the area of influence, which describes the region of the solid surface associated with a single droplet cooling effect. These last two quantities, the ERC and the area of influence, are evaluated by integrating previously obtained theoretical and experimental information with selected experimental data obtained in this study. The flooding criteria, while semi-empirical in its derivation, can be generalized to all non-porous solids under a variety of conditions. The spray is sparse and the water droplets are considered of uniform size. Extension to a spray with non-uniform droplet distribution is not considered here

  4. Droplet motion in one-component fluids on solid substrates with wettability gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2012-05-11

    Droplet motion on solid substrates has been widely studied not only because of its importance in fundamental research but also because of its promising potentials in droplet-based devices developed for various applications in chemistry, biology, and industry. In this paper, we investigate the motion of an evaporating droplet in one-component fluids on a solid substrate with a wettability gradient. As is well known, there are two major difficulties in the continuum description of fluid flows and heat fluxes near the contact line of droplets on solid substrates, namely, the hydrodynamic (stress) singularity and thermal singularity. To model the droplet motion, we use the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)] for the hydrodynamic equations in the bulk region, supplemented with the boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface. In this continuum hydrodynamic model, various physical processes involved in the droplet motion can be taken into account simultaneously, e.g., phase transitions (evaporation or condensation), capillary flows, fluid velocity slip, and substrate cooling or heating. Due to the use of the phase field method (diffuse interface method), the hydrodynamic and thermal singularities are resolved automatically. Furthermore, in the dynamic van der Waals theory, the evaporation or condensation rate at the liquid-gas interface is an outcome of the calculation rather than a prerequisite as in most of the other models proposed for evaporating droplets. Numerical results show that the droplet migrates in the direction of increasing wettability on the solid substrates. The migration velocity of the droplet is found to be proportional to the wettability gradients as predicted by Brochard [Langmuir 5, 432 (1989)]. The proportionality coefficient is found to be linearly dependent on the ratio of slip length to initial droplet radius. These results indicate that the steady migration of the droplets results from the balance between the

  5. Extended lattice Boltzmann scheme for droplet combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashna, Mostafa; Rahimian, Mohammad Hassan; Fakhari, Abbas

    2017-05-01

    The available lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for combustion or phase change are focused on either single-phase flow combustion or two-phase flow with evaporation assuming a constant density for both liquid and gas phases. To pave the way towards simulation of spray combustion, we propose a two-phase LB method for modeling combustion of liquid fuel droplets. We develop an LB scheme to model phase change and combustion by taking into account the density variation in the gas phase and accounting for the chemical reaction based on the Cahn-Hilliard free-energy approach. Evaporation of liquid fuel is modeled by adding a source term, which is due to the divergence of the velocity field being nontrivial, in the continuity equation. The low-Mach-number approximation in the governing Navier-Stokes and energy equations is used to incorporate source terms due to heat release from chemical reactions, density variation, and nonluminous radiative heat loss. Additionally, the conservation equation for chemical species is formulated by including a source term due to chemical reaction. To validate the model, we consider the combustion of n-heptane and n-butanol droplets in stagnant air using overall single-step reactions. The diameter history and flame standoff ratio obtained from the proposed LB method are found to be in good agreement with available numerical and experimental data. The present LB scheme is believed to be a promising approach for modeling spray combustion.

  6. Numerical Investigation of the Main Characteristics of Heat and Mass Transfer while Heating the Heterogeneous Water Droplet in the Hot Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Maxim V.; Shcherbinina, Anastasia A.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.

    2016-02-01

    The processes of heat and evaporation of heterogeneous water droplet with solid (by the example of carbon) inclusion in hot (from 800 K to 1500 K) gases were investigated by the developed models of heat and mass transfer. We defined the limited conditions, characteristics of the droplet and the gas medium which are sufficient for implementing the "explosive" destruction of heterogeneous droplet due to intensive vaporization on an inner interface, and intensive evaporation of liquid from an external (free) droplet surface. The values of the main characteristic of the process (period from start of heating to "explosive" destruction) obtained in response to using various heat and mass transfer models were compared.

  7. Congruent evaporation temperature of GaAs(001) controlled by As flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z. Y.; Zheng, C. X.; Tang, W. X.; Jesson, D. E.; Tersoff, J.

    2010-01-01

    The congruent evaporation temperature T c is a fundamental surface characteristic of GaAs and similar compounds. Above T c the rate of As evaporation exceeds that of Ga during Langmuir (free) evaporation into a vacuum. However, during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) there is generally an external As flux F incident on the surface. Here we show that this flux directly controls T c . We introduce a sensitive approach to measure T c based on Ga droplet stability, and determine the dependence of T c on F. This dependence is explained by a simple model for evaporation in the presence of external flux. The capability of manipulating T c via changing F offers a means of controlling congruent evaporation with relevance to MBE, surface preparation methods, and droplet epitaxy.

  8. LET dependence of bubbles evaporation pulses in superheated emulsion detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fulvio, Angela; Huang, Jean; Staib, Lawrence; d'Errico, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Superheated emulsion detectors are suspensions of metastable liquid droplets in a compliant inert medium. Upon interaction with ionizing radiation, the droplets evaporate, generating visible bubbles. Bubble expansion associated with the boiling of the droplets is accompanied by pressure pulses in both the sonic and ultrasonic frequency range. In this work, we analyzed the signal generated by bubble evaporation in the frequency and time domain. We used octafluoropropane (R-218) based emulsions, sensitive to both photons and neutrons. The frequency content of the detected pulses appears to extend well into the hundreds of kHz, beyond the range used in commercial devices to count bubbles as they are formed (typically 1-10 kHz). Kilohertz components characterize the early part of the waveforms, potentially containing information about the energetics of the explosive bubble initial growth phase. The power spectral density of the acoustic signal produced by neutron-induced evaporation shows a characteristic frequency pattern in the 200-400 kHz range, which is not observed when bubbles evaporate upon gamma ray-induced irradiation. For practical applications, detection of ultrasonic pulses associated with the boiling of the superheated drops can be exploited as a fast readout method, negligibly affected by mechanical ambient noise.

  9. Liquid DEP actuation and precision dispensing of variable volume droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Paul, Reginald; Kaler, Karan V I S

    2010-11-21

    Droplet based microfluidic systems, in recent years, have demonstrated numerous advantages and exciting potential for Lab-On-a Chip applications. In order to fully realize the potential benefits of this technology, one requires precision dispensing and manipulation of droplets of known volume and sample concentration, in a rapid and controlled manner. In this article, we demonstrate the rapid and controlled microactuation of aqueous samples and subsequent dispensing of variable volume droplets in nanolitre to picolitre regime by using a coplanar tapered electrode structure that leverages the phenomena of liquid dielectrophoresis (L-DEP). The transient behavior of the tapered liquid jet departs significantly from that of a uniform liquid jet case and is not adequately explained in terms of a simplified lumped capacitance model as in the case of the uniform jet, during the L-DEP actuation. A more generalized numerical model is developed for the tapered actuation scheme to account for the experimental observations. We furthermore demonstrate that the density of the dispensed droplets can be proactively controlled by the judicious placement of electrode bumps and pinches in the electrode structure thus overcoming the limitations imposed by Rayleigh's instability criterion. The proposed droplet dispensing schemes are superior to existing L-DEP based dispensing schemes which are restricted in size and spacing of the dispensed droplets by Rayleigh's instability criteria and furthermore mostly restricted to equi-volume droplets.

  10. Comparison of various droplet breakup models in gas-liquid flows in high-pressure environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleghi, H.; Ganji, D. D.; Omidvar, A.

    2008-01-01

    Droplet breakup affects spray penetration and evaporation, and plays a critical role in engine efficiency. The purpose of this research was to examine the rate of penetration and evaporation of droplets in a combustion chamber, and the efficiency of the engine when liquid jet is injected into the compressed gas chamber in an axi-symmetrical fashion leading to a turbulent and unsteady flow. As a result of interaction with the highly compressed air in the chamber, the liquid jet breaks up and forms minute droplets. These particles will in turn breakup because of aerodynamic forces, producing even smaller droplets. A number of models are available for analyzing the breakup of droplets; however, each model is typically reliable only over a limited parameter range. In this research three well-known models are applied for droplet breakup modeling and their results are compared. To obtain the details of the flow field, the Eulerian gas phase mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as equations governing the transport of turbulence and fuel vapor mass fraction are solved together with equations of trajectory, momentum, mass and energy conservation for liquid droplets in Lagrangian form. The numerical solution is performed using the finite volume method and EPISO (Engine-PISO) algorithm. The results obtained from the models show that the breakup process in a high pressure environment significantly affects the penetration and evaporation rates of the spray, and the droplet size is determined by the balance between breakup and coalescence processes. It is also shown that the details of atomization in the nozzle do not significantly influence the ultimate size of droplets. It should be mentioned that droplet collision modeling has been taken into account in the computer code and is activated wherever necessary

  11. Microwave heating type evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Masazumi; Nishi, Akio; Morimoto, Takashi; Izumi, Jun; Tamura, Kazuo; Morooka, Akihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent evaporization stills against corrosion due to radioactive liquid wastes. Constitution: Microwaves are supplied from a microwave generator by way of a wave guide tube and through a microwave permeation window to the inside of an evaporatization still. A matching device is attached to the wave guide tube for transmitting the microwaves in order to match the impedance. When the microwaves are supplied to the inside of the evaporization still, radioactive liquid wastes supplied from a liquid feed port by way of a spray tower to the inside of the evaporization still is heated and evaporated by the induction heating of the microwaves. (Seki, T.)

  12. Evaporation Anisotropy of Forsterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, K.; Nagahara, H.; Morioka, M.

    1996-03-01

    Evaporation anisotropy of a synthetic single crystal of forsterite was investigated by high temperature vacuum experiments. The (001), (010), and (001) surfaces show microstructures characteristic for each surface. Obtained overall linear evaporation rates for the (001), (010), and (001) surfaces are ~17, ~7, and ~22 mm/hour, and the intrinsic evaporation rates, obtained by the change in surface microstructures, are ~10, ~4.5, and ~35 mm/hour, respectively. The difference between the intrinsic evaporation rates and overall rates can be regarded as contribution of dislocation, which is notable for the (100) and (010) surfaces and insignificant for the (001) surface. This is consistent with observed surface microstructures.

  13. Classification of the ejection mechanisms of charged macromolecules from liquid droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consta, Styliani; Malevanets, Anatoly

    2013-01-28

    The relation between the charge state of a macromolecule and its ejection mechanism from droplets is one of the important questions in electrospray ionization methods. In this article, effects of solvent-solute interaction on the manifestation of the charge induced instability in a droplet are examined. We studied the instabilities in a prototype system of a droplet comprised of charged poly(ethylene glycol) and methanol, acetonitrile, and water solvents. We observed instances of three, previously only conjectured, [S. Consta, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 5263 (2010)] mechanisms of macroion ejection. The mechanism of ejection of charged macroion in methanol is reminiscent of "pearl" model in polymer physics. In acetonitrile droplets, the instability manifests through formation of solvent spines around the solvated macroion. In water, we find that the macroion is ejected from the droplet through contiguous extrusion of a part of the chain. The difference in the morphology of the instabilities is attributed to the interplay between forces arising from the macroion solvation energy and the surface energy of the droplet interface. For the contiguous extrusion of a charged macromolecule from a droplet, we demonstrate that the proposed mechanism leads to ejection of the macromolecule from droplets with sizes well below the Rayleigh limit. The ejected macromolecule may hold charge significantly higher than that suggested by prevailing theories. The simulations reveal new mechanisms of macroion evaporation that differ from conventional charge residue model and ion evaporation mechanisms.

  14. Morphological deformation during evaporation induced assembly of mixed colloidal suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, D.; Melo, J. S.; Bahadur, J.; Mazumder, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; D'Souza, S. F.

    2010-12-01

    Sphere to deformed doughnut type transformation of colloidal droplets during evaporation induced assembly of colloidal silica and E. coli was observed. Distortion modulations get amplified with increase in volume fraction of anisotropic soft colloidal component. Reduction in elastic constants of formed shell, at the boundary of a drying droplet, and the anisotropic nature of bacterial component facilitate the deformation process. The charge modification of E. coli surface by Poly cationic Polytheleneimine ceases the morphological transformation and results spherical assembled grains. Hierarchical structures of these assembled colloidal grains have been probed using electron microscopy and small- angle neutron scattering techniques.

  15. Experimental evidence supporting the insensitivity of cloud droplet formation to the mass accommodation coefficient for condensation of water vapor to liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, Justin M.; Richardson, Mathews S.; Lack, Daniel A.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2016-06-01

    The mass accommodation coefficient for uptake of water vapor to liquid water, αM, has been constrained using photoacoustic measurements of aqueous absorbing aerosol. Measurements performed over a range of relative humidities and pressures were compared to detailed model calculations treating coupled heat and mass transfer occurring during photoacoustic laser heating cycles. The strengths and weaknesses of this technique are very different to those for droplet growth/evaporation experiments that have typically been applied to these measurements, making this a useful complement to existing studies. Our measurements provide robust evidence that αM is greater than 0.1 for all humidities tested and greater than 0.3 for data obtained at relative humidities greater than 88% where the aerosol surface was most like pure water. These values of αM are above the threshold at which kinetic limitations are expected to impact the activation and growth of aerosol particles in warm cloud formation.

  16. Chemotactic droplet swimmers in complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenyu; Hokmabad, Babak V.; Baldwin, Kyle A.; Maass, Corinna C.

    2018-02-01

    Chemotaxis1 and auto-chemotaxis are key mechanisms in the dynamics of micro-organisms, e.g. in the acquisition of nutrients and in the communication between individuals, influencing the collective behaviour. However, chemical signalling and the natural environment of biological swimmers are generally complex, making them hard to access analytically. We present a well-controlled, tunable artificial model to study chemotaxis and autochemotaxis in complex geometries, using microfluidic assays of self-propelling oil droplets in an aqueous surfactant solution (Herminghaus et al 2014 Soft Matter 10 7008–22 Krüger et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 117). Droplets propel via interfacial Marangoni stresses powered by micellar solubilisation. Moreover, filled micelles act as a chemical repellent by diffusive phoretic gradient forces. We have studied these chemotactic effects in a series of microfluidic geometries, as published in Jin et al (2017 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 114 5089–94): first, droplets are guided along the shortest path through a maze by surfactant diffusing into the maze from the exit. Second, we let auto-chemotactic droplet swimmers pass through bifurcating microfluidic channels and record anticorrelations between the branch choices of consecutive droplets. We present an analytical Langevin model matching the experimental data. In a previously unpublished experiment, pillar arrays of variable sizes and shapes provide a convex wall interacting with the swimmer and, in the case of attachment, bending its trajectory and forcing it to revert to its own trail. We observe different behaviours based on the interplay of wall curvature and negative autochemotaxis, i.e. no attachment for highly curved interfaces, stable trapping at large pillars, and a narrow transition region where negative autochemotaxis makes the swimmers detach after a single orbit.

  17. An interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2013-09-01

    This report describes an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop an interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence. Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. microfluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. A transient aqueous bridge forms between approaching drops prior to pinch-off. This observation applies to many types of fluids, but neither theory nor experiments have been able to offer a satisfactory explanation. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. This is a computationally challenging problem that involves tracking a moving interface and solving complex multi-physics and multi-scale dynamics, which are beyond the capabilities of most state-of-the-art simulations. An interface-tracking model for electro-coalescence can provide a new perspective to a variety of applications in which interfacial physics are coupled with electrodynamics, including electro-osmosis, fabrication of microelectronics, fuel atomization, oil dehydration, nuclear waste reprocessing and solution separation for chemical detectors. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for the electrohydrodynamics of two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface.

  18. Chemotactic droplet swimmers in complex geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenyu; Hokmabad, Babak V; Baldwin, Kyle A; Maass, Corinna C

    2018-02-07

    Chemotaxis 1 and auto-chemotaxis are key mechanisms in the dynamics of micro-organisms, e.g. in the acquisition of nutrients and in the communication between individuals, influencing the collective behaviour. However, chemical signalling and the natural environment of biological swimmers are generally complex, making them hard to access analytically. We present a well-controlled, tunable artificial model to study chemotaxis and autochemotaxis in complex geometries, using microfluidic assays of self-propelling oil droplets in an aqueous surfactant solution (Herminghaus et al 2014 Soft Matter 10 7008-22; Krüger et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 117). Droplets propel via interfacial Marangoni stresses powered by micellar solubilisation. Moreover, filled micelles act as a chemical repellent by diffusive phoretic gradient forces. We have studied these chemotactic effects in a series of microfluidic geometries, as published in Jin et al (2017 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 114 5089-94): first, droplets are guided along the shortest path through a maze by surfactant diffusing into the maze from the exit. Second, we let auto-chemotactic droplet swimmers pass through bifurcating microfluidic channels and record anticorrelations between the branch choices of consecutive droplets. We present an analytical Langevin model matching the experimental data. In a previously unpublished experiment, pillar arrays of variable sizes and shapes provide a convex wall interacting with the swimmer and, in the case of attachment, bending its trajectory and forcing it to revert to its own trail. We observe different behaviours based on the interplay of wall curvature and negative autochemotaxis, i.e. no attachment for highly curved interfaces, stable trapping at large pillars, and a narrow transition region where negative autochemotaxis makes the swimmers detach after a single orbit.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of self-propelled Leidenfrost droplets on ratchet surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Kang, Q. J.; Francois, M. M.; Hu, A. J.

    In this paper, the self-propelled motion of Leidenfrost droplets on ratchet surfaces is numerically investigated with a thermal multiphase lattice Boltzmann model with liquid-vapor phase change. The capability of the model for simulating evaporation is validated via the D2 law. Using the model, we first study the performances of Leidenfrost droplets on horizontal ratchet surfaces. It is numerically shown that the motion of self-propelled Leidenfrost droplets on ratchet surfaces is owing to the asymmetry of the ratchets and the vapor flows beneath the droplets. It is found that the Leidenfrost droplets move in the direction toward the slowly inclined side from the ratchet peaks, which agrees with the direction of droplet motion in experiments [Linke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2006, 96, 154502]. Moreover, the influences of the ratchet aspect ratio are investigated. For the considered ratchet surfaces, a critical value of the ratchet aspect ratio is approximately found, which corresponds to the maximum droplet moving velocity. Furthermore, the processes that the Leidenfrost droplets climb uphill on inclined ratchet surfaces are also studied. Numerical results show that the maximum inclination angle at which a Leidenfrost droplet can still climb uphill successfully is affected by the initial radius of the droplet.

  20. Study of conversion of ammonia from urea water solution droplets using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothis, K.; Vikas, R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the numerical analysis of the spray behaviour of urea water solution (UWS) droplets used in Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process. The study uses the ANSYS-Fluent-14 as a basic framework for numerical simulations. The evaporation modelling is based on multi-component droplet evaporation approach along with the consideration of Stefan flow. The urea decomposition treated as direct thermolysis approach, where the modelling is based on the single kinetic rate approach by the proper fitting of pre-exponent. This developed model was used for spray simulation of UWS droplet evaporation to determine the urea to ammonia conversion efficiency. The obtained spray simulation results were compared with the available experimental data. The comparison shows the pre-exponent developed in the study is suitable for direct thermolysis approach to get promising results in determining the ammonia conversion efficiency.

  1. Evaporation of water drop on a plasma-irradiated hydrophilic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Y.; Hidaka, S.; Yamashita, A.; Yamamoto, H

    2004-04-01

    Experimental study has been performed on evaporation of water droplet on stainless steel, copper, and aluminum surfaces. These surfaces are exposed by the plasma irradiation to increase the wettability. We obtained the relation between the plasma irradiation and contact angle first, and then measured the evaporation time, the wetting limit temperature and the Leidenfrost temperature, increasing the surface temperature. The effect of plasma irradiation on evaporation curve has been examined. It is found that the evaporation time decreases and the wetting limit and the Leidenfrost temperatures increase as the contact angle decreases.

  2. Ring formation from a drying sessile colloidal droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ring formation from drying sessile colloidal droplets (∼1.0 mm in size containing microparticles of silicon or polystyrene was investigated with video microscopy. Results show that ring formation begins at the pinned contact line with the growth of an annular nucleus in a line by line way, which recedes inward albeit only slightly, followed by stacking of particles when the flow velocity becomes sufficiently large. The central height of the droplet decreases linearly with evaporation time, which implies that in the early stage, the number of particles arriving at contact line increases with time in a power law N∝t3/(1 + λ, where the parameter λ, according to Deegan's evaporation model, is related to the contact angle via λ=π−2θc2π−2θc. Experimental values of λ agree well with model calculation for small contact angles, but are relatively smaller in the case of large contact angles. ‘Amorphization’ mechanism for the deposit at different stages of evaporation is discussed. Marangoni flow in a droplet on heated substrate introduces a desorption path for particles along the liquid surface, which can partially resolve the ring. Residual particles floating on the liquid surface may leave behind a homogeneous monolayer coating inside the dried spot. A “jump” in the droplet surface area at later stage of evaporation seems inevitably to cause a depletion zone of particles next to the ring. These results may be helpful for the development of strategies towards suppression of coffee ring effect and/or obtaining homogeneous coatings from drying colloidal suspension.

  3. Evaporation and weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, H.A.R. de; Feddes, R.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Lablans, W.N.; Schuurmans, C.J.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Data on evaporation to be used in agriculture, hydrology, forestry, etc. are usually supplied by meteorologists. Meteorologists themselves also use evaporation data. Air mass properties determining weather are strongly dependent on the input of water vapour from the surface. So for weather

  4. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  5. 242-A Evaporator quality assurance plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basra, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this quality assurance project plan (Plan) is to provide requirements for activities pertaining to sampling, shipping, and analyses associated with candidate feed tank samples for the 242-A Evaporator project. The purpose of the 242-A Evaporator project is to reduce the volume of aqueous waste in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System and will result in considerable savings to the disposal of mixed waste. The 242-A Evaporator feed stream originates from DSTs identified as candidate feed tanks. The 242-A Evaporator reduces the volume of aqueous waste contained in DSTs by boiling off water and sending the condensate (called process condensate) to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LEPF) storage basin where it is stored prior to treatment in the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The objective of this quality assurance project plan is to provide the planning, implementation, and assessment of sample collection and analysis, data issuance, and validation activities for the candidate feed tanks

  6. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2017-11-21

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  7. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  8. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2017-11-21

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  9. Methanol Droplet Combustion in Oxygen-Inert Environments in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Hicks, Michael C.; Williams, Forman A.

    2013-01-01

    The Flame Extinguishment (FLEX) experiment that is currently underway in the Combustion Integrated Rack facility onboard the International Space Station is aimed at understanding the effects of inert diluents on the flammability of condensed phase fuels. To this end, droplets of various fuels, including alkanes and alcohols, are burned in a quiescent microgravity environment with varying amounts of oxygen and inert diluents to determine the limiting oxygen index (LOI) for these fuels. In this study we report experimental observations of methanol droplets burning in oxygen-nitrogen-carbon dioxide and oxygen-nitrogen-helium gas mixtures at 0.7 and 1 atmospheric pressures. The initial droplet size varied between approximately 1.5 mm and 4 mm to capture both diffusive extinction brought about by insufficient residence time at the flame and radiative extinction caused by excessive heat loss from the flame zone. The ambient oxygen concentration varied from a high value of 30% by volume to as low as 12%, approaching the limiting oxygen index for the fuel. The inert dilution by carbon dioxide and helium varied over a range of 0% to 70% by volume. In these experiments, both freely floated and tethered droplets were ignited using symmetrically opposed hot-wire igniters and the burning histories were recorded onboard using digital cameras, downlinked later to the ground for analysis. The digital images yielded droplet and flame diameters as functions of time and subsequently droplet burning rate, flame standoff ratio, and initial and extinction droplet diameters. Simplified theoretical models correlate the measured burning rate constant and the flame standoff ratio reasonably well. An activation energy asymptotic theory accounting for time-dependent water dissolution or evaporation from the droplet is shown to predict the measured diffusive extinction conditions well. The experiments also show that the limiting oxygen index for methanol in these diluent gases is around 12% to

  10. Enhanced Jumping-Droplet Departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Kyung; Cha, Hyeongyun; Birbarah, Patrick; Chavan, Shreyas; Zhong, Chen; Xu, Yuehan; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2015-12-15

    Water vapor condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces has received much attention in recent years because of its ability to shed water droplets at length scales 3 decades smaller than the capillary length (∼1 mm) via coalescence-induced droplet jumping. Jumping-droplet condensation has been demonstrated to enhance heat transfer, anti-icing, and self-cleaning efficiency and is governed by the theoretical inertial-capillary scaled jumping speed (U). When two droplets coalesce, the experimentally measured jumping speed (Uexp) is fundamentally limited by the internal fluid dynamics during the coalescence process (Uexp 2) coalescence as an avenue to break the two-droplet speed limit. Using side-view and top-view high-speed imaging to study more than 1000 jumping events on a copper oxide nanostructured superhydrophobic surface, we verify that droplet jumping occurs as a result of three fundamentally different mechanisms: (1) coalescence between two droplets, (2) coalescence among more than two droplets (multidroplet), and (3) coalescence between one or more droplets on the surface and a returning droplet that has already departed (multihop). We measured droplet-jumping speeds for a wide range of droplet radii (5-50 μm) and demonstrated that while the two-droplet capillary-to-inertial energy conversion mechanism is not identical to that of multidroplet jumping, speeds above the theoretical two-droplet limit (>0.23U) can be achieved. However, we discovered that multihop coalescence resulted in drastically reduced jumping speeds (≪0.23U) due to adverse momentum contributions from returning droplets. To quantify the impact of enhanced jumping speed on heat-transfer performance, we developed a condensation critical heat flux model to show that modest jumping speed enhancements of 50% using multidroplet jumping can enhance performance by up to 40%. Our results provide a starting point for the design of enhanced-performance jumping-droplet surfaces for industrial

  11. Directional transport of droplets on wettability patterns at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Yin, Shaohui; Chen, Fengjun; Luo, Hu; Tang, Qingchun; Song, Jinlong

    2018-01-01

    Directional transport of liquid has attracted increasing interest owing to its potential of application in lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic devices and thermal management technologies. Although numerous strategies have been developed to achieve directional transport of liquid at low temperature, controlling the directional transport of liquid at high temperature remains to be a challenging issue. In this work, we reported a novel strategy in which different parts of droplet contacted with surface with different wettability patterns, resulting in a discrepant evaporative vapor film to achieve the directional transport of liquid. The experimental results showed that the state of the liquid on wettability patterned surface gradually changed from contact boiling to Leidenfrost state with the increase of substrate temperature Ts, and liquid on superhydrophilic surface was in composite state of contact boiling and Leidenfrost when Ts was higher than 200 °C. Inspired by the different evaporation states of droplet on the wettability boundary, controlling preferential motion of droplets was observed at high temperature. By designing a surface with wettability pattern on which superhydrophobic region and superhydrophilic region are alternately arranged, a controlled directional transport of droplet can be achieved at high temperature.

  12. Hydrodynamics of a quark droplet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, Johan J.; Mishustin, Igor N.; Døssing, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple model of a multi-quark droplet evolution based on the hydrodynamical description. This model includes collective expansion of the droplet, effects of the vacuum pressure and surface tension. The hadron emission from the droplet is described following Weisskopf's statistical...

  13. A field study of radiation fog. The chemical composition of interstitial aerosol and droplet residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieray R.; Wieser, P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to investigate the discrimination of atmospheric trace components due to cloud or fog formation, the residues resulting from droplet evaporation are compared with particles of the interstitial aerosol. A counterflow virtual impactor (CVI), described e.g. by OGREN et al. (1985) is used to separate the fog droplets from both the gaseous and the particulate aerosol components. The fog droplets sampled evaporate in the airborne state and the residues are either collected on a nucleopore filter or by means of a five-stage cascade impactor on thin films. In addition, both the humidity originating from droplet evaporation and the number concentration of the droplet residues are measured. These data can be used to study the time dependence of the liquid water content, the number density and the volume equivalent diameter of the fog droplets sampled, respectively. Soot particles only appear in the fraction of the interstitial aerosol. They are not involved in the formation of the liquid phase. The average residence time and the transport of soot particles in the atmosphere are influenced by this fact. The relatively low average scavenged fraction of lead, potassium and zinc can be attributed to the observed enrichment of these elements in soot particles remaining in the interstitial aerosol. (orig./BBR) [de

  14. Aqueous-phase oxidation of green leaf volatiles by hydroxyl radical as a source of SOA: Product identification from methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Amie K.; Ehrenhauser, Franz S.; Richards-Henderson, Nicole K.; Anastasio, Cort; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.

    2015-02-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a group of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) released into the atmosphere by vegetation. BVOCs produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via gas-phase reactions, but little is known of their aqueous-phase oxidation as a source of SOA. GLVs can partition into atmospheric water phases, e.g., fog, mist, dew or rain, and be oxidized by hydroxyl radicals (˙OH). These reactions in the liquid phase also lead to products that have higher molecular weights, increased polarity, and lower vapor pressures, ultimately forming SOA after evaporation of the droplet. To examine this process, we investigated the aqueous, ˙OH-mediated oxidation of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and methyl salicylate (MeSa), two GLVs that produce aqueous-phase SOA. High performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was used to monitor product formation. The oxidation products identified exhibit higher molecular mass than their parent GLV due to either dimerization or the addition of oxygen and hydroxyl functional groups. The proposed structures of potential products are based on mechanistic considerations combined with the HPLC/ESI-MS data. Based on the structures, the vapor pressure and the Henry's law constant were estimated with multiple methods (SPARC, SIMPOL, MPBPVP, Bond and Group Estimations). The estimated vapor pressures of the products identified are significantly (up to 7 orders of magnitude) lower than those of the associated parent compounds, and therefore, the GLV oxidation products may remain as SOA after evaporation of the water droplet. The contribution of the identified oxidation products to SOA formation is estimated based on measured HPLC-ESI/MS responses relative to previous aqueous SOA mass yield measurements.

  15. Droplet shape analysis and permeability studies in droplet lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sanhita S; Pincus, Alexandra; Guo, Bin; Faris, Gregory W

    2012-05-15

    We apply optical manipulation to prepare lipid bilayers between pairs of water droplets immersed in an oil matrix. These droplet pairs have a well-defined geometry allowing the use of droplet shape analysis to perform quantitative studies of the dynamics during bilayer formation and to determine time-dependent values for the droplet volumes, bilayer radius, bilayer contact angle, and droplet center-line approach velocity. During bilayer formation, the contact angle rises steadily to an equilibrium value determined by the bilayer adhesion energy. When there is a salt concentration imbalance between droplets, there is a measurable change in the droplet volume. We present an analytical expression for this volume change and use this expression to calculate the bilayer permeability to water.

  16. Evaporative cooling of trapped atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterle, W.; Van Druten, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on evaporative cooling of trapped atoms: Theoretical models for evaporative cooling; the role of collisions for real atoms; experimental techniques and summary of evaporative cooling experiments. 166 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Vacuum evaporation of pure metals

    OpenAIRE

    Safarian, Jafar; Engh, Thorvald Abel

    2013-01-01

    Theories on the evaporation of pure substances are reviewed and applied to study vacuum evaporation of pure metals. It is shown that there is good agreement between different theories for weak evaporation, whereas there are differences under intensive evaporation conditions. For weak evaporation, the evaporation coefficient in Hertz-Knudsen equation is 1.66. Vapor velocity as a function of the pressure is calculated applying several theories. If a condensing surface is less than one collision...

  18. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the theory. Further, special conditions in evaporation are considered, followed by a fotmulation of the difficulties in determining evaporation, The last part of the paper gives a short discussion about ...

  19. Evaporation under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Satoshi; Shibata, Yuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear fusion reactor design, an event of water coolant ingress into its vacuum vessel is now being considered as one of the most probable accidents. In this report, the evaporation under vacuum condition is evaluated by using the evaporation model we have developed. The results show that shock-wave by the evaporation occurs whose behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions of vacuum. And in the case of lower initial pressure and temperature, the surface temp finally becomes higher than other conditions. (author)

  20. Broadband Mie scattering from optically levitated aerosol droplets using a white LED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A D; Zhang, M; Hunt, O

    2008-10-13

    We describe a simple and efficient means of using a white LED source to illuminate an optically levitated aerosol droplet to enable study of broadband Mie scattering. The backscattered resonances are imaged through a spectrograph and CCD which show high resolution Mie scattering intensity distributions across a spectral range of 480 to 700 nm. The wide spectral range allows assignment of resonance mode numbers and mode orders using conventional Mie theory calculations. Accurate droplet sizing, within +/- 2 nm, is possible for water-based droplets with radii between 2 microm and 8 microm. We additionally demonstrate that the refractive index dispersion can be determined from a single refractive index value at known wavelength. Finally, morphological droplet dynamics are presented showing non-linear droplet evaporation behaviour at a temporal resolution of 100 milliseconds.

  1. Multiple and high-throughput droplet reactions via combination of microsampling technique and microfluidic chip

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2012-11-20

    Microdroplets offer unique compartments for accommodating a large number of chemical and biological reactions in tiny volume with precise control. A major concern in droplet-based microfluidics is the difficulty to address droplets individually and achieve high throughput at the same time. Here, we have combined an improved cartridge sampling technique with a microfluidic chip to perform droplet screenings and aggressive reaction with minimal (nanoliter-scale) reagent consumption. The droplet composition, distance, volume (nanoliter to subnanoliter scale), number, and sequence could be precisely and digitally programmed through the improved sampling technique, while sample evaporation and cross-contamination are effectively eliminated. Our combined device provides a simple model to utilize multiple droplets for various reactions with low reagent consumption and high throughput. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Modeling study of droplet behavior during blowdown period of large break LOCA based on experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaba, Hiroshi; Umezawa, Shigemitsu; Teramae, Tetsuya; Furukawa, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    During LOCA (Loss Of Coolant Accident) in PWR, droplets behavior during blowdown period is one of the important phenomena. For example, the spattering from falling liquid film that flows from upper plenum generates those droplets in core region. The behavior of droplets in such flow has strong effect for cladding temperature behavior because these droplets are able to remove heat from a reactor core by its direct contact on fuel rods and its evaporation at the surface. For safety analysis of LOCA in PWR, it is necessary to evaluate droplet diameter precisely in order to predict fuel cladding temperature changing by the calculation code. Based on the test results, a new droplet behavior model was developed for the MCOBRA/TRC code that predicts the droplet behavior during such LOCA events. Furthermore, the verification calculations that simulated some blowdown tests were performed using by the MCOBRA/TRAC code. These results indicated the validity of this droplet model during blow down cooling period. The experiment was focused on investigating the Weber number of steady droplet in the blow down phenomenon of large break LOCA. (author)

  3. Heat and Mass Transfer of Droplet Vacuum Freezing Process Based on Dynamic Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical simulation using dynamic mesh method by COMSOL has been developed to model heat and mass transfer during vacuum freezing by evaporation of a single droplet. The initial droplet diameter, initial droplet temperature, and vacuum chamber pressure effect are studied. The surface and center temperature curve was predicted to show the effect. The mass transfer rate and radius displacement were also calculated. The results show the dynamic mesh shows well the freezing process with the radius reduction of droplet. The initial droplet diameter, initial droplet temperature, and vacuum pressure have obvious effect on freezing process. The total freezing time is about 200 s, 300 s, and 400 s for droplet diameter 7.5 mm, 10.5 mm, and 12.5 mm, respectively. The vacuum pressure less than 200 Pa is enough for the less time to freezing the droplet, that is, the key point in freezing time. The initial droplet temperature has obvious effect on freezing but little effect on freezing temperature.

  4. Influence of organic films on the evaporation and condensation of water in aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, James F.; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Haddrell, Allen E.; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties in quantifying the kinetics of evaporation and condensation of water from atmospheric aerosol are a significant contributor to the uncertainty in predicting cloud droplet number and the indirect effect of aerosols on climate. The influence of aerosol particle surface composition, particularly the impact of surface active organic films, on the condensation and evaporation coefficients remains ambiguous. Here, we report measurements of the influence of organic films on the evaporation and condensation of water from aerosol particles. Significant reductions in the evaporation coefficient are shown to result when condensed films are formed by monolayers of long-chain alcohols [CnH(2n+1)OH], with the value decreasing from 2.4 × 10−3 to 1.7 × 10−5 as n increases from 12 to 17. Temperature-dependent measurements confirm that a condensed film of long-range order must be formed to suppress the evaporation coefficient below 0.05. The condensation of water on a droplet coated in a condensed film is shown to be fast, with strong coherence of the long-chain alcohol molecules leading to islanding as the water droplet grows, opening up broad areas of uncoated surface on which water can condense rapidly. We conclude that multicomponent composition of organic films on the surface of atmospheric aerosol particles is likely to preclude the formation of condensed films and that the kinetics of water condensation during the activation of aerosol to form cloud droplets is likely to remain rapid. PMID:23674675

  5. Deposit Structure for Particle-laden Droplets Targeted by Electrospray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Aref; Singler, Timothy; Yong, Xin; Chiarot, Paul

    2017-11-01

    A hybrid printing technique that combines electrospray atomization with inkjet printing provides unique capabilities for exploring transport creating nanoparticle deposits with controlled structures. In this research, we use electrospray to deliver dry nanoparticles to the interface of particle-laden sessile droplets. Upon evaporation of the target sessile droplet, the particles at the interface are mapped to the underlying substrate. Particle locations in the final deposit were observed separately by tagging the particles dispersed inside the droplet and at its interface with different fluorophores. As expected, surfactant-free particles inside the target droplet were transported to its (pinned) contact line, creating a ``coffee ring'' morphology in the final deposit. The transport and final location of the interfacial particles was highly dependent on the presence of surfactant in the electrosprayed solution. If surfactant was present, the interfacial particles were transported to the apex of the target droplet, forming a dense region at the center of the final deposit. If the electrosprayed solution was surfactant-free, the transport of the interfacial particles was arrested and they were distributed uniformly across the final deposit. Similar deposit morphologies were found when experimenting with various surfactants, including Tween and sodium dodecyl sulfate. These results highlight the important of Marangoni flow in governing the final deposit structure for hybrid printing. This research supported by the National Science Foundation (Award 1538090).

  6. Evaporation from microreservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, N Scott; Henry, Charles S; Dandy, David S

    2009-06-21

    As a result of very large surface area to volume ratios, evaporation is of significant importance when dealing with lab-on-a-chip devices that possess open air/liquid interfaces. For devices utilizing a reservoir as a fluid delivery method to a microfluidic network, excessive evaporation can quickly lead to reservoir dry out and overall device failure. Predicting the rates of evaporation from these reservoirs is difficult because the position of the air/liquid interface changes with time as the volume of liquid in the reservoir decreases. Here we present a two-step method to accurately predict the rates of evaporation of such an interface over time. First, a simple method is proposed to determine the shape of an air/liquid meniscus in a reservoir given a specific liquid volume. Second, computational fluid dynamics simulations are used to calculate the instantaneous rate of evaporation for that meniscus shape. It is shown that the rate of evaporation is strongly dependent on the overall geometry of the system, enhanced in expanding reservoirs while suppressed in contracting reservoirs, where the geometry can be easily controlled with simple experimental methods. Using no adjustable parameters, the model accurately predicts the position of the inner moving contact line as a function of time following meniscus rupture in poly(dimethylsiloxane) reservoirs, and predicts the overall time for the persistence of liquid in those reservoirs to within 0.5 minutes. The methods in this study can be used to design holding reservoirs for lab-on-a-chip devices that involve no external control of evaporation, such that evaporation rates can be adjusted as necessary by modification of the reservoir geometry.

  7. Micromachined droplet ejector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perçin, Gökhan; Yaralioglu, Göksenin G.; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    2002-12-01

    In this article we present a micromachined flextensional droplet ejector array used to eject liquids. By placing a fluid behind one face of a vibrating circular plate that has an orifice at its center, we achieve continuous ejection of the fluid. We present results of ejection of water and isopropanol. The ejector is harmless to sensitive fluids and can be used to eject fuels, organic polymers, photoresists, low-k dielectrics, adhesives, and chemical and biological samples. Micromachined two-dimensional array flextensional droplet ejectors were realized using planar silicon micromachining techniques. Typical resonant frequency of the micromachined device ranges from 400 kHz to 4.5 MHz. The ejections of water through a 4 μm diameter orifice at 3.45 MHz and a 10 μm diameter orifice at 2.15 MHz were demonstrated by using the developed micromachined two-dimensional array ejectors.

  8. Formation of coffee-stain patterns at the nanoscale: The role of nanoparticle solubility and solvent evaporation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Milzetti, Jasmin; Leroy, Frédéric; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2017-03-01

    When droplets of nanoparticle suspension evaporate from surfaces, they leave behind a deposit of nanoparticles. The mechanism of evaporation-induced pattern formation in the deposit is studied by molecular dynamics simulations for sessile nanodroplets. The influence of the interaction between nanoparticles and liquid molecules and the influence of the evaporation rate on the final deposition pattern are addressed. When the nanoparticle-liquid interaction is weaker than the liquid-liquid interaction, an interaction-driven or evaporation-induced layer of nanoparticles appears at the liquid-vapor interface and eventually collapses onto the solid surface to form a uniform deposit independently of the evaporation rate. When the nanoparticle-liquid and liquid-liquid interactions are comparable, the nanoparticles are dispersed inside the droplet and evaporation takes place with the contact line pinned at a surface defect. In such a case, a pattern with an approximate ring-like shape is found with fast evaporation, while a more uniform distribution is observed with slower evaporation. When the liquid-nanoparticle interaction is stronger than the liquid-liquid interaction, evaporation always occurs with receding contact line. The final deposition pattern changes from volcano-like to pancake-like with decreasing evaporation rate. These findings might help to design nanoscale structures like nanopatterns or nanowires on surface through controlled solvent evaporation.

  9. Formation of coffee-stain patterns at the nanoscale: The role of nanoparticle solubility and solvent evaporation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Milzetti, Jasmin; Leroy, Frédéric; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2017-03-21

    When droplets of nanoparticle suspension evaporate from surfaces, they leave behind a deposit of nanoparticles. The mechanism of evaporation-induced pattern formation in the deposit is studied by molecular dynamics simulations for sessile nanodroplets. The influence of the interaction between nanoparticles and liquid molecules and the influence of the evaporation rate on the final deposition pattern are addressed. When the nanoparticle-liquid interaction is weaker than the liquid-liquid interaction, an interaction-driven or evaporation-induced layer of nanoparticles appears at the liquid-vapor interface and eventually collapses onto the solid surface to form a uniform deposit independently of the evaporation rate. When the nanoparticle-liquid and liquid-liquid interactions are comparable, the nanoparticles are dispersed inside the droplet and evaporation takes place with the contact line pinned at a surface defect. In such a case, a pattern with an approximate ring-like shape is found with fast evaporation, while a more uniform distribution is observed with slower evaporation. When the liquid-nanoparticle interaction is stronger than the liquid-liquid interaction, evaporation always occurs with receding contact line. The final deposition pattern changes from volcano-like to pancake-like with decreasing evaporation rate. These findings might help to design nanoscale structures like nanopatterns or nanowires on surface through controlled solvent evaporation.

  10. New droplet model developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorso, C.O.; Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.; Moeller, P.; Treiner, J.; Weiss, M.S.

    1985-09-01

    A brief summary is given of three recent contributions to the development of the Droplet Model. The first concerns the electric dipole moment induced in octupole deformed nuclei by the Coulomb redistribution. The second concerns a study of squeezing in nuclei and the third is a study of the improved predictive power of the model when an empirical ''exponential'' term is included. 25 refs., 3 figs

  11. The Evaporation of Liquid Micro-Drops on the Heated Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Semenov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Evaporation of a heated sessile water micro-drop was studied experimentally at the substrate temperature and surrounding atmosphere from 30 to 50 0 C. The studies were performed on the float glass substrate with aluminum nanocoating of optical quality. The research has shown that the specific rate of evaporation (mass loss per unit of the drop surface area) increases with the decrease in droplet volume and at the last stage several times exceeds the initial value.

  12. The Evaporation of Liquid Micro-Drops on the Heated Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation of a heated sessile water micro-drop was studied experimentally at the substrate temperature and surrounding atmosphere from 30 to 50 °C. The studies were performed on the float glass substrate with aluminum nanocoating of optical quality. The research has shown that the specific rate of evaporation (mass loss per unit of the drop surface area increases with the decrease in droplet volume and at the last stage several times exceeds the initial value.

  13. High-Voltage Droplet Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus that is extremely effective in dispensing a wide range of droplets has been developed. This droplet dispenser is unique in that it utilizes a droplet bias voltage, as well as an ionization pulse, to release a droplet. Apparatuses that deploy individual droplets have been used in many applications, including, notably, study of combustion of liquid fuels. Experiments on isolated droplets are useful in that they enable the study of droplet phenomena under well-controlled and simplified conditions. In this apparatus, a syringe dispenses a known value of liquid, which emerges from, and hangs onto, the outer end of a flat-tipped, stainless steel needle. Somewhat below the needle tip and droplet is a ring electrode. A bias high voltage, followed by a high-voltage pulse, is applied so as to attract the droplet sufficiently to pull it off the needle. The voltages are such that the droplet and needle are negatively charged and the ring electrode is positively charged.

  14. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the

  15. An evaporation-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique as a simple tool for high performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry determination of insecticides in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Irina; Kanashina, Daria; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2017-08-25

    A sample pre-treatment technique based on evaporation-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (EVA-DLLME), followed by HPLC-MS/MS has been developed for the determination of organophosphate insecticides (malathion, diazinon, phosalone) in wine samples. The procedure includes the addition of mixture of organic solvents (with density higher than water), consisting of the extraction (low density) and volatile (high density) solvents, to aqueous sample followed by heating of the mixture obtained, what promotes the volatile solvent evaporation and moving extraction solvent droplets from down to top of the aqueous sample and, as a consequence, microextraction of target analytes. To initiate the evaporation process an initiator is required. It was established that hexanol (extraction solvent) and dichloromethane (volatile solvent) mixture (1:1, v/v) provides effective microextraction of the insecticides from wine samples with recovery from 92 to 103%. The conditions of insecticides' microextraction such as selection of extraction solvent, ratio of hexanol/dichloromethane and hexanol/sample, type and concentration of initiator, and effect of ethanol as one of the main components of wine have been studied. Under optimal experimental conditions the linear detection ranges were found to be 10 -7 -10 -3 gL -1 for malathion, 10 -9 -10 -4 gL -1 for diazinon, and 10 -6 -10 -2 gL -1 for phosalone. The LODs, calculated from a blank test, based on 3σ, found to be 3×10 -8 gL -1 for malathion, 3×10 -10 gL -1 for diazinon and 3×10 -7 gL -1 for phosalone. The advantages of EVA-DLLME are the rapidity, simplicity, high sample throughput and low cost. As an outcome, the analytical results agreed fairly well with the results obtained by a reference GC-MS method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaporation-driven instability of the precorneal tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Chun; Cerretani, Colin; Braun, Richard J; Radke, C J

    2014-04-01

    Tear-film instability is widely believed to be a signature of eye health. When an interblink is prolonged, randomly distributed ruptures occur in the tear film. "Black spots" and/or "black streaks" appear in 15 to 40 s for normal individuals. For people who suffer from dry eye, tear-film breakup time (BUT) is typically less than a few seconds. To date, however, there is no satisfactory quantitative explanation for the origin of tear rupture. Recently, it was proposed that tear-film breakup is related to locally high evaporative thinning. A spatial variation in the thickness of the tear-film lipid layer (TFLL) may lead to locally elevated evaporation and subsequent tear-film breakup. We examine the local-evaporation-driven tear-film-rupture hypothesis in a one-dimensional (1-D) model for the evolution of a thin aqueous tear film overriding the cornea subject to locally elevated evaporation at its anterior surface and osmotic water influx at its posterior surface. Evaporation rate depends on mass transfer both through the coating lipid layer and through ambient air. We establish that evaporation-driven tear-film breakup can occur under normal conditions but only for higher aqueous evaporation rates. Predicted roles of environmental conditions, such as wind speed and relative humidity, on tear-film stability agree with clinical observations. More importantly, locally elevated evaporation leads to hyperosmolar spots in the tear film and, hence, vulnerability to epithelial irritation. In addition to evaporation rate, tear-film instability depends on the strength of healing flow from the neighboring region outside the breakup region, which is determined by the surface tension at the tear-film surface and by the repulsive thin-film disjoining pressure. This study provides a physically consistent and quantitative explanation for the formation of black streaks and spots in the human tear film during an interblink. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hybrid soft-lithography/laser machined microchips for the parallel generation of droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, M; Issadore, D

    2013-12-21

    Microfluidic chips have been developed to generate droplets and microparticles with control over size, shape, and composition not possible using conventional methods. However, it has remained a challenge to scale-up production for practical applications due to the inherently limited throughput of micro-scale devices. To address this problem, we have developed a self-contained microchip that integrates many (N = 512) micro-scale droplet makers. This 3 × 3 cm(2) PDMS microchip consists of a two-dimensional array of 32 × 16 flow-focusing droplet makers, a network of flow channels that connect them, and only two inputs and one output. The key innovation of this technology is the hybrid use of both soft-lithography and direct laser-micromachining. The microscale resolution of soft lithography is used to fabricate flow-focusing droplet makers that can produce small and precisely defined droplets. Deeply engraved (h ≈ 500 μm) laser-machined channels are utilized to supply each of the droplet makers with its oil phase, aqueous phase, and access to an output channel. The engraved channels' low hydrodynamic resistance ensures that each droplet maker is driven with the same flow rates for highly uniform droplet formation. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, water droplets (d ≈ 80 μm) were generated in hexadecane on both 8 × 1 and 32 × 16 geometries.

  18. Thermal singularity and droplet motion in one-component fluids on solid substrates with thermal gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2012-06-26

    Using a continuum model capable of describing the one-component liquid-gas hydrodynamics down to the contact line scale, we carry out numerical simulation and physical analysis for the droplet motion driven by thermal singularity. For liquid droplets in one-component fluids on heated or cooled substrates, the liquid-gas interface is nearly isothermal. Consequently, a thermal singularity occurs at the contact line and the Marangoni effect due to temperature gradient is suppressed. Through evaporation or condensation in the vicinity of the contact line, the thermal singularity makes the contact angle increase with the increasing substrate temperature. This effect on the contact angle can be used to move the droplets on substrates with thermal gradients. Our numerical results for this kind of droplet motion are explained by a simple fluid dynamical model at the droplet length scale. Since the mechanism for droplet motion is based on the change of contact angle, a separation of length scales is exhibited through a comparison between the droplet motion induced by a wettability gradient and that by a thermal gradient. It is shown that the flow field at the droplet length scale is independent of the statics or dynamics at the contact line scale.

  19. Modeling of fuel vapor jet eruption induced by local droplet heating

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2014-01-10

    The evaporation of a droplet by non-uniform heating is numerically investigated in order to understand the mechanism of the fuel-vapor jet eruption observed in the flame spread of a droplet array under microgravity condition. The phenomenon was believed to be mainly responsible for the enhanced flame spread rate through a droplet cloud at microgravity conditions. A modified Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a local phase change model is utilized to describe the interfacial dynamics between liquid droplet and surrounding air. It is found that the localized heating creates a temperature gradient along the droplet surface, induces the corresponding surface tension gradient, and thus develops an inner flow circulation commonly referred to as the Marangoni convection. Furthermore, the effect also produces a strong shear flow around the droplet surface, thereby pushing the fuel vapor toward the wake region of the droplet to form a vapor jet eruption. A parametric study clearly demonstrated that at realistic droplet combustion conditions the Marangoni effect is indeed responsible for the observed phenomena, in contrast to the results based on constant surface tension approximation

  20. Experimental study of water droplets on over-heated nano/microstructured zirconium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seol Ha [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ho Seon [Division of Mechanical System Engineering, Incheon National University, 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joonwon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Heat transfer performance of a droplet on a modified zirconium surface is evaluated. • Modified (nano/micro-) surfaces enhanced heat transfer rate and Leidenfrost point. • A highly wettable condition of the modified surface contributes the enhancement. • Nano-scaled modification indicates the higher performance of droplet cooling. • Investigation via visualization of the droplet support the heat transfer experimental data. - Abstract: In this study, we observed the behavior of water droplets near the Leidenfrost point (LFP) on zirconium alloy surfaces with anodizing treatment and investigated the droplet cooling performance. The anodized zirconium surface, which consists of bundles of nanotubes (∼10–100 nm) or micro-mountain-like structures, improved the wetting characteristics of the surface. A deionized water droplet (6 μL) was dropped onto test surfaces heated to temperatures ranging from 250 °C to the LFP. The droplet dynamics were investigated through high-speed visualization, and the cooling performance was discussed in terms of the droplet evaporation time. The modified surface provided vigorous, intensive nucleate boiling in comparison with a clean, bare surface. Additionally, we observed that the structured surface had a delayed LFP due to the high wetting condition induced by strong capillary wicking forces on the structured surface.

  1. Vapour-mediated sensing and motility in two-component droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, N. J.; Benusiglio, A.; Prakash, M.

    2015-03-01

    Controlling the wetting behaviour of liquids on surfaces is important for a variety of industrial applications such as water-repellent coatings and lubrication. Liquid behaviour on a surface can range from complete spreading, as in the `tears of wine' effect, to minimal wetting as observed on a superhydrophobic lotus leaf. Controlling droplet movement is important in microfluidic liquid handling, on self-cleaning surfaces and in heat transfer. Droplet motion can be achieved by gradients of surface energy. However, existing techniques require either a large gradient or a carefully prepared surface to overcome the effects of contact line pinning, which usually limit droplet motion. Here we show that two-component droplets of well-chosen miscible liquids such as propylene glycol and water deposited on clean glass are not subject to pinning and cause the motion of neighbouring droplets over a distance. Unlike the canonical predictions for these liquids on a high-energy surface, these droplets do not spread completely but exhibit an apparent contact angle. We demonstrate experimentally and analytically that these droplets are stabilized by evaporation-induced surface tension gradients and that they move in response to the vapour emitted by neighbouring droplets. Our fundamental understanding of this robust system enabled us to construct a wide variety of autonomous fluidic machines out of everyday materials.

  2. Fundamentals of magnet-actuated droplet manipulation on an open hydrophobic surface†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhicheng; Shetty, Abhishek M.; Solomon, Michael J.; Larson, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    We systematically investigate droplet movement, coalescence, and splitting on an open hydrophobic surface. These processes are actuated by magnetic beads internalized in an oil-coated aqueous droplet using an external magnet. Results are organized into an ‘operating diagram’ that describes regions of droplet stable motion, breakage, and release from the magnet. The results are explained theoretically with a simple model that balances magnetic, friction, and capillary-induced drag forces and includes the effects of particle type, droplet size, surrounding oil layer, surface tension, and viscosity. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the design of magnet-actuated droplet systems for applications such as nucleic acid purification, immunoassay and drug delivery. PMID:19458864

  3. Fabrication of chitosan gel droplets via crosslinking of inverse Pickering emulsifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli; Wang, Xingrui; Xu, Chen; Yan, Weiwei; Tian, Qiang; Sun, Zhiming; Yao, Hongduo; Gao, Jianping

    2018-04-15

    Hydrophobic and dispersible functionalized reduced graphene oxide (FrGO) was employed to prepare chitosan gel droplets by crosslinking an inverse Pickering emulsion. The emulsion was prepared using toluene as the continuous phase and a chitosan aqueous solution as the dispersed phase. The effects of the FrGO concentration and the water/oil ratio on the chitosan droplet morphology were studied. At appropriate concentrations, the FrGO acted as a stabilizer and chitosan gel droplets were formed. Decreasing the FrGO concentration or increasing the water/oil ratio was unfavorable to the formation of chitosan droplets. Using this method, drug loaded chitosan gel droplets (microgels) were prepared and their release profiles as well as the factors that influence the drug release were investigated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Analysis of organic solvents and liquid mixtures using a fiber-tip evaporation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preter, Eyal; Donlagic, Denis; Artel, Vlada; Katims, Rachel A.; Sukenik, Chaim N.; Zadok, Avi

    2014-05-01

    The instantaneous size and rate of evaporation of pendant liquid droplets placed on the cleaved facet of a standard fiber are reconstructed based on reflected optical power. Using the evaporation dynamics, the relative contents of ethanol in ethanol-water binary mixtures are assessed with 1% precision and different blends of methanol in gasoline are properly recognized. The latter application, in particular, is significant for the use of alternative fuels in the automotive sector. Also, ten organic solvents are identified based on their evaporation from a fiber facet coated with a hydrophobic, selfassembled monolayer.

  5. A new approach to characterise pharmaceutical aerosols: measurement of aerosol from a single dose aqueous inhaler with an optical particle counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhli, Maren; Weiss, Maximilian; Steckel, Hartwig

    2010-01-31

    An in-line sampling system with dilution units for aqueous droplet aerosols from single dose inhalers (Berodual Respimat, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) for an optical particle counter is described. The device has been designed to interface with a white light aerosol spectrometer (welas digital 2100, Palas GmbH, Germany) that allows the time-resolved measurement of highly concentrated aerosols. Performance of the sampling system with regard to the measured particle size distribution (PSD) is compared to Next Generation Impactor (NGI) and to laser diffraction measurements (Sympatec Inhaler and open bench). Optimal settings of the sampling system lead to PSDs that correspond well to those measured by the evaporation minimising NGI approach (15 L/min, cooled) and laser diffraction. The better accuracy of the new dilution unit in presence of an additional aerosol sampling filter in comparison to a previously described aerosol sampling system is shown for different settings of the sampling system. This allows a more precise quantification of the delivered drug amount which is also well correlated to the aerosol volume measured by the welas system. In addition, using time-resolved welas measurements provides insight into droplet size, evaporation and size changes of aerosol clouds delivered by liquid inhalers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaporization of irradiated droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.L.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Zardecki, A.

    1986-01-01

    The vaporization of a spherically symmetric liquid droplet subject to a high-intensity laser flux is investigated on the basis of a hydrodynamic description of the system composed of the vapor and ambient gas. In the limit of the convective vaporization, the boundary conditions at the fluid--gas interface are formulated by using the notion of a Knudsen layer in which translational equilibrium is established. This leads to approximate jump conditions at the interface. For homogeneous energy deposition, the hydrodynamic equations are solved numerically with the aid of the CON1D computer code (''CON1D: A computer program for calculating spherically symmetric droplet combustion,'' Los Alamos National Laboratory Report No. LA-10269-MS, December, 1984), based on the implict continuous--fluid Eulerian (ICE) [J. Comput. Phys. 8, 197 (1971)] and arbitrary Lagrangian--Eulerian (ALE) [J. Comput. Phys. 14, 1227 (1974)] numerical mehtods. The solutions exhibit the existence of two shock waves propagating in opposite directions with respect to the contact discontinuity surface that separates the ambient gas and vapor

  7. Evaporation of pure liquid sessile and spherical suspended drops: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbil, H Yildirim

    2012-01-15

    A sessile drop is an isolated drop which has been deposited on a solid substrate where the wetted area is limited by a contact line and characterized by contact angle, contact radius and drop height. Diffusion-controlled evaporation of a sessile drop in an ambient gas is an important topic of interest because it plays a crucial role in many scientific applications such as controlling the deposition of particles on solid surfaces, in ink-jet printing, spraying of pesticides, micro/nano material fabrication, thin film coatings, biochemical assays, drop wise cooling, deposition of DNA/RNA micro-arrays, and manufacture of novel optical and electronic materials in the last decades. This paper presents a review of the published articles for a period of approximately 120 years related to the evaporation of both sessile drops and nearly spherical droplets suspended from thin fibers. After presenting a brief history of the subject, we discuss the basic theory comprising evaporation of micrometer and millimeter sized spherical drops, self cooling on the drop surface and evaporation rate of sessile drops on solids. The effects of drop cooling, resultant lateral evaporative flux and Marangoni flows on evaporation rate are also discussed. This review also has some special topics such as drop evaporation on superhydrophobic surfaces, determination of the receding contact angle from drop evaporation, substrate thermal conductivity effect on drop evaporation and the rate evaporation of water in liquid marbles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Forest evaporation models: Relationships between stand growth and evaporation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation...

  9. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Such surfaces are called super-hydrophobic sur- faces (see Box 2) on which the droplet sits partially on air as illustrated in Figure 2. The lotus leaf is an example of a naturally existing super-hydrophobic surface. This non-wetting property acts as a cleaning mechanism for these leaves because water droplets roll off easily ...

  10. Non-wetting droplets on hot superhydrophilic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adera, Solomon; Raj, Rishi; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-09-01

    Controlling wettability by varying surface chemistry and roughness or by applying external stimuli is of interest for a wide range of applications including microfluidics, drag reduction, self-cleaning, water harvesting, anti-corrosion, anti-fogging, anti-icing and thermal management. It has been well known that droplets on textured hydrophilic, that is superhydrophilic, surfaces form thin films with near-zero contact angles. Here we report an unexpected behaviour where non-wetting droplets are formed by slightly heating superhydrophilic microstructured surfaces beyond the saturation temperature (>5 °C). Although such behaviour is generally not expected on superhydrophilic surfaces, an evaporation-induced pressure in the structured region prevents wetting. In particular, the increased thermal conductivity and decreased vapour permeability of the structured region allows this behaviour to be observed at such low temperatures. This phenomenon is distinct from the widely researched Leidenfrost and offers an expanded parametric space for fabricating surfaces with desired temperature-dependent wettability.

  11. Leidenfrost levitation: beyond droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Ali; Xu, Yuhao; Coder, Benjamin; Osborne, Paul A; Spafford, Jonathon; Michael, Grant E; Yu, Gan; Xu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Friction is a major inhibitor in almost every mechanical system. Enlightened by the Leidenfrost effect - a droplet can be levitated by its own vapor layer on a sufficiently hot surface - we demonstrate for the first time that a small cart can also be levitated by Leidenfrost vapor. The levitated cart can carry certain amount of load and move frictionlessly over the hot surface. The maximum load that the cart can carry is experimentally tested over a range of surface temperatures. We show that the levitated cart can be propelled not only by gravitational force over a slanted flat surface, but also self-propelled over a ratchet shaped horizontal surface. In the end, we experimentally tested water consumption rate for sustaining the levitated cart, and compared the results to theoretical calculations. If perfected, this frictionless Leidenfrost cart could be used in numerous engineering applications where relative motion exists between surfaces.

  12. Research Status of Evaporative Condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Yang, Yongan

    2018-02-01

    Reducing energy consumption, saving water resources, recycling cool water are main directions of China’s development. Evaporative condenser using latent heat reduces water resources waste, with energy-saving advantages. This paper reviews the research status of evaporative condenser at home and abroad, and introduces the principle, classification, various influencing factors of evaporative condenser, and puts forward the future research direction.

  13. Determination of the evaporation coefficient of D2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cohen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaporation rate of D2O has been determined by Raman thermometry of a droplet train (12–15 μm diameter injected into vacuum (~10-5 torr. The cooling rate measured as a function of time in vacuum was fit to a model that accounts for temperature gradients between the surface and the core of the droplets, yielding an evaporation coefficient (γe of 0.57±0.06. This is nearly identical to that found for H2O (0.62±0.09 using the same experimental method and model, and indicates the existence of a kinetic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition-state theory (TST model suggests that the kinetic barrier is due to librational and hindered translational motions at the liquid surface, and that the lack of an isotope effect is due to competing energetic and entropic factors. The implications of these results for cloud and aerosol particles in the atmosphere are discussed.

  14. Heat transfer of droplets impinging onto a wall above the Leidenfrost temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunand, Pierre; Castanet, Guillaume; Gradeck, Michel; Lemoine, Fabrice; Maillet, Denis

    2013-01-01

    In aero-engines, droplet/wall interaction phenomena have a considerable influence on the mixture formation process and on wall heat fluxes. Impinging droplets may rebound, splash into secondary droplets or form a liquid film onto the solid surface. Droplet rebound and splashing is also a mechanism for the back penetration of the fuel vapor in the central region of the combustion chamber where the gas temperature is high enough for ignition. This work is an experimental study aiming at characterizing the heat transfers induced by the impingement of water droplets (diameter 80-180 μm) on a thin nickel plate heated by electromagnetic induction. The temperature of the rear face of the nickel sample is measured by means of an infrared camera and the heat removed from the wall due to the presence of the droplets is estimated using a semi-analytical inverse heat conduction model. In parallel, the temperature of the droplets is measured using the two-color Laser-Induced Fluorescence Thermometry which has been extended to imagery for the purpose of these experiments. The measurements of the variation in the droplet temperature occurring during an impact allow determining the liquid sensible heat. Measurements are performed at surface conditions well above the Leidenfrost temperature. A wide range of Weber numbers corresponding to the bouncing and splashing regimes are tested. Comparison between the heat flux removed from the wall and the sensible heat gained by the liquid allows estimating the heat flux related to liquid evaporation. Results reveal that the respective level of the droplet sensible heat and the heat lost due to liquid vaporization can vary significantly with the droplet sizes and the Weber number.

  15. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  16. Asymmetric Wettability Directs Leidenfrost Droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, Rebecca L [ORNL; Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Briggs, Dayrl P [ORNL; Srijanto, Bernadeta R [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Leidenfrost phenomena on nano- and microstructured surfaces are of great importance for increasing control over heat transfer in high power density systems utilizing boiling phenomena. They also provide an elegant means to direct droplet motion in a variety of recently emerging fluidic systems. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of tilted nanopillar arrays (TNPAs) that exhibit directional Leidenfrost water droplets under dynamic conditions, namely on impact with Weber numbers 40 at T 325 C. The batch fabrication of the TNPAs was achieved by glancing-angle anisotropic reactive ion etching of a thermally dewet platinum mask, with mean pillar diameters of 100 nm and heights of 200-500 nm. In contrast to previously implemented macro- and microscopic Leidenfrost ratchets, our TNPAs induce no preferential directional movement of Leidenfrost droplets under conditions approaching steady-state film boiling, suggesting that the observed droplet directionality is not a result of asymmetric vapor flow. Using high-speed imaging, phase diagrams were constructed for the boiling behavior upon impact for droplets falling onto TNPAs, straight nanopillar arrays, and smooth silicon surfaces. The asymmetric impact and directional trajectory of droplets was exclusive to the TNPAs for impacts corresponding to the transition boiling regime, revealing that asymmetric wettability upon impact is the mechanism for the droplet directionality.

  17. Scattering of optical radiation by fog water droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokhanov, V.I.; Nebol'sin, M.F.; Chistyakova, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    The behavior of local optical characteristics of an aerosol medium in the radiation field of a microsecond-pulse CO 2 laser is experimentally investigated. Using measurements of the scattering intensity of a sounding beam, the dynamics behind the formation of a propagation channel over the interaction time is studied for different energy densities, and the characteristic times over which the channel is clouding and clearing, the dimensions of the explosion products, and the degree of their evaporation are established. Scattering of radiation in the visual range by shock waves is observed that is caused by the gas-dynamic explosion of fog droplets

  18. Oblique evaporation waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Moreira, José R.

    Evaporation waves are processes that may occur under certain conditions in which a metastable or superheated liquid undergoes a sudden phase transition in a narrow and observable region, which resembles a shock wave. It is inferred from photographic documentation that in certain liquid jet flashing regimes the phenomenon is present. The evaporation wave discontinuity has been successfully modeled in a similar way as a deflagration wave in a combusting gas. One-dimensional laboratory experiments have demonstrated the existence of the (lower) Chapman-Jouguet solution for the cases where the liquid were at a high degree of metastability. Subsonic solutions were also observed for less pronounced degree of metastability (Hill 1991, Sim oes-Moreira 1994). In this paper, the fundamental theory is briefly revised and compared with some of the experimental results obtained for the cases operating at the C-J condition. Next, the paper presents the extension of the one-dimensional theory to include the oblique evaporation wave geometry. Relationships between upstream and downstream flow properties are discussed ant further consequences of these relationships are analyzed.

  19. Water-evaporation reduction by duplex films: Application to the human tear film

    OpenAIRE

    Cerretani, Colin F; Ho, Nghia H; Radke, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Water-evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films is especially important to understand the physiology of the human tear film. Secreted lipids, called meibum, form a duplex film that coats the aqueous tear film and purportedly reduces tear evaporation. Lipid-layer deficiency is correlated with the occurrence of dry-eye disease; however, in-vitro experiments fail to show water-evaporation reduction by tear-lipid duplex films. We review the available literature on water-evaporation reduction by d...

  20. Nonlinear Porous Diffusion Modeling of Hydrophilic Ionic Agrochemicals in Astomatous Plant Cuticle Aqueous Pores: A Mechanistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise C. Tredenick

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural industry requires improved efficacy of sprays being applied to crops and weeds in order to reduce their environmental impact and deliver improved financial returns. Enhanced foliar uptake is one means of improving efficacy. The plant leaf cuticle is known to be the main barrier to diffusion of agrochemicals within the leaf. The usefulness of a mathematical model to simulate uptake of agrochemicals in plant cuticles has been noted previously in the literature, as the results of each uptake experiment are specific to each formulation of active ingredient, plant species and environmental conditions. In this work we develop a mathematical model and numerical simulation for the uptake of hydrophilic ionic agrochemicals through aqueous pores in plant cuticles. We propose a novel, nonlinear, porous diffusion model for ionic agrochemicals in isolated cuticles, which extends simple diffusion through the incorporation of parameters capable of simulating: plant species variations, evaporation of surface droplet solutions, ion binding effects on the cuticle surface and swelling of the aqueous pores with water. We validate our theoretical results against appropriate experimental data, discuss the key sensitivities in the model and relate theoretical predictions to appropriate physical mechanisms. Major influencing factors have been found to be cuticle structure, including tortuosity and density of the aqueous pores, and to a lesser extent humidity and cuticle surface ion binding effects.

  1. Nonlinear Porous Diffusion Modeling of Hydrophilic Ionic Agrochemicals in Astomatous Plant Cuticle Aqueous Pores: A Mechanistic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredenick, Eloise C; Farrell, Troy W; Forster, W Alison; Psaltis, Steven T P

    2017-01-01

    The agricultural industry requires improved efficacy of sprays being applied to crops and weeds in order to reduce their environmental impact and deliver improved financial returns. Enhanced foliar uptake is one means of improving efficacy. The plant leaf cuticle is known to be the main barrier to diffusion of agrochemicals within the leaf. The usefulness of a mathematical model to simulate uptake of agrochemicals in plant cuticles has been noted previously in the literature, as the results of each uptake experiment are specific to each formulation of active ingredient, plant species and environmental conditions. In this work we develop a mathematical model and numerical simulation for the uptake of hydrophilic ionic agrochemicals through aqueous pores in plant cuticles. We propose a novel, nonlinear, porous diffusion model for ionic agrochemicals in isolated cuticles, which extends simple diffusion through the incorporation of parameters capable of simulating: plant species variations, evaporation of surface droplet solutions, ion binding effects on the cuticle surface and swelling of the aqueous pores with water. We validate our theoretical results against appropriate experimental data, discuss the key sensitivities in the model and relate theoretical predictions to appropriate physical mechanisms. Major influencing factors have been found to be cuticle structure, including tortuosity and density of the aqueous pores, and to a lesser extent humidity and cuticle surface ion binding effects.

  2. Turbulent mixing in three-dimensional droplet arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoby, M.R.G.; Navarro-Martinez, S.; Kronenburg, A.; Marquis, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The atomisation, evaporation and subsequent mixing of fuel from a liquid spray determines the effectiveness of the combustion processes in gas turbines and internal combustion engines. In the present paper, three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the evaporation of methanol droplets in hot environments are presented. The gas phase mixing is assessed by examining the scalar dissipation and the mixture fraction probability density function (PDF). Novel multi-conditional models are proposed that use mixture fraction and structural parameters as the conditioning variables for the scalar dissipation which is found to be well predicted in terms of magnitude and distribution. The β-PDF description of the mixture fraction seems to capture well the global behaviour for a laminar environment and for time-averaged results in turbulent cases. A novel model for the mixture fraction PDF is also proposed based on the multi-conditional model for scalar dissipation and an accurate representation of the PDF is achieved.

  3. Oleoplaning droplets on lubricated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dan; Timonen, Jaakko V. I.; Li, Ruoping; Velling, Seneca J.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2017-10-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in using lubricated surfaces to achieve extreme liquid repellency: a foreign droplet immiscible with the underlying lubricant layer was shown to slide off at a small tilt angle lubricant overlayer film sandwiched between the droplet and solid substrate, but this has not been observed experimentally. Here, using thin-film interference, we are able to visualize the intercalated film under both static and dynamic conditions. We further demonstrate that for a moving droplet, the film thickness follows the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin law. The droplet is therefore oleoplaning--akin to tyres hydroplaning on a wet road--with minimal dissipative force and no contact line pinning. The techniques and insights presented in this study will inform future work on the fundamentals of wetting for lubricated surfaces and enable their rational design.

  4. Direct and accurate measurement of size dependent wetting behaviors for sessile water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jimin; Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Yu-Chan; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Ok, Myoung-Ryul; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jee-Wook; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Jeon, Hojeong

    2015-01-01

    The size-dependent wettability of sessile water droplets is an important matter in wetting science. Although extensive studies have explored this problem, it has been difficult to obtain empirical data for microscale sessile droplets at a wide range of diameters because of the flaws resulting from evaporation and insufficient imaging resolution. Herein, we present the size-dependent quantitative change of wettability by directly visualizing the three phase interfaces of droplets using a cryogenic-focused ion beam milling and SEM-imaging technique. With the fundamental understanding of the formation pathway, evaporation, freezing, and contact angle hysteresis for sessile droplets, microdroplets with diameters spanning more than three orders of magnitude on various metal substrates were examined. Wetting nature can gradually change from hydrophobic at the hundreds-of-microns scale to super-hydrophobic at the sub-μm scale, and a nonlinear relationship between the cosine of the contact angle and contact line curvature in microscale water droplets was demonstrated. We also showed that the wettability could be further tuned in a size-dependent manner by introducing regular heterogeneities to the substrate. PMID:26657208

  5. Aqueous chemistry and its role in secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Lim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing understanding that secondary organic aerosol (SOA can form through reactions in atmospheric waters (i.e., clouds, fogs, and aerosol water. In clouds and wet aerosols, water-soluble organic products of gas-phase photochemistry dissolve into the aqueous phase where they can react further (e.g., with OH radicals to form low volatility products that are largely retained in the particle phase. Organic acids, oligomers and other products form via radical and non-radical reactions, including hemiacetal formation during droplet evaporation, acid/base catalysis, and reaction of organics with other constituents (e.g., NH4+.

    This paper provides an overview of SOA formation through aqueous chemistry, including atmospheric evidence for this process and a review of radical and non-radical chemistry, using glyoxal as a model precursor. Previously unreported analyses and new kinetic modeling are reported herein to support the discussion of radical chemistry. Results suggest that reactions with OH radicals tend to be faster and form more SOA than non-radical reactions. In clouds these reactions yield organic acids, whereas in wet aerosols they yield large multifunctional humic-like substances formed via radical-radical reactions and their O/C ratios are near 1.

  6. Experimentation, modelling and simulation of water droplets impact on ballooned sheath of PWR core fuel assemblies in a LOCA situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelong, Franck

    2010-01-01

    In a pressurized water reactor (PWR), during a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), liquid water evaporates and the fuel assemblies are not cooled anymore; as a consequence, the temperature rises to such an extent that some parts of the fuel assemblies can be deformed resulting in 'ballooned regions'. When reflooding occurs, the cooling of these partially blocked parts of the fuel assemblies will depend on the coolant flow that is a mixture of overheated vapour and under-saturated droplets. The aim of this thesis is to study the heat transfer between droplets and hot walls of the fuel rods. In this purpose, an experimental device has been designed in accordance with droplets and wall features (droplet velocity and diameter, wall temperature) representative of LOCA conditions. The cooling of a hot Nickel disk, previously heated by induction, is cooled down by a stream of monodispersed droplet. The rear face temperature profiles are measured by infrared thermography. Then, the estimation of wall heat flux is performed by an inverse conduction technique from these infrared images. The effect of droplet dynamical properties (diameter, velocity) on the heat flux is studied. These experimental data allow us to validate an analytical model of heat exchange between droplet and hot slab. This model is based on combined dynamical and thermal considerations. On the one hand, the droplet dynamics is considered through a spring analogy in order to evaluate the evolution of droplet features such as the spreading diameter when the droplet is squeezed over the hot surface. On the other hand, thermal parameters, such as the thickness of the vapour cushion beneath the droplet, are determined from an energy balance. In the short term, this model will be integrated in a CFD code (named NEPTUNE-CFD) to simulate the cooling of a reactor core during a LOCA, taking into account the droplet/wall heat exchange. (author)

  7. Advanced evaporation/concentration treatment technology for radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhijian; Lu Zhiming; Yu Ruixia

    1997-01-01

    A new and effective two stage moisture separator which removes remaining water droplet and free ion in secondary steam can be added between the evaporator and the condenser of existing liquid waste treatment system. Its addition increases decontamination factor to more than ten times. Ion content in condensed water is decreased considerably. Condensed water meets emission standard without passing through ion exchanger. Detail fundamentals are analysed and results are given: (1) system diagram, (2) structure sketch of the two stage moisture separator, (3) laboratory test results

  8. Miniature electron bombardment evaporation source: evaporation rate measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehasil, V.; Masek, K.; Matolin, V.; Moreau, O.

    1997-01-01

    Miniature electron beam evaporation sources which operate on the principle of vaporization of source material, in the form of a tip, by electron bombardment are produced by several companies specialized in UHV equipment. These sources are used primarily for materials that are normally difficult to deposit due to their high evaporation temperature. They are appropriate for special applications such as heteroepitaxial thin film growth requiring a very low and well controlled deposition rate. A simple and easily applicable method of evaporation rate control is proposed. The method is based on the measurement of ion current produced by electron bombardment of evaporated atoms. The absolute evaporation flux values were measured by means of the Bayard-Alpert ion gauge, which enabled the ion current vs evaporation flux calibration curves to be plotted. (author). 1 tab., 4 figs., 6 refs

  9. PFR evaporator leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    PFR has three heat removal circuits each one having an evaporator, superheater, reheater; all separate units. The status of the system was that circuit No 3 was steaming with 10 MW thermal nuclear power; No 1 circuit was filled with sodium but with the evaporator awaiting modification to cure gas entrainment problems already reported. The leak was in No 2 circuit and was located in the evaporator unit. The evaporator is rated at 120 M thermal at full power and as such is a large unit. The circuit was filled with both sodium and water for the first time three weeks before the conference so it was recent history being reported and therefore any figures quoted should be taken as indicative only. The history of the steam generator was that it was built at works to a very high standard and underwent all the usual tests of strength, inspection of welds and helium leak testing. The steam generator is of U tube design with a tube plate to which the boiler tubes are welded, with all the welds in one of two gas spaces. The inlet and outlet sides are separated by a baffle and the salient features are illustrated in the attached figure. The unit achieved a leak tightness better than the detection limit in the helium leak test at works. This limit was assessed as being less than an equivalent leak of 10 -6 g/s water under steam generator service conditions. However even though all the steam generator units passed this test at works a further test was carried out when the circuits had been completed. The test was carried out during commissioning after sodium filling and with the units hot. The method was to introduce a mixture of helium/ argon at 500 pounds/square inch into the water side of the steam generators and measure the helium concentration in the sodium side gas spaces of the circuit. The test lasted many days and under these conditions the sensitivity is such that a leak equivalent to somewhere between 10 -7 to 10 -6 g/s equivalent water leak could be detected, i

  10. Evaporation and Antievaporation Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Addazi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We review (antievaporation phenomena within the context of quantum gravity and extended theories of gravity. The (antievaporation effect is an instability of the black hole horizon discovered in many different scenarios: quantum dilaton-gravity, f ( R -gravity, f ( T -gravity, string-inspired black holes, and brane-world cosmology. Evaporating and antievaporating black holes seem to have completely different thermodynamical features compared to standard semiclassical black holes. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to conceptual and technical aspects of (antievaporation effects, while discussing problems that are still open.

  11. The Influence Of Mass Fraction Of Dressed Coal On Ignition Conditions Of Composite Liquid Fuel Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlegel Nikita E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The laws of condition modification of inert heat and ignition in an oxidant flow of composite liquid fuel droplet were studied by the developed experimental setup. Investigations were for composite liquid fuel composition based on the waste of bituminous and nonbaking coal processing, appropriate carbon dust, water, used motor oil. The characteristics of boundary layer inertia heat of composite liquid fuel droplet, thermal decomposition of coal organic part, the yield of volatiles and evaporation of liquid combustion component, ignition of the gas mixture and coke residue were defined.

  12. Evaporation kinetics and phase of laboratory and ambient secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Timothy D.; Imre, Dan; Beránek, Josef; Shrivastava, Manish; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Field measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) find significantly higher mass loads than predicted by models, sparking intense effort focused on finding additional SOA sources but leaving the fundamental assumptions used by models unchallenged. Current air-quality models use absorptive partitioning theory assuming SOA particles are liquid droplets, forming instantaneous reversible equilibrium with gas phase. Further, they ignore the effects of adsorption of spectator organic species during SOA formation on SOA properties and fate. Using accurate and highly sensitive experimental approach for studying evaporation kinetics of size-selected single SOA particles, we characterized room-temperature evaporation kinetics of laboratory-generated α-pinene SOA and ambient atmospheric SOA. We found that even when gas phase organics are removed, it takes ∼24 h for pure α-pinene SOA particles to evaporate 75% of their mass, which is in sharp contrast to the ∼10 min time scale predicted by current kinetic models. Adsorption of “spectator” organic vapors during SOA formation, and aging of these coated SOA particles, dramatically reduced the evaporation rate, and in some cases nearly stopped it. Ambient SOA was found to exhibit evaporation behavior very similar to that of laboratory-generated coated and aged SOA. For all cases studied in this work, SOA evaporation behavior is nearly size-independent and does not follow the evaporation kinetics of liquid droplets, in sharp contrast with model assumptions. The findings about SOA phase, evaporation rates, and the importance of spectator gases and aging all indicate that there is need to reformulate the way SOA formation and evaporation are treated by models. PMID:21262848

  13. Single-enzyme analysis in a droplet-based micro- and nanofluidic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arayanarakool, Rerngchai; Shui, Lingling; Kengen, Servé W.M.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic activity of individual enzyme molecules was determined in aqueous droplets generated in a nano- and microfluidic device. To avoid high background noise, the enzyme and substrate solution was confined into femtoliter carriers, achieving high product concentrations from single-molecule

  14. Transport and Retention of Emulsion Droplets in Sandy Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esahani, S. G.; Muller, K.; Chapra, S. C.; Ramsburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Emulsions are commonly used as amendments during remediation; yet, the processes controlling the distribution of droplets within the subsurface are not well understood. Given that inadequate spatial and/or temporal delivery of amendments often leads to ineffective treatment, there is a need to better understand emulsion transport. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the transport and retention of emulsion droplets in columns containing Ottawa sands. Breakthrough curves and deposition profiles from these experiments were interrogated using a mathematical model capable of describing attachment, detachment, and straining to begin to elucidate the physical processes controlling delivery. Emulsions were constructed by stabilizing soybean oil droplets within a continuous aqueous phase. Physical properties of the resulting oil-in-water emulsions were favorable for subsurface delivery (nominal properties: 1 g/mL density; 10 cP viscosity; and 1.5 μm droplet d50). Emulsions were introduced to the columns for approximately two pore volumes and followed by an extended flush of background solution. Effluent droplet size distributions did not vary significantly over the course of the experiment and remained similar to those measured for the influent emulsion. Emulsion breakthrough curves exhibited tailing, and deposition profiles were found to be hyper-exponential and unaffected by extended periods of background flow. Depending on emulsion composition and flow characteristics, 10-30% of the injected emulsion was retained on the sand suggesting a non-negligible influence on accessible porosity over the course of the experiment. Experimental results were further interpreted using a droplet transport model that accounts for temporal and spatial variation in porosity due to the retention of the emulsion droplets. At present the model assumes a uniform size distribution of inelastic emulsion droplets which are transported by advection and dispersion, and exchanged with the solid

  15. Centrifugal micro-channel array droplet generation for highly parallel digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zitian; Liao, Peiyu; Zhang, Fangli; Jiang, Mengcheng; Zhu, Yusen; Huang, Yanyi

    2017-01-17

    Stable water-in-oil emulsion is essential to digital PCR and many other bioanalytical reactions that employ droplets as microreactors. We developed a novel technology to produce monodisperse emulsion droplets with high efficiency and high throughput using a bench-top centrifuge. Upon centrifugal spinning, the continuous aqueous phase is dispersed into monodisperse droplet jets in air through a micro-channel array (MiCA) and then submerged into oil as a stable emulsion. We performed dPCR reactions with a high dynamic range through the MiCA approach, and demonstrated that this cost-effective method not only eliminates the usage of complex microfluidic devices and control systems, but also greatly suppresses the loss of materials and cross-contamination. MiCA-enabled highly parallel emulsion generation combines both easiness and robustness of picoliter droplet production, and breaks the technical challenges by using conventional lab equipment and supplies.

  16. On demand nanoliter-scale microfluidic droplet generation, injection, and mixing using a passive microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Uwe; Sharma, Abhishek; Wagler, Patrick; McCaskill, John S

    2015-01-01

    We here present and characterize a programmable nanoliter scale droplet-on-demand device that can be used separately or readily integrated into low cost single layer rapid prototyping microfluidic systems for a wide range of user applications. The passive microfluidic device allows external (off-the-shelf) electronically controlled pinch valves to program the delivery of nanoliter scale aqueous droplets from up to 9 different inputs to a central outlet channel. The inputs can be either continuous aqueous fluid streams or microliter scale aqueous plugs embedded in a carrier fluid, in which case the number of effective input solutions that can be employed in an experiment is no longer strongly constrained (100 s-1000 s). Both nanoliter droplet sequencing output and nanoliter-scale droplet mixing are reported with this device. Optimization of the geometry and pressure relationships in the device was achieved in several hardware iterations with the support of open source microfluidic simulation software and equivalent circuit models. The requisite modular control of pressure relationships within the device is accomplished using hydrodynamic barriers and matched resistance channels with three different channel heights, custom parallel reversible microfluidic I/O connections, low dead-volume pinch valves, and a simply adjustable array of external screw valves. Programmable sequences of droplet mixes or chains of droplets can be achieved with the device at low Hz frequencies, limited by device elasticity, and could be further enhanced by valve integration. The chip has already found use in the characterization of droplet bunching during export and the synthesis of a DNA library.

  17. 242-A evaporator hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 242-A Evaporator, on the Hanford Site. Through this document the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated. The evaporator sues a conventional, forced-circulation, vacuum evaporation system to concentrate radioactive waste solutions. This concentration results in the reduction in waste volume and reduces the number of double-shelled tanks required to store the waste

  18. Evaporation-based Ge/.sup.68 Ga Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Whipple, Richard E.; Grant, Patrick M.; O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.

    1981-01-01

    Micro concentrations of .sup.68 Ga in secular equilibrium with .sup.68 Ge in strong aqueous HCl solution may readily be separated in ionic form from the .sup.68 Ge for biomedical use by evaporating the solution to dryness and then leaching the .sup.68 Ga from the container walls with dilute aqueous solutions of HCl or NaCl. The chloro-germanide produced during the evaporation may be quantitatively recovered to be used again as a source of .sup.68 Ga. If the solution is distilled to remove any oxidizing agents which may be present as impurities, the separation factor may easily exceed 10.sup.5. The separation is easily completed and the .sup.68 Ga made available in ionic form in 30 minutes or less.

  19. Effect of counterions on the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in aqueous nanodrops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawy, Mahmoud; Consta, Styliani

    2014-09-01

    We report the first molecular dynamics study of the effect of counterions on the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule found in an aqueous droplet that contains excess charge. To investigate the principles of the charging mechanisms of a macromolecule in a droplet, we simulate aqueous droplets that contain a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecule, sodium, and chloride ions. We study the effect of counterions by varying the concentration of the chloride ions and the temperature of the droplets. We find that the size of the droplet from which the macromolecule is released is determined by the competition between the counterions and the macromolecule for capturing the sodium ions. In droplets with radii in the range of 4 nm and smaller, [Na_2Cl]^+ ion complexes and sodium chloride aggregates are formed. The smaller the droplet the more pronounced is the formation of the NaCl aggregates. At very high temperature, in the larger droplets the Na^+ ions are distributed throughout the entire droplet. Therefore, the sodiated PEG is released with a higher average charge than from droplets with no counterions because it has access to a higher concentration of Na^+ ions. At moderately high temperature, the NaCl aggregates do not affect the final charge state of the macromolecule relative to the no-counterion droplets. We also report that regardless of the concentration of the counterions, the temperature plays a critical role in determining the nature of the droplet shape fluctuations that are responsible for the charging of a macromolecule and its extrusion from a droplet. At high temperature the macromolecule is released by the formation of a Taylor cone that transports ions onto the macromolecule. Differently, at lower temperature the Taylor cones are absent or have subsided. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that macromolecules acquire their charge in droplets produced in electrospray ionization experiments.

  20. Framework for simulating droplet vaporization in turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, John; Desjardins, Olivier

    2017-11-01

    A framework for performing direct numerical simulations of droplet vaporization is presented. The work is motivated by spray combustion in engines wherein fuel droplets vaporize in a turbulent gas flow. The framework is built into a conservative finite volume code for simulating low Mach number turbulent multiphase flows. Phase tracking is performed using a discretely conservative geometric volume of fluid method, while the transport of mass fraction and temperature is performed using the BQUICK scheme. Special attention is given to the implementation of transport equations near the interface to ensure the consistency between fluxes of mass, momentum, and scalars. The effect of evaporation on the flow appears as a system of coupled source terms which depend on the local thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases. The sources are implemented implicitly using an unconditionally stable, monotone scheme. Two methodologies for resolving the system's thermodynamic equilibrium are compared for their accuracy, robustness, and computational expense. Verification is performed by comparing results to known solutions in one and three dimensions. Finally, simulations of droplets vaporizing in turbulence are demonstrated, and trends for mass fraction and temperature fields are discussed.

  1. Droplet size characteristics and energy input requirements of emulsions formed using high-intensity-pulsed electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, T.C.; Sisson, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental methods have been developed to measure droplet size characteristics and energy inputs associated with the rupture of aqueous droplets by high-intensity-pulsed electric fields. The combination of in situ microscope optics and high-speed video cameras allows reliable observation of liquid droplets down to 0.5 μm in size. Videotapes of electric-field-created emulsions reveal that average droplet sizes of less than 5 μm are easily obtained in such systems. Analysis of the energy inputs into the fluids indicates that the electric field method requires less than 1% of the energy required from mechanical agitation to create comparable droplet sizes. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Interaction of a self-emulsifying lipid drug delivery system with the everted rat intestinal mucosa as a function of droplet size and surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershanik, T; Benzeno, S; Benita, S

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the interaction of positively charged self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOF) following aqueous dilution as a function of resulting emulsion droplet charge and size with rat everted intestinal mucosa, adherent mucus layer and Peyer's patches, using cyclosporine A (CsA) as a lipophilic model drug. Droplet size determination (TEM technique) and zeta-potential measurements were used to characterize the resulting emulsions. For the ex vivo interaction study, the well-known rat intestine everted sac technique was used in combination with confocal microscopy. The positively charged oil droplets formed by SEOF dilutions at ratios of 1/50 and 1/10 elicited the stronger interaction with the mucosal surface. The positive charge of the smaller droplets was more readily neutralized, and even reversed in aqueous solutions containing moderate subphysiological mucin concentrations. Parameters such as droplet size, negativity of the epithelial mucosa potential and presence of the mucus layer on the epithelial surface affected drug mucosa uptake and the adhesion of the positively charged droplets to the rat intestinal mucosa. The enhanced electrostatic interactions of positively charged droplets with the mucosal surface are mostly responsible for the preferential uptake of CsA from the positively charged droplets as compared to negatively charged droplets irrespective of the experimental conditions used. The increased uptake of the CsA from the negatively charged oil droplets was consistent with the dilution extent, as expected, whereas in the positively charged droplets, an intermediate droplet size range was identified resulting in optimum drug uptake and clearly suggesting that drug uptake was not consistent with either dilution extent or droplet size.

  3. Microcapsules with a permeable hydrogel shell and an aqueous core continuously produced in a 3D microdevice by all-aqueous microfluidics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mytnyk, S.; Ziemecka, I.; Olive, A.G.L.; Totlani, K.A.; Oldenhof, S.; Kreutzer, M.T.; van Steijn, V.; van Esch, J.H.; van der Meer, J.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    We report the continuous production of microcapsules composed of an aqueous core and permeable hydrogel shell, made stable by the controlled photo-cross-linking of the shell of an all-aqueous double emulsion. While most previous work on water-based emulsions focused on active droplet formation,

  4. Snell's law and walking droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John; Pucci, Giuseppe; Aubin, Benjamin; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Faria, Luiz

    2016-11-01

    Droplets walking on the surface of a vibrating bath have been shown to exhibit a number of quantum-like features. We here present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of such droplets crossing a linear step corresponding to a reduction in bath depth. When the step is sufficiently large, the walker reflects off the step; otherwise, it is refracted as it crosses the step. Particular attention is given to an examination of the regime in which the droplet obeys a form of Snell's Law, a behavior captured in accompanying simulations. Attempts to provide theoretical rationale for the dependence of the effective refractive index on the system parameters are described. Supported by NSF through CMMI-1333242.

  5. Instability of expanding bacterial droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Rubio, Leonardo Dominguez; Brady, John F; Aranson, Igor S

    2018-04-03

    Suspensions of motile bacteria or synthetic microswimmers, termed active matter, manifest a remarkable propensity for self-organization, and formation of large-scale coherent structures. Most active matter research deals with almost homogeneous in space systems and little is known about the dynamics of strongly heterogeneous active matter. Here we report on experimental and theoretical studies on the expansion of highly concentrated bacterial droplets into an ambient bacteria-free fluid. The droplet is formed beneath a rapidly rotating solid macroscopic particle inserted in the suspension. We observe vigorous instability of the droplet reminiscent of a violent explosion. The phenomenon is explained in terms of continuum first-principle theory based on the swim pressure concept. Our findings provide insights into the dynamics of active matter with strong density gradients and significantly expand the scope of experimental and analytic tools for control and manipulation of active systems.

  6. Transport of radioactive droplet moisture from a source in a nuclear power plant spray pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elokhin, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to a change in the microclimate in the region surrounding a nuclear power plant resulting from the emission of vapor form a cooling tower, evaporation of water from the water surface of a cooling pond or a spray pond, in the latter case direct radioactive contamination of the underlying surface around the nuclear power plant can also occur due to discharge of process water (radioactive) into the pond and its transport in the air over a certain distance in the form of droplet moisture. A typical example may be the situation at the Zaporozhe nuclear power plant in 1986 when accidental discharge of process water into the cooling pond occurred. Below we present a solution for the problem of transport of droplet moisture taking into account its evaporation, which may be used to estimate the scale of radioactive contamination of the locality

  7. What, no black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajicek, P.; Israel, W.

    1980-01-01

    Tipler has claimed that the inward flux of negative energy across the horizon which (according to the semi-classical approximation) accompanies the evaporation of a black hole would cause a solar mass black hole to evaporate in less than a second. It is shown that this claim is in error. (orig.)

  8. Modeling Treated LAW Feed Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DANIEL, WE

    2004-01-01

    This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process

  9. Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Droplets Induced by Photoignition of Aluminum Nanoparticles (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-23

    entirely represent the combustion processes in LRE’s. The burning of a single fuel droplet involves evaporation of the fuel at the surface of the...Lienhard V, J.H., Mechanical Measurements : Sixth Edition, Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2007. 1 Combustion Characteristics of...3 s.) – This means ignition should occur at a high pressure (>600 psi). – Conventional ignition methods (spark & laser ) are impractical • We are also

  10. Dynamic manipulation by light and electric fields: micrometer particles to microliter droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aloke; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Wereley, Steven T

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate a new hybrid optoelectric technique that can manipulate objects across several length scales. The technique leverages a variety of different physical mechanisms to achieve the dynamic manipulation of droplets and also the in situ concentration of colloidal particles suspended in the droplets. Various physical mechanisms such as optoelectrowetting, electrothermal flows, and ac electroosmosis are leveraged through different modes of operation of the device. Each operational mode, which is activated through the proper combination of an applied ac bias and the illumination used, is characterized by the ability to manipulate objects on a certain length scale. We also demonstrate that the device lends itself to the active control of microstructure patterns that emerge from a droplet evaporation process.

  11. Growth of thin fullerene films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster, Søren

    C60 fullerene thin films of average thickness of more than 100 nm on silicon substrates can be produced in vacuum by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A 355 nm Nd:YAG laser was directed onto a frozen target of anisole with a concentration of 0.67 wt% C60. At laser fluences below 1......, observed over a wide range of laser fluences, are caused by ejection of large matrix-fullerene liquid droplets into the gas-phase and subsequent deposition. At similar laser energies, but using an unfocused laser beam, MAPLE favours evaporation of matrix and organic molecules, resulting in films...

  12. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm x 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25°C air temperature, 20-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm), and heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm 2 ). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈ 200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm 2 . Finally, this work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  13. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle; Neely, Jason; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-03-01

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm × 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25 °C air temperature, 20%-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm) and applied heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm2. This work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  14. Highly efficient capillary polymerase chain reaction using an oscillation droplet microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dayu; Liang Guangtie; Lei Xiuxia; Chen Bin; Wang Wei; Zhou Xiaomian

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An oscillation-flow approach using a droplet reactor was developed to fully explore the potential of continuous-flow PCR. By fully utilizing interfacial chemistry, a water-in-oil (w/o) droplet was automatically generated by allowing an oil–water plug to flow through a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary. Due to the movement of aqueous phase relative to the oil phase, the droplet moves further into the middle of the oil plug with increase in migration distance. The resulting droplet was transported spanning the two heating zones and was employed as the reactor of oscillating-flow PCR. Highlights: ► Droplet formation in a capillary. ► Transport the droplet using oscillation-flow. ► Oscillation droplet PCR. ► Improved reaction efficiency. - Abstract: The current work presents the development of a capillary-based oscillation droplet approach to maximize the potential of a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Through the full utilization of interfacial chemistry, a water-in-oil (w/o) droplet was generated by allowing an oil–water plug to flow along a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary. The w/o droplet functioned as the reactor for oscillating-flow PCR to provide a stable reaction environment, accelerate reagent mixing, and eliminate surface adsorption. The capillary PCR approach proposed in the current research offers high amplification efficiency, fast reaction speed, and easy system control attributable to the oscillation droplet reactor. Experimental results show that the droplet-based micro-PCR assay requires lower reaction volume (2 μL) and shorter reaction time (12 min) compared with conventional PCR methods. Taking the amplification of the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) gene as an example, the present work demonstrates that the oscillation droplet PCR assay is capable of achieving high efficiency up to 89.5% and a detection limit of 10 DNA copies. The miniature PCR protocol developed in the current

  15. Highly efficient capillary polymerase chain reaction using an oscillation droplet microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Dayu, E-mail: ruark@126.com [Laboratory of Clinical Chemical Technology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou First Municipal People' s Hospital, Affiliated to Guangzhou Medical College, 510180 Guangzhou (China); Liang Guangtie; Lei Xiuxia; Chen Bin; Wang Wei [Laboratory of Clinical Chemical Technology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou First Municipal People' s Hospital, Affiliated to Guangzhou Medical College, 510180 Guangzhou (China); Zhou Xiaomian, E-mail: zhouximi@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Clinical Chemical Technology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou First Municipal People' s Hospital, Affiliated to Guangzhou Medical College, 510180 Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-09

    Graphical abstract: An oscillation-flow approach using a droplet reactor was developed to fully explore the potential of continuous-flow PCR. By fully utilizing interfacial chemistry, a water-in-oil (w/o) droplet was automatically generated by allowing an oil-water plug to flow through a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary. Due to the movement of aqueous phase relative to the oil phase, the droplet moves further into the middle of the oil plug with increase in migration distance. The resulting droplet was transported spanning the two heating zones and was employed as the reactor of oscillating-flow PCR. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Droplet formation in a capillary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport the droplet using oscillation-flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oscillation droplet PCR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved reaction efficiency. - Abstract: The current work presents the development of a capillary-based oscillation droplet approach to maximize the potential of a continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Through the full utilization of interfacial chemistry, a water-in-oil (w/o) droplet was generated by allowing an oil-water plug to flow along a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary. The w/o droplet functioned as the reactor for oscillating-flow PCR to provide a stable reaction environment, accelerate reagent mixing, and eliminate surface adsorption. The capillary PCR approach proposed in the current research offers high amplification efficiency, fast reaction speed, and easy system control attributable to the oscillation droplet reactor. Experimental results show that the droplet-based micro-PCR assay requires lower reaction volume (2 {mu}L) and shorter reaction time (12 min) compared with conventional PCR methods. Taking the amplification of the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) gene as an example, the present work demonstrates that the oscillation droplet PCR assay is capable of achieving high efficiency up to

  16. Droplet size influences division of mammalian cell factories in droplet microfluidic cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periyannan Rajeswari, Prem Kumar; Joensson, Haakan N.; Svahn, Helene Andersson

    2017-01-01

    in droplets. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, the most widely used mammalian host cells for biopharmaceuticals production were encapsulated and cultivated in 33, 180 and 320 pL droplets for 3 days. Periodic monitoring of the droplets during incubation showed that the cell divisions in 33 pL droplets stopped...

  17. Evaporative cooling: Effective latent heat of evaporation in relation to evaporation distance from the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Bröde, P.; Hartog, E.A. den; Kuklane, K.; Holmer, I.; Rossi, R.M.; Richards, M.; Farnworth, B.; Wang, X.

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of evaporative heat loss is essential to heat balance calculations. Despite recognition that the value for latent heat of evaporation, used in these calculations, may not always reflect the real cooling benefit to the body, only limited quantitative data on this is available, which has

  18. Droplets spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers under different environmental and operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson S. Sasaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During pesticide spraying, the psychrometric conditions of the air may cause evaporation of the droplets along their trajectory from the nozzle to the target. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air psychrometric conditions and operating pressure on the droplet spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers. The test was performed using a prototype equipped with an axial fan, a flow homogenizer, temperature and relative air humidity sensors, a spray nozzle and a gas-heating system to warm up the airflow. With the assembled system and the aid of a particle analyser, the JSF 11002 spray nozzle was evaluated with respect to droplet spectrum in four air psychrometric conditions (7, 14, 21 and 28 hPa and at four operating pressures (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa. At the end, evaporation losses were observed during the sprayings. For a given operating pressure and for each increment of 1 hPa in vapor pressure deficit, there was a diameter reduction of approximately 0.0759, 0.518 and 1.514 μm for the parameters DV0.1, DV0.5 and DV0.9, respectively. The diameter of the droplets decreased as the operating pressure increased.

  19. Remote sensing of height of a fog layer and temperature of fog droplets using infrared thermometer and meteorological satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Abe, H.

    1998-01-01

    To study meteorological characteristics of cool foggy easterly (Yamase), by which rice production in the Tohoku region was frequently damaged, we measured temperature of the fog layer resulted from Yamase, using infrared thermal indicator and meteorological satellite (HIMAWARI). These temperature data were compared with wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures obtained by a ventilated psychrometer. Generally, the temperature of fog droplets estimated from infrared thermal indicator was higher than the wet-bulb temperature by about 0∼1°C. This result indicates clearly that fog droplets were cooled by evaporation on the droplet surface. Under the conditions that the fog layer is homogeneous in liquid water content and fog droplet size distribution, the height of the fog layer can be estimated by the observation of visibility and relative solar radiation flux. (author)

  20. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shpak, O.; Verweij, M.; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Escoffre, J.M.; Bouakaz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to

  1. Spin lattices of walking droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Pedro; Pucci, Giuseppe; Goujon, Alexis; Dunkel, Jorn; Bush, John

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the spontaneous emergence of collective behavior in spin lattice of droplets walking on a vibrating fluid bath. The bottom topography consists of relatively deep circular wells that encourage the walking droplets to follow circular trajectories centered at the lattice sites, in one direction or the other. Wave-mediated interactions between neighboring drops are enabled through a thin fluid layer between the wells. The sense of rotation of the walking droplets may thus become globally coupled. When the coupling is sufficiently strong, interactions with neighboring droplets may result in switches in spin that lead to preferred global arrangements, including correlated (all drops rotating in the same direction) or anti-correlated (neighboring drops rotating in opposite directions) states. Analogies with ferromagnetism and anti-ferromagnetism are drawn. Different spatial arrangements are presented in 1D and 2D lattices to illustrate the effects of topological frustration. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.

  2. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets. Dileep Mampallil. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 123-134. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/02/0123-0134 ...

  3. Drop evaporation on superhydrophobic PTFE surfaces driven by contact line dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, S M M; Dias, J F; Canut, B

    2015-02-15

    In the present study, we experimentally study the evaporation modes and kinetics of sessile drops of water on highly hydrophobic surfaces (contact angle ∼160°), heated to temperatures ranging between 40° and 70 °C. These surfaces were initially constructed by means of controlled tailoring of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. The evaporation of droplets was observed to occur in three distinct phases, which were the same for the different substrate temperatures. The drops started to evaporate in the constant contact radius (CCR) mode, then switched to a more complex mode characterized by a set of stick-slip events accompanied by a decrease in contact angle, and finally shifted to a mixed mode in which the contact radius and contact angle decreased simultaneously until the drops had completely evaporated. It is shown that in the case of superhydrophobic surfaces, the energy barriers (per unit length) associated with the stick-slip motion of a drop ranges in the nJ m(-1) scale. Furthermore, analysis of the evaporation rates, determined from experimental data show that, even in the CCR mode, a linear relationship between V(2/3) and the evaporation time is verified. The values of the evaporation rate constants are found to be higher in the pinned contact line regime (the CCR mode) than in the moving contact line regime. This behavior is attributed to the drop's higher surface to volume ratio in the CCR mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison between wet canopy evaporation estimated by stable isotope ratios of water and canopy interception measured by water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeki; Hattori, Shohei; Uemura, Ryu

    2017-04-01

    the two methods is evaporation of small droplets produced by raindrops splashed onto the canopy (Murakami, 2006). Assuming that the canopy interception loss consists of the wet canopy evaporation and the splash droplet evaporation, amount of the splash droplet evaporation would be equal to the difference between the two methods. The result using δ2H will be shown at the time of presentation. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP15H40250.

  5. Hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops

    OpenAIRE

    Brutin, D.; Rigollet, F.; Niliot, C. Le

    2009-01-01

    Drop evaporation is a simple phenomena but still unclear concerning the mechanisms of evaporation. A common agreement of the scientific community based on experimental and numerical work evidences that most of the evaporation occurs at the triple line. However, the rate of evaporation is still empirically predicted due to the lack of knowledge on the convection cells which develop inside the drop under evaporation. The evaporation of sessile drop is more complicated than it appears due to the...

  6. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  7. Model based analysis of the drying of a single solution droplet in an ultrasonic levitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jakob; Kiil, Søren; Jensen, Anker

    2006-01-01

    A model for the drying of a single solution droplet into a solid, dense particle is presented and simulations are made to achieve a more fundamental understanding of the single droplet drying process relevant in connection with spray drying processes. Model predictions of drying behaviour...... are compared to data for the drying of aqueous solutions of maltodextrin DE 15 and trehalose from experiments conducted using an ultrasonic levitator. Model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the model describes the most important physical phenomena of the process....

  8. Introducing ultrasonic falling film evaporator for moderate temperature evaporation enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbani, Maryam; Rahimi, Masoud

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, Ultrasonic Falling Film (USFF), as a novel technique has been proposed to increase the evaporation rate of moderate temperature liquid film. It is a proper method for some applications which cannot be performed at high temperature, such as foodstuff industry, due to their sensitivity to high temperatures. Evaporation rate of sodium chloride solution from an USFF on an inclined flat plate compared to that for Falling Film without ultrasonic irradiation (FF) at various temperatures was investigated. The results revealed that produced cavitation bubbles have different effects on evaporation rate at different temperatures. At lower temperatures, size fluctuation and collapse of bubbles and in consequence induced physical effects of cavitation bubbles resulted in more turbulency and evaporation rate enhancement. At higher temperatures, the behavior was different. Numerous created bubbles joined together and cover the plate surface, so not only decreased the ultrasound vibrations but also reduced the evaporation rate in comparison with FF. The highest evaporation rate enhancement of 353% was obtained at 40 °C at the lowest Reynolds number of 250. In addition, the results reveal that at temperature of 40 °C, USFF has the highest efficiency compared to FF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sulfate Formation Enhanced by a Cocktail of High NOx, SO2, Particulate Matter, and Droplet pH during Haze-Fog Events in Megacities in China: An Observation-Based Modeling Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Yuan, Zibing; Griffith, Stephen M; Yu, Xin; Lau, Alexis K H; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2016-07-19

    In recent years in a few Chinese megacities, fog events lasting one to a few days have been frequently associated with high levels of aerosol loading characterized by high sulfate (as high as 30 μg m(-3)), therefore termed as haze-fog events. The concomitant pollution characteristics include high gas-phase mixing ratios of SO2 (up to 71 ppbv) and NO2 (up to 69 ppbv), high aqueous phase pH (5-6), and smaller fog droplets (as low as 2 μm), resulting from intense emissions from fossil fuel combustion and construction activities supplying abundant Ca(2+). In this work, we use an observation-based model for secondary inorganic aerosols (OBM-SIA) to simulate sulfate formation pathways under conditions of haze-fog events encountered in Chinese megacities. The OBM analysis has identified, at a typical haze-fogwater pH of 5.6, the most important pathway to be oxidation of S(IV) by dissolved NO2, followed by the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 on the aerosol surface. The aqueous phase oxidation of S(IV) by H2O2 is a very minor formation pathway as a result of the high NOx conditions suppressing H2O2 formation. The model results indicate that the unique cocktail of high fogwater pH, high concentrations of NO2, SO2, and PM, and small fog droplets are capable of greatly enhancing sulfate formation. Such haze-fog conditions could lead to rapid sulfate production at night and subsequently high PM2.5 in the morning when the fog evaporates. Sulfate formation is simulated to be highly sensitive to fogwater pH, PM, and precursor gases NO2 and SO2. Such insights on major contributing factors imply that reduction of road dust and NOx emissions could lessen PM2.5 loadings in Chinese megacities during fog events.

  10. Different freezing behavior of millimeter- and micrometer-scaled (NH₄)₂SO₄/H₂O droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, A; Molina, M J; Tenhu, H; Mayer, E; Bertel, E; Loerting, T

    2011-01-26

    Although the freezing of aqueous solutions is important for nature and different branches of science and freeze-applications, our understanding of the freezing process is not complete. For example, numerous measurements of micrometer-scaled (NH(4))(2)SO(4)/H(2)O droplets report one freezing event below the eutectic point. However, measurements of larger millimeter-scaled droplets reveal two freezing events: the freezing out of ice and subsequent freezing of a residual freeze-concentrated solution. To resolve this apparent contradiction we performed numerous calorimetric measurements which indicate that the freezing of a residual solution of millimeter-scaled 5-38 wt% (NH(4))(2)SO(4) droplets occurs mainly between ∼ 210 and 225 K. We also find that micrometer-scaled droplets produce one freezing event which is within or in the vicinity of the ∼ 210-225 K region. This fact and the analysis of thermograms suggest that the residual solution of micrometer-scaled droplets may partly crystallize simultaneously with ice and partly transform to glass at T(g)≈172 K. Our results suggest for the first time that the size of (NH(4))(2)SO(4)/H(2)O droplets may affect the number of freezing events below the eutectic point.

  11. Velocity and size distribution measurement of suspension droplets using PDPA technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Shahin; Akbarnozari, Ali; Moreau, Christian; Dolatabadi, Ali

    2015-11-01

    The creation of fine and uniform droplets from a bulk of liquid is a vital process in a variety of engineering applications, such as atomization in suspension plasma spray (SPS) in which the submicron coating materials are injected to the plasma gas through the suspension droplets. The size and velocity of these droplets has a great impact on the interaction of the suspension with the gas flow emanating from a plasma torch and can consequently affect the mechanical and chemical properties of the resultant coatings. In the current study, an aqueous suspension of small glass particles (2-8 μm) was atomized by utilizing an effervescent atomizer of 1 mm orifice diameter which involves bubbling gas (air) directly into the liquid stream. The gas to liquid ratio (GLR) was kept constant at 6% throughout this study. The mass concentration of glass particles varied in the range between 0.5 to 5% in order to investigate the effect of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the droplet characteristics, such as velocity and size distributions. These characteristics were simultaneously measured by using a non-intrusive optical technique, Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA), which is based on the light signal scattered from the droplets moving in a measurement volume. The velocity and size distribution of suspension droplets were finally compared to those of distilled water under identical conditions. The results showed a different atomization behaviors due to the reduction in surface tension of the suspension spray.

  12. Deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection utilizing an integrated plug-in bead dispenser for single bead-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin; Choi, In Ho; Lee, Sanghyun; Won, Dong-Joon; Oh, Yong Suk; Kwon, Donghoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Joonwon

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a deterministic bead-in-droplet ejection (BIDE) technique that regulates the precise distribution of microbeads in an ejected droplet. The deterministic BIDE was realized through the effective integration of a microfluidic single-particle handling technique with a liquid dispensing system. The integrated bead dispenser facilitates the transfer of the desired number of beads into a dispensing volume and the on-demand ejection of bead-encapsulated droplets. Single bead-encapsulated droplets were ejected every 3 s without any failure. Multiple-bead dispensing with deterministic control of the number of beads was demonstrated to emphasize the originality and quality of the proposed dispensing technique. The dispenser was mounted using a plug-socket type connection, and the dispensing process was completely automated using a programmed sequence without any microscopic observation. To demonstrate a potential application of the technique, bead-based streptavidin-biotin binding assay in an evaporating droplet was conducted using ultralow numbers of beads. The results evidenced the number of beads in the droplet crucially influences the reliability of the assay. Therefore, the proposed deterministic bead-in-droplet technology can be utilized to deliver desired beads onto a reaction site, particularly to reliably and efficiently enrich and detect target biomolecules.

  13. Effects of the surroundings and conformerisation of n-dodecane molecules on evaporation/condensation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gun’ko, Vladimir M. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kiev 03164 Ukraine (Ukraine); Sir Harry Ricardo Laboratories, School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, Cockcroft Building, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Nasiri, Rasoul; Sazhin, Sergei S., E-mail: S.Sazhin@brighton.ac.uk [Sir Harry Ricardo Laboratories, School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton, Cockcroft Building, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-21

    The evaporation/condensation coefficient (β) and the evaporation rate (γ) for n-dodecane vs. temperature, gas pressure, gas and liquid density, and solvation effects at a droplet surface are analysed using quantum chemical density functional theory calculations of several ensembles of conformers of n-dodecane molecules in the gas phase (hybrid functional ωB97X-D with the cc-pVTZ and cc-pVDZ basis sets) and in liquid phase (solvation method: SMD/ωB97X-D). It is shown that β depends more strongly on a number of neighbouring molecules interacting with an evaporating molecule at a droplet surface (this number is estimated through changes in the surface Gibbs free energy of solvation) than on pressure in the gas phase or conformerisation and cross-conformerisation of molecules in both phases. Thus, temperature and the surrounding effects at droplet surfaces are the dominant factors affecting the values of β for n-dodecane molecules. These values are shown to be similar (at reduced temperatures T/T{sub c} < 0.8) or slightly larger (at T/T{sub c} > 0.8) than the values of β calculated by the molecular dynamics force fields (MD FF) methods. This endorses the reliability of the previously developed classical approach to estimation of β by the MD FF methods, except at temperatures close to the critical temperature.

  14. Evaporation-induced gas-phase flows at selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirnov, I.; Kotoban, D. V.; Gusarov, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    Selective laser melting is the method for 3D printing from metals. A solid part is built from powder layer-by-layer. A continuum-wave laser beam scans every powder layer to fuse powder. The process is studied with a high-speed CCD camera at the frame rate of 104 fps and the resolution up to 5 µm per pixel. Heat transfer and evaporation in the laser-interaction zone are numerically modeled. Droplets are ejected from the melt pool in the direction around the normal to the melt surface and the powder particles move in the horizontal plane toward the melt pool. A vapor jet is observed in the direction of the normal to the melt surface. The velocities of the droplets, the powder particles, and the jet flow and the mass loss due to evaporation are measured. The gas flow around the vapor jet is calculated by Landau's model of submerged jet. The measured velocities of vapor, droplets, and powder particles correlate with the calculated flow field. The obtained results show the importance of evaporation and the flow of the vapor and the ambient gas. These gas-dynamic phenomena can explain the formation of the denudated zones and the instability at high-energy input.

  15. OPTIMAL EVAPORATING AND CONDENSING TEMPERATURES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORC) in a hot and humid environment. A theoretical procedure is proposed for the determination of the optimal evaporation temperature (OET) and optimal condensing temperature (OCT) of a subcritical ORC plant, which is based on ...

  16. The evaporative vector: Homogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klots, C.E.

    1987-05-01

    Molecular beams of van der Waals molecules are the subject of much current research. Among the methods used to form these beams, three-sputtering, laser ablation, and the sonic nozzle expansion of neat gases - yield what are now recognized to be ''warm clusters.'' They contain enough internal energy to undergo a number of first-order processes, in particular that of evaporation. Because of this evaporation and its attendant cooling, the properties of such clusters are time-dependent. The states of matter which can be arrived at via an evaporative vector on a typical laboratory time-scale are discussed. Topics include the (1) temperatures, (2) metastability, (3) phase transitions, (4) kinetic energies of fragmentation, and (5) the expression of magical properties, all for evaporating homogeneous clusters

  17. Droplet lasers: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, D.

    2017-05-01

    It is perhaps surprising that something as fragile as a microscopic droplet could possibly form a laser. In this article we will review some of the underpinning physics as to how this might be possible, and then examine the state of the art in the field. The technology to create and manipulate droplets will be examined, as will the different classes of droplet lasers. We discuss the rapidly developing fields of droplet biolasers, liquid crystal laser droplets and explore how droplet lasers could give rise to new bio and chemical sensing and analysis. The challenges that droplet lasers face in becoming robust devices, either as sensors or as photonic components in the lab on chip devices, is assessed.

  18. Lubrication model for evaporation of binary sessile drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Adam; Sáenz, Pedro; Karapetsas, George; Matar, Omar; Sefiane, Khellil; Valluri, Prashant

    2017-11-01

    Evaporation of a binary mixture sessile drop from a solid substrate is a highly dynamic and complex process with flow driven both thermal and solutal Marangoni stresses. Experiments on ethanol/water drops have identified chaotic regimes on both the surface and interior of the droplet, while mixture composition has also been seen to govern drop wettability. Using a lubrication-type approach, we present a finite element model for the evaporation of an axisymmetric binary drop deposited on a heated substrate. We consider a thin drop with a moving contact line, taking also into account the commonly ignored effects of inertia which drives interfacial instability. We derive evolution equations for the film height, the temperature and the concentration field considering that the mixture comprises two ideally mixed volatile components with a surface tension linearly dependent on both temperature and concentration. The properties of the mixture such as viscosity also vary locally with concentration. We explore the parameter space to examine the resultant effects on wetting and evaporation where we find qualitative agreement with experiments in both these areas. This enables us to understand the nature of the instabilities that spontaneously emerge over the drop lifetime. EPSRC - EP/K00963X/1.

  19. Water-evaporation reduction by duplex films: application to the human tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin F; Ho, Nghia H; Radke, C J

    2013-09-01

    Water-evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films is especially important to understand the physiology of the human tear film. Secreted lipids, called meibum, form a duplex film that coats the aqueous tear film and purportedly reduces tear evaporation. Lipid-layer deficiency is correlated with the occurrence of dry-eye disease; however, in-vitro experiments fail to show water-evaporation reduction by tear-lipid duplex films. We review the available literature on water-evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films and outline the theoretical underpinnings of spreading and evaporation kinetics that govern behavior of these systems. A dissolution-diffusion model unifies the data reported in the literature and identifies dewetting of duplex films into lenses as a key challenge to obtaining significant evaporation reduction. We develop an improved apparatus for measuring evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films including simultaneous assessment of film coverage, stability, and temperature, all under controlled external mass transfer. New data reported in this study fit into the larger body of work conducted on water-evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films. Duplex-oil films of oxidized mineral oil/mucin (MOx/BSM), human meibum (HM), and bovine meibum (BM) reduce water evaporation by a dissolution-diffusion mechanism, as confirmed by agreement between measurement and theory. The water permeability of oxidized-mineral-oil duplex films agrees with those reported in the literature, after correction for the presence of mucin. We find that duplex-oil films of bovine and human meibum at physiologic temperature reduce water evaporation only 6-8% for a 100-nm film thickness pertinent to the human tear film. Comparison to in-vivo human tear-evaporation measurements is inconclusive because evaporation from a clean-water surface is not measured and because the mass-transfer resistance is not characterized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution of temperature of a droplet of liquid composite fuel interacting with heated airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Zakharevich, A. V.; Strizhak, P. A.; Syrodoy, S. V.

    2016-11-01

    The macroscopic patterns of a temperature change at the center of a droplet of three-component (coal, water, petroleum) composite liquid fuel (CLF) were studied using a low-inertia thermoelectric converter and system of high-speed (up to 105 frames per second) video recording during the induction period at different heating intensity by the air flow with variable parameters: temperature of 670-870 K and motion velocity of 1-4 m/s. The studies were carried out for two groups of CLF compositions: fuel based on brown coal and coal cleaning rejects (filter cake). To assess the effect of liquid combustible component of CLF on characteristics of the ignition process, the corresponding composition of two-component coal-water fuel (CWF) was studied. The stages of inert heating of CLF and CWF droplets with characteristic size corresponding to radius of 0.75-1.5 mm, evaporation of moisture and liquid oil (for CLF), thermal decomposition of the organic part of coal, gas mixture ignition, and carbon burnout were identified. Regularities of changes in the temperature of CLF and CWF droplets at each of identified stages were identified for the cooccurrence of phase transitions and chemical reactions. Comparative analysis of the times of ignition delay and complete combustion of the droplets of examined fuel compositions was performed with varying droplet dimensions, temperatures, and oxidant flow velocity.

  1. Characterizations of particle size distribution of the droplets exhaled by sneeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z Y; Weng, W G; Huang, Q Y

    2013-11-06

    This work focuses on the size distribution of sneeze droplets exhaled immediately at mouth. Twenty healthy subjects participated in the experiment and 44 sneezes were measured by using a laser particle size analyser. Two types of distributions are observed: unimodal and bimodal. For each sneeze, the droplets exhaled at different time in the sneeze duration have the same distribution characteristics with good time stability. The volume-based size distributions of sneeze droplets can be represented by a lognormal distribution function, and the relationship between the distribution parameters and the physiological characteristics of the subjects are studied by using linear regression analysis. The geometric mean of the droplet size of all the subjects is 360.1 µm for unimodal distribution and 74.4 µm for bimodal distribution with geometric standard deviations of 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. For the two peaks of the bimodal distribution, the geometric mean (the geometric standard deviation) is 386.2 µm (1.8) for peak 1 and 72.0 µm (1.5) for peak 2. The influences of the measurement method, the limitations of the instrument, the evaporation effects of the droplets, the differences of biological dynamic mechanism and characteristics between sneeze and other respiratory activities are also discussed.

  2. Direct photolysis of carbonyl compounds dissolved in cloud and fog~droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Epstein

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase photolysis is an important tropospheric sink for many carbonyl compounds; however the significance of direct photolysis of these compounds dissolved in cloud and fog droplets is uncertain. We develop a theoretical approach to assess the importance of aqueous photolysis for a series of carbonyls that possess carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups by comparison with rates of other atmospheric processes. We use computationally and experimentally derived effective Henry's law constants, hydration equilibrium parameters, aqueous hydroxyl radical (OH rate constants, and optical extinction coefficients to identify types of compounds that will (or will not have competitive aqueous photolysis rates. We also present molecular dynamics simulations designed to estimate gas- and aqueous-phase extinction coefficients of unstudied atmospherically relevant compounds found in d-limonene and isoprene secondary organic aerosol. In addition, experiments designed to measure the photolysis rate of glyceraldehyde, an atmospherically relevant water-soluble organic compound, reveal that aqueous quantum yields are highly molecule-specific and cannot be extrapolated from measurements of structurally similar compounds. We find that only two out of the 92 carbonyl compounds investigated, pyruvic acid and acetoacetic acid, may have aqueous photolysis rates that exceed the rate of oxidation by dissolved OH. For almost all carbonyl compounds lacking α,β-conjugation that were investigated, atmospheric removal by direct photolysis in cloud and fog droplets can be neglected under typical atmospheric conditions.

  3. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M

    2005-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to

  4. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted

  5. Effect of droplet size on the droplet behavior on the heterogeneous surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ho Yeon; Son, Sung Wan; Ha, ManYeong [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Gap [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The characteristics of a three-dimensional hemispherical droplet on a heterogeneous surface were studied using the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The hydrophilic surface has a hydrophobic part at the center. The hemispherical droplets are located at the center of the heterogeneous surface. According to the contact angles of hydrophilic and hydrophobic bottom surfaces, the droplet either separates or reaches a new equilibrium state. The separation time varies according to the change in droplet size, and it affects the status of droplet separation. The droplet separation behavior was investigated by analyzing the velocity vector around the phase boundary line. The shape and separation time of a droplet are determined by the contact angle of each surface. The speed of droplet separation increases as the difference in contact angle increases between the hydrophobic surface and hydrophilic surface. The separation status and the separation time of a droplet are also determined by the change of the droplet size. As the size of the droplet decreases, the effect of surface tension decreases, and the separation time of the droplet also decreases. On the other hand, as the droplet becomes larger, the effect of surface tension increases and the time required for the droplet to separate also increases.

  6. Study on the effect of Weber Number to heat transfer of multiple droplets on hot stainless steel surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riswanda Aria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple droplets are drops of water that continuously dropped onto a surface. Spray cooling is an application of the use of droplet on a cooling system. Spray cooling is usually used in a cooling system of electronic devices, and material quenching. In this study, correlations between Weber number and surface temperature decrease rate during multiple droplets impingement are investigated and analyzed. Visualization process is used to help determine the evaporation time of droplets impingement by using high speed camera. Induction stove is used to maintain a stainless steel surface temperature at 120°C, 140°C, and 160°C. The Weber number was varied at 15, and 52.5 to simulate low and medium Weber number. The result of this study shows that increase in Weber number does not increase the temperature decrease rate noticeably. Whereas the Weber number decrease the time required for surface temperature to reach its lowest surface temperature. It was also found that for low and medium Weber number, Weber number affect the evaporation time of multiple droplets after impingement.

  7. Triplet pairing in fermionic droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, E. Susana; Barranco Gómez, Manuel

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated, in the L-S coupling scheme, the appearance of triplet pairing in fermionic droplets in which a single nl shell is active. The method is applied to a constant-strength model, for which we discuss the different phase transitions that take place as the number of particles in the shell is varied. Drops of 3He atoms can be plausible physical scenarios for the realization of the model.

  8. Droplet based cavities and lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    The self-organized and molecularly smooth surface on liquid microdroplets makes them attractive as optical cavities with very high quality factors. This chapter describes the basic theory of optical modes in spherical droplets. The mechanical properties including vibrational excitation are also...... described, and their implications for microdroplet resonator technology are discussed. Optofluidic implementations of microdroplet resonators are reviewed with emphasis on the basic optomechanical properties....

  9. A scattering methodology for droplet sizing of e-cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Pascal; Cosandey, Stéphane; Goujon-Ginglinger, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge of the droplet size distribution of inhalable aerosols is important to predict aerosol deposition yield at various respiratory tract locations in human. Optical methodologies are usually preferred over the multi-stage cascade impactor for high-throughput measurements of aerosol particle/droplet size distributions. Evaluate the Laser Aerosol Spectrometer technology based on Polystyrene Sphere Latex (PSL) calibration curve applied for the experimental determination of droplet size distributions in the diameter range typical of commercial e-cigarette aerosols (147-1361 nm). This calibration procedure was tested for a TSI Laser Aerosol Spectrometer (LAS) operating at a wavelength of 633 nm and assessed against model di-ethyl-hexyl-sebacat (DEHS) droplets and e-cigarette aerosols. The PSL size response was measured, and intra- and between-day standard deviations calculated. DEHS droplet sizes were underestimated by 15-20% by the LAS when the PSL calibration curve was used; however, the intra- and between-day relative standard deviations were evaporation component, which may reduce droplet size prior a measurement is performed. Aerosol concentration was measured accurately with a maximum uncertainty of 20%. Count median diameters and mass median aerodynamic diameters of selected e-cigarette aerosols ranged from 130-191 nm to 225-293 nm, respectively, similar to published values. The LAS instrument can be used to measure e-cigarette aerosol droplet size distributions with a bias underestimating the expected value by 15-20% when using a precise PSL calibration curve. Controlled variability of DEHS size measurements can be achieved with the LAS system; however, this method can only be applied to test aerosols having a refractive index close to that of PSL particles used for calibration.

  10. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome, J. John Soundar, E-mail: soundar@dalembert.upmc.fr; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme [Institut Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 and CNRS-UMR 7190, F-75005 Paris (France); Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire des Écoulements Géophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS - UMR 5519, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2013-11-15

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.

  11. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, J. John Soundar; Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme

    2013-11-01

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.

  12. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, J. John Soundar; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme; Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex

  13. Pinning of the Contact Line during Evaporation on Heterogeneous Surfaces: Slowdown or Temporary Immobilization? Insights from a Nanoscale Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Leroy, Frédéric

    2015-07-14

    The question of the effect of surface heterogeneities on the evaporation of liquid droplets from solid surfaces is addressed through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The mechanism behind contact line pinning which is still unclear is discussed in detail on the nanoscale. Model systems with the Lennard-Jones interaction potential were employed to study the evaporation of nanometer-sized cylindrical droplets from a flat surface. The heterogeneity of the surface was modeled through alternating stripes of equal width but two chemical types. The first type leads to a contact angle of 67°, and the other leads to a contact angle of 115°. The stripe width was varied between 2 and 20 liquid-particle diameters. On the surface with the narrowest stripes, evaporation occurred at constant contact angle as if the surface was homogeneous, with a value of the contact angle as predicted by the regular Cassie-Baxter equation. When the width was increased, the contact angle oscillated during evaporation between two boundaries whose values depend on the stripe width. The evaporation behavior was thus found to be a direct signature of the typical size of the surface heterogeneity domains. The contact angle both at equilibrium and during evaporation could be predicted from a local Cassie-Baxter equation in which the surface composition within a distance of seven fluid-particle diameters around the contact line was considered, confirming the local nature of the interactions that drive the wetting behavior of droplets. More importantly, we propose a nanoscale explanation of pinning during evaporation. Pinning should be interpreted as a drastic slowdown of the contact line dynamics rather than a complete immobilization of it during a transition between two contact angle boundaries.

  14. Impinging Water Droplets on Inclined Glass Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lance, Blake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase computational models and tests of falling water droplets on inclined glass surfaces were developed to investigate the physics of impingement and potential of these droplets to self-clean glass surfaces for photovoltaic modules and heliostats. A multiphase volume-of-fluid model was developed in ANSYS Fluent to simulate the impinging droplets. The simulations considered different droplet sizes (1 mm and 3 mm), tilt angles (0°, 10°, and 45°), droplet velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s), and wetting characteristics (wetting=47° contact angle and non-wetting = 93° contact angle). Results showed that the spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) decreased with increasing inclination angle due to the reduced normal force on the surface. The hydrophilic surface yielded greater spread factors than the hydrophobic surface in all cases. With regard to impact forces, the greater surface tilt angles yielded lower normal forces, but higher shear forces. Experiments showed that the experimentally observed spread factor (maximum droplet diameter during impact divided by the initial droplet diameter) was significantly larger than the simulated spread factor. Observed spread factors were on the order of 5 - 6 for droplet velocities of ~3 m/s, whereas the simulated spread factors were on the order of 2. Droplets were observed to be mobile following impact only for the cases with 45° tilt angle, which matched the simulations. An interesting phenomenon that was observed was that shortly after being released from the nozzle, the water droplet oscillated (like a trampoline) due to the "snapback" caused by the surface tension of the water droplet being released from the nozzle. This oscillation impacted the velocity immediately after the release. Future work should evaluate the impact of parameters such as tilt angle and surface wettability on the impact of particle/soiling uptake and removal to investigate ways that

  15. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.

  16. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Field investigation of physical and chemical mechanisms affecting pollutant concentrations in fog droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, D.J.; Waldman, J.M.; Munger, J.W.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    High ionic loadings were found in fogwater collected at Bakersfield, California during an extended stagnation episode. The major ions were NH4(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-), with concentrations usually in the millimolar range. Droplet growth played an important role in determining fogwater concentrations. The amount of solute decreased substantially over the course of each fog event this was attributed, at least in part, to deposition of fog droplets on surfaces. The occurrence of this was attributed, at least in part, to deposition of fog droplets on surfaces. The sulfate fraction in the aerosol increased appreciably over several days of stagnation, but no statistical evidence for in situ S(IV) aqueous-phase oxidation was found. The high ammonia concentrations present were sufficient to neutralize a large fraction of the ambient acidity. As a result, fogwater pH values rarely attained the extremely low values found in other polluted environments. 46 references.

  18. 242-A evaporator quality assurance project plan: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this quality assurance project plan (Plan) is sampling and analytical services including, but not limited to, sample receipt, handling and storage, analytical measurements, submittal of data deliverables, archiving selected portions of samples, returning unneeded sample material to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), and/or sample disposal associated with candidate feed samples and process condensate compliance samples. Sampling and shipping activities are also included within the scope. The purpose of this project is to provide planning, implementation, and assessment guidance for achieving established data quality objectives measurement parameters. This Plan requires onsite and offsite laboratories to conform to that guidance. Laboratory conformance will help ensure that quality data are being generated and therefore, that the 242-A evaporator is operating in a safe and compliant manner. The 242-A evaporator feed stream originates from double-shell tanks (DSTs) identified as candidate feed tanks. The 242-A evaporator reduces the volume of aqueous waste contained in DSTs by boiling off water and sending it to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) storage basin before further treatment. The slurry product is returned to DSTs. Evaporation results in considerable savings by reducing the volume of mixed waste for disposal

  19. [Micro-droplet characterization and its application for amino acid detection in droplet microfluidic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huiling; Dong, Libing; Tu, Ran; Du, Wenbin; Ji, Shiru; Wang, Qinhong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the droplet microfluidic system attracts interests due to its high throughput and low cost to detect and screen. The picoliter micro-droplets from droplet microfluidics are uniform with respect to the size and shape, and could be used as monodispensed micro-reactors for encapsulation and detection of single cell or its metabolites. Theref