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Sample records for aqueous crude leaf

  1. Preliminary Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluation of Crude Aqueous Extract of Psidium guajava Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidam, Y. A.; Ambali, A. G.; Onyeyili, P. A.

    The leaves of Psidium guajava is used in folk medicine as an antidiarrhoic in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. It is also employed for the treatment of vertigo and regulation of menstrual periods. World health organization encourages and indicated that studies on medicinal plants should include both identification of chemical constituents and determination of the biological activities of such plants. In this preliminary study, phytochemical and antibacterial properties of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening for identification of various classes of active chemical constituents while disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extract against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The extract inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but has no effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis organisms. The study revealed some antibacterial properties of the extract that justify the use of the plant in folk medicine. However, further studies need to be carried out to identify the potentials of the plant to be considered as a natural source of antibacterial agent.

  2. The Antiproliferative Effect of Moringa oleifera Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract on Human Esophageal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2016-04-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is commonly diagnosed in South Africa (SA), with high incidences occurring in SA's black population. Moringa oleifera (MO), a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of ailments, including cancer. We investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO crude aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on a cancerous esophageal cell line (SNO). SNO cells were exposed to a range of MOE dilutions to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay). Oxidative stress was determined using the TBARS assay. The comet assay was used to assess DNA damage. We then determined cell death mechanisms by measuring phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels (luminometry). Protein expression of Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by western blotting. SNO cells were treated with a range of MOE dilutions to obtain an IC50 value of 389.2 μg/mL MOE (24 h), which was used in all subsequent assays. MOE significantly increased lipid peroxidation (P < .05) and DNA fragmentation (P < .0001) in SNO cells. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by the increase in PS externalization (P < .0001), caspase-9 (P < .05) and caspase-3/7 (P = .22) activities, and decreased ATP levels (P < .0001). MOE significantly increased both the expression of Smac/DIABLO protein and cleavage of PARP-1, resulting in an increase in the 24-kDa fragment (P < .001). MOE possesses antiproliferative effects on SNO EC cells by increasing lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and induction of apoptosis. PMID:27074620

  3. Effects of aqueous crude leaf extract of senecio biafrae on the histology of the frontal cortex, kidney, liver and testis of male sprague dawley rats

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    A. A. Tijani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Whenever any plant and/or herb is ingested, the body system interacts with it in an attempt to get rid of any harmful toxins such may contain, especially if the body cannot convert the foreign substance into useful components. This study was to evaluate the effects of oral consumption of aqueous leaf extract of Senecio biafrae on the histology of the frontal cortex, kidney, liver and testis of Sprague Dawley rats as a marker of toxicity. Twenty adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 100-158 g were used (4-6 weeks old. They were divided into 2 groups. The rats in the treatment group A received 300 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous leaf extract of S. biafrae for thirty days (30d. Histological observation of the frontal cortex, liver, kidney and testes revealed no significant abnormal alterations. The rats in the control group B received equal volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS also for 30d and no histopathological abnormalities were seen in the frontal cortex, kidney, liver, and testes of the rats. Aqueous leaf extract of S. biafrae has no deleterious effects on the histological profile of the frontal cortex, liver, kidney and testis of the rats.

  4. Effect of Crude Leaf Extracts on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc.

    OpenAIRE

    Prapassorn Bussaman; Piyarat Namsena; Paweena Rattanasena; Angsuman Chandrapatya

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. is a fungus that causes anthracnose disease in tropical fruit plants, resulting in damages of the fruit plants and low yield and quality of fruits. The use of chemical fungicides is common for management of this disease, but it also results in the development of fungal resistance to the chemicals. Therefore, this study aims to in vitro evaluate the efficacy of 14 crude leaf extracts against C. gloeosporioides. The results showed that Piper sarmento...

  5. Crude aqueous extracts of Pluchea indica (L. Less. inhibit proliferation and migration of cancer cells through induction of p53-dependent cell death

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    Cho Jonathan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluchea indica (L. Less. (Asteraceae is a perennial shrub plant with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant medicinal properties. However, the anti-cancer properties of its aqueous extracts have not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and pro-apoptotic properties of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root on human malignant glioma cancer cells and human cervical cancer cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods GBM8401 human glioma cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root and cancer cell proliferation and viability were measured by cell growth curves, trypan blue exclusions, and the tetrazolium reduction assay. Effects of the crude aqueous extracts on focus formation, migration, and apoptosis of cancer cells were studied as well. The molecular mechanism that contributed to the anti-cancer activities of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root was also examined using Western blotting analysis. Results Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root suppressed proliferation, viability, and migration of GBM8401 and HeLa cells. Treatment with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root for 48 hours resulted in a significant 75% and 70% inhibition on proliferation and viability of GBM8401 and HeLa cancer cells, respectively. Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root inhibited focus formation and promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. It was found that phosphorylated-p53 and p21 were induced in GBM8401 and HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Expression of phosphorylated-AKT was decreased in HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Conclusion The in vitro anti-cancer effects of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root indicate that it has sufficient potential to warrant further examination and

  6. Thrombolytic Potential of Aqueous and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Camellia sinensis (Green Tea: In vitro study

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    Muhammad Ajmal Shah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thrombolytic activityof crude extracts ofCamellia sinensis (Green tea using in-vitrothrombolytic model which is very simple, rapid and easy to do method. Both aqueous crude and methanolic extracts were studied however; the results of methanolic extract were more promising which exhibited maximum 95. 24% clot lysis as compared to aqueous one i.e. 90.34% at 800 μg/ml concentration in 72 hrs of incubation. Various concentrations of leaf extract i.e. 200μg/ml, 400μg/ml, 600ug/ml and 800μg/ml were tested at different time intervals including; 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs duration of incubation at 370 C for observing maximum clot lysis. The result indicated that concentrations of leaf extract enhanced the percentage of clot lysis in dose dependent manner. On the other hand, Streptokinase SK, a reference standard and water were used as a positive and negative control showed clot lysis maximum 96.63% and 41.32% in 72 hrs of incubation respectively. From results, it can be concluded that if further studies reveals the exact molecule from green tea diverse composition, an effective thromolytic candidate can be achieved for the improvement of the patients suffering from Atherothrombotic diseases.

  7. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Yousef A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders. Methods and Results: In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plateinduced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous ...

  8. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

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    Yousef A. Taher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders.In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract did not exhibit anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw oedema.These findings indicate that Mentha piperita has a potential analgesic effect that may possibly have mediated centrally and peripherally, as well as providing a pharmacological evidence for its traditional use as a pain reliever.

  9. Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial screening of crude extract of the leaf of Adhatoda vasica . L

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    Karthikeyan A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial investigations were carried out of the crude extracts obtained from the leaf of Adhatoda vasica, using solvents of varied polarity. The presence of phenols, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins, flavanoids, aminoacids and reducing sugars was indicated by the tests conducted. The effect of ethanol, petroleum ether and water extracts were tested on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klesiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans . The minimum inhibitory concentration of the crude extracts was determined for various organisms.

  10. IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF SOLVENT FRACTIONS OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF VERNONIA COLORATA AGAINST SELECTED HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

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    Oseni Lateef Adebayo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vernonia colorata has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases related to certain bacteria. Crude leaf extracts of the plant have also been reported to contain antibacterial agents in previous in vitro studies. Fractionation of crude solvent extracts may lead to isolation and subsequent characterization of the active compound(s. In the current research, crude aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of V. colorata were evaluated for antibacterial activity against five human pathogenic bacteria. The crude extracts were further fractionated by solvent-solvent partitioning using petroleum ether, chloroform and diethyl ether. The various fractions were tested against selected bacteria using the agar-well diffusion method. Crude ethanolic extract showed MIC ranging between 5-6 mg/ml while aqueous extract showed MIC between 6-7.5 mg/ml. All fractions from the aqueous extract at 10 mg/ml did not show zone of inhibition against the bacteria tested. However, the chloroform fraction of the ethanolic extract showed activity only against S. aureus at 10 mg/ml with zone of inhibition of 15.00 ± 0.20 mm. The antibacterial activity of the chloroform fraction of the ethanolic extract was significant in comparison with control (P < 0.05. The results suggested that the crude ethanolic leaf extract of V. colorata possess superior antibacterial activity as compared with aqueous extract. The result further suggests that chloroform fraction of the ethanolic leaf extract possesses antibacterial activity hence turn out to be a good candidate for further isolation and characterization of antibacterial agents.

  11. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... in comparison with that in pure water. This observed hydrate inhibition potential shows significant variation depending on the type of crude oil. The influence of crude oil composition (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) on this behavior was probably due to the existence of a combination of different...... inhibition mechanisms and potentially a competition among inhibition-promotion mechanisms. Moreover, the hydrate formation time has been determined at different water cuts in each crude oil and it was found that the inhibition capability increases with an increase in the oil content. The effect...

  12. Effects of Mixing Conditions, Oil Type and Aqueous Phase Composition on Some Crude Oil Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    O. Omole; O.A. Falode

    2005-01-01

    The ease of formation of emulsions is described for some crude oil systems in which the mixing conditions, oil type, aqueous phase composition and concentration are varied. The most stable emulsions have quality that ranged between 10 and 20% while the least stable have quality that ranged between 50 and 60%. Droplet coalescence was highest at 2 min agitation and below 5000 rpm. Addition of 70% FY crude to BL crude caused 24% emulsion stability increase while a decrease of 50% in emulsion sta...

  13. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Maristela Imatomi; Paula Novaes; Maria Augusta Ferraz Machado Miranda; Sonia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri

    2015-01-01

    Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf e...

  14. SCREENING OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE LEAF EXTRACTS OF CASSIA TORA ON UTI PATHOGENS

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    M. P. SINHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effect of crude methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Cassia tora against pathogenic bacteriaE. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and K. pneumoniae isolated from patients of U.T.I, were investigated using agarwell diffusion method. Among the various concentration tested (ranging from 0.0625 to 6.0 mg/mL, 1.0 -2.0 mg/mL of methanolic extract was found to be the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for almost all the testorganisms while aqueous extract showed MIC at > 6.0 mg/mL. P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were resistantto aqueous extract. Methanolic extract was more effective over aqueous extract producing larger zone of inhibitionranging between 12-24mm. The traditional claims of leaves of C. tora as an antibacterial ability have beenconfirmed as the extracts displayed activity against the pathogens associated with UTI. This study indicates thatthe leaves of C. tora can be used as a source for new broad spectrum oral drug.

  15. Crude ethanolic leaf extracts of Citropsis articulata: a potential phytomedicine for treatment of male erectile dysfunction associated with testosterone deficiency

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    Patrick Vudriko

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: Taken together, the crude leaf extracts of C. articulata could be used as a cheap alternative for the treatment of low libido due to testosterone deficiency. However, further studies are needed on the safety profile and the identification of the molecules responsible for the biological activity of the plant extract. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 120-123

  16. Preliminary in vitro pro-apoptotic effects of Cratoxylum formosum crude leaf extracts

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    Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Cratoxylum formosum (Jack Dyer is an indigenous vegetable used in North Eastern Thai cuisine. It has also been used as folk medicine for treatment of diarrhea and food poisoning. Our previous study has indicated that hot water and hydroalcoholic extracts from C. formosum (leaf demonstrated anti-liver cancer activity. However, their effects on molecular targets and cellular mechanisms are unknown. This study therefore aimed to investigate effects of C. formosum extracts on apoptosis pathway and protein expression of p53, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and cyclin D1 proteins. By performing Annexin V assay, crude extracts of C. formosum could induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Western blot analysis confirmed that crude extracts of C. formosum activated protein expression of p53 and down-regulated NF-κB and cyclin D1 proteins. Therefore, hot water extract and hydroalcoholic of C. formosum contain active compounds that demonstrate anti-liver cancer activity by affecting cellular signalling pathways.Industrial Relevance. Our study indicates selective biology activities of C. formosum crude extracts in liver cancer cells, thereby identifying their medicinal potentials. These results are promising to be followed with further isolated compounds that may be formulated as dietary supplementary for curing liver cancer or development of anti-liver cancer drugs. Moreover, the medicinal property identified here may increase in the value added of this plant and stimulate its cultivation as valuable resource for alternative drugs.Keywords. C. formosum; liver cancer; hepatitis B virus; apoptosis; molecular targets

  17. «Evaluation of the anti-icterus effect of crude powdered leaf of Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats».

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    T.S. SOURABIE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae are used in the folk medicine of Burkina Faso (West Africa to treat a variety of illness. Aqueous decoction of the drug is indicated in the treatment of malaria fever, abdominal pains, and jaundice. A preliminary study led by the authors showed a good anti-icterus (hepatoprotective activity of leaves extracts on intoxicated Wistar rats. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the anti-icterus activity of crude leaf powder against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver functions were assessed by the activities of liver marker enzymes, ASAT/GOT, ALAT/GPT, ALP, Total Bilirubin (TBIL and Direct Bilirubin (DBIL.A crude powdered leaf suspended in acacia gum solution (2% p/w was administered orally to the animal at doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg attenuated significantly (p<0,05 the elevation of serum enzymes level and bilirubin (total and direct if compared to the CCl4 treated groups. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o., a known antihepatoprotective drug was used as reference. The results showed a dose-dependent anti-hepatotoxic effect against liver injury induced by CCl4 in rats. These findings give an opportunity for a future elaboration of galenic formulation as phytomedicament.

  18. Robust magnetic/polymer hybrid nanoparticles designed for crude oil entrapment and recovery in aqueous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavía-Sanders, Adriana; Zhang, Shiyi; Flores, Jeniree A; Sanders, Jonathan E; Raymond, Jeffery E; Wooley, Karen L

    2013-09-24

    Well-defined, magnetic shell cross-linked knedel-like nanoparticles (MSCKs) with hydrodynamic diameters ca. 70 nm were constructed through the co-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers of PAA20-b-PS280 and oleic acid-stabilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using tetrahydrofuran, N,N-dimethylformamide, and water, ultimately transitioning to a fully aqueous system. These hybrid nanomaterials were designed for application as sequestering agents for hydrocarbons present in crude oil, based upon their combination of amphiphilic organic domains, for aqueous solution dispersibility and capture of hydrophobic guest molecules, with inorganic core particles for magnetic responsivity. The employment of these MSCKs in a contaminated aqueous environment resulted in the successful removal of the hydrophobic contaminants at a ratio of 10 mg of oil per 1 mg of MSCK. Once loaded, the crude oil-sorbed nanoparticles were easily isolated via the introduction of an external magnetic field. The recovery and reusability of these MSCKs were also investigated. These results suggest that deployment of hybrid nanocomposites, such as these, could aid in environmental remediation efforts, including at oil spill sites, in particular, following the bulk recovery phase. PMID:23987122

  19. Gastroprotective effect of the aqueous leaf extract ofGuiera senegalensis in Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akuodor GC; Essien AD; David-Oku E; Chilaka KC; Akpan JL; Ezeokpo B; Ezeonwumelu JOC

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract ofGuiera senegalensis(G. senegalensis) on gastric mucosal damage using different ulcer models.Methods:Considering the above claims, the present study was undertaken to validate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous leaf extract of this plant against ethanol, water immersion andAspirin induced ulcer models. Results:The leaf extract(50,100 and200 mg/kg,p.o.) significantly(P<0.05) decreased the ulcer index in all assays used.Conclusions:The results obtained, provide strong evidence of antiulcer activity of the leaf extract ofG. senegalensis and support the traditional uses of the plant for the treatment of ulcer.

  20. In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Anthony I.; Dambudzo Penduka

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zone...

  1. In-Vitro Antagonistic Characteristics of Crude Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds against Some Vibrio Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Anthony I.; Dambudzo Penduka; Omobola O. Okoh

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds were screened for their anti-Vibrio activities against 50 Vibrio isolates obtained from wastewater final effluents in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The crude extracts at 10 mg/mL exhibited appreciable inhibitory activities against most of the test Vibrio isolates, with zones of inhibition ranging from 10–19 mm for methanol extract and 8–15 mm for the aqueous extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the metha...

  2. Quails Response to Aqueous Extract of Bush Marigold (Aspilia africana Leaf

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    E. A. Agiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The effects of inclusion of aqueous extract of Bush marigold (Aspilia africana leaf in quail diet were investigated. One hundred and fifty Japanese quail chicks were used in the study. Approach: In the 14-weeks feeding experiment, the birds were assigned to five treatments of; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% inclusion of aqueous extract of Bush marigold leaf. Each treatment had 3 replicates of 10 birds per replicate in a randomized complete block design. Results: The results indicated that feeding Aqueous extract of Bush Marigold Leaf (AeBML did not affect (p>0.05 daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and carcass yield. Mortality and % cracked eggs were reduced (p0.05 affected by dietary supplementations with AeBML. Egg number and hen day production increased (pConclusion: The study concluded that dietary inclusion of up to 5% aqueous extract of bush marigold leaf in the diets of growing and laying quails could enhance growth performance and egg production traits.

  3. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

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    Maristela Imatomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf extracts at 5 and 10% (g mL-1 were tested on the germination and growth of Euphorbia heterophylla, Echinochloa crus-galli and Ipomoea grandifolia and compared with the herbicide oxyfluorfen and distilled water (control. The most extracts caused pronounced delays in seed germination and inhibited the growth of seedlings of E. heterophylla; I. grandifolia and E. crus-galli, with the last target species had no growth shoot inhibited by the extracts. In this study, the potential and efficiency of the tested aqueous leaf extracts were evident because they were more phytotoxic to the weeds than the herbicide. Thus, the aqueous extracts of leaves from Myrtaceae species show potential for the isolation of active compounds that can be used for the production of natural herbicides in the future.

  4. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus SPP. against parthenium hysterophorus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus species viz. E citriodora Hook and E. camaldulensis Dehnh. Against the germination and seeding growth of alien aggressive weed parthenium hysterophorus L. The experiment was conducted in department of Mycology and plant Pathology in 2006. Aqueous leaf extracts of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (w/v) of the two aforementioned Eucalyptus species were employed in the present study. Extracts of 2-8% concentration of both the Eucalyptus species significantly suppressed germination of the target weed species. A 10% extract of both the species completely arrested the germination. Aqueous extracts also reduced the root and shoot length of parthenium. Effect of extracts on seedling biomass was insignificant. (author)

  5. Pharmacological effects of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) aqueous crude extract on rat's heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, Alicia E; Sarubbio, Marisol Gracía

    2002-06-01

    The effect of aqueous crude extract (ACE) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was studied on rat's perfused ventricles. This plant is used in South American traditional medicine as an antihypertensive and we already demonstrated previously its hypotensive properties. In this paper, maximal left intraventriclular pressure (P) of rat's hearts beating at 0.2 Hz firstly increased to 162.1+/-11.1% of basal value during 1-3 min of perfusing ACE 0.6%. Maximum rate of contraction (+P) also increased to duplicating +P/P ratio. Both types of effect were significantly decreased by either propranolol 0.35 microM, and pre-treatment with reserpine (5 mg/kg), suggesting that they were caused by a compound that releases cathecolamines with beta-adrenergic action. Nevertheless, after 20 min of perfusing ACE, ventricles decreased P to about 50% of their basal value, suggesting a negative-inotropic compound present in the extract. The perfusion of 1.2% ACE decreased P in a pressure-[Ca](o) curve (0.5-2 mM) in a non-competitive manner, suggesting that an irreversible Ca-blocking compound is also present in the extract. In summary, E. uniflora ACE has a dual effect on the heart related to its hypotensive action and is probably responsible for the therapeutic or adverse effects in patients under cardiac risk. PMID:12020928

  6. REMOVAL OF CONGO RED DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY DATE PALM LEAF BASE

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadah Alsenani

    2014-01-01

    Removal of dyes from wastewater is important for industry and environmental protection. The adsorption technique, using biomass is attractive method for environmental and economical reasons. This study studies removal of Congo Red dye (CR) from aqueous solutions by adsorption using date palm Leaf Base (LB). The adsorption of congo red dye CR onto LB has been examined in aqueous solution by considering the influence of temperature up to 60°C and pH on the percentage removal of CR. The resu...

  7. In vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giselle Cristina Silva; Renata Albuquerque Costa; Antonio Adauto Fonteles Filho

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts (Moringa oleifera) on the growth of gram-positive and negative bacteria. Methods:Paper disks were soaked with 100, 200, 300 and 400μL of extract at 20 g/180 mL and 10 g/190 mL. All extracts were tested against Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Salmonella enteritidis (IH) and Aeromonas caviae. The susceptibility tests were performed using the modified disk diffusion method. Results:The strains E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis (IH) were resistant to all treatments. In general, disks with 400μL extract were the most efficient against S. aureus, V. parahaemolyticus, E. faecalis and A. caviae. Conclusions: The study indicates a promising potential for aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts as alternative treatment of infections caused by the tested strains.

  8. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

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    Dr.T.Jayasree

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim of the study was to evaluate the local anesthetic activity of betel leaf extract after autoclaving the extract of betel leaf. Materials and methods: Extract of plain betel leaf, was tested for surface anesthetic activity using rabbits. Aqueous extraction of Piper betel leaf (AEPBL done by Soxhelts apparatus .Twenty male Rabbit’s were taken and divided in to four groups each group contain 5 animals, Group I - Standard (2% xylocaine, Group II - Test 0.3% (AEPBL, Group III - Test 0.6 % (AEPBL,Group IV - Test 12 % (AEPBL was instilled in conjunctival sac of right eyes. Standard protocol was followed to elicit light reflex, corneal reflex and to measure pupillary size after instilling the test drugs in the eye. There was dose dependent increase in onset and duration of local anesthetic activity with 6% and 12% doses of alcoholic extract of Piper betel leaf. Results: Betel leaf showed significant surface anesthetic activity comparable to that of Xylocaine. Conclusion: As a surface anesthetic, the onset was as quick as xylocaine and the duration was shorter than xylocaine

  9. EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC STUDY OF ADSORPTION OF NICKEL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ONTO BAEL TREE LEAF POWDER

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    P. SENTHIL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of bael tree (BT leaf powder to adsorb nickel, Ni2+, from aqueous solutions has been investigated through batch experiments. The Ni2+ adsorption was found to be dependent on adsorbent dosage, initial concentration and contact time. All batch experiments were carried out at natural solution pH and at a constant temperature of 30°C using wrist-action shaker that operated at 120 rpm. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. The monolayer adsorption capacity is 1.527 mg Ni per g BT leaf powder. The experiments showed that highest removal rate was 60.21% for Ni2+ under optimal conditions. The kinetic processes of Ni2+ adsorption on BT leaf powder were described by applying pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. The kinetic data for the adsorption process obeyed pseudo-second-order rate equations. The BT leaf powder investigated in this study exhibited a high potential for the removal of Ni2+ from aqueous solution.

  10. Antibacterial Screening of Crude Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Four Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Eze, E A.; Oruche, N E; Onuora, V. C.; Eze, C N.

    2013-01-01

    Agar well diffusion techniques and macrobroth dilution methods were used to screen the ethanolic leaf extracts of four medicinal plants (Picralima nitida, Chromolaena odorata, Aspilia africana and Hyptis suaveolens) for antibacterial activity against the following bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. nitida ranged from 1.56 mg/ml to 6.25 mg/ml and that of C. o...

  11. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  12. Adsorption of crude oil from aqueous solution by hydrogel of chitosan based polyacrylamide prepared by radiation induced graft polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of crude oil (initial concentration 0.5-30 g/L) from aqueous solution using hydrogel of chitosan based polyacrylamide (PAM) prepared by radiation induced graft polymerization has been investigated. The prepared hydrogel was characterized by FTIR and SEM micrographs. The experiments were carried out as a function of different initial concentrations of oil residue, acrylamide concentration, contact time and pH to determine the optimum condition for the adsorption of residue oil from aqueous solution and sea water. The results obtained showed that the hydrogel prepared at concentration of 40% acrylamide (AAm) and at a radiation dose of 5 kGy has high removal efficiency of crude oil 2.3 g/g at pH 3. Equilibrium studies have been carried out to determine the capacity of the hydrogel for adsorption of crude oil, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the experimental isotherms and isotherms constants. Equilibrium data were found to fit very well with both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Also the adsorption of oil onto the hydrogel behaves as a pseudo-second-order kinetic models rather than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model.

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagajjanani Rao, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India); Paria, Santanu, E-mail: santanuparia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  14. Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Globimetula cupulata (DC) Van Tieghem (Loranthaceae) aqueous leaf extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O; Adewole, S O

    2007-01-01

    The leaves of some mistletoes, specifically Loranthus micranthus Linn, Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) Danser and Globimetula cupulata (DC) Van Tieghem (family: Loranthaceae), are used traditionally in Nigerian folk medicine to manage, control and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In order to scientifically appraise some of the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of Globimetula species, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Globimetula cupulata aqueous leaf extract (GCE, 50-800 mg/kg po) in rat experimental paradigms. The hypoglycaemic effect of the plant extract was examined in normal (normoglycaemic) and diabetic (hyperglycaemic) rats using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model. Normotensive Wistar and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats were used to investigate the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract. Metformin (MFM, 500 mg/kg po) was used as the reference hypoglycaemic agent for comparison. Acute oral administrations of G cupulata aqueous leaf extract (GCE, 50-800 mg/kg po) caused dose-related, significant (p control of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria. PMID:17392989

  15. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of rabbit does to crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract at gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewuola, Emmanuel Olubisi; Sokunbi, Olujide Adedamola; Sanni, Kafayat Modupeola; Oyedemi, Oluwaseyi Margaret; Lawal, Temitope Tawakalit

    2015-04-01

    As the plant Moringa oleifera is used in herbal medicines for animals, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of crude M. oleifera leaf extract (CMOLE) on the blood profile of rabbit does during gestation and lactation. Twenty-four mature does (mean weight 2200 g) housed individually were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomised design. The animals in treatments 2, 3 and 4 were orally given 100, 200 and 300 mL/L CMOLE, respectively, at 2.5 mL/kg body weight at 48 h intervals for 9 weeks. The control animals (treatment 1) were given with water only. All the does were mated with untreated bucks 2 weeks into the experiment. Blood samples were collected at 3rd trimester (day 25 of gestation) and 2nd week of lactation. During gestation, levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the treatments. However, animals on treatment 2 had the highest platelets (148.8 × 10(9)/L), not significantly different from those on treatments 3 (141.5 × 10(9)/L) and 4 (135.0 × 10(9)/L), but higher (p Moringa has a hypocholesterolemic effect and is safe for use up to 300 mL/L for both nutritional and medicinal purposes. PMID:25686552

  16. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew Leaf on Pregnancy Outcome of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Dare

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anacardium occidentale (cashew leaf extract is used medicinally to treat various kinds of diseases such as diabetes, fever, bronchitis etc, in different parts of the world including Nigeria. This study investigates the effect of A. occidentale leaf extract on reproductive outcome of Wistar rats. Twenty female wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (I, II, III, and IV, n = 5 in each group. Group I is the control while groups II, III and IV are experimental groups. 300 mg/kg of aqueous leaf extract of A. occidentale was administered orally to group II, III and IV during early (days 1-7 mid- (days 7-14 and late (days 14-21 pregnancy respectively. The leaf extract significantly (p<0.05 shows low birthweight on the pupsborn in early and mid pregnancy but high birthweight in late pregnancy: (Control vs treatment; early pregnancy, 7.220±0.030 vs 5.753±0.166 g; mid pregnancy, 7.220±0.030 g vs 5.431±0.149 g; late pregnancy, 7.220±0.030 vs 7.60±0.00 g, Crown-rump length (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 6.450±0.050 vs 5.875±0.139 g; mid pregnancy, 6.450±0.050 vs 5.713±0.064 g; late pregnancy, 6.450±0.050 vs 6.50±0.00 g, Head Circumference, (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 1.150±0.05 vs 1.225±0.016 g; mid pregnancy, 1.150±0.05 vs 1.138±0.026 g; late pregnancy, 1.150±0.05 vs 1.30±0.00 g. Life birth index is unaltered. Quantal pregnancy (% in groups I, II, III and IV is 75, 80, 80 and 75, respectively. Litter size in group I, II, III and IV is 2, 8, 8 and 1, respectively. Gestation length is unaltered. The leaf extract was non teratogenic. In conclusion, the leaf extract of A. occidentale administered revealed low birthweight, crown-rump length in early and mid pregnancy but increased birthweight and crown-rump length in late pregnancy.

  17. In vitro activity of total aqueous ethanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis on Leishmania major promastigotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Ricinus communis was tested on Leishmania promastigotes in cell-free culture media. Serial dilutions of the extracts ranging from 500μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 62.5μg/ml were prepared in triplicate using Schneiders Drosophila medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum in the absence of antibiotics and the growth of approximately 1x 10 (power 6) parasites monitored every two days for a period of 8 days. Parasite density was estimated every two days using the Neuabeur counting chamber. At the end of the 8-day period cell morphology was observed and photographed. Significant growth inihibitory effect was observed on the promastigotes by the aqueous and ethanol extracts especially at high concentrations. However, there was an enhanced growth effect initially thereafter leading to to a rapid decline in promastigote cell population. Flagellar motility was also greatly affected at high concentration and it appeared that there was a linear relationship between flagellar motilities and the level of concentrations. Parasite morphology was affected severely. Most of the cultures observed appeared to have abnormal round morphology. Rosseting was also evident in the extract treated cultures. The aqueous leaf extract interfered with parasite morphology but this was dose dependent. The importance of R. communis plant as a potential source for chemotypes with antileishmanial activity is discussed. (author)

  18. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Umeda Grisi; Sônia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri; Marli Aparecida Ranal; Denise Garcia de Santana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry) on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (onion), as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml o...

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicological assessment of Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum. and Thonn. (Connaraceae aqueous leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O O Adeyemi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This study was conducted to determine the safety profile of Byrsocarpus coccineus (Connaraceae by carrying out the acute and subchronic toxicological assessment of its aqueous leaf extract. In the acute toxicity test, mice were administered orally with the extract up to 10 g/kg and intraperitoneally at doses of 50 – 800 mg/kg. Animals were then observed for behavioural changes, signs of toxicity, and mortality within 24 h. Surviving mice were monitored for 7 days for signs of delayed toxicity. In the subchronic toxicity test, rats were daily treated with the extract at doses of 40, 200, and 1000 mg/kg orally, for 30 days and 60 days. Control animals received distilled water and all animals were weighed at 7 days interval. At the end of the test periods, haematological, biochemical, and urinary parameters were determined in blood, serum, and urine samples respectively and vital organs macroscopically examined and weighed. In the acute toxicity test, the extract was practically non-toxic showing no mortality and visible signs of delayed toxicity. The LD50, given intraperitoneally, was estimated to be 158.4 mg/kg. Administered for 30 days, the extract did not produce any significant (P < 0.05 effect on haematological and biochemical parameters and vital organs. In the 60 day study, the extract elicited significant (P < 0.05 increases in platelet and WBC count and reductions in levels of liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, and total protein. The weight of the kidneys, spleen, epididymis, and testes were not significantly affected but significant changes were observed in the weight of the liver (↑, heart (↓, and lungs (↑. Generally, B. coccineus did not significantly affect body weight and urinary parameters. Results obtained in this study suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of B. coccineus is safe when administered orally with potential beneficial effects as immunostimulant, hepatoprotective

  20. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  1. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana Juss and its antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwaniyi, Omolara O.; Adegoke, Haleemat I.; Adesuji, Elijah T.; Alabi, Aderemi B.; Bodede, Sunday O.; Labulo, Ayomide H.; Oseghale, Charles O.

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthesizing of silver nanoparticles using microorganisms or various plant parts have proven more environmental friendly, cost-effective, energy saving and reproducible when compared to chemical and physical methods. This investigation demonstrated the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles at 460 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared showed that the glycosidic -OH and carbonyl functional group present in extract were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. X ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction analyses were used to confirm the nature, morphology and shape of the nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with average size of 18.1 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed activity against fungal pathogens and bacteria. The zone of inhibition observed in the antimicrobial study ranged between 10 and 20 mm.

  2. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana Juss and its antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwaniyi, Omolara O.; Adegoke, Haleemat I.; Adesuji, Elijah T.; Alabi, Aderemi B.; Bodede, Sunday O.; Labulo, Ayomide H.; Oseghale, Charles O.

    2015-10-01

    Biosynthesizing of silver nanoparticles using microorganisms or various plant parts have proven more environmental friendly, cost-effective, energy saving and reproducible when compared to chemical and physical methods. This investigation demonstrated the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles at 460 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared showed that the glycosidic -OH and carbonyl functional group present in extract were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. X ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction analyses were used to confirm the nature, morphology and shape of the nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with average size of 18.1 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed activity against fungal pathogens and bacteria. The zone of inhibition observed in the antimicrobial study ranged between 10 and 20 mm.

  3. Allelopathic potential of jatropha curcas L. leaf aqueous extracts on seedling growth of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allelopathic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas on seed germination and early seedling growth of wheat cv. Inqlab-91 were investigated. The extracts were applied at 50 percentage, 25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 6.25 percentage and 3.12 percentage as seed soaking for 5h prior to sowing of seeds in the pots. The J. curcas leaf characterized for composition of macronutrients showed Na (304 micro g/g), K (267 micro g/g), Mg (92 micro g/g) and Ca (12 micro g/g). Among micronutrients Fe (92 micro g/g), Cr (92 micro g/g), Ni (48 micro g/g), Co (38 μg/g), Cu (23 micro g/g, Mn (12 micro g/g) and Zn (15.22 micro g/g) were found. Phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts and were found maximum (8.12 mg gallic acid/g extract) in 50 percentage extract. Lower concentrations (6.25 percentage, 3.25 percentage) of the extracts significantly improved seed germination (percentage), germination index, shoot length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight and root area of wheat plants (p<0.05). At higher concentration of the extract, root length was significantly reduced. It is inferred that lower concentrations (6.25 percentage and 3.12 percentage) of the extracts exhibited beneficial effects on growth of wheat plants. (author)

  4. Aqueous Oxidation of Green Leaf Volatiles as a Source of Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Henderson, N. K.; Hansel, A.; Pham, A. T.; Vempati, H. S.; Valsaraj, K. T.; Anastasio, C.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation emits volatile oxygenated hydrocarbons - the green leaf volatiles (GLVs) - which are formed from the biochemical conversion of linoleic and linolenic acids within plant cells. Stress or damage to vegetation can significantly elevate emission fluxes of these compounds, some of which are fairly water soluble. Aqueous-phase reactions of the GLVs with photochemically generated oxidants - such as hydroxyl radical (OH), singlet oxygen (1O2) and excited triplet states of organic compounds (3C*) _ might then form low-volatility products that can act as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In order to determine if GLVs can be a significant source of secondary organic carbon in fogwater, studies of GLVs in laboratory solutions are needed to elucidate the oxidation kinetics and the corresponding SOA mass yields. In this study we are determining the second-order rate constants, and SOA mass yields, for five GLVs (cis-3-hexen-1-ol, cis-3-hexenylacetate, methyl salicylate, methyl jasmonate, and 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol) reacting with OH,1O2 and 3C*. Experiments are performed at relevant fog water pHs, temperatures, and oxidant concentrations. Rate constants are determined using a relative rate approach in which the decay of GLVs and reference compounds are monitored as function of time by HPLC. The capacity of GLVs to form aqueous SOA was determined by following the formation of their decomposition products with HPLC-UV/DAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. SOA mass yields are measured gravimetrically from laboratory solutions containing atmospherically relevant concentrations of photooxidants and GLVs, and irradiated with simulated sunlight. We will use our results to assess the potential contribution of aqueous GLV reactions as a source of SOA in cloudy or foggy atmospheres.

  5. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Umeda Grisi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce and Allium cepa L. (onion, as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml of distilled water, resulting in a concentration of 10.0%. Distilled water was added in order to obtain dilutions of 7.5%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. The extraction was carried out with young leaves (in powder form and organic solvents of various polarities. We fractioned the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. The phytotoxic potential of the aqueous extract of young leaves S. saponaria varied according to the receiving species and the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. The ethyl acetate extract, specifically fraction 6 (57-70, had the greatest inhibitory effect on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles, indicating that the compounds responsible for the phytotoxic effect reside within this fraction.

  6. In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel Seeds

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    Anthony I. Okoh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15 at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8 at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18 at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30 at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy.

  7. Active spermatogenesis induced by a reiterated administration of Globularia alypum L. aqueous leaf extract

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    Badreddine Fehri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae is a shrub growing in the Mediterranean basin and known to be used as a popular medicine for its several pharmacological properties against rheumatism, gout, typhoid, intermittent fever, and diabetes. Materials and Methods: The acute and chronic toxicities of a G. alypum L. aqueous leaf extract were studied in animals. Acute toxicity was performed in male and female mice whereas chronic toxicity was realized in male and female rats that orally received the drug at the doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/24 h for 30 days. Results: Acute toxicity showed that the extract, administered by the oral route, does not induce any mortality even for a dose of 10,000 mg/kg. Administered by the intra-peritoneal route to female and male mice, the LD 50 of the extract was found to be of 2750 and 2550 mg/kg, respectively. A chronic toxicity study showed that, compared to the control groups that only received the vehicle (water, the drugs affects weight growth (effects more pronounced in female than in male rats, some organs weight after autopsy, hematological and biochemical parameters and histology of some principal organs (lungs: histological grades I to II pulmonary hypertension (PHT, respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, and lymphoid hyperplasia; esophagus: thinning down of esophageal wall, atrophic muscular coat. The most important finding of the study was the recorded active spermatogenesis induced by the reiterated administrations of the drug that was confirmed by reducing the administered dose and the period of treatment (100 mg/kg/24 h for 15 days. Conclusion: It is suggested that the G. alypum L. leaf extract contains active substances with androgenic properties that could be used in human therapy.

  8. The efficacy of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Pistia stratiotes linn in the management of arthritis and fever

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Boampong; Koffuor, G.A.; Kyei, S.

    2012-01-01

    Arthritic pain and disability are at or near the top of the list of reasons adult patients seek medical attention. This study therefore attempts to establish the efficacy of an aqueous and ethanolic leaf extract of Pistia stratiotes Linn (Araceae) in a rodent experimental model of arthritis and fever to ascertain its importance in the traditional management of this inflammatory disorder. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. stratiotes at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg as well as 0.3 mg/k...

  9. Comparative central effects of the aqueous leaf extract of two populations of Passiflora edulis

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    Adriana S.F.S.J. Ayres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPassiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, has been used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. P. edulis is commonly known for its economic interests in Brazil. This species exhibits significant variability in the fruit rind color, then two subpopulations has been described (P. edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg. (PEF; P. edulis fo. edulis (PEE. This study compared phytochemical profile and biological actions of aqueous leaf extract of PEE and PEF. HPLC analysis showed marked distinct chromatograms to the P. edulisvarieties. However, in both extracts the major compounds observed were flavonoids C-glycosides. Behavioral studies showed that PEE (300 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. reduced anxiety in the elevated plus maze test. PEE (300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (1000 mg/kg, p.o. also induced antidepressant-like actions in the forced swimming test. PEE 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced distance moved, thus suggesting sedation. No alterations in sleeping time were observed with PEE and PEF extracts. In conclusion, despite the similarities between the biological actions observed for both P. edulis varieties, quite different phytochemical profile was herein reported. These data suggest that the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions are not due to a specific phytochemical component.

  10. Immunological alterations in juvenile Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi, exposed to aqueous hydrocarbons derived from crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of acute and subchronic aqueous hydrocarbon exposures in the ppb range (0.2-127 μg/L total PAH) on the immune system in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) were examined through specific immunocompetency assays and a host resistance model using Listonella anguillarum. Short-term hydrocarbon exposure at the highest concentration significantly enhanced respiratory burst activity (RBA) in macrophages and decreased plasma lysozyme concentrations, however, subchronic exposure (4-57 d) reduced RBA. Fish in the high exposure group were also less susceptible to the pathogen L. anguillarum following acute hydrocarbon exposure; however, this group was the most susceptible following subchronic exposures. These results are explained by a measured transient physiological stress response and long-term effects on ionoregulation. This study illustrates that hydrocarbon-elicited effects are dynamic and that toxic outcomes with respect to the teleost immune system depend on chemical concentrations and composition, exposure durations and the specific pathogen challenge. - Effects of oil on herring immunology and disease resistance

  11. The influence of leaf age on methylxanthines, total phenolic content, and free radical scavenging capacity of Ilex paraguariensis aqueous extracts

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    Carlos H. Blum-Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil., Aquifoliaceae is a South American native species that is widely used for its industrial potential in the preparation of drinks, teas and cosmetics. Its properties are directly related to the presence of its chemical constituents, such as saponins, methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. This study aimed to investigate the influence of leaf age on methylxanthine and total phenolic contents by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, as well as on free radical scavenging capacity, of aqueous extracts of I. paraguariensis leaves. The results showed great variability in all the metabolites measured. Leaf ageing significantly increased the methylxanthine content and total phenolic content of the extracts. Free radical scavenging capacity was also significantly affected (p < 0.05 by leaf age. A positive correlation was observed, between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

  12. Comparison of the toxicity of aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei leaf using the eye irritancy test

    OpenAIRE

    SON, HYEONG-U; YOON, EUN-KYUNG; CHA, YONG-SOO; Kim, Min-A; SHIN, YONG-KYU; KIM, JONG-MYUNG; CHOI, YONG-HEE; Lee, Sang-Han

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of the Angelica keiskei leaf exert toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes, we performed the acute eye irritancy test. Animals were treated with sample fractions (100 mg/dose) according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes or damage was detected in the fraction-treated groups in terms of ocular lesions in the cornea, the size of the cornea with turbidity, swelling of the eyelid and emission discharge. However, sodium dioc...

  13. Antioxidant and antiulcer potential of aqueous leaf extract of Kigelia africana against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Matheus M; Olaleye, Mary T.; Ineu, Rafael P.; Aline A. Boligon; Margareth L. Athayde; Barbosa, Nilda B.V.; Rocha, João B. T.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotanical claims regarding Kigelia africana reported antiulcer properties as part of its medicinal application. In this work, aqueous leaf extract from K. africana was investigated for its phytochemical constituents and antiulcer potential against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The participation of oxidative stress on ethanol-induced ulcer and the potential protective antioxidant activity of K. africana extracts were investigated by determining vitamin C and thiobarbituric acid reactive ...

  14. The efficacy of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Pistia stratiotes linn in the management of arthritis and fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boampong, J. N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Arthritic pain and disability are at or near the top of the list of reasons adult patients seek medical attention. This study therefore attempts to establish the efficacy of an aqueous and ethanolic leaf extract of Pistia stratiotes Linn (Araceae in a rodent experimental model of arthritis and fever to ascertain its importance in the traditional management of this inflammatory disorder. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. stratiotes at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg as well as 0.3 mg/kg methotrexate, 0.46 mg/kg diclofenac and 1 mg/kg dexamethasone were administered to formalin-induced arthritic rats. The same doses of the extracts in comparison to 150 mg/kg acetaminophen were also administered to rats in which fever had been induced with lipopolysaccharides. Data ob-tained was analyzed using GraphPad Prism 5.0. The results obtained indicated significant reduc-tion (P ≤ 0.05-0.01 in paw thickness of formalin-induced arthritic animals treated with both aque-ous and ethanolic leaf extracts with effects comparable to that of methotrexate, diclofenac, and dexamethasone. Lipopolysacharride-induced fever in rats was also significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05-0.01 at all dose levels of aqueous and ethanolic treated animals in a manner similar to that of acet-aminophen. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of P. stratiotes have anti-arthritic and antipy-retic effect in formalin-induced arthritis and LPS-induced fever in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  15. Antiarthritic effect of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Pistia stratiotes in adjuvant-induced arthritis in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George A; Boampong, Johnson N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pistia stratiotes has been used effectively to treat a number of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to determine the antiarthritic effect of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of P. stratiotes. Methods Arthritis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats, paw swelling was measured, and arthritis indices were estimated in rats treated with aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of P. stratiotes (AQ PSE and ET PSE, respectively), methotrexate, diclofenac, dexamethasone, and normal saline...

  16. Effects of Varying Concentrations of the Crude Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Dalbergia Sissoo Plant Parts on Biomphalaria Pfeifferi Egg Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Adenusi, Adedotun A; Odaibo, Alexander B

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated, using replicated laboratory bioassays, the toxicities of the crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. 1832 (family Leguminosae) fruits, leaves, roots and stem bark against egg masses of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848), the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907) in Nigeria. Viable 0–24 hr-old embryonated egg masses were separately exposed to five different concentrations (7.81–2000 mg/l) of extracts for 24 hrs, washed in ...

  17. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF COBB BROILERS GIVEN VARYING CONCENTRATIONS OF MALUNGGAY (Moringa oleifera Lam. AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. PORTUGALIZA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the growth performance of Cobb broilers supplemented with varying concentrations of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Leaf Extract (MoALE via the drinking water. A total of four hundred day-old chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups, replicated four times with twenty-five broilers per replicate. The growth performance of broilers was evaluated based on their feed consumption, live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR and return of investment (ROI. Results of the study showed that at 90 mL MoALE (T3, the feed consumption of broilers was consistently lower than the control group (T0 and this was statistically significant (P<0.01. The live weight of broilers given 30 mL (T1, 60 mL (T2 and 90 mL (T3 MoALEs were significantly higher than the control group (T0 and this was also statistically significant (P<0.01. In terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR, the MoALE treated broilers (T1-T3 were more efficient converter of feeds into meat than the control group (T0 and this was statistically significant (P<0.01. Furthermore, the return of investment (ROI of MoALE treated broilers (T1-T3 was significantly higher (P<0.01 than the control group (T0 with a revenue per peso invested of Php 0.62 in T1 and T2, and Php 0.63 in T3 compared to Php 0.50 in T0.

  18. Antinociceptive activity of aqueous leaf extract of Tetracera sarmentosa L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. G. W Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sri Lankan traditional medicine mature leaves of Tetracera sarmentosa L. (Family : Dilleniaceae is used as a healing agent in the treatment of bone fractures. A strong possibility exists that these leaves could possess antinociceptive activity but this has not been scientifically tested and validated. The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive potential of an aqueous leaf extract (ALE of T. sarmentosa in rats (doses used : 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg, given orally using three algesiometric methods (hot plate, tail flick and formalin tests. The results showed that ALE possesses marked and significant (p< 0.05 antinociceptive action when evaluated in hot plate (in a dose dependant manner and formalin tests (only the highest dose tested but not in tail flick test. The antinociceptive action of ALE had a quick onset (within 1 h and a moderately long duration of action (up to 4 h. The antinociceptive action of ALE was not blocked by atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist or metoclopramide (a dopamine receptor antagonist. Moreover, the ALE did not have sedative (in terms of hole board test or membrane stabilizing (in terms of in vitro heat induced haemolysis of rat erythrocyte test activities. ALE contained a wide variety of chemical constituents of which alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, steroids may have contributed to antinociceptive action of ALE. Collectively, these observations suggest that ALE - induced antonociception was mediated both centrally, at supraspinal level, and peripherally. The antinocicetion action was not due to cholinergic, dopaminergic, sedative and membrane stabilizing mechanisms but possibly due to opioidergic mechanisms (by indirect evidences. The results also suggest that ALE is effective against both neurogenic and inflammatory pains. In conclusion, this study shows, for the first time, that ALE of T. sarmentosa possesses moderately strong pain relieving activity, which is beneficial in the

  19. Intensified Separation of Steviol Glycosides from a Crude Aqueous Extract of Stevia rebaudiana Leaves Using Centrifugal Partition Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jane; Borie, Nicolas; Chollet, Sébastien; Perret, Joël; Barbet-Massin, Claire; Berger, Monique; Daydé, Jean; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2015-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of Stevia rebaudiana leaves have been approved since 2008 by the Joint Expert Committee for Food Additives as sugar substitutes in many food and beverages in Western and Far East Asian countries. The compounds responsible for the natural sweetness of Stevia leaves include a diversity of diterpenoid glycosides derived from a steviol skeleton. These steviol glycosides also exhibit a low calorific value as well as promising therapeutic applications, particularly for the treatment of sugar metabolism disturbances. In this work, centrifugal partition chromatography is proposed as an efficient technical alternative to purify steviol glycosides from crude aqueous extracts of Stevia leaves on a multigram scale. Two different commercial instruments, including an ASCPC250® and a FCPE300® made of columns containing 1890 and 231 twin-cells, respectively, were evaluated and compared. All experiments were performed with a polar biphasic solvent system composed of ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water in a gradient elution mode. When using the 1890 partition cell centrifugal partition chromatography column of 250 mL, 42 mg of stevioside, 68 mg of dulcoside A, and 172 mg of rebaudioside A, three major constituents of the initial extract were obtained from 1 g of the initial mixture at purities of 81%, 83%, and 99%, respectively. The productivity was further improved by intensifying the procedure on the 231 partition cell centrifugal partition chromatography column of 303 mL with the sample mass loading increased up to 5 g, resulting in the recovery of 1.2 g of stevioside, 100 mg of dulcoside A, and 1.1 g of rebaudioside A at purities of 79%, 62%, and 98%, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds were validated by HPLC-UV, ESI-MS, (1)H, and (13)C NMR analyses. Altogether, the results demonstrate that the column design (i.e., the partition cell number) is an important aspect to be considered for a larger scale centrifugal partition chromatography

  20. The in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Fruit and Leaf Crude Extracts of Momordica Charantia: A Tanzania Medicinal Plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Mwambete, K D

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia extracts on reference strains and microorganisms isolated from clinical specimens. Petroleum ether and methanolic crude extracts of fruits and leaves of the plant were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disk diffusion method on four reference microorganisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus; and four clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonel...

  1. Removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution with activated Firmiana Simplex Leaf: Behaviors and affecting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium pollution is known to cause severe public health problems. This study is intended to examine the effect of an activated Firmiana Simplex Leaf (FSL) on the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Results showed that the active Firmiana Simplex Leaf could efficiently remove Cd(II) from wastewater due to the preservation of beneficial groups (amine, carboxyl, and phosphate) at a temperature of 250 deg. C. The adsorbent component, dosage, concentration of the initial solute, and the pH of the solution were all found to have significant effects on Cd(II) adsorption. The kinetic constants were predicted by pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the thermodynamic analysis revealed the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the adsorption. FT-IR and XRD analyses confirmed the strong adsorption between beneficial groups and cadmium ions, and the adsorption capacity was calculated to be 117.786 mg g-1 according to the Langmuir isotherm.

  2. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF Moringa oleifera ON SOME RENAL FUNCTION INDICES OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwari O. O

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:The study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of M.oleifera on bile secretion and serum electrolytes in rats. Methodology: Eighteen (18 Albino Wistar rats weighing between 180- 220g body weights were assigned into three groups (i, ii and iii of six rats each after acclimatization for seven (7 days. Group 1 (control received standard feed and water while Groups 11 and 111 (low and high dose groups respectively received 300mg/kg body weight and 600mg/kg body respectively in addition to food and water daily for 28days.The rats were sacrificed 24hours after an overnight fast using chloroform-ether anesthesia in ratio 1;1. The blood as well as biliary samples was collected for determination of electrolytes. Result: The result showed that bile secretion was significantly (P<0.001 increased in the high dose group but was significantly (P<0.001 decreased in the low dose group when compared with the control. The biliary bicarbonate level were significantly (P<0.001 decreased in test groups while there was significant (P<0.001 increased in serum bicarbonate levels compared with control. Serum and biliary phosphate levels were significantly (P<0.001 decreased in test groups compared with control. Sodium levels in serum and bile were significantly (P<0.001 decreased, while serum potassium levels were significantly (P<0.001 decreased in test groups but were significantly (P<0.001 increased test group compared with control. Serum bilirubin levels were significantly lowered in low dose but increased in high dose group compared with control. Uric acid levels in bile and serum were significantly (P<0.001 decreased in test groups. Creatinine was significantly reduced in low dose compared with control following the administration of the extract. Urea and T. cholesterol were significantly (P<0.001 reduced in serum but significantly increased in bile respectively.Conclusion: It appears that M.oleifera may reduce blood pressure

  3. Evaluation of Certain Plant Leaf Powders and Aqueous Extracts against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awoke Yohannes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to evaluate powders and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach, Mentha piperita, Phytolacca dodecandra, Schinus molle and Xanthium strumarium leaves against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. Repellent activity of plant powders were evaluated by mixing 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 g of powder per 100 g of clean uninfested maize seeds individually in separate plastic container. The numbers of insects moving outside the container were recorded at 24 h and 48 h post exposure period and percentage of repellent activity was calculated. The insect mortality was recorded at 5 days, 10 days and 15 days post exposure period and percentage of insect mortality was calculated. In addition, aqueous solutions were prepared by mixing 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g of plant powder with 10 mL of water and tested for their insecticidal activity by topical application method. Total numbers of dead insects were counted for every 24 h up to 96 h post exposure period and percentage of insect mortality was calculated. Plant powders admixed with maize seed failed to show satisfactory level of repellent activity. Maize seed admixed with 10 g of Mentha leaf powder showed 93.3% mortality followed by Schinus (90% and Phytolacca (90% 5 days of post exposure period. After 15 days, 100% mortality recorded in Mentha and Schinus leaf powder mixed with 10/100 g of maize seeds followed by Phytolacca (90% and Xanthium (86.6%. The topical application of aqueous extracts did not show insecticidal activity at satisfactory level. In general, application of Melia, Mentha and Schinus leaf powders proved to be effective against Sitophilus zeamais.

  4. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous and Ethylacetate Leaf and Stem Bark Extracts of Pappea capensis in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic BALB/c Mice

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    G.M. Karau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to determine the optimal dose of alloxan monohydrate required to induce diabetes in male BALB/c mice and investigate in vivo hypoglycemic activity of aqueous and ethylacetate leaf and stem bark extracts of Pappea capensis L in alloxanized diabetic BALB/c mice. In addition, the proximate composition ofP. capensis powder was investigated. The seven groups used in determining the optimal alloxan dose to induce diabetes included the normal mice intraperitoneally administered with a single dose of 0.1 mL physiological saline and doses of 50.0, 77.6, 120.4, 186.9, 290.0 and 480 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 mL of physiological saline. Blood glucose levels were determined at 0, 24 and 48 h using a glucometer. The hypoglycemic activity of aqueous and ethylacetate extracts was studied in the normal and diabetic mice orally administered with 0.1 mL physiological saline; diabetic mice orally administered with 0.075 mg glibenclamide, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg extract all in 0.1 mL physiological saline. Blood glucose levels were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h, respectively. The proximate composition of P. capensis powder was estimated using standard procedures. Results show that a single dose of alloxan at 186.9 mg/kg body weight administered to 3-5 weeks old mice induced stable diabetes in 48 h; oral administration of ethylacetate leaf and stem bark extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight induced hypoglycemic activity in a dose independent manner which was similar to that of glibenclamide at 3 mg/kg body weight from the second to the 24th h. Total ash and lipid were higher while the crude protein and carbohydrate were lower in leaves compared to the stem barks. In conclusion,P. capensis is a nutritious plant whose ethylacetate extracts possess in vivo hypoglycemic activity.

  5. Algicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica on Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. de Brébission

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    Mathias Ahii Chia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of synthetic algaecides for the control of algae produces by-products that are sometimes toxic to the environment. There is a need for natural and cheap alternatives to synthetic algaecides. In the present study, we investigated the potential of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica to inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of groups of bioactive compounds that are capable of inhibiting microalgal growth. Chlorophyll a concentration, dry weight production and cell density of microalga decreased with increasing crude extract concentration. After three days of exposure, the 1000 mg/L extract concentration resulted in complete growth inhibition and cell lysis. Furthermore, the ability of S. quadricauda to form multi-celled coenobial structures was compromised in a concentration dependent manner. In general, catalase and peroxidase activities of the microalga were upregulated with increasing extract concentration. These results imply that aqueous neem extract may provide a cheap and ecofriendly alternative for the control of microalgae in aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Antiallergic effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Pistia stratiotes in murine model of ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Abokyi; George Asumeng Koffuor; Samuel Kyei; Asiamah, Emmanuel A.; Clement Nsobire Atobiga; Agnes Awuah

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the antiallergic effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Pistia stratiotes (ALPS) in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic conjunctivitis (AC). Materials and Methods: Prior to topical challenge (instillation of 1.5 mg OVA in 10 μL phosphate buffered saline into their conjunctival sacs) to induce AC, groups of sensitized Imprinting Control Region mice (injected IP, on day 1 and 7, with 0.2 ml solution of 100 μg OVA and 0.01 mg aluminum hydroxide in pho...

  7. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (J774 and THP1 alpha cell lines) of P. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dinesh C; Shukla, Ritu; Ali, Jasarat; Sharma, Swati; Bajpai, Priti; Pathak, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix sylvestris (Arecaceae family) known as Indian Date Palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. The present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. The crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. In the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol purified fractions (MPFs) were isolated. Most potential MPF8 (20:80 chloroform: methanol ratio fraction) significantly enhanced free radicals and antibacterial activity. The best MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) of MPF8 was investigated against M. luteus and E. coli at 1 mg/ml concentration. However, against other bacteria the MIC ranged from 1 mg/ml to 3 mg/ml. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of many biologically active compounds such as alcohols, flavonoids, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, terpenoids fatty acid methyl esters, and phenolics. Pentadecanoic acid occupied maximum (52 %) area in GC-MS profiling. MPF8 was assayed for in-vitro cytotoxicity by MTT assay which confirms its less cytotoxicity at lower concentration and also significant ROS determination against J774 and THP1 cell lines after 2 and 4 hours. PMID:27047320

  8. Evaluation of ethanol and aqueous extracts of cinnamomum verum leaf galls for potential antioxidant and analgesic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minakshi Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC 50 =13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml but found less than ascorbic acid (IC 50 =9.96 µg/ml. And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC 50 =237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml with the IC 50 =119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57% when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%, whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity.

  9. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 µg/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml) with the IC50=119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  10. Crude ethanolic leaf extracts of Citropsis articulata: a potential phytomedicine for treatment of male erectile dysfunction associated with testosterone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Vudriko; Martin K. Baru; John Kateregga; Ndukui, James G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Erectile dysfunction is the inability to sustain erection of the penis firm enough for sexual intercourse in males. Citropsis articulata is used locally by communities in Uganda for the management of erectile dysfunction. The current study evaluated the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of C. articulata on the serum level of testosterone and mounting frequency in Male albino rats. Methods: The study animals were divided into four groups and the extract groups dosed daily orally ...

  11. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Akbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum, quince (Cydonia oblonga, chestnut (Castanea sativa, fig (Ficus carica, walnut (Juglans cinerea, black mulberry (Morus nigra, and white mulberry (Morus alba leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively.

  12. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of aqueous leaf extract of Punica granatum

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar; Sukumar Dandapat; Manoranjan Prasad Sinha

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the leaves of Punica granatum were subjected to phytochemical screening and the impact of the leaf extract of Punica granatum was tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, phenols, flavonoid and saponins. Agar disk diffusion method was employed to test the antibacterial activity and the result showed that the aquesous leaf extract o...

  13. Antidiabetic Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on Streptozotocin (STZ Induced Diabetes in Wistar Rat Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Mordi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cnidoscolus aconitifolius has been reported to exhibit hypoglycaemic property and hence recommended traditionally for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, the effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract on the biochemical complication of Streptozotocin (STZ induced-diabetes is yet to be scientifically verified. Body weight changes, blood glucose and serum lipids were assessed as indicators of diabetes severity and complication in this present study. 60 mg/kg body weight of STZ was administered to male Wistar rats intraperitoneally once as a single dose. In a dose dependent manner (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, the aqueous leaf extract were administered orally (by intubation as single daily dose for a routine period of 21 days. Relative to the control, STZ treatment significantly increased (p<0.05 blood glucose from 90.61±5.9 mg/dL (Control to 237.70±18.7 mg/dL (STZ group alone. Results further indicated that Cnidoscolus aconitifolius treated group significantly (p<0.05 decreased blood glucose level in a dose dependent manner when compared with STZ induced diabetic group. Coupled with the loss in body weight and disturbed lipid homeostasis (serum total-cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and TAG in the diabetic group, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius significantly (p<0.05 returned the changes in body weight and lipid profile close to control values. Serum lipids were significantly (p<0.05 decreased except for serum HDL-cholesterol that was increased by the extract when compared with the STZ treated group. The findings obtained from this study suggest that in STZ- induced diabetic rats, aqueous leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius may be effective for the treatment of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  14. Histopathological study on the effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extracts of cymbopogon citratus on the frontal cortex of male sprague dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Adekomi; Adekeye, A.O.; O.O. Ogedengbe; R.Y. Ibiyeye

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was to evaluate the histopathological effects of oral consumption of the aqueous leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus on the frontal cortex of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Ten male SD rats weighing between 150-230g were used. The rats were randomly assigned into two groups designated as groups A and B. Group A served as the control group while group B was the treatment. 300 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous leaf extract of C. citratus was administered once daily for 14 consecuti...

  15. COMPARATIVE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE COMBINED CRUDE LEAF EXTRACT OF BIXA ORELLANA, AZADIRACHTA INDICA AND OCIMUM SCANTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.UttamKumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinal plants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. Ethanol extracts of the leaves of Bixa orellana, Azadirachta indica & Ocimum scantum were investigated for their invitro antimicrobial properties. Fresh leaves were collected randomly from Bhimavaram region, India. Plants were compared with voucher specimens deposited by Dr. B. Sarveswara Lingam at Department of Botany, K.G.R.L College (Autonomous, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. The aim of study was to scientifically test whether plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infection showed antibacterial activity. Extracts of sample of 3 species traditionally used as antibacterial were screened for activity against Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Staphylococcus aurues. The study confirms that simple laboratory methods are very well suited to assess the efficacy of traditionally used medicinal plants to inhibit bacterial growth. A comparison to the traditional uses also indicate that local knowledge can give important leads for the development of new treatments. Further tests, especially with regards to toxicity, are needed to verify the safety of the traditional preparations.

  16. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic properties of the aqueous extract of Clematis brachiata leaf in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Mohammad; Appidi, Jaipal R; Yakubu, Musa T; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2010-06-01

    Clematis brachiata Thunb. (Ranunculaceae) is used as a folk remedy for the treatment of pain, fever and inflammatory ailments. Aqueous extract of Clematis brachiata leaf was screened for its phytochemical constituents. The anti-inflammatory investigations were carried out using carrageenan and histamine-induced edema models; acetic acid writhing, formalin-induced pain and tail immersion models were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity while a Brewer's yeast-induced hyperthermia model was employed for the antipyretic experiment. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. The extract at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight significantly (PClematis brachiata leaves can be employed in the management of inflammation, pain and fever. These activities may be due in part to the flavonoid content of the extract. PMID:20645742

  17. Acute and Cytotoxicity Studies of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Chromolaena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asomugha, R N; Ezejiofor, A N; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I

    2015-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata, a commonly used traditional remedy for different ailments, believed to be quite safe in terms of toxicity was evaluated for acute toxicity and cytotoxic potentials. Acute toxicity was done on albino Wistar rats using the Lorke method while brine shrimps were used to test for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the estimated LD50 for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 2154 and > 5000 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Cytotoxicity to brine shrimps showed LC50 values of 324 and 392 ppm for aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. These results indicate the relative non toxic nature of Chromolaena odorata extracts. PMID:26353417

  18. Nauclea latifolia aqueous leaf extract eliminates hepatic and cerebral Plasmodium berghei parasite in experimental mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Innocent Onyesom; Ejovi Osioma; Precious Chiamaka Okereke

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess the effects of hot water leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia (N. latifolia) on antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation values and parasite levels in hepatic and brain tissue of experimental mice (BALB/c) infected with Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) malaria. Methods:Forty nine mice were divided into seven groups (n=7) and used for the study. Group A (control) were given 0.2 mL/kg phosphate buffer saline;Group B mice were infected with P. berghei and treated with phosphate buffer saline. Groups C and D mice were also infected but treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of leaf extract respectively. Groups E and F mice were not infected, but received 200 and 300 mg/kg of leaf extract respectively. Group G mice were infected and treated with chloroquine (5 mg/kg). Liver and brain tissues of mice were prepared for both biochemical assay and microscopic examination. Results:Results showed that P. berghei malaria infection induced oxidative stress in both liver and brain tissues as evidenced by the significant (P Conclusions:The bioactive phytochemical(s) in N. latifolia should be structured and the mechanism(s) of its antimalarial tendency should be further investigated.

  19. The anti-ulcerative colitis effects of Annona squamosa Linn. leaf aqueous extract in experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rasha Ym; Hassan, Amal I; Al-Adham, Eithar K

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of Annona squamosa (A. squamosa) leaf aqueous extract against acetic acid induced colitis in rats with a trial to explore its use for the treatment of colon inflammation. Sprague Dawley rats weighing 180-200 g were used in this study. Treatment with A. squamosa extract at dose 300 mg/kg for 4 weeks counteracted acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis by a significant decrease (P<0.05) of colonic tissue of malondialdehyde (MDA) and significant increases of catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) compared to ulcerative colitis control group. Furthermore, induction of oxidative stress was observed in the colonic tissue through the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) which significant increase in colonic tissue DNA by acetic acid. Moreover AA induced significant increase in serum interleukin-10 (IL10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor (TGF 1β), and C reactive protein (CRP) as compared to the control group. On the contrary, our results showed AA induced significant decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thyroid hormones triiodothyronin and thyroxin (T3 & T4) in installed group with AA as compared to control which significantly improved after treatment with A. squamosa leaf extract. Histopathological observation in our study confirmed the biochemical study. Thus, therapeutic method offer a sign to analyze further the effectiveness of A. squamosa as a unique agent for alleviating colitis. PMID:26885156

  20. Phytosynthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles using aqueous extract and dried leaf of Anacardium occidentale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy

    2011-06-01

    Present study reports a green chemistry approach for the biosynthesis of Au, Ag, Au-Ag alloy and Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles using the aqueous extract and dried powder of Anacardium occidentale leaf. The effects of quantity of extract/powder, temperature and pH on the formation of nanoparticles are studied. The nanoparticles are characterized using UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopies, XRD, HRTEM and SAED analyses. XRD studies show that the particles are crystalline in the cubic phase. The formation of Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles is evidenced by the dark core and light shell images in TEM and is supported by the appearance of two SPR bands in the UV-vis spectrum. FTIR spectra of the leaf powder before and after the bioreduction of nanoparticles are used to identify possible functional groups responsible for the reduction and capping of nanoparticles. Water soluble biomolecules like polyols and proteins are expected to bring about the bio-reduction.

  1. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and haemotoxicity by aqueous leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, A B; Oyagbemi, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore possible protective effect ofCnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity and haemotoxicity in experimental animal models. Thirty six rats of six per group were used in this study. Group I received 10ml/kg normal saline as control. Group II-VI rats were administered with 1.25ml/kg body weight (bwt) of carbon tetrachloride intraperitonealy. Animals in groups III, IV, V and VI were however pre-treated with aqueous extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius at 100, 250, 500 and 750mg/kg body weight (bwt) respectively. Administration of CCL4 in untreated rats led to microcytic hypochromic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, increased erythrocyte fragility and stress induced leucocytosis accompanied with significant increase in neutrophils and decrease in lymphocyte counts. CCl4 also led to significant increase in serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and phosphatase (ALP) respectively compared with control animals. Also, CCL4 produced significant increase in serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine compared with normal rats. Pre-treatment with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract brought about significant restoration of the haematological parameters to values that were comparable to those of the control with concomitant decrease in the activities of the marker of hepatic damage enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were also brought to near normal by the CA in a dose-dependent manner. From this study, we conclude that pre-exposure to Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract considerably reduced the effect of CCl4 on the blood parameters and ameliorated hepatic damage by the haloalkane. PMID:22314953

  2. ADSORPTION OF Pb2+ IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS ONTO BAEL TREE LEAF POWDER: ISOTHERMS, KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SENTHIL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bael tree (BT leaf powder was used as an adsorbent for removal of Pb2+ ions from aqueous solutions through batch equilibrium technique. The influence of pH, equilibrium time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration of metal ions on adsorbed amount of metals ions were investigated. Studies showed that the pH of aqueous solutions affected Pb2+ ions removal as a result of removal efficiency increased with increasing solution pH. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations. The monolayer adsorption capacity is 4.065 mg/g with the correlation coefficient of 0.993. The experiments showed that highest removal rate was 84.93% at solution pH 5, contact time 60 min and initial concentration of 50 mg/L. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy have also been evaluated and it has been found that the sorption process was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Three simplified kinetic models including a pseudo-first-order equation, pseudo-second-order equation and intraparticle diffusion equation were selected to follow the adsorption process. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium sorption capacities and related correlation coefficients, for each kinetic model were calculated and discussed. It was shown that the adsorption of Pb2+ ions could be described by the pseudo-second order equation, suggesting that the adsorption process is presumable a chemisorption.

  3. Nauclea latifolia aqueous leaf extract eliminates hepatic and cerebral Plasmodium berghei parasite in experimental mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Innocent; Onyesom; Ejovi; Osioma; Precious; Chiamaka; Okereke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of hot water leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia(N. latifolia) on antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation values and parasite levels in hepatic and brain tissue of experimental mice(BALB/c) infected with Plasmodium berghei(P. berghei) malaria.Methods: Forty nine mice were divided into seven groups(n = 7) and used for the study. Group A(control) were given 0.2 m L/kg phosphate buffer saline; Group B mice were infected with P. berghei and treated with phosphate buffer saline. Groups C and D mice were also infected but treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of leaf extract respectively. Groups E and F mice were not infected, but received 200 and 300 mg/kg of leaf extract respectively. Group G mice were infected and treated with chloroquine(5 mg/kg). Liver and brain tissues of mice were prepared for both biochemical assay and microscopic examination. Results: Results showed that P. berghei malaria infection induced oxidative stress in both liver and brain tissues as evidenced by the significant(P < 0.05) decrease in antioxidants: superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase. These reductions perhaps caused compromise in membrane integrity as indicated by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdhyde. Malaria parasites were also identified in these tissues. However, N. latifolia treatment eliminated the parasites in tissues and protected them from oxidative damage even better than chloroquine treatment did, whose anti-malarial potency also cleared tissue parasites. The measurement of protection by N. latifolia against damage was strengthened by the insignificant micro structural alterations.Conclusions: The bioactive phytochemical(s) in N. latifolia should be structured and the mechanism(s) of its antimalarial tendency should be further investigated.

  4. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pak-Chung; Kwong, Tsz-Lung; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is reported the first time here as a robust heterogeneous catalyst that exhibited over 90% conversion by using aqueous ethanol containing 80 wt.% of water in the production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE). The employment of 95 wt.% ethanol with respect to water could achieve 99.7% feedstock conversion in 6 hours under the optimal reaction conditions: reaction temperature (150 °C), feedstock-to-ethanol molar ratio (1:20) and catalyst loading (6 wt.%). Commercially available low grade crude bioethanol with the presence of impurities like sugars were applied which demonstrated remarkable catalytic activity in 24 hours. The high water tolerance of MnGly towards biodiesel production could eventually simplify the purification of bioethanol that consumes less energy and production cost.

  5. Phytotoxicity of leaf aqueous extract of Rapanea umbellata (Mart. Mez (Primulaceae on weeds - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.16166

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    Paula Novaes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic substances can be used to develop weed control alternatives based on natural products. The objective of this study was to compare the phytotoxic activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Rapanea umbellata with the toxicity of a synthetic herbicide on the germination and growth of weed species. The weeds species barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli, wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla and morning glory (Ipomoea grandifolia were used. The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of R. umbellata at concentrations of 10% and 5% (g mL-1 were compared to the control (distilled water and to the synthetic herbicide oxyfluorfen. The average weed germination time was significantly lower (p < 0.05 in control than in extract and herbicide treatments. The herbicide had more significant effects than the extract on the initial growth of the aerial part. However, the initial growth of the root part was significantly more affected by the leaf extract than by the herbicide. The extract also caused many disorders in weed root anatomy. Therefore, the leaf aqueous extract of R. umbellata showed important results that indicate that it should be bioprospected and that its allelochemicals should be purified for the discovery of natural-origin herbicides.

  6. Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and the Hepatoprotective Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Jessiaea Nervosa Leaf

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    Ama Udu Ibiam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extract against Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Methods: Forty albino rats were randomly assigned into groups A-G with 4 rats in each of the groups A-F. Group A served as control and were given feed only while rats in groups B-F were orally exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium for six weeks. Effects of cadmium were most significant at 12 mg/Kg body weight (BW, and this dose was used for subsequent test involving oral administration of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extracts. In this segment, group G (n= 16 was sub-divided into four: G1-G4, with each sub-group containing four rats. Rats in sub-group G1 were given cadmium and feed only and served as positive control. Rats in sub-groups G2, G3, and G4 were given cadmium and 20, 50 and 100g/kg BW of Jussiaea nervosa extract, respectively, for six weeks. Blood and liver were analysed using standard laboratory techniques and methods. Results: Liver function parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in exposed rats in comparison to the controls, except for total protein and albumin, which were significantly decreased. Histopathological assessment reveals renal pathology in exposed rats in sharp contrast with the controls. Jussiaea nervosa extract however lowered the values of liver function parameters with 100mg/Kg BW dose producing the highest ameliorative effects. Similarly, the serum albumin and total protein significantly (p<0.05 improved with normal liver architecture. Conclusion: The results show the hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa extract against Cd toxicity.

  7. Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract inhibits reducing monosaccharide-induced protein glycation and oxidation of bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunthanawanich, Pornpimon; Sompong, Weerachat; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Mäkynen, Kittana; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Dahlan, Winai; Ngamukote, Sathaporn

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important factor for pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications. Moringa oleifera is one of the medicinal plants that have anti-hyperglycemic activity. However, anti-glycation property of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the different types of reducing monosaccharides-induced protein glycation has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the protective effect of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on reducing sugars-induced protein glycation and protein oxidation. Total phenolic content of MOE was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bovine serum albumin was incubated with 0.5 M of reducing sugars (glucose or fructose) with or without MOE (0.5-2.0 mg/mL) for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The results found that total phenolic content was 38.56 ± 1.50 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry extract. The formation of fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs [N (ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)] and the level of fructosamine were determined to indicate protein glycation, whereas the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group were examined for protein oxidation. MOE (0.5-2.0 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent, N (ε)-CML and markedly decreased fructosamine level (P < 0.05). Moreover, MOE significantly prevented protein oxidation manifested by reducing protein carbonyl and the depletion of protein thiol in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Thus, the findings indicated that polyphenols containing in MOE have high potential for decreasing protein glycation and protein oxidation that may delay or prevent AGE-related diabetic complications. PMID:27468399

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, Victor B; Adediji, Joseph O; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2005-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata was investigated in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formalin-induced oedema methods. The extract was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. In the carrageenan method the paw oedema was significantly reduced by all the doses of the extract administered, with the 200 mg/kg dose producing the highest oedema inhibition (80.5%). In the cotton pellet method, granuloma weight was significantly reduced from 14 +/- 0.1 to 9.0 +/- 0.1 mg, while in the formaldehyde induced arthritis the extract inhibited the oedema during the 10-day period. In conclusion, this study has established the anti-inflammatory activity of C. odorata and, thus, justifies the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of wounds and inflammation. PMID:16280100

  9. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution by ficus religiosa leaf powder and characterization of loaded biosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Karanam Srinivasa; Anand, Shashi [Hydro and Electro Metallurgy Department, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Venkateswarlu, Paladugu [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Andhra University, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2011-04-15

    The present investigation evaluates the adsorption effectiveness of Cd(II) ions on Ficus religiosa leaf powder (FRL). The experimental parameters chosen included time, pH, particle size, temperature, adsorbate, anion, and Pb(II) concentrations. The time data followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Cd(II) adsorption increased from 1.38 to 75.17% with the increase in pH from 2 to 4 and further increase in pH to 5.5 resulted in its marginal increase to 77.52%. Based on regression coefficient values, the isothermic data fitted the various models in the order Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Temkin > Freundlich model. The maximum loading capacity of FRL was estimated to be 27.14 mg g{sup -1}. The presence of Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, or Pb{sup 2+} exhibited adverse effect on Cd(II) uptake. The thermodynamic parameters of enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup 0}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup 0}) were estimated to be 8.31 kJ mol{sup -1} and 38.22 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively. SEM-EPMA of the loaded FRL showed Cd(II) distribution at specific sites. The XRD patterns of Cd(II) loaded FRL sample showed disappearance of some peaks corresponding to {beta}-Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}; shifting of peaks and decrease in %RI corresponding to {gamma}-CaSO{sub 4} phase. Positive shift of IR bands for the Cd(II) loaded sample was observed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  11. Antiallergic effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Pistia stratiotes in murine model of ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis

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    Samuel Abokyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the antiallergic effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Pistia stratiotes (ALPS in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA-induced allergic conjunctivitis (AC. Materials and Methods: Prior to topical challenge (instillation of 1.5 mg OVA in 10 μL phosphate buffered saline into their conjunctival sacs to induce AC, groups of sensitized Imprinting Control Region mice (injected IP, on day 1 and 7, with 0.2 ml solution of 100 μg OVA and 0.01 mg aluminum hydroxide in phosphate buffered saline, were treated with 5 mg/kg cetirizine, 10, 50 or 100 mg/kg of ALPS, or 2 ml/kg normal saline per os. Conjunctival redness, lid edema, tearing and lid scratching (clinical symptoms of AC were scored. Serum OVA specific immunoglobulins were determined using ELISA. Histopathological assessment of the conjunctival mucosal tissue was conducted. The extract was screened for secondary plant metabolites. Results: Pretreatment with the extract significantly (P ≤ 0.05-0.01 and dose-dependently reduced the scores for clinical symptoms, which were marked in vehicle-pretreated mice. Pretreatment also lowered (P ≤ 0.01-0.001 serum OVA specific immunoglobulins. Mast cell infiltration and degranulation in conjunctival stroma (measured by an inflammatory score in histopathological studies was also significantly low (P ≤ 0.05-0.01 on pretreatment. Conclusion: The ALPS exhibited interesting antiallergic activity and hence could be useful in managing AC.

  12. Studies on the anti-asthmatic and antitussive properties of aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum in rodent species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward O Salami; Raymond I Ozolua; Stephen O Okpo; Gerald I Eze; Dickson O Uwaya

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiasthmatic and antitussive properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (B. pinnatum) (BP) Lam. Methods: Ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs which were treated with BP for 21 consecutive days were exposed to 0.2% histamine aerosol in a glass chamber. Mucus viscosity, white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and tracheal wall morphometry were measured. Bouts of cough were counted pre and post acute exposure of extract-treated (×7 d) guinea pigs to 7.5% citric acid aerosol in a chamber. Phenol red expectoration was estimated in mice after 7 d of daily administration of BP. Results: Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (×21 d) BP significantly increased the time for guinea pigs to experience preconvulsive dyspnoea. BP and salbutamol (0.5 mg/kg/day × 21 d) reduced mucus viscosity in the sensitized group to values comparable with controls. White blood cell, lymphocyte counts and tracheal morphometry were not significantly altered. Both doses of BP also significantly reduced the bouts of cough but only 400 mg/kg/day significantly inhibited the amount of phenol red secreted. Conclusions: BP has demonstrated antiasthmatic and antitussive properties in these rodent models. These properties may underscore its use in Nigerian ethnomedicine.

  13. GABA mediated response of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Dicranopteris linearis leaf in Swiss Albino mice

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    Billah Mohammad Mustakim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was to assess the potential of the leaf of Dicranopteris linearis in altering the CNS functions with three different extracts; aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate.Methods: To evaluate and compare the activities Morris maze, elevated plus maze (EPM,open field, hole cross and head dip tests were performed and many behavioral parameters wereobserved. The forced swim in Morris water maze analyzed the depression of rodents in termsof inability to self-rescue. Alongside, hole cross and open field tests assessed the inhibition oflocomotor activities. Moreover, EPM test screened the anxiolytic potential while the head dippinghole board test supported the previous experiments by evaluating both sedative, depressive andanxiolytic potentials of the extracts.Results: The results showed that the ethanol extract significantly suppressed CNS activity byreducing number of locomotor activities and increasing the stability phase (in EPM and Morrismaze supporting mild sedation, depression and anxiolysis. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate extractalso possessed moderate to high potential in reducing locomotor activities depending on gradientdoses. Results were compared with control group and found statistically significant.Conclusion: As this plant mimic the activity of a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA agonist, itcan be concluded that the plant may have GABA mediated involvement in central nervous system.However, the responsible compounds for these activities are yet to be investigated and this maypotentiate a new source of drug development.

  14. A preliminary study on hypolipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Clerodendron glandulosum.Coleb

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    Jadeja R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of Clerodendron glandulosum. Coleb (CG (400 mg/kg/day was orally administered to rats rendered hyperlipidemic chronically (by feeding high-fat diet; HL to assess its possible lipid-lowering potential. The hyperlipidemic rats were administered CG extract by oral gavage from 30-90 days along with high fat diet. Plasma lipid profile was monitored on 30 th , 60 th and 90 th days to assess the effect of CG extract. Observations revealed a decrement in body weight (9.6%, plasma TC (15.63%, TG (42.99%, PL (13.91%, LDL-C (81.36% and VLDL-C (43% along with an increase in HDL-C (52.84% at 90 days (after 60 days of CG extract feeding compared to high levels at 30 days. Fecal lipid analysis revealed high content of TC, TG and PL in HL + CG group. Lipid-lowering property of the CG extract in chronic hyperlipidemic rats validates its use traditionally as a part of folklore medicine in North-eastern India, though there is no scientific evaluation to date.

  15. Biosorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Diospyrous melanoxylon Leaf Waste

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    Raghvendra G Patil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste Tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon leaves from bidi (local cigarette industry has been used as a raw material to produce activated carbon applying sulfuric acid carbonization method. Batch experiments were conducted to assess the potential for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using the activated carbon and compared to raw tendu leaves powder and commercial activated carbon. Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic studies have been done by varying the parameters such initial concentration of dye, adsorbent dose, pH of the dye solution, and varying the contact time between the carbon and the dye. It was found that the methylene blue adsorption on tendu waste-based activated carbon conformed to the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities were found to be 219.3, 355.9 and 495.1 mg/g for raw tendu waste, carbonized tendu and commercial carbon, respectively. The kinetic studies were well characterized by a pseudo second order kinetic model. The results of this study indicate that raw tendu waste a renewable bioresource, as such as well as its carbonized form are attractive biosorbent for removing a cationic dye from the dye wastewater.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2735

  16. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PET ETHER, AQUEOUS, AND HYDRO-ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF ASPILIA AFRICANA (PERS) C.D. ADAMS (ASTERACEAE) IN RODENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Koffuor George Asumeng; Ameyaw Elvis Ofori; Oppong Kyekyeku James; Amponsah Kingsley Isaac; Sunkwa Andrews; Semenyo Samuella Afriyie

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Aspilia africana is used in the management of pain in Ghana and most parts of West Africa. This study therefore investigated the analgesic effect of the petroleum ether, aqueous, and hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts of Aspilia africana using rodent models. Preliminary phytochemical screening was done on all the extracts, which showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, phytosterols and terpenoids. The extracts (40-400 mg/kg p.o.) were administered...

  17. Contractile effect of Sclerocarya birrea (A Rich) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) (Marula) leaf aqueous extract on rat and rabbit isolated vascular smooth muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Mawoza, Tariro; Ojewole, John AO; Owira, Peter MO

    2012-01-01

    Backround Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) is traditionally used for treating hypertension. The pharmacological effects of S birrea leaf aqueous extract (SBE) on rabbit and rat vascular smooth muscles were investigated in this study. Methods Fresh S birrea leaves (1 kg) were air dried at 26 ± 1°C, milled, macerated in 2.5 l of distilled water for 48 hours, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Rat isolated portal vein preparations, as well as rabbit isolated en...

  18. Evaluation of the Anti-ulcer Properties of the Aqueous Methanolic Leaf Extract of Palisota hirsuta and its Fractions in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Anaga, Aruh O; Ifeanyi G. Eke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effects of aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Palisota hirsuta (MLEPH), against experimentally induced gastric ulceration in mice. Materials and methods: The plant material was extracted with 70% methanol for 48h and concentrated in vacuo with rotary evaporator, yielding 8.77%w/w MLEPH. MLEPH (50, 100, 150 mg/kg) and MLEPH fractions (MLEPHfr) (50 mg/kg) were studied in various ulcer models: acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), HCl-ethanol and cold restraint stress-...

  19. Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of Cyphostemma glaucophilla Aqueous Leaf Extract

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    E. Ojogbane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyphostemma glaucophilla is used in the treatment of several degenerative diseases. Phytochemical analyses was carried out on aqueous leaves extract and the anti oxidant activity were investigated using albino rats, which were divided into five groups of five animals each. Group A received (0.85% NaCl; 5ml/kg control while single daily oral doses of 10, 15, 20, 25mg/kg body weight of extract were administered to groups B, C, D and E for 21 days respectively. Animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed with ether anaesthesia and the liver homogenates were used for the assessment of protein, malondialdehyde and assay of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, anti lipid peroxidation and 2, 2- diphenyl-1-piccrylhydrazylhydrate (DPPH radical scavenging activities by standard methods. Results confirmed the presence of flavonoids, vitamin C, proteins, carbohydrates, steroids, O and C glycosides, traces of vitamin E and A. The extract induced significant (p<0.05 dose dependent increase in the concentration of proteins and inhibited significant (p<0.05 dose related decrease in the concentration of malondialdehyde. It produced significant (p<0.05 dose dependent increase in the concentration of glutathione peroxidase and SOD peaks at 25mg/kg (55 and 35% relative to control, there was also a significant (p<0.05 inhibition of lipid peroxidation by 18.80% in group B and 25.42% in E, the DPPH radical scavenging activity increased with increased concentration of extract by 14.31% and 37.23% in groups B and E respectively. Study has shown that extract contains phytochemicals of biological and pharmacological importance and has antioxidant capacity which can be utilized to alleviate the symptoms of chronic and degenerative diseases.

  20. Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycaemic Action of Different Fractions and Sub-fractions from Aqueous Extract of Aloe vera Linn. Leaf on Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alok Maithani; Versha Parcha; Geeta Pant; Deepak Kumar; Ishan Dhulia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the fasting serum glucose (FSG) lowering potential of different fractions (C & D) and subfraction (D1 & D2) from aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf on normal and alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Two fractions (C & D) obtained by common chemical treatment of the aqueous extract of Aleo vera leaf and subfraction (D1 & D2) from fraction D were administered to the alloxan induced (150mg/kg i.p.) diabetic rats. The FSG lowering capacity, of different fractions and subfractions, was then evaluated in terms of percentage reduction in blood glucose level. Results: Oral administration of fractions C & D and subfraction D1 & D2 for 15 days led significant (P<0.05) reduction to the elevated FSG level of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Percentage reduction in blood glucose level and comparison with standard drug glibenclamide suggest the superiority of fraction D and subfraction D1 in hypoglycaemic potential. Conclusions:The results suggest that fraction D and subfraction D1 from aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf possesses the maximum FSG lowering capacity and further investigation is required for determination of anti-diabetic principal(s) and exact mechanism of their hypoglycaemic action.

  1. Cu determination in crude oil distillation products by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after analyte transfer to aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cu was determined in a wide range of petroleum products from crude oil distillation using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different procedures of sample preparation were evaluated: (i) mineralization with sulfuric acid in an open system (ii) mineralization in a closed microwave system (iii) combustion in hydrogen-oxygen flame in the Wickbold's apparatus (iv) matrix evaporation followed by acid dissolution, and (v) acidic extraction. All the above procedures led to the transfer of the analyte into an aqueous solution for the analytical measurement step. It was found that application of FAAS was limited to the analysis of the heaviest petroleum products of high Cu content. In ICP-MS, the use of internal reference method (with Rh or In as internal reference element) was required to eliminate the matrix effects in the analysis of extracts and the concentrated solutions of mineralized heavy petroleum products. The detection limits (in original samples) were equal to, respectively, 10, 86, 3.3, 0.9 and 0.4 ng g-1 in procedures i-v with ETAAS detection and 10, 78, 1.1 and 0.5 ng g-1 in procedures i-iii and v with ICP-MS detection. The procedures recommended here were validated by recovery experiments, certified reference materials analysis and comparison of results, obtained for a given sample, in different ways. The Cu content in the analyzed samples was: 50-110 ng g-1 in crude oil, -1 in gasoline, -1 in atmospheric oil, -1 in heavy vacuum oil and 140-300 ng g-1 in distillation residue

  2. Phytotoxicity of leaf aqueous extract of Rapanea umbellata (Mart.) Mez (Primulaceae) on weeds - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.16166

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Novaes; Maristela Imatomi; Maria Agusta Ferraz Machado Miranda; Sonia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri

    2012-01-01

    Allelopathic substances can be used to develop weed control alternatives based on natural products. The objective of this study was to compare the phytotoxic activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Rapanea umbellata with the toxicity of a synthetic herbicide on the germination and growth of weed species. The weeds species barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) and morning glory (Ipomoea grandifolia) were used. The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of ...

  3. Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf powder as a biosorbent for removal of Cd(II) from aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biosorbent, Neem leaf powder (NLP), was prepared from the mature leaves of the Azadirachta indica (Neem) tree by initial cleaning, drying, grinding, washing to remove pigments and redrying. The powder was characterized with respect to specific surface area (21.45 m2 g-1), surface topography and surface functional groups and the material was used as an adsorbent in a batch process to remove Cd(II) from aqueous medium under conditions of different concentrations, NLP loadings, pH, agitation time and temperature. Adsorption increased from 8.8% at pH 4.0 to 70.0% at pH 7.0 and 93.6% at pH 9.5, the higher values in alkaline medium being due to removal by precipitation. The adsorption was very fast initially and maximum adsorption was observed within 300 min of agitation. The kinetics of the interactions was tested with pseudo first order Lagergren equation (mean k 1 = 1.2 x 10-2 min-1), simple second order kinetics (mean k 2 = 1.34 x 10-3 g mg-1 min-1), Elovich equation, liquid film diffusion model (mean k = 1.39 x 10-2 min-1) and intra-particle diffusion mechanism. The adsorption data gave good fits with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and yielded Langmuir monolayer capacity of 158 mg g-1 for the NLP and Freundlich adsorption capacity of 18.7 L g-1. A 2.0 g of NLP could remove 86% of Cd(II) at 293 K from a solution containing 158.8 mg Cd(II) per litre. The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG, at 293 K were -73.7 kJ mol-1, -0.24 J mol-1 K-1 and -3.63 kJ mol-1, respectively, showing the adsorption process to be thermodynamically favourable. The results have established good potentiality for the Neem leaf powder to be used as a biosorbent for Cd(II)

  4. Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf powder as a biosorbent for removal of Cd(II) from aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Arunima [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Bhattacharyya, Krishna G. [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India)]. E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com

    2005-10-17

    A biosorbent, Neem leaf powder (NLP), was prepared from the mature leaves of the Azadirachta indica (Neem) tree by initial cleaning, drying, grinding, washing to remove pigments and redrying. The powder was characterized with respect to specific surface area (21.45 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), surface topography and surface functional groups and the material was used as an adsorbent in a batch process to remove Cd(II) from aqueous medium under conditions of different concentrations, NLP loadings, pH, agitation time and temperature. Adsorption increased from 8.8% at pH 4.0 to 70.0% at pH 7.0 and 93.6% at pH 9.5, the higher values in alkaline medium being due to removal by precipitation. The adsorption was very fast initially and maximum adsorption was observed within 300 min of agitation. The kinetics of the interactions was tested with pseudo first order Lagergren equation (mean k {sub 1} = 1.2 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}), simple second order kinetics (mean k {sub 2} = 1.34 x 10{sup -3} g mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}), Elovich equation, liquid film diffusion model (mean k = 1.39 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}) and intra-particle diffusion mechanism. The adsorption data gave good fits with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and yielded Langmuir monolayer capacity of 158 mg g{sup -1} for the NLP and Freundlich adsorption capacity of 18.7 L g{sup -1}. A 2.0 g of NLP could remove 86% of Cd(II) at 293 K from a solution containing 158.8 mg Cd(II) per litre. The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters, {delta}H, {delta}S and {delta}G, at 293 K were -73.7 kJ mol{sup -1}, -0.24 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} and -3.63 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively, showing the adsorption process to be thermodynamically favourable. The results have established good potentiality for the Neem leaf powder to be used as a biosorbent for Cd(II)

  5. Modulation of Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Plasmodium berghei Malarial Infection by Crude Aqueous Extract of Ganoderma lucidum

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    Olarewaju M. Oluba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempt is made to establish changes in serum and liver lipoprotein cholesterols accompanying Plasmodium berghei malarial infection in mice treated with aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight in comparison with 15 mg/kg chloroquine (CQ. Significant increases in all the lipoprotein fractions were observed in infected untreated mice compared with normal control mice. Treatment with 100 and 250 mg/kg G. lucidum extract produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C contents compared with 500 mg/kg G. lucidum and CQ. Treatment with CQ, however, produced significant reduction in hepatic TC and LDL-C compared with the extract. A dose-dependent significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was observed in the G. lucidum treated mice compared with normal control but significantly lower compared with CQ-treated mice. Liver HDL-C level was significantly higher in CQ-treated mice compared with normal control and significantly lower compared with G. lucidum-treated and infected untreated mice. A dose-dependent effect of the extract was observed in both serum and liver very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C. The implication of these results is discussed with respect to the parasite survival and proliferation in the serum and liver.

  6. Biodiesel production from crude jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joana; Perrier, Véronique; Lecomte, Jérôme; Dubreucq, Eric; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2016-10-01

    The lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis (CpLIP2) immobilized on two synthetic resins (Accurel MP 1000 and Lewatit VP OC 1600) was used as catalyst for the production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) by transesterification of jatropha oil with methanol, in a lipid/aqueous system. The oil was dispersed in a buffer solution (pH 6.5) containing methanol in excess (2M in the biphasic system; molar ratio methanol/acyl chains 2:1). Transesterification was carried out at 30°C, under magnetic stirring, using 10% (w/w) of immobilized enzyme in relation to oil. The maximum FAME yields were attained after 8h reaction time: 80.5% and 93.8%, when CpLIP2 immobilized on Accurel MP 1000 or on Lewatit VP OC 1600 were used, respectively. CpLIP2 on both Accurel MP 1000 and Lewatit VP OC 1600 showed high operational stability along 5 consecutive 8h batches. PMID:27474957

  7. Aqueous leaf extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae inhibits enzymatic and biological actions of Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Félix-Silva

    Full Text Available Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant was prepared by decoction and phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and/or steroids and proteins. The extract was able to inhibit enzymatic and biologic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom in vitro and in vivo. The blood incoagulability was efficiently inhibited by the extract by oral route. The hemorrhagic and edematogenic local effects were also inhibited, the former by up to 56% and the latter by 100%, in animals treated with extract by oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. The inhibition of myotoxic action of B. jararaca reached almost 100%. According to enzymatic tests performed, it is possible to suggest that the antiophidic activity may be due an inhibitory action upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs and/or serine proteinases (SVSPs, including fibrinogenolytic enzymes, clotting factors activators and thrombin like enzymes (SVTLEs, as well upon catalytically inactive phospholipases A2 (Lys49 PLA2. Anti-inflammatory activity, at least partially, could also be related to the inhibition of local effects. Additionally, protein precipitating and antioxidant activities may also be important features contributing to the activity presented. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential antiophidic activity of J. gossypiifolia extract, including its significant action upon local effects

  8. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Leaf of Ficus capensis Thunb (Moraceae on in Vivo Leukocyte Mobilization in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Daikwo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Immune system (the body’s defense system which protects the body from diseases, is subject to modification by substances to either enhance or suppress its ability to resist invasion by pathogen. Ficus capensis Thunb. (Moraceae, a wild fig tree, is believed by the Igala people of Kogi State in Nigeria to possess an immune boosting property, hence, forming part of most of their traditional remedies for several ailments. This study was aimed at investigating, so as to ascertain this claim. Twenty wistar strain albino rats divided into four groups of five animals each were used. One hour prior to introduction of an inflammatory stimulus, each rat in groups (Group 2-4 received oral administration of 100, 150 and 250 mg/kg, respectively of aqueous extract of leaf of Ficus capensis Thunb (Moraceae. The control group (Group 1 received distilled water. After four hours, the animals were sacrificed and both Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts were performed on the peritoneal fluid obtained from these animals. Evaluation of the data obtained from this study indicated a significant (p<0.05 dose-dependent increase in leukocyte mobilization, with doses 150 and 250 mg/kg giving total leukocyte count of 4.44±0.39×109 and 6.10±0.86×109/L, respectively, the most mobilized being Neutrophils. The results obtained from this study suggest that the extract might have a pharmacologically active substance which may be responsible for the above effect and its applications in traditional medicines as an immune boosting agent.

  9. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PET ETHER, AQUEOUS, AND HYDRO-ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF ASPILIA AFRICANA (PERS C.D. ADAMS (ASTERACEAE IN RODENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffuor George Asumeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Aspilia africana is used in the management of pain in Ghana and most parts of West Africa. This study therefore investigated the analgesic effect of the petroleum ether, aqueous, and hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts of Aspilia africana using rodent models. Preliminary phytochemical screening was done on all the extracts, which showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, phytosterols and terpenoids. The extracts (40-400 mg/kg p.o. were administered to Sprague-Dawley rats and tail flick latencies (Tail flick analgesic model were measured in a preliminary analgesic study. The order of analgesic efficacy established was hydro-ethanolic > aqueous > petroleum ether extract. Thin layer and high performance liquid chromatographic analyses were carried out on the hydro-ethanolic extract to obtain chromatograms as fingerprints for identification purposes. These revealed seven spots (TLC and two peaks (HPLC. Acetic acid-induced writhing and Capsaicin-induced nociception analgesic tests were carried out in ICR mice using the hydro-ethanolic leaf extract. This significantly (P ≤ 0.001 and dose-dependently suppressed the time-course of acetic acid-induced writhing and capsaicin-induced nociception similar to 10 mg/kg Diclofenac sodium (P ≤ 0.001 and 5 mg/kg, Ketamine (P ≤ 0.001. In conclusion, the leaf extracts of Aspilia africana has significant analgesic activity with the hydro-ethanolic extract being the most potent.

  10. Effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Populus tomentosa at different ages on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of its own seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqiu ZHU; Ying WANG; Bingxiang LIU; Lili ZHANG; Hui WANG; Yuxin YUAN; Kejiu DU

    2009-01-01

    Through the outdoor potted plant trials, the allelopathic potential of Populus tomentosa was tested against its species in the growth, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics with aqueous extracts (0.01,0.02,0.05, and 0.1 g · mL-1) obtained from leaves at different individual ages (1, 20, and 45 years old). The results showed that seedling height, basal diameter, fresh and dry weights, quantity of chlorophyll, the ratio of chlorophyll a/b, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSII (Fv/Fm), potential activity of PSII (Fv/Fo), and photochemical quenching (qP) of the seedlings gradually decreased with the increase of extract concentration of all three ages when compared with the controls. The older the P. tomentosa used for extract preparation, the greater the percentage declined in the aforementioned parameters. Moreover, at the four concentrations used, there was a significant difference between treatments with the extracts from 1- and 45-year-old plants (except for qP), but occasionally, the effects were not obvious between the 1-and the 20-year-old plants, or the 20- and 45-year-old plants. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) treated with the extracts from the 1-year-old decreased at the lowest concentration, whereas it increased at higher concentrations. The C, treated with aqueous leaf extracts from the 20-year-old decreased at the lower concentrations and increased to similar levels to that of the control at the higher concentrations. C, was always close to control levels in 45-year-old extract treatments. All the aqueous leaf extracts of P. tomentosa at all ages caused an increase of the initial fluorescence (Fo). The older P. tomentosa used for the preparation of aqueous leaf extracts caused a greater percentage decline in Fo. The nonphotochemical quenching (qN) increased significantly at lower concentrations of

  11. Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extract of Vernonia amygdalina Leaf on the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Function Parameters of Normal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Nwangwu Spencer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many plants with reported medicinal value have been demonstrated to exert a protective effect on the liver and some, with the ability of lowering the blood lipid level have also been elucidated. This study shows the effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from Vernonia amygdalina on the plasma lipid profile as well as on the level of the liver biomarker in the plasma of normal rats. The animals were distributed into two sets of four groups with five animals in each group. Each set had a control group while the other three groups were administered different concentrations of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from V. amygdalina leaf. The control groups were administered normal saline and the other groups’ 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively, twice daily for three weeks. The plasma Total Protein (TP, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, Alanine Transaminase (ALT, Aspartate Transaminase (AST, Albumin (ALB and Bilirubin (BIL levels and plasma lipid profile of the rats were evaluated. The aqueous extract of the plant showed a significant increase in the plasmaconcentration of HDL-C with no significant difference in the plasma TC, LDL-C, VLDLC and TG levels. Thus, these results suggested that the ethanolic extract from the leaves of V. amygdalina had a hepatoprotective effect while hypolipidemic effect can be suggested for the aqueous extracts.

  12. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. PMID:27110966

  13. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  14. AN IN-VIVO EVALUATION OF ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTED BALB/c MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Oseni* and G.M. Akwetey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infections in the tropical regions of the world. The increased resistance of the parasite to many available antimalarials backs the need to develop novel antimalarial drugs with effective mode of action. Several plants with antiplasmodial properties have been proved as sources for novel antiplasmodial compounds. Azadirachta indica has widely been reported for its medicinal properties. The leaf extract is used in folklore medicine to treat malaria. Previous in vitro studies has shown that the leaf extract of A. indica possess antiplasmodial properties. In the current research, the antiplasmodial activity of both aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of A. indica (ALEAI and ELEAI respectively were studied in vivo using Plasmodium berghei infected BALB/c mice at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg/day dosages. The extracts were also screened for phytochemicals using standard methods. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, reducing sugars, flavonoids and polyphenols in both extracts. Both ELEAI and ALEAI demonstrated significant antiplasmodial activity in vivo against plasmodium berghei in a dose-dependent manner. During early infection, oral administration of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg/day dosages of ELEAI caused chemosuppression of 56.96, 63.15 and 69.60% respectively on day four and a chemosuppression of 69.65, 75.76 and 78.32 % respectively on day six. Similar dosages of ALEAI respectively caused chemosuppression of 56.96, 59.89, 69.49% on day four and 64.42, 70.23 and 77.41% on the sixth day. These values were statistically significant (P < 0.001 as compared to negative control. The LD50 of the ELEAI was found to be greater than 1g/kg body weight of naive mice. Results from the present study therefore confirm that A. indica leaf contains active antiplasmodial compounds and therefore can be very useful in the search for new antimalarial drugs.

  15. Crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude petroleum statistics by country of production, export values and import values from 1983 to 1988 are given. Table A.1 of the Annex includes free market prices and price indices for crude petroleum based on average of Dubai, United Kingdom Brent and Alaska N Slope crude prices (price expressed in dollars/barrel). The data sources are: Crude petroleum United Nations Statistical Office; OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, and Petroleum Economist. For trade the sources of data are: National trade statistics; United Nations international trade statistics; International Moneytary Fund (IMF); Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); UNCTAD secretariat estimates. Tabs

  16. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria (apocynaceae on the fetal heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokutima A Eluwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. Aim : This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Material and Methods: Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. Results : There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. Conclusion : This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of

  17. Antidiabetic Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on Streptozotocin (STZ) Induced Diabetes in Wistar Rat Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. Mordi

    2012-01-01

    Cnidoscolus aconitifolius has been reported to exhibit hypoglycaemic property and hence recommended traditionally for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, the effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract on the biochemical complication of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced-diabetes is yet to be scientifically verified. Body weight changes, blood glucose and serum lipids were assessed as indicators of diabetes severity and complication in this present study. 60 mg/kg body weight of STZ w...

  18. New-vista in fi nding antioxidant and anti-infl ammatory property of crude protein extract from Sauropus androgynus leaf

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    Chakkere Shivamadhu Madhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study describes antioxidant and anti-infl ammatory properties of Sauropus androgynus leaf dialysed protein extract. Free radicals are implicated for many diseases including diabetes mellitus, arthritis, cancer, ageing etc. In the treatment of these diseases, antioxidant therapy has gained utmost importance. The main objective of the present study was to reveal the antioxidant and anti-infl ammatory potentiality from S. androgynus leaf dialysed protein extract. Material and methods. The antioxidant and anti-infl ammatory properties of S. androgynus studied using different models viz. hydroxyl radical scavenging, DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power assay, superoxide radical scavenging activity by alkaline DMSO and phosphomolybdenum antioxidant assays and in vitro antiinfl ammatory activity by inhibition of protein denaturation, membrane stabilisation test models carried out. Results. Antioxidant activity was estimated in dose dependent manner showed hydroxyl radical (55.62%, DPPH (50%, reducing power (0.286 Abs, alkaline DMSO (72.51% and phosphomolybdenum (0.198 Abs activity high at 50 μg/ml concentration compared to standard curcumin (62.31%, curcumin (56.61%, tannic acid (0.54 Abs, curcumin (75.38% and vitamin E (0.15 Abs respectively. In-vitro anti-infl ammatory activity by hypotonic induced model showed maximum protection (74.17% compared to standard Acetylsalcylic acid (86.88% at 100 μg/ml concentration and also in protein denaturation model protected protein denaturation maximum (83.60% compared to standard Diclofenac (86.82% at 100 μg/ml concentration respectively. Conclusion. The antioxidant property usually studied related to the polyphenols and fl avonoids present in the extract but present finding concluded that S. androgynus giving hint even potential proteins can also show responsible action effective against free radical mediated disease.

  19. Anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activity of the leaf aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Melanthera scandens in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinomujuni, Silvano S.; Oloro, Joseph; Alele, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Modern drug therapy of epilepsy is complicated by the inability of drugs to control seizures in some patients and side effects that range in severity from minimal impairment of the central nervous system to death from aplastic anemia or hepatic failure. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of epilepsy have been scientifically shown to possess promising anticonvulsant activities in animal models for screening for anticonvulsant activity and can be a source of newer anticonvulsants. The aim of this study was to investigate the preliminary phytochemical properties, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activities of Melanthera scandens aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Phytochemicals from the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were screened by standard methods. Anticonvulsant activity was evaluated against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure model in rats. The effect of the extract at oral dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg was evaluated in an experimental rat model, using diazepam (5 mg/kg) as positive control. Anxiolytic activity was performed using elevated plus maze method. Phytochemical screening revealed that M. scandens extracts contain carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, phenols and phytosterols. The aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg significantly increased seizure latency (P=0.0023), while the ethanolic extract did not have a significant effect on seizure latency. Both extracts significantly reduced the seizure severity (P= 0.0155), and provided up to 100% protection against PTZ induced death at 1000 mg/kg. Both extracts had no significant effect on the duration of PTZ induced seizures. Both extracts were found to increase the number of entries and the time spent in the open arms of the maze at a dose of 250 mg/kg, indicating anxiolytic activity, which was not seen at higher doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg). The total numbers of entries into the closed arm were significantly reduced at 500 and 1000 mg

  20. Evaluation of Certain Plant Leaf Powders and Aqueous Extracts against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Awoke Yohannes; Genet Asayew; Getachew Melaku; Mulugeta Derbew; Sirgota Kedir; Nagappan Raja

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate powders and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach, Mentha piperita, Phytolacca dodecandra, Schinus molle and Xanthium strumarium leaves against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. Repellent activity of plant powders were evaluated by mixing 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 g of powder per 100 g of clean uninfested maize seeds individually in separate plastic container. The numbers of insects moving outside the container were recorded at 24 h and 48 h post exposur...

  1. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Pak-Chung Lau; Tsz-Lung Kwong; Ka-Fu Yung

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is rep...

  2. Kinetic, Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the biosorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera - 'Sodom apple'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudumebi Overah, Loretta; Babalola, Oyebamiji.; Babarinde, Adesola; Oninla, Vincent; Olatunde, Abimbola

    2013-04-01

    The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the biosorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solution by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera popularly known in western Nigeria as 'bom bom' and generally known as Sodom apple were investigated at different experimental conditions. Optimum conditions of pH,contact time, biomass dosage, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were determined to be 5, 60 minutes, 110 mg, 0.3 mM and 27°C respectively. The maximum biosorption capacity was found to be 8.91 mg/g. The kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of the metal ion followed the pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models with an R-square value of 0.998 and 0.985 respectively. Equilibrium studies showed that the biosorption of Cd (II) is well represented by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms but the Langmuir model gave a better fit with an R-square value of 0.979,Langmuir constant, bm of 0.0080 and monolayer adsorption capacity, μm of 123.46. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG° -4.846 kJmol-1, ΔH° 10.60 kJmol-1 and ΔS° 0.052 kJK-1mol-1) showed that the biosorption of Cd (II)is feasible, spontaneous, endothermic and highly disordered in nature under the experimental conditions. Thesefindings indicate that the leaf of Calotropis procera could be employed in the removal of Cd (II) from industrial effluents. Key words: Calotropis procera, Cadmium, Adsorption isotherm.

  3. The antiplasmodial and spleen protective role of crude Indigofera oblongifolia leaf extract traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dkhil MA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A Dkhil,1,2 Mahmoud Y Lubbad,1,3 Esam M Al-Shaebi,1 Denis Delic,4 Saleh Al-Quraishy1 1Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt; 3General Directorate of Environmental and Occupational Health, Public Health Agency, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Boehringer-Ingelheim Pharma, Biberach, Germany Abstract: Malaria is one of the most serious natural hazards faced by human society. Although plant leaves of Indigofera oblongifolia have been used for the treatment of malaria in Saudi Arabian society, there is no laboratory-based evidence for the effectiveness and safety of the plant. This study therefore was designed to investigate the antimalarial and spleen protective activity of I. oblongifolia leaf extract (IOLE in mice. Three doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of IOLE were used to treat mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes. The suppressive effect produced by the 100 mg/kg dose on parasitemia was highly significant compared to the infected nontreated group. This dose was also able to repair the change in the thickness of the mice spleen and significantly lower the number of apoptotic cells in the spleen. Moreover, I. oblongifolia also altered gene expression in the infected spleen. On day 7 postinfection, the mRNA expression of six genes – with immune response functions – was upregulated by more than twofold, while that of 24 other genes was downregulated. Among the differentially up- and downregulated genes under the effect of IOLE, we quantified the expression of Ccl8, Saa3, Cd209a, and Cd209b mRNAs. The expression data, determined by microarrays, were largely consistent with the expression analyses we performed with several arbitrarily selected genes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Based on our results, I. oblongifolia exhibits antimalarial activity

  4. Antimicrobial and Selected In Vitro Enzyme Inhibitory Effects of Leaf Extracts, Flavonols and Indole Alkaloids Isolated from Croton menyharthii

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes van Staden; Mutalib A. Aderogba; Kannan R. R. Rengasamy; Ndhlala, Ashwell R.

    2013-01-01

    Croton species are used in folk medicine in the management of infections, inflammation and oxidative stress-related diseases. In order to isolate, characterize and evaluate the bioactive constituents of Croton menyharthii Pax leaf extracts, repeated column fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract afforded three flavonols identified by NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic methods as myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (myricetrin, 1), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2) an...

  5. #Biological evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Argemone mexicana Linn. (Papaveraceae aqueous leaf extract#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOURABIE T.S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of a lyophilized leaf extract of Argemone mexicana Linn. on laboratory animal. The anti-inflammatory study was done by using carrageenan-induced paw edema method. It was found that lyophilized extract can be effective in acute inflammatory disorders and in that case, it showed significant anti-inflammatory dose-dependent effect (p<0,001 at the dose level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. The plant extract was equally tested for its analgesic potential by using the hot plate test method and acetic acid Writhing method. The lyophilized extract was found to exhibit significant (p<0,01; p<0,001 analgesic activity in tested model. By the hot plate method, the drug extract showed significant (p<0,001 increased latency period than the control group at oral dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg. In acetic acid induced writhing test, the lyophilized extract (250 & 500mg/kg presented reduced number of writhes at the two dose levels, which were found significant (p<0,05; p<0,001 if compared to control group. These results support the use of Argemone mexicana Linn. for the treatment of pain and inflammation sickness.

  6. Efficacy of mangrove leaf powder for bioremediation of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions: kinetic and thermodynamic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, Thadikamala; Vinithkumar, N. V.; Dharani, G.; Kirubagaran, R.

    2014-03-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals by bio-materials has been posited as a potential alternative to the existing physicochemical technologies for detoxification and recovery of toxic and valuable metals from wastewaters. In this context, the role of mangrove leaf powder (MLP) as biosorbent for chromium removal was investigated. In the present study, the effect of process parameters such as particle size, solution pH, initial concentration of Cr(VI) ion and adsorbent dose on chromium removal by MLP was investigated. The maximum sorption was observed at particle size 0.5 mm and pH 2.0. The adsorption data follow the pseudo second-order kinetics model. The isotherms denote that Langmuir model is the best fitted than Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity (Q 0) of 60.24 mg/g of Cr(VI) at 30 min on MLP was determined using the Langmuir model. The adsorption isotherm model indicates that the chromium is adsorbing as monolayer on the surface of MLP with heterogeneous energetic distribution of active sites. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibb's free energy (∆G °), enthalpy (∆H °) and entropy (∆S °) have been calculated. The thermodynamic data revealed that the adsorption of chromium ions onto MLP is endothermic in nature and a spontaneous process. The results of the present study suggest that MLP is an effective bioremediation measure for removal of high concentration of Cr(VI) in waste waters.

  7. Evaluation of the Anti-ulcer Properties of the Aqueous Methanolic Leaf Extract of Palisota hirsuta and its Fractions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruh O Anaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effects of aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Palisota hirsuta (MLEPH, against experimentally induced gastric ulceration in mice. Materials and methods: The plant material was extracted with 70% methanol for 48h and concentrated in vacuo with rotary evaporator, yielding 8.77%w/w MLEPH. MLEPH (50, 100, 150 mg/kg and MLEPH fractions (MLEPHfr (50 mg/kg were studied in various ulcer models: acetyl salicylic acid (ASA, HCl-ethanol and cold restraint stress-induced ulcer models. Results: MLEPH at all doses used significantly reduced (P0.05 and gave a UPI of 33%. In cold restraint stress, MLEPH (50 and 100 mg/kg decreased both MNU and MUI. However this was not significant (P>0.05 compared with the control. Both doses produced UPI of 57% compared with cimetidine (95%. The MLEPHfr7 (50 mg/kg, significantly decreased (P<0.05 MNU compared with both distilled water and cimetidine and MUI compared with cimetidine in HCl-ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The UPI for MLEPHfr7 was 58% compared with cimetidine. The phytochemical constituents of MLEPHfr7 include tannins and reducing sugars. Conclusion: Our study shows that MLEPH and MLEPHfr exhibited promising antiulcer properties, mediated by tannins and reducing sugars through cytoprotective mechanisms. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 141-146

  8. STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF AERVA LANATA FOR CITRININ AND FUNGAL BIOMASS REDUCTION IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaz Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin, a nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by several fungal strains belonging to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus. Generally found in stored grains and after their harvest. The objective of the present investigation was to study the antimicrobial activity (anti-fungal of aqueous leaf extract of Aerva lanata and to optimize its conditions for the maximum inhibition of citrinin and fungal biomass by Aspergillus niger. Optimization of culture conditions was carried out using Box-Behnken method of response surface methodology. Extent of inhibition of citrinin was carried out using HPLC and reduction in fungal biomass was carried out using dry cell weight after comparing with controls. Optimized culture conditions as per the point prediction tool were found to be 11.27 mg/L for concentration of Aerva lanata extract, nine and half days of incubation period and temperature of 25.5 °C resulted in maximum inhibition of citrinin. These optimized values of tested parameters were and compared with control citrinin production (243.28 mg/L and dry cell weight production (362.28mg.An average of 87.77±1.21% inhibition of citrinin and 80.02±1.42% of dry cell weight was obtained in an optimized medium at 9.5th d of fermentation with 97.82 % and 96.21% validity, respectively.

  9. Comparative HPLC-DAD-ESI(+)MS Fingerprint and Quantification of Phenolic and Flavonoid Composition of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Cornus mas and Crataegus monogyna, in Relation to Their Cardiotonic Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Marius BADALICA-PETRESCU; DRAGAN, SIMONA; Floricuţa RANGA; Florinela FETEA; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to compare the phenolic and flavonoid composition of two medicinal plants from the wild flora of Romania, traditionally known to be efficient in preventing cardiotoxicity: Cornus mas and Crataegus monogyna. As most previous studies have focused on fruits, our investigations aimed to fingerprint and quantify the two classes of compounds in aqueous leaf extracts, based on HPLC-DAD-ESI(+)MS analysis. The specific HPLC-DAD fingerprint was coupled with UV spectra at 280 and 340 nm ...

  10. Antihypertensive potential of the aqueous extract which combine leaf of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), stems and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf. (Poaceae), fruits of Citrus medical L. (Rutaceae) as well as honey in ethanol and sucrose experimental model

    OpenAIRE

    Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Mogueo, Amélie; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Aboubakar, Bibi-Farouck Oumarou; Tédong, Léonard; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the aqueous extract obtained from the mixture of fresh leaf of Persea americana, stems and fresh leaf of Cymbopogon citratus, fruits of Citrus medica and honey on ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats. Methods Rats were divided into eight groups of 6 rats each and daily treated for 5 weeks. The control group received distilled water (1 mL/kg) while rats of groups 2, 3 and 4 received ethanol 40 degrees (3 g/kg/day)...

  11. The Use of NMR Metabolite Profiling and in vivo Hypoglycemic Assay for Comparison of Unfractionated Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Two Ocimum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Livia Marques; Espíndola-Netto, Jair Machado; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2016-06-01

    Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) are used to treat diabetes mellitus in Africa. In a previous work, we identified chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic substance in O. gratissimum. This study aims to compare the chemical metabolite profile and the hypoglycemic activity of unfractionated aqueous extracts from leaves of both Lamiaceae species. The metabolite composition of OB and OG decoctions (10% w/v) was analyzed using HPLC-DAD and NMR tools. Chicoric acid showed to be the major phenolic in both extracts, besides caftaric, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids; nevertheless, there is approximately three times more of this substance in OG. From 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, 19 substances were identified in OB, while 12 in OG. The in vivo acute hypoglycemic activity of the extracts was assessed intraperitoneally in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of both extracts significantly reduced their glycemia, compared to controls (P components other than chicoric acid contribute to the hypoglycemic activity of the two extracts. Despite the abundance of caffeic and rosmarinic acids in OB, their hypoglycemic activity observed at 8.3 μmol/kg was low. This is the first chemical profile of crude extracts from Ocimum species by NMR. Our findings confirmed the potential of both species in DM treatment in spite of marked differences in their chemical composition. However, long-term studies are necessary in order to identify the most promising of the two species for the development of an herbal medicine. PMID:27218231

  12. Enhanced Crude Oil Biodegradation in a Two-liquid Phase Partitioning Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Z. Z.; Abdulrazzak, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The biodegradation of crude oil at relatively high concentrations in an aquatic environment is constrained by the inherent toxicity of crude oil. In this study, a new application of an aqueous- organic two-liquid phase partitioning bioreactor (TLPPB) was developed to degrade high concentrations of crude oil up to 5000 mg L–1. Silicon oil was selected as the sequestering organic phase to control the delivery of crude oil in aqueous phase by absorbing, and subsequently releasing the crude oi...

  13. Pectinases partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems: an integration of the systems poly(ethylene glycol/crude dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/ammonium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANA N. PEJIN

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of pectinases in the poly(ethylene glucol4000/ammonium sulpohate system was studied and also its application for enzymes extraction from the top phase of the poly(ethylene glucol4000/crude dextran system. Almost complete one-sided partition of endo-pectinase and exo-pectinase to the bottom phase of the polymer/salt system was achieved at a tie-line length of 37.16 %. The concentration factors were 1.73 and 3.25, respectively. The highest total endo- and exo-pectinase yields (72.41 % and 69.46 %, respectively were obtained by integration of the polymer/polymer system at a tie-line of 8.61 % and a high phase volume ratio and the polymer/salt system at a tie-line of 30.23 % and a low phase volume ratio. Integration of the partitioning at a high tie-line length in the polymer/polimer and a low tie-line length in the polymer/salt system resulted in a total concentration factor of 1.5 and a purification of 1.66 fold for exo-pectinase. The addition of phosphate to this integrated system improved the total concentration factor and purification fold of the activity to 1.73 and 2.14, respectively.

  14. Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BELEMTOUGRI R.G.; CONSTANTIN B.; COGNARD C.; RAYMOND G.; SAWADOGO L.

    2006-01-01

    Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a dose dependent manner. Comparison of the results showed that Psidium guajava leaf extracts are more active than extracts ofDiospyros mespiliformis and that crude decoctions show better inhibitory activity.The observed results could explaine their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrhoeal agents in traditional medicine, by inhibiting intracellular calcium release.

  15. Assesing the Efficacy of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Some Botanicals for Control of Field Insects of Watermelon (Citrillus lanatus In Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ndor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season to assess the efficacy of leaf extract of some botanicals for production of watermelon (Citrillus lanatus in Southern Guinea Savanna Nigeria. The treatments consisted of leaf extracts from 3 botanicals: Bush tea (Hyptis suaveolens, Moringa (Moringa oleifera and Pawpaw (Carica papaya and one synthetic insecticide Labdacyalothrin (karate. The experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD and replicated 3 times to form fifteen plots. The results showed that, there was significant effect among the different botanicals used on all the parameters assessed except on the vinelength of watermelon, at various stages of growth in both years. Application of leaf extract of pawpaw gave better performance in all the parameters assessed when compared to the other botanicals in both years. Application of karate produced the best results in both years; while poor result were obtained from the control plots. Application of pawpaw leaf extract conferred high protection on the fruit when compared to other botanicals, which is statistically similar with result of karate in both 2009 and 2010 cropping season. Pawpaw leaf extracts appears to be a better botanical option in watermelon production.

  16. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    oil production. Results showed that low temperature favored the formation of bio-crude oil, with a maximum yield of 34.9 wt% at 300 C. Contrarily, at high temperature, the bio-crude oil had better qualities in terms of less oxygen content and higher heating values (HHVs). The compounds identified...... in bio-crude oil were mainly phenolics, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols, among which the relative contents of phenolics and carboxylic acids decreased with increasing temperature. In the recirculation studies, bio-crude yield was enhanced gradually with aqueous phase addition at 300 C......, and reached 38.4 wt% after three cycles. The HHVs of bio-crude oil from HTL with aqueous phase were 28.4–29.4 MJ/kg, slightly higher than those from HTL with fresh water. While no obvious differences in elemental distribution can be found after aqueous phase recirculation. In conclusion, this study gives...

  17. The biomedical significance of the phytochemical, proximate and mineral compositions of the leaf, stem bark and root of Jatropha curcas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atamgba; Agbor; Asuk; Margaret; Akpana; Agiang; Kayode; Dasofunjo; Amonor; James; Willie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the phytochemical contents of leaf, stem bark and root of Jatropha curcas(J. curcas) in four solvent extracts and their proximate and mineral compositions. Methods: Standard analytical procedures were used for the determination of phytochemicals, proximate and mineral compositions of the leaf, stem bark and root extracts of J. curcas. Results: Results of the analysis showed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, triterpenoid saponins, carotenoids, phlobatannins and tannins in the leaf, stem bark and root of all the solvent extracts. Flavonoids were present in the highest amount in the ethyl acetate extracts of the leaf(7.35% ± 0.02%), stem bark(4.12% ± 0.01%) and root(3.35% ± 0.02%) followed by polyphenols in the methanol extracts of leaf(4.62% ± 0.02%), stem bark(2.77% ± 0.05%) and root(2.49% ± 0.02%). Poly-acetylated compounds were absent in all the solvent extracts of the leaf, stem bark and root. However, some anti-nutritional agents such as oxalates, phytates and cyanates were present in all the solvent extracts of the leaf, stem bark and root except the ethyl acetate. Phytates were high in the aqueous solvent of the leaf(6.12% ± 0.00%) but low in the stem bark(1.00% ± 0.05%) and root(0.89% ± 0.03%). Proximate composition showed appreciable amounts of total carbohydrate(36.33% ± 0.72%), crude protein(26.00% ± 0.47%) and reducing sugars(5.87% ± 0.14%) in the leaf, while crude fat was more in the stem bark(16.70% ± 0.30%). There was corresponding substantial energy in the leaf [(1 514.77 ± 20.87) kJ /100 g] and stem bark [(907.00 ± 8.52) kJ /100 g]. Moisture and ash contents of the leaf, stem bark and root were within acceptable limits for the use in drugs formulation. The mineral composition showed substantial amounts of important elements such as Fe, Ca, Na, Mg and Zn. Others were P, K and Se. Conclusions: The outcome of this study suggests that the

  18. Effect of leaf removal on sunflower yield and yield components and some quality characters

    OpenAIRE

    Karadogan T.; Akgün Í.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of the ratio of leaf removal from bottom of plants (0, 4, 8 and 12 leaves/plant) shortly before flowering on yield components and some quality characters of sunflower ecotypes. According to ecotype averages, seed setting, seed yield, kernel ratio, crude oil and crude protein contents in seed, crude oil yield and crude protein yield changed with different degree of leaf removal. Head diameter, seed setting, seed yield, 1000-seed weight, kern...

  19. Aktivitas Hipolipidemik dan Indeks Aterogenik yang Rendah Ekstrak Air Daun Tapak Dara pada Tikus Hiperkolesterolemia (HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY AND LOW ATHEROGENIC INDEX OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is one plant recognized as medical potential which can decrease cholesterol. Thepresent study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extracts of C. roseus on plasma lipidprofil levels in rats cholesterol rich diet and atherogenic index. This study was carried out on 15 SpraqueDawley male rats randomly distributed into five groups (n=3. Rats hypercholesterolemic wereadministrated cholesterol rich diet containing 1% (w/w. Normal control group with normal diet whitoutextracts (K1, positive control hypercholesterolemic group (K2 with cholesterol rich diet whitout extracts,and others three groups (K3-K5 were feed high cholesterol and 1 mL of aqueous leaf extracts of C. roseuswith a dose of 20% (w/v, 40% (w/v and 80% (w/v respectively, administered twice daily 1 mL orally.Treatment was given for 28 days. After treatment, the plasma lipids profile such cholesterol total, highdensity lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TGA level were measured. Theresults showed that during the period of treatment with cholesterol rich diet have produced under condition hypercholesterolemic of rats with average cholesterol levels of 124.33 ± 4.04 mg/dL (K2 group. Treatmentwith extract dose of 80% showed the best results among the other doses in reducing levels of total cholesterol,triglycerides, LDL and raise HDL levels. Extract treatment dose of 80% up to four weeks resulted incholesterol total (79.33±3.51 mg/dL, TGA (72.33±6.65 mg/dL, HDL (55.00±3.60 mg/dL, and LDL(9.87±5.34mg/dL. In addition, value ratio of cholesterol:HDL was 1.4: 1 and atherogenic index value was0.44. These results suggest that extracts of leaf C. roseus optimum doses 80% (w/v has hipolipidemicactivity in hypercholesterolemic rats and it has low atherogenic index value.

  20. Inotropic effect of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck leaf extracts on the guinea pig atrium

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    Oliveira E.D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to determine the contractile effect of crude and acetone leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. on mammalian myocardium. Crude leaf extracts have been used in folk medicine to treat neurological disorders. Some flavonoids isolated from this plant presented a positive inotropic effect on myocardium. This motivated us to test the extracts on the atria of guinea pigs of both sexes (300-500 g and surprisingly we observed inotropic depression instead of an increase in force. The maximum effect of the crude extract was 79.4 ± 8.1% of the control force amplitude (N = 5 hearts, 10 trials, 27 ± 0.1ºC, stimulus: 2 Hz, 400 V, 0.5 ms. The EC50 for crude, ethanol, acetic, aqueous, and acetone extracts was 300, 300, 600, 1000, and 140 µg/ml, respectively, with a Hill constant of 1.8, 2.0, 2.5, 2.0, and 1.4, respectively. Blockade of cholinergic, beta-adrenergic, or opioid membrane receptors with 1.5 µM atropine sulfate, 1 µM propranolol, and 10 µM naloxone, respectively, did not change the effect of the crude extract. The acetone extract abolished the Bowditch positive staircase phenomenon (N = 5 hearts, 10 trials, 27 ± 0.1ºC, suggesting a possible reduction of the calcium inward current, and also promoted the so-called Woodworth phenomenon. The effect was concentration-dependent and indicated the existence of another inhibitory contractile mechanism such as the simultaneous activation of some of the membrane potassium channels reducing the myocardial action potential duration and further decreasing the cellular calcium entry.

  1. Comparative study of kinetics of adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using cinnamon plant (Cinnamonum zeylanicum) leaf powder and pineapple (Ananas comosus) peel powder

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Dnyandeo Patil; S. Renukdas; N. T. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Batch adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto Cinnamon plant (Cinnamonum Zeylanicum) leaf powder (CPLP) and Pineapple (Ananas Comosus) peel powder (PPP) was investigated. Different parameters such as initial sorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, agitation speed, temperature and particle size. All isotherm models were found to be best fitting with high values of regression coefficient i.e. for Langmuir (R2 = 0.989 to 0.994 for CPLP and 0.993 to 0.995 for PPP), for Freundlic...

  2. Antiarthritic effect of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Pistia stratiotes in adjuvant-induced arthritis in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Koffuor, George

    2012-01-01

    Samuel Kyei1, George A Koffuor1, Johnson N Boampong21Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; 2Department of Human Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Pistia stratiotes has been used effectively to treat a number of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to determine the antiarthritic effect of aqueous a...

  3. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants� growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  4. 紫斑病菌粗毒素对大蒜幼苗防御酶活性和叶片解剖结构的影响%Effects of Alternaria porri (Elliott) Cif. Crude Toxin on Protective Enzyme Activities and Leaf Anatomical Structure of Garlic Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓敏; 程智慧; 董殷鑫

    2012-01-01

    以抗病品种G087和感病品种G025为试材,研究了大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素对大蒜幼苗叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量及叶片解剖结构的影响.结果表明:在大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理后120 h内,抗病品种和感病品种叶片SOD活性呈现一致的变化趋势,均在96 h达到峰值,但抗病品种SOD活性始终高于感病品种.随着大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理时间的延长,感病品种叶片POD和PAL活性均呈先持续升高后稍下降的趋势,均有1个峰值;而抗病品种叶片POD和PAL活性均出现2个峰值,POD活性的2个峰值分别出现在48 h和96 h,PAL活性的2个峰值分别出现48 h和120 h;抗病品种酶活性的最大峰值高于感病品种.在大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理后的大部分时间内,抗病品种叶片MDA含量低于感病品种.抗病品种叶肉组织结构比感病品种紧密;经大蒜紫斑病菌粗毒素处理后,两个品种叶片栅栏组织及海绵组织的密度都比处理前增加,抗病品种叶肉组织结构比感病品种更加紧密.%The effects of Alternaria porri (Elliott) Cif. crude toxin on the activities of SOD, POD, PAL and contents of MDA and leaf anatomical structure were studied, taking the resistant cultivar G087 and susceptible cultivar G025 of garlic ( Allium sativum L.) as experiment materials. The results showed that the SOD activities of both cultivars appeared the same dynamic changing trend in 120 hours after the pathogen crude toxin treatment and reached the peak at 96 hours. But the SOD activities in resistant cultivar were higher than that in susceptible cultivar. The POD and PAL activities in the leaves of susceptible cultivar showed a trend of sustaining increase first then a slight decrease and had a peak value. However, the activities of POD and PAL in the leaves of resistant cultivar had 2 peak values, which presented at 48 hours and 96 hours for POD

  5. Green synthesis of the Cu/Fe3O4 nanoparticles using Morinda morindoides leaf aqueous extract: A highly efficient magnetically separable catalyst for the reduction of organic dyes in aqueous medium at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Atarod, Monireh; Sajadi, S. Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the green and in-situ preparation of the Cu/Fe3O4 magnetic nanocatalyst synthesized using Morinda morindoides leaf extract without stabilizers or surfactants. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, UV-visible, TEM, VSM and TGA-DTA. The catalytic performance of the resulting nanocatalyst was examined for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Congo red (CR) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in an environmental friendly medium at room temperature. The catalyst was recovered using an external magnet and reused several times without appreciable loss of its catalytic activity. In addition, the stability of the recycled catalyst has been proved by SEM and EDS techniques.

  6. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Barringtonia acutangula leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathi, Dharamaraj; Susheela, Lakshmi; Bharathi, Rajkishore Vijaya

    2011-01-01

    Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Family: Lecythidaceae) is an evergreen tree with simple, alternate leaves, long pendulous racemes, dark scarlet flowers, and ellipsoid to ovoid berries containing one ovoid black seed. The present study deals with a detailed pharmacognostical study on the leaf of the crude drug, B. acutangula. Morphoanatomy of the leaf was studied using light and confocal microscopy and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal pl...

  7. Comparative study of kinetics of adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using cinnamon plant (Cinnamonum zeylanicum leaf powder and pineapple (Ananas comosus peel powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Dnyandeo Patil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption of methylene blue (MB onto Cinnamon plant (Cinnamonum Zeylanicum leaf powder (CPLP and Pineapple (Ananas Comosus peel powder (PPP was investigated. Different parameters such as initial sorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, agitation speed, temperature and particle size. All isotherm models were found to be best fitting with high values of regression coefficient i.e. for Langmuir (R2 = 0.989 to 0.994 for CPLP and 0.993 to 0.995 for PPP, for Freundlich (R2 = 0.996 to 0.998 for CPLP and 0.995 for PPP and for Temkin (R2 = 0.983 to 0.995 for CPLP and 0.984 to 0.989 for PPP. The monolayer (maximum adsorption capacities (qm were found to be 250 and 333.333 mg/g for CPLP and PPP respectively. Lagergen pseudo -second order model best fits the kinetics of adsorption (R2 = 0.999 for CPLP and 1 for PPP. The amount of dye adsorbed at equilibrium qe(the obtained from Lagergen pseudo -second order model were found to be nearly same with the experimental data. Intra particle diffusion plot showed boundary layer effect and larger intercepts indicates greater contribution of surface sorption in rate determining step. Adsorption was found to be directly proportional to pH and temperature but inversely proportional to particle size. Thermodynamic analysis (∆G, ∆H and ∆S values showed adsorption was favourable, spontaneous, endothermic physisorption and increased disorder and randomness at the solid- solution interface of MB with the adsorbents. The forward rate constant was much higher than reverse rate constant suggesting dominance of rate of adsorption. PPP was found to be better adsorbent than CPLP.

  8. Leaf and branch extracts of Eriobotrya japonica exert antibacterial activity against ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Abdou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial activity of leaves and branches of Eriobotrya japonica, a Lebanese endegenious plant, against Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase -producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was determined  and the specific plant fraction responsible for this antimicrobial activity were identified. The plants were extracted with ethanol to yield the crude extract which was further subfractionated by different solvents to obtain the petroleum ether, the dichloromethane, the ethyl acetate and the aqueous fractions. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC were determined using broth microdilution. Both inhibitory and bactericidal effects of Eriobotrya japonica on Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were mainly observed with the crude extract of the plant, the ethyl acetate, the Dichloromethane, and the aqueous fractions. The antibacterial effect of the Petroleum ether fraction was limited with the leaf extract; however, it was acceptable with the branch extract. The lowest MIC90 was observed with ethyl acetate fraction for both leaf and branch extracts with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The concentrations at which most of strains were inhibited ranged between 40 μg/μl and 80 μg/μl. MICs and MBCs effects were detected within 1 dilution. This study constitutes a good example for the screening of antimicrobial activities of plants on highly resistant organisms of clinical importance; however, toxicity of these extracts needs more investigation. Key Words: Eriobotrya japonica, Extended Spectrum Beta Lacatamase, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, medicinal herbs

  9. Effects of an aqueous leaf extract of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma biochemistry and haematological indices of salt-loaded rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Ikewuchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on plasma marker enzymes, plasma chemistry and the haematological profile of salt-loaded rats were studied. The control group received only a commercial feed, whilst the four test groups received a diet consisting of the commercial feed and salt, although the reference treatment group was reverted to the normal feed at the end of 6 weeks. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg body weight to two test groups, respectively; whilst the test control, reference and control groups received equivalent volumes of water by the same route. The extract had no negative effects on markers of liver and kidney functions, but it did produce leukocytosis, significantly increased (p < 0.05 plasma calcium and potassium levels and significantly decreased (p < 0.05 plasma sodium and chloride levels in the test animals compared to the test control animals. This result supports the traditional use of Sansevieria senegambica in the management of hypertension, whilst suggesting that the extract may be a potassium-sparing diuretic whose mechanism of antihypertensive action may be achieved through alteration of plasma sodium and potassium balances, or through calcium-mediated changes in vascular muscle tone.

  10. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

  11. Growth of white clover seedlings treated with aqueous extracts of leaf and root of tough lovegrass Crescimento de plântulas de trevo-branco tratadas com extratos aquosos de folha e raiz de capim-annoni-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Favaretto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of extracts of leaf and roots of tough lovegrass (Eragrostis plana on seedling growth of white clover (Trifolium repens, in two experiments. The first experiment was conducted as a pilot test, in which two concentrations (30 and 60% of leaf aqueous extract were tested. In Experiment II, source (leaf/root and concentration (5 and 10% of the extracts were combined. Distilled water was used as control in both trials. Fifty seedlings at 7 days of age were placed in gerbox containers on filter paper moistened with extracts and incubated at 25°C for 14 days. In the first experiment, percentage of normal seedlings decreased by 82.5% and 100% at the concentrations of 30% and 60%, respectively, which indicated the need to increase the dilution of the extracts. In the subsequent experiment, the extracts from the two sources, at 10% of concentration, reduced by 78% the percentage of normal seedling and increased the percentage of abnormal seedlings, which reached 27%. At 5% concentration, the leaf extract was the most deleterious treatment, resulting in greater mortality (M=27.6% and abnormality (A=19.5% of seedlings, compared to the root extract (M=4.8%; A=9.5% and the control (M=2.4%; A=0.25%. The morphological changes caused by the extracts were radicle necrosis, retention of cotyledons and absence of secondary roots. The results suggest that allelopathic compounds from leaves and roots of tough lovegrass differ in chemical nature and/or concentration.Este estudo foi realizado para investigar o efeito do extrato de folhas e raízes de capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana no crescimento de plântulas de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens, em dois experimentos. O primeiro experimento foi conduzido como teste-piloto, no qual foram testadas duas concentrações (30% e 60% de extrato aquoso de folhas. No experimento II houve uma combinação de fonte (folhas e raízes e concentração (5% e 10% dos extratos.

  12. A simple procedure for the purification of active fractions in aqueous extracts of plants with allelopathic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Borghetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most studies conducted to test the allelopathic activity of plant parts have made use of water as solvent. However, the presence of polar, water-soluble substances, such as proteins and carbohydrates, tends to hamper the purification of active compounds. In this study, we present a simple purification procedure that separates the active fraction of the extract from the undesirable substances, thus facilitating the search for active molecules through standard chromatographic methods. Aqueous leaf extracts of three Cerrado species (Caryocar brasiliense, Qualea parviflora and Eugenia dysenterica were prepared at 5% concentration (w/v and stored at 4ºC (crude extracts. After 24 h, these solutions were filtered and freeze-dried. The powder obtained was dissolved in methanol, filtered again, evaporated and dissolved in water for bioassays (purified extracts. For the bioassays, seedlings of Sesamum indicum were grown for five days in aqueous solutions prepared from crude and purified extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% (w/v. Seedling growth in distilled water was set as a control. In comparison with the control, we found that test solutions prepared from both crude and purified extracts significantly inhibited sesame seedling growth. However, solutions prepared from purified extracts were two to ten times more inhibitory to seedling growth than were those prepared from crude extracts. The inhibition of root growth ranged from 35% to 77%, depending on the plant species, at a concentration as low as 0.1%. Roots were more affected than were shoots. The effects of purified extracts on seedling morphology were similar to those observed when crude extracts were employed, indicating that the procedure of purification of crude extracts did not interfere with the mode of action of the active substances

  13. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  14. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The...

  15. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh Anthony I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of crude aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. The flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract were also determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract was 0.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder. The total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the plant were 0.705 and 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder respectively. The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxide at the initial stage of oxidation showed antioxidant activity of 87% compared to those of BHT (84.6% and gallic acid (96%. Also, the percentage inhibition of malondialdehyde by the extract showed percentage inhibition of 78% comparable to those of BHT (72.24% and Gallic (94.82%. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of H. longifolium is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  16. Induced biochemical conversions of heavy crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products formed during multiple interactions of microorganisms with oils fall into two major categories: those formed due to the action of indigenous microorganisms under reservoir conditions over geological periods of time and those products which are generated by the action of introduced organisms. The extreme end product of the first category is the production of heavy 'biodegraded' crudes. The extreme end product of the second category is the production of reduced sulfates due to the introduction of sulfate-reducing bacteria which may lead to the souring of a field. There is, however, a select group of microorganisms whose action on the crudes is beneficial. The interactions between such microorganisms and different crude oils occur through complex biochemical and chemical reactions. These reactions depend on multiple variables within and at the interface of a multicomponent system consisting of organic, aqueous, and inorganic components. Studies, carried out in this laboratory (BNL) of biochemical and chemical reactions in crude oils which involve extremophilic organisms (organisms which thrive in extreme environments), have shown that the reactions are not random and follow distinct trends. These trends can be categorized. The use of a group of characteristic chemical markers, such as mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of light and heavy hydrocarbons, heterocyclic and organometallic compounds, as well as total trace metal and heteroatom contents of crude oils before and after the biochemical treatment allows to follow the type and the extent of chemical changes which occur during the biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils by microorganisms. The bioconversion involves multiple, simultaneous, and/or concurrent chemical reactions in which the microorganisms serve as biocatalysts. In this sense, the biocatalysts are active in a reaction medium which depends on the chemical composition of the crude and the selectivity of the biocatalyst. Thus, the

  17. Aqueous leaf extract of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae reduces both the inotropic effect of BAY K 8644 on the guinea pig atrium and the calcium current on GH3cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. L. Vasconcelos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It was previously showed that aqueous leaf extract (AqEx of Averrhoa carambola depresses the guinea pig atrial inotropism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on guinea pig left atrium and on pituitary GH3 cells in order to evaluate the effect of AqEx on the cellular calcium influx. The atrium was mounted in an organ chamber (5 mL, Tyrode, 27 ± 0.1 ºC, 95 % O2, 5 % CO2, stretched to 10 mN, and paced at 2 Hz (0.5 ms, 400 V and GH3 cells were submitted to a whole cell voltage clamp configuration. In the atrium, the AqEx (1500 µg/mL shifted to the right the concentration-effect curve of the positive inotropic effect produced by (± BAY K 8644, an L-type calcium channel agonist. The AqEx increased EC50 (concentration required to promote 50% of the maximum effect of the inotropic effect of BAY K 8644 from 7.8 ± 0.38 to 115.1 ± 0.44 nM (N = 3; p < 0.05. In GH3 cells assayed with 500 µg/mL of AqEx, the L-type calcium inward current declined 30 % (from 282 to 190 pA. Nevertheless, the extract did not change the voltage correspondent to the peak current. These data suggest that, at least in part, the negative inotropic effect of AqEx on the guinea pig atrium is due to a reduction of the L-type calcium current.

  18. Comparative HPLC-DAD-ESI(+MS Fingerprint and Quantification of Phenolic and Flavonoid Composition of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Cornus mas and Crataegus monogyna, in Relation to Their Cardiotonic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BADALICA-PETRESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to compare the phenolic and flavonoid composition of two medicinal plants from the wild flora of Romania, traditionally known to be efficient in preventing cardiotoxicity: Cornus mas and Crataegus monogyna. As most previous studies have focused on fruits, our investigations aimed to fingerprint and quantify the two classes of compounds in aqueous leaf extracts, based on HPLC-DAD-ESI(+MS analysis. The specific HPLC-DAD fingerprint was coupled with UV spectra at 280 and 340 nm to discriminate between three subclasses of compounds: two hydroxycinnamic acids and a flavonoid glycoside. While the C. monogyna extract contained more than 98% vitexin isomers (2’- and 4’-O-rhamnoside, the C. mas extract was very complex, containing a mixture of phenolic derivatives and flavonoid glycosides. The spectral patterns of C. mas, combined with the molecular mass and specific fragmentations allowed the identification of epi-catechin, coumaric and caffeic acids and quercetin derivatives. Based on LC-MS peak area and parallel calibrations with gallic acid and rutin, the mean concentration for flavonoids in C. mas was 13 mg/100 ml, while aprox. 65 mg/100 ml in C. monogyna extracts. Using the Folin method, the total phenol content was 105 mg/100 ml in C. mas and around three times less in the C. monogyna extract, while the antioxidant activity was increased only 1.5-1.7 times in C. mas extract compared to C. monogyna. These findings suggest a higher stability and potential of flavonoids to act as antioxidants in hydrophilic environment.

  19. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ON THE CRUDE EXTRACTS OF THE LEAVES OF CINERARIA ABYSSINICA SCH. BIP. EXA. RICH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Sintayehu*, Kaleab Asres and Avijit Mazumder

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aqueous decoction of the leaves of Cineraria abyssinica Sch. Bip. exA. Rich (Asteraceae is used for treatments of various ailments including diarrhea, however, to date, there appear to have been no reports on the phytochemistry and the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The main aim of this study was, therefore, to carry out preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities on leaf extracts of C. abyssinica. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and 80% methanolic crude extracts of the leaves of C. abyssinica were investigated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar disc diffusion method. Both the aqueous and 80% methanolic extracts showed various degrees of potent antibacterial activities comparable to the standard drug ciprofloxacin against all of the bacteria tested except Bacillus species. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids and phytosterols. The acute toxicity studies showed the nontoxic nature of the plant up to 3 g/kg. Therefore, the present study revealed for the first time the presence of antimicrobial phytochemicals in the leaves of C. abyssinica that scientifically validated the traditional use and its great potential to be used for treatment of infectious diarrhea.

  1. An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Crude Oil on Two Freshwater Lake Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Martin D.; Adams, V. Dean; Lamarra, Vincent A.

    1983-01-01

    Responses of two freshwater lake ecosystems of the Intermountain West to crude oil impaction were investigated. The research was conducted in two phases; in the first phase effects of crude oil were studied on an ecosystem established in three phase laboratory microcosms (gaseous-aqueous-sediment), which simulated the natural lakes. Notable responses of the microcosm ecosystem to oil impaction included: an increas...

  2. Leaf Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf developm...

  3. Crude oil desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  4. Record prices [crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil prices climbed to new record levels on fears of a future loss of supplies from Iran as Washington stepped up its efforts to persuade Tehran to abandon its programme to produce nuclear fuel. IPE's December Brent contract set a new record for the exchange by trading at $75.80/bbl on 21st April. On the same day October WTI reached an all-time high of $77.30/bbl on Nymex. US product prices gained as refiners struggled to produce sufficient middle distillate. Alarmed by the rising retail price of gasoline, the US Senate debated a reduction in the already low US tax rate on motor spirit. The House of Representatives passed a measure to prohibit overcharging for petrol, diesel and heating oil, but Democrats rejected a Republican proposal to speed-up the process for approving new refineries. President George W Bush announced a temporary easing of new gasoline and diesel specifications (see 'Focus', March 2006) to allow more fuel to be produced. He also agreed to delay the repayment of some 2.1 mn bbl of crude oil lent to companies after last year's hurricanes from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. California announced an inquiry into alleged overcharging for fuel by oil companies operating in the state. (author)

  5. Efficacy ofLimonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) leaf extract on larval immatures of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddharthasankar Banerjee; Someshwar Singha; Subrata Laskar; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of leaf extract ofLimonia acidissimaL. (Rutaceae) as a biocontrol agent against the larval form ofCulex quinquefasciatus, and characterization of bioactive component responsible for larvicidal activity.Methods:Larval mortality of mosquito species was observed after24, 48and72 hours of exposure to different concentrations of aqueous extract, solvent extract and subsequently bioactive compound. The bioactive compound was subjected toIR andGC-MS analysis.Results:Mortality rate at 3% concentration of crude extract were highest(90%) amongst all concentrations tested and subsequently highest(95%) mortality was achieved in chloroform: methanol extract at100 ppm concentrations. IRandGC-MS analysis of bioactive compound revealed the presence of steroid compound which may act as larvicide. Conclusions:The chloroform: methanol extract of mature leaves of Limonia acidissima was found to exhibit considerable mosquito larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

  6. Comparative analysis of Tunisian wild Crataegus azarolus (yellow azarole) and Crataegus monogyna (red azarole) leaf, fruit, and traditionally derived syrup: phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous-acetone extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhir, Manel; Rebai, Olfa; Dhaouadi, Karima; Congiu, Francesca; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Amri, Mohamed; Fattouch, Sami

    2013-10-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the yellow and red azarole phenolic extracts prepared from leaf, fruit peel/pulp, and syrup were comparatively investigated. The yellow azarole was found significantly richer in polyphenols than the red-fruit species. Hyperoside was the main phenolic in both yellow and red azarole leaves and only in yellow fruits, whereas procyanidin B2 was the major compound in red fruits. Yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities using DPPH (≈168 and 79 μmol TEAC/g fw, respectively) and FRAP (≈378 and 161 μmol Fe(2+)/g fw, respectively) assays. The highest antibacterial activities were recorded for the yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts, especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis . The low phenolic content of the syrups contrasted with their significant antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials, which were correlated to their hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (furan derivative amounts) content. PMID:24070066

  7. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  8. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Gori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cistus incanus (Cistaceae is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction, AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions, were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2. These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations.

  9. A STUDY ON CYTOTOXIC AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md. Shamsul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the biological investigations of Clerodendrum viscosum – a plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The leaf of Clerodendrum viscosum was extracted with methanol and water. The crude extract of methanol of Clerodendrum viscosum was screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate was used as a positive control. From the result of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it can be well predicted that methanol extract possess cytotoxic principles (with LC50 3.696 µg/ml comparison with positive control vincristine sulphate (with LC50 0.773 µg /ml. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts from the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and five concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/ml of each extracts were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 50 mg/ml. Albendazole in 20mg/ml concentration extract was used as standard reference and saline solution as control. All the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner.

  10. The role of benchmark crudes in crude oil pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the world's oil, whether sold on a spot basis or as part of a term contract, will be priced on a relationship with one or other of a small number of marker crude oils. Generally, the markers used are West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Alaskan North Slope (ANS) for crude oil coming into North and South America; Dubai or Oman for crudes being delivered into the Far Eastern markets; and Brent for any crude being delivered into Europe. For a variety of reasons, over the laster two years, Brent blend has become more predominant in the pricing process for crude oils throughout the world. This has resulted in the fact that, directly or indirectly, Brent is now used to price approximately 65% of the world's crude oil. So why is it that a crude oil with a comparatively small production base of around 700,000 barrels per day has now come to dominate the pricing of the lion's share of the world's crude oil? The answer to this question is discussed

  11. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera (aqueous, hexane, ethanol and methanol) were investigated for antibacterial activity and found effective against all tested strains. However leaf extracted in methanol was more effective followed by ethanol, aqueous and hexane. Methanol extract of leaf showed maximum activity against the tested bacterial strains and MIC was 2, 3 and 3 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli respectively. Therefore this can be selected for ...

  12. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of the Terpene "[beta]"-Thujone from Cedar Leaf Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    Western red cedar leaf affords an essential oil characterized by high thujone content. Students in an advanced organic chemistry lab course isolate a single thujone diastereoisomer from commercially available cedar leaf oil. Treatment of crude oil, containing roughly 70% thujone, predominately as [alpha]-thujone (6.5:1), with ethanolic sodium…

  13. Characterization of crude oil-water and solid -water interfaces and adsorption / desorption properties of crude oil fractions: The effect of low salinity water and pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Umer

    2010-09-15

    The reservoirs of conventional oil are rapidly depleting because of increased production and consumption of crude oil in the world. Mature and mostly depleted oil reservoirs require advanced recovery techniques to sustain the production rates. During the past years, a variety of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods have been developed and implemented to increase the oil recovery from mature reservoirs. Low Salinity Waterflooding (LSW) is an emerging EOR process of injecting water containing low concentrations (<4000 ppm) of total dissolved solids into the reservoir. This moderate cost process yields relatively higher incremental recoveries than other water based recovery methods. Investigation of mechanisms for increased recovery is quite challenging because this process depends upon complex crude oil/water/rock properties. This work was done to study the surface chemistry of typical reservoir surfaces where LSW can be used for EOR. The oil water and solid-water interfaces were characterised in low salinity aqueous solutions and investigated how the electrolytes and pH of solutions affect the interfacial and surface properties. The influence of low saline aqueous solution on the desorption behaviour of different fractions (acid-free oil and base-free oil) of crude oils was also explored. Reservoir minerals are sensitive to small changes in solution properties and therefore model, outcrop and reservoir particles were characterized in low salinity aqueous solutions. The extent of ionic adsorption on the mineral surfaces was found by various techniques. Particles were also characterized with respect to their elemental compositions. Asphaltene adsorption/desorption on reservoir rock surfaces play an important role in EOR processes. Various injection sequences of low saline aqueous solution of Na +, Ca2+ and sea water were considered to study the desorption of asphaltenes from silica surfaces. Composition of the aqueous phase influenced the interfacial properties of

  14. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116. PMID:25176251

  15. Effect of active species in crude oil on the interfacial tension behavior of alkali/synthetic surfactants/crude oil systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Liwei; Hou Jirui; Yue Xiang'an; Zhao Ji

    2008-01-01

    The effect of active species present in crude oil on the interfacial tension (IFT) behavior of alkali/synthetic surfactants/crude oil systems was studied. The system consisted of heavy alkyl benzene sulfonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydrate and Daqing crude oil. Experimental results indicated that active species would diffuse from oil/aqueous interface to aqueous phase and finally an equilibrium could be reached in the system with increasing contact time. Moreover, the minimum IFT and equilibrium IFT values increased with increasing contact time and a linear relationship existed between dynamic IFT and t-1/2 when IFT value approaching the minimum and after the minimum IFT was reached. This indicated that the dynamic IFT-time behavior was diffusion controlled. The oil and aqueous phases were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. IR spectra of oil and aqueous phases illustrated that the content of active species in the oil phase decreased, but the content of active species in the aqueous phase increased after alkali reacted with crude oil. This indicated that the active species present in oil played an important role in reducing IFT.

  16. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  17. Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flicien Mushagalusa Kasali; Justin Ntokamunda Kadima; Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana; Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua; Damien Sha-Tshibey Tshibangu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify the antidiabetic activity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. popularly used in the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and to point out the possible toxicity.Method:pigs at the dose range of 100 mg/kg to 3.2 g/kg of body weight. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by glucose tolerance test, loading animals with glucose 4 g/kg and measuring blood glucose concentrations at various times. The effect was compared to the control and glibenclamide as antidiabetic reference drug. Acute toxicity was evaluated by recording mortality rate, changes on blood biomarkers and damage caused to vital organs.Results:At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the aqueous extract induced a significant reduction of peak Aqueous decoctions prepared from dried leaves powder were administrated to guinea concentration at 30 min after glucose loading as compared with control or reference (P<0.05). At doses greater than 400 mg, some alterations on blood, kidney and liver markers were observed. Upper 800 mg/kg, mortality was observed with LD50 estimated at about 1280 mg/kg. At the autopsy, vital organs were in haemorrhage and swelling state.Conclusion:The crude aqueous extracts from the leaves of Physalis peruviana L. present hypoglycemic activity in animal model, but at high doses the plant may cause severe intoxication.

  18. ANTISEPTIC AND COAGULATION PROPERTIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS FROM NORTH EAST OF NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    NWAIWU N.E.; W. I. Ibrahim; RAUFU I.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the difference between the antimicrobial and coagulation activity of crude extracts of Moringa oleifera grown in different parts of North East, Nigeria. Moringa oleifera seeds were plucked from trees in three states of the North East Nigeria namely Adamawa, Borno and Yobe States. The results indicated that crude aqueous extracts of Borno Moringa oleifera, Yobe Moringa oleifera and Adamawa Moringa oleifera showed different degrees of growth inhibitions to ...

  19. Mercury in extraction and refining process of crude oil and natural gas

    OpenAIRE

    Subirachs Sanchez, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil and natural gas are predominantly composed by hydrocarbon atoms, water and a wide spectrum of elements at low levels such as arsenic, vanadium and mercury. The presence of mercury in crude oil and natural gas varies in each stage of extraction and transformation process because it distributes unequally among the vapour, condensate and aqueous phase in function of the pressure and temperature. Mercury causes a wide range of problems for refiners as for example: equipment degradati...

  20. Crude incompatibility problems at heavy crude unit desalter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) is based at Rawalpindi, Pakistan and operates a 40,000 Barrels per Stream Day (BPSD) refinery. The Heavy Crude Unit (HCU) of ARL is a fully integrated two-stage 10,000 BPSD Atmospheric and 5,700 BPSD Vacuum Distillation Unit. A 3-stage desalter designed to reduce salt and BS and W content from 2,000 parts per thousand barrels (PTB) and 2% to less than 5 PTB and 0.1% respectively, is part of HCU. The feedstock is a composite blend of 14 local Heavy Crudes received at the Refinery. Although in the past this desalter had been giving good performance, over the last one year, period since August 2005, at least nine shutdowns of the unit took place due to salt slippage and consequential tube leakages at the overhead Crude-Naphtha vapor Heat Exchanger where partial condensation of naphtha takes place. Final condensation is achieved in trim condenser. High salted water carry-over with the crude caused increased hydrolysis, formation of Hydrochloric acid and increase of tail water chlorides. Salt contents at the outlet of third desalter at times increased up to 400 PTB with 3.2% BS and W during the above mentioned upsets, as compared to normal 5-10 PTB. Fallout from this loss of desalter control was the creation of large quantities of slop due to draining of strong water oil emulsion from the desalters. Individual crudes of the blend were analyzed for affinity of water and emulsion stability. It was observed that 3 of the 14 crudes formed very strong while the remaining crudes formed weak oil water emulsion, which easily separated water from oil in desalter without any operational problem. Study was further narrowed down to one crude evaluation. Alkaline earth metallic naphthenate surfactants were detected and isolated as responsible for the strong water oil and sediments emulsion. The isolated crude was next withdrawn from the Heavy Crude blend. As soon as it was isolated and its ratio in heavy crude tank came down to 0.7 %, the problem began

  1. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Text size: s m l xl Crude Oil Spills and Health Overviews Health Information Coping with Disasters ... U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Return to top Oil Spills and Wildlife Environmental Quality: Oil Spill Preparation and ...

  2. CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATION AND PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Terek, Olga; Laphyna, Olga; Velychko, Oksana; Bunyo, Lyubov; Dovgaiuk-Semeniuk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the physiological mechanisms of plant adaptation under crude oil contamination of soil. Different plant species used in the study sedge (Carex hirta L.), bean (Faba bona Medic.), alfalfa (Medicago lupulina L.) and clover (Trifolium pratense L.) showed various biochemical and morphological reactions under oil pollution. The effect of crude oil on root elongation, shoot growth and dry matter accumulation of the four species was evaluated. All invest...

  3. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m3/d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m3/d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Phytochemical studies of various polarities leave crude extracts of Omani Datura metel L. and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Saleh Hamed Al-Jafari; Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the chemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial potential of various crude extracts from leaves of Datura metel grown in Oman. Methods: The leaf samples were collected from the University of Nizwa and extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. The isolated crude extract was defatted with distilled water and extracted with solvents of different polarities including hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. Chemical compositions of the cr...

  5. Increased plasma total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels produced by the crude extract from the leaves of Viscum album (mistletoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, E E; Eno, A E; Ofem, O E; Aidem, U; Itam, E H

    2006-01-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of Viscum album (Mistletoe) on plasma cholesterol and albumin levels in male Wistar rats was studied. Lethality studies revealed that the extract had an LD50 value of 417.0 mg/kg mice, intraperitoneally. The rats were randomly divided into seven (7) groups of 5 rats per group with one animal per metabolic cage. Group one served as the control (C1), groups two to six were treated with extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally and daily) for a maximum of ten (10) weeks, whereas, group seven (C2) received no extract treatment but was fed on normal rat chow. All the rats had free access to rat food and drinking water. The first group (C1) was sacrificed a fortnight after the commencement of the experiment, while group seven (C2) was sacrificed at the end (10th week) of the experiment. The extract-treated groups were sacrificed respectively in the order two, four, six, eight and ten week of extract administration. Whole blood was collected from these groups for analysis. Results showed significant [P control values. From the results, it is suggested that the crude aqueous extract from mistletoe leaf may be relatively safe for therapeutic use as it neither predisposes to cardiovascular risk nor adversely affects protein metabolism following prolonged period of administration. PMID:17242719

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Murraya koenigii leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Ayyappan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-04-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Murraya koenigii plant leaf extract against first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 ppm) and ethanol leaf extract (50, 200, 350, 500, and 650 ppm) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti. The synthesized AgNPs from M. koenigii leaf were highly toxic than crude leaf ethanol extract in both mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The maximum mortality was observed in synthesized AgNPs, and ethanol leaf extract of M. koenigii against A. stephensi had LC50 values of 10.82, 14.67, 19.13, 24.35, and 32.09 ppm and 279.33, 334.61, 406.95, 536.11, and 700.16 ppm and LC90 values of 32.38, 42.52, 53.65, 63.51, and 75.26 ppm and 737.37, 843.84, 907.67, 1,187.62, and 1,421.13 ppm. A. aegypti had LC50 values of 13.34, 17.19, 22.03, 27.57, and 34.84 ppm and 314.29, 374.95, 461.01, 606.50, and 774.01 ppm and LC90 values of 36.98, 47.67, 55.95, 67.36, and 77.72 ppm and 777.32, 891.16, 1,021.90, 1,273.06, and 1,509.18 ppm, respectively. These results suggest that the use of M. koenigii synthesized silver nanoparticles can be a rapid, environmentally safer biopesticide which can form a novel approach to develop effective biocides for controlling the target

  7. Allelopathyof Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Leaf Aqueous Extracts on Other Crops%杜仲叶水提取物对几种农作物的化感作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟铭; 刘增文

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of Euconmia ulmoides Oliver withered leaves were used to test their allel-opathic effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of wheat, rape, soybean, and corn in agroforestry system. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver withered leaves significantly decreased the seed germination index of the tested plants. Germination rate of the four crops was significantly inhibited by 0.1 g · mL 1 extract treatment. At the concentration of 0.1 g · mL-1 the aqueous extracts, the growth of crops was inhibited significantly, and no seedlings obtained in rape, soybean and corn. The aqueous extracts showed inhibitory effect on seedling height and seedling fresh weight at higher concentrations, but stimulative effect at lower concentrations. The aqueous extracts presented a strong inhibition on the root growth and root fresh weight of the three crops, except no effects on rape at concentration 0. 005 g · mL-1. For the seedling height, seedling fresh weight, root growth and root fresh weight of wheat, the aqueous extracts showed strong inhibition. Root activity, relative conductivity, and CAT activity not only reflected the allelopathic effects, but also related to each other.%研究农林复合系统中杜仲枯落叶水浸提液对小麦、油菜、大豆和玉米种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,杜仲枯落叶水浸提液使受试农作物种子发芽指数显著降低.0.1 g·mL-1浸提液处理对4种农作物的发芽率有极显著的抑制作用.油菜、大豆和玉米种子在0.1 g·mL-1时均未长成幼苗,浸提液对其苗高和苗鲜质量有高质量浓度抑制,低质量浓度促进的双重效应.同时除0.005 g·mL-1浸提液对油菜根鲜质量无影响外,对其他3种作物的根长和根鲜质量有显著抑制作用.小麦的苗高、苗鲜质量、根长和根鲜质量均明显低于对照值.4种农作物的根系活力、细胞膜透性和过氧化氢酶活性同样反映了

  8. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace soybeans meal up to 10% without affecting the growth performance of African catfish.

  9. Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    G. Sahoo; N. S. S. Mulla; Ansari, Z.A.; Mohandass, C.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extract of mangroves, namely, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba and Exoecaria agallocha from Chorao island, Goa was investigated against human bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria Salmonella typhi was inhibited by the ethanol extract of S. alba leaf whereas the ot...

  10. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Chaitanya Sravanthi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelmintic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The methanolic extract of the crude drug at concentrations of 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml were tested which involve determination of paralysis time and death time. Albendazole was used as standard and it was found that the concentrated methanolic extract (with no traces of solvent of the Hibiscus cannabinus leaves which is used as food in many parts of the world, showed a better anthelminthic activity in comparison with the standard.

  11. Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, S B; Yuvarajan, R; Natarajan, D

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 μg mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 μg mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 μg mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was

  12. Antimicrobial and selected in vitro enzyme inhibitory effects of leaf extracts, flavonols and indole alkaloids isolated from Croton menyharthii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Croton species are used in folk medicine in the management of infections, inflammation and oxidative stress-related diseases. In order to isolate, characterize and evaluate the bioactive constituents of Croton menyharthii Pax leaf extracts, repeated column fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract afforded three flavonols identified by NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic methods as myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (myricetrin, 1), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2) and quercetin (3) along with an indole alkaloid, (E)-N-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-5-hydroxytryptamine, [trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin, 4]. All the compounds are reported from the leaf extract of this plant for the first time. The crude extracts, four solvent fractions (hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate and butanol) and isolated compounds obtained from the leaves were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on selected bacteria, a fungus (Candida albicans), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Amongst the compounds, quercetin (3) was the most active against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans while myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin (4) were the most active compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitory activity of myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) against COX-2 was insignificant while that of the other three compounds 2-4 was low. The AChE inhibitory activity of the alkaloid, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin was high, with a percentage inhibitory activity of 72.6% and an IC50 value of 15.0 µg/mL. The rest of the compounds only had moderate activity. Croton menyharthii leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit α-glucosidase at very low IC50 values compared to the synthetic drug acarbose. Structure activity relationship of the isolated flavonols 1-3 is briefly outlined. Compounds 1-4 and the leaf extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of activities. This validates the

  13. Antimicrobial and Selected In Vitro Enzyme Inhibitory Effects of Leaf Extracts, Flavonols and Indole Alkaloids Isolated from Croton menyharthii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Van Staden

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Croton species are used in folk medicine in the management of infections, inflammation and oxidative stress-related diseases. In order to isolate, characterize and evaluate the bioactive constituents of Croton menyharthii Pax leaf extracts, repeated column fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract afforded three flavonols identified by NMR (1D and 2D spectroscopic methods as myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (myricetrin, 1, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2 and quercetin (3 along with an indole alkaloid, (E-N-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, [trans-N-(p-coumaroyl serotonin, 4]. All the compounds are reported from the leaf extract of this plant for the first time. The crude extracts, four solvent fractions (hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate and butanol and isolated compounds obtained from the leaves were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on selected bacteria, a fungus (Candida albicans, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Amongst the compounds, quercetin (3 was the most active against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans while myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1 and trans-N-(p-coumaroyl serotonin (4 were the most active compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitory activity of myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1 against COX-2 was insignificant while that of the other three compounds 2–4 was low. The AChE inhibitory activity of the alkaloid, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl serotonin was high, with a percentage inhibitory activity of 72.6% and an IC50 value of 15.0 µg/mL. The rest of the compounds only had moderate activity. Croton menyharthii leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit α-glucosidase at very low IC50 values compared to the synthetic drug acarbose. Structure activity relationship of the isolated flavonols 1–3 is briefly outlined. Compounds 1–4 and the leaf extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of activities. This validates the

  14. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  15. Ocimum sanctum leaf extract induces drought stress tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Veena; Ansari, M W; Tula, Suresh; Sahoo, R K; Bains, Gurdeep; Kumar, J; Tuteja, Narendra; Shukla, Alok

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum leaves are highly enriched in antioxidant components. Thus, its leaf extract, if applied in plants, is believed to efficiently scavenge ROS, thereby preventing oxidative damage under drought stress. Thus, the present study was performed in kharif 2013 and rabi 2014 season to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum against drought stress in 2 rice genotype under glass house conditions. Here we show that various morpho- physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf rolling score, leaf tip burn, number of senesced leaves and total dry matter) and biochemical parameters (proline, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase content) were amended by Ocimum treatment in both the seasons. Application of Ocimum extract increased expression of dehydrin genes, while reducing expression of aquaporin genes in drought stressed rice plant. Thus, application of Ocimum leaf extract under drought stress can be suggested as a promising strategy to mitigate drought stress in economical, accessible and ecofriendly manner. PMID:26890603

  16. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn.) and Gmelina arborea (Roxb.) for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi; Efemena Dickens Dolor; Ebere Mercy Okechukwu

    2007-01-01

    A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlin...

  18. The Effects of Bay Leaf on Rainbow Trout’s Growth, Aromatic and Meat Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candan Varlik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of bay leaf on the growth, aromatic and meat composition to rainbow trout was researched. This study was carried out about 10 weeks. Initial rainbow trout mean weight was 140.93±12.17 g and there was 30 fish to each group, total fish number are 240. Rainbow trout feed had about 40% crude protein and 13% crude lipid. Bay leaf was added on the rates of 3, 5 and 7% in rainbow trout feed. This study was conducted with four groups (3 experimental, 1 control in two parallel sessions. At the end of the treatment, the highest live weight gains were at the control group (260.24±34.98 g and 3% group (247.29±52.91 g. The least live weight gain was in 7% group (228.87±40.22 g (p<0.05. At the end of study, a sensory test was conducted. The fish were treated with raw, dry cooked and cooked in bakery techniques. They were analyzed according to how they look, aroma and taste criteria. According to these criteria, it is supported that when the fish fed with bay leaf they showed aroma and taste of bay leaf. By bakery cooking method, bay leaf aroma and taste were felt the best with 3 and 5% groups and least with 7% group. By dry cooking method, bay leaf aroma and taste were felt the same with 3 and 5% groups but it was least with the 7% group (p<0.05. According to meat composition results in groups, it was found that the 7% group had 21.10±2.86% crude protein, 21.38±0.37% crude lipid while the control group had18.88±0.29% crude protein, 20.36±0.36% crude lipid (p<0.05.

  19. Memecylon edule leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Elavazhagan T; Arunachalam KD

    2011-01-01

    Tamizhamudu Elavazhagan, Kantha D ArunachalamCentre for Interdisciplinary Research, Directorate of Research, SRM University, Kattankulathur-603203, Tamilnadu, IndiaAbstract: We used an aqueous leaf extract of Memecylon edule (Melastomataceae) to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where M. edule leaf broth was found to be a suitable plant source for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silve...

  20. Geospatial Hydrochemical and Microbiological Implications on the Occurrence of Crude Oil Biodegradation and Methanogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, J.; McIntosh, J. C.; Warwick, P.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Technologies that serve as a bridge between renewable energy and fossil fuels are needed to meet growing energy demands and to mitigate climate change. Many reservoirs contain difficult to produce residual and/or heavily biodegraded (i.e., geochemically altered) crude oil, which remains a relatively untapped resource. Production of this residual crude oil via unconventional methods, such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR), has offset some of the decline in conventional oil production. EOR is not efficient enough to recover all of the original oil in place, and some methods are not effective for very heavy crude oils. Stimulation of in-situ microorganisms to convert the residual crude oil to natural gas (i.e., microbial methane) is one promising strategy to "extract" residual and /or heavy crude oil. Although the hydrogeochemical conditions necessary for the occurrence of both crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis in various reservoirs have been studied, there are still gaps in research. Many hydrogeochemical factors have been researched individually (not as part of a multifactor or lithologically similar system) and little work has assessed the microbiological limitations of both processes. Our goal is to determine the hydrogeochemical and microbiological conditions required for maximum crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis across a lithologically similar unit. Produced water, oil, gas, and microbial biomass samples were collected from wells completed in the Paleocene—Eocene Wilcox Group in central Louisiana. Initial results indicate potential relationships between the amount of crude oil biodegradation, indicators of microbial methanogenesis, and aqueous geochemistry. For example, produced waters with the lowest salinity had the highest crude oil biodegradation, and wells exhibiting the most microbial methane generation produce waters with hydrogeochemical conditions most fit for methanogenesis to occur. In sampled wells displaying

  1. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabia Naz; Asghari Bano

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods:Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results:Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions: The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.

  2. Mapping leaf surface landscapes.

    OpenAIRE

    Mechaber, W.L.; Marshall, D B; Mechaber, R A; Jobe, R T; Chew, F S

    1996-01-01

    Leaf surfaces provide the ecologically relevant landscapes to those organisms that encounter or colonize the leaf surface. Leaf surface topography directly affects microhabitat availability for colonizing microbes, microhabitat quality and acceptability for insects, and the efficacy of agricultural spray applications. Prior detailed mechanistic studies that examined particular fungi-plant and pollinator-plant interactions have demonstrated the importance of plant surface topography or roughne...

  3. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P

    2012-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22 h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. They were also analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated using the diphenyl picrylhydrazyl method and the β-carotene linoleate model assay. Moreover, the effects of different crude olive leaf extracts on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at 40°C and sunflower oil-in-water emulsions (10% o/w) at 37°C, at a final concentration of crude extract 200 mg kg(-1) oil, were tested and compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene. PMID:22060136

  4. Inhibition of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Crude Oil- and Creosote-Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater was studied. The crude oil and water-soluble components of creosote contributed to the inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was much more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At a crude oil-contaminated site, numbers of acetoclastic methanogens found close to crude oil were 100 times fewer than those of hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens. In laboratory toxicity assays, crude oil collected from the site inhibited methane production from acetate but not from formate or hydrogen. Toxicity assays with aqueous creosote extract completely inhibited acetate utilization over the range of tested dilutions but only mildly affected formate and hydrogen utilization. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity would result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  5. Spectral and HRTEM analyses of Annona muricata leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles and its Larvicidal efficacy against three mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit various diseases which mainly affect the human beings and every year cause millions of deaths globally. Currently available chemical and synthetic mosquitocidal agents pose severe side effects, pollute the environment vigorously, and become resistance. There is an urgent need to identify and develop the cost effective, compatible and eco-friendly product for mosquito control. The present study was aimed to find out the larvicidal potential of aqueous crude extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Annona muricata leaves were tested against fourth instar larvae of three important mosquitoes i.e. Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti using different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) and the aqueous leaf extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) for 24 and 48 h. The maximum mortality was noticed in AgNPs than aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata against tested mosquitoes with least LC50 values of 37.70, 31.29, and 20.65 ppm (24h) and 546.7, 516.2, and 618.4 ppm (48 h), respectively. All tested concentrations of AgNps exhibited 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae at 48 hour observation. In addition, the plant mediated AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction, high resonance transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis for confirmation of nanoparticle synthesis. Based on the findings of the study suggests that the use of A. muricata plant mediated AgNPs can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes. PMID:26410042

  6. Preliminary In Vitro Antisickilng Properties of Crude Juice Extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus Sinensis, Carica Papaya and Ciklavit®

    OpenAIRE

    Iweala, EE J; Uhegbu, FO; Ogu, GN

    2009-01-01

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle ce...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF BIOTHERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF PIMENTA DIOICA (ALLSPICE LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Pratima Khandelwal et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available All-spice (pimenta is one of the under-utilized resources available in the tropical regions of the globe. It is a variety of sweet pepper used as a spice and its leaves are used for traditional culinary purpose. Researchers have studied the antioxidant potentials of the berries of the plant, but no documented work is reported on its stem, leaf and roots for antimicrobial properties. Thus, the present investigation was carried out to access the antimicrobial and anti-oxidation potentials of leaf extracts using three solvent systems, (Aqueous, acetone and methanol. All solvent systems at different concentrations were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and reducing capacity against selected bacterial and fungal pathogens; zone of inhibition was exhibited by methanol leaf extracts in decreasing order for Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Lesser inhibitory zones were obtained by acetone leaf extracts, whereas, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not inhibited by any extracts. Aqueous extract demonstrated no inhibitory activity against tested bacterial pathogens. All the three leaf extracts were found to be ineffective against fungal strains (Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans tested. Protein content in each extract was determined and reducing capability was estimated which was found to be high in methanol and acetone extract whereas aqueous extract showed low reducing ability.

  8. World crude oil market and its unpredictable process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functioning of the world oil market is complex and unpredictable process. This mechanism depends of following acting areas: Crude oil stocks; Demand of crude oil; Supply of crude oil; Refinery activity; Crude oil price. (Author)

  9. Environmental and safe optimization of crude oil washing on crude oil tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Altun, Murat Hasan Ali; Özcan ARSLAN

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Crude oil is one of the most harmful substances for the environment because of its components. Pollution can be divided in two categories: sea pollution and air pollution. For that reason, discharging of crude oil and its products into the sea should be minimized by means of crude oil washing operation optimization not to destroy the environment. During the transportation of crude oil, the most difficult problem encountered is discharging of crude oil. There are some threats, advanta...

  10. Antimicrobial potential of leaf and fruit extracts and oils of wild and cultivated edible olive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive tree is the first botanical noted in the Bible. Leaves and fruits of olive are rich sources of Phenols, triterpenes, and flavanoids. Oleuropein obtained from the leaves extract is believed to be important therapeutic compound. Olive leaf and oils are used for the treatment of different diseases as folklore medicines by different ethnic groups in different countries of the world. The present study aims to investigate the potential antimicrobial activities of wild (Olea ferruginea) and edible (Olea europaea) olive leaf crude extracts, crude oils from ripe and unripe fruits and extra virgin oils against the selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. The results show that olive leaf and oil have potential antibacterial activities against some of the gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. However, certain strains were resistant to the extracts. It was also found that the activities were higher for the gram negative strains as compared to gram positive strains. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts were found to be more efficient in extraction than the other solvents used. Leaf extracts were more effective than the oil extracted from ripe and unripe fruits. There was no significant difference in the activities of extra virgin oils and crude leaf extracts. From the results it is concluded that the leaf extract is a cheap and effective antibacterial agent that can be used as alternative to purified oil. (author)

  11. Characteristic Temperatures of Waxy Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yingru; Zhang Jinjun; Li Hongying; Chen Jun

    2007-01-01

    Gel point or pour point is widely used to evaluate the low temperature flowability of crude oil. However, it is not adequate to describe the gelling properties of waxy crude oils under flow conditions with gel point or pour point,since the rheological behavior of crude oils is dependent on shear history. Waxy crude oils tend to gel at a low temperature. Based on gelation theory, the characteristic temperature of waxy crude oil was determined by analyzing viscosity-temperature data. Two mathematical models were developed for calculating characteristic temperatures of virgin crude oils and pour point depressants (PPD) beneficiated crude oils, respectively. By using these two models, the characteristic temperatures of crude oils that have experienced shearing and thermal histories can be predicted. The model for predicting the characteristic temperature of virgin crude oils has an average relative deviation of 4.5%, and all predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. Tested by 42 sets of data, the prediction model for crude oil treated with PPD has a high accuracy, with an average relative deviation of 4.2%, and 95.2 percent of predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. These two models provide useful ways for predicting the flowability of crude oils in pipelines when only wax content, wax appearance point and gel point are available.

  12. Processing of Liaohe Highly Sour Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shijie

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the problems related with processing low-quality Liaohe highly sour crude, the Liaohe Petrochemical Company has explored the possibility in optimizing the processing of highly sour crude by adopting different process schemes depending upon the properties of the highly sour crude. The Liaohe naphthenic-base crude oil with low freezing point is earmarked for manufacture of naphthenic lube oils and heavy traffic paving asphalt, while the extra-heavy Liaohe crude with high acid number is routed directly to delayed coking unit coupled with corresponding corrosion preventing measures, resulting in tackling the problem of equipment corrosion arising from refining of Liaohe highly sour crude to obtain light distillates from Liaohe heavy crude through a short process scheme.

  13. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period. PMID:24956464

  14. Effect of Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf powder and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum leaf paste on sensory and nutritional qualities of beef and ham burgers – A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Teye

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Moringa leaf powder and sweet basil leaf paste are commonly used in local dishes in Ghana for purposes of flavour enhancement and nutrient supplements. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MLP and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum leaf paste (SBLP on the sensory characteristics and nutritional compositions of beef and hamburgers. MLP and SBLP were incorporated at 0g (Control, T1, 2g, 4g and 6g/kg meat (T2, T3 and T4 respectively during the production of the burgers. The burgers were vacuum-packed and frozen for sensory and laboratory analyses. The M. oleifera leaf powder had significant (P0.01 the crude protein content but no significant effect on sensory characteristics of the products.

  15. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn. and Gmelina arborea (Roxb. for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlings planted in the uncontaminated soils. T. grandis and G. arborea as shown in this study could be good species for phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated habitats due to oil exploration and exploitation especially at low concentrations.

  16. Determination of arsenic in crude petroleum and liquid hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, B K; Irgolic, K J

    1989-12-01

    Total arsenic was determined in crude petroleum and liquid hydrocarbons derived from crude petroleum by extraction with boiling water or boiling aqueous nitric acid (concentration 0.25 to 2.5 M), mineralization of the extracts with concentrated nitric/sulphuric acid, and reduction of the arsenate to arsine in a hydride generator. The arsine was flushed into a helium-DC plasma. The arsenic emission was monitored at 228.8 nm. The total arsenic concentration in 53 crude oil samples ranged from 0.04 to 514 mg L(-1) (median 0.84 mg L(-1)). Arsenic was also determined in several refined liquid hydrocarbons and in a commercially available arsenic standard in an organic matrix (triphenylarsine in xylene). The method was checked with NIST 1634b "Trace Elements in Residual Fuel Oil". The arsenic concentration found in this standard agreed with the certified value (0.12±0.2 μg g(-1)) within experimental error. Viscous hydrocarbons such as the fuel oil must be dissolved in xylene for the extraction to be successful. Hydride generation applied to an aqueous not-mineralized extract from an oil containing 1.67 μg As mL(-1) revealed, that trimethylated arsenic (520 ng mL(-1)) is the predominant arsenic species among the reducible and detectable arsenic compounds. Monomethylated arsenic (104 ng ml(-1)), inorganic arsenic (23 ng mL(-1)), and dimethylated arsenic (low ng mL(-1)) were also detected. The sum of the concentrations of these arsenic species accounts for only 39% of the total arsenic in the sample. PMID:24202418

  17. Anti-oxidative and cholinesterase inhibitory effects of leaf extracts and their isolated compounds from two closely related Croton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Croton gratissimus and Croton zambesicus (subgratissimus) and compounds isolated from the extracts was carried out to determine their potential and suitability or otherwise as a substitute for each other in the management of oxidative and neurodegenerative conditions. Different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene-linoleic and the lipid peroxidation models) and the microplate assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were carried out separately to study the activities of the crude leaf extracts and four solvent fractions from each of the two Croton species. Bioassay guided fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the crude extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of 20% aqueous methanol extract of C. gratissimus on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns resulted in the isolation of kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2), apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3) and kampferol (4). The extract of C. zambesicus yielded quercetin-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether (helichrysoside- 3'-methyl ether, 1), kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3). Three of the isolated compounds and their different combinations were also included in the bioassays. In all the assays performed, the antioxidant capacity and AChE inhibitory effects of C. zambesicus extracts were weaker than those of C. gratissimus. This suggests that C. gratissimus may not be substituted by C. zambesicus, despite the similarity in some of their constituents. Generally, the combinations made from the isolated compounds showed better activities in most of the assays compared to the individual isolated compounds. This suggests mechanisms such as synergism and/or additive effects to be taking place. This study established low, moderate and high antioxidant

  18. Anti-Oxidative and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Leaf Extracts and Their Isolated Compounds from Two Closely Related Croton Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Van Staden

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Croton gratissimus and Croton zambesicus (subgratissimus and compounds isolated from the extracts was carried out to determine their potential and suitability or otherwise as a substitute for each other in the management of oxidative and neurodegenerative conditions. Different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene-linoleic and the lipid peroxidation models and the microplate assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition were carried out separately to study the activities of the crude leaf extracts and four solvent fractions from each of the two Croton species. Bioassay guided fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the crude extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of 20% aqueous methanol extract of C. gratissimus on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns resulted in the isolation of kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2, apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3 and kampferol (4. The extract of C. zambesicus yielded quercetin-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether (helichrysoside- 3'-methyl ether, 1, kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2 and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3. Three of the isolated compounds and their different combinations were also included in the bioassays. In all the assays performed, the antioxidant capacity and AChE inhibitory effects of C. zambesicus extracts were weaker than those of C. gratissimus. This suggests that C. gratissimus may not be substituted by C. zambesicus, despite the similarity in some of their constituents. Generally, the combinations made from the isolated compounds showed better activities in most of the assays compared to the individual isolated compounds. This suggests mechanisms such as synergism and/or additive effects to be taking place. This study established low, moderate and high

  19. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis, characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha D; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20-50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications. PMID:23861583

  20. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunachalam KD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kantha D Arunachalam, Sathesh Kumar Annamalai Center for Environmental Nuclear Research, Directorate of Research, SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3 and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications. Keywords: nanoparticles, bioreduction, SEM, silver, gold

  1. A Robust Polyionized Hydrogel with an Unprecedented Underwater Anti-Crude-Oil-Adhesion Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shoujian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Wenbin; Yuan, Shiling; Li, Jingye; Jin, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A polyionized hydrogel polymer (sodium polyacrylate-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PAAS-g-PVDF)) is fabricated via an alkaline-induced phase-inversion process. PAAS-g-PVDF coatings exhibit unprecedented anti-adhesion and self-cleaning properties to crude oils under an aqueous environment. A PAAS-g-PVDF-coated copper mesh can effectively separate a crude oil/water mixture with extremely high flux and high oil rejection driven by gravity, and is oil-fouling-free for long-term use. PMID:27159880

  2. The Pricing Of Crude Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Dunn; James Holloway

    2012-01-01

    Arguably no commodity is more important for the modern economy than oil. This is true in terms of both production and financial market activity. Yet its pricing is relatively complex. In part this reflects the fact that there are actually more than 300 types of crude oil, the characteristics of which can vary quite markedly. This article describes some of the key features of the oil market and then discusses the pricing of oil, highlighting the important role of the futures market. It also no...

  3. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and at least two leaf spring arms extending between the central and outer fastening part. Viewed from the central fastening part, the leaf spring arms (23) have a first zone (24) originating from the c...

  4. Two important Saudi crude assays updated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on updating two important Saudi Arabian crude oils-Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) and Arabian Light-which is part of a continuing series on world export crudes. Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) was reassayed in early 1990; Arabian Light in May 1990. These assays, therefore, replace those that appeared previously. However, as is frequently the case with crudes from major, single reservoirs, there is little, if any, change in their characteristics

  5. In vitro antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of cochlospermum tinctorium and C. planchonii leaf extracts and essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Vical, F; Valentin, A; Mallié, M; Bastide, J M; Bessière, J M

    1999-05-01

    The antimalarial and toxicological properties of Cochlospermum tinctorium and C. planchonii extracts and essential oils prepared from their leaves were studied. The oil components were extracted by hydrodistillation of the plant leaves and characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Crude extracts and oils were tested for in vitro antimalarial activity on Plasmodium falciparum. The IC50 were evaluated after 24 and 72 h contact between the oils and the parasite culture, and ranged from 22 to 500 micrograms/ml. C. planchonii leaf oil yielded the best antimalarial effect (IC50: 22-35 micrograms/ml), while the most potent effect from crude leaf extracts was induced by C. tinctorium. The cytotoxicity of the leaf crude extracts and oils was assessed on the K562 cell line and showed IC50 values ranging between 33 and 2000 micrograms/ml. PMID:10364849

  6. Geometric leaf placement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geometric leaf placement strategies for multileaf collimators (MLCs) typically involve the expansion of the beam's-eye-view contour of a target by a uniform MLC margin, followed by movement of the leaves until some point on each leaf end touches the expanded contour. Film-based dose-distribution measurements have been made to determine appropriate MLC margins-characterized through an index d90-for multileaves set using one particular strategy to straight lines lying at various angles to the direction of leaf travel. Simple trigonometric relationships exist between different geometric leaf placement strategies and are used to generalize the results of the film work into d90 values for several different strategies. Measured d90 values vary both with angle and leaf placement strategy. A model has been derived that explains and describes quite well the observed variations of d90 with angle. The d90 angular variations of the strategies studied differ substantially, and geometric and dosimetric reasoning suggests that the best strategy is the one with the least angular variation. Using this criterion, the best straightforwardly implementable strategy studied is a 'touch circle' approach for which semicircles are imagined to be inscribed within leaf ends, the leaves being moved until the semicircles just touch the expanded target outline

  7. Norne crude oil quality, transport and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Norne field is situated in the northern part of Norway and will start production of crude oil in spring 1997. Planned plateau production of this medium density crude is 170 thousand barrels per day (kbd). After stabilization and water removal, crude will be tandem loaded from the monohull ship storage to standard North Sea buoy loaders with an average cargo size of 855 kb. The cargoes will either be delivered directly to the North West European market or reloaded at Statoil's crude oil terminal at Mongstad for re-export to the Mediterranean or US/Canadian market

  8. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  9. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane B. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear. The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. Evaluation of Antimicrobial properties and nutritional potentials of Moringa oleifera Lam.leaf in South-Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oluduro, A. O.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract of Moringa oleifera on certain enteropathogenic and orthopaedics’wounds bacteria and fungi were investigated. Its phytochemical constituents and nutritional potentials were as well assessed. Methodology and results: The antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts were evaluated using paper disc diffusion method. All the leaf extracts showed little inhibitory effect on the enteropathogens, whereas aqueous and methanolic extracts showed a...

  11. Antioxidant power of phytochemicals from Psidium guajava leaf.

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, He; Nihorimbere, Venant

    2004-01-01

    ried ground leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava) were extracted by water and aqueous ethyl alcohol 50% (1:10) ratio, and the total phenolic content in the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically according to Folin- Ciocalteu's phenol method and calculated as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Remarkably high total phenolic content 575.3 +/-15.5 and 511.6+/-6.2 mg of GAE/g of dried weight material (for ethanol guava leaf extracts and water guava leaf extracts, respectively) were obtained. Th...

  12. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as set forth in appendix C to 15 CFR part 30. (j) License Exception for exports of TAPS Crude Oil. (1... code “SS-SPR” or the equivalent code as set forth in appendix C to 15 CFR part 30. (i) License... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section...

  13. Heavy crude oils - From Geology to Upgrading - An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huc, A.Y.

    2010-07-01

    Heavy oils, extra-heavy oils and tar sands are major players for the future of energy. They represent a massive world resource, at least the size of conventional oils. They are found all over the world but Canada and Venezuela together account, by themselves, for more than half of world deposits. They share the same origin as the lighter conventional oils, but their geological fate drove them into thick, viscous tar-like crude oils. Most of them result from alteration processes mediated by microbial degradation. They are characterized by a low content of lighter cuts and a high content of impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds and metals; so, their production is difficult and deployment of specific processes is required in order to enhance their transportability and to upgrade them into valuable products meeting market needs, and honouring environmental requirements. Although these resources are increasingly becoming commercially producible, less than 1% of total heavy crude oil deposits worldwide are under active development. The voluntarily wide scope of this volume encompasses geology, production, transportation, upgrading, economics and environmental issues of heavy oils. It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but to provide an authoritative view of this very important energy resource. Besides presenting the current status of knowledge and technology involved in exploiting heavy oils, the purpose is to provide an insight into technical, economic and environmental challenges that should be taken up in order to increase the efficiency of production and processing, and finally to give a prospective view of the emerging technologies which will contribute to releasing the immense potential reserves of heavy oil and tar deposits. Contents: Part 1. Heavy Crude Oils.1. Heavy Crude Oils in the Perspective of World Oil Demand. 2. Definitions and Specificities. 3. Geological Origin of Heavy Crude Oils. 4. Properties and composition. Part 2. Reservoir Engineering

  14. Heavy crude oils - From Geology to Upgrading - An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy oils, extra-heavy oils and tar sands are major players for the future of energy. They represent a massive world resource, at least the size of conventional oils. They are found all over the world but Canada and Venezuela together account, by themselves, for more than half of world deposits. They share the same origin as the lighter conventional oils, but their geological fate drove them into thick, viscous tar-like crude oils. Most of them result from alteration processes mediated by microbial degradation. They are characterized by a low content of lighter cuts and a high content of impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds and metals; so, their production is difficult and deployment of specific processes is required in order to enhance their transportability and to upgrade them into valuable products meeting market needs, and honouring environmental requirements. Although these resources are increasingly becoming commercially producible, less than 1% of total heavy crude oil deposits worldwide are under active development. The voluntarily wide scope of this volume encompasses geology, production, transportation, upgrading, economics and environmental issues of heavy oils. It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but to provide an authoritative view of this very important energy resource. Besides presenting the current status of knowledge and technology involved in exploiting heavy oils, the purpose is to provide an insight into technical, economic and environmental challenges that should be taken up in order to increase the efficiency of production and processing, and finally to give a prospective view of the emerging technologies which will contribute to releasing the immense potential reserves of heavy oil and tar deposits. Contents: Part 1. Heavy Crude Oils.1. Heavy Crude Oils in the Perspective of World Oil Demand. 2. Definitions and Specificities. 3. Geological Origin of Heavy Crude Oils. 4. Properties and composition. Part 2. Reservoir Engineering

  15. PROXIMATE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OCIMUM VIRIDIS LEAF AND OCIMUM GRATISSIUM LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahman F.I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the proximate content, concentration of some micro/macro elements and the phytochemistry of Ocimum viridis (scent leafs and Ocimum gratissimum (jaw’s mallow leafs with the view of updating its usage in orthodox and herbal medicine by man in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea and wound healing. The leaves sampled of Ocimum viridis and Ocimum gratissimum were collected from Zannari, Jere L.G.A, Borno state, Nigeria. The proximate analysis was carried out using methods of Association of Analytical Chemist and the results showed that Ocimum viridis has higher dry matter (99.70%, crude protein (12.48%, Nitrogen free extract (2.03%, Ash (6.5% and fats (7.0%. While carbohydrate (83.40%, crude fibre (45.50% and moisture content (0.4% were estimated to be higher in Ocimum gratissimum. The levels of eight (8 elements (Ca, F, Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe, and Pb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results revealed higher concentration in Ocimum gratissimum except for iron and manganese concentration which are higher of the elements understudy in Ocimum viridis only the lead was not detected in the samples by the methodology employed for the analysis. The concentration of anions (nitrates, phosphates and sulphates was estimated using the Smart Spectro Spectrophotometer. It shows that, Ocimum viridis has higher concentration of 11.08 mg/g and 7.04 mg/g in nitrates and sulphates respectively. And Ocimum gratissimum has higher concentration of phosphates 6.28 mg/g. The phytochemicals and some heavy and trace elements as well as a few anions were evaluated using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of both the fresh and dry leafs revealed the presence of very high cardiac glycosides and the flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates shows difference in variation of the leafs. And alkaloids were found to be absence in both fresh and dry leafs. The elemental content obtained

  16. In vitro antioxidant and pharmacognostic studies of leaf extracts of cajanus cajan (l. millsp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Mahitha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp is one of the second most dietary legume crops. The leaf extracts may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The ash values, extractive values, total phenolic and flavonoid content, in vitro antioxidant activity of various leaf extracts as well as anatomical investigation of Cajanus cajan were carried out. Physicochemical parameters such as total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values and moisture content of the leaf powder of C. cajan were found to be 9.50%, 1.40 g/100 g, 4.15 g/100 g drug and 6.72%, respectively. Percent yield of acetone, aqueous, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform leaf extracts were 9.0, 10.6, 13.75, 8.7 and 5.8 g/100 g, respectively. Significant amount of phenolic and flavonoid content were observed. The results of the antioxidant activity were found to be concentration-dependent. The IC 50 values for DPPH assay determined for aqueous and ethanol extracts were 0.69 and 0.79 mg/ml, respectively. Reducing power is increased with increasing amount of concentration in both aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts. The highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity reached up to 83.67% in aqueous and 78.75% in ethanol extracts and in phosphomolybdenum assay the aqueous extract showed strong antioxidant capacity up to 55.97 nM gallic acid equivalents/g. It was found that the aqueous extract possessed highest antioxidant activity in all the assays tested.The antioxidant characteristics of leaf extracts are possibly because of the presence of polyphenols. Microscopic study showed the presence of collenchyma, fibres, xylem, phloem, epidermis, trichomes, palisade tissue, basal sheath, pith and cortex in leaf, petiole and pulvinus.

  17. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google Plus Email Print this page Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms ... aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out freely (follow blue arrow). Aqueous humor flows ...

  18. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  19. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Barringtonia acutangula leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathi, Dharamaraj; Susheela, Lakshmi; Bharathi, Rajkishore Vijaya

    2011-01-01

    Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Family: Lecythidaceae) is an evergreen tree with simple, alternate leaves, long pendulous racemes, dark scarlet flowers, and ellipsoid to ovoid berries containing one ovoid black seed. The present study deals with a detailed pharmacognostical study on the leaf of the crude drug, B. acutangula. Morphoanatomy of the leaf was studied using light and confocal microscopy and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Literature reveals that the phytoconstituents like tanginol, barrinic acid, and barringenic acid are present in the wood and fruits of this plant. Our preliminary phytochemical studies of the powdered leaves revealed the presence of terpenes, flavanoids, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids, and glycosides. The physico-chemical, morphological, histological parameters, and High Performance-Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) profile presented in this paper may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of B. acutangula and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species and the pharmacognostic profile of the leaves presented here will assist in standardization viz., quality, purity, and sample identification. PMID:21897641

  20. SCHISTOSOMICIDAL ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE EXTRACT OF ARTOCARPUS LAKOOCHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyavichyapugdee, Narin; Sangfuang, Manaw; Chaiyapum, Saowapark; Sriburin, Suwatcharaporn; Pootaeng-on, Yupa; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee; Preyavichyapugdee, Mananya; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    Puag-Haad is a traditional anthelmintic drug used to treat taeniasis in Thailand and Lao PDR. It is derived from the aqueous extract of the plant Artocarpus lakoocha. We investigated the in vitro anthelmintic properties of Puag-Haad against Schistosoma mansoni. Adult worms were incubated in M-199 medium containing 250, 500 and 750 μg/ml of Puag-Haad or praziquantel (PZQ) at a concentration of 175 μg/ml for 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. The relative motility (RM value), survival index (SI) and tegument alterations seen under scanning electron microscope were assessed at each incubation time. The results showed the crude extract of A. lakoocha at a concentration of 250 μg/ml was more effective in causing damage than PZQ at a concentration of 175 μg/ml using RM and SI values. The major target organ affected by Puag-Haad was the tegument. The damage was greater at higher concentrations of the crude extract. It is likely tetrahydroxystilbene (THS), the main compound in Puag-Haad, caused the damage. THS could be a future candidate as a schistosomal drug. Further studies are needed to explore its mechanism, efficiency and safety in vivo. PMID:27086420

  1. Complete atrioventricular block on isolated guinea pig heart induced by an aqueous fraction obtained from Psidium guajava L. leaf Bloqueio atrioventricular completo em coração isolado de cobaia produzido por uma fração aquosa obtida das folhas de Psidium guajava L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio N.S. Gondim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the electrocardiographic effect produced by the aqueous fraction (AqF obtained from the acetic extract of Psidium guajava L. leaf on the isolated guinea pig heart. Electrocardiographic records (ECG were obtained on isolated hearts beating spontaneously or under regular electrical stimulation. The hearts were mounted in a constant flow Langendorff perfusion system. Until 20 mg/mL, AqF did not change the spontaneous cardiac rate (control: 180 ± 9 bpm, test: 182 ± 10 bpm; N = 3; p > 0.05. Concentrations equal or greater then 20 mg/mL induced complete atrioventricular block (AVB. However, this effect promptly disappeared when AqF was removed from the perfusion fluid (N = 3 hearts. The AVB induced by AqF involves heart muscarinic receptors because atropine sulfate (1.5 mM could prevent the appearance of such disturbance.O presente trabalho visou estudar o efeito eletrocardiográfico produzido pela fração aquosa (AqF obtida do extrato acético das folhas de Psidium guajava L. em coração isolado de cobaia. Os traçados eletrocardiográficos foram obtidos em corações batendo espontaneamente ou então sob estimulação elétrica. Os corações foram montados em uma sistema de perfusão do tipo Langendoff de fluxo constante. A AqF, usada em concentrações menores que 20 mg/mL, não alterou a freqüência espontânea do coração (controle: 180 ± 9 bpm, teste: 182 ± 10 bpm; N = 3; p > 0,05. Todavia, concentrações iguais ou maiores que 20 mg/mL produziram bloqueio atrioventricular completo (BAV. Este efeito, contudo, desapareceu prontamente quando se removeu a AqF do fluido de perfusão coronariana (N = 3 corações. O BAV promovido pela AqF se faz mediado pelos receptores muscarínicos porque o sulfato de atropina (1,5 mM impediu o aparecimento deste efeito.

  2. Analyses of the Leaf, Fruit and Seed of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.: Exploring Potential Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalom Nwodo Chinedu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thaumatococcus daniellii is an economic plant with versatile uses in Southern Nigeria. The arils attached to the seeds contain thaumatin, a non-sugar sweetener and taste modifier. This study examined the chemical constituents of the leaf, fruit and seed of T. daniellii. The fresh fruit, on weight basis, consists of 4.8% aril, 22.8% seed and 72.4% fleshy part. The leaf contained (per 100 g: 10.67 g moisture, 8.95 g ash, 17.21 g fat, 21.06 g protein, 24.61 g crude fiber 17.50 g carbohydrate, 0.10 g calcium, 0.08 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.37 g phosphorus. The fruit (fleshy part contained 10.04 g moisture, 21.08 g ash, 0.93 g fat, 11.53 g protein, 18.43 g crude fiber, 37.27 g carbohydrate, 0.34 g calcium, 0.30 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.21 g phosphorus. The seed contained 15.15 g moisture, 11.30 g ash, 0.21 g fat, 10.36 g protein, 20.52 g crude fiber and 42.46 g carbohydrate. Terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosoides were significantly present in both the leaf and fruit whereas phlobatanin, saponin, steroids, anthraquinones and ascorbic acid were absent. Tannin was present only in the leaf. The leaf and fruit of T. daniellii have significant nutritional and medicinal benefits. The leaf is rich in protein and fat. The fruit is a good source of minerals, particularly, calcium and magnesium; the leaf is also rich in phosphorus.

  3. Classification of weathered crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NORDTEST procedure (1) for oil spill identification has been applied successfully at several occasions. The NORDTEST procedure includes analyses of sulfur (XRF), vanadium and nickel (ICP/AAS), GC, HPLC and UV-fluorescence. The NORDTEST procedure does not include GC-MS as an analytical method. As part of a joint Nordic to evaluate the NORDTEST procedure for oil identification, with participants from Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, thirty artificially weathered crude oils from four geographical regions have been analyzed (2). The analytical methods evaluated include sulfur analysis, vanadium and nickel analysis, infrared analysis, UV-fluorescence, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography and high resolution GC-mass spectrometry. Figure 1 shows the distribution of variables analyzed in each analytical method. The 190 variables from GC-MS were split into 7 groups according to chemical considerations. These were steranes (25 var.), triterpanes (16 var.), di(+)aromatics (63 var.), sulf. aromatics (30 var.), monoaromatics (19 var.), cycloalkanes (15 var.) and n-alkanes (22) variables. The data from these chemical analyses have been evaluated for use in oil spill identification purposes

  4. Crude oil - global reserves, resources, and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil, the world's most significant energy source, has a share of about 40% in the commercially ascertainable world primary energy consumption. The traffic and transport and the chemical sectors are the main crude oil consumers. While crude oil is expected to keep on dominating these two sectors in the near future, its share on the power generation and heat markets will be reduced further on account of the keen competition of substitutes. An analysis of the main paths of transport shows that the crude oil trade beats the trade in other energy sources because of the wide separation of the main extraction regions from the main consumption regions. The political explosiveness of the crude-oil trade is due to the fact that the greatest reserves are found in regions which are characterized by political instabilities. Detailed data classified by conventional crude oil (including condensate/ natural gas liquids) and unconventional crude oil (oil shale, oil sand, heavy and superheavy oil) are given about deposits, extraction, reserves and resources and about the statistical range. This topical survey informs about the central fossil energy source considering its development during the past decades. (orig.)

  5. Surfactants treatment of crude oil contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urum, Kingsley; Pekdemir, Turgay; Copur, Mehmet

    2004-08-15

    This study reports experimental measurements investigating the ability of a biological (rhamnolipid) and a synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) surfactant to remove the North Sea Ekofisk crude oil from various soils with different particle size fractions under varying washing conditions. The washing parameters and ranges tested were as follows: temperature (5 to 50 degrees C), time (5 to 20 min), shaking speed (80 to 200 strokes/min), volume (5 to 20 cm3), and surfactant concentration (0.004 to 5 mass%). The contaminated soils were prepared in the laboratory by mixing crude oil and soils using a rotating cylindrical mixer. Two contamination cases were considered: (1) weathered contamination was simulated by keeping freshly contaminated soils in a fan assisted oven at 50 degrees C for 14 days, mimicking the weathering effect in a natural hot environment, and (2) nonweathered contamination which was not subjected to the oven treatment. The surfactants were found to have considerable potential in removing crude oil from different contaminated soils and the results were comparable with those reported in literature for petroleum hydrocarbons. The removal of crude oil with either rhamnolipid or SDS was within the repeatability range of +/-6%. The most influential parameters on oil removal were surfactant concentration and washing temperature. The soil cation exchange capacity and pH also influenced the removal of crude oil from the individual soils. However, due to the binding of crude oil to soil during weathering, low crude oil removal was achieved with the weathered contaminated soil samples. PMID:15271574

  6. Antiulcer activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Kaniganti

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Both the doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves exhibited significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation model, whereas only 200 mg/kg of aqueous leaf extract was effective in cold restrain stress model. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1353-1358

  7. Regionalization in the world crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelen, S.G. [Univ. of Houston-Downtown, TX (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The author examines the efficiency implications of the regionalization hypothesis of Weiner (1991). Cointegration analysis is used to test this hypothesis. Both spot and contract prices for fifteen crude oils are used and separated into three groups of similar quality. Each group is intended to include crude oils that buyers can substitute for each other. Bivariate and multivariate versions of cointegration tests were used. The results suggest that the world oil market is unified and that prices for same quality crude oils from different regions of the world do not deviate from each other. 8 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of leaf extract of mangroves, namely, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba and Exoecaria agallocha from Chorao island, Goa was investigated against human bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria Salmonella typhi was inhibited by the ethanol extract of S. alba leaf whereas the other two resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. were inhibited by the ethanol extract of leaves of all the species. The aqueous extract of S. alba and E. agallocha showed their activity against P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis, respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, phenol and volatile oils in the leaves of mangroves. Further studies using different solvents for extraction are necessary to confirm that mangroves are a better source for the development of novel antibiotics.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Mangrove Leaf Extracts against Human Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G; Mulla, N S S; Ansari, Z A; Mohandass, C

    2012-07-01

    The antibacterial activity of leaf extract of mangroves, namely, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba and Exoecaria agallocha from Chorao island, Goa was investigated against human bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria Salmonella typhi was inhibited by the ethanol extract of S. alba leaf whereas the other two resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. were inhibited by the ethanol extract of leaves of all the species. The aqueous extract of S. alba and E. agallocha showed their activity against P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis, respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, phenol and volatile oils in the leaves of mangroves. Further studies using different solvents for extraction are necessary to confirm that mangroves are a better source for the development of novel antibiotics. PMID:23626390

  10. Phytochemical studies of various polarities leave crude extracts of Omani Datura metel L. and evaluation of their antimicrobial potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saleh Hamed Al-Jafari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the chemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial potential of various crude extracts from leaves of Datura metel grown in Oman. Methods: The leaf samples were collected from the University of Nizwa and extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. The isolated crude extract was defatted with distilled water and extracted with solvents of different polarities including hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. Chemical compositions of the crude extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and their antimicrobial potential was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method against one Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonus aeruginosa. Results: The crude extracts were composed of different organic compounds such as alkaloids, hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, terpenoids, vitamin etc. The methanol and its fractionated crude extracts showed antimicrobial potential with inhibition zone in the range of 0-13 mm. Conclusions: The selective crude extract from the leaves of Datura metel could be used as natural antibiotics.

  11. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Adhatoda vesica leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract (800 mg / kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (8 Gy) without Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 26 days post-irradiation. The dose reduction factor (DRF=1.6) for Adhatoda vesica leaf extract was calculated from LD50/30 values. A significant decline in hematological constituents (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct) was evident till day 15, at later period of observation (day 15 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. A significant decrease in GSH was recorded in control animals. Experimental animals showed a significant increase in GSH content (blood as well as liver) with respect to control, but such values remained below normal. A significant increase in TBARS level in liver and serum was evident in control animals. Although, no significant difference was noticed in such levels in normal and Adhatoda vesica leaf extract treated animals. But, a significant decrease was registered in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pretreated irradiated animals. The results from the present study suggest that Adhatoda vesica leaf extract has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral

  12. The antioxidant properties, cytotoxicity and monoamine oxidase inhibition abilities of the crude dichloromethane extract of Tarchonanthus camphoratus L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Aiyegoro, Olayinka Ayobami; Van Dyk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Tarchonanthus camphoratus (camphor bush) has been widely used for numerous medicinal purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties, cytotoxicity and monoamine oxidase inhibition activities of the crude dichloromethane leaf extract of T. camphoratus. The antioxidant activities were assessed using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay and the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. The cytotoxicity assays were performed according to the microcu...

  13. Synthesis & Characterization of Fluorescent Silver Nanoparticles stabilized by Tinospora Cordifolia leaf Extract-A Green Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    M. Padma,; Boddeti Govindh

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) was achieved by a simple green procedure using Tinospora Cordifolia leaf extract as stabilizer/reducing agents. Ag-NPs in the size range of 2–19 nm is obtained by the treatment of aqueous silver ions with leaf extracts of Tinospora Cordifolia. This eco-friendly approach is simple, amenable for large scale commercial production and technical applications. Further, photoluminiscence studies of these Ag-NPs were recorded & suggested that...

  14. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the whole leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    Olubunmi Abosede Wintola; Anthony Jide Afolayan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aloe ferox Mill. (Asphodelaceae) is used in South Africa for the treatment of constipation among various ailments. Despite the extensive studies conducted on the antioxidant activities of the leaf gel and pulp extract of the plant, there is no information on the antioxidant properties of the whole leaf extract of the species. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of ethanol, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of A. ferox were investigated spectrophotometrically aga...

  15. Multifractal Hurst analysis of crude oil prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Cisneros, Myriam; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Soriano, Angel

    2002-10-01

    Daily records of international crude oil prices are studied using multifractal analysis methods. Rescaled range Hurst analysis provides evidence that the crude oil market is a persistent process with long-run memory effects. On the other hand, height-height correlation analysis reveals evidence of multifractal structures in the sense that the crude oil dynamics displays mixing of (rough) Hurst exponents. The existence of two characteristic time scales in the order of weeks and quarters is discovered and the corresponding prices dynamics are extracted using moving-average-based filtering. These results seem to demonstrate that the crude oil market is consistent with the random-walk assumption only at time scales of the order of days to weeks. A plausible oil price formation mechanism is discussed in terms of the market dynamics at three different time scales.

  16. Spectral signature of Egyptian crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude petroleum oils are complex mixtures of diverse hydrocarbons, in widely varying compositions, that originate from a variety of geological sources. Fluorescence emission spectra have been measured for two types of Egyptian crude petroleum oil, its light and heavy products over a broad range of excitation and emission wavelengths. Both types of crude oil products are characterized by spectral signatures with a differing topography: the number of fluorescent peaks, their coordinates (λex, λem) on the plane of the three dimensions spectrum, and the shape of the bands formed by the contour line density, changeable in either direction. The refined light oil shows emission spectra at λmax between 350 and 500 nm according to the excitation wavelength. The refined heavy oil shows very broad unstructured emission spectra with λmax > 400 nm. As a group, they could certainly be distinguished from the light oil samples and most of the crude oil

  17. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    The marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria salina Biswas, Plectonema terebrans Bornet et Flanhault and Aphanocapsa sp. degraded Bombay High crude oil when grown in artificial seawater nutrients as well as in plain natural seawater. Oil removals...

  18. Processing experience of Bombay High crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, S.A.; Lande, W.D.

    1985-12-01

    The Visakh Refinery started processing BH crude in 1976, in the beginning in admixture with M.E. crudes and then progressively increased its capacity of processing 100% BH in all its units by the year 1983-84. The facilities provided to enable processing of BH, qualitative/quantitative analysis of the crude and its products as obtained while processing, the problems encountered during the processing, and the efforts made by the refinery in overcoming them are described. The areas where the solutions are yet to be discovered, are indicated. Finally, some suggestions as to how to go about solving some of the nagging problems and make full use of BH crude in the national interest, are made.

  19. Export crudes for the '90s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper supplies statistical data on the characteristics of Tapais blend (Malaysia), Cold Lake blend (Alta), and Arabian Light (Saudi Arabia) crude oils. Temperature range, API gravity, sulfur percentage, viscosity, nitrogen content, and other data are provided

  20. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  1. Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weijian; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-08

    A method for producing a crude product is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce one or more crude products. At least one of the crude products has a boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. as determined by ASTM Method D5307. The crude product having the boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. is catalytically cracked to produce one or more additional crude products. At least one of the additional crude products is a second gas stream. The second gas stream has a boiling point of at most 38.degree. C. at 0.101 MPa.

  2. Extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: new technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Venezuela has reserves of heavy and extra heavy crude oil in the eastern part of the country. There is a need for lower capital cost extraction technologies. At the moment, heavy oil is diluted with light or medium crude oil before it is sold on the market. In order to remove this requirement, PDVSA Research Institute has been working on developing a new technology to convert heavy crude oil into upgraded crude oil. This paper presents the technology, named Aquaconversion, and its applications. The technology consists of a catalytic steam conversion process which converts heavy oil into transportable upgraded crude oil with a higher density and lower viscosity than can be achieved using other technologies. This technology can be used onsite to obtain transportable upgraded crude or to replace visbreaking units in refineries. This paper presents a new technology that makes the extraction of heavy oil in Venezuela economically feasible.

  3. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Evaluation of Leaf of Abutilon indicum (Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abutilon indicum (Linn family (Malvaceae commonly known as Atibala is used in our Traditional System of Medicine for healing various diseases. It is used in the treatment of piles, uterine discharge, febrifuge and in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. In the present investigation an attempt was made to study its Pharmacognostical features, including macroscopic, microscopic features, physico-chemical parameters, leaf constants and to investigated the phytochemical present in the extracts in the preliminary level. Thus it was thought worthwhile to explore the plant on the basis of its standardization parameters. The study will provide a referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug.

  4. Crude oil trading using turbo certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to contribute to the debate regarding the validity of the Hubbert Crude Oil Peak Theory. Its acceptance should guide economic policies, especially over time. The other objective is to characterize modern investment tools for short-term investments, or more precisely for trading, which use the leverage effect significantly. They are so called Turbo Certificates and they are used to trade crude oil. (authors)

  5. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattouh, Bassam [The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  6. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  7. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  8. Environmental considerations in a high desert, crude oil pipeline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A road grader punctured a high-pressure crude oil pipeline in the California high desert resulting in the release of approximately 4,200 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil. Oil sprayed over a steeply sloped hillside and flowed into an adjacent, densely vegetated ephemeral stream channel which carried secondary treatment sewage discharge. Three underflow dams were constructed in the channel within 2.8 km of the site. To ensure containment at the first dam, the sewage discharge was diverted from the channel, eventually to an upland impulse sprinkler irrigation system. Channel water and phase-separated ANS crude oil, impounded behind the first dam, percolated through alluvial sands/gravels to a depth of about five meters. The oil percolated through the soils on the receding surface of the water, affecting soils to an equivalent depth and saturating a horizontally narrow band of stream-bank soils as much as two to four meters into the bank. Stream channel undergrowth and a small number of mature trees were cleared to provide access for cleanup and/or to remove oiled plants. A large number of trees experienced partial leaf-drop within 25 days of the spill while two heavily oiled trees died. New vegetative growth was evident within five weeks of the spill. Site restoration included planting cuttings of five riparian tree species and hydroseeding exposed banks. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from not detectable to 203,000 parts per million and averaged approximately 25,000 ppm in affected soils as sampled in place and in stockpiles. Approximately 30,000 tons of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was excavated from the length of the stream channel (3,600 tons) as well as the area behind the first dam and spill site (26,400 tons). All soils were staged on site for waste profiling and final disposition. After treatment, the contaminated soil was beneficially reused as daily cover at a southern California landfill at a turnkey cost of approximately $57/ton

  9. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutfi, Zainal; Ahmad, Asmat [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Usup, Gires [School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  10. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation

  11. EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh P. Mogle

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS) India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus ro...

  12. Crude oil spot market pricing: Pearsonian analysis of crude oil spot market prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinnusi, Ayo (Ondo State Polytechnic, Owo (Nigeria))

    This paper presents a brief overview of crude oil pricing before describing a study of sets of 1991 spot market prices, and examining Pearson's model. Empirical distribution characteristics for 14 crude oils are tabulated, and skewness-kurtosis relationship and implication are considered. (UK)

  13. Leaf-to-leaf distances in Catalan tree graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsborough, Andrew M.; Fellows, Jonathan M; Bates, Matthew; Rautu, S. Alex; Rowlands, George; Römer, Rudolf A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the average leaf-to-leaf path lengths on ordered Catalan tree graphs with $n$ nodes and show that these are equivalent to the average length of paths starting from the root node. We give an explicit analytic formula for the average leaf-to-leaf path length as a function of separation of the leaves and study its asymptotic properties. At the heart of our method is a strategy based on an abstract graph representation of generating functions which we hope can be useful also in other con...

  14. Antioxidant power of phytochemicals from Psidium guajava leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱和; NIHORIMBEREVenant

    2004-01-01

    Dried ground leaves ofPsidium guajava L. (guava) were extracted by water and aqueous ethyl alcohol 50%(1:10) ratio, and the total phenolic content in the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically according to FolinCiocalteu's phenol method and calculated as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Remarkably high total phenolic content 575.3±15.5 and 511.6±6.2 mg of GAE/g of dried weight material (for ethanol guava leaf extracts and water guava leaf extracts,respectively) were obtained. The antioxidant activity of lyophilized extracts was determined at ambient temperature by means of a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydryzyl (DPPH') colorimetry with detection scheme at 515 nm. The activity was evaluated by the decrease in absorbance as the result of DPPH" color change from purple to yellow. The higher the sample concentration used, the stronger was the free radical-scavenging effect. The results obtained showed that ascorbic acid was a substantially more powerful antioxidant than the extracts from guava leaf. On the other hand, the commercial guava leaf extracts and ethanol guava leaf extracts showed almost the same antioxidant power whereas water guava leaf extracts showed lower antioxidant activity. The parameter EC50 and the time needed to reach the steady state to EC50 concentration (TEC50) affected the antiradical capacity of the sample. The antioxidant efficiency (AE) has been shown to be a more adequate parameter for selecting antioxidants than the widely used ECs0. This study revealed that guava leaf extracts comprise effective potential source of natural antioxidants.

  15. Antioxidant power of phytochemicals from Psidium guajava leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN He (钱和); NIHORIMBERE Venant

    2004-01-01

    Dried ground leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava) were extracted by water and aqueous ethyl alcohol 50% (1:10) ratio, and the total phenolic content in the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically according to Folin- Ciocalteu's phenol method and calculated as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Remarkably high total phenolic content 575.3 (15.5 and 511.6(6.2 mg of GAE/g of dried weight material (for ethanol guava leaf extracts and water guava leaf extracts, respectively) were obtained. The antioxidant activity of lyophilized extracts was determined at ambient temperature by means of a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydryzyl (DPPH˙) colorimetry with detection scheme at 515 nm. The activity was evaluated by the decrease in absorbance as the result of DPPH˙ color change from purple to yellow. The higher the sample concentration used, the stronger was the free radical-scavenging effect. The results obtained showed that ascorbic acid was a substantially more powerful antioxidant than the extracts from guava leaf. On the other hand, the commercial guava leaf extracts and ethanol guava leaf extracts showed almost the same antioxidant power whereas water guava leaf extracts showed lower antioxidant activity. The parameter EC50 and the time needed to reach the steady state to EC50 concentration (TEC90) affected the antiradical capacity of the sample. The antioxidant efficiency (AE) has been shown to be a more adequate parameter for selecting antioxidants than the widely used EC50. This study revealed that guava leaf extracts comprise effective potential source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Radiation for crude drugs contaminated with microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, it became urgent to develop an effective method for repressing the microbials in a crude drug and its preparation. In some countries in Asia and Western countries, radiosterilization for natural drugs has been approved and the dose was within a range. 10-30 kGy. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the safety of such radiosterilization for crude drugs. Concerning bacterial contamination in the original materials for crude drugs, the proportion rates of materials containing less than 103, 103-104 and more than 105 cells were 54, 27 and 19%, respectively. Since the previous study revealed that those microbials were almost diminished by exposure to 10 kGy, various crude drugs were exposed to 5 kGy and the amounts of remaining microbials were determined. The number of microbials remained after radiation at 5 kGy was 1 x 103 for plantago seed, rhubarb and cyperus rhizome and less than 102 for other samples tested. The effects of radiation on the respective active ingredients of each crude drug underwent using HPLC. (M.N.)

  17. Transportable upgraded crude : Aquaconversion technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardella, R.; Rojas, J.D.; Zacarias, L.; Delgado, O.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Martinez, S.; Segovia, X.; Pena, J.P.; Granadillo, F.; Jamal, A.; De Pablos, C.; Medina, H.; Delgado, A.; Obregon, Y. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Residue and Heavy Crude Processing Dept.; Argenis, H.; Breindembach, J.A.; Urbina, N. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Analytic Dept.; Negrin, M. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Pilot Plant Dept.

    2009-07-01

    The vast reserves of extra-heavy crude oil in Venezuela require lower-capital-cost technologies to make them available to the oil market. Most heavy oil commercialization in Venezuela is done by dilution. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) Intevep has developed Aquaconversion, a catalytic steam conversion process capable of converting residue and heavy or extra-heavy crude oil in the producing field into transportable upgraded crude, thus reducing the use of light crude as diluents which can be valued in the market. The process produces higher residue conversion at the same product stability compared with other thermal conversion process such as visbreaking. For this purpose, Aquaconversion requires the addition of a water steam and the presence of a catalytic component that can be added as homogeneous chemical additives. This paper provided background information on the Orinoco oil belt and the thermal cracking process and Aquaconversion technology. Applications of the technology were also described with particular reference to wellhead use for making transportable upgraded crude, and the refinery application to replace visbreaking units. It was concluded that Aquaconversion technology is better than the visbreaking process because it reduces dehydrogenation and condensation reactions, increasing the product stability which increases the reaction temperature and vacuum residue conversion. It also reduces viscosity. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Comprehensive Evaluation of Tahe Medium Gravity Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Zou Ying; Weng Huixin

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive evaluation of Tahe medium gravity crude has demonstrated that this type of crude belongs to a intermediate base sour crude, featuring high vanadium content (103ppm), high carbon residue content, low pour point, and low acid value. Based on the crude processing conditions at SINOPEC Luoyang Petrochemical Branch Company, a proposal on the appropriate process flow scheme for processing Tahe crude oil has been raised with the main ideas presented as follows. The IBP-175 ℃ fraction is not an ideal feedstock for catalytic reforming; the 75-250℃ fraction is a qualified feedstock for zeolite de-waxing; the 140-230℃ fraction can be used to manufacture the No. 3 jet fuel through appropriate distillation range adjustment and product refining; the 175-350℃ fraction can be directly used to manufacture No.-10 diesel through proper refining; the atmospheric resid boiling over 350℃ is not suited to be used as the RFCC feedstock; the 350-520℃ vacuum distillate oil can be used as the FCC feedstock; and the vacuum residuum boiling over 520℃ is a good feedstock for manufacture of asphalt.

  19. In vitro evaluation of anti-microbial of the leaf extracts of acacia modesta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infectious diseases caused by micro-organisms are transmissible and infect a large group of population. Investigations were carried out for studying the phytochemistry and biological potential of the leaves of Acacia modesta. Dried and finely ground leaves were extracted with ethanol. Different fractions were obtained by extracting the crude extract with n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Fractions of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, crude extract and the aqueous layer left behind were evaluated for their anti-microbial potential by determining the zone of inhibition against different bacterial strains. All fractions showed positive anti-bacterial activity except ethyl acetate fraction. However the aqueous layer showed activity which is significantly higher than the standard antibiotics used in this study. In conclusion the more active the compounds found in leaves, the more polar they were in nature. Bioassay guided isolation of these active compounds from aqueous fraction may lead to potential anti-bacterial metabolites from Acacia modesta. (author)

  20. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae leaf gall extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata, which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of  gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw, respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and

  1. Application of ipil- ipil leaf meal (IILM) as feed Ingredient for Monosex tilapia fry (oreochronis niioticus) : In terms of growth and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zamal, Hossain; Barua, Prabal; Uddin, Balal; Islam, Khandakar Shafiqul

    2008-01-01

    The Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephal) leaf analyzed for crude protein (CP), fat, crude fibre (CF), ash content, moisture content and nitrogen free extract (NFE). The CP 23± 0.12 % , fat 8 ± 0.11 %, CF 18 ± 0.15 % , ash 10 ± 0.13 %, moisture 14. ± .16% and NFE 29.± 1.10 % were recorded. A twenty one days experiment was conduced to assess the response of juvenile monosex tilapia with different iso-nitrogenous formulated diets for find out the feasibility study of using ipil-ipil leaf meals as fe...

  2. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  3. Comparative toxicology of four crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish that are chronically exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exhibit dioxin-like toxicity characterized by blue sac disease and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Shelf, MESA, the synthetic Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend, and Alaskan North Slope Crude Oil), in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. The study confirmed the assumption that the Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend would be the most toxic due to its high PAH concentration. The results suggest that the main cause of toxicity in crude oil is due to the presence, concentration, and conformation of specific PAHs

  4. Leaf development: A cellular perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit TS Beemster

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana.

  5. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture...

  6. Crude oil hedging: benchmarking price protection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of hedging (protection against a loss) strategies in the crude oil futures and options markets. The introductory section of the report gives details of hedging instruments, and the purposes of hedging crude oil. Hedging strategies including pure futures strategies, pure options strategies, options combination strategies, exotic (Asian) options strategies, and insurance instruments are described. The West Texas intermediate (WTI) market depth, liquidity and hedging effectiveness are examined, and winners and losers, and energy consumers are considered. The appendix gives tables and charts summarising the outcomes of futures and options strategies under different market conditions and expectations. (UK)

  7. Mosquito repellent potential of Pithecellobium dulce leaf and seed against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the repellent properties of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extract of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) leaf and seed against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: Repellent activity assay was carried out in a net cage (45 cm × 30 cm × 25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. This assay was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to the WHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts of P. ...

  8. Antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial potential of Zakhm-e-hayat rhizomes crude extract and fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Madiha; Phul, Abdul Rehman; Haq, Ihsan-ul; Bibi, Gulnaz; Mazhar, Kehkashan; Rehman, Tofeequr; Zia, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-05-01

    Bergenia ciliata (locally known as Zakhm-e-hayat; wound healer) is commonly employed for wound healing, curing diarrhea and vomiting, fever, cough and pulmonary affections. Local community uses this plant as tea decoction with table salt. B. ciliata crude extract and its fractions were subjected to antibacterial, antioxidant effects as well as determination of total flavonoids and phenolics, DNA damage and anticancerous activities following standard protocols. Increased percentage inhibition of free radical in DPPH assay as well as elevated phenolic and flavonoid contents revealed antioxidant potential of this potent herb. Ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts showed IC(50) of 0.7 and 0.3 mg/ml respectively, against H157 cell line. Antibacterial analysis showed MIC 0.4-10mg/ml for crude extract and fractions. The results obtained conclude that extracts of B. ciliata contain remedial latent and can be used as possible source for drug development by pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27166554

  9. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  10. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT; Rizwan RASHID; Javid Ahmad BHAT

    2011-01-01

    Influence of phenylureas (CPPU) and brassinosteriod (BR) along with GA (gibberellic acid) were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set) or twice (7+15 days after fruit set). CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78) while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22) per shoot. Maximum l...

  11. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  12. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  13. Mosquito repellent potential of Pithecellobium dulce leaf and seed against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rajeswary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the repellent properties of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extract of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce leaf and seed against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi. Methods: Repellent activity assay was carried out in a net cage (45 cm × 30 cm × 25 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. This assay was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to the WHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts of P. dulce were applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed fore arm of study subjects. Ethanol was used as the sole control. Results: In this study, the applied plant crude extracts were observed to protect against mosquito bites. There were no allergic reactions experienced by the study subjects. The repellent activity of the extract was dependent on the concentration of the extract. Among the tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed the maximum efficacy. The highest concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 leaf and seed methanol extract of P. dulce provided over 180 min and 150 min protection, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts of P. dulce exhibit the potential for controlling malaria vector mosquito An. stephensi.

  14. Solubilization of naphthalene and methyl-substituted naphthalenes from crude oil using biosurfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanga, S.A.; Bonner, J.S.; Page, C.A.; Mills, M.A.; Autenrieth, R.L. [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-02-01

    Glycolipids produced by Rhodococcus species H13-A and a representative synthetic surfactant Tween-80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate) were used to demonstrate enhanced substrate `solubility` (aqueous-plus-micellar phase) in the presence of surfactants. Nascent concentrations of naphthalene and its methyl-substituted derivatives in crude oil were used as representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for the study. Both biosurfactant glycolipids from H13-A and Tween-80 lowered the surface tension of aqueous solutions from 72 to {approximately} 30 dyn/cm. The two-ring aromatics showed a substantial increase in their apparent solubilities in the presence of surfactants; the increase being significantly greater for the biosurfactant as compared to the synthetic surfactant. The aqueous phase solubility enhancement was greater for the highly substituted derivatives as compared to the lesser substituted compounds. Higher toxicity levels, as seen by the lower EC{sub 50} values, of the surfactant mixtures indicated enhanced partitioning of the petroleum contaminants in the aqueous phase. Higher initial EC{sub 50} values for the biosurfactant meant that they exhibit lesser aqueous toxicity as compared to the synthetic surfactant. When compared on a toxicity per mass of PAH basis, the end point Tween-80 system was approximately 50% more toxic than the biosurfactant system. This technique is potentially useful in the treatment of coal tar contaminated soils. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  16. CRUDE OIL BIOREMEDIATION: THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a state-of-the-art extended abstract presentation summary of the outputs from the oil spill program over the last 11 years. It summarizes the results of 3 field studies involving intentional releases of crude oil: the Delaware study in 1994 (sandy beach), the St. Lawrence...

  17. Determination of chloride in brazilian crude oils by ion chromatography after extraction induced by emulsion breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina, Nicolle F; Feiteira, Fernanda N; Cassella, Alessandra R; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-08-01

    The present paper reports on the development of a novel extraction induced by emulsion breaking (EIEB) method for the determination of chloride in crude oils. The proposed method was based on the formation and breaking of oil-in-water emulsions with the samples and the consequential transference of the highly water-soluble chloride to the aqueous phase during emulsion breaking, which was achieved by centrifugation. The determination of chloride in the extracts was performed by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity detection. Several parameters (oil phase:aqueous phase ratio, crude oil:mineral oil ratio, shaking time and type and concentration of surfactant) that could affect the performance of the method were evaluated. Total extraction of chloride from samples could be achieved when 1.0g of oil phase (0.5g of sample+0.5g of mineral oil) was emulsified in 5mL of a 2.5% (m/v) solution of Triton X-114. The obtained emulsion was shaken for 60min and broken by centrifugation for 5min at 5000rpm. The separated aqueous phase was collected, filtered and diluted before analysis by IC. Under these conditions, the limit of detection was 0.5μgg(-1) NaCl and the limit of quantification was 1.6μgg(-1) NaCl. We applied the method to the determination of chloride in six Brazilian crude oils and the results did not differ statistically from those obtained by the ASTM D6470 method when the paired Student-t-test, at 95% confidence level, was applied. PMID:27388656

  18. Kaolinite and Silica Dispersions in Low-Salinity Environments: Impact on a Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Alvarado; Xiuyu Wang

    2011-01-01

    This research aims at providing evidence of particle suspension contributions to emulsion stability, which has been cited as a contributing factor in crude oil recovery by low-salinity waterflooding. Kaolinite and silica particle dispersions were characterized as functions of brine salinity. A reference aqueous phase, representing reservoir brine, was used and then diluted with distilled water to obtain brines at 10 and 100 times lower Total Dissolved Solid (TDS). Scanning Electron Microscope...

  19. Investigations of anticholinestrase and antioxidant potentials of methanolic extract, subsequent fractions, crude saponins and flavonoids isolated from Isodon rugosus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on the ethnomedicinal uses and the effective outcomes of natural products in various diseases, this study was designed to evaluate Isodon rugosus as possible remedy in oxidative stress, alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. Acetylecholinestrase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr), resultant fractions (n-hexane (Ir.Hex), chloroform (Ir.Cf), ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc), aqueous (Ir.Aq)), flavonoids (Ir.Flv) a...

  20. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activities of Phytoestrogens in Crude Extracts of Two Sesame Species Against Some Common Pathogenic Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bankole, Munir A; Shittu, Lukeman A J; Ahmed, Titilade A; Bankole, Marian N; Shittu, Remilekun K; Kpela, Terkula; Ashiru, Oladapo A

    2007-01-01

    Intensive studies on extracts and biologically active compounds isolated from medicinal plants have doubled in the last decade worldwide. However, as a result of paucity of knowledge and folkloric claim on the effectiveness of sesame leaves in infectious disease treatments, we aimed to determine the synergistic antimicrobial activity of essential oils and lignans present in the crude leaves extracts of Sesame radiatum and Sesame indicum. Ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts of both leav...

  1. Differential responses of photosynthetic parameters of pigeonpea and amaranth leaf discs to SO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswathi, J.; Rao, K.V.M. [Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India). Dept. of Botany

    1995-08-01

    The reduction in chlorophyll (Chl) and protein contents and the increase in amino acid content in leaf discs in response to aqueous SO{sub 2} exposure under continuous irradiance were more expressed in Amaranthus paniculatus (C-4 plant) than in Cajantus cajan (C-3 plant). The content of SH-compounds increased more in pigenonpea than in amaranth leaf discs in response to SO{sub 2}. Aqueous SO{sub 2} exposure also reduced the CO{sub 2} fixation and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities in leaf discs of both plant species. The differences in sensitivity of these plants to SO{sub 2} were related to their conversion efficiency of SO{sub 2} to less toxic substances and sulphydryl compounds.

  2. Larvicidal efficacy screening of Anacardaciae crude extracts on the dengue hemorrhagic vector, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuharah, W F; Fadzly, N; Ali, Y; Zakaria, R; Juperi, S; Asyraf, M; Dieng, H

    2014-06-01

    Vector-borne diseases are still rife because of the re-emergence of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of crude leaf extract of Mangifera indica, Gluta renghas, and Melanochyla fasciculiflora against vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Aedes aegypti. These plant species are endemic species and widely distributed in Malaysian forests. Leaves of Ma. indica, G. renghas and M. fascculiflora were collected from Teluk Bahang National Park, Penang Malaysia. Fractions of leaves were segregated, air-dried, powdered and extracted using Soxhlet with methanol. The solvent was removed by using rotary evaporator to obtain the crude extract. Using WHO standard larval bioassay test method, third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were exposed to concentration ranging from 200- 4500 ppm of methanol extract for all plant species. Larval mortality was observed after 24 hours exposure. The highest susceptibility and toxicity was recorded by Mangifera indica with the lowest concentration at 800 ppm followed by M. fasciculiflora and G. renghas. This indicates that crude plant extract is very effective in killing Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. This finding may lead to new low cost alternative, environmentally friendly method for mosquito control programs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on larvicidal bioefficacy from endemic Malaysian plants. PMID:25134898

  3. Volatility persistence in crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial market participants and policy-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how shocks can affect volatility over time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of three crude oil markets – Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – between January 2, 1985 and June 17, 2011. We identify outliers using a new semi-parametric test based on conditional heteroscedasticity models. These large shocks can be associated with particular event patterns, such as the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Operation Desert Storm, the Operation Desert Fox, and the Global Financial Crisis as well as OPEC announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of the equation governing volatility dynamics; (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models (GARCH, IGARCH, FIGARCH and HYGARCH); and (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility, and thus the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Therefore, taking into account the outliers on the volatility modelling process may improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We study the impact of outliers on volatility persistence of crude oil markets. • We identify outliers and patches of outliers due to specific events. • We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of GARCH models, (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models, (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility of crude oil markets

  4. Crude oil direct fired furnace model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an accurate mathematical model was developed in order to describe the thermal behaviours of a crude oil preheat furnace and to predict the outlet temperature of the crude process at different operating conditions. Based on basic heat and mass transfer rules, and thermodynamic relations, all sub-sections of furnaces including the combustion system, the convection and radiation sections were modelled. The crude process flow was considered as the mixture of 21 different components. The empirical correlations for crude process were adopted for estimating the physical properties of components and the heat transfer coefficients of process fluid for single-phase and two-phase flow regimes at the convection and radiation sections, respectively. The effects of flame height and combustion process conditions were also considered on the furnace dynamics. Available information from operational, geometrical variables and design values were used to define the parameters of the models. In order to show the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed modelling approach, the performances of the developed model were evaluated by comparing its responses with the designed values (on design simulation). Finally, sensitivity analyses were performed by perturbing the model's inputs from nominal conditions to guarantee the capability of the developed model for long-term simulations. Obtained results indicate that the developed model for a direct fired furnace can be used for transient performance analysis at different operating conditions and real-time simulation experiments in MATALB® Simulink environment. - Highlights: • A semi-empirical dynamic mathematical model was developed for a crude oil preheat furnace. • Heat transfer in single and two phase flow regimes, combustion process were considered. • The model could be used for real-time simulation in MATALB® Simulink environment. • The developed model is an appropriate tool for monitoring, fault diagnosis, and

  5. Determination of arsenic and cadmium in crude oil by direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Alexandre de; Zmozinski, Ariane Vanessa [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Damin, Isabel Cristina Ferreira [Faculdade Dom Bosco de Porto Alegre, 90520-280, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marcia Messias, E-mail: mmsilva@iq.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti Rodrigues [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    In this work, a direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry method has been developed for the determination of arsenic and cadmium in crude oil samples. The samples were weighed directly on the solid sampling platforms and introduced into the graphite tube for analysis. The chemical modifier used for both analytes was a mixture of 0.1% Pd + 0.06% Mg + 0.06% Triton X-100. Pyrolysis and atomization curves were obtained for both analytes using standards and samples. Calibration curves with aqueous standards could be used for both analytes. The limits of detection obtained were 5.1 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for arsenic and 0.2 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for cadmium, calculated for the maximum amount of sample that can be analyzed (8 mg and 10 mg) for arsenic and cadmium, respectively. Relative standard deviations lower than 20% were obtained. For validation purposes, a calibration curve was constructed with the SRM 1634c and aqueous standards for arsenic and the results obtained for several crude oil samples were in agreement according to paired t-test. The result obtained for the determination of arsenic in the SRM against aqueous standards was also in agreement with the certificate value. As there is no crude oil or similar reference material available with a certified value for cadmium, a digestion in an open vessel under reflux using a 'cold finger' was adopted for validation purposes. The use of paired t-test showed that the results obtained by direct sampling and digestion were in agreement at a 95% confidence level. Recovery tests were carried out with inorganic and organic standards and the results were between 88% and 109%. The proposed method is simple, fast and reliable, being appropriated for routine analysis. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct sampling GF AAS method to determine As and Cd in crude oil was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conventional chemical modifier Pd/Mg has been used to stabilize As and Cd. Black

  6. Performance of Crude Palm Oil and Crude Palm Kernel Oil Futures in Malaysian Derivatives Market

    OpenAIRE

    Noriza Binti Mohd Saad; Noraini Binti Ismail; Nor Edi Azhar Binti Mohamad; Normaisarah Binti Abdul Manaf

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of two contracts traded that is Futures Crude Palm Oil (hereafter refers as FCPO) and Crude Palm Kernel Oil futures (hereafter refers as FPKO) in Malaysian derivatives market. The effects of contract’s settlement, volume and open interest was analyzed towards open price (hereafter refers as price) for both contract traded. Secondary data is used, which are gathered from Bloomberg, Bursa Malaysia for N=1,296 over the period between 2006 and 2010. Overall...

  7. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical investigation of the leaf of Calamintha officinalis moench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P P Singh; S Jha; R Irchhaiya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study sailent diagnostic pharmacognostical characters of the leaves of Calaminthaofficinalis Moench along with their phytochemical analysis, physicochemical parameters, fluorescence analysis of leaf powder and HPTLC study. Methods: Fresh leaf and dried powder sample of leaf were studied macro-morphologically and microscopically. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of leaf for the standardization was performed. HPTLC analysis of ethanolic extract was performed using solvent system benzene: methanol in the ratio (9:1). Result: Epidermis of leaf was found to be formed of a single row of cells, those of the upper epidermis being larger than those of the lower epidermis and uniseriate non-glandular and glandular trichomes were observed. Mesophyll was heterogeneous and asymmetric; two types of parenchyma was clearly differentiated; palisade and spongy. The upper one (palisade parenchyma) was formed of a single row of elongated cells. Abundant chloroplasts were observed. The lower, spongy parenchyma was formed of irregularly shaped cells with large intercellular spaces. Vascular tissue was found at the level of the spongy parenchyma. Prismatic shape of calcium oxlate crystals has been found. The preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of carbohydrate, flavonoids, steroid and triterpenes. HPTLC analysis of ethanolic extract showed eight peaks confirming the presence of eight compounds in the ethanolic extract of the leaves. Conclusions: The pharmacognostical and phytochemical parameters are major reliable and inexpensive criteria for confirmation of the crude drugs. The present work therefore attempts to report various necessary standards for the leaf of Calamintha officinalis Moench.

  8. Variability in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide Expression during Crude Oil Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, R. Sean; Frontera-Suau, Roberto; Morris, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial utilization of crude oil components, such as the n-alkanes, requires complex cell surface adaptation to allow adherence to oil. To better understand microbial cell surface adaptation to growth on crude oil, the cell surface characteristics of two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, U1 and U3, both isolated from the same crude oil-degrading microbial community enriched on Bonny Light crude oil (BLC), were compared. Analysis of growth rates demonstrated an increased lag time for U1 cells ...

  9. Testing the International Crude Oil Market Integration with Structural Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaka Aruga

    2015-01-01

    As spread between the WTI and Brent crude oil price is widening after early 2011, it could be that the price relationship between these crude oil is changing. To see if such change affected the price linkages among the international crude oil markets, this study investigates if the world's major benchmark crude oil markets are integrated using the latest data and test the globalization hypothesis when effects from structural breaks are reflected in the test model. The study reveals that while...

  10. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Tribulus terrestris leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2014-01-01

    Biomediated silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of an eco-friendly biomaterial, namely, aqueous Tribulus terrestris extract. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. An attempt has been made and formation of the silver nanoparticles was verified by surface plasmon spectra using an UV-vis (Ultra violet), spectrophotometer. Morphology and crystalline structure of the prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and XRD (X-ray Diffraction), techniques, respectively. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), analysis suggests that the obtained silver nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of carboxylic groups, carbonyl groups and the flavonoids present in the T. terrestris extract. PMID:24231743

  11. Prospects of Viscous Crude Development in Liaohe Oilfields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiuwen; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Liaohe oil area has developed viscous crude for 20 years. The annual output reached 8.46 million tons in 1995, of which 6.77 million tons were produced by steam injection, accounting for 56% of crude output by the method in the country. As a result, Liaohe oil area is the largest crude production base in China.

  12. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  13. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  14. Preparation and characterization of a novel adsorbent from Moringa oleifera leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Olugbenga Solomon; Adegoke, Kayode Adesina; Akinyunni, Opeyemi Omowumi

    2015-10-01

    A new and novel adsorbent was obtained by impregnation of Moringa oleifera leaf in H2SO4 and NaOH, respectively. Prepared adsorbents were characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR, SEM, TGA and EDX analyses, respectively. The effects of operational parameters, such as pH, moisture content, ash content, porosity and iodine number on these adsorbents were investigated and compared with those of commercial activated carbon (CAC). EDX results of acid activated M. oleifera leaf have the highest percentage of carbon by weight (69.40 %) and (76.11 %) by atom, respectively. Proximate analysis showed that the fixed carbon content of acid activated M. oleifera leaf (69.14 ± 0.01) was the highest of all adsorbents studied. Conclusively, the present investigation shows that acid activated M. oleifera leaf is a good alternative adsorbent that could be used in lieu of CAC for recovery of dyes and heavy metal from aqueous solutions and other separation techniques.

  15. Regulation of Compound Leaf Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies.

  16. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD; G HARINATH GOWD

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the ...

  17. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Vega-Ávila; José Luis Cano-Velasco; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; María del Carmen Fajardo Ortíz; Julio César Almanza-Pérez; Rubén Román-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal adminis...

  18. Quality control of the crude oil derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OKTA is crude oil refinery and its primary activity is production of oil derivates and their distribution in order to fulfill Macedonian market with products in accordance with national standards that are in coordination with European standards from January 2004. Quality is multidisciplinary category consisted of many function. One of the functions of quality assurance is quality control. All employees should be concerned for the control that means also a big responsibility for them. For this reason, a competent team from several departments work and rise all knowledge and experience in providing production of final products with properties that satisfy the customer needs and are established with quality certificate. OKTA assures the established final products quality with quality control of crude oil, intermediates and final products, grants quality certificate, guarantee the quality and control the gas stations in order to satisfy the customers. (Author)

  19. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil Containing Crude Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Casimiro, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated soil containing crude oil is a technique process whereby biological systems are harnessed to affect the clean-up of environmental pollutants. Microbial systems are most widely employed in bioremediation programs, generally in the treatment of soil and water contaminants with organic pollutants. This thesis reports the experiment of treating the soil without use of any chemicals. Four treatments were used for this experiment. All of the treatments were containing...

  20. Crude Carrier Consolidation and Capital Cost

    OpenAIRE

    T T Gilje; J Dinwoodie; J Challacombe

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of consolidation strategies amongst crude carrier operators anxious to reduce costs and attract institutional capital. Could consolidation combat erratic tonnage demand, mounting regulatory pressure to provide quality service at reduced costs, rising costs of finance and unpredictable long-term returns that deter institutional capital? A questionnaire survey of capital providers' and charterers' attitudes towards consolidation found that long-term vessel emplo...

  1. Crude Documentary to Screen at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Maria-José

    2008-11-01

    A documentary on oil might be a bit difficult to pitch, even to your own family and friends. Marine biologist and filmmaker Richard Smith learned that lesson when in late 2005, he started working on Crude: The Incredible Journey of Oil. When Smith told acquaintances about the project, their responses were ``muted, at best,'' joked the Australian filmmaker when he received AGU's 2008 Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism.

  2. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of phenylureas (CPPU and brassinosteriod (BR along with GA (gibberellic acid were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set or twice (7+15 days after fruit set. CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78 while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22 per shoot. Maximum leaf area (129.70 cm2 and dry matter content (26.51% was obtained with higher CPPU (3 ppm and BR (0.4 ppm combination along with GA 25 ppm. Plant growth regulators whether naturally derived or synthetic are used to improve the productivity and quality of grapes. The relatively high value of grapes justifies more expensive inputs. A relatively small improvement in yield or fruit quality can justify the field application of a very costly product. Application of new generation growth regulators like brassinosteroids and phenylureas like CPPU have been reported to increase the leaf number as well as leaf area and dry matter thereby indirectly influencing the fruit yield and quality in grapes.

  3. Larvicidal and phytochemical properties of Callistemon rigidus R. Br. (Myrtaceae leaf solvent extracts against three vector mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danga Yinyang Simon Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Due to ever-growing insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors and environmental contamination by synthetic insecticides, plants may be a source of alternative agents for mosquito control. Therefore, the present investigation involved the determination of larvicidal and phytochemical properties of Callistemon rigidus leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: The standard protocol of WHO was used for larval tests. Twenty five IV instar larvae were exposed to various concentrations from 125-1000 ppm for methanol crude extract (MCE, hexane (HF, chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and methanol (MF fractions, from 250-2000 ppm for aqueous extract (AE and 2500 ppm for Diclorvos. The mortality was observed 24 h post-exposure. The LC50 and LC90 values were determined by Probit analysis. Results: The phytochemical analysis revealed that the presence of alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, lipids, fats and fixed oils in MCE; terpenoids, steroids, lipids, fats and fixed oils in HF; terpenoids in CF; tannins and phenolic compounds in EAF and alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenolic compounds in MF. Against Ae. aegypti, HF was the most active fraction with LC50 of 56.25 ppm. Against An. gambiae, HF demonstrated its potential mosquito larvicide killing relatively all exposed larvae at all concentrations with LC50 of 17.11 ppm. Against Cx. quinquefasciatus, only MCE and HF exhibited larvicidal activity with LC50 of 447.38 and 721.95 ppm, respectively. Interpretation & conclusion: Callistemon rigidus exhibited some promising larvicidal activity against medically important vector mosquitoes. Studies are indicated to identify the active compounds from this plant for developing mosquito larvicides

  4. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  8. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI; JAMIU KOLAWOLE ODUSOTE; RAHEEM ABOLORE YAHYA

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild steel in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild steel coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the corrosion rate. As the extract conce...

  9. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  10. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  11. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  12. What determines a leaf's shape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhar, Jeremy; Pareek, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    The independent origin and evolution of leaves as small, simple microphylls or larger, more complex megaphylls in plants has shaped and influenced the natural composition of the environment. Significant contributions have come from megaphyllous leaves, characterized usually as flat, thin lamina entrenched with photosynthetic organelles and stomata, which serve as the basis of primary productivity. During the course of evolution, the megaphylls have attained complexity not only in size or venation patterns but also in shape. This has fascinated scientists worldwide, and research has progressed tremendously in understanding the concept of leaf shape determination. Here, we review these studies and discuss the various factors that contributed towards shaping the leaf; initiated as a small bulge on the periphery of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) followed by asymmetric outgrowth, expansion and maturation until final shape is achieved. We found that the underlying factors governing these processes are inherently genetic: PIN1 and KNOX1 are indicators of leaf initiation, HD-ZIPIII, KANADI, and YABBY specify leaf outgrowth while ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR5 control leaf expansion and maturation; besides, recent research has identified new players such as APUM23, known to specify leaf polarity. In addition to genetic control, environmental factors also play an important role during the final adjustment of leaf shape. This immense amount of information available will serve as the basis for studying and understanding innovative leaf morphologies viz. the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes which have evolved to provide additional support to the plant survival in its nutrient-deficient habitat. In hindsight, formation of the pitcher tube in Nepenthes might involve the recruitment of similar genetic mechanisms that occur during sympetaly in Petunia. PMID:25584185

  13. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Kevin A; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M; Dawson, Todd E; Franks, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem-leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO₂ concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO₂ on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem-leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO₂ assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  14. Assessment of bio-activities of the crude extract and components of Withania somnifera leaves by bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashi widodo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicines are now increasingly being appreciated with Western models of integrative health sciences and evidence-based approach both in the basic research and clinic scenario. Ashwagandha is a commonly used plant in Ayurvedic, Indian traditional medicine. Medicinal value of Ashwagandha (WithaniasomniferaDunal extends from anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-rheumatic, rejuvenation and anti-cancer. Based on the belief that holistic multi-site mechanism of action offers greater chance of success, the traditional Ayurvedicmedicine practices the use of whole herb or its crude extract. It opposes with the mainstream of pharmaceutical industry that uses single and purified molecules. In the present study, we used bioinformatics approach to reveal the mechanism of action of (i crude extract of Ashwagandha leaf extract and its purified components, (ii Withanone and (iii Withaferin A. Whereas p53-p21 was identified as a common signaling pathway for the three kinds of reagents, specific signaling pathways for Withaferin-A and Withanone were identified. Whereas the crude extract and Withanone were selectively toxic to human cancer cells, WithaferinA showed cytotoxicity to the normal cells too. The study suggested that the crude extract or a combinational formulamay be a superior and safenatural reagent for cancer treatment.

  15. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  16. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Today’s changeable market and resultant disturbance of crude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In case study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  17. Implications of globalization on pricing for Canadian crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of globalization on Canadian crude oil prices was discussed. Since deregulation in October 1985, Canadian crude oil has competed directly against international crude oil through the use of the NYMEX contract price for light sweet crude oil as the base for establishing the price for Canadian crudes. Prior to that date, Alberta crude was marketed by the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission using the old block matrix which was loosely tied to the world market price. In addition to world crude oil prices other factors that affect the price of Canadian crude oil include technology impacts and global integration. Also, when the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline (Line 9) is reversed to bring offshore crude oil into the Ontario refining community, Canadian producers can expect some adverse effects on the price they are paid for their products leading up to the reversal as refiners start to swing over to their alternate suppliers. The offshore supply is expected to be about 140,000 barrels/day of light sweet crude oil, but all grades of Canadian crude oil will be affected

  18. Biosorption of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Ficus benghalensis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswara Rao Surisetty; Janusz Kozinski; L. Rao Nageswara

    2013-01-01

    Ficus benghalensis L., a plant-based material leaf powder, is used as an adsorbent for the removal of lead ions from aqueous solution using the biosorption technique. The effects of process parameters such as contact time, adsorbent size and dosage, initial lead ion concentration, and pH of the aqueous solution on bio-sorption of lead by Ficus benghalensis L. were studied using batch process. The Langmuir isotherm was more suitable for biosorption followed by Freundlich and Temkin isotherms w...

  19. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the safe stress and corresponding pay load of the leaf spring and also to study the behavior of structures under practical conditions. The present work attempts to analyze the safeload of the leaf spring, which will indicate the speed at which a comfortable speed and safe drive is possible. A typical leaf spring configuration of TATA-407 light commercial vehicle is chosen for study. Finite element analysis has been carried out to determine the safe stresses and pay loads.

  20. A microfluidic flow focusing platform to screen the evolution of crude oil-brine interfacial elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Brendon; Liu, Yafei; Alvarado, Vladimir; Oakey, John

    2016-08-01

    Multiphase fluid flow dynamics dominate processes used to recover the majority of hydrocarbon resources produced by global energy industries. Micromodels have long been used to recapitulate geometric features of these processes, allowing for the phenomenological validation of multiphase porous media transport models. Notably, these platform surrogates typically preserve the complexity of reservoir conditions, preventing the elucidation of underlying physical mechanisms that govern bulk phenomena. Here, we introduce a microfluidic flow focusing platform that allows crude oil to be aged against brines of distinct composition in order to evaluate the pore-level effects of chemically-mediated interfacial properties upon snap-off. Snap-off is a fundamental multiphase flow process that has been shown to be a function of aqueous phase chemistry, which in turn establishes the limits of crude oil recovery during enhanced oil recovery operations. Specifically, this platform was used to evaluate the hypothesis that low salinity brines suppress crude oil snap-off, thus enhancing recovery. This hypothesis was validated and conditions that promote the effect were shown to, unexpectedly, develop over a matter of minutes on the pore scale. Microfluidic snap-off experiments were complemented by finite element fluid dynamics modeling, and further validated against a classical instability framework. PMID:27241440

  1. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH4NO3 to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha−1 y−1, were individually exposed to 100 μl of artificial rainwater containing 15NH4+ or 15NO3− at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH4+ at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH4+ by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO3− uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42–1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. - Highlights: • Foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) by potted trees was studied. • Leaves were individually exposed to rainwater drops containing 15NH4+ or 15NO3−. • Foliar N uptake efficiency depended on the artificial rainwater chemistry. • Foliar N uptake increased with the level of pedospheric nitrogen fertilisation. • Foliar

  2. Contributing factors in foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen at leaf level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Karen, E-mail: karen.wuyts@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium); Adriaenssens, Sandy, E-mail: adriaenssens@irceline.be [Belgian Interregional Environment Agency (IRCEL-CELINE), Kunstlaan 10–11, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium); Staelens, Jeroen, E-mail: jeroen_staelens@yahoo.com [Flemish Environment Agency (VMM), Kronenburgstraat 45, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Wuytack, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana.wuytack@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Wittenberghe, Shari, E-mail: shari.vanwittenberghe@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Boeckx, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.boeckx@ugent.be [Isotope Bioscience Laboratory (ISOFYS), Dept. Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Samson, Roeland, E-mail: roeland.samson@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Environmental and Urban Ecology, Research Group ENdEMIC, Dept. Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris, E-mail: kris.verheyen@ugent.be [Forest and Nature Lab (ForNaLab), Dept. Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode-Melle (Belgium)

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the influence of leaf traits, rainwater chemistry, and pedospheric nitrogen (N) fertilisation on the aqueous uptake of inorganic N by physiologically active tree leaves. Leaves of juvenile silver birch and European beech trees, supplied with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to the soil at rates from 0 to 200 kg N ha{sup −1} y{sup −1}, were individually exposed to 100 μl of artificial rainwater containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} at two concentration levels for one hour. In the next vegetative period, the experiment was repeated with NH{sub 4}{sup +} at the highest concentration only. The N form and the N concentration in the applied rainwater and, to a lesser extent, the pedospheric N treatment and the leaf traits affected the aqueous foliar N uptake. The foliar uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by birch increased when leaves were more wettable. High leaf N concentration and leaf mass per area enhanced the foliar N uptake, and NO{sub 3}{sup −} uptake in particular, by birch. Variation in the foliar N uptake by the beech trees could not be explained by the leaf traits considered. In the first experiment, N fertilisation stimulated the foliar N uptake in both species, which was on average 1.42–1.78 times higher at the highest soil N dose than at the zero dose. However, data variability was high and the effect was not appreciable in the second experiment. Our data suggest that next to rainwater chemistry (N form and concentration) also forest N status could play a role in the partitioning of N entering the ecosystem through the soil and the canopy. Models of canopy uptake of aqueous N at the leaf level should take account of leaf traits such as wettability and N concentration. - Highlights: • Foliar uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) by potted trees was studied. • Leaves were individually exposed to rainwater drops containing {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} or {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −}. • Foliar N uptake efficiency depended on

  3. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreas...

  4. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial effect ofTinomiscium philippinense Miers. (Menispermaceae) leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheryl Rena-Aguila; Mario A Tan; Oliver B Villaflores

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the toxicity profile, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the crude and semi-crude leaf extracts ofTinomiscium philippinense (T. philippinense). Methods:The leaves ofT. philippinense were extracted with methanol and partitioned with solvents of different polarities, namely, hexane, dichloromethane and butanol. The extracts were subjected to duck chorioallantoic membrane assay to establish its anti-angiogenic property. Microwell assay was utilized to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the different extracts of the plant. Results:The dichloromethane leaf extract ofT. philippinense at 1 000µg/disc showed the highest anti-angiogenic activity with 37.46% inhibition. All the fractions exhibited a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on the three bacterial strains withPseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram negative lactose fermenter exhibiting a higher sensitivity to dichloromethane semi-crude extract among the treatment groups. For the toxicity test, no mortality and no change in behavior were observed in the Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days after the oral administration of the plant extracts. The methanolic leaf extract ofT. philippinense is non-toxic at a maximum dose of 5 000 mg/kg. Conclusions: The dichloromethane leaf extract ofT. philippinense is a potential anti-angiogenic endemic plant species. This plant extract is also a potential antibacterial candidate as determined by microwell assay. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the plant may be attributed to the essential oil, steroid, flavonoid, sterol and triterpene content of the plant.

  5. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  6. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of sunflower on wheat (triticum aestivum l.) and maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflower is a potent allelopathic plant which possesses important allelochemicals with known allelopathic activity on other plants. In this study, allelopathic effects of fresh aqueous extracts (FAE) and air dried aqueous extracts (DAE) of root, shoot and leaves of sunflower (Halianthus annuus L.) were investigated on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in seed bioassay experiments carried out at Botany Department of Peshawar University during 2010. Results showed significantly inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts on seed germination, growth and dry biomass of seedlings of wheat and maize. In wheat seedlings, significant germination inhibition (15.21%), increased mean germination time (MGT) (57.76%), reduced plumule and radical growth (21.66 and 28.44%) and lowered seedlings dry biomass (31.05%) were recorded under dry aqueous extracts of leaf when compared to control. Germination percentage of maize was inhibited by dry aqueous extracts of leaf by 7.81%, germination index by 16.51%, increased MGT by 25.53%, decreased plumule and radical lengths by 29.00 and 36.12% respectively, and lowered maize seedling dry biomass by 34.02 %. In both experiments, dry aqueous extracts (DAE) were more phytotoxic than fresh aqueous extracts (FAE). Similarly, inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of sunflower were recorded in the order leaf > shoot > root for both tested plants. (author)

  7. Zhenhai to Boost Crude on Rising Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Zhenhai Refining & Chemical plans to boost July crude throughput by at least 5 percent from June due to expectations of a rise in domestic demand, an industry official said on June 24. The forecast July level could match the refinery's April throughput at 1.06 million tons, the highest so far in 2003, an official close to the refinery's operations said, adding "China could see a big rise in demand from domestic travels next month especially after Beijing was dropped off the travel warning list."

  8. Integrated processing for heavy crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Yadira

    2015-01-01

    Energy based on non-renewable resources such as gas, oil, coal and nuclear fission, even with their serious problems of pollution, contributes to 86% of the global energy consumption. Oil will remain the dominant transport fuel: about 87% of transport fuel in 2030 will still be petroleum-based.Discoveries of conventional sources of light easy-to-access crude oil are becoming less common and current oil production levels are struggling to match demand, it is necessary to develop new non-conven...

  9. Personal commentary - Crude oil pricing formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Lajous, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Almost 21 years ago Pemex introduced spot-related formulas for determining the price of its crude oil exports. Other major players in the international oil market later adopted them and they continue to have a major influence on how oil prices are formed today. This might be a good time to remember the context in which they were originally developed, the objectives and constraints to which they responded and the role they played as part of the overall package of instruments of its commercial ...

  10. Vulnerability maps for Druzba crude oil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maps of risk for individual environmental aspects within the protection zone of the Czech part of the Druzba crude oil pipeline (505.7 km) were developed based on a modified 'H and V index' method. Risk data were added into a GIS of the Druzba pipeline so that the system could be used as conceptual material in the field of environmental protection (a base for the new SCADA system). Considered environmental aspects were assessed in terms of their vulnerability. The criteria were defined as the vulnerability of the aquatic environment (surface waters and ground waters), the vulnerability of soil environment and the vulnerability of biotic components of the environment. (authors)

  11. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity evaluation in Wistar albino rats exposed to Morinda lucida leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    Taofeeq Oduola; Ibrahim Bello; Ganiyu Adeosun; Abdul-Waheed Ademosun; Gassal Raheem; Godwin Avwioro

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf is consumed in Southern Nigeria in the treatment of malaria without any regard for its safety. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant on liver and kidney functions in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity test was performed to determine the LD 50 ; sub-chronic toxicity study was then carried out by oral administration of different doses of...

  12. Functional relationships of leafing intensity to plant height, growth form and leaf habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, En-Rong; Milla, Rubén; Aarssen, Lonnie W.; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Leafing intensity, i.e. the number of leaves per unit of stem volume or mass, is a common developmental correlate of leaf size. However, the ecological significance and the functional implications of variation in leafing intensity, other than its relation to leaf size, are unknown. Here, we explore its relationships with plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit to test a series of corollaries derived from the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. Volume-based leafing intensities and plant heights were recorded for 109 woody species from the subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests of eastern China. In addition, we compiled leafing intensity data from published literature, and combined it with our data to form a 398 species dataset, to test for differences of leafing intensity between plant growth forms (i.e. herbaceous and woody) and leaf habits (i.e. deciduous and evergreens). Leafing intensity was negatively correlated with plant height and individual leaf mass. Volume-based leafing intensities were significantly higher in herbaceous species than in woody species, and also higher in deciduous than in evergreen woody species. In conclusion, leafing intensity relates strongly to plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit in directions generally in accordance to the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. These results can be interpreted in terms of the evolution of adaptive strategies involving response to herbivory, competitive ability for light and reproductive economy.

  13. How to pattern a leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, N; O'Connor, D; Moon, J; Lewis, M; Hake, S

    2012-01-01

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, and function, all leaves initiate in the same manner: from the flanks of a meristem. The maize leaf is useful for analysis of patterning due to the wealth of mutants and the distinct tissues along the proximal distal axis. The blade is distal, the sheath is proximal, and the ligule forms at the blade/sheath boundary. Establishment of this boundary involves the transcription factors LIGULELESS1 and LIGULELESS2 and the kinase LIGULELESS NARROW. The meristem-specific protein KNOTTED1 (KN1) binds and modulates the lg2 gene. Given the localization of KN1 at the proximal end of the leaf from the time of inception, we hypothesize that KN1 has a role in establishing the very proximal end of the leaf, whereas an auxin maximum guides the growing distal tip. PMID:23174765

  14. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ming; QIAN Yu; LI Xiu-Xi

    2009-01-01

    Today's ohangeable market and resultant disturbance of orude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In oase study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  15. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design... vessel having a COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) carries more than...

  16. Isolation and characterization of protoplasts and vacuoles from sugar beet leaf mesophyll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes methods for isolation of protoplasts and vacuoles from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf mesophyll. Protoplasts were isolated by the enzymatic method in two stages. The yield of protoplasts in the crude suspension attained 3-10 units from 1g of fresh tissue mass. Two methods of purifying the crude protoplast suspension are compared in the paper, the indicated methods employing gradients of Percoll (method 1) and Ficoll (method 2). The final yield comprised 4.5-9.0-10.5 protoplasts from 1g of fresh tissue mass after purification method 1 and 6.0-10.5-1.2-10 protoplasts after method 2. The photosynthesis rate in such protoplasts under optimal conditions comprised 75-100 μmoles of CO2h per mg of chlorophyll as compared with 100-130 μmoles in leaf blade disks. The two methods were used to obtain vacuoles, method 1 involving osmotic lysis of protoplasts (the yield constituting 6-15% of vacuoles of the protoplasts taken) and method 2 consisting of ultracentrifugation in a Ficoll gradient (giving a yield of 25-45%). As was monitored microscopically and from the absence of activity of extravacuolar enzymes (NADH-cytochrome-c reductase and cytochrome-c oxidase), vacuoles free of foreign impurities were obtained in both cases. The time needed to obtain protoplasts from leaf tissue comprised 2-3 h, whereas 1.5-2 h was needed to obtain vacuoles from protoplasts

  17. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild steel in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild steel coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the corrosion rate. As the extract concentration increased from 4 ml to 10 ml at 30 minutes exposure, the volume of hydrogen gas evolved decreased from 19.1 cm3 to 11.2 cm3 in H2SO4 medium, while it reduced to 5 cm3 from 9 cm3 in HCl medium. Also, the metal surface-phytoconstituent interaction mechanism showed that 6 minutes is the best exposure time for the adsorption of the extract in both acidic media. The Jatropha Curcas leaf extract was adsorbed on the mild steel surface to inhibit corrosion, while the experimental data obtained at 30 minutes exposure in both acidic media were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Hence, Jatropha Curcas leaf extract is a good and safe inhibitor in both acidic solutions.

  18. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Zhang; Dali Hou; Kai Li

    2015-01-01

    Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP), which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both t...

  19. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for cleaner production in crude palm oil industry, and to provide recommendations for overcoming these barriers. As such the overall aim was to generate ideas for moving the crude palm oil industry towards sustainability.In order to fulfill these research aimsdetailed case studies have be...

  20. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Recently China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has gradually set up its own down stream industry in response to the development of oil fields, the demand of domestic market and the unique characteristics of crude oil resources.The capacity of crude oil processing has reached 21million tons per year approximately and 14 million tons of crude oil was processed in 1994,making up one-tenth of CNPC's total output.

  1. Crude oil options market found to be efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the U.S. crude oil options market operates efficiently and does not overreact. The authors, with the JFK School of Government, studied the crude oil options market under a Department of Energy grant. The current market was created in November 1986 when the New York Mercantile Exchange introduced an options contract for delivery of West Texas intermediate crude futures. it has grown greatly since then

  2. Analysis of Peanut Leaf Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, R.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Pechan, T.

    2010-01-01

    approach to define function of their associated genes. Proteome analysis linked to genome sequence information is critical for functional genomics. However, the available protein expression data is extremely inadequate. Proteome analysis of peanut leaf was conducted using two-dimensional gel....... Furthermore, the leaf proteome map will lead to development of protein markers for cultivar identification at seedling stage of the plant. Overall, this study will contribute to improve our understanding of plant genetics and metabolism, and overall assist in the selection and breeding programs geared toward...

  3. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf

  4. Mosquito repellent potential ofPithecellobium dulce leaf and seed against malaria vectorAnopheles stephensi (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the repellent properties of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extract ofPithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) leaf and seed against Anopheles stephensi(An. stephensi). Methods:Repellent activity assay was carried out in a net cage (45 cmí30 cmí25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes ofAn. stephensi. This assay was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to theWHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts ofP. dulce were applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed fore arm of study subjects. Ethanol was used as the sole control. Results: In this study, the applied plant crude extracts were observed to protect against mosquito bites. There were no allergic reactions experienced by the study subjects. The repellent activity of the extract was dependent on the concentration of the extract. Among the tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed the maximum efficacy. The highest concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 leaf and seed methanol extract ofP. dulceprovided over 180 min and 150 min protection, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts ofP. dulceexhibit the potential for controlling malaria vector mosquitoAn. stephensi.

  5. Utilization of cassava leaf (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) in concentrate mixtures for swamp buffaloes in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made to evaluate dried cassava leaf (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) as a protein supplement in diets for buffaloes. Five swamp buffaloes aged 2.5 years (average liveweight 249 ± 6.1 kg) were randomly allotted to five concentrate mixture containing 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30g/kg dry matter (DM) dried cassava leaf containing 11.8-13.9% crude protein, 11.3-13.0 MJ metabolisable energy/kg DM, 9.7-18.4% neutral detergent fibre acid, 6.9-13.9% acid detergent fibre. The buffaloes were given urea-treated rice straw (UTS) ad libitum and one of the concentrate mixtures during each of five measurement periods according to a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Each period had a 21-d preliminary interval followed by a 7-d collection interval while the animals were in metabolic crates. Digestibilities of nutrients and N-balances were higher when cassava leaf was present in the concentrate mixtures, being highest for the 7.5% cassava leaf mixture. The ammonia and total VFA concentrations in rumen fluid and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and blood urea concentrations did not differ significantly between treatments. As the level of dried cassava leaf increased, the price of the mixtures decreased markedly. Dried cassava leaf therefore proved to be a good supplement for ruminants during seasonal dry periods when other feed supplies were not abundant. Incorporation of the dried cassava leaf in the concentrate up to 30% DM, and possible higher, could reduce the cost of diets for buffaloes relative to diets containing other protein sources such as soyabean meal. (author). 17 refs, 4 tabs

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANGOSTEEN LEAF NITROGEN CONTENTS AND LEAF SPAD VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setiawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated nitrogen contents on mangosteen leaf and related on leaf SPAD value. The experiment was conducted using mangosteen trees grown in commercial orchard in Bogor, Indonesia during May to October 2010. Mangosteen trees of 3 different ages, young (20-year-old, middle-aged (35-year-old, and old (50-year-old trees, each of five trees, were selected for study, and the canopy of each tree was divided into 9 sectors based on height (bottom, middle, top and width (inner, center, outer. SPAD values had a negative correlation with leaf N content in all ages and could be explained by regressionl equations N level (% DW = -0.0099 × SPAD + 2.2366; R² = 0.91; N level (% DW = -0.0177 × SPAD + 2.8001; R² = 0.67; and N level (% DW = -0.0187 × SPAD + 2.7785; R² = 0.45 in young, middle-aged and old trees, respectively. It is suggested that the SPAD value determined by a portable chlorophyll meter can be used to obtain a quick estimation of mangosteen leaf N status. Keywords: age, fruiting position, Garcinia mangostana L., nitrogen, SPAD

  7. A leaf detection method using image sequences and leaf movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, J.; Henten, van E.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Bontsema, J.

    2005-01-01

    Besides harvesting the fruits, a very time demanding task is removing old leaves from cucumber and tomato plants grown in greenhouses. To be able to automate this process by a robot, a leaf detection method is required. One possibility for the detection is to exploit the different dynamic behaviour

  8. Crude oil pricing report, issue 89, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared by the Canadian Oil Markets and Emergency Planning Division (COMEP), Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. It provides a reference for domestic and imported crude oil prices in Canadian markets and illustrates the competitive position of Canadian crude in the U.S. market. The information in this report is in part based on the Crude Oil Pricing Survey (COPS), conducted by COMEP, of Canadian refiners' domestic crude oil purchases, refinery receipts, imports and data from trade publications as well as industry pricing bulletins. 8 tabs

  9. Bioconversion technologies of crude glycerol to value added industrial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Garlapati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol that is produced as the by-product from biodiesel, has to be effectively utilized to contribute to the viability of biodiesel. Crude glycerol in large amounts can pose a threat to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to convert this crude glycerol into valued added products using biotechnological processes, which brings new revenue to biodiesel producers. Crude glycerol can serve as a feedstock for biopolymers, poly unsaturated fatty acids, ethanol, hydrogen and n-butanol production and as a raw material for different value added industrial products. Hence, in this review we have presented different bioconversion technologies of glycerol to value added industrial products.

  10. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  11. Protein content of leaf-cutting ant queens before the nuptial flight and during the post-claustral phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edypo Jacob Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein content of leaf-cutting ant queens before the nuptial flight and during the post-claustral phase. This study evaluated the crude protein content of queens of Atta sexdens before the nuptial flight and after the claustral phase in laboratory and field colonies. The hypothesis was that protein is used for survival of the queen and for early colony growth during the claustral phase. Additionally, the nest morphology, live biomass and adult population of field colonies were evaluated. Crude protein was determined by digestion of the organic material with sulfuric acid at high temperatures. The mean crude protein content was 123.23 ± 11.20 mg for females before the nuptial flight and 70.44 ± 12.21 mg for laboratory-reared queens after the claustral phase. The post-claustral crude protein content of field-collected queen was 55.90 ± 9.18 mg. With respect to the loss of crude protein as a function of duration of the claustral phase, laboratory-reared queens lost 52.79 mg and field-collected queens lost 67.33 mg compared to females before the nuptial flight. A positive linear correlation was observed between the weight of field-collected queens (256.4 ± 36.3 mg and colony biomass (13.02 ± 9.12 g, but there was no correlation between biomass and nest depth (13.11 ± 3.82 cm. As expected, the present results support the hypothesis that protein is used for survival of the queen and for early colony growth, as demonstrated by the reduction in crude protein content as a function of duration of the claustral phase. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide data of the dynamics of protein reserves in leaf-cutting ant queens during the claustral phase.

  12. Rates of photocatalytic oxidation of crude oil on salt water on buoyant, cenosphere-attached titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of TiO2-photocatalyzed oxidation of crude oils spilled on aqueous 0.5 M NaCA was determined by measuring the rate of O2 uptake. The photocatalyst was attached to 100-μm-diameter fly-ash-derived buoyant cenospheres. Partial hydrophobic coating of the cenospheres assured their retention at the air-oil interface. The rate depended on the near-UV (broad band, 365-nm peak) irradiance below 25W m-2, but varied only mildly with irradiance in the 25-45 W m-2 range. It increased upon wave motion imitating agitation of the liquid, and upon increase of the cenosphere:oil mass ratio. It varied only mildly for different crudes. From the measured rates, cleanup times as short as 5-10 days were estimated

  13. A method to improve leaf succulence quantification

    OpenAIRE

    André Mantovani

    1999-01-01

    Leaf succulence has important physiological and ecological implications. Currently it is quantified by Delf's index (fresh weight/leaf area) and fresh weight/ dry weight ratio. Both indeces are reconsidered and a new index is proposed. Shade and sun leaves from terrestrial, hemiepiphytic and epiphytic aroids were studied. Delf's formula, which does not consider dry weight, overestimated leaf succulence. As fresh weight / dry weight ratio (fw / dw) does not consider leaf area, plants with the ...

  14. Analysis of Circadian Leaf Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616

  15. EFFECTS OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ON REGULATION OF HYPOTHYROIDISM AND LIPID PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. SINHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its ameliorative effect in the regulation of thyroidismin rat model. Male albino rats of 120-150 g were treated orally with doses of 500mg/kg body weight (b.w. and250 mg/ kg b.w. of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaf. Results show that T3 and T4 were increased and TSHwas decreased significantly (p>0.05 at high doses compared to those in the control group. Also, the extractsignificantly reduced (p<0.05 total cholesterol concentration and low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDLconcentration in the serum while it had no significant effect on serum High density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterolconcentration at all doses administered when compared with controls. The results of this study suggest that theextract may have beneficial effect on serum cholesterol concentration and a stimulant to thyroid functions.

  16. The international market for crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international crude oil market has undergone many structural changes and has had to adapt to a new competitive environment. The links between the organization of the oil market and the evolution of its structure were analyzed. In the beginning, the market was dominated by Western firms. With the creation of OPEC, the petroleum industry adapted to a market regulated by supply and demand. Since then, the industry has been evolving toward a more balanced market structure in which the upstream sector is dominated by the national oil companies of the producing countries and the downstream sector is dominated by large companies in the importing nations. Price setting and corporate strategy within the new competitive market was also discussed. 25 refs., 34 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guipeng; ZHANG Li; SUN Xiaojing; JING Weiwen

    2006-01-01

    Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater is an important issue in marine environmental protection and is studied in this work. Results showed that petroleum hydrocarbons could be effectively degraded by the irradiation of high-pressure mercury light or natural sunlight. Photochemical reaction was controlled by various factors including light source, aquatic medium, heavy metal ion and photo-sensitizer. The rate of photo-degradation was fast at the initial stage of exposure, exhibiting a first-order reaction kinetic behavior. However, after irradiation for a few hours, the concentration of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum hydrocarbons stabilized. For all experimental conditions, the range of the photo-degradation rate is from 0.001 3 to 0.005 7/min.

  18. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  3. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022...

  4. Experimental Assessment of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Fruit for Its Antistress, Antioxidant, and Scavenging Potential Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suaib Luqman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance.

  5. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption. PMID:23896144

  6. Transformation of Leaf-like Zinc Dendrite in Oxidation and Reduction Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Leaf-like zinc dendrites change to leaf-like residual oxides at high oxidation current density (10 mA cm−2) whereas it completely dissolves at low oxidation current density (1 mA cm−2). • Leaf-like residual oxide products is transformed to zinc deposits with particulate morphology, resulting in good rechargeability. • The residual zinc oxide provides sufficient zincate on its reduction, preventing the diffusion-limited condition that causes leaf-like dendrite formation. - Abstract: Zinc is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous battery systems whereas it shows insufficient rechargeability for use in secondary batteries. It has been reported that leaf-like dendrite deposits are often the origin of cell-failure, however, their nature and behavior on discharge (oxidation) - charge (reduction) cycling have been only poorly understood. Here we investigate the transformation of the leaf-like zinc dendrites using ex-situ scanning electron microscopy, X-ray computational tomography and in-situ X-ray diffraction. It is shown that the leaf-like zinc dendrites obtained under diffusion-limited conditions are nearly completely dissolved at a low oxidation current density of 1 mA cm−2 and cause re-evolution of the zinc dendrites. Oxidation at a high current density of 10 mA cm−2 leads to the formation of leaf-like zinc oxide residual products that result in particulate zinc deposits in the following reduction process, enabling good rechargeability. The reaction behavior of this oxide residue is detailed and discussed for the development of long-life zinc electrodes

  7. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Leaf Extracts from Plukenetia volubilis Linneo (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Karina Lima Nascimento; Raniere Fagundes Melo-Silveira; Nednaldo Dantas-Santos; Júlia Morais Fernandes; Silvana Maria Zucolotto; Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha; Katia Castanho Scortecci

    2013-01-01

    Plukenetia volubilis Linneo, or Sacha inca, is an oleaginous plant from the Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this work was to perform a chemical and biological analysis of different leaf extracts from P. volubilis such as aqueous extract (AEL), methanol (MEL), ethanol (EEL), chloroform (CEL), and hexane (HEL). Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, steroids, and/or terpenoídes. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were analyzed by in vitro assays ...

  8. In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Annona muricata Leaf Extract in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Polwiang, Natsuda; Chachiyo, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. The choice for the treatment is highly limited due to drug resistance. Hence, finding the new compounds to treat malaria is urgently needed. The present study was attempted to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the Annona muricata aqueous leaf extract in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata was prepared and tested for acute toxicity in mice. For efficacy test in vivo, standard 4-day suppressive test was carried out. ICR mice were inoculated with 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection. The extracts (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) were then given orally by gavage once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia, percentage of inhibition, and packed cell volume were subsequently calculated. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg) was given to infected mice as positive control while untreated control was given only distilled water. It was found that A. muricata aqueous leaf extract at doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg resulted in dose dependent parasitemia inhibition of 38.03%, 75.25%, and 85.61%, respectively. Survival time was prolonged in infected mice treated with the extract. Moreover, no mortality to mice was observed with this extract up to a dose of 4000 mg/kg. In conclusion, the A. muricata aqueous leaf extract exerted significant antimalarial activity with no toxicity and prolonged survival time. Therefore, this extract might contain potential lead molecule for the development of a new drug for malaria treatment. PMID:27092277

  9. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality Green Leaf Immature, tight leaf structure, fleshy, lean in oil, narrow. Uniformity, 70 percent... Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil, weak color intensity, narrow... Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil, weak color intensity,...

  10. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.

  11. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge rat

  12. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Strategy of the Comprehensive Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude The further study on the properties and characteristics of the naphthenic base heavy crude shows that the utilization of naphthenic acid, production of low freezing point lube stocks and a series of asphalts are important future trends for comprehensive utilization of these resources.

  13. WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN VISCOUS CRUDE PROCESSING IN SHENGLI OILFIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huaijie; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Apart from sewage pretreatment and stepped control, the Viscous Crude Processing Plant of Shengli Petrochemical General Works has established a new process of sewage treatment featuring with flexible and advanced technology and strong impact strength, with the crude sewage treatment yield reaching more than 95%.

  14. Crude oil degradation by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    adherence to undecane and hexadecane. The degradation of crude oil by these two isolates was 62% and 85%. Mixed cultures of the two isolates showed 91% degradation. It was evident from the gas chromatographic analysis that all fractions of crude oil were...

  15. THE REFINERY MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES WHILE TREATING MIDDLE EAST CRUDE TO RUN THE PLANT DURING 4 YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Middle East crude oil is known to be a higher sulfur and metal containing crude than Far East crude. To treat higher sulfur crude requires appropriate procedures on refinery maintenance since corrosion environment of equipment can be affected by sulfur content. This paper introduces our experiences and measures in running the plant while facing corrosion and degradation by Middle East crude.

  16. 77 FR 55817 - Delek Crude Logistics, LLC; Notice of Petition for Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Delek Crude Logistics, LLC; Notice of Petition for Waiver Take notice that on June 11, 2012, Delek Crude Logistics, LLC (``Delek Crude'') respectfully requests that the Federal... Commission's regulations with respect to the East Texas Crude Logistics crude oil pipeline system. Any...

  17. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. PMID:26586632

  18. Biosorption of Ni(II), Cr(III), and Co(II) from Solutions Using Acalypha hispida Leaf: Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Adesola Babarinde; J. Oyebamiji Babalola; John Adegoke; Osundeko, Adebola O.; Susan Olasehinde; Adetayo Omodehin; Emmanuel Nurhe

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption studies were conducted to study the removal of Ni(II), Cr(III), and Co(II) from aqueous solution of Acalypha hispida leaf. The FTIR spectral characteristics of Acalypha hispida leaf revealed the presence of ioniazable groups that could participate in the binding of metal ions in solution. The kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of the metal ions were investigated using various physicochemical parameters; each parameter was found to affect the biosorp...

  19. Experimental Assessment of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Fruit for Its Antistress, Antioxidant, and Scavenging Potential Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Debabrata Chanda; Anil Kumar Maurya; Ritesh Kumar; Suchita Srivastava; Suaib Luqman

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of ...

  20. Pharmacognostical and Priliminary Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf Extract of Ficus Pumila Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ficus pumila Linn. (Family: Moraceae, commonly known as climbing fig. It is widely used as an ethno medicine in china and India. It is prescribed for a wide variety of ailments like diarrhea, hemorrhoids, treating gastrointestinal, piles, uterine problems and other infections. However, detailed scientific information is not available to identify the plant material and to ascertain its quality and purity. In present communication, morphology anatomical and physico-chemical characters along with phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of powdered crude drug were carried out for systemic identification and authentication of leaves. This study provides referential information for identification and characterization of Ficus pumila leaf and its extracts.

  1. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Vega-Ávila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L. is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight. Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg significantly ( reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, . Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds.

  2. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Cano-Velasco, José Luis; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Fajardo Ortíz, María del Carmen; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg) and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds. PMID:23056144

  3. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  4. Characterization of crude oils by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutelet, F; Ekulu, G; Rogalski, M

    2002-09-01

    It was shown that the flocculation onset of asphaltenes in crude oils could be predicted on the basis of the inverse gas chromatography characterization of the crude oil properties. Hildebrand's solubility parameters of four crude oils were calculated from inverse chromatography data and compared with values obtained from the onset of asphaltene flocculation measurements. A good agreement was observed with three crude oils of different origin. A relation between Hildebrand's solubility parameter and linear solvation energy relationship descriptors was established and it was demonstrated that the solubility parameter of a crude oil is determined mainly with dispersion interactions and the hydrogen bond basicity. A large basicity lowers the oil solubility parameter, and increases its stability in respect to flocculation. PMID:12385392

  5. Larvicidal and Histopathological Effects of Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus Larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannee JIRAUNGKOORSKUL

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata leaf aqueous extract over 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 24 h were determined to contain the highest amount of total phenolic compound and was used to evaluate mosquito larvicidal properties against Culex quinquefasciatus at varies concentrations (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, and 25 ppm by determining the median and 90 % lethal concentration, LC50 and LC90, respectively, within 24 h and by histological analysis. The results revealed that the total phenolic compound measurement in each time extraction were 7.97, 8.68, 7.16, 6.70, and 5.78 mg/g GAE, respectively. The one hour aqueous extract of A. paniculata leaf expressed the 24-h LC50 and LC90 values in C. quinquefasciatus which were 15.93 and 28.23 ppm, respectively. Dose dependent lesions were observed. Under histological analysis, midgut lesions, i.e., separation of the epithelial cells from the basement membrane, elongation protruding into the lumen, disruption of the brush border, and the appearance of several vesicles and cytoplasm masses were observed in this study. The present study reveals that the aqueous extract of this leaf has a suitable property for a larvicidal natural product, and may replace harmful chemical pesticides.

  6. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Anokwuru

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g but not significantly different (p<0.05. Azadirachta indica stem bark extracted more flavonoid content (5.21g QE/100g than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (0.96g QE/100g. Azadirachta indica stem bark inhibited more free radicals (83% than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (65%. This study showed that Azadirachta indica stem bark had higher antioxidant activity compared to Telfairia occidentalis leaf.

  7. Leaf spring assembly for wheel suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, K.; Mishima, Y.; Kuwayama, K.

    1986-09-16

    This patent describes a leaf spring assembly which consists of: a longitudinal leaf spring made of fiber reinforced plastics having a first surface to be applied with a tension force and a second surface to be applied with a compression force, the first surface of the leaf spring being a flat surface, and the second surface of the leaf spring being provided with a protrusion located substantially at the central portion of the leaf spring. The protrusion is made of a number of laminated short fibrous sheet-like materials saturated with synthetic resin, the short fibrous sheet-like materials of the protrusion being laminated independently and separately from reinforcement fibrous sheet-like materials in the leaf spring; a pair of pad members of elastic material attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring; a pair of retainer plates attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring through the pad members, one of the retainer plates being formed with an indented portion coupled with the protrusion of the leaf spring through one of the pad members without any clearance to clamp the leaf spring at its central portion and being further provided with a pair of protruded portions which are arranged adjacent to the indented portion to retain the paid member in place by engagement therewith; and means for clamping the retainer plates to the leaf spring and mounting the same on an axle housing.

  8. 19 CFR 19.22 - Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude metal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude metal produced from imported materials. 19.22 Section 19.22 Customs... § 19.22 Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude...

  9. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. Leaf proteome rebalancing in Nicotiana benthamiana for upstream enrichment of a transiently expressed recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Stéphanie; Goulet, Marie-Claire; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    A key factor influencing the yield of biopharmaceuticals in plants is the ratio of recombinant to host proteins in crude extracts. Postextraction procedures have been devised to enrich recombinant proteins before purification. Here, we assessed the potential of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as a generic trigger of recombinant protein enrichment in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves before harvesting. Previous studies have reported a significant rebalancing of the leaf proteome via the jasmonate signalling pathway, associated with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) depletion and the up-regulation of stress-related proteins. As expected, leaf proteome alterations were observed 7 days post-MeJA treatment, associated with lowered RuBisCO pools and the induction of stress-inducible proteins such as protease inhibitors, thionins and chitinases. Leaf infiltration with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacterial vector 24 h post-MeJA treatment induced a strong accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins after 6 days, along with a near-complete reversal of MeJA-mediated stress protein up-regulation. RuBisCO pools were partly restored upon infiltration, but most of the depletion effect observed in noninfiltrated plants was maintained over six more days, to give crude protein samples with 50% less RuBisCO than untreated tissue. These changes were associated with net levels reaching 425 μg/g leaf tissue for the blood-typing monoclonal antibody C5-1 expressed in MeJA-treated leaves, compared to less than 200 μg/g in untreated leaves. Our data confirm overall the ability of MeJA to trigger RuBisCO depletion and recombinant protein enrichment in N. benthamiana leaves, estimated here for C5-1 at more than 2-fold relative to host proteins. PMID:26286859

  11. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits - V cmax and J max - to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-08-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (J max). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between V cmax and J max and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between V cmax and J max and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of V cmax and J max with leaf N, P, and SLA. V cmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of V cmax to leaf N. J max was strongly related to V cmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm(-2)), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm(-2) nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of J max to V cmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting. PMID:25473475

  12. Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1H-PEO and 13C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  13. Mobility control in a miscible-type crude oil recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.A.; Kunzman, W.J.

    1972-04-25

    Highly saline water is used in an aqueous mobility buffer by incorporating about 0.05 to 10 percent by weight of a water soluble surfactant in at least the front portion of the buffer, giving improved oil recovery. Dow 500 series Pusher, water, and various levels of sodium chloride and Gafen FA-5 (a dialkyl phenoxy poly (ethyleneoxy) ethanol) surfactant were present in the mobility buffer. The previously injected micellar dispersion contained ammonium petroleum sulfonate (molecular weight 420 to 440), about 10,000 ppm salts, water, isopropanol and nonyl phenol. A Berea sandstone core was flooded with 20,000 ppm brine, crude oil from Henry lease (Robinson sand, Crawford County, Illinois), then 20,000 ppm brine to residual oil saturation. The micellar slug, followed by the highly saline (100,000 ppm salt) mobility buffer (with 2.5 percent surfactant), gave recoveries of 87.5 percent of residual oil after waterflooding.

  14. Aquathermolysis of crude oils and natural bitumen: chemistry, catalysts and prospects for industrial implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanyan, B. P.; Petrukhina, N. N.; Kayukova, G. P.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Foss, L. E.; Romanov, G. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of studies of alterations in the elemental and SARA compositions and physicochemical and rheological properties of highly viscous heavy crude oils upon catalytic and non-catalytic aquathermolysis are generalized. The chemistry of transformations of model hydrocarbons and heteroatomic compounds in aqueous media at high temperature, including subcritical and supercritical conditions, is considered. Comparative analysis of methods for activation of oil conversion via aquathermolysis using hydrogen donors, oil-soluble and water-soluble nanodispersed catalysts, ionic hydrogenation processes and various ways for reservoir heating is presented. Problems and prospects of oil-field implementation of catalytic aquathermolysis for upgrading heavy oils and natural bitumen are discussed. The bibliography includes 234 references.

  15. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  16. Simultaneous Determination of 10 Flavonoids in Crude and Wine-Processed Radix scutellariae by UHPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaobing; Cai, Hao; Li, Huaning; Tao, Yi; Huang, Ping; Qian, Xiaocui; Li, Junsong; Cai, Baochang

    2016-03-01

    Radix scutellariae is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatments of inflammation, pyrexia, hepatitis, etc. Flavonoids are its main active compounds. The aim of this study is to develop and validate the ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method for simultaneous determination of 10 flavonoids (baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, oroxylin A, chrysin, scutellarin, oroxylin A-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin and apigenin-7-glucuronide) in crude and wine-processed R. scutellariae. The quantitative determination was conducted by UHPLC. Optimal separation was achieved by gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of 0.01% aqueous formic acid and methanol on a Waters ACQUITY UHPLC BEH C18 column. Detection wavelength was set at 275 nm. Method validation was accomplished with linearity, precision and recovery tests. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.9993). The limit of detection and limit of quantification of these compounds were from 0.08 to 0.24 µg/mL and from 0.23 to 0.76 µg/mL, respectively. The average recoveries of these compounds were from 96.95 to 109.51% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values from 2.14 to 3.26% for crude R. scutellariae, while from 94.73 to 108.38% with RSD values from 1.83 to 3.47% for wine-processed R. scutellariae. The developed method can be applied to the intrinsic quality control of crude and wine-processed R. scutellariae. PMID:26400954

  17. Antibacterial activity of crude extract of Punica granatum pericarp on pathogenic Gram-negative bacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voravuthikunchai, S.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of crude extracts of Punica granatum Linn. pericarp with 3 different solvents against pathogenic Gram-negative bacilli. Ethanolic extracts showed the antibacterial activity against all strains tested including enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 4 strains (E. coli O157: H7, E. coli O26: H11, E. coli O111: NM, E. coli O22, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella boydii and Salmonella london. Inhibition zones ranged from 10.02 to 19.15 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 0.09 to 3.13 mg/ml and 3.13 to 25 mg/ml, respectively. Aqueous extract had low antibacterial activity while crude chloroform extracts had no effect on the growth of these strains. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. granatum pericarp demonstrated high activity with the best MIC and MBC values of 0.02 to 0.78 mg/ml and 0.19 to 6.25 mg/ml, respectively. As ethanolic extract of P. granatum was very effective against these pathogenic bacteria, further investigation on this plant species may provide alternative, but bioactive, medicines for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infection.

  18. The determination of trace elements in crude oil and its heavy fractions by atomic spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duyck, Christiane; Miekeley, Norbert; Porto da Silveira, Carmem L.; Aucelio, Ricardo Q. [Departamento de Quimica da Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Campos, Reinaldo C. [Departamento de Quimica da Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: rccampos@rdc.puc-rio.br; Grinberg, Patricia; Brandao, Geisamanda P. [Departamento de Quimica da Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    A literature review on the determination of trace elements in crude oil and heavy molecular mass fractions (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) by ICP-MS, ICP OES and AAS is presented. Metal occurrences, forms and distributions are examined as well as their implications in terms of reservoir geochemistry, oil refining and environment. The particular analytical challenges for the determination of metals in these complex matrices by spectrochemical techniques are discussed. Sample preparation based on ashing, microwave-assisted digestion and combustion decomposition procedures is noted as robust and long used. However, the introduction of non-aqueous solvents and micro-emulsions into inductively coupled plasmas is cited as a new trend for achieving rapid and accurate analysis. Separation procedures for operationally defined fractions in crude oil are more systematically applied for the observation of metal distributions and their implications. Chemical speciation is of growing interest, achieved by the coupling of high efficiency separation techniques (e.g., HPLC and GC) to ICP-MS instrumentation, which allows the simultaneous determination of multiple organometallic species of geochemical and environmental importance.

  19. The determination of trace elements in crude oil and its heavy fractions by atomic spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review on the determination of trace elements in crude oil and heavy molecular mass fractions (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) by ICP-MS, ICP OES and AAS is presented. Metal occurrences, forms and distributions are examined as well as their implications in terms of reservoir geochemistry, oil refining and environment. The particular analytical challenges for the determination of metals in these complex matrices by spectrochemical techniques are discussed. Sample preparation based on ashing, microwave-assisted digestion and combustion decomposition procedures is noted as robust and long used. However, the introduction of non-aqueous solvents and micro-emulsions into inductively coupled plasmas is cited as a new trend for achieving rapid and accurate analysis. Separation procedures for operationally defined fractions in crude oil are more systematically applied for the observation of metal distributions and their implications. Chemical speciation is of growing interest, achieved by the coupling of high efficiency separation techniques (e.g., HPLC and GC) to ICP-MS instrumentation, which allows the simultaneous determination of multiple organometallic species of geochemical and environmental importance

  20. In vitro evaluation of crude extracts of Catharanthus roseus for potential antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Pankaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle is an important medicinal plant, mentioned in Ayurveda, an ancient Indian Sanskrit literature. The plant is selected to evaluate the possibility for novel pharmaceuticals since most of the bacterial pathogens are developing resistance against currently available antibiotics. Aims: To determine the antibacterial activity of crude extracts from different parts of Catharanthus roseus against several bacterial species of clinical significance. Materials and Methods: Extraction of each plant part in appropriate solvent followed by evaluation of antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion assay against a total of six bacterial stains. Further, minimum inhibitory concentration(s was evaluated for active crude extracts. Results: Data indicated that the pattern of inhibition depends largely upon the extraction procedure, the plant part used for extraction, state of plant part (fresh or dry, solvent used for extraction and the microorganism tested. Dry powder extracts of all plant parts demonstrated more antibacterial activity than extracts prepared from fresh parts. Furthermore, extracts prepared from leaves were shown to have better efficacy than stem, root, and flower extracts. Organic extracts provided more potent antibacterial activity as compared to aqueous extracts. Among all the extracts, the ethanolic extract was found to be most active against almost all the bacterial species tested. Hot water and cold water extracts were completely inactive. Gram-positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: The study promises an interesting future for designing potentially active antibacterial agents from Catharanthus roseus.

  1. Quantitative determination of Sulfur and Chlorine in Crude Oils by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the importance of sulfur and chlorine content in crude petroleum, and that the actual methods used in the country to its determination are slow and cumbersome, the present work consisted in applying a new method, based on X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, to make this analysis as fast as possible with greater sensibility and precision. Samples of crude petroleum were analyzed using two different quantitative methods: a) through calibration curves elaborated with standard aqueous solutions of inorganic salts of S and Cl and b) through standard addition method using CS2 as standard for S and CCl4 for Cl. The measuring system consisted of Fe-55 radioactive source (10 mCi), Si-Li semiconductor detector, spectrum amplifier, multichannel analyzer and a DIGITAL Computer. The peak areas and their deviations were obtained through AXIL software. The values of area and deviation joined to weight of sample and amount of standard added were used to calculate the concentration of the analite and its deviation. In conclusion, calibration curves enable only semiquantitative analysis. However, the standard addition method has advantages over ASTM methods D 129-64 and D 808-63 for sulfur and chlorine respectively. The main advantage is the great speed with which an analysis is made: 20 minutes, while ASTM methods need approximately 16 hours. Likewise it was obtained: sensibility 0.05%; accuracy: maximum 0.02%, minimum 10%; and precision: maximum 2%, minimum 10%. (author)

  2. Phytochemical properties and cytotoxicity evaluation of the aqueous extracts from Rafflesia cantleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoush, Sumaia Mohamed Mohamed; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Adam, Jumaat; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, phytochemical properties and cytotoxic evaluation of aqueous extract of Rafflesia cantleyi bud parts were done. Three bud parts including disk, bract and perigone tube were extracted in water to produce crude aqueous extract. Cytotoxic activity of R. cantleyi bud parts was assessed by conducting 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against normal cells Vero, 3T3 cell lines and mice peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMC. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. The CC50 value against Vero, 3T3 and PBMC cells were equal or more than 125 µg/ml indicating the non-cytotoxic effect of the bud parts extracts. The finding revealed that crude extracts of all the tested bud parts contained potential bioactive compounds which can be used for various biological activities and have no cytotoxicity to selected normal cells.

  3. LeafJ: an ImageJ plugin for semi-automated leaf shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloof, Julin N; Nozue, Kazunari; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Palmer, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    High throughput phenotyping (phenomics) is a powerful tool for linking genes to their functions (see review and recent examples). Leaves are the primary photosynthetic organ, and their size and shape vary developmentally and environmentally within a plant. For these reasons studies on leaf morphology require measurement of multiple parameters from numerous leaves, which is best done by semi-automated phenomics tools. Canopy shade is an important environmental cue that affects plant architecture and life history; the suite of responses is collectively called the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Among SAS responses, shade induced leaf petiole elongation and changes in blade area are particularly useful as indices. To date, leaf shape programs (e.g. SHAPE, LAMINA, LeafAnalyzer, LEAFPROCESSOR) can measure leaf outlines and categorize leaf shapes, but can not output petiole length. Lack of large-scale measurement systems of leaf petioles has inhibited phenomics approaches to SAS research. In this paper, we describe a newly developed ImageJ plugin, called LeafJ, which can rapidly measure petiole length and leaf blade parameters of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. For the occasional leaf that required manual correction of the petiole/leaf blade boundary we used a touch-screen tablet. Further, leaf cell shape and leaf cell numbers are important determinants of leaf size. Separate from LeafJ we also present a protocol for using a touch-screen tablet for measuring cell shape, area, and size. Our leaf trait measurement system is not limited to shade-avoidance research and will accelerate leaf phenotyping of many mutants and screening plants by leaf phenotyping. PMID:23380664

  4. Bioavailability of chemically-dispersed crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B.C. [Environmental Resources Management, Houston, TX (United States); Bonner, J.S.; McDonald, T.J.; Fuller, C.B.; Page, C.A.; Dimitriou-Christidis, P.; Sterling, M.C.; Autenrieth, R.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Oil spills can be treated with surfactant compounds to disperse them. This method enables the hydrophobic compounds to overcome their repulsion for water, enter the water phase and be diluted. Once in the water, the biodegradation fraction of the oil biodegrades over time and the residual fraction is deposited over a large area. One major issue which is not fully understood is whether oil compounds pass through the water phase to free floating cells or directly enter oil-attached microbial cells from the oil particle. In this study, crude oil was placed in a swirling flask with Corpus Christi Bay water and was then chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. The biodegradation was then monitored and assessed. First order rate coefficients were determined based on the disappearance of specific compounds. The rate coefficients for total target PAHs were consistent for all tests. Napthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and their alkylated homologs were among the target compounds. The trend was also observed for total target analytes and for total target saturates. The results indicate that the biodegradation rate coefficient was not dependent on the bulk concentration of oil in the water column. It was concluded that biodegradation rates was controlled by partitioning of the compounds between the two phases, and other factors such as particle size distribution and the capability of the microbial culture, temperature and nutrients. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  5. Bioavailability of chemically-dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spills can be treated with surfactant compounds to disperse them. This method enables the hydrophobic compounds to overcome their repulsion for water, enter the water phase and be diluted. Once in the water, the biodegradation fraction of the oil biodegrades over time and the residual fraction is deposited over a large area. One major issue which is not fully understood is whether oil compounds pass through the water phase to free floating cells or directly enter oil-attached microbial cells from the oil particle. In this study, crude oil was placed in a swirling flask with Corpus Christi Bay water and was then chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. The biodegradation was then monitored and assessed. First order rate coefficients were determined based on the disappearance of specific compounds. The rate coefficients for total target PAHs were consistent for all tests. Napthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and their alkylated homologs were among the target compounds. The trend was also observed for total target analytes and for total target saturates. The results indicate that the biodegradation rate coefficient was not dependent on the bulk concentration of oil in the water column. It was concluded that biodegradation rates was controlled by partitioning of the compounds between the two phases, and other factors such as particle size distribution and the capability of the microbial culture, temperature and nutrients. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  6. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  7. Allergenic evaluation of Malassezia furfur crude extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, R F; Melo, T A; Matsumoto, F E; Pires, M F C; Croce, J; Gambale, W; Paula, C R

    2002-01-01

    Crude extracts of the lipophilic yeast Malassezia furfur were obtained from 2, 6, 10 and 28 day old cultures. The in vitro cultivation periods corresponded, respectively, to the lag phase, middle of the log phase, end of log phase and the decline phase of the growth curve, which was based on viable cell counts obtained with a fluorescent viability test. Biochemical analyses showed that the protein and carbohydrate contents were greater in day 10 extracts. Seventy patients with different allergic manifestations and 30 healthy volunteers were skin prick tested using the extracts. Of these, thirteen (18.57%) patients gave positive responses. SDS PAGE gradient electrophoretic profiles of the preparations indicated that the 28 day extracts contained the greatest number of protein bands with molecular weights ranging mostly between 30 and 94 kDa. Immunoblots incubated with individual patient sera showed that four IgE binding M. furfur allergens of approximately 88, 61, 52 and 39 kDa were present in the 28 day extracts. The components identified could be used for detecting IgE mediated responses to M. furfur among individuals affected with different allergic conditions. PMID:12650593

  8. Crude oil prices: It's not like '86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981, daily crude oil productive capacity exceeded demand by more than 25%, leading to a 4-yr price decline from near $40 per barrel levels, and a sharp drop in 1986 to near $12. But, in 1994, the fundamentals are reversed, worldwide demand is growing, conservation movements are not active, and certain geographic areas, like Asia, are set to tax the system as they modernize. Meanwhile, US and Former Soviet Union production is off, without prospects for near-term turnaround. And there is reason to believe OPEC leaders may not feel compelled to cut their output, when combined small cuts of the magnitude of 5% by the rest of the world's producers could accomplish the same objective of raising oil prices. As with any forecast, only time and hindsight will tell the real story, but 1994 could end up being one of the periodic turning points for what has always been a long-term cyclical industry. This paper summarizes the predictions and causes of predicted price changes

  9. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs

  10. Conversion and degradation of crude oil by Bacillus SP3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the basic characteristics of Bacillus SP3 and evaluate its effect on different crude oils. Strain SP3 is a motile, gram-positive, spore-producing rod that was isolated from a reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. The cells of strain SP3 grew at high temperatures up to 58℃ at the pH range of 5.5-8.5. Strain SP3 grew facultatively and could use different organic substrates, and produce some metabolites such as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl-2-nitrogen benzene and 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bis ester. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that the strain converted and degraded different components and changed the physical and chemical properties of crude oils. Strain SP3 degraded crude oil and the growth of bacteria on crude oil resulted in loss of aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes. The bioconversion of crude oils would lead to an enrichment in lighter hydrocarbons and an overall redistribution of saturate hydrocarbons. The interactions of microorganisms with crude oils are variable, depending on the microbial species and the chemical compositions of crude oils.

  11. Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

  12. Efficiency of crude oil markets: Evidences from informational entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of crude oil as the main energy source for the global economic activity has motivated the discussion about the dynamics and causes of crude oil price changes. An accurate understanding of the issue should provide important guidelines for the design of optimal policies and government budget planning. Using daily data for WTI over the period January 1986–March 2011, we analyze the evolution of the informational complexity and efficiency for the crude oil market through multiscale entropy analysis. The results indicated that the crude oil market is informationally efficient over the scrutinized period except for two periods that correspond to the early 1990s and late 2000s US recessions. Overall, the results showed that deregulation has improved the operation of the market in the sense of making returns less predictable. On the other hand, there is some evidence that the probability of having a severe US economic recession increases as the informational efficiency decreases, which indicates that returns from crude oil markets are less uncertain during economic downturns. - Highlights: ► Entropy concepts are used to characterize crude oil prices. ► An index of market efficiency is introduced. ► Except for periods of economic recession, the crude oil market is informationally efficient.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF STRESSES IN MASTER LEAF OF LEAF SPRING BY FEM AND ITS EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    R. B. Charde; Dr. D. V. Bhope

    2012-01-01

    The main component of leaf spring is master leaf and it is subjected to cyclic loading. There are many causes of master leaf failure. The maximum stress induced in the master leaf is at support. Due to non geometric linearity and large deflection behavior the stress may be occurred at any section over the span of leaf spring. Hence inthis work evaluation of stresses in master leaf over the span is studied using finite element method and strain gauge technique. The stress analysis of half cant...

  14. Effect of Stephania hernandifolia leaf extract on testicular activity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Jana; R.Maiti; D.Ghosh

    2003-01-01

    Aim: The testicular inhibitory effect of the aqueous fraction of methanol extract of Stephania hernandifolia leaf was studied in male Wistar rats. Methods: The supernatent and the precipitate part of aqueous fractions of the methanol extract of the leaf were gavaged separately to rat at a similar dose of 200 mg/mL per 100 g body weight per day for 28 days. After cessation of treatment, various observations were conducted. Results: In both treated groups, there were significant decreases in the relative weights of the sex organs, the testicular key androgenic enzymes activities, the plasma level of testosterone, the number of different germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous epithelial cell cycle and the seminiferous tubular diameter in comparison to the controls. Neither of the parts had somatic, renal and hepatic toxicity. This study suggested that the active molecules present in the aqueous fraction of methanol extract of Stephania hernandifolia leaves might be steroids as indicated by thin layer chromatography using specific staining substance for steroid molecules. Conclusion: In rats, the aqueous fraction of methanol extract of the S. hernandifolia leaves possesses certain testis-inhibitory substances, which may be steroid-like agents. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5:125-129 )

  15. Effect of Oily Effluent on Leaf Characteristics of Insitu Park Plants in Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Alamu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent engine oil is the hydrocarbon product of crude oil and it is unsatisfactory for plant growth due to insufficient reaction of the soil and the microbes because of the displacement of air from spaces between soil particles This research looked at two major trees used as park plants (Azerdirachta indica and Gliricidia sepium in Ogbomoso North environment of Oyo State. Leaf samples were collected from three different mechanic workshops and three different farmlands in the study area. The leaf samples collected were analyzed using the following parameters, Weight of leaf, Stomata quantity, Leaf area, Leaf acidity and Leaf color difference. The result of the analysis for Azerdirachta indica indicated that leaf weight of polluted trees had a higher average weight of 1.84mm2 compared to that of the unpolluted tree 1.75mm2. The leaf stomata (upper surface of polluted trees had a higher average value 38mm-2. Results for leaf acidity indicated that unpolluted trees had a greater value of 0.142ug/g compared to the average acidity value of 1.423ug/g for polluted trees. Measuring the colour difference; Azerdirachta indica (A. Juss on unpolluted site had the highest colour difference of 0.1566ug/gThe result of the analysis for Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. indicated that leaf weight of polluted trees had a higher average weight of 2.81mm2 compared to that of unpolluted trees 1.42mm2. The leaf stomata (upper surface of polluted trees had a higher average value of 58mm-2. Result s for leaf acidity indicated that unpolluted trees had a greater value of 0.142ug/g compared to the average acidity value of 1.423ug/g for polluted trees. Measuring the colour difference; Gliricidia sepium on unpolluted site had the highest colour difference of 0.1566ug/g. The generic composition of these trees may change over time due to the level of pollution recorded it is therefore recommended that the mechanics should build their workshops far away from trees and the general public

  16. Crude-oil foaming problems at the Sullom Voe terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early in the program of commissioning the Ninian stabilization trains at Sullom Voe terminal, problems of severe foaming in the first- and second- stage separators occurred. This resulted in massive carry-over of crude into the gas lines. Injection of the conventional anti-foam compound into the crude alleviated the problem somewhat. At higher gas/oil ratios (GOR's), however, conventional anti-foam agents did not control the foaming adequately. The authors discuss how they investigated the foaming characteristics of the crude and developed, with others, a novel foam inhibitor that effectively prevented foam generation in the separators

  17. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh Anthony I; Aiyegoro Olayinka A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents ...

  18. Evaluation of Antimicrobial properties and nutritional potentials of Moringa oleifera Lam.leaf in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluduro, A. O.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract of Moringa oleifera on certain enteropathogenic and orthopaedics’wounds bacteria and fungi were investigated. Its phytochemical constituents and nutritional potentials were as well assessed. Methodology and results: The antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts were evaluated using paper disc diffusion method. All the leaf extracts showed little inhibitory effect on the enteropathogens, whereas aqueous and methanolic extracts showed appreciable inhibitory effects on the orthopaedic’s wounds bacteria at 30 mg/mL. Ethanolic extract did not show any zone of growth inhibition on the wound bacteria. All the fungal organisms except Aspergillus flavus wereresistant to both aqueous and methanolic extracts of the leaf, meanwhile Ethanolic extract showed appreciable inhibitory effect on Tricophyton mentagrophyte, Pullarium sp, Aspergilus flavus and Penicillium sp. Minimum inhibitory concentration was 20 mg/mL on all the enteropathogens and ranged from 3.75 to 30leaf andcontained appreciable quantity of calcium, magnesium, iron and 45.4 % carbohydrate, 16.2 % protein and 9.68 % fibre. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study showed that Moringa oleifera leaves possess inhibitory properties thus can serve as an alternative therapy for wounds and certain fungal infections and also a good source of nutrient supplements.

  19. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TEPHROSIA HOOKERIANA WIGHT AND ARN LEAF EXPLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirupathy.S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of Tephrosia hookeriana leaf extract was tested against pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas veronii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi, at a dose of 500μg by using disc diffusion method. Various solvents such as methanol, acetone, petroleum ether, and aqueous were used for extracts. The results reveal that, methanol at a dose of 500μg has showed significant activity against. The methanol extract showed that maximum inhibitory activity against Pseudomonas aeruginos (13.67±0.33. The zone of inhibition was measured and compared with standard Kanamycin (10mg. However, in none of the above mentioned extracts the inhibition zone was not more than that found in standard i.e., Kanamycin. This is the first approach in this plant and there are no early reports found

  20. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H3BO3 at temperatures up to 1500C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO3- + 2I- + 3H+, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >104 has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Wild tomato leaf extracts for spider mite and cowpea aphid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Kamminga, Katherine; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, L. hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae), synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). L. hirsutum accession LA 407, having high concentration of MKs, was grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. Four MKs (2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-pentadecanone) were screened for their toxicity to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch and cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) develop a bioassay for testing MKs on spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality and (2) compare the efficacies of wild tomato leaf crude extracts and pure standard materials of MKs against spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality. Our results revealed that spider mites are most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LC50 = 0.08 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) and least sensitive to 2-undecanone (LC50 = 1.5 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) 4 h after treatment. Similarly, 2-tridecanone caused greatest mortality (LC50 = 0.2 μmole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface), whereas 2-undecanone caused the lowest morality (LC50 = 0.48 μmole cm(-2) of treated surface) of cowpea aphid. We concluded that all MKs tested in this investigation are toxic to spider mites and aphids. 2-Tridecanone is more effective in killing mites and aphids compared to other MKs. Toxicity of crude extracts, prepared from the leaves of L. hirsutum accession LA 407, to spider mites and cowpea aphids revealed greater mortality compared to a combined mixture of MKs standard material (used at the same concentration as found on LA 407 leaves). This indicates that in addition to MKs, other unidentified compounds in LA 407 leaf extract also have pesticidal properties. Accordingly, leaf extracts of LA 407 could be explored in crop protection, and they might open a new area of MK formulations and discovery of biorational alternatives for pest control in agricultural fields. PMID

  2. Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Morphogenesis in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Chuan Li; Ding-Ming Kang; Zhang-Liang Chen; Li-Jia Qu

    2007-01-01

    Leaf morphogenesis is strictly controlled not only by intrinsic genetic factors, such as transcriptional factors, but also by environmental cues, such as light, water and pathogens. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of how leaf rnorphogenesis is regulated by genetic programs and environmental cues is far from clear. Numerous series of events demonstrate that plant hormones, mostly small and simple molecules,play crucial roles in plant growth and development, and in responses of plants to environmental cues such as light. With more and more genetics and molecular evidence obtained from the model plant Arabidopsis,several fundamental aspects of leaf rnorphogenesis including the initiation of leaf primordia, the determination of leaf axes, the regulation of cell division and expansion in leaves have been gradually unveiled.Among these phytohormones, auxin is found to be essential in the regulation of leaf morphogenesis.

  3. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Arun*1,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7 with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid composite material in automobile leaf spring application. hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid composite material in automobile leaf spring application.

  4. Antihyperglycaemic and Antihyperproteinaemic Activity of Extracts of Picralima nitida Seed and Tapinanthus bangwensis Leaf on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede M. Adegoke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water extract of Picralima nitida seed and aqueous extract of Tapinanthus bangwensis leaf were investigated for their antidiabetic activities on some biochemical parameters (glucose, protein associated with diabetes in both the serum and tissues of experimental animals using alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits as model. The rabbits were fasted overnight before they were given a single intraperitoneal injection of aqueous alloxan monohydrate (Sigma, USA at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight to make them diabetic. The experimental rabbits (chinchilla were grouped into six and extracts administered orally, once daily for five weeks. Groups 1 and 2 (non-diabetic received only distilled water and coconut water respectively, group 3 (diabetic received 200 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of T. bangwensis leaf, group 4 received 400 mg/kg body weight of coconut water extract of P. nitida seed, groups 5 and 6 (diabetic received only distilled water and coconut water respectively. The results revealed that the extracts independently lowered significantly (pandlt;0.05 the blood glucose and protein levels of the diabetic rabbits. Both extracts significantly (pandlt;0.05 increased the tissue protein. Overall, aqueous extract of T. bangwensis leaf and coconut water extract of P. nitida seed independently possesses insulin-like properties as demonstrated by their antidiabetic actions, hence, may be good herbal extracts in the management of diabetes.

  5. In-vitro evaluation of fungicides, bioagents and aqueous leaf extracts against Alternaria leaf blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available All the six fungicides viz.,Mancozeb (75% WP; Carbendazim (50WP, Copper oxychloride (50WP, Captan (50 WP, Thiram (75 % WP, Chlorothalonil (75 WP evaluated in vitro (@500, 1000 and 1500 ppm were found effective against A. macrospora and caused significant inhibition of test pathogen over untreated control. However, Thiram was found most effective and recorded significantly highest mean mycelial inhibition (90.42%. This was followed by the fungicides, Captan (82.04%, Mancozeb (79.88%, Carbendazim(77.5%, Chlorothalonil (74.52% and copper oxychloride (71.75%. All the five fungal and one bacterial bioagents/ antagonists evaluated in vitro against A. macrospora were found antifungal/ antagonistic against the test pathogen. However, T. viride was found most effective and recorded least linear mycelial growth (32.72 mm with corresponding significantly highest mycelial inhibition (63.64% of the test pathogen. The second and third best bioagents found were T. koningii and P. fluorescens, which recorded linear mycelial growth, respectively of 33.90 mm and 33.95 mm with corresponding mycelial inhibition, respectively of 62.33 and 62.27 per cent. All the six botanicals/plant extracts evaluated in vitro (@5, 10 and 15 % each were found fungistatic/ fungicidal against. A.macrospora. However, significantly least mean radial mycelial growth (56.18mm and significantly highest mean mycelial inhibition (37.47% was recorded with Garlic. The second and third best botanicals found were onion and Tulsi which recorded second and third least mean radial mycelial growth, respectively of 58.52 mm and 62.51 mm with corresponding mean mycelial inhibition of 34.97 and 32.86 per cent, respectively.

  6. 300,000-tonnage Crude Oil Dock Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aproject of Jointly establishing 300,000-tonnage crude oil dock of Tianjin Port has been put into operations, thanks to its outut grid successfully connected with oil pipeline of Sinopec Tanggu reservior.

  7. Relationship between waxy crude viscosities and wax crystal microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 张劲军; 侯磊; 王海峰

    2008-01-01

    It is important and profound to quantitatively study the relation between rheology and microstructure for development of the microstructural mechanism of crude oil rheology and even for the waxy crude oil pipelining.However,due to the high complexity and irregularity of wax crystal morphology,quantitative characterization is hard to achieve.This has hampered further study on the rheology-microstructure relationship.A new approach combined the fractal geometry and the stereology theory is presented for quantifying the intricate wax crystal morphology and structure.Based on the characterization,the effects of microstructures and oil composition on the waxy crude viscosities are analyzed quantitatively.It further validates the previous qualitative research and enriches understanding into the microstructural mechanism of waxy crude oil rheology.

  8. High temperature corrosion control and monitoring for processing acidic crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, C. [Betz/GE Water and Process Technologies, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of processing heavy crudes and bitumen in a reliable and economical way was discussed. Many refiners use a conservative approach regarding the rate at which they use discounted crudes or depend upon capital-intensive upgrades to equipment. New strategies based on data-driven decisions are needed in order to obtain the greatest benefit from heavy feedstock. The feasibility of successfully processing more challenging feed can be estimated more accurately by better understanding the interactions between a particular feed and a particular crude unit. This presentation reviewed newly developed techniques that refiners can use to determine the feeds corrosion potential and the probability for this potential to manifest itself in a given crude unit. tabs., figs.

  9. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry : 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics regarding Canada's crude oil and natural gas industry for 1996 were presented. Data presentation was in tabular form, the topics being exploration and development, synthetic crude oil reserves, crude oil production and movements by source, natural gas production, drilling completions, net cash expenditures of the petroleum industry, and total sales of natural gas by province. Some of the noteworthy highlights for 1996 were: (1) 14,600 new wells were drilled, the highest number ever recorded, (2) capital investment was over $13 billion, (3) 148 companies were involved in mergers and acquisitions, (4) value of marketable production of oil, natural gas and natural gas by-products topped $30 billion, (5) Empress pipelines began operations of the first new major oil pipeline from Western Canada in 45 years, (6) the Hibernia offshore crude oil facility was completed, (7) Sable Island offshore energy projects applications were filed, and (8) the development of the Terra Nova, Whitehorse and Hebron fields was announced. 8 tabs

  10. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    OpenAIRE

    B.Arun*1,; P. Chithambaranathan2

    2014-01-01

    Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7) with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid comp...

  11. Comparative leaf anatomy of Heisteria (Olacaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, P; Kool, R.

    1983-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of all 33 species of Heisteria is described, based on a study of 143 specimens. There is a considerable amount of diversity in stomatal type (anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, laterocytic or paracytic), in occurrence and type of mesophyll sclereids, and of fibre bundles along the leaf margin. Outline and thickness of anticlinal epidermal cell walls, cuticle thickness, crystal complement, and stomatal size also vary, but often below the species level. The leaf anatomical div...

  12. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  13. Degradation of Microbes for the Crude Oil Contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Production and storage-transportation of crude oil can not only give rise to soil pollution but also destroy ecological environment. Degradation of microbes for oily soil was studied with the instnunent, Geofina Hydrocarbon Meter (GHM), by experimental analysis qualitatively and quantitatively in the paper. Analytical result showed that the crude oil could be considerably degraded by eating-oil microbes in oily soil and the number of eating-oil microbes increased while the working hours of oil-well risi...

  14. Cezi Island Crude Pier Put into Operation Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiangge; Liu Haijun; Diao Feng

    2006-01-01

    @@ On Feb. 25th, 2006, the 300,000-ton Cezi Island Pier,a State key construction project was finished. It began to receive crude oil smoothly. Cezi Island was one of the largest crude oil piers in China at present. Its putting into operation will enable the Ningbo - Shanghai - Nanjing pipeline network double its total transmitting capacity to reach 40 million tons a year.

  15. Uncertainty and the convenience yield in crude oil price backwardations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines why firms hold stocks of crude oil, particularly during price backwardations when spot prices exceed prices for forward delivery. Using a stochastic control model, this paper shows that the equilibrium value of inventories contains: the conventional Hotelling principle; the convenience yield from the classical theory of storage; and an option value related to price uncertainty. Our empirical results suggest that a convenience yield and risk premium are important elements of crude oil price backwardations

  16. Electrocoalescence of Field Crude Oil using High voltage Direct Current

    OpenAIRE

    Charles C. Opara; Akuma Oji

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of crude oil from oil wells, entrained water is removed principally by using chemical demulsifiers or heat treatment. There are, however, emulsions of water in oil which have been stabilized by the presence of surface active agents in the crude and agitation during the extraction process which prove difficult tobreakup by conventional methods. High voltage direct current (HVDC) is used in this study to effect the coalescence of water molecules thereby causing separation of th...

  17. Coke formation during thermal cracking of a heavy crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Urán Castaño, Laura Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: A pseudo-mechanism for the production of coke during the thermal cracking of a Colombian heavy crude oil was proposed based on thermal cracking experiments carried out at TGA and at horizontal tube furnace at atmospheric conditions. In-situ combustion (ISC) is a thermal method that improves the recovery of heavy crude oils and involves complex phenomena such as heat and mass transfers, low-temperature oxidation of the liquid phase (LTO), and cracking reactions that yield coke, a car...

  18. Impurities of crude glycerol and their effect on metabolite production

    OpenAIRE

    Samul, Dorota; Leja, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is a valuable raw material for the production of industrially useful metabolites. Among many promising applications for the use of glycerol is its bioconversion to high value-added compounds, such as 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), succinate, ethanol, propionate, and hydrogen, through microbial fermentation. Another method of waste material utilization is the application of crude glycerol in blends with other wastes (e.g., tomato waste hydrolysate). However, crude glycerol, a by-product of...

  19. Strategic and Tactical Crude Oil Supply Chain: Mathematical Programming Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sahebishahemabadi, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil industry very fast became a strategic industry. Then, optimization of the Crude Oil Supply Chain (COSC) models has created new challenges. This fact motivated me to study the COSC mathematical programming models. We start with a systematic literature review to identify promising avenues. Afterwards, we elaborate three concert models to fill identified gaps in the COSC context, which are (i) joint venture formation, (ii) integrated upstream, and (iii) environmentally conscious design.

  20. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  1. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  2. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  3. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  4. Anaerobic Capacities of Leaf Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Kusel, K.; Drake, H L

    1996-01-01

    Leaf litter displayed a capacity to spontaneously form organic acids, alcohols, phenolic compounds, H(inf2), and CO(inf2) when incubated anaerobically at 20(deg)C either as buffered suspensions or in a moistened condition in microcosms. Acetate was the predominant organic product formed regardless of the degree of litter decomposition. Initial rates of acetate formation in litter suspensions and microcosms approximated 2.6 and 0.53 (mu)mol of acetate per g (dry weight) of litter per h, respec...

  5. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  6. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL DEGRADING BACILLUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhavan Sepahi, I. Dejban Golpasha, M. Emami, A. M. Nakhoda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, application of microorganisms for removing crude oil pollution from contaminated sites as bioremediation studies, was considered by scientists because other methods such as surfactant washing and incineration lead to production of more toxic compounds and they are non-economic. Fifteen crude oil degrading bacillus spp. were isolated from contaminated sites. Two isolated showed best growth in liquid media with 1-3% (v/v crude oil and mineral salt medium, then studied for enzymatic activities on tested media. The results showed maximal increase in optical densities and total viable count concomitant with decrease in pH on fifth day of experimental period for bacillus S6. Typical generation time on mineral salt with 1% crude oil is varying between 18-20h, 25-26h respectively for bacillus S6 and S35. Total protein was monitored at determined time intervals as biodegradation indices. Increasing of protein concentration during the incubation period reveals that isolated bacillus can degrade crude oil and increase microbial biomass. These bacillus spp. reduced surface tension from 60 (mN/m to 31 and 38 (mN/m, It means that these bacillus spp. can produce sufficient surfactant and have good potential of emulsification capacity. The results demonstrated that these bacillus spp. can utilize crude oil as a carbon and energy source.

  7. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  8. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana

    2016-03-01

    As the world's oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  9. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  10. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Microbial degradation of resins fractionated from Arabian light crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment samples from the Japanese coasts were screened for microorganisms able to degrade resin components of crude oil. A mixed population that could degrade 35% of 5000 ppm resin in 15 days was obtained. This population also metabolized 50% of saturates and aromatics present in crude oil (5000 ppm) in 7 days. A Pseudomonas sp., isolated from the mixed population, emulsified and degraded 30% of resins. It also degraded saturates and aromatics (30%) present in crude oil (5000 ppm). These results were obtained from Iatroscan analysis. Degradation of crude oil was also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The peaks corresponding to known aliphatic hydrocarbons in crude oil greatly decreased within the first two days of incubation in the cultures of the RY-mixed population and of Pseudomonas strain UN3. Aromatic compounds detected as a broad peak by GC were significantly degraded at day 7 by Pseudomonas strain UN3, and at day 15 by the RY-mixed population. Investigations are ongoing to determine the genetic basis for the ability of these organisms to grow on the resin fractions of crude oil as a sole source of carbon and energy. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  13. Leaf hydraulic conductance in relation to anatomical and functional traits during Populus tremula leaf ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasamaa, Krõõt; Niinemets, Ulo; Sõber, Anu

    2005-11-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) and several characteristics of hydraulic architecture and physiology were measured during the first 10 weeks of leaf ontogeny in Populus tremula L. saplings growing under control, mild water deficit or elevated temperature conditions. During the initial 3 weeks of leaf ontogeny, most measured characteristics rapidly increased. Thereafter, a gradual decrease in K(leaf) was correlated with a decrease in leaf osmotic potential under all conditions, and with increases in leaf dry mass per area and bulk modulus of elasticity under mild water deficit and control conditions. From about Week 3 onward, K(leaf) was 33% lower in trees subjected to mild water deficit and 33% higher in trees held at an elevated temperature relative to control trees. Mild water deficit and elevated temperature treatment had significant and opposite effects on most of the other characteristics measured. The ontogenetic maximum in K(leaf) was correlated positively with the width of xylem conduits in the midrib, but negatively with the overall width of the midrib xylem, number of lateral ribs, leaf dry mass per area and bulk modulus of elasticity. The ontogenetic maximum in K(leaf) was also correlated positively with the proportion of intercellular spaces and leaf osmotic potential, but negatively with leaf thickness, volume of mesophyll cells and epidermis and number of cells per total mesophyll cell volume, the closest relationships being between leaf osmotic potential and number of cells per total mesophyll cell volume. It was concluded that differences in protoplast traits are more important than differences in xylem or parenchymal cell wall traits in determining the variability in K(leaf) among leaves growing under different environmental conditions. PMID:16105808

  14. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  15. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  16. Technology and Development Trends of China's Viscous Crude Surface Production Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Chengwu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Main Technical Characteristics Technique of viscous crude gathering, transportation and treatment approaches the international level (1) Diluent oil-blended gathering and transportation process, an original creation of China, plays an important and guarantee role in increasing viscous crude output,especially in the viscous crude fields with dilute crude resources nearby.

  17. Allelopathy in agroforestry systems: the effects of leaf extracts ofCupressus lusitanica and threeEucalyptus spp. on four Ethiopian crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisanework N.; Michelsen, Anders

    1993-01-01

    The potential allelopathic effect ofCupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis andE. saligna on seed germination, radicle and seedling growth was investigated with four crops:Cicer arietinum (chickpea),Zea mays (maize),Pisum sativum (pea) andEragrostis tef (teff). Aqueous leaf...

  18. Development of leaf area and leaf number of micropropagated potato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Putten, van, M.; Struik, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    Aboveground leaf area and leaf number development of in vitro produced potato plantlets was studied over three growth phases. In vitro plantlets were produced at 17 or 23°C (normalisation phase, 3 weeks), planted in soil at 18/12 or 26/20°C (transplant production phase, 2 weeks), and later transplanted at 18/12 or 26/20°C (tuber production phase, 6 weeks). Boosts in leaf area increase and leaf appearance occurred in the first days after planting to soil. A shock in leaf area increase occurred...

  19. Assessing human exposure and odor detection during showering with crude 4-(methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, Amanda E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2015-12-15

    In 2014, crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) spilled, contaminating the drinking water of 300,000 West Virginians and requiring "do not use" orders to protect human health. When the spill occurred, known crude MCHM physicochemical properties were insufficient to predict human inhalation and ingestion exposures. Objectives are (1) determine Henry's Law Constants (HLCs) for 4-MCHM isomers at 7, 25, 40, and 80°C using gas chromatography; (2) predict air concentrations of 4-MCHM and methyl-4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate (MMCHC) during showering using an established shower model; (3) estimate human ingestion and inhalation exposure to 4-MCHM and MMCHC; and (4) determine if predicted air 4-MCHM exceeded odor threshold concentrations. Dimensionless HLCs of crude cis- and trans-4-MCHM were measured to be 1.42×10(-4)±6% and 3.08×10(-4)±3% at 25°C, respectively, and increase exponentially with temperature as predicted by the van't Hoff equation. Shower air concentrations for cis- and trans-4-MCHM are predicted to be 0.089 and 0.390ppm-v respectively after 10min, exceeding the US EPA's 0.01ppm-v air screening level during initial spill conditions. Human exposure doses were predicted using measured drinking water and predicted shower air concentrations and found to greatly exceed available guidance levels in the days directly following the spill. Odors would be rapidly detected by 50% of individuals at aqueous concentrations below analytical gas chromatographic detection limits. MMCHC, a minor odorous component (0.935%) of crude MCHM, is also highly volatile and therefore is predicted to contribute to inhalation exposures and odors experienced by consumers. PMID:26311585

  20. Toxicity of oil dispersant, crude oil and dispersed crude oil to a marine amphipod and gastropod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulec, I.; Holdway, D.A. [RMIT, Melbourne (Australia). Oil Spill Research Group

    1995-12-31

    The importance of appropriate oil spill remedial action was emphasized during the recent Iron Barron oil spill off of the Tamar river in North Tasmania. One important potential oil spill response is dispersion, but little information exists on the toxicity of dispersants and dispersed oil to Australian marine species. This research was undertaken to assess the acute toxicity of Corexit 9527 (a widely used dispersant), water accommodated fractions of Bass Strait crude oil and dispersed Bass Strait crude oil, to the saltwater amphipod, Allorchestes compressa under semi-static conditions. Acute 96 h LC50`s were determined for each toxicant as well as for the reference toxicants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate. Sublethal bioassays were undertaken for the same 3 toxicants utilizing the marines and snail Polinices conicus as the test species. No-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC) were determined using ANOVA while EC50`s and EC0`s were calculated using regression analysis. Mean acute 96 h LC50 (S.E.) values for A. compressa exposed to SDS and zinc sulfate were 3.6 mg/l (0.28) and 41.6 mg/l (9.01) respectively. EC50 (S.E.) concentrations for P. conicus exposed to SDS and zinc sulfate for 30 minutes were 44.7 mg/l and 246 mg/l respectively using burying behavior as an endpoint. These sublethal EC50`s were reduced to 20.7 mg/l for SDS and 23.5 mg/l for zinc sulfate following 24 hours of exposure.

  1. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  2. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  3. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278...

  6. Leaf Histology--Two Modern Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for examining leaf structure are presented; both methods involve use of "superglue." The first method uses the glue to form a thin, permanent, direct replica of a leaf surface on a microscope slide. The second method uses the glue to examine the three-dimensional structure of spongy mesophyll. (JN)

  7. Modeling crude oil droplet-sediment aggregation in nearshore waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Michael C; Bonner, James S; Page, Cheryl A; Fuller, Christopher B; Ernest, Andrew N S; Autenrieth, Robin L

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a modeling approach that simulates changes in particle size distribution and density due to aggregation by extending the Smoluchowski aggregation kinetic model to particles of different density. Batch flocculation studies were conducted for clay, colloidal silica, crude oil, clay-crude oil, and silica-crude oil systems. A parameter estimation algorithm was used to estimate homogeneous collision efficiencies (alphaHOMO) for single-particle-type systems and heterogeneous collision efficiencies (alphaHET) for two-particle-type systems. Homogeneous collision efficiency values (alphaHOMO) were greater for clay (0.7) and for crude oil (0.3) than for silica (0.01). Thus, clay and crude oil were classified as cohesive particles while silica was classified as noncohesive. Heterogeneous collision efficiencies were similar for oil-clay (0.4) and oil-silica (0.3) systems. Thus, crude oil increases the aggregation of noncohesive particles. Data from the calibrated aggregation model were used to estimate apparent first-order flocculation rates (K') for oil, clay, and silica and apparent second-order flocculation rates (K'') for oil and clay in oil-clay systems and for oil and silica in oil-silica systems. For oil or clay systems, aggregation Damköhler numbers ranged from 0.1 to 1.0, suggesting that droplet coalescence and clay aggregation can occur on the same time scales as oil resurfacing and clay settling, respectively. For mixed oil-clay systems, the relative time scales of clay settling and clay-oil aggregation were also within an order of magnitude. Thus, oil-clay aggregation should be considered when modeling crude oil transport in nearshore waters. PMID:15461172

  8. Convergence and Divergence of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagus, George M.

    This research investigates the possibility that WTI crude oil and Henry Hub natural gas prices share a stable link. Economic theory suggests that the two commodities are linked by both supply and demand given that the commodities can be coproduced and many consumers have the ability to switch between the fuels. In general, it would appear that the two commodities support this theory with natural gas prices tracking crude oil prices fairly well until late 2008. However, since the end of 2008 the two price series have diverged and appear to move independently of each other. Reduced fuel switching capabilities in U.S. industry and electric power generation coupled with increased technology and production from shale formations have potentially changed the driving force behind natural gas prices. However, a severe recession has impacted world economies over the same time period making the cause of the disparity between crude oil and natural gas prices unclear. Therefore, this research analyzed the possible long-term link between the two commodities over two timeframes. Using an error correction model that includes exogenous factors affecting the short-run dynamics of natural gas prices over the period January 1999 through September 2008, I find evidence of a long-run cointegrating relationship between natural gas and crude oil prices. Additionally, crude oil prices are found to be weakly exogenous to the system, suggesting causality runs from crude oil to natural gas prices. Extending this series through February 2012 yields much weaker evidence of a cointegrating relationship and provides evidence for the decoupling crude oil and natural gas prices.

  9. Possible Roles of Strigolactones during Leaf Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yamada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a complicated developmental process that involves degenerative changes and nutrient recycling. The progress of leaf senescence is controlled by various environmental cues and plant hormones, including ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, cytokinins, and strigolactones. The production of strigolactones is induced in response to nitrogen and phosphorous deficiency. Strigolactones also accelerate leaf senescence and regulate shoot branching and root architecture. Leaf senescence is actively promoted in a nutrient-poor soil environment, and nutrients are transported from old leaves to young tissues and seeds. Strigolactones might act as important signals in response to nutrient levels in the rhizosphere. In this review, we discuss the possible roles of strigolactones during leaf senescence.

  10. Characterization of water-in-crude oil emulsions in oil spill response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions occurs when crude oils are spilled into sea. The water-in-crude oil emulsionssignificantly change the properties of the spilled crude oils and in turn influence the choices made relating to oil spill countermeasures. Thewater-in-crude oil emulsions were characterized using various techniques in this study. The environmental scanning electron microscopyobservation of water droplets in the emulsions is also presented. It is a powerful tool in emulsion observations.

  11. Study on Mechanism for Pricing of Chinese Crudes and Recommendations on Improvement of Pricing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jingfang

    2001-01-01

    @@ Crude oil is the most important basic energy in the world nowadays and is closely connected with the development of national economy, consolidation of national defense and the living standard of the people. Changes in crude price can have a decisive impact on a nation's political and economic situation. Hence the government of every country sticks great importance to control over crude oil resources and adjustment of crude price to assure the stabilization of its domestic crude oil market.

  12. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2 mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5α-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500 µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5α-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5 µg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth. PMID:22517595

  13. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  14. CRUDE OIL PRICE FORECASTING WITH TEI@I METHODOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shouyang; YU Lean; K.K.LAI

    2005-01-01

    The difficulty in crude oil price forecasting,due to inherent complexity,has attracted much attention of academic researchers and business practitioners.Various methods have been tried to solve the problem of forecasting crude oil prices.However,all of the existing models of prediction can not meet practical needs.Very recently,Wang and Yu proposed a new methodology for handling complex systems-TEI@I methodology by means of a systematic integration of text mining,econometrics and intelligent techniques.Within the framework of TEI@I methodology,econometrical models are used to model the linear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,main trends) while nonlinear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,error terms) are modelled by using artificial neural network (ANN) models.In addition,the impact of irregular and infrequent future events on crude oil price is explored using web-based text mining (WTM) and rule-based expert systems (RES) techniques.Thus,a fully novel nonlinear integrated forecasting approach with error correction and judgmental adjustment is formulated to improve prediction performance within the framework of the TEI@I methodology.The proposed methodology and the novel forecasting approach are illustrated via an example.

  15. Efficient heavy crude oil dehydration with centrifugal separation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perschke, T. [GEA Westfalia Separator Systems GmbH, Oelde (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Most conventional oil reservoirs are declining and the importance of unconventional heavy crude oil reservoirs is increasing. Unconventional heavy crude oils cannot be handled in the traditional way for dewatering and desalting. The industry mostly employs static dewatering and desalting systems using electrostatic field, chemicals and temperature. These systems have their limitations when it comes to lower API grades. High-speed centrifuges from GEA Westfalia Separator are utilized successfully in the exploration, delivery and treatment of crude oils and oily water applications as they combine efficiency, reliability and environmental conservation in a broad spectrum of highly specialized applications. This paper presented the basic function and fundamental principle behind the separation of particles, or water droplets, in a liquid using Stokes Law. The paper also presented the throughput equation and discussed heavy oil extraction. The solution was then presented. The paper also explained why disk stack centrifuges are used for heavy crude oil dehydration. The process parameters for disc stack centrifuge technology were also reviewed along with future considerations for using disc stack centrifuges for crude oil. It was concluded that the efficiencies of the respective types of equipment are preliminarily determined by the driving g-force in combination with the length of the settling path for the oil droplets. 1 fig.

  16. Enhanced crude oil biodegradation in soil via biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Research on feasible methods for the enhancement of bioremediation in soil contaminated by crude oil is vital in oil-exporting countries such as Kuwait, where crude oil is a major pollutant and the environment is hostile to biodegradation. This study investigated the possibility of enhancing crude oil bioremediation by supplementing soil with cost-effective organic materials derived from two widespread locally grown trees, Conocarpus and Tamarix. Amendments in soils increased the counts of soil microbiota by up to 98% and enhanced their activity by up to 95.5%. The increase in the biodegradation of crude oil (75%) and high levels of alkB expression substantiated the efficiency of the proposed amendment technology for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. The identification of crude-oil-degrading bacteria revealed the dominance of the genus Microbacterium (39.6%), Sphingopyxis soli (19.3%), and Bordetella petrii (19.6%) in unamended, Conocarpus-amended, and Tamarix-amended contaminated soils, respectively. Although soil amendments favored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bacterial diversity, the structures of bacterial communities were not significantly altered. PMID:26854134

  17. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  18. Microcalorimetry studies on the antibacterial effect of crude monkshood polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gui-mei; Liu, Lian; Shao, Wei

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, crude monkshood polysaccharide was isolated from Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata. The effects of crude monkshood polysaccharide on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves of the bacterial growth at various concentrations (c) of crude monkshood polysaccharide were plotted with a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter at 37 °C. The growth rate constant (μ), inhibitory ratio (I), peak-height (P(m)), and peak-time (t(m)) were calculated. From the data, the relationship between μ and c also was established. The growth rate constant μ decreased with the increasing concentrations of crude monkshood polysaccharide. Moreover, P(m) reduced and t(m) increased with increasing concentrations. The experimental results revealed that crude monkshood polysaccharide had inhibitory activity towards S. aureus and E. coli. Results obtained from our study strongly suggest that microcalorimetry is a fast, simple, and more sensitive technology that can be easily performed to study the effect of drugs on bacteria. PMID:21726063

  19. Towards efficient crude oil degradation by a mixed bacterial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, K.S.M.; Thahira-Rahman, J.; Banat, I.M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). School of Biological and Environmental Studies; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. [Bharathiar Univ., Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2002-12-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to assess the optimal conditions for biodegradation of Bombay High (BH) crude oil. Among 130 oil degrading bacterial cultures isolated from oil contaminated soil samples, Micrococcus sp. GS2-22, Corynebacterium sp. GS5-66, Flavobacterium sp. DS5-73, Bacillus sp. DS6-86 and Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129 were selected for the study based on the efficiency of crude oil utilisation. A mixed bacterial consortium prepared using the above strains was also used. Individual bacterial cultures showed less growth and degradation than did the mixed bacterial consortium. At 1% crude oil concentration, the mixed bacterial consortium degraded a maximum of 78% of BH crude oil. This was followed by 66% by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129, 59% by Bacillus sp. DS6-86, 49% by Micrococcus sp. GS2-22, 43% by Corynebacterium sp. GS5-66 and 41% by Flavobacterium sp. DS5-73. The percentage of degradation by the mixed bacterial consortium decreased from 78% to 52% as the concentration of crude oil was increased from 1% to 10%. Temperature of 30{sup o}C and pH 7.5 were found to be optima for maximum biodegradation. (Author)

  20. Repellent properties of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. (Family:Sapindaceae) plant leaf extracts against three important vector mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Govindarajan; R Sivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (C. halicacabum) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods:Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of three mosquito species and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2005; The plant leaf crude extracts of C. halicacabum was applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed area of the fore arm. Only ethanol served as control. Results: In this observation, the plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. The tested plant crude extracts had exerted promising repellent against all the three mosquitoes. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of C. halicacabum was potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus,Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes.