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Sample records for aqueous biphase extraction

  1. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

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    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  2. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

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    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  3. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

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    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  4. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

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    Chaiko, D.J.; Mego, W.A.

    1999-09-07

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  5. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

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    Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL); Mego, William A. (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  6. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

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    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1996-05-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation.

  7. Improving the extraction and purification of immunoglobulin G by the use of ionic liquids as adjuvants in aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana M; Faustino, Vânia F M; Mondal, Dibyendu; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-10-20

    Immunoglobulins G (IgG) could become widespread biopharmaceuticals if cost-efficient processes for their extraction and purification are available. In this work, aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of polyethylene glycols and a buffered salt, and with ionic liquids (ILs) as adjuvants, have been studied as alternative extraction and purification platforms of IgG from a rabbit serum source. Eleven ILs were investigated to provide insights on the chemical features which maximize the IgG partitioning. It is shown that in polymer-salt systems pure IgG preferentially partitions to the polymer-rich phase; yet, the complete extraction was never attained. Remarkably, after the addition of 5wt% of adequate ILs to polymer-salt ABS, the complete extraction of pure IgG in a single-step was accomplished. The best systems and conditions were then applied to the extraction and purification of IgG directly from rabbit serum samples. The complete extraction of IgG in a single-step was maintained while its purity in the polymer-rich phase was enhanced by ca. 37% as compared to the IL-free ABS. The antibody stability was also evaluated revealing that appropriate ILs are able to maintain the IgG stability and can be used as phase-forming components of ABS when envisaging the purification of high-cost biopharmaceuticals.

  8. Enhanced extraction of proteins using cholinium-based ionic liquids as phase-forming components of aqueous biphasic systems.

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    Quental, Maria V; Caban, Magda; Pereira, Matheus M; Stepnowski, Piotr; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2015-09-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) are promising platforms for the extraction and purification of proteins. In this work, a series of alternative and biocompatible ABS composed of cholinium-based ILs and polypropylene glycol were investigated. The respective ternary phase diagrams, tie-lines, tie-line lengths and critical points were determined at 25°C. The extraction performance of these systems for commercial bovine serum albumin (BSA) was then evaluated. The stability of BSA at the IL-rich phase was ascertained by size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Appropriate ILs lead to the complete extraction of BSA for the IL-rich phase, in a single step, while maintaining the protein's native conformation. Furthermore, to evaluate the performance of these systems when applied to real matrices, the extraction of BSA from bovine serum was additionally carried out, revealing that the complete extraction of BSA was maintained and achieved in a single step. The remarkable extraction efficiencies obtained are far superior to those observed with typical polymer-based ABS. Therefore, the proposed ABS may be envisaged as a more effective and biocompatible approach for the separation and purification of other value-added proteins.

  9. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems.

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    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-02-04

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  10. Aqueous biphasic systems involving alkylsulfate-based ionic liquids

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    Deive, Francisco J. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Rodriguez, Ana [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Marrucho, Isabel M., E-mail: imarrucho@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Rebelo, Luis P.N. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as phase promoter in aqueous solutions of ILs. > Remarkable influence of alkyl-chain length on solubility curves of alkylsulfate-based ILs. > Merchuck correlation was used for describing these systems. > {Delta}S{sub hyd} and Hofmeister series were used to discuss the different salting out effects. - Abstract: The specific effects of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, as high charge-density inorganic salts and thus inducers of the formation of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) containing several ethyl-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate ionic liquids, C{sub 2}MIM C{sub n}SO{sub 4} (n = 2, 4, 6, or 8), have been assessed at T = 298.15 K. The results are analyzed in the light of the Hofmeister series. The influence of different alkyl chain lengths in the anion, together with the ability of the selected inorganic salts to induce the formation of ABS, is discussed. Phase diagrams have been determined through turbidimetry, including tie lines assignments from mass phase ratios according to the lever - arm rule. The Merchuck equation was satisfactorily used to correlate the solubility curve.

  11. Biphasic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit aqueous extract on vascular mesenteric beds in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Shahla Sohrabipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Asia, Solanum nigrum fruit is traditionally used to manage, control, and treat diabetes. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the endothelium and nitric oxide roles in Solanum nigrum-induced vasorelaxation in non-diabetic and diabetic rat vessels. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin. Eight weeks later, superior mesenteric arteries of non-diabetic and diabetic groups were isolated and perfused according to the McGregor method. Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNE at concentrations of 0.00001 to 0.6 mg/ml was added to the medium and perfusion pressure was recorded. Results: Baseline perfusion pressure of diabetic group was significantly higher than non-diabetic rats in both intact and denuded endothelium. The low concentrations of SNE have vasodilatory effect in the diabetic and non-diabetic, but high concentrations of SNE produce initial significant contractions, followed by secondary relaxations in normal and diabetic rats. We observed vasorelaxation at low and high concentrations of SNE in both diabetic and non-diabetic groups after endothelium denudation. SNE-induced vasorelaxation in diabetic group is mediated by both endothelium and smooth muscle, but the relaxatory effect of SNE in non-diabetic group is not mediated by endothelium, and SNE has direct action on the smooth muscle. Conclusion: Although the part of SNE-induced relaxation in diabetic vessel was mediated by endothelium, nitric oxide didn′t play any role in this action, and maybe we can use SNE in the management of diabetes vessel complications in future.

  12. Novel biphasic separations utilising highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers as biorecognition solvent extraction agents.

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    Castell, Oliver K; Allender, Christopher J; Barrow, David A

    2006-10-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a class of artificial receptors that promise an environmentally robust alternative to naturally occurring biorecognition elements of biosensing devices and systems. However, in general, the performance of conventional MIPs in aqueous environments is poor. In the study reported here, this limitation has been addressed by the novel application of MIPs as a solvent extraction solid phase in a biphasic solvent system. This paper describes a previously unreported use of MIPs as solvent extraction reagents, their successful application to aqueous sample media and the opportunities for utilisation of this unique system in novel biosensing and separation procedures. This study demonstrates the development of a novel biphasic solvent system utilising MIP in the extracting phase to enhance both efficiency and selectivity of a simple two phase liquid extraction. Monodisperse propranolol imprinted polymer microspheres [p(divinylbenzene-co-methacrylic acid)] were prepared by precipitation polymerisation. Initially, the affinity of the polymers for (R,S)-propranolol was assessed by established techniques whereby the MIP demonstrated greater affinity for the template than did the non-imprinted control polymer (NIP). Importantly, MIP performance was also assessed using the novel dual solvent system. The depletion of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase into the polymer containing organic phase was determined. When compared to control extractions containing no polymer the presence of MIP in the extracting solvent phase resulted in an increased extraction of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase. Importantly, this extraction was significantly greater in the presence of MIP when compared to NIP. This unique principle generates opportunities for MIP based extractions and chemical enrichments in industrial applications, offering commercial, ecological and practical advantages to traditional solvent extraction techniques. The

  13. Impact of pH and temperature on phase diagrams of different aqueous biphasic systems.

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    Chakraborty, Arabinda; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-02-12

    The phase diagrams of aqueous biphasic systems impart a distinct idea regarding the feasibility of biphase formation by different water soluble substances at their optimum concentrations. Depending on nature of the components viz., the water soluble polymers, surfactants, salts, amino acids or ionic liquids, a general trend of the biphase formation with varying temperature, pH and concentration has been studied over the recent years. This critical review is an endeavor to assess the general trends of these phase forming components to form biphasic systems with varying conditions of temperature and pH in light of the reported phase diagrams. Suitable explanations for the mechanisms of such behavior have been sorted out. The avenue yet to be explored has been addressed as these systems have a tremendous potential to be the future platform to solve different analytical issues.

  14. Single-Step Purification of Ovalbumin from Egg White Using Aqueous Biphasic Systems.

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    Pereira, Matheus M; Cruz, Rafaela A P; Almeida, Mafalda R; Lima, Álvaro S; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-06-01

    The ability of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of polyethylene glycols of different molecular weights (PEG 400, 600 and 1000) and buffered aqueous solutions of potassium citrate/citric acid (pH = 5.0 - 8.0) to selectively extract ovalbumin from egg white was here investigated. Phase diagrams, tie-lines and tie-line lengths were determined at 25ºC and the partitioning of ovalbumin in these systems was then evaluated. Aiming at optimizing the selective extraction of ovalbumin in the studied ABS, factors such as pH, PEG molecular weight and amount of the phase-forming components were initially investigated with pure commercial ovalbumin. In almost all ABS, it was observed a preferential partitioning of ovalbumin to the polymer-rich phase, with extraction efficiencies higher than 90%. The best ABS were then applied in the purification of ovalbumin from the real egg white matrix. In order to ascertain on the ovalbumin purity and yield, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) analyses were conducted, confirming that the isolation/purification of ovalbumin from egg white was completely achieved in a single-step with a recovery yield of 65%. The results obtained show that polymer-salt-based ABS allow the selective extraction of ovalbumin from egg white with a simpler approach and better performance than previously reported. Finally, it is shown that ovalbumin can be completely recovered from the PEG-rich phase by an induced precipitation using an inexpensive and sustainable separation platform which can be easily applied on an industrial scale.

  15. Enhanced tunability afforded by aqueous biphasic systems formed by fluorinated ionic liquids and carbohydrates†

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    Boal-Palheiros, Isabel; Pereiro, Ana B.; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    This work unveils the formation of novel aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) formed by perfluoroalkylsulfonate-based ionic liquids (ILs) and a large number of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides and polyols) aiming at establishing more benign alternatives to the salts commonly used. The respective ternary phase diagrams were determined at 298 K. The aptitude of the carbohydrates to induce phase separation closely follows their hydration capability, while the length of the IL cation/anion fluorinated chain also plays a crucial role. Finally, these systems were investigated as liquid–liquid extraction strategies for four food dyes. Single-step extraction efficiencies for the carbohydrate-rich phase up to 94% were obtained. Remarkably and contrarily to the most investigated IL-salt ABS, most dyes preferentially migrate for the most hydrophilic and biocompatible carbohydrate-rich phase – an outstanding advantage when envisaging the products recovery and further use. On the other hand, more hydrophobic dyes preferentially partition to the IL-rich phase, disclosing therefore these novel systems as highly amenable to be tuned by the proper choice of the phase-forming components. PMID:27667966

  16. Liquid / liquid biphasic electrochemistry in ultra-turrax dispersed acetonitrile / aqueous electrolyte systems

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    Watkins, John D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Amemiya, Fumihiro; Atobe, Mahito [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Electronic Chemistry, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2268502 (Japan); Bulman-Page, Philip C. [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Marken, Frank, E-mail: F.Marken@bath.ac.u [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Unstable acetonitrile | aqueous emulsions generated in situ with ultra-turrax agitation are investigated for applications in dual-phase electrochemistry. Three modes of operation for liquid / liquid aqueous-organic electrochemical processes are demonstrated with no intentionally added electrolyte in the organic phase based on (i) the formation of a water-soluble product in the aqueous phase in the presence of the organic phase, (ii) the formation of a product and ion transfer at the liquid / liquid-electrode triple phase boundary, and (iii) the formation of a water-insoluble product in the aqueous phase which then transfers into the organic phase. A three-electrode electrolysis cell with ultra-turrax agitator is employed and characterised for acetonitrile / aqueous 2 M NaCl two phase electrolyte. Three redox systems are employed in order to quantify the electrolysis cell performance. The one-electron reduction of Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} in the aqueous phase is employed to determine the rate of mass transport towards the electrode surface and the effect of the presence of the acetonitrile phase. The one-electron oxidation of n-butylferrocene in acetonitrile is employed to study triple phase boundary processes. Finally, the one-electron reduction of cobalticenium cations in the aqueous phase is employed to demonstrate the product transfer from the electrode surface into the organic phase. Potential applications in biphasic electrosynthesis are discussed.

  17. Ionic liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems as a versatile tool for the recovery of antioxidant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João H; e Silva, Francisca A; Ventura, Sónia P M; Coutinho, João A P; de Souza, Ranyere L; Soares, Cleide M F; Lima, Álvaro S

    2015-01-01

    The comparative evaluation of distinct types of ionic liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-ABS) and more conventional polymer/salt-based ABS to the extraction of two antioxidants, eugenol and propyl gallate, is focused. In a first approach, IL-ABS composed of ILs and potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7/C6H8O7) buffer at pH 7 were applied to the extraction of two antioxidants, enabling the assessment of the impact of IL cation core on the extraction. The second approach uses ABS composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and potassium phosphate (K2HPO4/KH2PO4) buffer at pH 7 with imidazolium-based ILs as adjuvants. Their application to the extraction of the compounds allowed the investigation of the impact of the presence/absence of IL, the PEG molecular weight, and the alkyl side chain length of the imidazolium cation on the partition. It is possible to maximize the extractive performance of both antioxidants up to 100% using both types of IL-ABS. The IL enhances the performance of ABS technology. The data puts in evidence the pivotal role of the appropriate selection of the ABS components and design to develop a successful extractive process, from both environmental and performance points of view.

  18. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp.

  19. (R)-PAC biosynthesis in [BMIM][PF₆]/aqueous biphasic system using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandar, Smita; Suresh, A K; Noronha, Santosh B

    2015-02-01

    (R)-phenylacetylcarbinol or (R)-PAC is a pharmaceutical precursor of (1R, 2S) ephedrine and (1S, 2S) pseudoephedrine. Biotransformation of benzaldehyde and glucose by pyruvate decarboxylase produces (R)-PAC. This biotransformation suffers from toxicity of the substrate, product [(R)-PAC] and by-product (benzyl alcohol). In the present study, ionic liquid/aqueous biphasic system was employed to enhance (R)-PAC production. Fermented broth was the reaction medium in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 was the source of pyruvate decarboxylase. Hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]) was the non-aqueous phase in which toxic compounds reside. Biocompatibility of [BMIM][PF6] and adequate distribution coefficients of benzaldehyde, (R)-PAC and benzyl alcohol were determined. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology were used for the optimization of biotransformation variables in order to maximize (R)-PAC yield and productivity. The results showed higher (R)-PAC yield and productivity of ∼1.5-fold each in the biphasic biotransformation of phase volume ratio 0.05 as compared to the monophasic (conventional) biotransformation. Moreover, the level of major by-product benzyl alcohol was also 3.5-fold lower in biphasic biotransformation. [BMIM][PF6]/aqueous biphasic system is a new approach which could intensify the (R)-PAC production.

  20. Direct transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural via SnCl₄ catalysts in aqueous and biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenju; Ren, Junli; Li, Huiling; Deng, Aojie; Sun, Runcang

    2015-05-01

    Direct catalytic transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural in the aqueous system and the biphasic system were comparatively investigated under mild conditions. Screening of several promising chlorides for conversion of beech xylan in the aqueous system revealed the Lewis acid SnCl4 was the most effective catalyst. Comparing to the single aqueous system, the bio-based 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF)/H2O biphasic system was more conducive to the synthesis of furfural, in which the highest furfural yield of 78.1% was achieved by using SnCl4 as catalysts under the optimized reaction conditions (150°C, 120 min). Additionally, the influences of xylan-type hemicelluloses with different chemical and structural features from beech, corncob and bagasse on the furfural production were studied. It was found that furfural yield to some extent was determined by the xylose content in hemicelluloses and also had relationships with the molecular weight of hemicelluloses and the degree of crystallization.

  1. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  2. Efficient photochemical decomposition of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids by means of an aqueous/liquid CO2 biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hisao; Yamamoto, Ari; Kutsuna, Shuzo

    2005-10-01

    Photochemical decomposition of persistent and bioaccumulative long-chain (C9-C11) perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with persulfate ion (S2O8(2-)) in an aqueous/liquid CO2 biphasic system was examined to develop a technique to neutralize stationary sources of the long-chain PFCAs. The long-chain PFCAs, namely, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), which are used as emulsifying agents and as surface treatment agents in industry, are relatively insoluble in water but are soluble in liquid CO2; therefore, introduction of liquid CO2 to the aqueous photoreaction system reduces the interference of colloidal PFCA particles. When the biphasic system was used to decompose these PFCAs, the extent of reaction was 6.4-51 times as high as that achieved in the absence of CO2. In the biphasic system, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUA (33.5-33.6 micromol) in 25.0 mL of water were 100%, 100%, and 77.1% decomposed, respectively, after 12 h of irradiation with a 200-W xenon-mercury lamp; F- ions were produced as a major product, and short-chain PFCAs, which are less bioaccumulative than the original PFCAs, were minor products. All of the initial S2O8(2-) was transformed to SO42-. The system also efficiently decomposed PFCAs at lower concentrations (e.g., 4.28-16.7 micromol of PFDA in 25.0 mL) and was successfully applied to decompose PFNA in floor wax.

  3. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme concentration

  4. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmann, T. Jane [Laboratoire d’Electrochimie Physique et Analytique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 6, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie [Department of Chemistry, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Ding, Zhifeng, E-mail: zfding@uwo.ca [Department of Chemistry, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Electroanalytical chemistry was employed to assess cesium ion extraction in biphasic systems. • Water|ionic liquid systems are much more efficient than traditional water|organic ones. • The metal ion to ligand stoichiometry and overall complexation constant were determined. • The stoichiometry was confirmed by mass spectrometry. • The ligand CMPO used in TRUEX processes was found to be effective for the FIT. Abstract: A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P66614⁺) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion (TB⁻) was employed within a water|P66614TB (w|P66614TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. ¹³⁷Cs is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is therefore of considerable importance. The extraction was facilitated by the ligand octyl(phenyl)-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) used in TRans-Uranium EXtraction processes and investigated through well established liquid|liquid electrochemistry. This study gave access to the metal ion to ligand (1:n) stoichiometry and overall complexation constant, β, of the interfacial complexation reaction which were determined to be 1:3 and 1.6 × 10¹¹ at the w|P66614TB interface while the study at w|o elicited an n equal to 1 with β equal to 86.5. Through a straightforward relationship, these complexation constant values were converted to distribution coefficients, δα, with the ligand concentrations studied for comparison to other studies present in the literature; the w|o and w|IL systems gave δα of 2 and 8.2 × 10⁷, respectively, indicating a higher overall extraction efficiency for the latter. For the w|o system, the metal ion-ligand stoichiometries were

  5. Aqueous Biphasic Systems for the Synthesis of Formates by Catalytic CO2 Hydrogenation: Integrated Reaction and Catalyst Separation for CO2 -Scrubbing Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Martin; Blas Molinos, Beatriz; Westhues, Christian; Franciò, Giancarlo; Leitner, Walter

    2017-03-22

    Aqueous biphasic systems were investigated for the production of formate-amine adducts by metal-catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation, including typical scrubbing solutions as feedstocks. Different hydrophobic organic solvents and ionic liquids could be employed as the stationary phase for cis-[Ru(dppm)2 Cl2 ] (dppm=bis-diphenylphosphinomethane) as prototypical catalyst without any modification or tagging of the complex. The amines were found to partition between the two phases depending on their structure, whereas the formate-amine adducts were nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous phase, providing a favorable phase behavior for the envisaged integrated reaction/separation sequence. The solvent pair of methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) and water led to the most practical and productive system and repeated use of the catalyst phase was demonstrated. The highest single batch activity with a TOFav of approximately 35 000 h(-1) and an initial TOF of approximately 180 000 h(-1) was achieved in the presence of NEt3 . Owing to higher stability, the highest productivities were obtained with methyl diethanolamine (Aminosol CST 115) and monoethanolamine (MEA), which are used in commercial scale CO2 -scrubbing processes. Saturated aqueous solutions (CO2 overpressure 5-10 bar) of MEA could be converted into the corresponding formate adducts with average turnover frequencies up to 14×10(3)  h(-1) with an overall yield of 70 % based on the amine, corresponding to a total turnover number of 150 000 over eleven recycling experiments. This opens the possibility for integrated approaches to carbon capture and utilization.

  6. Electrochemical assessment of water|ionic liquid biphasic systems towards cesium extraction from nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, T Jane; Zhang, Jing; Montgomery, Anne-Marie; Ding, Zhifeng

    2014-04-22

    A room temperature ionic liquid (IL) composed of a quaternary alkylphosphonium (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium, P66614(+)) and tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion (TB(-)) was employed within a water|P66614TB (w|P66614TB or w|IL) biphasic system to evaluate cesium ion extraction in comparison to that with a traditional water|organic solvent (w|o) combination. (137)Cs is a major contributor to the radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel as it leaves the reactor, and its extraction efficiency is therefore of considerable importance. The extraction was facilitated by the ligand octyl(phenyl)-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) used in TRans-Uranium EXtraction processes and investigated through well established liquid|liquid electrochemistry. This study gave access to the metal ion to ligand (1:n) stoichiometry and overall complexation constant, β, of the interfacial complexation reaction which were determined to be 1:3 and 1.6×10(11) at the w|P66614TB interface while the study at w|o elicited an n equal to 1 with β equal to 86.5. Through a straightforward relationship, these complexation constant values were converted to distribution coefficients, δ(α), with the ligand concentrations studied for comparison to other studies present in the literature; the w|o and w|IL systems gave δ(α) of 2 and 8.2×10(7), respectively, indicating a higher overall extraction efficiency for the latter. For the w|o system, the metal ion-ligand stoichiometries were confirmed through isotopic distribution analysis of mass spectra obtained by the direct injection of an emulsified water-organic solvent mixture into an electron spray ionization mass spectrometer.

  7. The laws governing ionic liquid extraction of cations: partition of 1-ethylpyridinium monocation and paraquat dication in ionic liquid/water biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Takuya; Okai, Miho; Katsuta, Shoichi

    2015-05-21

    To find the laws governing the extraction of cations from aqueous solutions into hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), we investigated the partition of 1-ethylpyridinium monocation and paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) dication in various IL/water biphasic systems. Ten different ILs of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based or bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide-based salts were used. The distribution ratio of the target cations (T(n+)) was dependent on the initial concentration in the aqueous phase and also very sensitive to the kind of IL. The behavior was quantitatively explained on the basis of a model in which the extraction goes through both the ion exchange and ion pair transfer processes, while keeping the product of the aqueous concentrations of the IL constituent ions a constant value (solubility product, Ksp). The distribution ratio of T(n+) is expressed as a function of the difference between the initial and equilibrium concentrations of T(n+) in the aqueous phase (Δ[T(n+)]W), the aqueous solubility of IL (Ksp(1/2)), and the cation valence n. The distribution ratio is a nearly constant value (D0) when Δ[T(n+)]W ≪ Ksp(1/2)/n and decreases inversely proportional to the nth power of Δ[T(n+)]W when Δ[T(n+)]W ≫ Ksp(1/2)/n. The log D0 versus log Ksp(1/2) plot gives a linear relationship with a slope of +n for the ILs with the same anion but different cations and that with a slope of nearly -n for the ILs with the same cation but different anions. This means that the extractability dependence on the kinds of IL constituent ions is greater for the divalent cation than for the monovalent one.

  8. Enzymatic Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The procedure of enzymatic aqueous extraction of soybean oil was assessed when two-step controlled enzymatic hydrolysis was applied. With aqueous extraction of soybean oil-containing protein, the highest yield of oil was 96.1% at the optimized conditions studied. Soybean oil-containing protein was hydrolyzed and resulted in releasing part of oil. The separated protein that contained 40% oil was enriched due to its adsorption capacity of released oil, the average oil extraction yeild reached 93.5%. Then the high oil content protein was hydrolyzed again to release oil by enzyme, the oil extraction yeild was 80.4%. As a result, high quality of soybean oil was obtained and the content of total oil yield was 74.4%.

  9. Alternative (Potentially Green) Separations Media: Aqueous Biphasic and Related Systems Extending the Frontier Final Report For Period September 1, 2002 January 31, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Robin D

    2007-06-25

    Through the current DoE-BES funding, we have extended our fundamental understanding of the critical phase separation of aqueous polymer solutions at the molecular level, and have developed a similar understanding of their application as novel solvent systems. Our principal aims included mode of delivery of the aqueous biphasic system (ABS) solvent system and the application of this system to problems of reactive extraction. In the former case we have developed novel solid phase analogues, in the form of cross-linked polyethylene glycol hydrogels, and in the latter case we have examined the role that ABS might play in reaction engineering, with a view to greener, simpler, and safer processes. We have also developed a new salt/salt ABS and have extended our understanding of this system as well. The major outcomes are as follows: (1) Through the use of variable temperature phase diagrams, coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the phases, a better understanding of the thermodynamics of phase formation was obtained. Evidence to the existence and role of an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or lower critical solution temperature (LCST) (or both) in these systems was gained. With variable temperature solute partitioning, thermodynamic parameters were calculated, and inter-system comparisons were made. Through the use of Abraham's linear solvation energy regression (LSER) the solvent-solute properties of liquid/liquid ABS were examined. We have shown that ABS are indeed very tunable and LSERs have been used as a tool to compare these systems to traditional organic/water and other liquid/liquid systems. (2) We have successfully shown the development of novel reaction media for chemical synthesis and reaction; Aqueous Biphasic Reactive Extraction (ABRE). As a proof of concept, we have shown the synthesis of adipic acid from cyclohexene in an ABS, which represents an important development in the exploitation of this technology

  10. Rh nanoparticles stabilized by PEG-substituted triphenyl-phosphine: A highly active and recyclable catalyst for aqueous biphasic hydrogenation of benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Dong Lu; Yan Hua Wang; Zi Lin Jin

    2010-01-01

    Rh nanoparticles stabilized by PEG-substituted triphenyl-phosphine(PETPP,P[C6H4-p-(OCH2CH2)nOH]3)combining double stabilization effects demonstrated high activity and good recyclability in aqueous biphasic hydrogenation of benzene.The value of turnover frequency(TOF)was 3333 h-1.Furthermore,the rhodium nanoparticle catalyst could be easily recycled for five times without loss in activity.

  11. A critical assessment of the mechanisms governing the formation of aqueous biphasic systems composed of protic ionic liquids and polyethylene glycol†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; McCrary, Parker D.; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Rogers, Robin D.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive study on the formation of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) using aqueous solutions of protic ionic liquids (PILs) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was performed in order to understand the mechanisms underlying the phase separation. Aqueous solutions of PEG polymers with different molecular weights (600, 1000, 2000, and 3400 g mol−1) and several N-alkyl-, dialkyl-, and trialkyl-ammonium salts of acetate, propanoate, butanoate, hexanoate and octanoate were prepared and their ability to form ABS at several temperatures assessed. The ternary liquid–liquid phase diagrams were determined at several temperatures, as well as binary PIL (or salt)-PEG-1000 and salt-water solubility data to better clarify the mechanisms responsible for the phase separation. All data gathered indicate that the formation of PEG–PIL-based ABS is mainly governed by the PIL–PEG mutual interactions, where PILs with a higher solubility in the polymer exhibit a lower aptitude to form ABS displaying thus a smaller biphasic region, for which a direct correlation was identified. The effects of the molecular weight and temperature of the polymer were also addressed. The increase of the PEG hydrophobicity or molecular weight favours the phase separation, whereas the effect of temperature was found to be more complex and dependent on the nature of the PIL, with an increase or decrease of the biphasic regime with an increase in temperature. PMID:27774550

  12. Carbon nanohybrids used as catalysts and emulsifiers for reactions in biphasic aqueous/organic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel E. Resasco

    2014-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes some novel aspects of reactions conducted in aqueous/organic emul-sions stabilized by carbon nanohybrids functionalized with catalytic species. Carbon nanohybrids represent a family of solid catalysts that not only can stabilize water-oil emulsions in the same fash-ion as Pickering emulsions, but also catalyze reactions at the liquid/liquid interface. Several exam-ples are discussed in this mini-review. They include (a) aldol condensation-hydrodeoxygenation tandem reactions catalyzed by basic (MgO) and metal (Pd) catalysts, respectively; (b) Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyzed by carbon-nanotube-supported Ru;and (c) emulsion polymerization of styrene for the production of conductive polymer composites. Conducting these reactions in emul-sion generates important advantages, such as increased liquid/liquid interfacial area that conse-quently means faster mass transfer rates of molecules between the two phases, effective separation of products from the reaction mixture by differences in the water-oil solubility, and significant changes in product selectivity that can be adjusted by modifying the emulsion characteristics.

  13. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of Moringa oleifera oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Michael H; Ezeh, Onyinye; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determined ranges, the use of pH 4.5, moisture/kernel ratio of 8:1 (w/w), and 300stroke/min shaking speed at 40°C for 1h incubation time resulted in highest oil recovery of approximately 70% (goil/g solvent-extracted oil). These optimized parameters also result in a very thin emulsion layer, indicating minute amount of emulsion formed. Zero oil recovery with thick emulsion were observed when the used aqueous phase was re-utilized for another AEE process. The findings suggest that the critical selection of AEE parameters is key to high oil recovery with minimum emulsion formation thereby lowering the load on the de-emulsification step.

  14. Biphasic effects of Morus alba leaves green tea extract on mice in chronic forced swimming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattayasai, Jintana; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Puapairoj, Prapawadee

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of Morus alba leaves green tea (ME) on mouse behaviors (depression, anxiety, climbing activity and thermal response), muscle coordination and muscle strength were studied. Male IRC mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of either the ME, desipramine or diazepam. Thirty minutes after injection, the mice were tested in all experimental models. A significant antidepressant-like effect could be detected in the animals receiving either 100 or 200 mg/kg ME. The effect of 200 mg/kg ME in decreasing the immobility time was comparable to 10 mg/kg desipramine. With higher dose (1000 mg/kg), a significant increase in immobility time could be observed. In the elevated plus maze, no increase in time in the open arm could be observed in mice treated with ME at either 100 or 200 mg/kg. However, high doses of ME (500 or 1000 mg/kg) decreased both time in the open arm and the number of entries in the maze. No change in thermal response could be seen in mice treated with ME at doses up to 500 mg/kg, however, at 1000 mg/kg, the response time to heat was increased significantly. The ME at either 500 or 1000 mg/kg also decreased muscle coordination, strength and climbing activity significantly when compared with the control. This study suggests that ME possesses an antidepressant- without an anxiolytic-like effect, however, at high doses, the extract might show the sedative effect and alter other functions such as muscle strength, animal activity in the maze and pain response.

  15. Biphasic Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. Extract on NSAID-Induced Ulcer: An Antioxidative Trail Weaved with Immunomodulatory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ananya; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K

    2011-01-01

    Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.), apart from its food value, can be used as a gastroprotective agent in non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy. It has been suggested that the antioxidative property of amla is the key to its therapeutic effect. Hence, on the basis of in vitro antioxidative potential, the ethanolic extract of amla (eAE) was selected for in vivo study in NSAID-induced ulcer. Intriguingly, eAE showed biphasic activity in ulcerated mice, with healing effect observed at 60 mg/kg and an adverse effect at 120 mg/kg.The dose-dependent study revealed that switching from anti-oxidant to pro-oxidant shift and immunomodulatory property could be the major cause for its biphasic effect, as evident from the total antioxidant status, thiol concentration, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content followed by mucin content, PGE(2) synthesis and cytokine status. Further, Buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO) pretreatment established the potential impact of antioxidative property in the healing action of eAE. However, eAE efficiently reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) levels and appreciably upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) concentration. In conclusion, gastric ulcer healing induced by eAE was driven in a dose-specific manner through the harmonization of the antioxidative property and modulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine level.

  16. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  17. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil.

  18. Endothelial cell cytotoxicity of cotton bracts tannin and aqueous cotton bracts extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.M.; Hanson, M.N.; Rohrbach, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    Using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay based on the release of /sup 51/Cr from cultured porcine thoracic aortic and pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, we have demonstrated that cotton bracts tannin is a potent endothelial cell cytotoxin. It produces dose-dependent lethal injury to both types of endothelial cells with the aortic cells, being somewhat more sensitive to tannin-mediated injury than the pulmonary arterial cells. Cytotoxic injury to the cells was biphasic. During the first 3 hr of exposure to tannin, no lethal injury was detected. However, during this period, profound changes in morphology were observed suggesting sublethal injury to the cells preceded the ultimate toxic damage. Comparison of the cytotoxicity dose curves for aqueous bracts extracts with those for tannin demonstrated that tannin was major cytotoxin present in bracts.

  19. Diffusion-regulated phase-transfer catalysis for atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate in an aqueous/organic biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingqiang; Jiang, Xiaowu; Peng, Jinying; Zhang, Lifen; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhu, Xiulin

    2015-03-01

    A concept based on diffusion-regulated phase-transfer catalysis (DRPTC) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system with copper-mediated initiators for continuous activator regeneration is successfully developed for atom transfer radical polymerization (ICAR ATRP) (termed DRPTC-based ICAR ATRP here), using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as a model monomer, ethyl α-bromophenylacetate (EBrPA) as an initiator, and tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPMA) as a ligand. In this system, the monomer and initiating species in toluene (organic phase) and the catalyst complexes in water (aqueous phase) are simply mixed under stirring at room temperature. The trace catalyst complexes transfer into the organic phase via diffusion to trigger ICAR ATRP of MMA with ppm level catalyst content once the system is heated to the polymerization temperature (75 °C). It is found that well-defined PMMA with controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions can be obtained easily. Furthermore, the polymerization can be conducted in the presence of limited amounts of air without using tedious degassed procedures. After cooling to room temperature, the upper organic phase is decanted and the lower aqueous phase is reused for another 10 recycling turnovers with ultra low loss of catalyst and ligand loading. At the same time, all the recycled catalyst complexes retain nearly perfect catalytic activity and controllability, indicating a facile and economical strategy for catalyst removal and recycling.

  20. Liquid-Phase Synthesis of Ba2V2O7 Phosphor Powders and Films Using Immiscible Biphasic Organic-Aqueous Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mami; Hagiwara, Manabu; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2016-08-15

    A liquid-phase synthesis of inorganic phosphor materials at a moderate temperature was proposed by using immiscible liquid-liquid biphasic systems. A self-activated Ba2V2O7 phosphor was actually synthesized from vanadium alkoxide dissolved in an organic solution and barium acetate in an aqueous solution. A mild hydrolysis reaction of the alkoxide started at the organic-inorganic interface, and an intermediate compound, Ba(VO3)2·H2O, was initially formed. Ba2V2O7 powders were then obtained by the conversion from Ba(VO3)2·H2O promoted in the aqueous solution. Ba2V2O7 films were obtained on surface-modified silica glass substrates through the similar chemical reactions. Factors such as the surface state of substrates, the kind of organic solvents, and the volume of aqueous solutions were examined to improve the film deposition behavior. The resultant Ba2V2O7 materials showed broad-band visible photoluminescence upon irradiation with ultraviolet light based on the charge transfer transition in the VO4(3-) units existing as dimers.

  1. [Extraction of alpha-cypermethrin from aqueous methanol solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shormanov, V K; Chigareva, E N; Belousova, O V

    2010-01-01

    Alpha cypermethrin was extracted from aqueous methanol solutions using hydrophobic organic solvents. The efficiency of extraction was shown to depend on the chemical nature of the solvent, the water to methanol ratio, and saturation of the aqueous methanol layer with an electrolyte. Optimal extraction of alpha-cypermethrin was achieved using toluene as the solvent under desalinization conditions. The extraction factor for the removal of the sought amount of alpha-cypermethrin from the water-methanol solution (4:1) using various solvents was calculated.

  2. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Vega-Ávila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L. is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight. Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg significantly ( reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, . Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds.

  3. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Cano-Velasco, José Luis; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Fajardo Ortíz, María del Carmen; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg) and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds. PMID:23056144

  4. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  5. STUDIES ON METHOD FOR AQUEOUS EXTRACTION OF SOYBEAN OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊青

    2001-01-01

    Water extraction of soybean oil was studied to find the optimal conditions for recovery of oil pre-enriched protein and for aqueous extraction of soybean oil. Orthogonal tests were employed in the procedures of oil pre-enrichment and aqueous extraction. Soybeans were crushed to pass a 40 mesh sieve, soaked under the optimum conditions (solid/water=1/5(w/v), 40 ℃, pH 10, 3 h) and water-ground to 100 mesh, stirred in 65 ℃ water for 20 min, and centrifuged at 1400 g to separate oil pre-enriched protein. The protein yield was 17.8 g from 100 g soybeans, which contained 62.8% oil. The oil yield was 69.0%. Optimum conditions for the aqueous extraction procedure were: solid-to-water ratio 1∶2, pH 9.0, time 30 min, stirring in boiling water bath, stationary time 10 min, centrifuge at 3600 g for 10 min. Experimental values showed that the oil yield after aqueous extraction from oil pre-enriched protein reached 88.3%, so the total oil extraction rate was 60.8%.

  6. Reactive Extraction of Alcohols from Apolar Hydrocarbons with Aqueous Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous solutions are evaluated as sustainable reactive extraction solvents for the recovery of monohydroxyl alcohols (benzyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, cyclohexanol) present in few-percent concentrations in apolar hydrocarbons (toluene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane) by considering two approaches. An aqueous solution containing a reactive extractant, like borate salts, borate complexes, a monosalt of dicarboxylic acid,hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins, and silver nitrate, shows limited potential to be used. Another approach, in which the alcohol is chemically modified prior to the extraction into an easy-extractable form, in this case a monoesterlcarboxylic acid, shows much more potential. An environmentally benign aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate can provide a distribution ratio of benzyl alcohol up to 200, leaving the solubility of the organic solvent in the aqueous solution unchanged relative to pure water and therefore increasing the selectivity with two orders of magnitude. The modification of aromatic, cyclo-aliphatic, and linear aliphatic alcohols can be performed efficiently in the apolar organic solvent without need for a catalyst. The recovery of the modified alcohol can be performed by back-extraction in combination with a spontaneous hydrolysis.

  7. EXTRACTION AND SORPTION BENZOIC ACID FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF POLYMERS BASED ON N-VINYLAMIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Savvina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of aromatic acids (benzoic acid, salicylic as preservatives necessitates their qualitative and quantitative determination in food. Effective and common way to separation and concentration of aromatic acids liquid extraction. Biphasic system of water-soluble polymers based on (poly-N-vinyl pyrrolidone, and poly-N-vinylcaprolactam satisfy the requirements of the extraction system. When sorption concentration improved definition of the metrological characteristics, comply with the requirements for sensitivity and selectivity definition appears possible, use of inexpensive and readily available analytical equipment. When studying the adsorption of benzoic acid used as a sorbent crosslinked polymer based on N-vinyl pyrrolidone, obtained by radical polymerisation of a functional monomer and crosslinker. In the extraction of benzoic acid to maximize the allocation of water and the organic phase of the polymer used salt solutions with concentrations close to saturation. Regardless of the nature of the anion salt is used as salting-out agent, aromatic acids sorption increases with the size of the cations. In the experiment the maximum recovery rate (80% benzoic acid obtained in the PVP (0.2 weight%. Ammonium sulphate. The dependence stepepni benzoic acid extraction from time sorption sorbent mass and the pH of the aqueous phase. To establish equilibrium in the system, for 20 minutes. The dependence of the degree of extraction of the acid pH indicates that the acid is extracted into the molecular form. The maximum adsorption is reached at pH 3,5, with its efficiency decreases symbatically reduce the amount of undissociated acid molecules in solution.

  8. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sisal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jener David G; Espeleta, Alexandre F; Branco, Alexsandro; de Assis, Sandra A

    2013-02-15

    In this work, sisal waste was used as a source of pectin. Sisal is known worldwide as a source of hard fibres, and Brazil is the largest producer of sisal, producing more than 246,000 tonnes. However, the process of removing the fibres of the sisal leaf generates 95% waste. This study investigated the effect of the liquid/solid ratio (%), time (min), and temperature (°C) on the yield of the pectin obtained from sisal waste by attractive environmentally friendly process. A statistical Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the important effects and interactions of these independent variables on the yield of pectin, the dependent variable. Significant models were obtained. The yield of the extracted pectin ranged from 4.61 to 19.2%. The conditions that produced the highest yield (19.2%) were a temperature of 85 °C, extraction time of 60 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 2%.

  9. Reactive Extraction of Alcohols from Apolar Hydrocarbons with Aqueous Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmanovic, Boris; Kuipers, Norbert J.M.; Haan, de André B.; Kwant, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous solutions are evaluated as sustainable reactive extraction solvents for the recovery of monohydroxyl alcohols (benzyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, cyclohexanol) present in few-percent concentrations in apolar hydrocarbons (toluene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane) by considering two approaches. An aque

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  11. Aqueous biphasic cancer cell migration assay enables robust, high-throughput screening of anti-cancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmo, Stephanie; Nasrollahi, Samila; Tavana, Hossein

    2014-03-01

    Migration of tumor cells is a fundamental event implicated in metastatic progression of cancer. Therapeutic compounds with the ability to inhibit the motility of cancer cells are critical for preventing cancer metastasis. Achieving this goal requires new technologies that enable high-throughput drug screening against migration of cancer cells and expedite drug discovery. We report an easy-to-implement, robotically operated, cell migration microtechnology with the capability of simultaneous screening of multiple compounds. The technology utilizes a fully biocompatible polymeric aqueous two-phase system to pattern a monolayer of cells containing a cell-excluded gap that serves as the migration niche. We adapted this technology to a standard 96-well plate format and parametrically optimized it to generate highly consistent migration niches. The analysis of migration is done automatically using computerized schemes. We use statistical metrics and show the robustness of this assay for drug screening and its sensitivity to identify effects of different drug compounds on migration of cancer cells. This technology can be employed in core centers, research laboratories, and pharmaceutical industries to evaluate the efficacy of compounds against migration of various types of metastatic cancer cells prior to expensive animal tests and thus, streamline anti-migratory drug screening.

  12. Efficacy of an aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract against herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, P; Schneider, S; Stintzing, F C; Carle, R; Reichling, J

    2008-12-01

    The compounds of an aqueous root extract of the African medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides were analysed by LC-MS spectroscopy and the antiviral effect of this extract against herpes simplex virus was examined in cell culture. Besides predominant coumarins, simple phenolic structures as well as flavonoid and catechin derivatives were identified as major constituents in the Pelargonium extract. The inhibitory activity of this extract against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay and exhibited high antiviral activity against both herpesviruses in viral suspension tests. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.00006% and 0.000005% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the extract, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 99.9% for HSV-1 and HSV-2 and a clear concentration-dependent antiviral activity against HSV could be demonstrated for this extract. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, the extract was added at different times to the cells or viruses during the infection cycle. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when pretreated with the plant extract or when the extract was added during the adsorption phase, whereas acyclovir demonstrated antiviral activity only intracellularly during replication of HSV. These results indicate that P. sidoides extract affected the virus before penetration into the host cell and reveals a different mode of action when compared to the classical drug acyclovir. Hence this extract is capable of exerting an antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus and might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as antiviral drug both in labial and genital herpes infection.

  13. Immunosuppressive activity of an aqueous Viola tricolor herbal extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Barbara; Huber, Roman; Gruber, Christian W.; Gründemann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Heartsease (Viola tricolor L.), a member of the Violaceae family, has a long history as a medicinal plant and has been documented in the Pharmacopoeia of Europe. Due to its anti-inflammatory properties it is regarded as a traditional remedy against skin diseases, for example for the treatment of scabs, itching, ulcers, eczema or psoriasis, and it is also used in the treatment of inflammation of the lungs and chest such as bronchitis or asthma. Because T-cells play an important role in the pathological process of inflammatory diseases we investigated the effect of an aqueous Viola extract on lymphocyte functions and explored the ‘active’ principle of the extract using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Material and Methods An aqueous Viola extract was prepared by C18 solid-phase extraction. Effects on proliferation of activated lymphocytes (using the cell membrane permeable fluorescein dye CFSE), apoptosis and necrosis (using annexin V and propidium iodide staining), interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression (using fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies) and IL-2 cytokine secretion (using an ELISA-based bead array system) were measured by flow cytometry. Influence on lymphocyte polyfunctionality was characterized by Viola extract-induced production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, as well as its influence on lymphocyte degranulation activity. Fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract were performed by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry. Results The aqueous Viola extract inhibited proliferation of activated lymphocytes by reducing IL-2 cytokine secretion without affecting IL-2 receptor expression. Similarly, effector functions were affected as indicated by the reduction of IFN-γ and TNF-α production; degranulation capacity of activated lymphocytes remained unaffected. Bioassay-guided fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract led to identification of circular plant peptides, so called cyclotides, as bioactive components

  14. Antioxidant status of dog aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction

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    Barros P.S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 µM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.

  15. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A. Taher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders.In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract did not exhibit anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw oedema.These findings indicate that Mentha piperita has a potential analgesic effect that may possibly have mediated centrally and peripherally, as well as providing a pharmacological evidence for its traditional use as a pain reliever.

  16. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  17. Properties of vermicompost aqueous extracts prepared under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Ales; Boucek, Jiri; Svehla, Pavel; Dreslova, Marketa; Tlustos, Pavel

    2016-09-23

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence of aeration and time of extraction on the agrochemical properties of aqueous extracts from vermicomposts made from horse manure (M) and apple pomace (P) waste. There were two extract treatments: stirring without aeration (S), and stirring with aeration (A) for 48 h. Aeration significantly increased the levels of electrical conductivity (EC) and the concentration of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and macro-elements in the extracts. In the (A) treatment, the extraction efficiency of K and Mg increased twofold, and the extraction efficiency of Ca and P increased by one-third compared with the (S) treatment. Simultaneously, the extracts prepared under aeration were characteristic with a higher pH value compared with non-aerated variants. The EC and content of macro-elements in the extracts increased proportionally with time. Their highest growth was found within the first 6 h. After 48 h, the highest release of macro-elements into the extract was found in the case of the horse manure under stirring with aeration.

  18. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Lukman Adewale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute and of repeated doses (sub-acute administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity.

  19. Aqueous extract of neem leaves in treatment of Psoriasis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A double blind clinical drug trial was conducted to see the efficacy of an indigenous drug made up of aqueous extract of Neem leaves in 50 cases of uncomplicated psoriasis taking conventional coal tar regime. Patients taking drug in addition to coal tar had shown a quicker and better response in comparison to placebo group. No any untoward effect was noticed during the period of trial. Probable mode of action is discussed.

  20. Phenolic compounds from the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Cui Li; Li Xin Yang; Hong Qing Wang; Ruo Yun Chen

    2011-01-01

    From the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu, two new phenolic compounds (3R,4R)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-hydroxycy-clohexanone (1) and (4R)-5-(l-(3,4-dihydrophenyl)-3-oxoburyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (2) were obtained. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Free-radical scavenging activities of them were evaluated.

  1. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Properties of Anacardium humile Aqueous Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio A. Urzêda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antihyperglycemic effects of several plant extracts and herbal formulations which are used as antidiabetic formulations have been described and confirmed to date. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Anacardium humile. Although the treatment of diabetic animals with A. humile did not alter body weight significantly, a reduction of the other evaluated parameters was observed. Animals treated with A. humile did not show variation of insulin levels, possibly triggered by a mechanism of blood glucose reduction. Levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase decreased in treated animals, suggesting a protective effect on liver. Levels of cholesterol were also reduced, indicating the efficacy of the extract in reestablishing the balance of nutrients. Moreover, a kidney protection may have been achieved due to the partial reestablishment of blood glucose homeostasis, while no nephrotoxicity could be detected for A. humile. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of A. humile extracts in the treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, A. humile aqueous extract, popularly known and used by diabetic patients, induced an improvement in the biochemical parameters evaluated during and following treatment of diabetic rats. Thus, a better characterization of the medicinal potential of this plant will be able to provide a better understanding of its mechanisms of action in these pathological processes.

  2. Antioxidative and antiplatelet effects of aqueous inflorescence Piper betle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Daniel; Chan, Chiu-Po; Wang, Ying-Jan; Wang, Tong-Mei; Lin, Bor-Ru; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2003-03-26

    Piper betle, belonging to the Piperaceae family, is a tropical plant, and its leaf and inflorescence are popularly consumed by betel quid (BQ) chewers in Taiwan and many other South and Southeast Asian countries. However, little is known about the biochemical properties of inflorescence Piper betle (IPB) toward reactive oxygen species (ROS) and platelet functions. In the present work, aqueous IPB extract was shown to be a scavenger of H(2)O(2), superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of about 80, 28, and 73 microg/mL, respectively. IPB extract also prevented the hydroxyl radical induced PUC18 plasmid DNA breaks at concentrations higher than 40 microg/mL. Since ROS are crucial for platelet aggregation, we further found that IPB extract also inhibited the arachidonic acid (AA) induced and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with an IC(50) of 207 and 335 microg/mL, respectively. IPB extract also inhibited the AA-, collagen- (>100 microg/mL of IPB), and thrombin (>250 microg/mL of IPB)-induced thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) production by more than 90%. However, IPB extract showed little effect on thrombin-induced aggregation. These results indicated that aqueous components of IPB are potential ROS scavengers and may prevent the platelet aggregation possibly via scavenging ROS or inhibition of TXB(2) production.

  3. Asymmetric Reduction of3,5-Bistrifluoromethyl Acetophenone with NADH Regeneration by Immobilized Cells of Saccharomyces rhodotorula in Aqueous-Organic Solvent Biphasic System%Asymmetric Reduction of 3,5-Bistrifluoromethyl Acetophenone with NADH Regeneration by Immobilized Cells of Saccharomyces rhodotorula in Aqueous-Organic Solvent Biphasic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGFang; XUEYing; LILi; WANG Min

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric reduction of 3,5-bistrifluoromethyl acetophenone to produce (S)-3,5-bistrifluoromethylphenyl ethanol was successfully carried out with sodium alginate immobilized Saccharomyces rhodotorula cells in an aqueous-organic solvent biphasic system.The possible influential factors were examined thoroughly according to their effects on conversion rate and e.e of the product.Organic solvents were rated by their biocompatibility and conversion potential.The immobilized cells [125 mg/mL in 20 mmol/L Tris-HCl buffer and 5%(φ) octane at pH 8] showed the best conversion with a substrate concentration of 1.42 g/L at 30C with glucose as co-substrate for cofactor regeneration.Sequential 8-batch process was carried out with immobilized cells with a slow decrease in conversion and e.e.The immobilized cells showed stable catalytic activity with 50% reserved activity and are superior especially in reusability in comparison with resting cells.

  4. Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of lipid from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kehong; Zhang, Qinghua; Cong, Wei

    2012-11-28

    An improved lipid extraction process has been established for microalgal using enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP), which mainly involved in sonication and enzyme treatment. As compared to cellulase, neutral protease and alkaline protease, significantly higher lipid recovery was achieved by snailase and trypsin. The highest lipid recovery of 49.82% was obtained by a combined sonication-enzyme treatment at pH 4. The enhancement mechanism of the EAEP was analyzed in terms of the particle size of cream and zeta potential. In addition, microalgal lipid recovery was also affected by lipid class composition and the type of algae. The present study demonstrates a promising alternative to conventional lipid extraction of microalgae and the quantitative information on EAEP of oleaginous alga can provide valuable data for process design at pilot and industrial scale.

  5. Aqueous extracts of microalgae exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanaa MM Shanab; Soha SM Mostafa; Emad A Shalaby; Ghada I Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of aqueous extracts of nine microalgal species. Methods: Variable percentages of major secondary metabolites (total phenolic content, terpenoids and alkaloids) as well as phycobiliprotein pigments (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) in the aqueous algal extracts were recorded. Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2'-azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.+) radical cation assay. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell (EACC) and Human hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2). Results: Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using DPPH test and ABTS.+ radical cation assays which revealed 30.1-72.4% and 32.0-75.9% respectively. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cell (EACC) and Human Hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2) with an activity ranged 87.25% and 89.4% respectively. Culturing the promising cyanobacteria species; Nostocmuscorum and Oscillatoria sp. under nitrogen stress conditions (increasing and decreasing nitrate content of the normal BG11 medium, 1.5 g/L), increased nitrate concentration (3, 6 and 9 g/L) led to a remarkable increase in phycobilin pigments followed by an increase in both antioxidant and anticancer activities in both cyanobacterial species. While the decreased nitrate concentration (0.75, 0.37 and 0.0 g/L) induced an obvious decrease in phycobilin pigments with complete absence of allophycocyanin in case of Oscillatoria sp. Conclusions: Nitrogen starvation (0.00 g/L nitrate) induced an increase and comparable antioxidant and anticancer activities to those cultured in the highest nitrate content.

  6. Non-aqueous heavy oil extraction from oil sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George [National Nuclear Security Administration (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Kansas City plant operated by Honeywell has a long history of working with DOE NNSA on engineering and manufacturing services supporting national security requirements. The plant has developed a non-aqueous method for heavy oil extraction from oil sands. This method is environmentally friendly as it does not use any external body of water, which would normally be contaminated in the conventional method. It is a 2 phase process consisting of terpene, limonene or alpha pinene, and carbon dioxide. The CO2 and terpene phases are both closed loop systems which minimizes material loss. The limonene and alpha pinene are both naturally derived solvents that come from citrus sources or pine trees respectively. Carbon dioxide is an excellent co-solvent with terpene. There is also a possibility for heat loss recovery during the distillation phase. This process produces clean dry sand. Laboratory tests have concluded that this using non-aqueous liquids process works effectively.

  7. Anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety or depressed mood is associated with low levels of serotonin in the brain. A hydroxycitric acid (HCA, constituent of Garcinia indica (GIA, increases serotonin release from isolated rat brain cortex. Aim: To evaluate the anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of dried fruits of GIA in mice. Materials and Methods: The anxiolytic-like effects of aqueous extract of dried fruits of GIA were evaluated by using elevated plus maze (EPM, hole board and light/dark exploration models in Swiss albino mice. Control mice were treated with an equal volume of saline, and positive control mice were treated with diazepam (1 mg/kg. Results: GIA administered orally, 30 min before the test in different doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight, was able to increase significantly (P < 0.05 the time-spent and entries into open arms of the EPM and reduced the time-spent and entries into closed arms versus control. In the hole-board test, treatment with GIA (250 and 500 mg/kg significantly increased the number of head-dips and duration of head dipping (P < 0.05. In the light-dark paradigm test, number of transitions and the time spent in the light box increased with reduction in time spent in the dark box and immobility period significantly (P < 0.05 after treatment with GIA. However, no significant changes in locomotor activity were observed versus control. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that aqueous extract of dried fruits of GIA is an effective anxiolytic agent for behavioural models in mice.

  8. Effect of aqueous Glycyrrhza globra extract on menopausal symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Moslemizadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Most women consider menopausal symptoms as natural period in their life. Many of them experienced some problems before and after the condition. There are many side effects of hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms.In different regions with various diet regimens, menopausal symptoms are different. Glycyhrhza glabra has constituents with estrogen like activity. In this study for the first time aqueous Glycyrrhza glabra extract was evaluated for decreasing menopausal symptoms.Materials and Methods: Aqueous Glycyrrhza glabra extract prepared by maceration method. The extract was concentrated and then powdered. The powder used as 250 mg capsule and standardized by glycyrrhizha content. After matching for age, menopausal age and BMI, 29 and 24 women were allocated in case and control groups respectively. Three 250 mg capsules were prescribed per day to women in case group and women in control group received placebo. The mean number of hot flashes and degree of menopausal symptoms, KI (Kupperman Index were calculated every two weeks and classified as; without symptom, weak, medium and severs. Data were analyzed using T-test and the effects of drug on hot flash and KI were assessed in different weeks.Results: The mean age and menopausal age were 50.5 ± and 48± respectively. Results showed that the mean numbers of hot flashes, KI and FSH decreased significantly in case group but they were not significant in control group. Also estradiol hormone increased significantly in case group.Conclusion: Aqueous Glycyrrhza glabra affects hot flash and KI and is a simple and cheap drug for menopausal symptoms without any side effects.

  9. In vitro and in vivo treatments of Echinococcus granulosus with Huaier aqueous extract and albendazole liposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hailong; Jiang, Yufeng; Liao, Min; Sun, Hongli; Zhang, Shijie; Peng, Xinyu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of chemotherapy employing albendazole liposome (L-ABZ), Huaier aqueous extract, and a Huaier aqueous extract/L-ABZ combination against Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices of E. granulosus were incubated in vitro with the two drugs, either separately or in combination, at the following final concentrations: 2 mg/mL Huaier aqueous extract, 10 μg/mL L-ABZ, and 2 mg/mL Huaier aqueous extract + 10 μg/mL L-ABZ. Huaier aqueous extract and L-ABZ displayed slower protoscolicidal activity when applied separately than when used in combination. The maximum protoscolicidal effect was found with the combination Huaier aqueous extract + L-ABZ. Despite the low Huaier aqueous extract + L-ABZ concentrations used, protoscolex viability dropped rapidly. In vivo studies were performed on mice injected with protoscolices of E. granulosus. Huaier aqueous extract and L-ABZ were administered three times a week for a period of 4 months by the oral route. Huaier aqueous extract in E. granulosus-infected mice was effective. Combined application of both drugs did increase the treatment efficacy. In conclusion, the outcomes obtained clearly demonstrated that in vitro and in vivo treatment with Huaier aqueous extract and L-ABZ is effective against E. granulosus.

  10. Simultaneous Separation of Manganese, Cobalt, and Nickel by the Organic-Aqueous-Aqueous Three-Phase Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirayama, Sakae; Uda, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    This research outlines an organic-aqueous-aqueous three-phase solvent extraction method and proposes its use in a new metal separation process for the recycling of manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni) from used lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The three-phase system was formed by mixing xylene organic solution, 50 pct polyethylene glycol (PEG) aqueous solution, and 1 mol L-1 sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) aqueous solution. The xylene organic solution contained 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (D2EHPA) as an extractant for Mn ion, and the Na2SO4 aqueous solution contained 1 mol L-1 potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) as an extractant for Co ion. Concentrations of the metal ions were varied by dissolving metal sulfates in the Na2SO4 aqueous solution. As a result of the experiments, Mn, Co, and Ni ions were distributed in the xylene organic phase, PEG-rich aqueous phase, and Na2SO4-rich aqueous phase, respectively. The separation was effective when the pH value was around 4. Numerical simulation was also conducted in order to predict the distribution of metal ions after the multi-stage counter-current extractions.

  11. [Extraction of 2-amino-4-nitrophenol and 4-phenylphenol from aqueous solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursova, I A; Shormanov, V K

    2002-01-01

    The authors provide the results of extraction of 2-amino-4-nitrophenol and 4-phenilphenol from aqueous solutions by five organic soluvants. The dependence of the extraction degree on some factors (nature of extragent, pH of aqueous phase medium, extragents saturation with water) was established. Necessary extraction rate for isolation of preset quality of the test substances was calculated.

  12. Optimization and orthogonal design of an ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process for extracting chlorogenic acid from dry tobacco leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Tongai Mazvimba; YU Ying; CUI Zhi-Qin; ZHANG Ying

    2012-01-01

    Processing parameters for heat reflux and ultrasonic-assisted extraction techniques were optimized.Optimal operating conditions,extraction solvents and extraction yields for both methods were established.Although methanol showed high extraction efficiency in heat reflux extraction,residual amounts of methanol caused adulteration of extracts.To circumvent this drawback,a novel ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process was optimized and orthogonally designed to pave the way for replacing the toxic organic solvent,methanol with water.A new approach which utilizes fractional volumes of an extraction solvent was developed to minimize solvent consumption,improve chlorogenic acid solubility in water and enhance its aqueous extraction from dried tobacco leaves.Desired trajectories for the new ultrasonic assisted aqueous extraction process were found.

  13. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats.

  14. Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion

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    He Wen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In TCM, dandelion is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that dandelion is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated anti-influenza virus activity of an aqueous extract from dandelion, which was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against influenza virus type A, human A/PR/8/34 and WSN (H1N1. Results Results obstained using antiviral assays, minigenome assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that 0.625-5 mg/ml of dandelion extracts inhibited infections in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells or Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549 of PR8 or WSN viruses, as well as inhibited polymerase activity and reduced virus nucleoprotein (NP RNA level. The plant extract did not exhibit any apparent negative effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation at the effective dose. This result is consistent with the added advantage of lacking any reported complications of the plant's utility in traditional medicine over several centuries. Conclusion The antiviral activity of dandelion extracts indicates that a component or components of these extracts possess anti-influenza virus properties. Mechanisms of reduction of viral growth in MDCK or A549 cells by dandelion involve inhibition on virus replication.

  15. The anti-cancer effect of Huaier aqueous extract with rh-Endostatin and DDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxuan Che; Meixiang Zhou; Peng Zhan; Tiantian Zou; Xiuhua Sun

    2014-01-01

    The-aim-of-our-study-was-to-explore-the-inhibition-and-apoptosis-inducing-ef-ect-of-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-recombinant-human-Endostatin-and-DDP-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-A549-cel-s.-We-also-investigated-the-reversal-ef-ect-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-in-reversing-cisplatin-resistance-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-A549/DDP-cel-s.-Methods:We-treated-A549-cel-s-with-Huaier-aqueous-extract-and-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-ex-tract-and-DDP-or-rh-Endostatin-for-24-h,-36-h-and-48-h.-And-then-we-calculated-the-inhibition-rate-through-MTT-approach-and-detected-the-apoptosis-rate-by-flow-cytometry.-We-also-treated-A549-and-A549/DDP-cel-s-with-DDP,-Huaier-aqueous-extract,-DDP-and-Huaier-aqueous-extract-for-72-h,-respectively.-Results:Huaier-aqueous-extract-can-inhibit-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-and-the-inhibition-rate-improved-with-the-increase-of-the-concentration.-The-inhibition-rate-of-the-combination-of-rh-Endostatin-and-4-mg/mL-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-in-three-time-points-and-the-combination-of-rh-Endostatin-and-2-mg/mL-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-in-the-time-point-of-48-h-on-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-al-improved-(P<0.005).-The-inhibition-rate-of-the-com-bination-of-DDP-and-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-the-concentration-of-2-mg/mL-or-4-mg/mL-on-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-al-improved-(P<0.005).-The-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-and-DDP-and-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-rh-Endostatin-and-DDP-can-improve-the-inhibition-on-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-(P<0.005).-Conclusion:Huaier-aqueous-extract-has-the-inhibition-and-apoptosis-inducing-ef-ects-on-the-A549-cel-s.-And-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-and-rh-Endostatin-or-DDP-has-the-synergistic-ef-ects-on-the-inhibition-of-A549-cel-s.-The-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-rh-Endostatin-and-DDP-has-the-synergistic-ef-ects-on-the-inhibition-of-A549-cel-s.-Huaier-aqueous-extract-can-reverse-the-cisplatin-resistance-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-A549/DDP-cel-s.

  16. Safety and antidiarrheal activity of Priva adhaerens aqueous leaf extract in a murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansunga, Miriam; Barasa, Ambrose; Abimana, Justus; Alele, Paul E.; Kasolo, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Priva adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov., a wildly growing plant, is reported in central Uganda to be an effective traditional remedy for diarrhea. The objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for the ethnopharmacological utility of this plant whose aqueous leaf and shoot extract was evaluated for acute toxicity and antidiarrheal activity using a murine model. Materials and methods Acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assessed after determining the major phytochemicals present in the extract. The aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assayed against castor oil-induced diarrhea, transit time, and enteropooling, in comparison to loperamide, a standard drug. Results The oral LD50 value obtained for Priva adhaerens aqueous extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg in rats; the aqueous leaf and shoot extract possessed several important phytochemicals. Furthermore, the aqueous extract significantly, and dose-dependently, reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, intestinal motility, and castor oil-induced enteropooling in rats. Conclusion This murine model shows that it is relatively safe to orally use the aqueous leaf and shoot extract of Priva adhaerens . The aqueous extract contains phytochemicals that are active for the treatment of diarrhea in a rat model. PMID:25304198

  17. Batch liquid-liquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, M.S.A.; Shibata, C. [Department of Biochemical Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Paiva, J.L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Zilli, M. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Converti, A.

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this work is the study of batch liquid-liquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions in a bench-scale well-mixed reactor. The influence of the ratio of phase volumes, temperature, and rotational speed on phenol removal (0.72-1.1 % w/w) was investigated using methyl isobutyl ketone as an extracting solvent. For this purpose, the ratio of phase volumes were set at 0.1 and 0.2, the temperature at 10, 20, and 30 C, and the rotational speed at 300, 400, and 500 rpm. A physical model based on the material balance of the phases as well as the equation of mass flux between the phases allowed the estimation of the overall coefficient of mass transfer coupled with the superficial area. Moreover, it proved to fit, satisfactorily well, the experimental data of residual phenol concentration in the organic phase versus time under all the conditions investigated. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Antiulcer activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Kaniganti

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Both the doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves exhibited significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation model, whereas only 200 mg/kg of aqueous leaf extract was effective in cold restrain stress model. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1353-1358

  19. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  20. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  1. Tunable aqueous polymer-phase impregnated resins-technology-a novel approach to aqueous two-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winssen, F A; Merz, J; Schembecker, G

    2014-02-14

    Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction (ATPE) represents a promising unit operation for downstream processing of biotechnological products. The technique provides several advantages such as a biocompatible environment for the extraction of sensitive and biologically active compounds. However, the tendency of some aqueous two-phase systems to form intensive and stable emulsions can lead to long phase separation times causing an increased footprint for the required mixer-settler devices or the need for additional equipment such as centrifuges. In this work, a novel approach to improve ATPE for downstream processing applications called 'Tunable Aqueous Polymer-Phase Impregnated Resins' (TAPPIR(®))-Technology is presented. The technology is based on the immobilization of one aqueous phase inside the pores of a solid support. The second aqueous phase forms the bulk liquid around the impregnated solids. Due to the immobilization of one phase, phase emulsification and phase separation of ATPE are realized in a single step. In this study, a biodegradable and sustainable aqueous two-phase system consisting of aqueous polyethylene glycol/sodiumcitrate solutions was chosen. The impregnation of different macroporous glass and ceramic solids was investigated and could be proven to be stable. Additionally, the separation of the dye Patent blue V was successfully performed with the TAPPIR(®)-Technology. Thus, the "proof of principle" of this technology is presented.

  2. Aqueous Two-phase Systems with Ultrasonic Extraction Used for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Inonotus obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Yan-xia; LIU; Yu-bing; LIU; Feng; ZHENG; Wei-fa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extracting technology of assessing the maximum yield of phenolic compounds (PC) from Inonotus obliquus by single factor experiments and orthogonal array design methods through aqueous two-phase systems combined with ultrasonic extraction. Methods The range of the independent variables, namely levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate, and ultrasonic time were identified by a first set of single factor experiments. The actual values of the independent variables coded at four levels and three factors were selected based on the results of the single factor experiments. Subsequently, the levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate, and ultrasonic time were optimized using the orthogonal array method. Results The optimum conditions for the extraction of PC were found to use 7.0 mL acetone, 5.5 mg ammonium sulfate, with ultrasonic time for 5 min. Under these optimized conditions, the experimental maximum yield of PC was 37.8 mg/g, much higher than that of the traditional ultrasonic extraction (UE, 29.0 mg/g). And the PC obtained by this method had stronger anti-oxidative activities than those by traditional UE method. Conclusion These results indicate the suitability of the models developed and the success in optimizing the extraction conditions. This is an economical and efficient method for extracting polyphenols from I. obliquus.

  3. Aqueous Two-phase Systems with Ultrasonic Extraction Used for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Inonotus obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-xia; LIU Yu-bing; LIU Feng; ZHENG Wei-fa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extracting technology of assessing the maximum yield of phenolic compounds (PC)from Inonotus obliquus by single factor experiments and orthogonal array design methods through aqueous two-phase systems combined with ultrasonic extraction.Methods The range of the independent variables,namely levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate,and ultrasonic time were identified by a first set of single factor experiments.The actual values of the independent variables coded at four levels and three factors were selected based on the results of the single factor experiments.Subsequently,the levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate,and ultrasonic time were optimized using the orthogonal array method.Results The optimum conditions for the extraction of PC were found to use 7.0 mL acetone,5.5 mg ammonium sulfate,with ultrasonic time for 5 min.Under these optimized conditions,the experimental maximum yield of PC was 37.8 mg/g,much higher than that of the traditional ultrasonic extraction (UE,29.0 mg/g).And the PC obtained by this method had stronger anti-oxidative activities than those by traditional UE method.Conclusion These results indicate the suitability of the models developed and the success in optimizing the extraction conditions.This is an economical and efficient method for extracting polyphenols from Ⅰ.obliquus.

  4. Studies on the mechanism of efficient extraction of tea components by aqueous ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ci-Jie; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Lu, Jian-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Effect of solvent on the extraction yield and its relevant mechanism have been studied in this paper. Compared with extraction by water, catechins and caffeine could be easily extracted from green tea by aqueous ethanol, but hardly at all by absolute ethanol. Results of the vacuum-assisted extraction, solubility determination of EGCG and caffeine, as well as swelling ratio analysis of the infused leaves, indicated that an excellent leaf-matrix-swelling effect and high solubility of tea components might be the key mechanisms for high extraction efficiency by the aqueous ethanol. These mechanisms were further confirmed by the pre-swelling extraction. This is a first report on the mechanism of efficient extraction by aqueous organic solvent. Application of pre-swelling extraction is also discussed.

  5. Non-aqueous phase liquid spreading during soil vapor extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Hunt, James R.

    2004-02-01

    Many non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are expected to spread at the air-water interface, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. In the vadose zone, this spreading should increase the surface area for mass transfer and the efficiency of volatile NAPL recovery by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Observations of spreading on water wet surfaces led to a conceptual model of oil spreading vertically above a NAPL pool in the vadose zone. Analysis of this model predicts that spreading can enhance the SVE contaminant recovery compared to conditions where the liquid does not spread. Experiments were conducted with spreading volatile oils hexane and heptane in wet porous media and capillary tubes, where spreading was observed at the scale of centimeters. Within porous medium columns up to a meter in height containing stagnant gas, spreading was less than ten centimeters and did not contribute significantly to hexane volatilization. Water film thinning and oil film pinning may have prevented significant oil film spreading, and thus did not enhance SVE at the scale of a meter. The experiments performed indicate that volatile oil spreading at the field scale is unlikely to contribute significantly to the efficiency of SVE.

  6. Effect of aqueous extract of Ipomoea carnea leaf on isolated frog and mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhav, K V; Burande, M D; Rangari, V D; Mehta, J K

    1999-11-01

    Ipomoea carnea fam. Convolvulaceae is a poisonous plant and its toxicity is supposed to be due to the cardiac and respiratory failure. The present paper describes the cardiac effect of aqueous extract of the fresh leaves of I. carnea using mouse and frog heart. The aqueous extract produced an initial blockade of isolated frog heart for 5-10 sec followed by dose dependent increase in both amplitude and rate that lasts up to 2 min. Atropine (1 microgram/ml) blocked the initial depressant phase and potentiated the stimulant effect of the aqueous extract. The dose dependent increase in cardiac contractility of aqueous extract was not altered by propranolol or calcium channel blockers like nifedipine or diltiazem. The decrease in sodium chloride concentration or increase in potassium chloride concentration or calcium chloride concentration in physiological salt solution inhibited the responses to aqueous extract while an increase in sodium chloride concentration or decrease in potassium chloride or calcium chloride concentration in physiological salt solution potentiated the responses to the aqueous extract of I. carnea. It may be suggested from the data that aqueous extract of I. carnea produces positive inotropic effect on isolate frog heart possibly by sodium extrusion or release of the intracellular calcium.

  7. Anxiogenic-like effects of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. aqueous extract in an elevated plus maze test in mice: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliani, María Celeste; Rosso, María Celeste; Zunino, Paula M; Baiardi, Gustavo; Ponce, Andrés Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of orally administered Uncaria tomentosa aqueous extracts (UTE) (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) DC. (Rubiaceae) during 7, 15, 30 and 90 days of treatment on the expression of anxiety, as expressed in the elevated plus maze test in male Albino Swiss mice. UTE revealed an anxiogenic effect in relation to the control group at 15 and 30 days, but it was reversed after 90 days of administration, without affecting the locomotor activity or any deleterious effects on the overall performance of the animal, either for its ambulation, or clinical status, and body weight and organ weight/body weight from liver, lung and kidney were unaffected. These biphasic effects are usually indicative of heterogeneity in sites of action due to the presence of many alkaloids (speciophylline, uncarine F and uncarine E) and flavanols (catechin and epigallocatechin) identified and isolated from UTE.

  8. Biological Activities of Aqueous and Organic Extracts from Tropical Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Turk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on screening tests of 66 extracts obtained from 35 marine sponge species from the Caribbean Sea (Curaçao and from eight species from the Great Barrier Reef (Lizard Island. Extracts were prepared in aqueous and organic solvents and were tested for hemolytic, hemagglutinating, antibacterial and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities, as well as their ability to inhibit or activate cell protein phosphatase 1 (PP1. The most interesting activities were obtained from extracts of Ircinia felix, Pandaros acanthifolium, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Verongula rigida and Neofibularia nolitangere. Aqueous and organic extracts of I. felix and V. rigida showed strong antibacterial activity. Topsentia aqueous and some organic extracts were strongly hemolytic, as were all organic extracts from I. felix. The strongest hemolytic activity was observed in aqueous extracts from P. acanthifolium. Organic extracts of N. nolitangere and I. felix inhibited PP1. The aqueous extract from Myrmekioderma styx possessed the strongest hemagglutinating activity, whilst AChE inhibiting activity was found only in a few sponges and was generally weak, except in the methanolic extract of T. ophiraphidites.

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF BACOPA MONNIERI LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monic Shah et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate in-vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant of Bacopa monnieri Linn. Family- Scrophularaceae. The total Phenolic content was determined using folin ciocalteau method while the total flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride method. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using the Reducing power assay, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The hydroalcoholic extract had more phenol concentration (116.1 mg/g of extract when compared to aqueous extract (58 mg/g of extract. The flavonoid content was more in hydroalcoholic extract (242.6 mg/g of extract when compared to that of aqueous extract (202.8 mg/g of extract. The reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. The nitric oxide scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was also concentration dependent with IC50 value being 254.70 µg/ml , 934.06 µg/ml and 510.60 µg/ml respectively for Aqueous extract and 169.22 µg/ml, 495.83 µg/ml, 488 µg/ml respectively for hydroalcoholic extract. The order of the antioxidant potency of the whole plant extract is Hydroalcoholic >> aqueous. The results clearly indicate that aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of Bacopa monnieri has anti oxidant property which may be due to the presence of phenols and flavonoids.

  10. Antihypertensive Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Passiflora nepalensis Wall

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    S S Patel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study was designed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of an aqueous extract of the whole plant of Passiflora nepalensis wall (APN in renal hypertensive rats. Hypertension in experimental animals was induced by renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR. The blood pressure, pulse pressure and heart rate fell dose-dependently in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats after intravenous administration of 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg APN, suggesting that APN possesses antihypertensive, hypotensive and negative chronotropic effects. Renal IR significantly increased the levels of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances and reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.001 versus control in kidney, which was altered after intravenous administration of 160 and 320 mg/kg of APN, suggesting that APN protect kidney from IR injury (p<0.001 versus renal IR. Histological evaluation showed that renal IR increased, whereas APN decreased the focal glomerular necrosis, degeneration of tubular epithelium, necrosis in tubular epithelium, interstitial inflammatory infiltration, and congestion of blood vessels.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of high blood pressure because the modern synthetic medicines have side effects. A large proportion of the Indian population for their physical and psychological health needs depend on traditional system of medicine. Medicinal plants have become the focus of intense study in term of conservation as to whether their traditional uses are supported by actual pharmacological effects or merely based on folklore. Herbal medicines are free from side effects and less costly when compared to synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drugs with fewer side effects, which are affordable and more effective in the treatment of hypertension.

  11. Efficient removal of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jingjing; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Wencan; Jiao, Panpan; He, Huijun

    2016-09-01

    Naphthalene-2-ol is a typical biologically recalcitrant pollutant in dye wastewater. Solvent extraction of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions using mixed solvents was investigated. Various extractants and diluents were evaluated, and the effects of volume ratio of extractant to diluent, initial pH, initial concentration of naphthalene-2-ol in aqueous solution, extraction time, temperature, volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A), stirring rate and extraction stages, on extraction efficiency were examined separately. Regeneration and reuse of the spent extractant were also investigated. Results showed that tributyl phosphate (TBP) achieved 98% extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol in a single stage extraction, the highest among the 12 extractants evaluated. Extraction efficiency was optimized when cyclohexane and n-octane were used as diluents. The solvent combination of 20% TBP, 20% n-octanol and 60% cyclohexane (V/V) obtained the maximum extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol, 99.3%, within 20min using three cross-current extraction stages under the following extraction conditions: O/A ratio of 1:1, initial pH of 3, 25°C and stirring rate of 150r/min. Recovery of mixed solvents was achieved by using 15% (W/W) NaOH solution at an O:A ratio of 1:1 and a contact time of 15min. The mixed solvents achieved an extraction capacity for naphthalene-2-ol stably higher than 90% during five cycles after regeneration.

  12. In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Mollugo nudicaulis Lam. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Rameshkumar; TSivasudha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate invitro antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis leaves (MN). Methods:The total phenolic and flavonoids content was quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride method respectively. Invitro antioxidant activity was carried out by DPPH, ABTS and reducing power assays and antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method.Results:The phytochemical tests of Mollugo nudicaulis revealed the presence of alkaloid steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugar in the both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Terpenoids were absent in both aqueous and methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis. The total phenolics content of the methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves was 47.01 ± 0.8 and 46.4 ± 0.05 mg/100 g. The total flavonoid content was 41.3 ± 0.04 and 36.2 ± 0.01 mg/100 g respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves showed IC50 values of DPPH radical scavenging as 48 and 190 μg/ml respectively. The IC50 values of ABTS radical scavenging for methanolic of aqueous extracts was 83 and 198.3 μg/ml of plant extract respectively. The total phenolics and flavonoids content and invitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extract was higher compared with aqueous extract. The methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis used to determine antibacterial activity against bacterial species namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp, Streptococcus sp, Entrobacter sp. Conclusion: This investigation suggests that the methanolic extracts of Mollugo nudicaulis possess potential antioxidant and antibacterial compounds.

  13. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

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    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  14. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

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    Mohamed Eddouks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa (CS possess antidiabetic effect, he present study aims to reveal the possible  mechanism of action of CS in diabetic mice.Materials and Methods: Both single and repeated oral administrations of aqueous extract of CS were performed in multi-low dose streptozotocin-induced (MLDS diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used in association with the endogenous glucose production (perfusion rate of 3-3H glucose to evaluate the effect of CS aqueous extract on insulin sensitivity.Results: Our study showed that aqueous extract of CS possess a potent hypoglycaemic activity in MLDS diabetic mice. Furthermore, the analysis perfusion of 3-3H glucose demonstrated  the parallel decrease of basal endogenous glucose production (EGP with the hypoglycaemic activity. EGP was lower in CS-Treated group when compared to the control group (p

  15. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouad, Hassan; Maghrani, Mhamed; Eddouks, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga (Apiaceae) on blood glucose levels was investigated in fasting normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after single and repeated oral administration. The aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga (AV) at a dose of 20 mg/kg significantly reduced blood glucose in normal rats six hours after a single oral administration (P < 0.005) and nine days after repeated oral administration (P < 0.05). This hypoglycemic effect is more pronounced in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats (P < 0.001). Acute toxicity (LD50) and general behavioural effects of an aqueous extract of AV fruits was studied in mice. The LD50 of intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral administration was 3.6 and 10.1 g/kg, respectively. These findings suggest that the aqueous extract of AV possess significant hypoglycemic effect in both normal and STZ diabetic rats and support, therefore, its claimed clinical use by the Moroccan population.

  16. Efficient Removal of Ruthenium Byproducts from Olefin Metathesis Products by Simple Aqueous Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Simple aqueous extraction removed ruthenium byproducts efficiently from ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions catalyzed by a PEG-supported N-heterocyclic carbene-based ruthenium complex. PMID:17428062

  17. Application of Moringa Peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant for Phenol removal from aqueous solution

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    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, Moringa peregrina seed extract, with respect to its high efficacy, can be used as an effective, efficient, and inexpensive coagulant in removing phenol from aqueous environments.

  18. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L.) BLUME

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Reddy K; Rajeev Reddy E; Ganapaty S

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract sho...

  19. Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous Extract Is a Potential Biofilm Inhibitor in S. suis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jingwen; Yang, Yanbei; Wang, Shuai; Gao, Lingfei; Chen, Jianqing; Ren, Yongzhi; Ding, Wenya; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Li, Yanhua

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease symptoms in pigs and humans. Syringa oblata Lindl. distributed in the middle latitudes of Eurasia and North America were proved as the most development potential of Chinese Medicine. In this study, biofilm formation by S. suis decreased after growth with 1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC, or 1/8 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the potential effect of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin against biofilm formation by S. suis. Using iTRAQ technology, comparative proteomic analyses was performed at two conditions: 1/2 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract treated and non-treated cells. The results revealed the existence of 28 proteins of varying amounts. We found that the majority of the proteins were related to cell growth and metabolism. We also found that Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous extract affected the synthesis enzymes. In summary, Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract might be used to inhibit the biofilm formation effectively by S. suis, and the active ingredients of the Syringa oblate Lindl. aqueous extract is rutin. The content of rutin is 9.9 ± 0.089 mg/g dry weight. PMID:28194111

  20. Wound-healing potential of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of apamarga leaves

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    P K Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research work was aimed at exploring the wound-healing activity of alcoholic and an aqueous Achyranthes aspera Linn (apamarga leaf extract. Leaf extracts (aqueous and ethanolic were examined for its wound-healing activity in the form of ointment (1% w/w in Excision model and Incision model in rats. The evaluation was made in terms of wound contractibility and wound closure time. A. aspera Linn leaf extract showed significant (P<0.001 wound-healing activity when compared with control and was as effective as soframycin (standard cream for comparison. The wound-healing potential of ethanolic extract was slightly more compared with aqueous extract. The present study showed the wound-healing potential of apamarga leaves.

  1. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Moringa Oleifera Linn on Alloxan Induced Hyperglycemia

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    Ruchi Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study determines the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds with respect to its route of administration. The rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I-Rats received only rat chow and water. Group II- Rats received alloxan and were treated with 500mg/kg body weight after 2hours. Group III- Rats receiving alloxan after 2 hours were treated with aqueous extract of M. oleifera (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially. Group IV- Rats receiving alloxan after 24 hours began receiving aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially for 1 week. The result of the study showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level after 12 hours and also after 7 days of both orally and intraperitonially with M. oleifera seed extract. This proves that M. oleifera seed extract have a hypoglycemic effect on both the mild and severe alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats.

  2. Aqueous two-phase system based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds for the extraction of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chao-Xi; Xin, Rui-Pu; Qi, Sui-Jian; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems, based on the use of natural quaternary ammonium compounds, were developed to establish a benign biotechnological route for efficient protein separation. In this study, aqueous two-phase systems of two natural resources betaine and choline with polyethyleneglycol (PEG400/600) or inorganic salts (K2 HPO4 /K3 PO4 ) were formed. It was shown that in the K2 HPO4 -containing aqueous two-phase system, hydrophobic interactions were an important driving force of protein partitioning, while protein size played a vital role in aqueous two-phase systems that contained polyethylene glycol. An extraction efficiency of more than 90% for bovine serum albumin in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase system can be obtained, and this betaine-based aqueous two-phase system provided a gentle and stable environment for the protein. In addition, after investigation of the cluster phenomenon in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase systems, it was suggested that this phenomenon also played a significant role for protein extraction in this system. The development of aqueous two-phase systems based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds not only provided an effective and greener method of aqueous two-phase system to meet the requirements of green chemistry but also may help to solve the mystery of the compartmentalization of biomolecules in cells.

  3. Probing regenerative potential of Moringa oleifera aqueous extracts using In vitro cellular assays

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    Evangeline E Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. Objective: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Materials and Methods: Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Results: Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion: A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects.

  4. Enantioseparation of Racemic Flurbiprofen by Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction With Binary Chiral Selectors of L-dioctyl Tartrate and L-tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liping; Fan, Huajun; Wan, Qiang; Wu, Xuehao; Tang, Xunyou; Tang, James Z

    2015-09-01

    A novel method for chiral separation of flurbiprofen enantiomers was developed using aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) coupled with biphasic recognition chiral extraction (BRCE). An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was used as an extracting solvent which was composed of ethanol (35.0% w/w) and ammonium sulfate (18.0% w/w). The chiral selectors in ATPS for BRCE consideration were L-dioctyl tartrate and L-tryptophan, which were screened from amino acids, β-cyclodextrin derivatives, and L-tartrate esters. Factors such as the amounts of L-dioctyl tartrate and L-tryptophan, pH, flurbiprofen concentration, and the operation temperature were investigated in terms of chiral separation of flurbiprofen enantiomers. The optimum conditions were as follows: L-dioctyl tartrate, 80 mg; L-tryptophan, 40 mg; pH, 4.0; flurbiprofen concentration, 0.10 mmol/L; and temperature, 25 °C. The maximum separation factor α for flurbiprofen enantiomers could reach 2.34. The mechanism of chiral separation of flurbiprofen enantiomers is discussed and studied. The results showed that synergistic extraction has been established by L-dioctyl tartrate and L-tryptophan, which enantioselectively recognized R- and S-enantiomers in top and bottom phases, respectively. Compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction, ATPE coupled with BRCE possessed higher separation efficiency and enantioselectivity without the use of any other organic solvents. The proposed method is a potential and powerful alternative to conventional extraction for separation of various enantiomers.

  5. Extraction and separation of tungsten (VI) from aqueous media with Triton X-100-ammonium sulfate-water aqueous two-phase system without any extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Zhang; Tichang Sun; Tieqiang Lu; Chunhuan Yan

    2016-11-25

    An aqueous two-phase system composed of Triton X-100-(NH4)2SO4-H2O was proposed for extraction and separation of tungsten(VI) from aqueous solution without using any extractant. The effects of aqueous pH, concentration of ammonium sulfate, Triton X-100 and tungsten, extracting temperature on the extraction of tungsten were investigated. The extraction of tungsten has remarkable relationship with aqueous pH and are to above 90% at pH=1.0-3.0 under studied pH range (pH=1.0-7.0) and increases gradually with increasing Triton X-100 concentration, but decreases slightly with increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. The extraction percentage of tungsten is hardly relevant to temperature but its distribution coefficient linearly increases with increasing temperature within 303.15-343.15K. The distribution coefficient of tungsten increases with the increase of initial tungsten concentration (0.1-3%) and temperature (303.15 K-333.15K). The solubilization capacity of tungsten in Triton X-100 micellar phase is independent of temperature. FT-IR analysis reveals that there is no evident interaction between polytungstate anion and ether oxygen unit in Triton X-100, and DLS analysis indicates that zeta potential of Triton X-100 micellar phase have a little change from positive to negative after extracting tungsten. Based on the above-mentioned results, it can be deduced that polytungstate anions are solubilized in hydrophilic outer shell of Triton X-100 micelles by electrostatic attraction depending on its relatively high hydrophobic nature. The stripping of tungsten is mainly influenced by temperature and can be easily achieved to 95% in single stage stripping. The tungsten (VI) is separated out from solution containing Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Cr(III) and Mn(II) under the suitable conditions.

  6. Intensified Separation of Steviol Glycosides from a Crude Aqueous Extract of Stevia rebaudiana Leaves Using Centrifugal Partition Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jane; Borie, Nicolas; Chollet, Sébastien; Perret, Joël; Barbet-Massin, Claire; Berger, Monique; Daydé, Jean; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2015-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of Stevia rebaudiana leaves have been approved since 2008 by the Joint Expert Committee for Food Additives as sugar substitutes in many food and beverages in Western and Far East Asian countries. The compounds responsible for the natural sweetness of Stevia leaves include a diversity of diterpenoid glycosides derived from a steviol skeleton. These steviol glycosides also exhibit a low calorific value as well as promising therapeutic applications, particularly for the treatment of sugar metabolism disturbances. In this work, centrifugal partition chromatography is proposed as an efficient technical alternative to purify steviol glycosides from crude aqueous extracts of Stevia leaves on a multigram scale. Two different commercial instruments, including an ASCPC250® and a FCPE300® made of columns containing 1890 and 231 twin-cells, respectively, were evaluated and compared. All experiments were performed with a polar biphasic solvent system composed of ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water in a gradient elution mode. When using the 1890 partition cell centrifugal partition chromatography column of 250 mL, 42 mg of stevioside, 68 mg of dulcoside A, and 172 mg of rebaudioside A, three major constituents of the initial extract were obtained from 1 g of the initial mixture at purities of 81%, 83%, and 99%, respectively. The productivity was further improved by intensifying the procedure on the 231 partition cell centrifugal partition chromatography column of 303 mL with the sample mass loading increased up to 5 g, resulting in the recovery of 1.2 g of stevioside, 100 mg of dulcoside A, and 1.1 g of rebaudioside A at purities of 79%, 62%, and 98%, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds were validated by HPLC-UV, ESI-MS, (1)H, and (13)C NMR analyses. Altogether, the results demonstrate that the column design (i.e., the partition cell number) is an important aspect to be considered for a larger scale centrifugal partition chromatography

  7. Determination of the distribution constants of aromatic compounds and steroids in biphasic micellar phosphonium ionic liquid/aqueous buffer systems by capillary electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokajová, Jana; Railila, Annika; King, Alistair W T; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2013-09-20

    The distribution constants of some analytes, closely connected to the petrochemical industry, between an aqueous phase and a phosphonium ionic liquid phase, were determined by ionic liquid micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). The phosphonium ionic liquids studied were the water-soluble tributyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium with chloride or acetate as the counter ion. The retention factors were calculated and used for determination of the distribution constants. For calculating the retention factors the electrophoretic mobilities of the ionic liquids were required, thus, we adopted the iterative process, based on a homologous series of alkyl benzoates. Calculation of the distribution constants required information on the phase-ratio of the systems. For this the critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of the ionic liquids were needed. The CMCs were calculated using a method based on PeakMaster simulations, using the electrophoretic mobilities of system peaks. The resulting distribution constants for the neutral analytes between the ionic liquid and the aqueous (buffer) phase were compared with octanol-water partitioning coefficients. The results indicate that there are other factors affecting the distribution of analytes between phases, than just simple hydrophobic interactions.

  8. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

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    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  9. Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduces stress-induced anorexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halataei, Bahar-al-Sadat; Khosravi, Maryam; Arbabian, Sedigheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Golmanesh, Leila; Zardooz, Homeira; Jalili, Cyrus; Ghoshooni, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, the effects of an ethanol and aqueous extract of saffron Crocus sativus and its constituents safranal and crocin on the stress-induced reduction in food intake, weight gain and anorexic time in mice were investigated. Male albino mice (20-25 g) were irregularly exposed to a trial of electroshock stress for 7 days. Then, the anorexic time as well as the animal's food intake and weight were recorded. In addition, blood samples were obtained on days 1 and 7 for corticosterone determination. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the aqueous but not the ethanol extract (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the anorexic time. The results were similar for crocin (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg; i.p.). In addition, a reduction in weight gain was observed in the controls as well as in the groups that received alcohol extract or safranal. However, this was not observed in animals treated with aqueous extract or crocin. The plasma corticosterone level did not increase in the aqueous extract and crocin treated animals. It can be concluded that the saffron aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduce side effects of electroshock stress in mice.

  10. Alleloppathic effects and insecticidal activity of the aqueous extract of Satureja montana L.

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    Šućur Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic insecticides, herbicides and other pesticides has negative effects on the environment and on human and animal health. Therefore scientists are turning towards natural pesticides such as active components of plant extracts. Effect of two concentrations (0.1% and 0.2% of Satureja montana L. aqueous extract on lipid peroxidation process, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, PPX and CAT in leaves and roots of pepper and black nightshade seedlings were examined 24, 72 and 120h after the treatment. Our results showed that higher concentration of S. montana aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in black nightshade roots. Furthermore, significant increases of pyrogallol and guaiacol peroxidase were detected in black nightshade leaves treated with 0.2% S. montana aqueous extract. The second aim was to evaluate effectiveness of aqueous extract as contact toxicant against whitefly. It was observed that aqueous extract with concentration of 0.2% showed toxic effect with 68.33% mortality after 96h.

  11. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida. Methods By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida (Candida albicans; Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non-Candida albicans (Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant (p < 0,001). Conclusion The aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin.

  12. Transport extraction for trace element separation and preconcentration. Pt. 2; Preconcentration of iodine from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palagyi, S. (Inst. of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, L. Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Braun, T. (Inst. of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, L. Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-08-01

    Transport extraction based on solvent sublation has been used for a 400-fold preconcentration of iodide from aqueous samples into an immiscible organic solvent. Separation efficiencies amounting up to 95% were obtained for iodide concentrations of 1-10 mg/l, independent of the volume of the aqueous samples in the range of 1-4l. Iodide was oxidized to iodine, which was subsequently transport-extracted as an ionic associate with the cationic surface-active agent N-cetylpyridinium chloride into 10ml of benzene. The effect of various parameters (concentration of iodide, bubbling time, N[sub 2]-gas flow-rate, volume of the aqueous phase) on transport extraction was investigated. Kinetic investigations showed that the transport-extraction process essentially follows a modified Langmuir adsorption model, which makes it possible to calculate the mass-transfer rate constant of the process for each particular case. (orig.)

  13. Postprandial glycaemia and inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by aqueous extract from Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindis, F; González-Andrade, M; González-Trujano, M E; Estrada-Soto, S; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic properties of the aqueous extract from the leaves and stems of Coriandrum sativum L. were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats, and on α-glucosidase activity from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to validate its use in folk medicine. In in vivo experiments rats were administered with the aqueous extract of the plant at 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, to observe the effect on oral sucrose tolerance test. The aqueous extract exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic activity at the three tested doses. In vitro experiments with α-glucosidase exhibited a competitive-type inhibition. These results confirm the antidiabetic properties of the extract of C. sativum L., probably by the inhibition of α-glucosidase in the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Biphasic catalysis in water/carbon dioxide micellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Gunilla B.; Tumas, William; Johnston, Keith P.

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for catalyzing an organic reaction to form a reaction product by placing reactants and a catalyst for the organic reaction, the catalyst of a metal complex and at least one ligand soluble within one of the phases of said aqueous biphasic system, within an aqueous biphasic system including a water phase, a dense phase fluid, and a surfactant adapted for forming an emulsion or microemulsion within the aqueous biphasic system, the reactants soluble within one of the phases of the aqueous biphasic system and convertible in the presence of the catalyst to a product having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble; and, maintaining the aqueous biphasic system under pressures, at temperatures, and for a period of time sufficient for the organic reaction to occur and form the reaction product and to maintain sufficient density on the dense phase fluid, the reaction product characterized as having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble.

  15. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Imatomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf extracts at 5 and 10% (g mL-1 were tested on the germination and growth of Euphorbia heterophylla, Echinochloa crus-galli and Ipomoea grandifolia and compared with the herbicide oxyfluorfen and distilled water (control. The most extracts caused pronounced delays in seed germination and inhibited the growth of seedlings of E. heterophylla; I. grandifolia and E. crus-galli, with the last target species had no growth shoot inhibited by the extracts. In this study, the potential and efficiency of the tested aqueous leaf extracts were evident because they were more phytotoxic to the weeds than the herbicide. Thus, the aqueous extracts of leaves from Myrtaceae species show potential for the isolation of active compounds that can be used for the production of natural herbicides in the future.

  16. Use of Cistus aqueous extracts as botanical fungicides in the control of Citrus sour rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, H; Boubaker, H; Askarne, L; Cherifi, K; Lakhtar, H; Msanda, F; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of aqueous extracts obtained from eight Cistus plant species against the development of Geotrichum citri-aurantii, the causal agent of citrus sour rot. The results demonstrate the in vitro effectiveness of all tested Cistus species aqueous extracts against G. citri-aurantii, the inhibition of mycelial growth ranged between 80 and 100%. Furthermore, Cistus aqueous extracts totally inhibited germination of G. citri-aurantii arthrospores at a concentration of 5 mg/mL. Among the plant species tested, C. laurifolius, C. salviifolius, C. monspeliensis, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius displayed the best fungistatic activity since the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was rot was lowered to 8.33% when fruits were treated with aqueous extracts of C. populifolius and C. creticus compared to 100% in the control. Disease severity was lowered to 3.74, 4.47 and 5.13% when fruits were treated with C. creticus, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius aqueous extracts, respectively. Using such these biopesticides in a replacement for synthetic fungicides or in combination with other established disease management practices could help control citrus postharvest decay in a more sustainable and eco-friendly way.

  17. Vasorelaxant action of aqueous extract of the leaves of Persea americana on isolated thoracic rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Mbang A; Jaja, Smith I; Coker, Herbert A B

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the vasorelaxant action of the aqueous leaves extract of Persea americana on isolated rat aorta. The results showed that the extract produced significant vasorelaxation and that the effect is dependent on the synthesis or release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs) as well as the release of prostanoid. The extract also reduced vasoconstriction probably by inhibiting Ca2+ influx through calcium channels.

  18. Aqueous enzyme assisted oil extraction from oilseeds and emulsion de-emulsifying methods: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Mike; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory, safety, and environmental issues have prompted the development of aqueousenzymatic extraction (AEE) for extracting components from oil-bearing materials. The emulsion resulting from AEE requires de-emulsification to separate the oil; when enzymes are used for this purpose, the method is known as aqueous enzymatic emulsion de-emulsification (AEED). In general, enzyme assisted oil extraction is known to yield oil having highly favourable characteristics. This review covers techno...

  19. Antimicrobial effects of aqueous plant extracts on the fungi Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum and on three bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, M; Neeman, I

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of 10 plants were tested for their ability to inhibit Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis, the aetiological agents of dermal fungal infections in humans. These extracts were also evaluated for their activity against some bacteria. Aqueous extracts from the leaves of Inula viscosa produced detectable antifungal activity against these dermatophytes.

  20. Anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, E; Amabeoku, G J; Eagles, P K; Scott, G; Springfield, E P

    2002-04-01

    Water extract of Leonotis leonurus was tested for anticonvulsant activity against seizures produced in mice by pentylenetetrazole, picrotoxin, bicuculline and N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (intraperitoneal injections). L. leonurus extract in the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively protected 37.5% and 50% of animals used and significantly (p leonurus extract significantly (p leonurus used did not alter the seizures induced by bicuculline (20 mg/kg) to any significant extent. The data suggest that the extract of L. leonurus has anticonvulsant activity and may probably be acting through non-specific mechanisms, since it affects both gabaergic and glutaminergic systems. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and phytochemical tests carried out respectively show a spectrum profile, characteristic of L. leonurus and the presence of alkaloids, saponins and tannins in the extract.

  1. Low-temperature liquid-liquid extraction of phenols from aqueous solutions with hydrophilic mixtures of extractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakov, O. B.; Khorokhordina, E. A.; Preobrazhenskii, M. A.; Rudakova, L. V.

    2016-08-01

    The volume ratios in acetonitrile-ethyl acetate (90 : 10, 95 : 5), acetonitrile-isopropanol-ethyl acetate (70 : 15 : 15, 80 : 5 : 15), and isopropanol-1-butanol (50 : 50) mixtures were determined. Their mixing with water (1 : 1) and storage at-10°C led to partitioning into two immiscible liquid phases without formation of the ice phase. The mixtures were shown to be useful as hydrophilic extractants in low-temperature liquidliquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions.

  2. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Lippia citriodora on candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Omran, Saeid Mahdavi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Shafiee, Faranak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Because of resistance and side effects to common antifungal drugs activity, the research on herbal substances with antifungal activity is frequent. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) is a member of Verbenaceae family. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-candida activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the lemon verbena leaves and compare them with nystatin and fluconazole. Methods In this 2015 study, 15 clinical isolates and standard strain of candida albicans PTCC 5027 were used, and the inhibitory effects of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts, Nystatin and Fluconazole, were evaluated using disk and well diffusion methods. Also, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Five concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (156–2500 μg/ml), Nystatin (8–128 μg/ml) and Fluconazole (4–64 μg/ml) were used in disk and well diffusion methods, and nine concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (19–5000 μg/ml), Nystatin (0.5–128 μg/ml), and Fluconazole (0.25–64 μg/ml) were applied for MIC. Data were analyzed using Tukey’s post-hoc and one-way ANOVA tests. The significant level was considered p < 0.05 in the current study. Results In the well and disk diffusion techniques, limited growth inhibition halos were produced around some clinical isolates at different concentrations of ethanolic extract; however, no growth inhibitory halo was observed with any concentrations of the aqueous extract. The MIC values of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, Nystatin and Fluconazole for clinical isolated and standard strain were 833 ± 78.5and 625μg/ml; 4156 ± 67.4 and 2500 μg/ml; 10.13 ± 1.91 and 4 μg/ml; and 1.97 ± 0.25 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that the ethanolic extract was stronger than the aqueous extract of this plant, which can be used as an alternative for drugs. It is recommended that the ethanolic extract of this plant be investigated in vivo for better

  3. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Evangeline E.; Pulwale, Anubha V.; Patil, Gauri A.; Moghe, Alpana S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. Objective: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Materials and Methods: Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Results: Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion: A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of aqueous ethanol extract of Cestrum nocturnum against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

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    M. Imran Qadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective activities of Cestrum nocturnum (Queen of Night was evaluated against the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in the mice. Aqueous ethanol (30:70 extract of plant was obtained by maceration. Results showed that aqueous ethanol extract of C. nocturnum (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05 hepatoprotective activities against paracetamol induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice. Histopathalogical studied of liver further supported the hepatoprotective effects of C. notrunum. Phyto-chemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and volatile oils. Most of the flavonoids have hepatoprotective activity. Therefore, the hepatoprotective activity of C. nocturnum may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic components. It was concluded from the present study that aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of C. nocturnum has hepatoprotective activity against the paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino mice.

  5. Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, John A O; Amabeoku, George J

    2006-08-01

    Various morphological parts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) are widely used in African traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. This study examined the anticonvulsant effect of the plant's leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, Persea americana leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p Persea americana leaf aqueous extract possesses an anticonvulsant property, and thus lends pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management of childhood convulsions and epilepsy.

  6. Aqueous extracts of Lippia turbinata and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae): assessment of antioxidant capacity and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Erika; Nigro, Marcela M López; Reides, Claudia G; Llesuy, Susana; Ricco, Rafael A; Wagner, Marcelo L; Gurni, Alberto A; Carballo, Marta A

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to make a contribution to the knowledge of aqueous extracts of Lippia turbinata and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae; infusion and decoction) in relation with the establishment of its antioxidant activity and lack of DNA damage, for its potential use in therapeutics. The cytogenotoxic profile was evaluated through genotoxic biomarkers such as mitotic index, cellular proliferation kinetics, sister chromatid exchanges, single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures. No statistical differences were found (P > .05) between control and exposed cultures, even between both aqueous extracts. The total antioxidant capacity was shown to be higher in the decoction than in the infusion and both aqueous extracts protected against protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, the decoction being more efficient than the infusion (P < .005). These results suggest the safe use of these medicinal plants as chemoecologic agents in therapeutics.

  7. In vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giselle Cristina Silva; Renata Albuquerque Costa; Antonio Adauto Fonteles Filho

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts (Moringa oleifera) on the growth of gram-positive and negative bacteria. Methods:Paper disks were soaked with 100, 200, 300 and 400μL of extract at 20 g/180 mL and 10 g/190 mL. All extracts were tested against Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Salmonella enteritidis (IH) and Aeromonas caviae. The susceptibility tests were performed using the modified disk diffusion method. Results:The strains E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis (IH) were resistant to all treatments. In general, disks with 400μL extract were the most efficient against S. aureus, V. parahaemolyticus, E. faecalis and A. caviae. Conclusions: The study indicates a promising potential for aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts as alternative treatment of infections caused by the tested strains.

  8. Pharmacological evaluation of anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice

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    David Arome

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice. Materials and Methods: In this study, stress induced hyperthermia (SIH, elevated plus maze (EPM and open field experimental models were employed. Results: In SIH model, the extract caused a significant (P 0.05 effect. In open field model, 200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg extract doses significantly (P < 0.05 increased locomotion of the mice more than the standard, while rearing and defecation were less in the extract groups. Conclusion: In different experimental models used significant anxiolytic effect was observed of the aqueous extract at different dose levels in comparison to reference standard and normal saline group. This clearly justified its folkloric application in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  9. Extraction of Palladium (Ⅱ) with p-Methylphenylalkylsulfide from Aqueous Chloride Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立; 章正熙; 刘旭辉; 郭亚莉; 二井晋; 竹内宽

    2005-01-01

    p-Methylphenylalkylsulfide of various alkyl chain length as extractant were synthesized and the extraction of palladium was examined in terms of equilibrium and kinetics. Distribution ratio of Pd was independent of alkyl chain length. For aqueous chloride media, there was a significant difference in distribution ratios for the solution of NaC1 and HC1. The results of loading test and the slope analysis suggest that the extractant and Pd (Ⅱ) form 2:1 complex. Furthermore, the extraction rate based on the volume of aqueous phase was obtained in a stirred vessel, and the rate equation was presented. Unfortunately, it was difficult to construct surfactant liquid membrane system by use of the present extractant.

  10. Optimization of Variables for Aqueous Extraction of Gum from Grewia mollis Powder

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    Emmanuel Panyoo Akdowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grewia gum is a polysaccharide derived from the inner stem bark of the edible plant Grewia mollis. Juss (family Tiliaceae. It is a savanna shrub that grows wildly but is usually cultivated in Nigeria and Northern part of Cameroon. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extraction conditions on the extraction yield and physicochemical properties of the Grewia mollis. The studied aqueous extraction variables were water/powder (W/P ratio (10 : 1–80 : 1 w/p, temperature (25.0–85.0∘C, time (1–3 h, and pH (4.0–10.0. The results indicated that the aqueous extraction variables exhibited the least significant (P<0.05 effect on the yield and the viscosity of the gum. The result shows that the ratio of extraction is the main factor affecting the extraction of gum. The optimized extraction condition for higher viscosity was at the powder/water ratio of 1 : 55.4, pH of 7, time of 1 h, and temperature of 50∘C. However, the optimized extraction condition for higher yield was at the powder/water ratio of 1 : 80, pH of 4, time of 3 h, and temperature of 73∘C.

  11. Inhibition Effect of Mace Extract Microemulsion on Vitamin C Photooxidation in Aqueous Systems

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    Hasbullah Hasbullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photooxidation in food systems cause nutritional losses and produces undesirable flavor, toxic and color compounds, which make foods less acceptable or unacceptable to consumers. The objective of this research was to know the effectiveness of mace extract microemulsion to inhibit vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous systems. Aqueous food systems used are both beverage model system and apple juice beverage, where in each system enriched by 100 ppm vitamin C as substrate and 20 ppm erytrosin as photosensitiser. It is about one percent and two percent of microemulsion that contain mace extract of 0, 500 and 750 ppm were added into each of aqueous food system. Inhibition effect of mace extract microemulsion toward vitamin C photooxidation based on the rate of vitamin C degradation in aqueous food systems that illuminated by fluorescent light with 2000 lux intensity within eight hours. The result indicated the mace extract microemulsion has anti-photooxidation activity and ability to inhibit vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous systems.

  12. The Content in Bioactive Compounds of Different Brewers' Spent Grain Aqueous Extracts

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    Anca FARCAS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade by-products of food and beverage processing have attracted much attention due to their functionality and potential as food ingredients. Brewers’ spent grain is the major by-product of the brewing industry representing a valuable source of bioactive ingredients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extraction time and temperature on the efficiency of water as solvent for the extraction of bioactive compounds from brewers’ spent grain (BSG. In terms of extraction efficiency, the results from polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity, showed that the best extraction parameters for aqueous extracts are 90⁰C and 60 minutes. In comparison with the control, the best extraction method generated 87% of the phenolics and 43.46% of the flavonoids obtained by a methanol extraction. The preliminary results for the aqueous extracts showed that water can be used as extraction solvent, but a higher extraction time and temperature are needed in order to have a content in bioactive compounds similar to that of methanolic extracts. The obtained values for polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity, emphasize the importance and the opportunities of the reuse of this agro-industrial waste.

  13. Eco-friendly synthesis of Graphene using the aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius

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    M. Jannathul Firdhouse

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An eco-friendly process of reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius under refluxing method is herein reported. The colour change of the graphene oxide (GO solution from brown to black was noted during the reduction of graphene oxide. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of reduced graphene oxide (AKRGO. The crystallite size of nanographene was confirmed by XRD analysis and Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectral analysis revealed the reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius. The morphology of the synthesized graphene was examined by SEM analysis.

  14. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  15. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of noni in dilutent for ram semen cryopreservation

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    Ana Lauren Costa Nascimento

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. is a fruit consumed worldwide because of its nutritional and therapeutic properties resulting from the large amount of phenolic compounds, which has aroused interest of the scientific community. In order to identify new natural sources of antioxidants, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of noni in diluent for ram semen cryopreservation. A completely randomized design consisting of four treatments and three repetitions per treatment was used. The treatments differed in terms of the concentration of the aqueous extract of noni added to the diluent: control, no addition of the extract, and three concentrations (24, 72, and 120 µg/mL. The physical and chemical variables of the mature fruit were evaluated: total acidity (8.78, pH (4.12, and soluble solids (8.18%. The vitamin C content was 309.42 mg per 100 g fresh matter. The aqueous extract of noni was also evaluated regarding the quantity of total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity. The aqueous extract contained a moderate amount of phenolic compounds (47.96 ± 1.95 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract. The concentrations of the aqueous extract of 72 and 120 µg/mL in diluent used for semen cryopreservation inhibited lipid peroxidation by 21.75% and 51.32%, respectively. There was no positive effect of the lowest concentration (24 µg/mL. The antioxidant activity index of noni was 33.33, corresponding to very strong antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract of noni exhibits very strong antioxidant activity and its addition to the diluent for semen cryopreservation at a concentration of 72 µg/mL is able to inhibit lipid peroxidation.

  16. Anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from Moroccan thyme varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarik; Khouya; Mhamed; Ramchoun; Abdelbassat; Hmidani; Souliman; Amrani; Hicham; Harnafi; Mohamed; Benlyas; Younes; Filali; Zegzouti; Chakib; Alem

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of thyme varieties from Moroccan.Methods: The aqueous extracts of tree medicinal plants [Thymus atlanticus(T. atlanticus), Thymus satureioides and Thymus zygis(T. zygis)] were screened for their antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, radical scavenging activity method, the inhibition of 2,2’-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride that induces oxidative erythrocyte hemolysis and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts was evaluated in vivo using croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and rats, respectively. This extracts were evaluated in vitro for their anticoagulant activity at the different concentrations by partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time activated. Results: All thyme varieties were found to possess considerable antioxidant activity and potent anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced edema. Administration of aqueous extracts of two varieties(50 mg/kg)(T. zygis and T. atlanticus) reduced significantly the carrageenaninduced paw edema similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug(indomethacin, 10 mg/kg). In partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time tests, T. atlanticus and T. zygis extracts showed the strongest anticoagulant activity. In contrast, Thymus satureioides did not show the anticoagulant activity in these tests. Conclusions: All aqueous extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity and are rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid but they act differently in the process of inflammatory and coagulation studied. This study shows great variability of biological activities in thyme varieties.

  17. Effect of aqueous extract albizia on removal ova of parasites from parsley vegetable

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    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 25 April, 2009 ; Accepted 18 November, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Parasitical diseases are a common problem in developing countries. Different shapes of parasite such as cyst, larva and egg are carried from vegetables. Leaves of Allbezia contain saponin constituents, which is effective on surface tension reduction, and is preferred to chemical washer. This research was designed to study the extracted effect of removal from vegetable and its comparison with disinfectant commercial detergent in Sari city.Materials and methods: Leaves aqueous extract (5, 10, 15, and 20 was prepared from the Allbezia julibrissin by maceration method, then 100 gram of parsley vegetable sample was taken randomly from shopping center. The sample was placed in contact with aqueous extract for 0 and 15 minutes according to the WHO guidelines. Then, the effluent was centrifuged and evaluated qualitatively and quantitavely for parasite decontamination by Mac- Master counting slid, (0/3mm. In addition to parasite, the contamination by commercial detergent (10% was performed with contact times 0 and 15 minutes and also pure water as blank.Results: Maximum parasite decontamination by aqueous extract and commercial detergent 10 % at 0 minute contact time was obtained 2306 and 97 parasites eggs, respectively. Also, maximum parasite decontamination by watery extract and commercial detergent 10 % and blank water at 15 minute contact time was obtained 3022,11,64 parasite ova, respectively. In this research, the best parasites decontamination range by aqueous extract was obtained at all concentration with contact time of 15 minutes.Conclusion: Quantitatively, rate of parasite ova decontamination from vegetables sample by aqueous extract of Allbezia in all concentration and 15 contact times was more than the commercial washer.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 52-58 (Persian.

  18. Study on acute ulcerous pain in rats treated with aqueous root extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adegbolagun Temitope Adeoye; Adeolu Alex Adedapo; Matthew Oluwole Abatan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer and analgesic effects of the aqueous root extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens (L. cyanescens) since the plant is said to have medicinal properties. Methods: The filtrate of the aqueous root extract of the plant (100 mg/mL) was used to evaluate for antiulcer activity in 20 rats divided into five groups of four rats each, which were Groups A, B, and C that received 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg doses respectively, while Group D was served as negative control and animals of Group E received 20 mg/kg dose of ranitidine. Indomethacin at a dose of 15 mg/kg was used to induce ulcer on the day of sacrifice. For acetic writhing test (antinociception), same design was used except that Group E received 100 mg/kg dose of acetyl salicylic acid as standard drug. Abdominal contractions were induced in the animals by intraperitoneal administration of 10 mL/kg of 0.6%of acetic acid. Results: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens at all doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in ulcer parameters compared with the negative control. The extract also produced a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of writhing reflexes in treated rats compared with negative control. Conclusions: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens exhibited both antiulcer and analgesic effects justifying folklore claim for the health benefits of this plant.

  19. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

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    McCoy Joe-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mint family (Lamiaceae produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., sage (Salvia spp., peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., basil (Ocimum spp. and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1.

  20. ANTIDIURETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PROP ROOTS OF PANDANUS FASCICULARIS LAM.

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    Jothimani Rajeswari et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of the prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam (Family: Pandanaceae is claimed as an antidiuretic by some traditional practitioners. However, the validity of this claim has not been scientifically proven or refuted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiuretic potential of ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of P. fascicularis in rats following oral administration. Ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared from P. facicularis by percolation and cold maturation, respectively. Furosemide was used as a diuretic agent to induce diuresis. Vasopressin (ADH was used as a standard. The results demonstrated both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. facicularis and ADH significantly impaired the total urine output. However, antidiuretic potential of ethanolic extract was similar to that of ADH. The extracts caused a significant decrease in natriuresis and kaliuresis. From this study, we can conclude that ethanol extract of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis has beneficial effects on anti diuretic activity. It has the potential to impart therapeutic effect in diuretic.

  1. Antifungal activity of commercial ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Brazilian propolis against Candida spp.

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    S. M.D. Dias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Fourteen commercial ethanolic extracts (EEP and five aqueous extracts (AEP of Brazilian propolis were tested for antifungal activity in vitro by employing the agar diffusion assay to determine the susceptibility of Candida spp. Nystatin (100 IU, sterile distilled water and ethanol 93.2ºGL were used as positive, negative and solvent controls. Except for one sample, all EEP tested inhibited the in vitro growth of Candida spp., while the AEP extracts were only weakly inhibitory to the growth of these microorganisms. Four EEP products exhibited inhibition zones similar to those induced by nystatin. It was concluded that the commercial EEP extracts were more effective against Candida spp. than the aqueous extracts. This suggests that EEP could be used as an alternative medicine for the treatment of fungal infections of the oral cavity, such as oral candidosis (thrush or denture stomatitis. Keywords: ethanolic extract; aqueous extract; Brazilian propolis; Candida spp.

  2. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae

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    Patrícia Umeda Grisi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce and Allium cepa L. (onion, as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml of distilled water, resulting in a concentration of 10.0%. Distilled water was added in order to obtain dilutions of 7.5%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. The extraction was carried out with young leaves (in powder form and organic solvents of various polarities. We fractioned the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. The phytotoxic potential of the aqueous extract of young leaves S. saponaria varied according to the receiving species and the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. The ethyl acetate extract, specifically fraction 6 (57-70, had the greatest inhibitory effect on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles, indicating that the compounds responsible for the phytotoxic effect reside within this fraction.

  3. AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF PLANTS IN Colletotrichum gloeosporioides INHIBITION IN VITRO AND IN POSTHARVEST GUAVA

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    FERNANDO HENRIQUE ALVES DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant aqueous extracts in the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. & Sacc. the causal agent of guava anthracnose in, was evaluated in vitro with 1, 2 and 3% aqueous ex- tracts of Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, Ocimum gratissimum, Syzygium aromaticum. The experiment was installed in a complete randomized desing in a 3x4 factorial scheme (doses x extracts. For the evaluation, it was calculated the percentage of fungal inhibition. The experiment in vivo was conducted by applying Syzy- gium aromaticum and Azadirachta indica aqueous extract at 2 and 3%, respectively, in three different storage conditions: refrigerated with and without plastic film (PVC, and at ambient conditions. The experiment was installed in a completely randomized design, in a 2x3 factorial scheme (extracts x storage conditions. We evaluated the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. Syzygium aromati- cum extract at 2% provided 100% of fungal mycelial growth inhibition, and Azadirachta indica extract at the highest dosage (3% inhibited 20.22%. In fruits, there was not significant statistical difference between the ef- fect of extracts on the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. In relation to the storage conditions, the ones with plastic film and refrigerated differed from the other conditions obtain- ing better external appearance and less severity of disease, lower loss of weight and higher Brix degrees.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF PARINARI CURATELLIFOLIA (STEM ON DENTAL CARIES CAUSING MICROBES

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    E.O. Oshomoh and M. Idu*

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Parinari curatellifolia (stem were tested against five dental carries causing bacteria and three fungi strains by agar diffusion method. The crude extracts showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting the five strains of bacteria and the three fungi. The extracts were most effective against Aspergilusflavus, followed by Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. S. mutans and S. aureus were the only microorganisms that showed zone of inhibition in all the various concentrations of the ethanol extract of P. curatelifolia. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, anthraquinones, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, phlobotanins and carbohydrates.

  5. Study of changes in adiponectin level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of berberis vulgaris

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    Mina Hemmati

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Oral administration of aqueous extract of barberry is effective in reducing triglyceride and FBS. An increased level of adiponectin due to using barberry extract can play a role in the regulation of lipid profile in diabetes.

  6. Screening of Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous extracts of Leaves, Flower and Stem of Eclipta alba

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    Prabhsimran Singh Sandhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the oldest source of pharmacologically active compounds, and have provided humankind with many medically useful compounds for centuries. In this study aqueous extract of leaves, stem and flower of Eclipta alba were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC25923,Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC10699, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC10741, Proteus vulgaris (ATCC12454 Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923 Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC15380 and Staphylococcus. Saprophyticus (ATCC35552 It was shown that leaves extract effective against E. cloacae & K .pneumoniae but not against others, while aquous extract of stem shown good antitimicrobial effect against E. cloacae, E. faecali, K. pneumoniae and S. saprophyticus but E. coli, P. vulgaris, S. aureus were found resistant and The aqueous extract of flower shown reliabe ZOI against P.vulgaris ,S.aureus and S.saprophyticus while resistant against all other microbes.

  7. Investigation of poly-herbal aqueous extract for potential anti-ulcer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous polyherbal extract of betel, clove, fennel and black catechu was evaluated for gastro-protective (antiulcer activity in rats using the aspirin and ethanol induced ulcer models. Efficacy was assessed by determination of ulcer index and percentage of ulcer protection.  Antioxidant activity of extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging procedure. Oral administration of the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg and (500 mg/kg showed dose dependent antiulcer activity and protected gastric lesions by about 65 to 75% respectively compared to standard drug Omeprazole (98%. The findings suggest that the polyherbal extract have significant gastro-protective activity.                                                                   

  8. Safety Evaluation of Aqueous Extract of Garcinia Kola Seeds in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garcinia kola seed is consumed indiscriminately in Nigeria without recourse to its potential toxicity. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. kola seeds on selected tissues of male rats. Methods: Thirty male rats (215.00 ± 18.58 g were assigned into four groups: A, B, C and D which received 0.5 ml of distilled water, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively, once daily for 7 days. Biochemical indices of organ damage and toxicity were determined using standard methods. Results: The extract significantly (P0.05 altered. Conclusion: The treatment related alterations in the present study indicates that the aqueous extract of G. kola seeds at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight caused functional toxicity to the organs of the animals and thus not safe as an oral remedy.

  9. Cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O; Kamadyaapa, D R; Gondwe, M M; Moodley, K; Musabayane, C T

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) aqueous leaf extract (PAE) have been investigated in some experimental animal paradigms. The effects of PAE on myocardial contractile performance was evaluated on guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips, while the vasodilatory effects of the plant extract were examined on isolated portal veins and thoracic aortic rings of healthy normal Wistar rats in vitro. The hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract was examined in healthy normotensive and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats in vivo. P americana aqueous leaf extract (25-800 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent, significant (p americana leaf could be used as a natural supplementary remedy in essential hypertension and certain cases of cardiac dysfunctions in some rural Africa communities.

  10. Ion Exchange Extraction of Boron from Aqueous Fluids by Amberlite IRA 743 Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖应凯; 廖步勇; 刘卫国; 肖云; SWIHART,GeorgeH.

    2003-01-01

    The ion exchange characteristics d Amherlite IRA 743 resin for extracting boron from aqueous fluids have been investigated in detail. The results show that AmherHte IRA 743 resin, a boron specific ion exchange resin, can quantitatively extract boron as the B (OH)4- spedes from weakly basle solution. Some exchangeable anions such as CI- and SO42- are present, resulting in an increase in pH value of the loeded solution within the nan, and the boron in natural aqueous fluids with low nH is also extracted by Amberlite IRA 743 resin. However, the voiume of loaded solution must be restricted. The maximum voiume of loaded solution giving quantitative extraction of boron decreases for sample soh.,tiom of lower pH value. Warm HCI solution is more effective than room temperature HCI solution for eluting boron from Amberllte IRA 743 resin.

  11. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects

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    Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill. In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group’s oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006 and AGEs formation (P=0.003 significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications.

  12. Effect of aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. leaves in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, S O; Yakubu, M T; Afolayan, A J

    2010-05-01

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was investigated for toxicity in male rats following administration on daily basis for 21 days. The extract did not significantly (p > .05) alter the levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width, basophils, total protein, phosphorus, calcium and chloride ions of the animals. Whereas the levels of lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, albumin as well as alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase activity were decreased by the extract, those of neutrophil, magnesium, total and conjugated bilirubin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase as well as liver and kidney body weight ratios increased. There was decrease in the mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and cholesterol only at the 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, whereas the large unstained cells, sodium ions, white blood cells and uric acid increased only at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. The urea, creatinine and potassium increased only at 125 mg/kg body weight of the extract while the globulin content was elevated only at 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract. The doses did not produce any definite pattern of effect on the red blood cells and platelets. These alterations by the aqueous extract of L. leonurus leaves on the haematological together with the liver and kidney functional indices suggests parameter and dose-selective effects of the extract and will have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the blood system, kidney and liver of the animals. The extract is also unlikely to predispose the animals to cardiovascular risk when repeatedly consumed on daily basis at the doses investigated for 21 days. Therefore, the aqueous extract of L. leonurus

  13. Cardiovascular effects in vitro of aqueous extract of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudnic, I; Modun, D; Brizic, I; Vukovic, J; Generalic, I; Katalinic, V; Bilusic, T; Ljubenkov, I; Boban, M

    2009-05-01

    In contrast to the strawberry fruits, strawberry leaves as a source of bioactive compounds with potentially beneficial biological effects have been largely overlooked. In this study we examined direct, dose-dependent effects of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.) leaves aqueous extract, in two experimental models and animal species, the isolated guinea pig hearts and rat aortic rings. Vasodilatory potential of the wild strawberry leaves extract was compared with vasodilatory activity of aqueous extract of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha, L) leaves with flowers, which can be regarded as a reference plant extract with a marked vasodilatory activity. The extracts were analysed by their "phenolic fingerprints", total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity. Their vasodilatory activity was determined and compared in the isolated aortic rings from 24 rats that were exposed to the extracts doses of 0.06, 0.6, 6, and 60 mg/100ml. Both extracts induced similar, dose-dependent vasodilation. Maximal relaxation was 72.2+/-4.4% and 81.3+/-4.5%, induced by the strawberry and hawthorn extract, respectively. To determine vasodilatory mechanisms of the wild strawberry leaves extract, endothelium-denuded and intact rings exposed to nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME or cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin were used. Removal of the endothelium prevented and exposure to L-NAME or indomethacin strongly diminished the vasodilatatory response to the extract. In the isolated hearts (n=12), the wild strawberry extract was applied at concentrations of 0.06, 0.18, 0.6, and 1.8 mg/100ml. Each dose was perfused for 3.5 min with 15 min of washout periods. Heart contractility, electrophysiological activity, coronary flow and oxygen consumption were continuously monitored. The extract did not significantly affect heart rate and contractility, main parameters of the cardiac action that determine oxygen demands, while coronary flow increased up to 45% over control value with a

  14. Statistical optimization of aqueous extraction of pectin from waste durian rinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this present study was to investigate and optimize the aqueous extraction conditions such as solid-liquid (SL) ratio (1:5-1:15 g/ml), pH (2-3), extraction time (20-60 min) and extraction temperature (75-95 °C) on maximum extraction of pectin from durian rinds using four factors, three levels Box-Behnken response design. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum extraction condition was found to be as follows: SL ratio of 1:10 g/ml, pH of 2.8, extraction time of 43 min and extraction temperature of 86 °C respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental pectin yield (9.1%) was well correlated with predicted yield (9.3%).

  15. Ionic liquid pre-treatment of microalgae and extraction of biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desai, Rupali K.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) techniques are widely used in separation primarily due to ease of scale up. Conventional (LLE) systems based on organic solvents are not suitable for extraction of fragile molecules such as proteins as it would result in denaturation. On the other hand aqueous biphasic

  16. The effects of aqueous extracts of Desmodium gangeticum DC. (Leguminosae) on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, S; Khan, M T; Choudhuri, M S

    2001-06-01

    The aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum DC. (Leguminosae) showed no analgesic activity in the hot plate method, but it showed severe anti-writhing activity in the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing assay. It exhibited moderate central nervous system depressant activity in the spontaneous motor activity, hole cross, and open field tests and hole board tests. The effects of this extract on locomotion were compared with some standard CNS drugs.

  17. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

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    Okoh Anthony I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of crude aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. The flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract were also determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract was 0.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder. The total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the plant were 0.705 and 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder respectively. The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxide at the initial stage of oxidation showed antioxidant activity of 87% compared to those of BHT (84.6% and gallic acid (96%. Also, the percentage inhibition of malondialdehyde by the extract showed percentage inhibition of 78% comparable to those of BHT (72.24% and Gallic (94.82%. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of H. longifolium is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  18. Evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum) pericarp aqueous extract on Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica)

    OpenAIRE

    Berto, Bruno P.; Helcio R. Borba; Hataânderson Luiz C. dos Santos; Lima,Viviane M.; Walter Flausino; Teixeira-Filho,Walter L.; Lopes,Carlos Wilson G.

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties have been associated with the extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum) in several animals and conditions. The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current study investigated the effects of the pomegranate pericarp aqueous extract on the shedding, viability and morphometry of three Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails...

  19. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995`s successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium.

  20. Impact of Aqueous Plant Extracts on Trigona spinipes (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The stingless bees are an important component of the insect biomass in many tropical areas, due to their collection of nectar and pollen. Trigona spinipes is a widely distributed species in South America, and described as a pollinator of many crops that can be used in a commercial pollinating system. The effects of plant extracts on insects are studied because of the demand for organic food and their selectivity to natural enemies. Plant insecticides are reported as a potential agent for the ...

  1. The effect of aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetic profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, Niken; Garmana, Afrillia Nuryanti; Setiawan, Finna; Sukandar, Elin Yulinah; Adnyana, I. Ketut

    2016-03-01

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves had immunosupressant effect on lupus nephritis model. When it combined with methylprednisolone, there is a risk of interaction. In this study rats divided into two groups, a group that received methylprednisolone (MP) (0.72 mg/kgBW) and a group that received MP in combination with extract (0.36 mg/kg BW MP and 140 mg/kg BW extract). These treatment were given everyday for 4 weeks. Methylprednisolone concentration in rats serum was measured using HPLC with extraction method according to Lawson method (1985). The column used was Inertsil C-18 using mobile phase KH2PO4 : metanol (15:85) buffer, flow rate 0.6 mL/minutes, UV detector (λ = 230 nm) and pressure 1319 psi. The result showed that there was an interaction occurred. The combination of MP and aqueous extract of K. pinnata leaves showed interaction which causing methylprednisolone level comparable with methylprednisolone level in MP group. Mean of decreasing MP level in serum was 0.285 ppm. It means that aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium could elevate methylprednisolone concentration in plasma. Adjustment of the dose must be considered in this combination.

  2. Leucaena leucocephala fruit aqueous extract stimulates adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Arumugam, Bavani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro "insulin-like" activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties.

  3. Leucaena leucocephala Fruit Aqueous Extract Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in Primary Rat Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umah Rani Kuppusamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro “insulin-like” activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1 involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties.

  4. Extraction of cobalt(II) from aqueous solution by N,N'-carbonyl difatty amides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad A. Jaffar Al-Mulla; Khalid Waleed S. Al-Janabi

    2011-01-01

    The development of economic and environmentally friendly extractants to recover cobalt metal is required due to the increasing demand for this metal. In this study, solvent extraction of Co(Ⅱ) from aqueous solution using a mixture of N,N'-carbonyl difatty amides (CDFAs) synthesised from palm oil as the extractant was carried out. The effects of various parameters such as acid, contact time, extractant concentration, metal ion concentration and stripping agent and the separation of Co(Ⅱ) from other metal ions such as Fe(Ⅱ), Ni(Ⅱ), Zn(Ⅲ) and Cd(Ⅱ) were investigated. It was found that the extraction of Co(Ⅱ) into the organic phase involved the formation of 1:1 complexes. Co(Ⅱ) was successfully separated from commonly associated metal ions such as Fe(Ⅱ), Ni(Ⅱ), Zn(Ⅲ) and Cd(Ⅱ). Co(Ⅱ) stripping from the loaded organic phase was studied in aqueous solution. These results are useful to recover Co(Ⅱ) from aqueous solution utilising (CDFAs) as an extractant.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves

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    Manjit Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL (Nyctaginaceae leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin. Methods: Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05 anti-inflammatory potential.

  6. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  7. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  8. [Anatomical and cytohistological changes caused by aqueous extracts of Tamus communis L. leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, G; Roti-Michelozzi, G; Foggi, G; Modenesi, P

    1981-06-30

    Aqueous extracts of Tamus communis leaves induce root tip swelling of Medicago seedlings and disrupt the mitotic process of Allium root tips. The cells of the swollen roots of Medicago treated seedlings are much wider an shorter than the homologous control cells. In the treated roots of Allium prophases prevail and some cells contain vacuolated nuclei or micronuclei.

  9. Comparing an ionic liquid to a molecular solvent in the cesium cation extraction by a calixarene: a molecular dynamics study of the aqueous interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieffert, Nicolas; Wipff, Georges

    2006-10-01

    We report a molecular dynamics (MD) study of the interfacial behavior of key partners involved in the Cs(+) cation extraction by a calix[4]arene-crown-6 host (L), comparing an ionic liquid (IL) to a classical molecular solvent (chloroform) as receiving "oil" phase. The IL is composed of hydrophobic 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations (BMI(+)) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions (Tf(2)N(-)) and forms a biphasic system with water. The simulations reveal similarities but also interesting differences between the two types of interfaces. Much longer times are needed to "equilibrate" IL systems, compared to classical liquid mixtures, and there is more intersolvent mixing with the IL than with chloroform, especially concerning the water-in-oil content. There is also some excess of the BMI(+) cations over the Tf(2)N(-) anions in the aqueous phase. Simulations on the Na(+)NO(3)(-) and Cs(+)NO(3)(-) ions show that they sometimes interact at the interface with the IL ions, forming hydrated intimate ion pairs, whereas they are "repelled" by the classical interface. The LCs(+) complex and L ligand also behave differently, depending on the "oil phase". They are better solvated by the IL than by chloroform and thus poorly attracted at the IL interface, whereas they adsorb at the chloroform interface, adopting well-defined amphiphilic orientations. The results are discussed in the context of assisted ion transfer and provide a number of arguments explaining the specificity and efficiency of IL based, compared to classical extraction systems.

  10. Thin extractive membrane for monitoring actinides in aqueous streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Vivek; Paul, Sumana; Pandey, Ashok K; Kalsi, P C; Goswami, A

    2013-09-15

    Alpha spectrometry and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are used for monitoring ultra-trace amount of alpha emitting actinides in different aqueous streams. However, these techniques have limitations i.e. alpha spectrometry requires a preconcentration step and SSNTDs are not chemically selective. Therefore, a thin polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) supported on silanized glass was developed for preconcentraion and determination of ultra-trace concentration of actinides by α-spectrometry and SSNTDs. PIMs were formed by spin coating on hydrophobic glass slide or solvent casting to form thin and self-supported membranes, respectively. Sorption experiments indicated that uptakes of actinides in the PIM were highly dependent on acidity of solution i.e. Am(III) sorbed up to 0.1 molL(-1) HNO₃, U(VI) up to 0.5 molL(-1) HNO₃ and Pu(IV) from HNO₃ concentration as high as 4 molL(-1). A scheme was developed for selective sorption of target actinide in the PIM by adjusting acidity and oxidation state of actinide. The actinides sorbed in PIMs were quantified by alpha spectrometry and SSNTDs. For SSNTDs, neutron induced fission-fragment tracks and α-particle tracks were registered in Garware polyester and CR-39 for quantifications of natural uranium and α-emitting actinides ((241)Am/(239)Pu/(233)U), respectively. Finally, the membranes were tested to quantify Pu in 4 molL(-1) HNO3 solutions and synthetic urine samples.

  11. THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF GINGER ROOT IN DIABETIC MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHRA FATEHI-HASSANABAD

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of reports that ginger (Zingiber officinale, Z. officinale extract has antiinfalammatory activity, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether the aqueous extract of Z. officinale has any significant beneficial effect on chronic inflammation in diabetic mice. Control mice received normal saline (0.1 ml, i.p., and in the test group, diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 180mg/kg, i.p. which was confirmed by the measurement of blood glucose, 7 days after STZ injection. One week after saline or STZ injection, chronic inflammation was induced by implantation of cotton pellets (30 mg on each side of the groin region subcutaneously. Then at the day of 3, the aqueous extract of Z.officinale was added to drinking water (100, 200 and 400 mg/100 ml for 4 days. In another sets of experiments, L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. and indomethacin, an inhibitor of the prostaglandin biosynthesis, (2 mg/kg, i.p. were injected at the day of 5 of implantation. On the 8th day, the mice were killed and the pellets were removed, freed from extraneous tissue and dried at 60 °C for 24h. The increase in the weight of cotton pellets was higher in diabetic mice (control: 160 ± 13.6 mg,diabetic: 271 ± 11.8 mg, P<0.001. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of Z. officinale caused a significant but not dose-dependent reduction in cotton pellet weight in diabetic animals (diabetic + Z.officinale's extract: 181.4 ± 21 mg, P<0.05 vs diabetic. The anti-inflammatory effect of extract was almost the same as L-NAME, but less than indomethacin. Results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Z. officinale are comparable to L-NAME.

  12. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

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    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  13. Extraction of copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions with a methimazole-based ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna-González, Juan M; Torriero, Angel A J; Siriwardana, Amal I; Burgar, Iko M; Bond, Alan M

    2010-09-15

    The recently synthesized ionic liquid (IL) 2-butylthiolonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide, [mimSBu][NTf(2)], has been used for the extraction of copper(II) from aqueous solution. The pH of the aqueous phase decreases upon addition of [mimSBu](+), which is attributed to partial release of the hydrogen attached to the N(3) nitrogen atom of the imidazolium ring. The presence of sparingly soluble water in [mimSBu][NTf(2)] also is required in solvent extraction studies to promote the incorporation of Cu(II) into the [mimSBu][NTf(2)] ionic liquid phase. The labile copper(II) system formed by interacting with both the water and the IL cation component has been characterized by cyclic voltammetry as well as UV-vis, Raman, and (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N NMR spectroscopies. The extraction process does not require the addition of a complexing agent or pH control of the aqueous phase. [mimSBu][NTf(2)] can be recovered from the labile copper-water-IL interacting system by washing with a strong acid. High selectivity of copper(II) extraction is achieved relative to that of other divalent cobalt(II), iron(II), and nickel(II) transition-metal cations. The course of microextraction of Cu(2+) from aqueous media into the [mimSBu][NTf(2)] IL phase was monitored in situ by cyclic voltammetry using a well-defined process in which specific interaction with copper is believed to switch from the ionic liquid cation component, [mimSBu], to the [NTf(2)] anion during the course of electrochemical reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(I). The microextraction-voltammetry technique provides a fast and convenient method to determine whether an IL is able to extract electroactive metal ions from an aqueous solution.

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Cytogenotoxic Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC.

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    L. N. Cariddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we extend the toxicological studies of hot aqueous extract of A. satureioides (As-HAE evaluating cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. We also determine genotoxic action of this extract in vivo. In addition, the extract was chemically characterized. Finally, we established a comparison with previous data of cold aqueous extract. The As-HAE induced cytotoxicity on PBMCs determined by trypan blue dye exclusion (CC50 = 653 μg/mL and MTT (CC50 = 588 μg/mL assays being more toxic than cold extract. However, As-HAE as well as cold extract did not induce apoptosis measured by Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL assay, and DNA fragmentation analysis. The in vivo micronucleus test showed that As-HAE exerted cytogenotoxic effects on bone marrow of mice, contrary to what was observed with cold extract. The chemical study of As-HAE allowed identifying the flavonoids found in cold extract: luteolin, quercetin, and 3-O-methylquercetin, but at higher concentrations. We suggest that toxic effects induced by As-HAE could be due to high concentrations of these flavonoids. Given that As-HAE is the most used in folkloric medicine, its administration should be controlled in order to prevent potential cell damage.

  15. The Antioxidative Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Rosemary and Green Tea Leaves: A Comparative Study

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    *N. M. Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of rosemary and green tea leaves, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, have been studied by using two different methods (reducing power and chelating ability. It was found that the total phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves were 13.44, 18.75, 39.38 and 48.44 mg/ 100 mg dry extract respectively. The flavonoids (which is a part of the phenolic compounds were found to be 9.54, 12.65, 17.69 and 22.70 mg/ 100 mg dry extract in aqueous and ethanolic extract of rosemary and green tea leaves respectively. The ethanolic extract shows high content of phenolic compounds and in turn highly antioxidative activiy for both rosemary and green tea leaves as compared with aqueous extract.The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves show high reducing power ability comparing with their abilities as chelating agents. Although, the phenolic compounds of green tea leave almost about 3-fold as compared with rosemary leave in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts, their extracts show extremely the same mode of action in both methods of determination (the reducing power and chelating ability. Therefore, we are fully recommended the rosemary leave extracts as a potent food preservative.

  16. Role of Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous leaf extracts of Murraya koenigii in Gastroprotection

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    Hyacinth Highland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii leaves are regularly used in our diet and hence, our gastrointestinal tract is regularly exposed to this extract. Therefore the present study was focused on the evaluation of the Gastroprotective action of Murraya koenigii leaf extracts on Pancreas and Duodenum. Male albino mice (35-40 gm were treated with Murraya koenigii leaf extracts (Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous, against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced toxic model for seven days, using two different dose concentrations.The mice were divided into six groups, including Group I –Untreated Controls and Group I A –Vehicle controls.  The negative control (Group II was administered CCl4 along with vehicle (olive oil.  Group III and IV were administered low dose (150 mg/kg body weight of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts after inducing toxicity with CCl4. Similarly, Group V and VI were administered with high dose (250mg/kg body weight of the extracts. Biochemical markers included ATPase, ALKpase, ACPase, SDH, Protein and Cholesterol in both target tissues; duodenal Triglycerides and Pancreatic amylase were also estimated. It was observed that Murraya koenigii leaf extracts had a mitigative  effect and were able to bring the elevated levels of ATPase, SDH, ALKPase, ACPase and Amylase to near normal values. The hydroalcoholic extract proved to be more effective than the aqueous extract. Hence, Murraya koenigii leaf extracts have potent ameliorative action on the CCl4 induced toxicity in the duodenum and pancreas, manifesting potent gastroprotective activity. The present study has significant impact since the plant is used extensively in both cuisine and medication.

  17. Enzymatic aqueous technology for simultaneous coconut protein and oil extraction

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    Coelho, Maria A. Z.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the following commercial enzymes were evaluated in the enzymatic extraction of oil and protein from coconut: Celluclast, Termamyl, Viscozyme, Neutrase y Protease. Preliminary experiments were carried out for selection of enzymes, enzyme concentration and incubation time. In order to verify the effects of pH and water/substrate ratio, a response surface methodology was applied based in a 32 full factorial experimental design. The pH is the most meaningful parameter on oil and protein extraction yields, with a significance level higher than 90%. The maximal extraction yields of oil and protein emulsion (83% was reached using Viscozyme L and subsequently Neutrase 1.5 MG at concentrations of 0.6% (w/w and 0.3% (w/w, respectively, total incubation time of 60 minutes, substrate/water ratio 1:6 and pH around 7 (no adjustment.En este trabajo diferentes enzimas hidroliticos fueron usados para la extracción de aceite y proteína de coco: Celluclast, Termamyl, Viscozyme, Neutrase y Protease producidos por Novo Nordisk. Experimientos preliminares fueron encaminados a la selección de los extractos enzimaticos, de las concentraciones de las enzimas y de los tiempos de incubación. La técnica de análisis de varianza, mediante un delineamiento factorial en tres niveles, fue usada para la optimización de los procesos con relación a los parámetros pH y razón sustrato/agua. Comparando con la extracción acuosa todos los enzimas hidroliticos incrementan la extracción de aceite y proteína vegetal de coco. Los coeficientes de correlación muestran que el pH fué el parámetro mas significativo (pViscozyme y Neutrase 0.6 % (w/w y 0.3 % (w/w, respectivamente, tiempo de incubación 30 minutos, razón sustrato/agua 1:6 y pH 7.

  18. Osteoprotective effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi aqueous extract in aged ovariectomized rats

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    Fung Kwok

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL is a commonly used herb for treating bone disorders in Chinese medicine. The present study investigates the anti-osteoporotic activity of FLL aqueous extract in the model of postmenopausal bone loss in aged ovariectomized (OVX female rats. Methods After eight weeks of treatment of FLL or water, the lumbar spine was scanned by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Effects of FLL water extract on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations in rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were assessed by biochemical methods and staining. Results FLL aqueous extract significantly inhibited bone mineral density (BMD loss in total, trabecular and cortical bones without affecting body weight and uterus wet weight. FLL extract significantly promoted osteogenesis and suppressed adipogenesis in MSCs as indicated by the elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition levels and decreased adipocyte number in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxic effects. Real-time PCR analysis revealed significant increase of osteoprotegerin (OPG-to-receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL mRNA, indicating a decrease in osteoclastogenesis. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the osteoprotective effects of FLL aqueous extract on aged OVX rats, stimulation of osteogenesis, inhibition of adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in MSCs.

  19. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level.

  20. The green synthesis of fine particles of gold using an aqueous extract of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Natasha; Khan, Abbas; Shah, Mohib; Azam, Andaleeb; Zaman, Khair; Parven, Zahida

    2016-12-01

    This study deals with the synthesis and physicochemical investigation of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.). On the treatment of aqueous solution of tetrachloroauric acid with the plant extract, gold nanoparticles were rapidly fabricated. The synthesized particles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation of AuNPs was confirmed by noting the change in color through visual observations as well as via UV-Vis spectroscopy. UV‒Vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing gold nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 540 nm. FTIR was used to identify the chemical composition of gold nanoparticles and Au-capped plant extract. The presence of elemental gold was also confirmed through EDX analysis. SEM analysis of the gold nanoparticles showed that they have a uniform spherical shape with an average size in the range of 70-78 nm. This green system showed to be better capping and stabilizing agent for the fine particles. Further, the antioxidant activity of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.) extract and Au-capped with the plant extract was also evaluated using FeCl3/K3[Fe(CN)]6 in vitro assay.

  1. The Protective Action of the Aqueous Extract of Auricularia polytricha in Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappan, Dinesh K; Ganasen, Sivamalar; Batumalai, Shaminiswary; Candasamy, Mayuren; Krishnappa, Purushotham; Dua, Kamal; Chellian, Jestin; Gupta, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver injuries considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Auricularia polytricha has been used as food or medicine due to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of the fruiting bodies of A. polytricha against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by oral administration of 2g/kg paracetamol on the 15th day after the administration of aqueous extract and silymarin 100 mg/kg. Aqueous extract of A. polytricha was administered orally at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses, daily for a period of 14 days. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Total bilirubin (TB), Total protein (TP), Triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol were measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage. The patent on Auricularia Polytricha (EP0413052A1) assisted in selecting the extraction procedure. The study also included histopathological examination of liver sections to assess hepatoprotective activity. Paracetamol significantly (Pinduced increase in AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, TB, TG and cholesterol and increased the diminished TP in a dose dependent manner. The standard drug, silymarin produced significant (Pinduced liver toxicity in rats, due to its potent antioxidant activity.

  2. Combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process on soy oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Akash; Nema, Anurag; Singh, V K; Mandhyan, B L

    2014-08-01

    This research describes a new technological process for soybean oil extraction. The process deals with the combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous oil extraction process (EAEP) on enhancement of oil recovery from soybean seed. The experimental process consisted of following basic steps, namely, dehulling, wet grinding, enzymatic treatment, ohmic heating, aqueous extraction and centrifugation. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on aqueous oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (i.e. OH600V, OH750V and OH900V), 3 levels of end point temperature (i.e. 70, 80 and 90 °C) and 3 levels of holding time (i.e. 0, 5 and 10 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovery from soybean by EAEP alone and EAEP coupled with ohmic heating were 53.12 % and 56.86 % to 73 % respectively. The maximum oil recovery (73 %) was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 90 °C using electric field strength of OH600V for a holding time of 10 min. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil (i.e. in range of 0.97 to 1.29 %) was within the acceptable limit of 3 % (oleic acid) and 0.5-3 % prescribed respectively by PFA and BIS.

  3. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

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    Uchendu Chukwuka Nwocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05 in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05 compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats

  4. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae in plant test system

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    GHS Cardoso

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions.

  5. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Morus nigra against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

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    Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus nigra (Family Moraceae is traditionally used injaundice, diabetes, hypertension, cough, fever and cancer. The current study was conducted to determine hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of leaves of M. nigra. Two doses of 250 mg/kg p.o and 500 mg/kg p.o showed that extract of M. nigra produced significant (p<0.001 reduction in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin induced by paracetamol and the results are comparable to silymarin (p<0.001. Results were supported by histopathologi-cal investigations, phytochemical screening and detection of active consti-tuents by HPLC. The current study showed that aqueous methanolic extract of M. nigra possess hepatoprotective activity that might be due to quercetin, luteolin and isorhamnetin. It was concluded from this study that M. nigra has hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver injury in mice.

  7. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

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    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and inulin were measured. Results: The K2Cr2O7 caused significant renal dysfunction, but A. sativum extract prevented this condition by improving all measured biomarkers. Conclusions: A single injection of K2Cr2O7 induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but the supply of an Allium sativum aqueous extract prevented the disorders caused by this metal.

  8. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L. BLUME

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    Srinivas Reddy K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract showed significant diuretic activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weigh by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in urine and also extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  9. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A strategy for the protein purification with a deep eutectic solvent(DES)-based aqueous two-phase system. • Choline chloride-glycerin DES was selected as the extraction solvent. • Bovine serum albumin and trypsin were used as the analytes. • Aggregation phenomenon was detected in the mechanism research. - Abstract: As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n = 3), 1.6057% (n = 3) and 1.6132% (n = 3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES–protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins.

  10. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  11. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  12. Liquid Phase Micro-Extraction of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Anionic Surfactants in Aqueous Samples

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) from aqueous samples was studied. Ion pair extraction of C10, C11, C12 and C13 homologues was facilitated with trihexylamine as ion-pairing agent, using di-n-hexylether as solvent for the supported liquid membrane (SLM). Effects of extraction time, acceptor buffer concentration, stirring speed, sample volume, NaCl and humic acids were studied. At 10–50 μg L−1 linear R2-coefficients were 0.99 for C10 and ...

  13. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mbaebie BO; Edeoga HO; Afolayan AJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. Methods:The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results:The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines.

  14. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

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    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  15. Vasorelaxant effect of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hilaly, Jaouad; Lyoussi, Badiaâ; Wibo, Maurice; Morel, Nicole

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ex vivo and in vitro vascular activity of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Labiatae) in normotensive Wistar rats. Chronic oral administration of the extract of Ajuga iva did not significantly affect the systolic blood pressure. In aorta isolated from Ajuga iva-treated rats, the contractile response to noradrenaline was depressed compared to the responses obtained in aorta from untreated rats but the endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by acetylcholine was not affected. In vitro, Ajuga iva extract inhibited the contraction evoked by noradrenaline. The addition of Ajuga iva extract during the plateau phase of noradrenaline-evoked contraction produced a relaxation that was sensitive to N-nitro-L-arginine. After pre-incubation of the artery in the presence of the plant extract, vasorelaxant effect was markedly less pronounced. The endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was concentration-dependently blunted in the presence of Ajuga iva extract in the bathing solution. This study indicates that the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva possesses NO-mediated and NO-independent vasorelaxing properties in vitro while only the endothelium-independent effect was observed ex vivo.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous, Ethanol and Acetone extracts of Sesbania grandiflora leaves and its phytochemical characterization

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    K. Padmalochana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are being highly explored as a major source of medicinal compounds due to the presence of various phytochemical groups. Leaves of Sesbania grandiflora was consumed in traditional medicinal system of Ayurveda for numerous harmful syndromes and infections. This present study was explored the various phytochemicals present in the plant leaves of S. grandiflora. The qualitative analysis of various phytochemicals was exploited using different solvent systems. The aqueous, 80% ethanol and 70% acetone extraction was carried out in this study. Ethanolic extract shown presence of high amount of Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Glycosides and steroids were confirmed by formation of colour intensity during chemical reactions. All the three extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic micro-organisms especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and dermatophytes Candida sp using Agar well diffusion method. Among these three extracts ethanol extracts shows good antibacterial activity compared with aqueous and acetone extracts. Because of the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and steroids ethanol extract shows high antibacterial activity. So these active compounds can be used in the field of medicine as therapeutic agent.

  17. [Betamethasone and aqueous extract of Arctium lappa for treating angiostrongyliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Camila Argenta; Dieterish, Solange; Rodriguez, Rubens

    2008-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasite that causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in humans. The treatment for it includes the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, despite the lack of studies to justify this approach. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of betamethasone and Arctium lappa on the evolution of intestinal lesions induced by this parasite. Adult male Swiss mice were used, distributed into four groups: infected and treated with betamethasone; infected and treated with Arctium lappa; infected and not treated; and control group. The treatments were started on the 15th day after infection and continued for 15 days. The presence of eosinophilic infiltration and granuloma was evaluated (1-mild; 2-moderate; 3-severe). Betamethasone allowed the lesions to evolve into more severe forms, while the extract did not interfere with disease progression. The substances applied were ineffective for protection against the lesions induced by Angiostrongylus costaricensis in mice. These findings discourage the use of betamethasone and Arctium lappa for humans affected by abdominal angiostrongyliasis.

  18. Antidiarrhoeal activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Carum copticum seeds in experimental rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Balaji; M Chalamaiah; B Ramesh; Y Amarnath Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiarrhoeal activity of 95% total alcoholic extract (TAE) and total aqueous extract (TAQ) of Carum copticum (C. copticum) seeds. Methods: Antidiarrhoeal activity of C. copticum seed extracts at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW was evaluated using experimentally induced castor oil diarrhoea, gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal and enteropooling activity in male wistar rats and compared to standard drugs. Results: At a dose of 100 mg/Kg BW (TAQ and TAE) significantly decreased the diarrhoeal droppings in castor oil induced diarrhoea, the mean distance travelled by charcoal meal showed a significant reduction in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluid accumulation by 39.90% to 50.70%. C. copticum extracts on castor oil induced fluid accumulation showed a greater inhibitory effect on Na+ levels than on K+ concentrations. Conclusions: These results suggest that C. copticum seed extracts could be used for the treatment of diarrhoea.

  19. ANTI-STRESS ACTIVITY OF EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA L. AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT IN FEMALE RATS

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    SIVAPRASAD GUDIPUDI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia thymifolia root is having the protective effect against female reproductive dysfunctions. This study is to evaluate the anti-stress activity of aqueous extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root in treating female reproductive dysfunction induced by stress. Forced swimming stress (15min/day for 28 days and restraint stress (3h/day for 28 days were the methods employed to induce female reproductive dysfunction in rats. Aqueous extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root was given to rats in two doses, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for 28 days along with induction of stress and its effectiveness was assessed by observing changes in estrous cycle and organs weight. The results were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. Euphorbia thymifolia root extract showed a significant protective effect which is evident by decrease in the duration of proestrous and increase in duration of estrous, metestrous, and diestrous phases. Whereas the weight of adrenal glands noticeably decreased in aqueous extract treated group confirming the anti-stress activity which was found to be dose dependent. The anti-stress activity may be due to the presence of various phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and other constituents present in the Euphorbia thymifolia root.

  20. Studies on total polyphenols and reducing power of aqueous extracts from selected lamiaceae species

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    Maria Cioroi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Certain phytochemicals in species are attracting increased attention because of a wide range of biological activities especially the possible cancer preventive properties. Polyphenols, the naturalantioxidants are present in plant extracts and they play a key role in antioxidative defence mechanisms in biological systems and they act as free radicals scavenging agents. Polyphenols might thereforeinhibit development of coronary heart disease and cancers. Basil, oregano and sage are highly fragrant plants whose leaves are used as a seasoning herb for many different types of foods. Aqueous extractswere prepared from basil (Ocimum basilicum L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L.. To check the phenols presence, the UV-VIS spectrum was made. The amount of polyphenolic compounds from selected Lamiaceae species was determined by spectrophotometry method using the Folin - Ciocalteau reagent and gallic acid as standard. The range of polyphenols total was between 516,352 mg/100g dried species and 859,617 mg/100g dried species.Reducing power has been established by measuring the redox potential of aqueous extracts. Antioxidant activity was directly correlated with the total amount of polyphenols in the species extracts.The free reducing sugars in aqueous extracts from species were analyzed and correlated to the total content of polyphenols.

  1. Fractions of aqueous and methanolic extracts from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) present platelet antiaggregant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduado J; Astudillo, Luis A; Gutiérrez, Margarita I; Contreras, Samuel O; Bustamante, Luis O; Rubio, Pia I; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Alarcón, Marcelo A; Fuentes, Jaime A; González, Daniel E; Palomo, Iván F

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Its prevention emphasizes three aspects: not smoking, physical activity and a healthy diet. Recently, we screened the antithrombotic activity of a selected group of fruits and vegetables. Among them, tomato showed an important effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the platelet antiaggregatory activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). For this, we obtained aqueous and methanolic tomato extracts and evaluated the effect of pH (2 and 10) and temperature (22, 60 and 100°C) on this activity. Furthermore, in order to isolate the antiaggregant principle, we separated tomato extracts into several fractions (A-D) by size exclusion chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the platelet antiaggregating activity ex vivo in Wistar rats. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of tomato treated at 22, 60 and 100°C and pH 2 and 10 still inhibited platelet aggregation (in vitro). Moreover, it was noted that one of the fractions (fraction C), from both aqueous and methanolic extracts, presented the highest activity (∼70% inhibition of platelet aggregation) and concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation significantly compared with control (P lycopene but presented two peaks of absorption, at 210 and 261 nm, compatible with the presence of nucleosides. In rats treated with tomato macerates, a mild platelet antiaggregating effect ex vivo was observed. Further studies are required to identify the molecules with platelet antiaggregating activity and antiplatelet mechanisms of action.

  2. Protective Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Portulaca Oleracea Against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

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    Gholamreza Karimi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPortulaca oleracea L. is a herbaceous weed from portulacaceae family. It can be found in many parts of the world. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that P. oleracea have antioxidant effects. The protective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. oleracea against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity was studied in rats.Materials and MethodsSingle intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg cisplatin was administrated to rats. After 5 days, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr concentration were determined. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts, before and after cisplatin injection on BUN and Scr, as well as morphological renal damage, was evaluated. ResultsIt was indicated that treatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. oleracea in the highest dose (0.8 and 2 g/ kg, 6 and 12 hr before cisplatin injection reduced BUN and Scr. Tubular necrotic damage was not observed either. ConclusionResults suggest that P. oleracea extract may protect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and might serve as a novel combination agent with cisplan to limit renal injury.

  3. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg(-1) body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg(-1) body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg(-1)) or leaves (4.60 g kg(-1)) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest.

  4. Antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic leaves extracts of Dissotis thollonii Cogn. (Melastomataceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ateufack Gilbert; Tadjoua Tchoumbou Herve; Yousseu Nana William; Sama Fonkeng Leonard; Kuiate Jules-Roger; Kamanyi Albert

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the phytochemical test and selected pharmacological activities (antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity) of the aqueous and methanolic leaves extracts of Dissotis thollonii Cogn. (Melastomataceae) (D. thollonii). Methods:The aqueous and methanolic extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial activities on the in vitro growth of 2 clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri), and 5 reference bacteria strains [Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 (E. coli), E. coli ATCC 10536, Salmonella typhi ATCC 6539, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 and E. coli ATCC 11775] by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and bactericidal concentrations using broth microdilution method as well as on the infectious, secretory and osmotic induced diarrhoea models in rats. Results:The aqueous extract inhibited the in vitro growth of all bacteria tested (the 05 reference bacteria strains and the 02 clinical isolates), with MICs values comprised between 32 and 512 µg/mL, whereas the methanolic extract has done the same with the MICs values located between 128 and 512 µg/mL. In vivo, the methanolic and aqueous extracts provoqued at all doses, a significant decrease (P Conclusions:The leaves of D. thollonii thus have antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal effects, which could result from their activities on blocking the inhibiting effects of the bacterial enzymes, inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis, allowing the rupture of the lipopolysaccharidic membrane, as well as on inhibiting prostaglandins-E2 synthesis or increasing the hydroelectrolytic reabsorption. These results attestted the ethnopharmacological use of D. thollonii leaves in the treatment of diarrhoea and gastro-intestinal infections.

  5. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Aqueous Extract on Carbon

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    Hala A.H. Khattab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bachground: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of various liver diseases. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GbE have been proved to be an effective antioxidant, thereby can contribute to the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of GbE on acute liver injury induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. Material and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male rats by intraperitoneal (i.p injection of CCl4 1mL/ kg body weight (b.w. for every 72 h for 14 days, GbE was administered orally at a dose of 150 mg/kg b.w., daily started two weeks prior to CCl4 injection and continued until the end of the experiment. Results: CCl4 caused acute liver damage in rats, as evidenced by significant increase serum enzymes activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (ALT & AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as significant decrease in weight gain percent, serum total protein (TP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH. Pretreatment with GbE prior to CCl4 injection elicited hepatoprotetcive activity by significant decreased the activities of liver enzymes and hepatic MDA, and significant increased the levels of TP, and hepatic GSH, as well as induced significant ameliorated in weight gain percent and lipid profile parameters as compared with CCl4 group. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues of CCl4 group represented the presence of hepatic necrosis associated with cells infiltration and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, while the pretreatment with GbE overcome these changes, the majority of the cells tend to be normal.Conclusion: The present findings indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of GbE against CCl4-induced oxidative damage may be due to its potent antioxidant activity. Therefore, GbE could be of potential

  6. Multiresponse Optimization and Prediction of Antioxidant Properties of Aqueous Ginger Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, Solomon Akinremi; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe; Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade

    2016-01-01

    The influence of extraction temperature, powder concentration, and extraction time on the antioxidant properties of aqueous ginger extract was investigated. The possibility of estimating the antioxidant properties of the extract from its absorbance and colour properties was also investigated. Results indicated that powder concentration was the most significant factor to consider in optimizing antioxidant extraction. However, temperature and time still influenced the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity while extraction temperature influenced the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the extract. Using the total phenol content, total flavonoid content, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract, the multiresponse optimization condition for extraction of antioxidant based on the experimental range studied is 96°C, 2.10 g/100 mL, and 90 min. The absorbance of the ginger extract at 610 nm could be exploited for rapid estimation of its total flavonoid and polyphenol with a R2 of 0.713 and 0.753, respectively. PMID:28078258

  7. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

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    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  8. Antifungal Effect of the Aqueous and Ethanolic Avicennia marina Extracts on Alternaria citri and Penicillium digitatum

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    Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Plants have a great potential for producing new drugs of great benefit to mankind. There are many approaches to the search for new biologically active principles in higher plants. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine antifungal effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Avicennia marina on Penicillium digitatum and Alternaria citri in vitro. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, antimicrobial effects of extract were determined by screening antimicrobial activity and disk agar diffusion test in 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/mL concentration of the extract against P. digitatum and A. citri. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were determined by incorporating various concentrations of extracts in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA in tubes against P. digitatum and A. citri. The data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS-17. Results The results indicate that extracts of A. marina mostly had been effective on P. digitatum and have the least impact on A. citri. The results show that the ethanol extract of mangrove leaf with antimicrobial activity method in 2 mg/mL, were inhibited the growth of P. digitatum and A. citri. In disk agar diffusion test the mentioned extract were shown inhibition effect on pathogen molds growth (P < 0.05. Conclusions Ethanolic extract compared to the aqueous extract was more effective and has a greater inhibition effect. The results of this study showed that the extract of A. marina has antifungal properties that justify their traditional use as medicinal plants.

  9. Diuretic Activity of the Aqueous Extract Leaves of Ficus glumosa Del. (Moraceae in Rats

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    Fidèle Ntchapda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to validate the use of F. glumosa extract as a diuretic in the treatment of hypertension as claimed by traditional healers. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as check (Furosemide and Amiloride hydrochlorothiazide. The aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid. At the maximum of diuretic response, urinary osmolarity decreased significantly when compared with controls. The single dose treatment of the aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa has significantly increased urine volume 24 h after administration of the extract. The stability of aldosterone level, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and the increased clearance of free water in the animals receiving the extract show that increased diuresis and natriuresis moderate elevation are tubular in origin. The increase in Na+, K+, and Cl− induced by the extract caused alkalinization of the urine and showed a strong inhibitory effect of carbonic anhydrase and saluretic. These effects were mainly observed at the dose of 375 mg/kg. These observations confirm the traditional use in the treatment of hypertension and support the importance of the conservation of local knowledge as well as the conservation of Cameroonian biodiversity.

  10. Antiinflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (cham, sandrine petit stem bark in rats

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    Ching F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham, Sandrine Petit (family: Bignoniaceae is used in traditional medicine to treat bronchitis, pneumonia and coughs, gastritis, wounds, rheumatic arthritis, ulcers, dysentery, leprosy and venereal diseases in humans. The antiinflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of the stem bark was investigated with experimental animal models using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema, leucocytes migration and granuloma air pouch tests in rats. The extract (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg at 3 h post-treatment caused a significant (p< 0.05 reduction in the paw oedema in rats. The effect of the extract was most pronounced at the dose of 400 mg/kg and was higher than that of indomethacin (10 mg/kg. The extract (400 mg/kg caused a significant (p< 0.05 reduction in the number of recruited leucocytes and it′s inhibition of peritoneal exudate formation was comparable to that of indomethacin at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The exudate formation inhibited by 400 mg/kg of the extract in the granuloma air pouch test was comparatively less to that of indomethacin at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The findings of the study indicate that the aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum stem bark possesses antiinflammatory activity which is probably related to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. This is a possible rationale for its folkloric use as an antiinflammatory agent.

  11. Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts of Propolis on Alpha-Glucosidase

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    Hongcheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of various extracts of propolis on alpha-glucosidase from baker’s yeast and mammalian intestine. Inhibitory activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis were determined by using 4-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside, sucrose and maltose as substrates, and acarbose as a positive reference. All extracts were significantly effective in inhibiting α-glucosidase from baker’s yeast and rat intestinal sucrase in comparison with acarbose (P<0.05. The 75% ethanol extracts of propolis (75% EEP showed the highest inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase and sucrase and were a noncompetitive inhibition mode. 50% EEP, 95%, EEP and 100% EEP exhibited a mixed inhibition mode, while water extracts of propolis (WEP and 25% EEP demonstrated a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, WEP presented the highest inhibitory activity against maltase. These results suggest that aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis may be used as nutraceuticals for the regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia.

  12. The effects of aqueous extracts prepared from the leaves of Pistacia lentiscus in experimental liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubuncic, Predrag; Song, Hui; Cogan, Uri; Azaizeh, Hassan; Bomzon, Arieh

    2005-08-22

    In a previous study, we identified Pistacia lentiscus was worthy for further laboratory evaluation because an aqueous extract of the plant suppressed iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates without affecting mitochondrial respiration in cultured HepG2 and PC12 cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an aqueous extract prepared from the dried leaves of Pistacia lentiscus in a rat model of hepatic injury caused by the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide. We assessed the impact of daily dosing on biochemical and morphological indices and the extent of oxidative stress in the livers of healthy and thioacetamide-treated rats. In healthy rats, long-term administration of the extract induced hepatic fibrosis and an inflammatory response, mild cholestasis and depletion of reduced glutathione associated with an increase in its oxidized form. In thioacetamide-treated rats, long-term administration of extract aggravated the inflammatory and fibrotic and glutathione depleting responses without affecting the extent of lipid peroxidation. Although our previous in vitro study established that extracts prepared from the leaves of Pistacia lentiscus had antioxidant activity, this in vivo study establishes these extracts also contains hepatotoxins whose identity may be quite different from those compounds with antioxidant properties. The results of this study suggest complementing in vitro experiments with those involving animals are essential steps in establishing the safety of medicinal plants. Furthermore, these data confirm that complete reliance on data obtained using in vitro methodologies may lead to erroneous conclusions pertaining to the safety of phytopharmaceuticals.

  13. Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice against pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsion

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    Vaibhav Bhosle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole, and maximal electroshock induced convulsion were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. In the pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion, aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion (p<0.05 and reduced mortality. The aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg dose reduced hind limb tonic extension phase of maximal electroshock induced convulsion induced convulsion in mice (p<0.05. The pretreated aqueous extract of D. triflorum showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue (p<0.001. The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.

  14. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  15. Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous Extract of Luffa aegyptiaca (Sponge gourd Leave Sample from Northern Nigeria: A Short Communication

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    Mhya DH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of the leaves of Luffa aegyptiaca was preliminary screened with the aim of assessing the availability of some biologically active compounds. Pulverized leaves sample of Luffa aegyptiaca was extracted with water; the filtrate was concentrated on water bath and then air-dried at 25oC. The prepared aqueous-extract was used for the phytochemical screening study which was carried out using standard methods. The phytochemicals screened from the aqueous extract of Luffa aegyptiaca showed positive result for flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycoside compounds. These compounds found in the aqueous extract of Luffa aegyptiaca leaves may have a wide range of biological activities which could of pharmaceutical importance.

  16. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium by Aqueous Extract of Tridax procumbens L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilayaraja, G.; Sasieekhumar, A. R.; Dhanakodi, P.

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel has been investigated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor at different time interval at room temperature. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with different time interval and different acid concentration. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behavior of Tridax procumbens ...

  17. Separation of Recombinant β-Glucuronidase from Transgenic Tobacco by Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Separation of Recombinant à -Glucuronidase from Transgenic Tobacco by Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction Kristin Coby Ross Abstract Biopharmaceutical manufacturing is a rigorous and expensive process. Due to the medicinal nature of the product, a high purity level is required and several expensive purification steps must be utilized. Cost-effective production and purification is essential for any biopharmaceutical product to be successful and development of the fastest, most economical, ...

  18. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh Anthony I; Aiyegoro Olayinka A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents ...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadeghian; Ahmad Ghorbani; Ahmad Mohamadi-Nejad; Hassan Rakhshandeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Punica granatum, commonly known as pomegranate, has emerged as a medicinal plant with potential antimicrobial activity. The present study was planned to evaluate this activity against both Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria as well as against pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans). Material and Methods: The aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin were prepared using a Soxhalet a...

  20. Antidepressant-like effect of aqueous extract from Rosa damascena in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Dolati; Hassan Rakhshandeh; Mohammad Naser Shafei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Rosa damascena mill L (R. damascena) is an ornamental plant that has several therapeutic (such as sedative and hypnotic) effects. It also heals depression, grief, nervous stress and tension. In the present study we evaluated antidepressant-like effect of R. damascena using forced swimming test (FST). Material and Methods: Three doses of aqueous extract (15, 60 and 90 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. After 30 min of injection, immobility and swimming times were measured and...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadeghian; Ahmad Ghorbani; Ahmad Mohamadi-Nejad; Hassan Rakhshandeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Punica granatum, commonly known as pomegranate, has emerged as a medicinal plant with potential antimicrobial activity. The present study was planned to evaluate this activity against both Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria as well as against pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans).Material and Methods: The aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin were prepared using a Soxhalet appar...

  2. Evaluation of topical formulations of aqueous extract of Centella asiatica on open wounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunilkumar; Parameshwaraiah, S; Shivakumar, H G

    1998-06-01

    Formulations (ointment, cream and gel) of aqueous extract of C. asiatica, when applied topically, thrice daily for 24 days on the open wounds in rats increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in collagen content and tensile strength. The treated wounds epithelialised faster and the rate of wound contraction was higher as compared to control wounds. The process of healing was better with gel formulation when compared to other two formulations.

  3. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract.

  4. Extraction of Phenylalanine Phase Systems Containing Enantiomers by Aqueous Two Combinatorial Chiral Selector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓青; 刘莉; 焦飞鹏; 王珍

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a better enantioselectivity of phenylalanine enantiomers and establish the optimal chiral ex- traction conditions, the distribution behavior was investigated in aqueous two-phase systems which were composed of polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate containing combinatorial chiral selector: β-cyclodextrin and HP-β-cyclodextrin. The influence of the molar concentration ratio of combinatorial chiral selectors, the total molar concentration of combinatorial chiral selectors, pH value, buffer type and its concentration were thoroughly studied, respectively. The results show that the enantioselectivity reaches 1.53 under the optimal chiral extraction conditions This extraction is a potential economical and effective way for chiral resolution.

  5. Aqueous extraction of phenol from tar resulting from pyrolysis of Kansk-Achinsk Basin brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motovilova, N.N.; Stolyarova, T.Y.; Itskovich, V.A.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1988-12-10

    The degree of extraction of phenol from the tar fraction from HSP of KAC with a phenol content of 10-20 wt% is practically independent of the initial concentration of phenol in the organic raw material, increases with increase in the volume of the extractant, reaching 80% at the first stage with a phenol content of 20 wt% in the raw material and a 20:1 water:raw material volumetric ratio, and sharply increases with increase in the pH of the aqueous phase, reaching 99 wt% at pH 12. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Preliminary studies of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia dillenii aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loro, J F; del Rio, I; Pérez-Santana, L

    1999-11-01

    Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw is a cactus that belongs to the family Opuntiae. Lyophilized aqueous extract of the fruits of the plant, used in Canarian traditional medicine for gastrointestinal and bronchial troubles, was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in rats and mice. The Opuntia dillenii extract (100-400 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited, in a dose-related manner, carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. A dose-dependent action was obtained against chemical (writhing test) and thermic (hot plate test) stimuli, respectively, with doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg.

  7. Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Sing Pei; Kha, Tuyen Chan; Parks, Sophie; Stathopoulos, Costas; Paul D. Roach

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R 2 > 0.87). The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w) stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1) and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2% ...

  8. Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Sing Pei Tan; Tuyen Chan Kha; Sophie Parks; Costas Stathopoulos; Paul D. Roach

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R2 > 0.87). The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w) stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1) and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2...

  9. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L. Aqueous extract in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Shariatifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally, a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.

  10. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Shibani; Maji, Priyankar; Ganguly, Jhuma

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores that the aqueous extract of the seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (aka night jasmine) is very efficient for the synthesis of stable AgNPs from aqueous solution of AgNO3. The extract acts as both reducing (from Ag+ to Ag0) and capping agent in the aqueous phase. The constituents in extract are mainly biomolecules like carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the preparation of stable AgNPs within 20 min of reaction time at 25 °C using without any severe conditions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis showed peak at 420 nm, which corresponds to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. XRD results showed peaks at (111), (200), (220), which confirmed the presence of AgNPs with face-centered cubic structure. The uniform spherical nature of the AgNPs and size (between 50 and 80 nm) were further confirmed by SEM analysis.

  11. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Miao, Miao; Xia, Hui; Yang, Li-Gang; Wang, Shao-Kang; Sun, Gui-Ju

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antioxidant function of edible flowers have attracted increasing interest. However, information is lacking on the impact of edible flowers on oxidative injury including hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia. The antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers were assessed in four different antioxidant models, including total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), scavenging hydroxyl radical capacity (SHRC) and scavenging superoxide anion radical capacity (SSARC). Subsequently, the potential antioxidant effects on rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (rCMEC) treated with hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet were also evaluated. The highest TAC, ORAC, SHRC and SSARC were Lonicera japonica Thunb., Rosa rugosa Thunb., Chrysanthemum indicum L. and Rosa rugosa Thunb., respectively. Most aqueous extracts of edible flowers exhibited good antioxidant effects on injury of rCMEC induced by hypoxia-re-oxygenation. In addition, the aqueous extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Carthamus tinctorius L., Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. could suppress the build-up of oxidative stress by increasing serum superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase, and reducing malonaldehyde concentration in hyperlipidemia rats. These findings provided scientific support for screening edible flowers as natural antioxidants and preventative treatments for oxidative stress-related diseases.

  12. Acute genotoxicity analysis in vivo of the aqueous extract of Maytenus guyanensis Amazonian chichuá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The species Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek, Celastraceae, present a wide variety of possible pharmacological activities and its roots and stems are used by popular medicine in the western Amazon rainforest. Few studies have demonstrated the genotoxic safety of the popular use of this species, and owing to this, the present study aimed to perform an analysis of the acute genotoxicity in vivo of the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis. Male and female mice from Mus musculus species, of weights ranging from 20 to 40 g, organized in eight groups with different treatments were used. The aqueous extracts of the bark of M. guyanensis were administered orally by gavage with 0.1 ml of the test substance per 10 g of the animal, followed by performance of comet assay in peripheral blood, PCE/NCE correlation and occurrence of micronuclei in the bone marrow. It was found that the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis, with ten times higher concentration than those used in ethnopharmacology, did not present genotoxic effect and, moreover, it has antigenotoxic action in mice treated acutely. Further studies regarding bioaccumulation and chronic effects of this species are suggested, in order to improve the understanding of its mechanism of action, ensuring the efficacy and safety of its utilization and developing phytotherapics and drugs.

  13. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  14. Estrogen-like activity of aqueous extract from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. in MCF-7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Young Min

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postmenopausal women experience estrogen deficiency-related menopausal symptoms (e.g., hot flashes and mood swings and a dramatic increase in the incidence of chronic diseases. Although estrogen-replacement therapy (ERT can reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease and improve osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms, its side effects have limited recent use. This study investigated the estrogen-like activity of aqueous extract from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Methods The estrogenic activity of A. pilosa was investigated by using several in vitro assays. The binding activity of A. pilosa on estrogen receptors was examined using a fluorescence polarization-based competitive binding assay. The proliferative activity of A. pilosa was also examined using MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the effect of A. pilosa on the expression of 3 estrogen-dependent genes was assessed. Results Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the 3 major peaks of A. pilosa aqueous extract were identified as apigenin-hexose, luteolin-glucuronide, and apigenin-glucuronide. The aqueous extract induced the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 cells (p A. pilosa-stimulated proliferation was blocked on adding the estrogen antagonist ICI 182,780. Moreover, A. pilosa treatment increased the mRNA expression of the estrogen-responsive genes pS2 and PR (p  Conclusions These results suggest A. pilosa can be used to improve estrogen deficiency-related menopausal symptoms or to treat diseases in postmenopausal women.

  15. Antioxidant effects of aqueous extract of Salep on Paraquat-induced rat liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashpour, Shekoufeh; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra; Zarei, Sanaz

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of Salep on Paraquat-mediated liver injury. METHODS In this experimental study, 56 adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly to 7 groups as control, sham, and 5 experimental groups. In control group, rats did not receive any substance during experiment. In Sham group, rats were given distilled water according to their body weight and in experimental groups, Paraquat alone and with different doses of Salep aqueous extract (40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneal daily for 14 d. After that, liver biochemical parameter and histologic changes were analyzed and compared in different groups. RESULTS Paraquat compared to control and sham groups, significantly (P Paraquat. Salep at doses of 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg significantly decreased serum level of ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, MDA and TOC and significantly increased total protein, albumin and TAC level as compared to Paraquat exposed group in dose dependent manner. Aqueous extract of Salep at doses of 40 mg/kg made no significant changes in serum level of mentioned biochemical parameters. Liver microscopic observation revealed that Paraquat could cause hepatocyte necrosis, degenerative changes, proliferation and activation of Kupffer cells (sporadically) which were reduced by Salep treatment. CONCLUSION Salep possesses remarkable hepatoprotection activity against Paraquat-induced hepatic injury by having antioxidant activity and reducing lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. PMID:28217258

  16. Accumulation of yellow Monascus pigments by extractive fermentation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xu; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Zhilong

    2015-02-01

    Monascus species can produce various secondary metabolites of polyketide structure. In the current study, it is found that an interesting phenomenon, i.e., submerged culture of Monascus species in an aqueous solution majorly accumulated intracellular orange Monascus pigments exhibiting one peak at 470 nm with absorbance of 32 OD while extractive fermentation in a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution produced extracellular and intracellular yellow Monascus pigments exhibiting one peak at 410 nm with absorbance 30 OD and 12 OD, respectively. The spectrum profiles of both intracellular and extracellular Monascus pigments were affected by surfactant loading, extractive fermentation time, and surfactant adding time. Meanwhile, the instability of orange Monascus pigments in the extracellular nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution was also confirmed experimentally. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is attributed to the export of intracellular yellow Monascus pigments into its broth by extractive fermentation. The transferring of intracellular yellow Monascus pigments into its broth blocks yellow Monascus pigments from further enzymatic conversion or eliminates the feedback inhibition of yellow Monascus pigments based on the biosynthetic pathway of Monascus pigments.

  17. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Jacyra Antunes dos Santos; Geraldo Amaral, Juliano; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Tabosa do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Maria Zucolotto, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, about 90% of accidents are attributed to snakes from the Bothrops genus. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost. Thus, the search for alternative therapies to treat snakebites is relevant. Jatropha mollissima (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly used in folk medicine as an antiophidic remedy. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of the aqueous leaf extract from J. mollissima on local effects induced by Bothrops venoms. High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection analysis and Mass Spectrometry analysis of aqueous leaf extract confirmed the presence of the flavonoids isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This extract, at 50–200 mg/kg doses administered by intraperitoneal route, showed significant inhibitory potential against local effects induced by Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. Local skin hemorrhage, local edema, leukocyte migration, and myotoxicity were significantly inhibited by the extract. These results demonstrate that J. mollissima extract possesses inhibitory potential, especially against bothropic venoms, suggesting its potential as an adjuvant in treatment of snakebites. PMID:27847818

  18. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacyra Antunes dos Santos Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, about 90% of accidents are attributed to snakes from the Bothrops genus. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost. Thus, the search for alternative therapies to treat snakebites is relevant. Jatropha mollissima (Euphorbiaceae is a medicinal plant popularly used in folk medicine as an antiophidic remedy. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of the aqueous leaf extract from J. mollissima on local effects induced by Bothrops venoms. High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection analysis and Mass Spectrometry analysis of aqueous leaf extract confirmed the presence of the flavonoids isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This extract, at 50–200 mg/kg doses administered by intraperitoneal route, showed significant inhibitory potential against local effects induced by Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. Local skin hemorrhage, local edema, leukocyte migration, and myotoxicity were significantly inhibited by the extract. These results demonstrate that J. mollissima extract possesses inhibitory potential, especially against bothropic venoms, suggesting its potential as an adjuvant in treatment of snakebites.

  19. Multistage aqueous two-phase extraction of a monoclonal antibody from cell supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muendges, Jan; Zalesko, Alexej; Górak, Andrzej; Zeiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of continuous multistage aqueous two-phase extraction of an immunoglobulin G1 from cell supernatant in a mixer-settler unit. An aqueous two-phase system consisting of polyethylene glycol 2000, phosphate salt, and water was applied without and with sodium chloride (NaCl). Influences of different parameters such as throughput, phase ratio, and stage number on the extraction performance were analyzed. For systems without NaCl, the extraction was carried out as a washing step. An increase of stage number from one to five stages enabled to increase the immunoglobulin G1 purity from 11.8 to 32.6% at a yield of nearly 90%. Furthermore, a reduction of product phase volume due to a higher phase ratio led to an increase of purity from 20.8 to 29.6% in a three-stage countercurrent extraction. For experiments with NaCl moderate partitioning conditions were adjusted by adding 8 wt% NaCl. In that case, the extraction was carried out as a stripping step.

  20. Effects of Aqueous Stem Extract of Massularia Acuminata on Some Liver Function Indices of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Massularia acuminata has been claimed to be used in managingseveral ailments in folk medicine and in some instances substantiated withscientific data. This however has been without recourse to its safety. Therefore,aqueous stem extract of M. acuminata was evaluated for its effects on somefunction indices of the liver of male rats.Methods: Sixty, male rats were grouped into 4 (A, B, C and D such that Group A(control was orally administered 1cm3 of distilled water while those in groups B, Cand D received orally 1 cm3 of extract corresponding to 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kgbody weight respectively. Some biochemical parameters of liver function wereevaluated in the animals after 1, 7 and 21 daily doses.Results: The extract significantly decreased (P<0.05 the activity of alkalinephosphatase in the liver of rats throughout the experimental period. This decreasewas accompanied by corresponding increase in the serum enzyme. In contrast, allthe doses of the extract increased the activities of both the AST and ALT in the liverand serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase as well asthe concentrations of serum total bilirubin, protein and albumin.Conclusion: This study has revealed that the aqueous stem extract of Massulariaacuminata at the doses of 250-1000 mg/kg body weight hampered the normalfunctioning of the liver of male rats and is therefore not safe for oral consumption atthe doses investigated.

  1. Thrombolytic Potential of Aqueous and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Camellia sinensis (Green Tea: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ajmal Shah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thrombolytic activityof crude extracts ofCamellia sinensis (Green tea using in-vitrothrombolytic model which is very simple, rapid and easy to do method. Both aqueous crude and methanolic extracts were studied however; the results of methanolic extract were more promising which exhibited maximum 95. 24% clot lysis as compared to aqueous one i.e. 90.34% at 800 μg/ml concentration in 72 hrs of incubation. Various concentrations of leaf extract i.e. 200μg/ml, 400μg/ml, 600ug/ml and 800μg/ml were tested at different time intervals including; 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs duration of incubation at 370 C for observing maximum clot lysis. The result indicated that concentrations of leaf extract enhanced the percentage of clot lysis in dose dependent manner. On the other hand, Streptokinase SK, a reference standard and water were used as a positive and negative control showed clot lysis maximum 96.63% and 41.32% in 72 hrs of incubation respectively. From results, it can be concluded that if further studies reveals the exact molecule from green tea diverse composition, an effective thromolytic candidate can be achieved for the improvement of the patients suffering from Atherothrombotic diseases.

  2. The cytogenetic effects of the aqueous extracts of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria L.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkez, Hasan; Incekara, Umit; Güner, Adem; Aydın, Elanur; Dirican, Ebubekir; Togar, Başak

    2014-04-01

    One of the useful and most commonly cultivated commercially species, migratory locust (Locusta migratoria; Orthoptera), was investigated in light of genotoxic damage potentials. For this aim, we evaluated the genotoxic potentials of water soluble extracts of L. migratoria on cultured human blood cells. The micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange and structural chromosome aberration assays were applied to assess DNA and chromosomal damage produced by aqueous extracts in vitro. The extracts were added to the cultures at different concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 mg/L. Our results indicated that these extracts did not exhibit genotoxicity at tested concentrations. We conclude that this in vitro approach for biomonitoring genotoxicity assessment is useful for comparing the potential health risks of edible insects.

  3. Ionic Liquid-salt Aqueous Two-phase System, a Novel System for the Extraction of Abused Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She Hong LI; Chi Yang HE; Hu Wei LIU; Ke An LI; Feng LIU

    2005-01-01

    A 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-salt aqueous two-phase system was studied on extraction of abused drugs. The effects of sorts of salts, temperature, concentration of salt and drugs on system were investigated systematically. A satisfactory extraction efficiency of 93%was obtained for papaverine while that of morphine was 65%. The extraction mechanism was primarily discussed.

  4. Parameters affecting enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of extruded sunflower meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kerry A; Vaca-Medina, Guadalupe; Glatz, Charles E; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2016-10-01

    Microscopic observation of sunflower meal before and after extraction indicated that extensive cellular disruption was achieved by extrusion, but that unextracted oil remained sequestered as coalesced oil within the void spaces of disrupted cotyledon cells. A full factorial design experiment was defined to develop aqueous extraction processing (AEP) with and without enzymes to improve vegetable oil extraction yields of extruded sunflower meal. This experimental design studied the influence of four parameters, agitation, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, and cellulase and protease addition, on extraction yield of lipid and protein. Agitation and addition of cellulases increased oil extraction yield, indicating that emulsification of oil and alteration of the geometry of the confining cellular matrix were important mechanisms for improving yields. Protease and liquid-solid ratio of the extraction mixture did not have significant effects, indicating key differences with previously established soy oil extraction mechanisms. Maximum yields attained for oil and protein extraction were 39% and 90%, respectively, with the aid of a surfactant.

  5. Studies on Antivenom Activity of Ceiba pentandra Leaves’ Aqueous Methanol Extract Against Echis ocellatus’ Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sarkiyayi shehu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous methanol of Ceiba pentandra leaves extract was tested for antivenom activity against Echis ocellatus snake venom. Among parameters investigated include: LD50 of the Echis ocellatus snake venom, phospholipase A2 activity, percentage hemolysis. In vivo analysis of total protein content, white blood cells, pack cell volume and haemoglobin contents were also investigated. The result reveals that Echis ocellatus has an LD50 of 0.280mg/kg ± 0.065. Haemolysis due to venom has drastically reduced by the extract from 66% to 27.4%. suggesting that the extract is effective in reducing haemolysis in mice. The in vivo studies reveals that there were significant (p<0.05 decrease in packed cell volume, total protein and haemoglobin contents for the venom group and there was only slight changes in the venom/extract and control groups suggesting that the extract has some inhibitory effect on the venom activity. The purified phospholipase incubated with the extract demonstrated neutralization effect against the phospholipase A2 activity. The result has shown that Ceiba pentandra leaves extract possess potent snake venom-neutralizing capacity. The plant leaves extract could be use as an antidote for snakebite envenomation.

  6. Effect of the Aqueous Root Extract of Urena lobata (Linn on the Liver of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Y. Mshelia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aqueous root extract of urena lobata on the rat liver was investigated using a total of (25 adult Wister rats of both sexes that were randomly divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control, while rats in groups II-IV where administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively for 28 days. Rats in group V were administered 300 mg/kg of the extract for 28 days and allowed to stay for 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. At the end of the experimental period the animals were sacrificed and liver weight taken and fixed for routine histological examinations. Administration of the extract to rats had no effects on liver and body weights but the extract caused a decrease in albumin level and increases in the levels of Aspartate Transaminases (AST, Alanine Transaminases (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP. Histopathological assessment of the liver revealed mild to severe interstitial hemorrhage, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis, congestion and edema in the liver of the treated rats while withdrawal of the extract for 14 days showed a slight degree of recovery in the rats. This findings suggest that the biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can significantly be altered with continues and increase use of the extract, but further studies on the long term effect of the extract and a prolonged recovery period is recommended in further studies.

  7. Extraction of proteins with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system based on guanidine ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Li, Na; Huang, Xiu; Ding, Xueqin; Lin, Xiao; Huang, Songyun; Liu, Xiaojie

    2013-11-15

    Eight kinds of green ionic liquids were synthesized, and an ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (ILATPS) based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguandine acrylate (TMGA) guanidine ionic liquid was first time studied for the extraction of proteins. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was influenced by the mass of IL, K2HPO4 and BSA, also related to the separation time and temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through orthogonal experiment by the five factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.6243%. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were 0.8156% (n=5), 1.6173% (n=5) and 1.6292% (n=5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and ionic liquid in the extraction process, and the conformation of the protein was not changed after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction and the salt out effect played important roles in the transferring process, and the aggregation and embrace phenomenon was the main driving force for the separation. All these results proved that guanidine ionic liquid-based ATPSs have the potential to offer new possibility in the extraction of proteins.

  8. Calcium-Alginate-Inulin Microbeads as Carriers for Aqueous Carqueja Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanč, Bojana; Kalušević, Ana; Drvenica, Ivana; Coelho, Maria Teresa; Djordjević, Verica; Alves, Vitor D; Sousa, Isabel; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Rakić, Vesna; Nedović, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Carqueja (Pterospartum tridentatum) is an endemic species and various bioactive compounds have been identified in its aqueous extract. The aim of this study was to protect the natural antioxidants from the aqueous extract of carqueja by encapsulation in Ca-alginate microbeads and Ca-alginate microbeads containing 10% and 20% (w/v) of inulin. The microbeads produced by electrostatic extrusion technique had an average diameter from 625 μm to 830 μm depending on the portion of inulin. The sphericity factor of the hydrogel microbeads had values between 0.014 and 0.026, while freeze dried microbeads had irregular shape, especially those with no excipient. The reduction in microbeads size after freeze drying process (expressed as shrinkage factor) ranged from 0.338 (alginate microbeads with 20% (w/v) of inulin) to 0.523 (plain alginate microbeads). The expressed radical scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals was found to be between 30% and 40% for encapsulated extract, while the fresh extract showed around 47% and 57% of radical scavenging activity for ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were found to be positive (in both assay methods, DPPH and ABTS), which indicate that the addition of inulin didn't have influence on antioxidant activity. The presence of inulin reduced stiffness of the hydrogel, and protected bead structure from collapse upon freeze-drying. Alginate-inulin beads are envisaged to be used for delivery of aqueous P. tridentatum extract in functional food products.

  9. ACUTE TOXICITY OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM BRILLANTAISIA VOGELIANA (NÉES BENTH. (ACANTHACEAE

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    Aimé Valère SOH OUMBE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brillantaisia vogeliana (Acanthacées is a plant used in the West-Cameroon traditional pharmacopeia. This species have been used to facilitate deliverance and delivery and to treat stomach ailment. The aqueous extract of leaves was studied by conventional pharmacological methods.Twelve female rats were randomly assigned in two groups of 6 animals each designated as control and treated groups. After a sighting study, one group of the fasted animals for 12h received a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of aqueous solution of Brillantaisia vogeliana while control group received distilled water.Oral consumption of 2 g/kg of Brillantaisia vogeliana produced neither mortality nor significant differences in the body and relative organs weights except relative liver weight between control and treated animals. Moreover, no abnormality and no histopathological changes were detectable between both control and treated animals. Hematological analysis showed no difference in any of the parameters tested (WBC count, platelet, total leukocytes, RBC count, hematocrit and hemoglobin estimation in either control or treated groups. No significant change occurred in the blood chemistry parameters, including creatinine, urea nitrogen (UN, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase (ASAT, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, calcium and phosphorus. However, α-amylase and total protein showed a significant difference between control and treated groups. The results showed the innocuity of the aqueous extract of B. vogeliana and thus validated its utilization in Cameroonian traditional pharmacopoeia. The LD50 was higher than 2g/kg of body weight and according to Globally Harmonized Hazard Classification and Labelling Scheme (GHS, aqueous extract of B. vogeliana was classified in group 5.

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of Polygonum minus leaf on the immunity and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravichandran Veerasamy; Lim Shu Min; Mohanraj; Rita Pauline; Shalini Sivadasan; Christapher Varghese; Harish Rajak; Kasi Marimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish immunomodulatory potential of aqueous extract of Polygonum minus (P. minus) leaves, the haematological effects and lysozyme activity of aqueous extract of P. minus leaf on Clarias gariepinus was studied. Methods:The fish were grouped and administered with the P. minus aqueous leaf extract intraperitoneally. Blood and serum samples were collected from each group and examined for various blood parameters. The turbidimetric assay for lysozyme activity using M. luteus and the survival rate of fish against A. hydrophila was carried out. Results:There was no significant impact (P>0.05) on white blood cell count, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and lysozyme activity was significantly (P Conclusions: From this study, it is considered that the aqueous extract of P. minus can be used as an immunostimulant in African catfish, but continuous administration may require maintaining the protection.

  11. In vitro vasodilatory effect of aqueous leaf extract of Thymus serrulatus on thoracic aorta of Guinea pigs

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    Bekesho Geleta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate that T. serrulatus aqueous leaf extract has vasodilatory activity which might result in antihypertensive effect and its vasodilatory effect is endothelium-dependent. This might support the traditional claim of the plant in hypertensive.

  12. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice

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    Rejón-Orantes José del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL, known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg. This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract.

  13. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Radosław; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-03-01

    The antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the Uncaria tomentosa bark were evaluated. The analysis included trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOD) and quantitation of total tannins (TT) and total phenolic compounds (TPC). The obtained results indicate high antioxidant capacity of the studied materials in comparison to the other extracts of fruits, vegetables, cereals and medicinal plants. Higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of the alcoholic preparations -- TEAC=0.57 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.52 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.39 U/mg than of the aqueous preparation -- TEAC=0.34 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.19 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.10 U/mg were observed. These results might suggest higher medical suitability of alcoholic extracts. However, the highly elevated level of tannins in alcoholic extracts may cause undesirable gastric effects.

  14. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract.

  15. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of aqueous extracts of tar from a coal gasification electrostatic precipitator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T W; Dumont, J N; Clark, B R; Buchanan, M V

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of tar from a coal gasification electrostatic precipitator were tested for its toxic and teratogenic potential in vitro on embryos of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The 96-h LC50 and EC50 were determined to be 0.83% and 0.48%, respectively. The developmental stage of normal-appearing exposed embryos is not affected by increasing concentrations of the extract. Embryo growth, however, is significantly reduced at concentrations as low as 0.25%. Motility and pigmentation were effectively reduced relative to controls by extract concentrations of 0.5% and greater. Exposed embryos are shorter and stockier than controls. Malformations of head, eyes, viscera, and spine are common, and cartilage formation is abnormal. The epidermis is often hyperplastic, and large blisters occur over the somatic surface. The severity of abnormal development is directly related to the concentration of the toxicant to which the embryos are exposed. Chemical analysis shows that the aqueous extracts contain phenols, furans, monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons, and mono- and diazaarenes and/or monoaromatic amines.

  16. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available.

  17. Growth inhibition of struvite crystals by the aqueous root extract of Rotula aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, C K; Joshi, M J; Vaidya, A D B

    2011-06-01

    Formation of urinary stone is a serious and debilitating problem throughout the world. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of root of Rotula aquatica was investigated against struvite crystals (one of the components of urinary stone) grown in vitro using single diffusion gel growth technique. For setting the gel, sodium metasilicate solution (specific gravity 1.05) and 0.5 M aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were mixed, so that the pH of the mixture could be set at 7.0. Equal amounts of supernatant solution of magnesium acetate (1.0 M) prepared with 0.0%, 0.5% and 1% concentrations of the extract were gently poured on the set gels. It was observed that the number, dimension, total mass, total volume, growth rate and depth of growth of struvite crystals decreased with the increasing extract concentrations in the supernatant solutions. The enhancement of dissolution rate and fragmentation of struvite crystals suggested potential application of the extract for inhibition of struvite type urinary stone.

  18. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA SEEDS IN GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY

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    Mahurkar N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to carry out the preliminary phytochemical studies and nephroprotective activity of metahanolic and aqueous extracts of Lagenaria siceraria seeds, family cucurbitaceae. These studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins (ellagitannins, saponins, polyphenols, triterpenes, lagenin (protein in the extracts. The extract was found to be potent diuretic which causes excretion of sodium and potassium. Gentamicin is an extensively used aminolgycoside antibiotic. It has been reported to produce nephrotoxicity even at normal therapeutic dose level. Gentamicin was administrated intraperitonealy at a dose of 80mg/kg body weight for 9 days. The biochemical parameters viz. serum createnine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum uric acid was found to be significantly increased whereas serum total protein was decreased. Histopathological sections showed marked glomerular, peritubular and blood vessel congestion. These increased levels of biochemical parameters and extent of renal damage were decreased by the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lagenaria siceraria seeds at a dose of 250mg/kg, Cystone tab. (500mg/kg was used as reference standard to compare with the toxicant and test group animals.

  19. The integral and extrinsic bioactive proteins in the aqueous extracted soybean oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Cao, Yanyun; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2013-10-01

    Soybean oil bodies (OBs), naturally pre-emulsified soybean oil, have been examined by many researchers owing to their great potential utilizations in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. This study was the first time to confirm that lectin, Gly m Bd 28K (Bd 28K, one soybean allergenic protein), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI), and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) were not contained in the extracted soybean OBs even by neutral pH aqueous extraction. It was clarified that the well-known Gly m Bd 30K (Bd 30K), another soybean allergenic protein, was strongly bound to soybean OBs through a disulfide bond with 24 kDa oleosin. One steroleosin isoform (41 kDa) and two caleosin isoforms (27 kDa, 29 kDa), the integral bioactive proteins, were confirmed for the first time in soybean OBs, and a considerable amount of calcium, necessary for the biological activities of caleosin, was strongly bound to OBs. Unexpectedly, it was found that 24 kDa and 18 kDa oleosins could be hydrolyzed by an unknown soybean endoprotease in the extracted soybean OBs, which might give some hints for improving the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of soybean free oil.

  20. The use of some nanoemulsions based on aqueous propolis and lycopene extract in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Giuchici Camelia V; Butnariu Monica V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of natural products based on aqueous extract of propolis and lycopene in the skin's protective mechanisms against UVA radiation was evaluated by means of experimental acute inflammation on rat paw edema. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the harmlessness of propolis - lycopene system through evaluation of skin level changes and anti-inflammatory action. The regenerative and protective effect of the aqueous propolis and lycopene extract is based on its ri...

  1. Rosemary and Pitanga Aqueous Leaf Extracts On Beef Patties Stability under Cold Storage

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    Flávia Carolina Vargas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because processing and storage conditions affect several beef quality attributes, the food industry uses a variety of synthetic antioxidants. However, some synthetic antioxidants have been questioned regarding its safety, and thus the interest in using natural antioxidants in food products is increasing. This paper aimed at assessing leaf aqueous extracts of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus as antioxidants in beef cold storage. After 48h storage, patties added of Rosemary leaf extracts showed increased pH. Patties added of Pitanga extracts had the lowest a* color values. Oxymyoglobin levels were significantly higher for Negative control, than for Pitanga treatment. The 10% extract addition increased lipid oxidation of beef patties. Correlation coefficients between lipid and myoglobin oxidations were all above 0.85. Pitanga leaf extracts negatively influenced beef color, probably because of its higher chlorophyll content. Lipid oxidation of beef patties was increased with the addition of leaf extracts. The inclusion of 10% leaf extract into beef patties seems not suitable, because it may enhance the amount of prooxidant compounds, as well as the amount of substances capable of reacting with lipid secondary products. Correlations between lipid and myoglobin oxidations demonstrated strong relationship.

  2. Inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea and Nerium oleander on HSV-1 multiplication

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    Maliheh Farahani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of HSV-1 infections with the available chemical drugs may have some problems such as drug resistance and virus latency. Therefore, there is a requirement for new antiherpes drugs in today's world. The present study was carried out to analyze the inhibitory effect of Echinacea purpurea and Nerium oleander plants with ethnomedical background on HSV-1 replication. Methods: Plants were extracted by decoction method to obtain aqueous extract. These extracts were screened for their cytotoxicity against Hep-2 cell line by CPE (cytopathic effect assay. Antiviral effect of the plant extracts were determined by the virus cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Results: Nerium oleander extract had the highest toxicity (>0.1 μg/ml on Hep-2 cells and Echinacea purpurea extract exhibited significant antiherpes effect at nontoxic concentrations used on the cell lines. Findings indicated that Echinacea purpurea extract inhibited HSV-1 multiplication at concentrations >400 μg/ml. Conclusion: Echinacea purpurea plant had no any effect on cells at nontoxic concentrations and inhibited HSV-1 multiplication at concentrations >400 μg/ml. Further research is needed to find out the anti herpetic mechanism of this plant.

  3. Extraction of Co(II) from aqueous solution using emulsion liquid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, M S; El-Hefny, N E; Daoud, J A

    2008-03-01

    The extraction equilibrium of Co(II) from thiocyanate medium by CYANEX 923 (mixture of straight chain alkylated phosphine oxides) in cyclohexane was studied. The stoichiometry of the extraction reaction was postulated based on slope analysis method and the extraction constant Kex was calculated. The stripping percentage of Co(II) with sulphuric acid from the loaded CYANEX 923 was found to increase with the increase in acid concentration. The extraction of Co(II) from aqueous thiocyanate medium into emulsion liquid membrane using CYANEX 923 extractant was also studied. The influence of different parameters such as stirring speed, surfactant concentration, pH of the extractant phase, carrier concentration, internal phase stripping acid concentration, initial Co(II) concentration as well as temperature on the emulsion stability were investigated. The applicability of the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) process using CYANEX 923 as extractant and SPAN 80 as surfactant for the removal and the concentration of Co(II) from thiocyanate solution was investigated. The results show that it is possible to recover 95% of cobalt in the inner phase after 10 min of contacting time with a concentration factor of 5.

  4. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic and aqueous extract of flowers of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) induced by CCl4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ishwer Kale; Mohd Asif Khan; Yusufuddin Irfan; Veerana Goud A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora(Linn) flower in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods:The ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower are screened for its hepatoprotective activity in CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg, i.p) induced liver damage in Swiss albino rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw. Results: The ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower significantly (P<0.001) decreases the biochemical parameters (SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TP, and TB). Silymarin (25 mg/kg), a known hepatoprotective drug used for comparison exhibited significant activity (P<0.001). The extract did not shown any mortality up to a dose of 2000 g/kg bw. These findings suggest that the ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower (500mg/kg) was effective in bringing about functional improvement of hepatocytes. The healing effect of this extract was also confirmed by histological observations. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  5. ESTIMATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT IN AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE BARK OF ACACIA NILOTICA

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    Mayank Tenguria et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant polyphenols have been studied largely because of the possibility that they might underlie the protective effects afforded by fruit and vegetable intake against cancer and other chronic diseases. The objective of the present study is to estimate the total polyphenolic content in aqueous and methanolic extract prepared from the bark of Acacia nilotica plant species. Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex Del commonly known as babul, kikar or Indian gum Arabic tree, has been recognized worldwide as a multipurpose tree. Mostly it occurs as an isolated tree and rarely found in patches to a limited extent in forests and has been widely planted on farms throughout the plains of the Indian subcontinent. The bark, root, gum, leaves and flowers have found use for skin diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough, diabetes, eczema, wound healing, burning sensation and as an astringent, demulcent, anti-asthmatic. For present work the bark of well identified A. nilotica (L plant for the extraction of phytochemicals was done from the village Khargawali (Hoshangabad district. 20-20 grams of the fine powdered sample were subjected to soxhlet extraction with 200 ml distilled water and 40% methanol separately at 70oC and 50oC respectively, for 24 hours and concentrated. The percentage yield so obtained was 35 and 32.5% respectively. The extracts were then subjected for preliminary phytochemical screening of alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides the results of which refers to data given in this article. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method with suitable modification. When compared with the gallic acid standard curve the aqueous extract of 0.01 mg/ml dilution contains 0.323 mg/ml approx of total polyphenol content and that of the methanolic extract of the same concentration shows 0.422 mg/ml approx concentration of TPC. Thus from the present study it can be concluded that the aqueous and

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Aqueous, Methanolic and Alkaloid Extracts from Mitragyna Speciosa (Rubiaceae Family Leaves

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    Mohd I. Mohd. Said

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Mitragyna speciosa leaf extracts are lacking. In this study the antioxidant properties of water, methanolic and alkaloid M. speciosa leaf extracts were evaluated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The amount of total phenolics and flavanoid contents were also estimated. The DPPH IC50 values of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 213.4, 104.81 and 37.08 μg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 66.0 mg, 88.4, 105.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the total flavanoid were 28.2, 20.0 and 91.1 mg CAE/g respectively. The antioxidant activities were correlated with the total phenolic content. This result suggests that the relatively high antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract compared to aqueous and alkaloid extract could be possibly be due to its high phenolic content. The aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 3.12 to 6.25 mg/mL. The alkaloid extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms.

  7. Effect of foliar application of selenium on the antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of selenium-enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2004-03-24

    Selenium fertilizer was foliar applied to determine the effects of antioxidant activity of selenium-enriched rice assessed by alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and the ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method. Results showed that selenium concentration in rice was significantly enhanced dose dependently. Aqueous or ethanolic extracts of rice displayed significantly higher antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation. The activities of aqueous extracts were significantly higher than those of ethanolic extracts and increased with the increasing selenium concentration in rice. The DPPH assay showed that the kinetic behaviors of aqueous extracts were complex and slow, while ethanolic extracts reacted quickly with DPPH radical. Aqueous extracts of rice exhibited higher antiradical efficiencies than ethanolic extracts, and rice (1.275 mg Se kg(-)(1)) presented the lowest EC(50) values of 533.46 +/- 0.58 microg mL(-)(1). As compared to rice extracts, all of the reference antioxidants showed more than 4-fold antiradical efficiencies than rice extracts. This radical scavenging activity was significantly correlated with selenium concentrations in rice (R = 0.862, p < 0.05), while ethanolic extracts were inversely correlated with selenium concentration in rice.

  8. Oxidation of Lingwu Coal Extraction Residue in Aqueous Sodium Hypochlorite under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yunpeng; Zong Zhimin; Li Jinna; Wang Yuelun; Fan Xing; Wei Xianyong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the structural features and provide an alternative method for high value-added utilization of coal, Lingwu coal was first extracted with organic solvent at room temperature. Then its extraction residue was oxi-dized in aqueous sodium hypochlorite(ASHC) under mild conditions. Theeffects of oxidation conditions, such as temperature, reaction time, the ratio of Lingwu coal extraction residue(LCER, g) to ASHC(mL) and pH value, on the product distributions and compositions were investigated. The results of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) suggested that 53 kinds of methyl esterified products were detected in total, and benzene carboxylic acids were the main oxidation products, while chloro-substituted benzene carboxylic acids were the main by-products. Higher yield and fewer kinds of organic acids could be obtained at lower pH value, especially for the main objective product, benzene carboxylic acids.

  9. Hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma; Nwadike Constance Nnedimma

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata (A. capitata) leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Methods:Cholesterol diet was administered to Wistar rats at a dose of 40 mg per 0.2 mL 3 times daily for 14 days while the control received distilled water. These animals were treated with extract of A. capitata at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Lipid profiles were observed and compared. Results:Administration of A. capitata caused significant decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared with the control (P<0.05) which was dose dependent. Also, it was observed that high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly increased when compared with the control. Conclusions:This observation suggests that the leaf extract of A. capitata could probably serve as a potential natural product for treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  10. Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sing Pei; Kha, Tuyen Chan; Parks, Sophie; Stathopoulos, Costas; Roach, Paul D

    2015-09-09

    Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R² > 0.87). The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w) stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1) and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2% ± 9.4%) and high retention (>79.5% ± 8.4%) and the quality of the powder was high. Therefore, the bitter melon extract was well encapsulated into a powder using MD/GA and spray-drying.

  11. Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying

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    Sing Pei Tan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD and gum Arabic (GA. The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R2 > 0.87. The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1 and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2% ± 9.4% and high retention (>79.5% ± 8.4% and the quality of the powder was high. Therefore, the bitter melon extract was well encapsulated into a powder using MD/GA and spray-drying.

  12. In vitro antioxidant assay of selected aqueous plant extracts and their polyherbal formulation

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    Ganga Raju M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To support the use of selected plant extracts in Ayurveda, naturopathy, the antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vincarosea (VR, Gymnemasylvestre (GS, Tinosporacordifolia (TC and Emblicaofficinalis (EO and their mixture (PHF of Indian origin was investigated for in vitro antioxidant activity by using in vitro models like superoxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxide inhibition assay. The results were compared with standard (ascorbic acid, a known antioxidant. The various phytoconstituents identified in the above selected plants extracts were poly phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids. The terpenoids were reported to protect lipids, blood and body fluids against the attack of free radicals, some types of reactive oxygen, hydroxylic groups, peroxides and superoxide radicals. The presence of these phytoconstituents in selected plants might be responsible for antioxidant activity with that of known antioxidant ascorbic acid.

  13. Mechanisms and rules of anion partition into ionic liquids: phenolate ions in ionic liquid/water biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuta, Shoichi; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-19

    It is important to understand the mechanisms and general rules of ion partitioning in hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL)/water biphasic systems in order to predict the extractability of an ionic species with various ILs. In this study, we have investigated the partition of picrate ion (target anion, T(-)) from aqueous sodium picrate solutions into several ILs and the accompanying changes in aqueous concentrations of the IL component cation (C(+)) and anion (A(-)) at 298.2 K. The main ILs examined are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, and 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide. The aqueous concentrations of C(+) and A(-) decreased and increased, respectively, with the extraction of T(-) into the IL phase. From the standpoint of equilibrium, the partition behavior of T(-) can be explained both by the anion exchange with A(-) in the IL phase and by the ion pair extraction with C(+) in the aqueous phase. The aqueous concentrations of C(+) and A(-) are governed by the solubility product of the IL (K(sp)). The distribution ratio of T(-) is expressed as a function of Δ[T(-)](W), namely, the difference between the initial and equilibrium concentrations of T(-) in the aqueous phase; the distribution ratio of T(-) is nearly constant when Δ[T(-)](W) < K(sp)(1/2), but decreases with increasing Δ[T(-)](W) in the larger Δ[T(-)](W) region. The equilibrium constants of the ion pair extraction and the ion exchange extraction have been determined for picrate and other phenolate ions whose partition data were previously reported. The dependences of the extraction constants and extractability on the kinds of IL component ions can be quantitatively explained on the basis of the variations of K(sp).

  14. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  15. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4–5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4–2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1–5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01–0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) ...

  16. Preliminary Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluation of Crude Aqueous Extract of Psidium guajava Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidam, Y. A.; Ambali, A. G.; Onyeyili, P. A.

    The leaves of Psidium guajava is used in folk medicine as an antidiarrhoic in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. It is also employed for the treatment of vertigo and regulation of menstrual periods. World health organization encourages and indicated that studies on medicinal plants should include both identification of chemical constituents and determination of the biological activities of such plants. In this preliminary study, phytochemical and antibacterial properties of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening for identification of various classes of active chemical constituents while disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extract against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The extract inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but has no effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis organisms. The study revealed some antibacterial properties of the extract that justify the use of the plant in folk medicine. However, further studies need to be carried out to identify the potentials of the plant to be considered as a natural source of antibacterial agent.

  17. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall.

  18. Aphrodisiac properties of Montanoa tomentosa aqueous crude extract in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, M; Cervantes, E; Cervantes-Méndez, M; Rodríguez-Manzo, G

    2004-05-01

    Cihuapatli, the Mexican zoapatle (Montanoa tomentosa) has an extensive ethnomedical history of use as a traditional remedy for reproductive impairments. During the study of the ejaculatory function in rats and by testing a set of Mexican plants with medicinal properties, we observed that crude extracts of M. tomentosa facilitated ejaculation. Thus, we decided to analyze the possibility that this plant possessed sexual stimulant properties. To that aim, copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats receiving doses of 38, 75 and 150 mg/kg of the aqueous crude extract of M. tomentosa, as it is prepared in traditional medicine, was assessed. In addition, we evaluated the effect of the 75-mg/kg dose of the extract on males with anesthetization of the genital area and on sexual behavior of sexually inactive male rats (noncopulators). Results showed that acute oral administration of crude extracts of M. tomentosa facilitates expression of sexual behavior in sexually active male rats, significantly increases mounting behavior in genitally anesthetized animals and induces the expression of sexual behavior in noncopulating males. Altogether, these data reveal a facilitatory action of this extract on sexual activity and particularly on sexual arousal. Present findings provide experimental evidence that the crude extract preparation of M. tomentosa, used as a traditional remedy, possesses aphrodisiac properties.

  19. Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a Th2 cytokine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Alexandre; Sartori, Alexandrina; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2011-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a large woody vine that is native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests and is used widely in traditional medicine for its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities. The present work used in vivo immunotoxic and in vitro immunomodulatory experiments to investigate the effects of a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid extract from U. tomentosa bark on lymphocyte phenotype, Th1/Th2 cytokine production, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity. For the in vivo immunotoxicity testing, BALB/c male mice were treated once a day with 125, 500 or 1250 mg/kg of U. tomentosa extract for 28 days. For the in vitro protocol, lymphocytes were cultured with 10-500 μg/mg of the extract for 48 h. The extract increased the cellularity of splenic white pulp and the thymic medulla and increased the number of T helper lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Also, a large stimulatory effect on lymphocyte viability was observed. However, mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations of U. tomentosa extract. Furthermore, an immunological polarization toward a Th2 cytokine profile was observed. These results suggest that the U. tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract was not immunotoxic to mice and was able to modulate distinct patterns of the immune system in a dose-dependent manner.

  20. Bactericidal Action of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts from the Residue of Crushed Grapes from Winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Mana; Sheng, Hong; Tada, Mika; Mokudai, Takayuki; Oizumi, Satomi; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that photo-irradiation of polyphenols could exert bactericidal action via reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, the photo-irradiation-induced bactericidal activity of the aqueous extract from the residue of crushed grapes from winemaking was investigated in relation to ROS formation. Staphylococcus aureus suspended in the extract was irradiated with LED light at 400 nm. This solution killed the bacteria, and a 3-4 log and a >5-log reduction of the viable counts were observed within 10 and 20 min, respectively. LED light irradiation alone also killed the bacteria, but the viable counts were 2-4 log higher than those of the photo-irradiated extract. In contrast, almost no change occurred in the suspension without LED irradiation. When hydroxyl radical scavengers were added to the suspension, the bactericidal effect of the photo-irradiated extract was attenuated. Furthermore, electron spin resonance analysis demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals were generated by the photo-irradiation of the extract. The present study suggests that polyphenolic compounds in the extract exert bactericidal activity via hydroxyl radical formation upon photo-irradiation.

  1. Antiviral Effect Assay of Aqueous Extract of Echium Amoenum-L against HSV-1

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    Malihe Farahani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants have been used for different diseases in past. There is an increasing need for substances with antiviral activity since the treatment of viral infections with the available antiviral drugs often leads to the problem of viral resistance. Therefore in the present study Echium amoenum L plant with ethnomedical background was screened for antiviral activity against HSV-1 in different times. Materials and Methods: Flower part of Echium amoenum L plant collected from Iran was extracted with different methods to obtain crude aqueous extract. This extract was screened for its cytotoxicity against Hep II cell line by CPE assay. Antiviral properties of the plant extract were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay.Results: Echium amoenum L extract exhibited significant antiviral activity at non toxic concentrations to the cell line used. Findings indicated that plant extract has the most antiviral activity when it used an hour after virus inoculation.Conclusion: Echium amoenum L plant had not toxic effect at highest concentrations to the cell lines used and showed the most antiviral activity when it used an hour after virus inoculation. Further research is needed to elucidate the active constituents of this plant which may be useful in the development of new and effective antiviral agents.

  2. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Crocus sativus L. on Morphine-Induced Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Sayede Maryam; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Khani, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Motahare; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Aghaie, Azita

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of aqueous extracts of saffron on morphine-induced memory impairment was investigated. On the training trial, the mice received an electric shock when the animals were entered into the dark compartment. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours later, the time latency for entering the dark compartment was recorded and defined as the retention trial. The mice were divided into (1) control, (2) morphine which received morphine before the training in the passive avoidance test, (3-5) three groups treated by 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial, and (6 and 7) the two other groups received 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the retention trial. The time latency in morphine-treated group was lower than control (P < 0.01). Treatment of the animals by 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial increased the time latency at 24 and 48 hours after the training trial (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Administration of both 150 and 450 mg/kg doses of the extract before retention trials also increased the time latency (P < 0.01). The results revealed that the saffron extract attenuated morphine-induced memory impairment.

  3. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Crocus sativus L. on Morphine-Induced Memory Impairment

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    Sayede Maryam Naghibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of aqueous extracts of saffron on morphine-induced memory impairment was investigated. On the training trial, the mice received an electric shock when the animals were entered into the dark compartment. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours later, the time latency for entering the dark compartment was recorded and defined as the retention trial. The mice were divided into (1 control, (2 morphine which received morphine before the training in the passive avoidance test, (3–5 three groups treated by 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial, and (6 and 7 the two other groups received 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the retention trial. The time latency in morphine-treated group was lower than control (P < 0.01. Treatment of the animals by 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial increased the time latency at 24 and 48 hours after the training trial (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. Administration of both 150 and 450 mg/kg doses of the extract before retention trials also increased the time latency (P < 0.01. The results revealed that the saffron extract attenuated morphine-induced memory impairment.

  4. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Ziziphus nummularia Leaves Aqueous Extract and Their Biological Activities

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    Farhat Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles of Ziziphus nummularia leaves extract were synthesized and were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, SEM, TGA, and EDX. The XRD pattern reveals the FCC structure of Ag nanoparticles. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of Ag-O bonding. UV-Visible spectroscopy results confirmed the existence of Ag because of the particular peak in the region of 400–430. The SEM analysis confirmed spherical and uniform Ag nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 30 nm to 85 nm. The EDX analysis revealed strong signals in the silver region and confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. The antioxidant potential and antifungal and antimicrobial potential of the leaf extract and silver nanoparticles were also determined. The antioxidant property was determined using DPPH assay. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties were better for the silver nanoparticles than the aqueous leaf extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal (MBC, and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of plant extract and prepared silver nanoparticles were also tested. The hair growth properties of plant extracts and their respective nanoparticles were observed and good results were noted for nanoparticles as compared to the leaf extract.

  5. Thermal Stability Study of the Grape Seeds Extracts in the Aqueous Solutions

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    Carmen Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of parameters the extraction process of grape seeds extracts on the bioactive compounds. The aqueous extracts were screened for total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content wich were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al (NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method while  their polyphenolic composition by means of HPLC-DAD- MS/ ESI(+ analysis. Total phenols content and flavonoid content varied between 37.835 and 31.830 mg GAE/g, 23.420 and 17.645 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Neagră seeds; between 24.265 and 27.065 mg GAE/g, 17.970 and 15.205 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Regală seeds. All extracts showed remarkable DPPH radical-scavenging activity ranging from 94.110 to 95.515%. The study revealed 14 phenolic compounds belonging to the following groups: flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Quantitative differences among the varieties and the level of temperature applied of  the extraction process were observed. The results suggested that the heat treatment of grape seeds liberated phenolic compounds having a significant effect in increasing the amounts of active when a 90°C extraction temperature was used.

  6. Removing Boron from an Aqueous Solution Using Turmeric Extract-Aided Coagulation-Flocculation

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    Azhar Abdul Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boron exists in an environment naturally either through weathering of rocks or volcanic activity but due to anthropogenic activity, boron had been distributed widely into our surroundings. Boron was a problematic pollutant due to the difficulty to remove it from the water. Turmeric which had been widely used as a spice and traditional medicine, were investigated to determine its capabilities to aid in coagulation-flocculation process to remove boron. Optimizing coagulation-flocculation process might be effective to remove boron to a lower concentration. Approach: In this study, the optimum parameter for pH, dose of aluminium sulfate (alum and a dose of turmeric extract were determined by conducting a set of jar test experiment. The coagulation-flocculation process was performed to study the effectiveness of the turmeric extract as a coagulant aid in boron removal. Results: The result demonstrated that coagulation-flocculation process with the aid of turmeric extract can remove boron effectively at optimum conditions rather than coagulation-flocculation process without the aid of turmeric extract. The optimum conditions for boron removal were achieved at pH 7, an alum dosage of 18, 367 mg L-1 and turmeric extract dosage of 82 mg L-1. Conclusion/Recommendations: Result showed that removal of boron depends on pH, alum dosage and turmeric extract dosage. The boron removal percentage of the aqueous solution using the coagulation-flocculation process aided by the addition of turmeric extract and without the addition of turmeric extract were 95 and 62%, respectively. In addition, there was a significance difference between both processes. Turmeric extract as a coagulant aid demonstrated promising performance in boron removal and can be used as an alternative treatment to treat boron-containing wastewater.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of hypericum perforatum against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli( ESBLs.

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    Saman Shalibeik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate the effect of aqueous hypericum perforatum extract on the morphological properties of Escherichia coli bacteria ESBLs (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Methods: 40 strains of Escherichia coli bacteria ESBLS from clinical purified samples were taken from Arak medical university microbial research center infectious diseases and E. coli ATCC25922. Antibiogram and Biochemical tests were taken in order to verify Escherichia coli bacteria. The hypericum perforatum plant is prepared freshly from farm herb. Before drying plant in a traditional way, it should be washed with water for several times, hypericum perforatum aqueous extracts were excavated by means of reflux device with distillation and investigating the antibacterial effects of hypericum by disk diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC. its morphological investigation, taken by the use of electronic microscope and light microscope. Results: Obtained result showed that hypericum perforatum extract to Escherichia coli bacteria ESBLS in the concentrations of 8, 4 and 2 mg/ml, 57.5 percentages of bacteria out of %100 have halo and 42.5 percentages of bacteria out of %100 are non-halo. In these concentrations 1, .5, .25, .125, .0625, .0312, .0156 mg/ml, the percentage of sensitive bacteria (having halo is decreased and the percentage of resistant bacteria ( non-halo increased. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC against Escherichia coli Bacteria taken in different concentrations, which concentration 0.0078mg/ml was lowest among them.

  8. Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice

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    Mittal M Bhanushali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test, convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT. Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1 a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2 significant muscle relaxant activity; (3 a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4 a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5 a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6 increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain.

  9. ANTIFUNGAL EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF NEEM CAKE, KARANJ CAKE AND VERMICOMPOST AGAINST SOME PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

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    JAIPAL SINGH CHOUDHARY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several agro-based waste and byproducts are known and cited to play an important role in the management ofplant diseases in ancient texts. They act directly or indirectly on plant pathogens to inhibit the growth andmultiplication or by inducing resistance in crop plants. In the present experiments, aqueous extracts of neemcake, karanj cake and vermicompost were tested against some important phytopathogenic fungi viz.,Helminthosporium pennisetti, Curvularia lunata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae for theirantifungal activities. H. pennisetti was found to be most sensitive one followed by C. gloeosporioides f. sp.mangiferae and C. lunata against all the tested drugs. Against C. gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae, aqueous extractof karanj cake was most effective where GI50 was found to be 0.41% drug concentration followed by neem cake(0.46% and vermicompost (0.86%. In case of C. lunata and H. pennisetti, neem cake extract was most effectivewith GI50 value of 0.27% and 0.11% respectively. The GI50 values noted for C. lunata with extracts of karanj cake(0.70%, vermicompost (0.88% and for H. pennisetti were (0.20% and (0.22% respectively.

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of the Desmodium gangeticum DC root in the severity of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Gino A; Philip, Sachu; Varghese, Thomas

    2005-03-21

    The aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) DC (Fabaceae) (DG) was studied in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted (MI) rats for the hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effect. After inducing MI by isoproterenol (35 mg/kg b wt. i.p.), the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root at a dose of 3 ml/100 g b wt. was orally administered daily for a period of 30 days in six rats. On induction of MI, the activities of creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) increased in myocardial tissue, hepatic tissue and serum. Pretreatment of DG to MI rats prevented the increase of these enzymes. The hypocholesterolemic effect of DG was assessed by the concentration of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and through the activities of 3-hydroxy 3-methyl glutaryl co-enzyme (HMG CoA) reductase and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) in the myocardial tissue. The significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and improved activities of glutathione reductase and catalase in the myocardial tissues of rats treated with DG suggest free radical scavenging activity of the extract.

  11. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

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    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, and quinolinic acid (QA induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 μg/mL and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 μg/mL activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat’s brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P<0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications.

  12. Attenuation of Cyclosporine-Induced Sperm Impairment and Embryotoxicity by Crataegus monogyna Fruit Aqueous Extract

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    Zahra Armand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cyclosporine (Cs, a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immunosuppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days by oral gavage. In addition, one of the two groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after Cs administration. The remaining two groups consisted of a vehicle treated control (Cont group and a Crataegus monogyna control (Cr group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using the SPSS software package for Windows.Results: Cs treatment caused a significant decrease in sperm count and viability with an increase in DNA damage and protamine deficiency of the sperm cells. We observed significant decreases in fertilization rate and embryonic development, in addition to an increased rate of embryo arrest in Cs-treated rats. Crataegus monogyna co-administration attenuated all Cs-induced negative changes in the above-mentioned parameters.Conclusion: Supplementation with Crataegus monogyna a queous fruit extract could be useful against reproductive toxicity during Cs treatment in a rat model.

  13. Discoloration of Indigo Carmine Using Aqueous Extracts from Vegetables and Vegetable Residues as Enzyme Sources

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    A. Solís

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC, completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO, pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000 ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800 rpm in about 36 h. In addition, at 1,800 rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300 ppm of IC in 1:40 h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50 h, whereas it was completed in 4:30 h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap.

  14. Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitor

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    F. Brindis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α-glucosidase (an in vitro assay and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a Ki = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (Ki = 0.79 mg/mL. The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature.

  15. Effect of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit on experimental cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani Natanzi, Mahboobeh; Pasalar, Parvin; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Sharifi, Roya; Ghanadian, Naghmeh; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Gerayesh-Nejad, Siavash

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the histological changes and wound healing effect of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia. After creating full-thickness skin wounds on the back of 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats they were randomly divided into three groups. Treated group received the extract, positive control group were treated with mupirocin ointment 2% and control group did not receive any treatment. Wound healing rates were calculated on days 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 and 15 post-wounding and the wound tissues were harvested at 5, 10, and 15 days for histological analysis and hydroxyproline content measurement. The results indicated a significant increase in the percentage of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the treated group comparing to the control and positive control groups. A significant increase in the assigned histological scores was observed at 10 and 15 days in the treated and positive control groups compared to the control group. The results demonstrate that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia accelerates cutaneous wound healing, and its effect may be due to the increased re-epithelialization and collagen deposition in wound and so it can be considered as a therapeutic agent for wound healing.

  16. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia Fruit on Experimental Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats

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    Maryam Rahimi-Balaei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the histological changes and wound healing effect of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia. After creating full-thickness skin wounds on the back of 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats they were randomly divided into three groups. Treated group received the extract, positive control group were treated with mupirocin ointment 2% and control group did not receive any treatment. Wound healing rates were calculated on days 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 and 15 post-wounding and the wound tissues were harvested at 5, 10, and 15 days for histological analysis and hydroxyproline content measurement. The results indicated a significant increase in the percentage of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the treated group comparing to the control and positive control groups. A significant increase in the assigned histological scores was observed at 10 and 15 days in the treated and positive control groups compared to the control group. The results demonstrate that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia accelerates cutaneous wound healing, and its effect may be due to the increased re-epithelialization and collagen deposition in wound and so it can be considered as a therapeutic agent for wound healing.

  17. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimalarial Activity Aqueous Extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Root.

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    Nafiu, Mikhail Olugbemiro; Abdulsalam, Taoheed Adedeji; Akanji, Musbau Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    Root aqueous extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides was evaluated for antimalarial activity and analyzed for its phytochemical constituents. Twenty-four (24) albino mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of standard inoculum of chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (NK 65). The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups of 3 mice each. Group 1 served as the control while groups II-IV were orally administered 50, 150, and 250 mg/kg body weights of extract. Groups 5 and 6 received 1.75 and 5 mg/kg of artesunate and chloroquine, respectively. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids (2.37%), saponin (0.336), tannin (0.012 per cent), phenol (0.008 per cent), and anthraquinone (0.002 per cent). There was 100 per cent parasite inhibition in the chloroquine group and 70 per cent in the 50 mg/kg body weight on day 12, respectively. The mean survival time (MST), for the control group was 14 days, artesunate 16 days, and chloroquine 30 days, while the groups that received 50 and 250 mg/kg body weight recorded similar MST of 17 days and the 150 mg/kg body weight group recorded 19 days. The results obtained indicated that the aqueous extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides may provide an alternative antimalarial.

  18. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract

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    Lia de Barros Leite Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I, from implantation to major organogenesis (II, and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III. We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I, pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic.

  19. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  20. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis, characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

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    Arunachalam, Kantha D; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20-50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications.

  1. Acute toxicity and metabolomics analysis of hypocholesterolemic effect of Mentha piperita aqueous extract in Wistar rats

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    Nor Zaini Johari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The oral acute toxicity of the aqueous peppermint extract (APE was assessed and the bio and/or chemo markers for hypocholesterolemic activity of APE were identified through metabolomics approach. No mortality resulted from the present oral acute toxicity study in which the histological changes observed in the selected organs and the biochemical deviation of blood compared to the normal range level were minimal. This study also explored the effect of 290 mg-1 kg body weight of APE against 5% cholesterol-enriched diet within 14 days treatment. Whereby after the treatment, there were reductions exhibited in plasma total cholesterol (44.32%, LDL-cholesterol (69.19% and total triglycerides (55.77%. 1H NMR-metabolomics approach was, employed for better sensitivity and accuracy in evaluating the  potential plasma biomarkers of hyper-and hypo-cholesterolemic properties. β-Hydroxybutarate and α-D-glucose have been identified as the possible hypercholesterolemic markers, whereas taurine, betaine, alanine, glycine and L-leucine were suggested to be the hypocholesterolemic markers of APE.  Industrial relevance. Due to various reports on the side effects of conventional drug-lowering cholesterol available in the market, aqueous peppermint extract at its recommended consumption dosage has been investigated over its toxicity of oral consumption and its efficacy against elevation of cholesterol level in blood. The evaluation of hypocholesterolemic activity of aqueous peppermint extract (APE, from which the potential biomarkers could be established, might be useful in the  development of new anti-cholesterol drug and also for quality control of peppermint-based products. Keywords. Mentha piperita; peppermint; hypercholesterolemia; metabolomics; 1H NMR; multivariate data analysis

  2. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications

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    Arunachalam KD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kantha D Arunachalam, Sathesh Kumar Annamalai Center for Environmental Nuclear Research, Directorate of Research, SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3 and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications. Keywords: nanoparticles, bioreduction, SEM, silver, gold

  3. Study of Elaeagnus angustifolia Fruit Aqueous Extract on the Histomorphometrical Changes of Retina in Mouse Embryo

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    Jamshid Arum

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Modern societies tend to use herbs or traditional medicine because of fewer side effects than synthetic drugs. Elaeagnus angustifolia is a plant with many therapeutic effects. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia on fetal mice retina in Balb/C by evaluating of histomophometrical and immunohistochemical parameters in the eye mouse embryos Methods In this experimental study, thirty pregnant mice were randomly divided into two groups. Control group received food and drinking water, and the experimental group received food and the aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg in the form of water solution from the day zero of pregnancy up to the 18th day. Pregnant mice were killed and their fetuses were taken, fixed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical changes of retin examined. Results The mean of Crown-Rump length and weight of fetuses significantly increased in experimental group compared to control group. In experimental group, a significant decrease was shown in the mean of diameters and weight of placenta compared to control group. Retinal thickness in posterior, superior and inferior part significantly reduced in experimental group compared to control group. however, retinal thickness in anterior part in experimental group was not different when compared to control group. The number of Ki-67-positive cells showed that the retinal cells proliferation in experimental group decreased compared to control group. Conclusions The use of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia at dose of 500 mg/kg to pregnant mice caused the growth and histological changes on fetal mouse and in the retinal mouse development.

  4. Acute toxicity and cytotoxicity evaluation of Dendrobium moniliforme aqueous extract in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mu-Jin; Jung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Min-Suk; Jang, Ji-Hun; Sim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Tea-Mook; Park, Ho; Ahn, Byung-Kwan; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw., an herb of the Orchidaceae family, has long been used in traditional medicine to strengthen bones, nourish the stomach, and promote the production of bodily fluid. Recently, polysaccharides isolated from Dendrobium have been used in functional foods and nutraceutical products. A traditional method to process Dendrobium is to soak fresh stems in an ethanol solution, which is the most important factor to ensure high yields of aqueous-extractable polysaccharides. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential acute toxicity of D. moniliforme aqueous extract (DMAE), by a single oral dose in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test article was orally administered once by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg body weight (n=5 male and female rats for each dose). Throughout the study period, no treatment-related deaths were observed and no adverse effects were noted in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, serum biochemistry, organ weight, or gross findings at any dose tested. The results show that a single oral administration of DMAE did not induce any toxic effects at a dose below 5,000 mg/kg in rats, and the minimal lethal dose was considered to be over 5,000 mg/kg body weight for both sexes. With respect to cytotoxicity, the cell viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells was less than 50% when the cells were treated with 10 mg/mL aqueous extract for 24 h. PMID:27729930

  5. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  6. Hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract.

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    Ojewole, J A O

    2005-12-01

    The leaf of Psidium guajava Linn. (family, Myrtaceae) is used traditionally in African folk medicine to manage, control, and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In order to scientifically appraise some of the anecdotal, folkloric, ethnomedical uses of P. guajava Linn., the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of P. guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg) in rat experimental paradigms. The hypoglycemic effect of the plant's extract was examined in normal and diabetic rats, using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus model. Hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats were used to investigate the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant's extract. Chlorpropamide (CPP; 250 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the reference hypoglycemic agent for comparison. Acute oral administrations of the plant's extract (PGE; 50-800 mg/kg, p.o.) caused dose-related, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) hypoglycemia in normal (normoglycemic) and STZ-treated, diabetic rats. Moreover, acute intravenous administrations of the plant's extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg i.v.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in systemic arterial blood pressures and heart rates of hypertensive, Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Although the exact mechanisms of action of the plant's extract still remain speculative at present, it is unlikely that the extract causes hypotension in the mammalian experimental animal model used via cholinergic mechanisms, since its cardiodepressant effects are resistant to atropine pretreatment. The numerous tannins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, pentacyclic triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant are speculated to account for the observed hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of the plant's leaf extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of P. guajava

  7. A Novel Approach for Oral Delivery of Insulin via Desmodium gangeticum Aqueous Root Extract.

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    Kurian, Ga; Seetharaman, Av; Subramanian, Nr; Paddikkala, J

    2010-04-01

    Many challenges are associated with the oral delivery of insulin, relating to the physical and chemical stability of the hormone, and its absorption and metabolism in the human body. The present study aims to demonstrate the oral delivery of insulin in both normal and steptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with the help of the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG) root. Human insulin was mixed with the aqueous extract of DG root (0.1 mg/ml) with human insulin (40 IU/ml) in ratio 1:1(v/v), to prepare oral insulin drug. Decreased plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rat suggested the probable absorption of insulin through GI tract when insulin was administered by mixing with DG extract. Indeed, insulin mixed DG potentially stimulates the release of insulin in STZ-induced diabetic rat rather than in normal animal. In vivo insulin secretaguage action of oral insulin drug was determined by isolated rat heart model and the results showed a significant cardio protection in STZ rat. The finding of this study suggests that insulin mixed with DG extract can be a promising vehicle for oral delivery of insulin. However, further studies are required to explore the exact compound(s) responsible for the protective delivery of insulin orally. Increased plasma insulin level by insulin mixed DG extract administration in STZ-treated diabetic rat indicates not only insulin secretaguage action of the mixture but also a probable altered insulin release mechanism in diabetic condition.

  8. Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. inhibits neutrophil influx and cytokine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira E; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto; de Melo, Illana Louise Pereira; Pedrosa, Gabriela Vieira; Genovese, Maria Ines; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. phenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including its ability to treat inflammatory disorders. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of R. officinalis aqueous extract on neutrophil trafficking from the blood into an inflamed tissue, on cell-derived secretion of chemical mediators, and on oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats orally treated with the R. officinalis extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy), secretion of chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the anti-oxidative profile (super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) spectrophotometry) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO2 (-) production (Greiss reaction), and adhesion molecule expression (flow cytometry) were in vitro quantified using oyster glycogen recruited peritoneal neutrophils previous treated with the extract (1, 10, or 100 µg/mL). Animals orally treated with phosphate-buffered saline and neutrophils incubated with Hank's balanced salt solution were used as control. R. officinalis extract oral treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as decreased SOD, TBARS, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with R. officinalis decreased neutrophil chemotaxis, NO2 (-) production, and shedding of L-selectin and β2 integrin expressions. Results here presented show that R. officinalis aqueous extract displays important in vivo and in vitro anti

  9. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using cranberry powder aqueous extract: characterization and antimicrobial properties

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    Ashour AA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asmaa A Ashour,1 Dina Raafat,2 Hanan M El-Gowelli,3 Amal H El-Kamel1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Background: The growing threat of microbial resistance against traditional antibiotics has prompted the development of several antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs, including silver NPs (AgNPs. In this article, a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs using the cranberry powder aqueous extract is reported.Materials and methods: Cranberry powder aqueous extracts (0.2%, 0.5%, and 0.8% w/v were allowed to interact for 24 hours with a silver nitrate solution (10 mM at 30°C at a ratio of 1:10. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and their concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The prepared NPs were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, measurement of ζ-potential, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro antimicrobial properties of AgNPs were then investigated against several microbial strains. Finally, in vivo appraisal of both wound-healing and antimicrobial properties of either plain AgNPs (prepared using 0.2% extract or AgNP-Pluronic F-127 gel was conducted in a rat model after induction of a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P wound infection.Results: The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, where a surface-plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed between 432 and 438 nm. Both size and concentration of the formed AgNPs increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. The developed NPs were stable, almost spherical, and polydisperse, with a size range of 1.4–8.6 nm. The negative ζ-potential values, as well as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, indicated the presence of a capping agent adsorbed onto the surface of the particles. In

  11. Impact of Moringa aqueous extract on pathogenic bacteria and fungi in vitro

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    Latifa A. Al_husnan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Moringa peregrine have many benefits. In this study aqueous extract of Moringa plant inhibited the activity of these bacteria which include Bacillus cereus; Staphylococcus aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli; Enterococcus cloacae; Salmonella typhi and; Proteus vulgaris. Moringa extracts has shown an impact on the growth of bacteria on the Blood with inhibition zone variable (23.5 ± 0.45 to 12.5 ± 0.50 mm according to the type of bacteria. The mean growth inhibition percentages were 85.9 ± 0.42 to 65.3 ± 0.34 nm against all tested bacteria. As regards to fungi, high potency extract displayed zones of inhibition of ⩾10 mm, moderate potent extracts gave zones of inhibition between <10 and 9 mm. The results indicated that, Moringa aqueous extract played variable antifungal activity ranged from high (18 ± 0.54 mm, moderate (13.2 ± 0.58 mm and low (6.6 ± 0.47 mm. The inhibition zones diameter in millimeters against A. niger, A. flavus, P. italicum, F. oxysporum, R. stolonifer, Alternaria sp., C. albicans, C. parapsilosis were 15.2 ± 0.52, 12.4 ± 0.55, 10.5 ± 0.26, 9.4 ± 0.71, 13.2 ± 0.58, 6.6 ± 0.47, 12 ± 0.44 and 18 ± 0.54, respectively. On the other hand, the mean inhibition of growth (as percentages were 75.2 ± 0.55, 59.4 ± 0.75, 58.2 ± 0.63, 46.5 ± 0.63, 62.5 ± 0.77, 24.5 ± 0.65, 20.3 ± 0.75 and 80.00 ± 0.70% respectively. Thus, the aqueous extract of Moringa leaves showed antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria, fungi and yeasts at different concentrations.

  12. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium by Aqueous Extract of Tridax procumbens L.

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    G. Ilayaraja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel has been investigated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor at different time interval at room temperature. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with different time interval and different acid concentration. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behavior of Tridax procumbens L. is greater in sulphuric acid than hydrochloric acid medium. So Tridax procumbens L. can be used as a good inhibitor for preventing mild steel material.

  13. Antineoplasic effect of aqueous extract of plectranthus amboinicus in ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Eduardo M; Brandão, Paulo H D M; Souza, Ivone A; Paiva, Gerson S; de C Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma.

  14. Preventing protein adsorption from a range of surfaces using an aqueous fish protein extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Saju; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Meyer, Rikke L.;

    2009-01-01

    We utilize an aqueous extract of fish proteins (FPs) as a coating for minimizing the adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA). The surfaces include stainless steel (SS), gold (Au), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and poly(styrene) (PS). The adsorption processes (kinetics and adsorbed...... Fg- or HSA-coated surfaces are exposed to the FPs, a significant increase in adsorbed mass occurs because the FPs are highly surface-active displacing Fg. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy confirms that very little Fg adsorbs to the FP-coated surfaces. We propose that FP coatings prevent protein...

  15. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Teucrium chamaedrys Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male Rats

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    Ali Pourmotabbed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sCurrent study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium chamaedrys in mice and rats. Materials and MethodsFor evaluating of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we used the carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests.ResultsThe extract of T. chamaedrys (50–200 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg produced a significant (P< 0.01 inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model, while only the high dose (200 mg/kg of the extract showed an analgesic effect in the first phase. The extract also inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes in a dose-dependent manner. The tail flick latency was dose dependently enhanced by the extract but this was significantly (P< 0.05 lower than that produced by morphine (10 mg/kg. The extract (25–250 mg/kg administered 1 hr before carrageenan-induced paw swelling produced a dose dependent inhibition of the oedema. No effect was observed with the dextran-induced oedema model. Results of the phytochemical screening show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids in the extract.ConclusionThe data obtained also suggest that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The role of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids will evaluate in future studies.

  16. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Root Bark Extract Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Moses Solomon Agwaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medicinal plants offer cheaper and safer treatment options to current diabetic drugs. The present study evaluated the effect of aqueous root bark extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum on oral glucose tolerance and pancreas histopathology in alloxanized rats. Method. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of Z. chalybeum was administered to rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW daily for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. Results. Initial increase was observed in blood glucose of the rats after oral administration of glucose from time zero. Two hours after treatment with Z. chalybeum, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed within treatment groups (p<0.05 compared to 0.5 hr and 1 hr. There was no significant difference between treatment group receiving 400mg/Kg BW extract and the normal groups (p=0.27, implying that the former group recovered and were able to regulate their blood sugar, possibly via uptake of glucose into cells. The reversal in pancreatic histopathology further supports the protective effect of Z. chalybeum extract towards diabetic damage. Conclusion. Extract of Z. chalybeum is effective in controlling blood glucose in diabetes and protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage.

  17. Response surface methodology to optimize enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of maize germ oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Deepika; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur

    2016-08-01

    The present study was aimed at optimizing the enzyme assisted aqueous extraction (EAAE) process for extraction of maize germ oil. The different EAAE process parameter viz., pH of the slurry, seed to water ratio, the temperature of incubation and time of hydrolysis were optimized for improving oil recovery and oil quality. The combined effect of independent variables on recovery of oil, time taken for oil extraction and various quality parameters were studied using response surface methodology. The designed experimental runs were conducted to obtain the optimal conditions as 5.85 pH of slurry, 1:6.92 seed to water ratio, 45.12 °C temperature of incubation and 1 h time of hydrolysis. Oil extracted under these conditions was light yellowish in color and had a pleasant nutty taste, with maximum oil recovery of 70 %. The extraction variables viz., pH of slurry, seed to water ratio, the temperature of incubation had a significant effect on recovery of oil and various quality characteristics, however the time of hydrolysis had a non significant effect.

  18. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

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    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  19. Mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activity of aqueous extract of green tea (Camellia sinensis

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    G. Balaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (Camellia sinensis is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages in the world. In the current study, aqueous extract of green tea (C. sinensis was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activities. Green tea extract (11, 13, 15 mg/ml significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited compound 48/80-induced rat mesentric mast cell degranulation in a dose dependent manner. Anti-anaphylactic activity of green tea extract was performed in female mice. At a dose of 400, 500, 600 mg/kg BW, green tea extract showed significant reduction in the mortality of mice subjected to anaphylactic shock by compound C48/80. Ketotifen was used for comparison. In addition, IR and UV–Visible spectroscopy analysis of green tea extract revealed the presence of functional groups of bioactive compounds. These results suggest that green tea could be useful in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis.

  20. Ultrasound-Assisted Aqueous Two-Phase System for Extraction and Enrichment of Zanthoxylum armatum Lignans

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    Tao Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the study, an aqueous two phase system (ATPS coupled with ultrasound was employed to extract lignans from Zanthoxylum armatum. Three standard lignans, namely (−-fargesin, sesamin and L-asarinin, were used as marker compounds, and extraction was optimized and projected by response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN. The optimal condition for ATPS with 20% n-propanol and 24% (NH42SO4 coupled with ultrasonic-assisted extraction including a solvent to solid ratio of 15:1, a temperature of 40 °C, and a treatment time of 55 min was obtained. Under the condition, the yield of (−-fargesin increased 15.12%, and the purities of (−-fargesin, sesamin and L-asarinin reached 2.222%, 1.066%, and 1.583%, with an increase of 44.38%, 25.70%, and 26.34% compared to those extracted with 95% ethanol, respectively. Coefficient of the determined (0.9855 and mean squared error (0.0018 of ANN model suggested good fitness and generalization of the ANN. Taken together, the results showed that ultrasonic-assisted ATPS can be a suitable method for extraction and enrichment of lignans from Z. armatum.

  1. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagajjanani Rao, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India); Paria, Santanu, E-mail: santanuparia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  2. DNA degradation by aqueous extract of Aloe vera in the presence of copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Shoa; Ullah, M F; Hadi, S M

    2010-06-01

    The plant Aloe vera has long been used in medicine, as dietary supplements and for cosmetic purposes. Aloe vera extracts are a rich source of polyphenols, such as aloin and aloe emodin and have shown a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The bioactive component aloe emodin has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Many of the biological activities of Aloe vera have been attributed to its antioxidant properties. However, most plant-derived polyphenols that are also present in Aloe vera may exhibit pro-oxidant properties either alone or in the presence of transition metals, such as copper. Previous reports from this laboratory have implicated the pro-oxidant action as one of the mechanisms for their anti-cancer properties. In the present paper, we show that aqueous extract of Aloe vera is also able to cause DNA degradation in the presence of copper ions. Further, the extract is also able to reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I) and generate reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner, which correlates with ability of the extract to cause DNA breakage. Thus, the study shows that in addition to antioxidant activity, Aloe vera extract also possess pro-oxidant properties, leading to oxidative DNA breakage.

  3. Antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of aqueous extract of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayalil, Praveen K

    2002-01-30

    Fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) are very commonly consumed in many parts of the world and are a vital component of the diet in most of the Arabian countries. This preliminary study documents for the first time its antioxidant and antimutagenic properties in vitro. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by an aqueous extract of date fruit. The amount of fresh extract required to scavenge 50% of superoxide radicals was equivalent to 0.8 mg/mL of date fruit in the riboflavin photoreduction method. An extract of 2.2 mg/mL of date fruit was needed for 50% hydroxyl-radical-scavenging activity in the deoxyribose degradation method. Concentrations of 1.5 and 4.0 mg/mL completely inhibited superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Aqueous date extract was also found to inhibit significantly the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In an Fe(2+)/ascorbate system, an extract of 1.9 mg/mL of date fruit was needed for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxides. In a time course inhibition study of lipid peroxide, at a 2.0 mg/mL concentration of date extract, there was a complete inhibition of TBARS formation in the early stages of the incubation period that increased during later stages of the incubation. Similarly, in the high Fe(2+)/ascorbate induction system a concentration of 2.3 mg/mL inhibited carbonyl formation measured by DNPH reaction by 50%. Moreover, a concentration of 4.0 mg/mL completely inhibited lipid peroxide and protein carbonyl formation. Date fruit extract also produced a dose-dependent inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mutagenecity on Salmonella tester strains TA-98 and TA-100 with metabolic activation. Extract from 3.6 mg/plate and 4.3 mg/plate was found required for 50% inhibition of His+ revertant formation in TA-98 and TA-100, respectively. These results indicate that antioxidant and antimutagenic activity in date fruit is quite potent and implicates the presence

  4. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

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    Anwar, Farooq

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P 0.05 variation in the contents of fiber and ash within the three extraction methods. However, the protein content of the meal obtained through the aqueous-enzyme and control methods was significantly (P M. concanensis seed oils extracted using the three methods. The specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide value, p-anisidine, free fatty acid contents and color values of the aqueous-enzyme-extracted oil were found to be lower than that of solvent-extracted oil and thus revealed good quality. The oils extracted through the three methods exhibited no significant (P En este estudio se compara la composición y la calidad del aceite de semilla de M. concanensis extraído mediante enzimas, utilizando tres enzimas comerciales (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, y Feedzyme con las de un control extraído sin enzimas y con las del aceite extraído con disolvente. El contenido en aceites de las semilla extraídas con enzimas osciló entre 23,54 a 27,46% y fue significativamente más elevado (P 0,05 en el contenido de fibra y ceniza para los tres métodos de la extracción. Sin embargo, el contenido proteínico de la harina obtenido por métodos enzimáticos y el control sin enzimas fue significativamente menor (P < 0,05 que el de la harina obtenida después de la extracción por disolvente. Las diferencias en el índice de yodo (67.1-68.0 g /100 g of oil, densidad en 24 °C (0,865-0,866 g/mL, índice de refracción a 40 °C (1,4622-1,4627 y fracción insaponificable (0,69-0,76 % no fueron significativamente diferentes para ninguna de las técnicas de extracción. Las extinciones espec

  5. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, T. Y.; Radhika Rajasree, S. R.; Ramkumar, R.; Rajthilak, C.; Perumal, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size.

  6. Acute hypotensive and diuretic activities of Artemisia herba alba aqueous extract in normal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoufel Ali Zeggwagh; Jean Baptiste Michel; Mohamed Eddouks

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of Artemisia herba alba (A. herba alba) intravenous injection on cardiovascular and renal function in normal rats. Methods:The effect of intravenous injection of A. herba alba extract at the different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated in normal rats. Diuresis, heart frequency and electrolytes concentrations were analyzed. Results: Intravenous bolus injection of A. herba alba at the different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg produced a dose dependent reduction in arterial blood pressure (P Conclusions: We conclude that the aqueous A. herba alba extract possesses a potent acute hypotensive effect on normal rats. In addition, A. herba alba perfusion may affect renal function to increase urine and electrolytes excretion.

  7. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, T Y; Rajasree, S R Radhika; Ramkumar, R; Rajthilak, C; Perumal, P

    2014-01-24

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size.

  8. Improved extraction procedures for polychlorinated biphenyls in solid samples with aqueous sodium hydroxide under autoclave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Y; Inouye, Y

    2000-03-01

    The efficacy of the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from varnish-infiltrated insulating papers as a model of solid materials with an aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) by autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 30 min was compared with those for the conventional procedures, i.e., saponification with 1 N ethanolic NaOH in a boiling water bath for 60 min and extraction with benzene in a Soxhlet apparatus. The newly invented autoclaving method was found to be superior to the conventional ones, yielding approximately 5- to 6-fold cumulative PCB congeners without being accompanied by extended decomposition. Therefore, the autoclave-based sample treatment is recommended for more accurate determination of PCBs in the case of PCB-impregnated solid materials such as hardened oils and resin-coated or -infiltrated papers instead of being treated conventionally.

  9. Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Antidermatophytic Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Raamphal Plant (Annona reticulata Aqueous Leaves Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shivakumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Annona reticulata leaf aqueous extract. The biosynthesised silver nanoparticles were confirmed by visual observation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of dark brown colour indicated the synthesis of silver in the reaction mixture. The silver nanoparticles were found to be spherical, rod, and triangular in shape with variable size ranging from 23.84 to 50.54 nm, as evident by X-ray diffraction studies, TEM. The X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and TEM analysis indicate that the particles are crystalline in nature. The nanoparticles appeared to be associated with some chemical compounds which possess hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, confirmed by FTIR. This is the first and novel report of silver nanoparticles synthesised from Annona reticulata leaves extract and their antidermatophytic activity.

  10. Concentration of fish serum albumin (FSA) in the aqueous extract of Indonesian Perciformes fishes' muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januar, Hedi Indra; Fajarningsih, Nurrahmi Dewi; Zilda, Dewi Seswita; Bramandito, Aditya; Wright, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    Fish serum albumin (FSA) is an aquatic resource that has potential to be developed as nutraceutical. Therefore, research was undertaken to assess albumin levels in the aqueous extract of muscle tissue of several Perciformes commonly available at a local fish market in Indonesia. Three random replicates for each of 17 Perciformes species were collected and assessed for their FSA content by application of a reversed-phase (C4) HPLC analytical method. Results of these analyses showed that the albumin concentration of the extracts was in the range 3.49-12.61 g/L, and that they varied significantly (P fishes from the family Scrombidae showed the highest concentration (12.61 g/L) of FSA, they would likely have the most value as a source for production of albumin-based nutritional and/or clinical products.

  11. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf (lemon grass aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo M. Sousa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous extracts (5; 10; 20 and 30 mg/mL. The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed, and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index, the seed germination and the root development of lettuce. The extracts have also induced chromosome aberrations and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa.O capim-limão, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf, é uma importante espécie da família Poaceae com uma comum utilização na medicina popular em vários países. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos citotóxicos e genotóxicos do extrato aquoso das folhas de C. citratus em células meristemáticas de Lactuca sativa (alface por meio de estudos citogenéticos, uma vez que estudos desta natureza não existem para extratos aquosos de capim-limão. Para isso, sementes de alface foram tratadas por 72h com diferentes concentrações de extratos aquosos feitos das folhas de capim-limão (5, 10, 20 e 30 mg/mL. O percentual de germinação, desenvolvimento radicular e o comportamento celular foram avaliados e os resultados mostraram que as concentrações mais elevadas dos extratos aquosos reduziram o índice mitótico, o percentual de germinação das sementes e desenvolvimento radicular da alface. Os extratos também induziram aberrações cromossômicas e morte celular nas células das raízes de L. sativa.

  12. PHENOLIC COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF BLACKBERRIES

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    VIVIANE MARCELA CELANT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and flavonoids extracted with 80% ethanol and water, and antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS of five blackberry cultivars produced in Western Paraná, Brazil. Brazos, Tupy, Arapaho, Choctaw and Guarani blackberries were studied. Soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of fruits were also characterized. Total phenolic compounds ranged from 8.23 to 14.98 mg GAE g-1 (f.w. and Arapaho cultivar exhibited the highest contents in both solvents. Anthocyanins ranged from 2.57 to 9.42 mg ECy3glu g-1 (f.w., being the solvent ethanol 80% more efficient than the water, and Choctaw cultivar showing the highest content. Flavonoids ranged from 0.46 to 1.14 mg EQ g-1 (f.w. and Guarani cultivar showed the highest content. High linear correlations were found between total phenolics and antioxidant capacity in both extraction solvents. However, linear correlations between anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were observed only for the aqueous solvent. Ascorbic acid ranged from 87.87 to 134.09 mg 100 g-1, with emphasis on Brazos cultivar. The aqueous extract showed greater ability to scavenge ABTS radical, but the ethanolic extract was more efficient for the DPPH radical. Blackberries produced under Western Paraná conditions showed high levels of antioxidants with emphasis on Arapaho cultivar. This study showed that water and ethanol solvents influence different results on phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of blackberries.

  13. Aqueous and organic extracts of Trigonellafoenum-graecum L. Inhibit the mycelia growth of fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. HAOUALA; S. HAWALA; A. EL-AYEB; R. KHANFIR; N. BOUGHANMI

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from various plant parts of fenugreek (3%) (aerial parts: leaves and stems (LS), roots (R), ground seeds (GS) and not ground seeds (NGS)) and petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions of the aerial parts were assayed to determine their antifungal potential against Botrytis cinema, Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria sp., Pythium aphanidermatum, and Rhizoctinia solani. All fenugreek plant parts showed antifungal potential and the magnitude of their inhibitory effects was species and plant parts dependent. R extract was shown less toxic (30.38%), whereas NGS extract expressed the strongest inhibition, with an average of 71.44%, followed by GS (58.56%) and LS (57.1%). Screening indicated that P. aphanidermatum was the most resistant species, with an average inhibition of 34.5%. E graminearum, Alternaria sp. and R. solani were the most sensitive species, and were similarly inhibited (63.5%). The stability test indicated that the aqueous extracts of all plant parts lost approximately 50% of their relative activity after one month of storage at 4℃, whilst they lost 60%-90% of their activity when stored at ambient temperature for one month. The antifungal activity resided mainly in the methanol fraction and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol fraction witch caused total inhibition of R. solani and Alternaria sp. was 60 μg/ml. Results of current study suggested that the constituents of Trigonella foenum-graecum have potential against harmful pathogenic fungi. Therefore, fenugreek could be an important source of biologically active compounds useful for developing better new antifungal drugs.

  14. Histology, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Evaluations of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Adult Wistar Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboma, Yibala .I

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia is an indicator of diabetes mellitus and chronic dyslipidemia a risk factor cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We aim at evaluating the effect of Moringa oleifera on glucose level, lipid profile, cardiac markers, liver enzymes, proteins and histology of the heart and liver. METHODOLOGY: Twenty six male (26 adult Wistar rats were enrolled for the study. Acclimatized and randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C&-D, n=6 and controls. They rat were given intraperitoneal injection of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract. Sacrifice was carried out on 24hrs, 7days, 14days, and 28days respectively. Tissues collected were prepared for histology using heamatoxylin and eosin staining techniques while serum lipid profile, glucose level, creatine kinase, malondialdehyde (MDA and liver enzymes were analyze using Selectra and micro Elisa. RESULT: High doses (500mg/kg and prolonged exposure to the extract resulted in spectrum effects. Prolonged and increase concentration of extract administration causes increase in body weight and is statistically significant at P<0.05, t=35 and df=8, decrease in lipid profile, creatine kinase (CK-MB, malondialdehyde (MDA, liver enzymes and glucose at both higher and lower doses of 500mg/kg and 300mg/kg respectively. Photomicrograph with magnification of x400, show normal histology of the heart and liver. CONCLUSION: Aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera show a potential anti-hyperglycemia and antilipidemic properties with no notable hepatotoxicity and cardiac injury. This study supports the popular sayings about the tradomedicinal use of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  15. Aqueous neem extract versus neem powder on Culex quinquefasciatus: implications for control in anthropogenic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudom, Andreas A; Mensah, Ben A; Botchey, Mary A

    2011-01-01

    Control programs using conventional insecticides to target anthropogenic mosquito habitats are very expensive because these habitats are widespread, particularly in cities of most African countries. Additionally, there are serious environmental concerns regarding large-scale application of most conventional insecticides. Clearly there is a need for alternative methods that are more effective, less expensive, and environmentally friendly. One such method would be the application of preparations made from parts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Jussieu (Sapindales: Meliaceae). In this study, aqueous crude extracts and crude powder were prepared from different parts of neem, and the efficacies of the preparations on juvenile stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) were evaluated in the laboratory. When larvae were exposed to a concentration of 0.1 g/mL extract for 24 hours, percent mean mortality (± SE) was 72.7 plusmn; 1.8 for the bark, 68.7 ± 1.6 for fruits and 60 ± 1.6 for leaves. These means were not significantly different (χ(2) = 4.12; df = 2; p = 0.127). At a concentration of 0.01 g/mL, > 95% of the larvae died within 24 hours of exposure to powdered neem leaf, but it took 120 hours to reach the same level of larval mortality in aqueous leaf extract. The crude extract slowly inhibited the growth and development of mosquitoes while the crude powder acted more as a barrier; the mosquitoes probably died from suffocation. However, both types of preparations can be made and used by local people to control mosquito breeding in anthropogenic habitats, especially in urbanized areas.

  16. The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the fruits of Balanites aegypticea in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Abdella Emam Abdella Baragob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balanites aegypticea is used medically for many purposes e.g. anti-spasmodic, stomach pain, malaria, and yellow fever. The extract of the fruit is also used to reduce the blood glucose levels. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of the aqueous extract of the fruits of the Balanites aegypticea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five adult male Vistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly collected and divided into 5 groups (5 rats in each group. The untreated rats (negative control group received basal diet and tap water only for 15 days. The experimental rats became diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight. The fruit of Balanites aegypticea was powdered, extracted, and dried using organic solvents. The diabetic rats received aqueous extract 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg, respectively, for 2 weeks. Plasma glucose levels were measured by using Glucose GOD-PAP method through spectrophotometer. Results: The results showed that 800 mg/kg aqueous extract decrease significantly the plasma glucose level (P ≤ 0.05 in diabetic rats, and there is a considerable gain in body weight (P ≤ 0.05 compared to the diabetic control group. Four-hundred mg/kg aqueous extract has a mild effect on body weights and plasma glucose levels, while 200 mg/kg aqueous extract has no significant effect on plasma glucose level and a little effect on body weight. Conclusions: The results of the presented study revealed that the aqueous extract of Balanites aegypticea has hypoglycemic properties. It can decrease the plasma glucose level and can improve weight in diabetic experimental animals.

  17. Ionic liquid pre-treatment of microalgae and extraction of biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) techniques are widely used in separation primarily due to ease of scale up. Conventional (LLE) systems based on organic solvents are not suitable for extraction of fragile molecules such as proteins as it would result in denaturation. On the other hand aqueous biphasic system though suitable for extraction of proteins they are restricted by limited polarity range. Ionic liquids are salts which are liquid at room temperature. Ionic liquids have gained interest in...

  18. Ocimum gratissmum aqueous extract reduces plasma lipid in hypercholesterol-fed hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pei-Yu; Lin, James A.; Ting, Wei-Jen; Lee, Hsueh-Hui; Hsieh, Kuanghui; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lai, Te-Jen; Hwang, Jin-Ming; Liu, Je-rYuh; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperlipidemia is a significant risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis and related diseases which are major health problem in many developed and developing countries that can lead to fatality due to the changes in lifestyle and dietary habits in this modern age. Methods: In the present study, the Ocimum gratissimum aqueous extract (OGE) was tested for the lowering effect on the serum lipid level of male hamsters on a high-fat (12%) and high-cholesterol (0.2%) diet (HFCD). Results: The results showed that the levels of serum high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerols (TG) were increased in the HFCD group (113±11, 259±87, 629±175 and 625±262, respectively), as compared to the control normal diet group (51±8, 19±5, 77±16 and 101±44, respectively). When co-treated with various doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of the OGE or rosuvastatin, the rats exhibited the restoration of normal serum LDL-C, TC, and TG levels. Conclusion: Therefore, we suggest that the Ocimum gratissimum aqueous extract may have the potential function of lowering serum lipid in rats. PMID:27877073

  19. Kinetics of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by an aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD has provided the rationale for the current pharmacotherapy of this disease. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors are currently the only approved therapy for the symptomatic treatment of AD. The current drugs available in the market has shown various side effect which prompted scientist to search for new and potent AChE inhibitors which exerts minimal side effect in AD patient. In present study, an aqueous extract of Cumin cyminum was tested for in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity based on Ellman’s method. C. cyminum showed maximum inhibition of 76.90±0.003% in an aqueous extract at 50μg/ml final concentration. Further studies were conducted to elucidate the mode of AChE inhibition by kinetic studies. Competitive inhibition was observed at lower concentrations (12.5μg/ml & 25μg/ml and mixed inhibition was observed at higher concentrations (50μg/ml & 100μg/ml.

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Cortex acanthopanacis Aqueous Extract on Bone Metabolism of Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of aqueous extract from Cortex acanthopanacis (CAE on osteoporosis rats induced by ovariectomy (OVX using aqueous extract from Folium Epimedii (FEE as positive control agent. Three-month-old female rats that underwent OVX were treated with CAE. After 12 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD and indices of bone histomorphometry of tibia were measured. Levels of protein and mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL in tibia were evaluated. In addition, the serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, calcitonin (CT, and parathyroid hormone (PTH were determined. Administration of CAE significantly prevented OVX-induced rats from gain of the body weight. Treatment with CAE increased bone mass remarkably and showed a significant inhibitory effect on bone resorption by downregulating significantly the expression of RANKL in tibia of OVX rats. Meanwhile, treatment of CAE significantly reduced serum level of IL-1β and increased level of CT in OVX rats. This suggests that CAE has the potential to be used as an alternative therapeutic agent for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  1. Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, E O; Adeneye, A A; Daramola, A O

    2009-05-07

    The effects of long-term administration of boiled aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum (SYZ), commonly known as clove (which has been locally employed for treating gastrointestinal tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as body weight, liver functions and blood parameters were studied in adult albino rats of both sexes. Selected doses of 300 and 700 mg kg(-1) were given orally through cannular to groups of animals for a period of 90 days, while the control group received distilled water throughout the duration of study via the same route. Blood samples collected after therapy and assayed for activities of some liver enzymes recorded a significant (p<0.05) and prominent effect on ALP and AST. Measurement of haematological parameters also revealed significant effects (p<0.05; p<0.001) on Hb, RBC (p<0.05), PCV (p<0.001), platelets (p<0.001) and granulocytes (p<0.001). An insignificant reduction was recorded for total WBC. The histopathological study conducted was in consonance with the results of the biochemical investigations that the aqueous extract of SYZ even at moderate doses, significantly affects body organs, their enzymes as well as the various functions. LD(50) for both intraperitoneal and oral routes of SYZ were 263 and 2500 mg kg(-1) respectively. The present work has revealed the toxicity of sub chronic administration of SYZ, which suggests that its prolonged usage must be avoided.

  2. Continuous aqueous two-phase extraction of human antibodies using a packed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, P A J; Azevedo, A M; Sommerfeld, S; Bäcker, W; Aires-Barros, M R

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a pilot scale packed differential contactor was evaluated for the continuous counter-current aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells supernatant (CS) enriched with pure protein. Preliminary studies have been firstly performed in order to select the dispersed phase (phosphate-rich or polyethylene glycol 3350 Da (PEG)-rich phase) and the column packing material. The PEG-rich phase has been selected as the dispersed phase and the stainless steel as the preferred material for the column packing bed since it was not wetted preferentially by the selected dispersed phase. Hydrodynamic studies have been also performed, and the experimental results were successfully adjusted to the Richardson-Zaki and Mísek equations, typically used for the conventional organic-aqueous two-phase systems. An experimental set-up combining the packed column with a pump mixer-settler stage showed to have the best performance and to be advantageous when compared to the IgG batch extraction. An IgG recovery yield of 85% could be obtained with about 50% of total contaminants and more than 85% of contaminant proteins removal. Mass transfer studies have revealed that the mass transfer was controlled by the PEG-rich phase. A higher efficiency could be obtained when using an extra pump mixer-settler stage and higher flow rates.

  3. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM BRILLANTAISIA VOGELIANA (NÉES BENTH. (ACANTHACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Valère SOH OUMBE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brillantaisia vogeliana (Acanthaceae is used in folk medicine in the West region of Cameroon to manage obesity. In this study, we investigated the toxic effect of the aqueous extract of B.v. in rats. Three doses of aqueous extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg were administrated orally once per 2 days during a period of 28 days and different hematology, biochemistry and histopatology parameters were determined. The results showed that there were no mortality, no significant differences in the body and relative organ weight between control and treated animals, except for the kidney. Hematological analysis showed no significant difference in any of the parameters examined (WBC count, platelet, RBC count, hematocrit, total leucocyte count and hemoglobin estimation between control and treated groups. There were also no significant change in blood chemistry parameters, including creatinine, urea nitrogen (UN, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase (ASAT, calcium, alpha amylase, total protein and phosphorus, except alanine aminotransferase (ALAT between control and treated groups. Histopathological abnormalities changes were detected in organs of animals treated with various doses of product.

  4. Evaluation of the antipsychotic potential of aqueous fraction of Securinega virosa root bark extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, M G; Mohammed, M; Magaji, R A; Musa, A M; Abdu-Aguye, I; Hussaini, I M

    2014-03-01

    Securinega virosa (Roxb ex. Willd) Baill. is a plant which is commonly used in African traditional medicine in management of mental illness. Previous study showed that the crude methanolic root bark extract of the plant possesses antipsychotic activity. In this study, the antipsychotic potential of the residual aqueous fraction of the plant was evaluated using two experimental models, apomorphine induced stereotypic climbing behaviour and swim induced grooming, all in mice. The effect of the fraction on haloperidol-induced catalepsy was also evaluated. The fraction significantly reduced the mean climbing score at the highest dose tested (500 mg/kg). In the swim-induced grooming test, the fraction significantly and dose-dependently (125-500 mg/kg) decreased the mean number and mean duration of swim-induced grooming activity in mice. Similarly, the standard haloperidol (1 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the mean grooming episodes and duration. However, the fraction did not significantly potentiate haloperidol-induced catalepsy. These results suggest that the residual aqueous fraction of methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa contains biological active principle with antipsychotic potential.

  5. Crataegus Monogyna Aqueous Extract Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Toxicity in Rat Testis: Stereological Evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is extensively used as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of various cancers, as well as an immunosuppressive agent. However, despite its wide spectrum of clinical uses, CP is known to cause several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. Crataegus monogyna is one of the oldest pharmaceutical plants that have been shown to be cytoprotective by scavenging free radicals. The present study was conducted to assess whether Crataegus monogyna fruits aqueous extract with anti-oxidant properties, could serve as a protective agent against reproductive toxicity during CP treatment in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were categorized into four groups. Two groups of rats were administered CP at a dose of 5 mg in 5 ml saline/kg/day for 28 days by oral gavages. One of these groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after cyclophosphamide administration. A vehicle treated control group and a Crataegus monogyna control group were also included. The CP-treated group showed significant decreases in the body, testes and epididymides weights as well as many histological alterations. Stereological parameters and spermatogenic activities (Sertoli cell, repopulation and miotic indices were also significantly decreased by CP treatment. Notably, Crataegus coadministration caused a partial recovery in above-mentined parameters. These findings indicate that Crataegus monogyna may be partially protective against CP-induced testicular toxicity.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in combination with lycopene in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anusha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea in combination with lycopene against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods : Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg b.w for 14 days. The aqueous extract of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene (50 mg/kg b.w was administered to the experimental animals at two selected doses for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of the combination was evaluated by the liver function marker enzymes in the serum [aspartate transaminases (AST, alanine transaminases (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (Alk.P, total bilirubin (TB, total protein (TP and total cholesterol (TC], pentobarbitone induced sleeping time (PST and histopathological studies of liver. Results : Both the treatment groups showed hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal which was comparable to that of silymarin group. Besides, the results obtained from PST and histopathological results also support the study. Conclusions : The oral administration of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene significantly ameliorates CCl 4 hepatotoxicity in rats.

  7. Sub-Chronic Toxicity study of Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum Phlomidis Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Reena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. has been traditionally used for treatment of gynecological disturbances and for agricultural uses. It has been used in many Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations as an immunomodulatory agent. Irrespective of its widespread use, no data on subchronic toxicity has been described. The present study was designed to access sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves. Aqueous extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaves was given orally at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days for the evaluation of sub-chronic toxicity study. General behavior, mortality, animal body weight, food and water consumption were observed throughout the study period. Hematological, biochemical parameters and histopathological analysis were done at the end of study period. No mortality and abnormal behavior was observed in rats exposed to all the three dose levels. Highest dose produced significant decrease in the red blood cell, hemoglobin and increase in white blood cell count. Biochemical parameters like triglycerides, bilirubin, creatinine and total proteins were significantly altered at high dose. Histopathological findings revealed architectural changes in the liver and kidneys with high dose.

  8. A novel cloud-point extraction process for preconcentrating selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, D.; Li, J.; Chen, S.B.; Chen, B.-H. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2001-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released in such processes as incomplete coal combustion and during the disposal of coal tar, are subject to strict emission controls in which the determination of PAHs has to be addressed. PAHs have low aqueous solubility which necessitates preconcentration prior to the analytical determination of PAHs. A novel but simple cloud-point extraction (CPE) process is developed to preconcentrate the trace of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with the use of the readily biodegradable nonionic surfactant of secondary ethyoxylated alcohol Tergitol 15-S-7 as extractant. The concentrations of PAHs, mixtures of naphthalene and phenanthrene as well as pyrene in the spiked samples were determined with the new CPE process at ambient temperature (23{degree}C) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. More than 80% of phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively, and 96% of naphthalene initially present in the aqueous solutions with concentrations near or below their aqueous solubilities were recovered using this new CPE process. Importantly Tergitol 15-S-7 does not give any fluorometric signal to interfere with fluorescence detection of PAHs in the UV range. No special washing step is, thus, required to remove surfactant before HPLC analyses. Different experimental conditions were studied. The optimum conditions for the preconcentration and determination of these selected PAHs at ambient temperature have been established as the following: (1) 3 wt% surfactant; (2) addition of 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}; (3) 10 min for equilibration time; and (4) 3000 rpm for centrifugal speed with duration of 10 min. 50 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Determination of Solubility and Distribution Ratio in Organic-Aqueous Biphasic System of 2,3-Dihydroxy-1,8-cineole by Gas Chromatography%气相色谱法测定2,3-二羟基-1,8-桉树脑的溶解度及油水两相体系分配比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志勇; 蒋少芳; 黄道战; 朱守记

    2014-01-01

    To provide a process for separating 2,3-dihydroxy-1,8-cineole from aqueous solution by solvent extraction method,the solubility of 2,3-dihydroxy-1,8-cineole in different organic solvents and its distribution ratio in organic-aqueous biphasic system were measured by gas chromatography.Results showed that 2,3-di-hydroxy-1 ,8-cineole was freely soluble in water,dichloromethane and chloroform;soluble in ethyl acetate,1 ,2-dichloroethane andα-pinene,the solubility at 25 ℃ were 26.1 g·L-1,24.9 g·L-1 and 14.9 g·L-1,respec-tively;hardly soluble in non-polar organic solvents such as petroleum ether and cyclohexane.The organic sol-vent type,temperature and volume ratio of organic solvent to water had obvious effect on distribution ratio of 2, 3-dihydroxy-1 ,8-cineole.Using dichloromethane or chloroform as organic solvent,when the temperature was 35 ℃,the volume ratio of organic solvent to water was 1.0,the distribution ratio of 2,3-dihydroxy-1,8-cineole were 16.3 and 10.3,respectively.%采用气相色谱法测定2,3-二羟基-1,8-桉树脑在不同有机溶剂中的溶解度及在有机溶剂/水两相体系中的分配比,为设计该化合物的萃取分离工艺提供依据。结果表明:2,3-二羟基-1,8-桉树脑易溶于水、二氯甲烷和三氯甲烷,可溶于乙酸乙酯、1,2-二氯乙烷和α-蒎烯(25℃时的溶解度分别为26.1 g·L-1、24.9 g·L-1和14.9 g·L-1),难溶于石油醚、环己烷等非极性有机溶剂;有机溶剂种类、温度、油水体积比对分配比有较大的影响;以二氯甲烷和三氯甲烷为有机溶剂,在温度为35℃、油水体积比为1.0的条件下,2,3-二羟基-1,8-桉树脑的分配比分别为16.3和10.3。

  10. Vasorelaxant effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens on aortic smooth muscle isolated from the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahdeen, Hussein M; Murtala, Babatunde A

    2012-01-01

    Tridax procumbens is commonly used in traditional medicine in southern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension. However, the mechanism of its antihypertensive properties remains unclear. Attempts were made to investigate the properties of direct actions of aqueous extract of the leaves of T. procumbens on mechanical responses of smooth muscles in aortic ring preparations isolated from the rat. Endothelium-intact aortic rings, isolated from the normotensive rats, had been pre-contracted with noradrenaline, and cumulative addition of the aqueous extract (0.15-1.05 mg/mL) to the bathing fluid induced a concentration-dependent relaxation. Aqueous extract of T. procumbens also attenuated the contractile responses to KCl and shifted the concentration-response curve to the right. The contractile responses to serotonin were also attenuated and the concentration-response curve was shifted to the right in the presence of the extract. The results of this study indicated that aqueous leaf extract of T. procumbens possesses vasodilatory effects on the aortic smooth muscles isolated from the rat. Based on these results, a possible mechanism involved in the relaxing actions of the extract on vascular smooth muscle was discussed. The results of this study may provide a scientific basis for the use of this extract to the treatment of hypertension in Nigerian traditional medicine.

  11. Use of Cassia alata aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control Pseudomonas anguilliseptica infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumkhachorn Parichat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of six plants, Andrographis paniculata, Cassia alata, Centella asiatica, Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Psidium guajava, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, an important fish pathogenic bacterium, which is responsible for economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. Among the tested plant extracts, the C. alata aqueous extract had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus with P. anguilliseptica was induced by intraperitoneal, the median lethal dose (LD50 was determined to be 1.59 x 105 CFU/ml. For the in vivo trial, four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of C. alata aqueous extract were used as bath treatment to remedy the infection. The effect of the extract on the infection was dose-dependent and an extract with the concentration of 100 ppm eliminated mortality of the infected fish without producing any adverse effects on the animals. This study suggests that C. alata aqueous extract has the potential to control fish disease caused by P. anguilliseptica.

  12. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  13. Effect of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha V Bhadada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.. Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract.

  14. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Tephrosia purpurea on Cardiovascular Complications and Cataract Associated with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, Shraddha V; Goyal, R K

    2015-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt) and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase) parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract.

  15. Identification of the chemical constituents in aqueous extract of Zhi-Qiao and evaluation of its antidepressant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhou, Chao; Jia, Hongmei; Ma, Zhuo; Zou, Zhongmei

    2015-04-16

    The immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. (Zhi-Qiao, ZQ) has been used as a traditional medicine in China. Our previous study has shown that ZQ decoction may contribute to the antidepressant-like action of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San. However, there are no reports on the chemical constituents of ZQ aqueous extract or its anti-depression effects. Firstly, this research reported the on-line identification of the chemical constituents in the aqueous extract of ZQ by coupling ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). A total of 31 chemical constituents were identified in ZQ aqueous extract, including one tannic acid, five flavones, 13 flavanones, one limonoid, three coumarins, three cyclic peptides, and five polymethoxylated flavonoids. The antidepressant effect of ZQ aqueous extract was evaluated in vivo and the results indicated that the mice immobility time during the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test were significantly reduced with ZQ treatment. MTT assays showed both ZQ aqueous extract and its major constituents (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin) had neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The in vivo and in vitro results suggest that ZQ has an antidepressant effect.

  16. Identification of the Chemical Constituents in Aqueous Extract of Zhi-Qiao and Evaluation of Its Antidepressant Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. (Zhi-Qiao, ZQ has been used as a traditional medicine in China. Our previous study has shown that ZQ decoction may contribute to the antidepressant-like action of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San. However, there are no reports on the chemical constituents of ZQ aqueous extract or its anti-depression effects. Firstly, this research reported the on-line identification of the chemical constituents in the aqueous extract of ZQ by coupling ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. A total of 31 chemical constituents were identified in ZQ aqueous extract, including one tannic acid, five flavones, 13 flavanones, one limonoid, three coumarins, three cyclic peptides, and five polymethoxylated flavonoids. The antidepressant effect of ZQ aqueous extract was evaluated in vivo and the results indicated that the mice immobility time during the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test were significantly reduced with ZQ treatment. MTT assays showed both ZQ aqueous extract and its major constituents (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin had neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The in vivo and in vitro results suggest that ZQ has an antidepressant effect.

  17. Effective extraction of elastase from Bacillus sp. fermentation broth using aqueous two-phase system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; HE Guo-qing; LI Jing-jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for extracting elastase produced by Bacillus sp. EL31410. The elastase and cell partition behavior in polyethylene glycol (PEG)/salt systems was investigated. The suitable system for elastase extraction was PEG/KH2PO4-K2HPO4, in which elastase is mainly partitioned into the PEG-rich phase,while the cells remained in the other phase. The influence of defined system parameters (e.g. PEG molecular mass, pH, NaCl addition) on the partitioning behavior of elastase is described. The concentration of phase forming components, PEG and KH2PO4-K2HPO4, was optimized for elastase recovery by means of response surface methodology, and it was found that they greatly influenced extraction recovery. The optimal ATPS was 23.1% (w/w) PEG 2 000 and 11.7% (w/w) KH2PO4-K2HPO4. The predicted recovery was about 89.5%, so this process is suggested to be a rapid and convenient method for elastase extraction.

  18. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shaibu Auwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod.

  19. A simultaneous extraction method for organophosphate, pyrethroid, and neonicotinoid insecticides in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perre, Chloé; Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    A method was developed for the extraction and analysis of 2 organophosphate, 8 pyrethroid, and 5 neonicotinoid insecticides from the same water sample. A salted liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was optimized with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) step that separated the organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids from the neonicotinoids. Factors that were optimized included volume of solvent and amount of salt used in the LLE, homogenization time for the LLE, and type and volume of eluting solvent used for the SPE. The OPs and pyrethroids were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the neonicotinoids were quantified using liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Results showed that the optimized method was accurate, precise, reproducible, and robust; recoveries in river water spiked with 100 ng L(-1) of each of the insecticides were all between 86 and 114 % with RSDs between 2 and 8 %. The method was also sensitive with method detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 27.2 ng L(-1) depending on compounds and matrices. The optimized method was thus appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of 15 widely applied insecticides from three different classes and was shown to provide valuable information on their environmental fate from field-collected aqueous samples.

  20. Liquid Phase Micro-Extraction of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Anionic Surfactants in Aqueous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Åke Jönsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS from aqueous samples was studied. Ion pair extraction of C10, C11, C12 and C13 homologues was facilitated with trihexylamine as ion-pairing agent, using di-n-hexylether as solvent for the supported liquid membrane (SLM. Effects of extraction time, acceptor buffer concentration, stirring speed, sample volume, NaCl and humic acids were studied. At 10–50 µg L−1 linear R2-coefficients were 0.99 for C10 and C11 and 0.96 for C12. RSD was typically ~15%. Three observations were especially made. Firstly, LPME for these analytes was unusually slow with maximum enrichment observed after 15–24 h (depending on sample volume. Secondly, the enrichment depended on LAS sample concentration with 35–150 times enrichment below ~150 µg L−1 and 1850–4400 times enrichment at 1 mg L−1. Thirdly, lower homologues were enriched more than higher homologues at low sample concentrations, with reversed conditions at higher concentrations. These observations may be due to the fact that LAS and the amine counter ion themselves influence the mass transfer at the water-SLM interface. The observations on LPME of LAS may aid in LPME application to other compounds with surfactant properties or in surfactant enhanced membrane extraction of other compounds.

  1. Evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract on Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

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    Bruno P. Berto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties have been associated with the extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum in several animals and conditions. The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current study investigated the effects of the pomegranate pericarp aqueous extract on the shedding, viability and morphometry of three Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails, besides the weight gain and genotoxic activity. Although the pomegranate is recognized by multiple properties, including anti-coccidial, in the current study the results are contrary. The treated group shed greater amount of oocysts; the sporulation times and viability were similar in both groups; despite some morphometric differences, these were not expressive; weight gains were similar; and the pomegranate had insignificant effect genotoxic. Finally, these results suggest that the pomegranate pericarp extract did not influence on Eimeira spp. from Japanese quails; therefore, the pomegranate pericarp extract is not suggested in the prevention/treatment of coccidiosis in Japanese quails, or at least not using methods of preparation and administration applied in this study.

  2. Picrocrocin kinetics in aqueous saffron spice extracts (Crocus sativus L.) upon thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ana M; Carmona, Manuel; Jarén-Galán, Manuel; Mosquera, M Isabel Mínguez; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2011-01-12

    The kinetics of picrocrocin degradation in aqueous extracts of saffron upon thermal treatment from 5 to 70 °C have been studied, together with the degradation of purified picrocrocin in water at 100 °C. The best fits to experimental data were found for a second-order kinetics model. Picrocrocin showed high stability with half-life periods (t(1/2)) ranging from >3400 h at 5 °C in saffron extracts to 9 h in the experiments with purified picrocrocin at 100 °C. In saffron extracts, the evolution of the rate constant (k) with temperature showed maximum values at 35 °C, and filtration of the extracts contributed to picrocrocin stability. In the case of purified picrocrocin, the generation of safranal in the first 5 h (yield up to 7.4%) was confirmed. Spectrometric parameters used in saffron quality control (E(1cm)(1%) 257 nm and ΔΕ(pic)) were not appropriate for documenting the evolution of picrocrocin.

  3. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

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    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  4. Preparation of nanoparticles of Magnolia bark extract by rapid expansion from supercritical solution into aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuai; Zhou, Benjie; Zhang, Shouyao; Lei, Zhengjie; Zhang, Zhongyi

    2011-01-01

    A rapid expansion from supercritical solution into aqueous solution (RESSAS) technology was presented for the micronization of Chinese medicinal material. Magnolia bark extract (MBE) obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO₂) extraction technology was chosen as the experimental material. RESSAS process produced 303.0 nm nanoparticles (size distribution, 243.6-320.5 nm), which was significantly smaller than the 55.3 µm particles (size distribution, 8.3-102.4 µm) prepared by conventional mechanical milling. The effect of process parameters, including extraction temperature (30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C), extraction pressure (200, 250, 300 bar) and nozzle size (50, 100, 200 µm), on the size distribution of nanoparticles was investigated. The characteristics of nanoparticles and materials were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser light scattering (LLS). This study demonstrates that RESSAS is applicable for preparing nanoparticles of MBE at low operating temperature; the process is simple without any residual solvent.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts and steroidal sapogenins of Agave americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peana, A T; Moretti, M D; Manconi, V; Desole, G; Pippia, P

    1997-06-01

    Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from Agave americana L (Agavaceae) collected in the north of Sardinia were characterized with regard to their steroidal sapogenin content. Extracts of A. americana and genins isolated from them were evaluated for anti-inflammatory properties by testing their effects on carrageenin-induced edema. The effect of orally administered genins on gastric mucous membranes was also assessed. Lyophilized extracts administered by the intraperitoneal route at doses equivalent to 200 and 300 mg/kg of fresh plant starting material, showed good anti-inflammatory activity. Doses of genins (total steroidal sapogenins, hecogenin and tigogenin) equivalent to the amount in the lyophilized extracts produced an antiedentatous effect which was much stronger and more efficacious than that obtained with an i.p. administration of 5 mg/kg of indomethacin or dexamethasone 21-phosphate at a dose equivalent to the molar content of hecogenin administered. At the doses used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, the genins did not have any harmful effect on the gastric mucous membranes. Lesions occurred when significantly higher doses of hecogenin were given, but gastric damage was still less than that caused by the drugs used for comparative purposes.

  6. Liquid phase micro-extraction of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate anionic surfactants in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Niklas; Otrembska, Paulina; Villar, Mercedes; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2011-10-13

    Hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) from aqueous samples was studied. Ion pair extraction of C10, C11, C12 and C13 homologues was facilitated with trihexylamine as ion-pairing agent, using di-n-hexylether as solvent for the supported liquid membrane (SLM). Effects of extraction time, acceptor buffer concentration, stirring speed, sample volume, NaCl and humic acids were studied. At 10-50 µg L-1 linear R2-coefficients were 0.99 for C10 and C11 and 0.96 for C12. RSD was typically ~15%. Three observations were especially made. Firstly, LPME for these analytes was unusually slow with maximum enrichment observed after 15-24 h (depending on sample volume). Secondly, the enrichment depended on LAS sample concentration with 35-150 times enrichment below ~150 µg L-1 and 1850-4400 times enrichment at 1 mg L-1. Thirdly, lower homologues were enriched more than higher homologues at low sample concentrations, with reversed conditions at higher concentrations. These observations may be due to the fact that LAS and the amine counter ion themselves influence the mass transfer at the water-SLM interface. The observations on LPME of LAS may aid in LPME application to other compounds with surfactant properties or in surfactant enhanced membrane extraction of other compounds.

  7. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Arbutus unedo aqueous extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idir Moualek; Ghenima Iratni Aiche; Nadjet Mestar Guechaoui; Souad Lahcene; Karim Houali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo (A. unedo) leaves. Methods: In this context, the in vitro antioxidant activity was demonstrated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical and H2O2 radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, ferric reducing power, total antioxidant capacity and by the protection against peroxidation of b-carotene-linoleic acid in emulsion. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated first by studying the membrane of human red blood cells against different hypotonic concentrations of NaCl and against heat, inhibiting the denaturation of albumin. Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found respectively [(207.84 ± 15.03) mg gallic acid equivalent/g, and (13.070 ± 0.096) mg quercetin equivalent/g]. The extract displayed significant scavenging activity of some radicals such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [IC50 at (7.956 ± 0.278) mg/mL], ?OH [IC50 = (1 015.74 ± 46.35 mg/mL)], H2O2 [IC50 = (114.77 ± 16.86) mg/mL] and showed a good antioxidant activity through ferrous ion chelating activity [IC50=(1 014.30 ± 36.21) mg/mL], ferric reducing power [IC50 = (156.55 ± 17.40) mg/mL], total antioxidant capacity [IC50 = (461.67 ± 4.16) mg/mL] and b-carotene-linoleic acid protection against peroxidation [I%=(87.04 ± 1.21)%at 1 000 mg/mL]. Conclusions: A. unedo showed in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the heat induced albumin denaturation and red blood cells membrane stabilization. Our results show that aqueous leaf extract of A. unedo has good antioxidant activity and interesting anti-inflammatory properties. A. unedo aqueous extract can be used to prevent oxidative and inflammatory processes.

  8. COMPARISION BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA BARK AGAINST EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

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    Darji Vinay C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. (Apocynaceae is useful as an adjunctive therapy for Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. However, its effect on ulcerative colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica were tested for 2, 4 - dinitro benzene sulfonic acid (DNBS induced colitis, and antioxidant activity were evaluated to clarify possible mode of action. Male albino wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: Normal control (Group I, Vehical contol (Group II, colitis induced by DNBS without any therapy (Group III, colitis treated with standard Dexamethasone (Group IV, colitis treated with methanolic extract of test drug Holarrhena antidysenterica (Group V, colitis treated with aqueous extract of test drug Holarrhena antidysenterica (Group VI. Treatment was given for 18 days. Rats were sacrificed on the 18th day after the procedure and the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA, Nitric oxide (NO, Reduced gluthathione (GSH, Superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured in the isolated colon tissue. MDA & NO levels in colon tissue homogenate were decreased while SOD & GSH level were increased in group IV, V & VI as compared to those of Group III. There was also increase in food intake, water intake & decreased colon weight in Group IV, V & VI as compared to Group III. There was also improvement in inflammatory indices of colon mucosal damage index (CMDI & disease activity index (DAI & histopathology of Group IV, V & VI as compared to those of group III. Levels of all the chemical parameters, Physical parameters & Histological parameters were significantly improved after the treatment with methanolic extract of test drug compared to aqueous extract of test drug. Treatment with aqueous extract also improves the colitis condition but it was not significantly improved by it as compared to methanolic extract of test drug. The results of our study suggest that

  9. Stability of clavulanic acid in PEG/citrate and liquid–liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase system

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro-da-Cunha, M. N.; Souza, K. P. S.; Mota, A; J.A. Teixeira; Porto, C S; Porto, Tatiana Souza; Porto, Ana L. F.

    2014-01-01

    β-Lactamases are enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics, being produced by several pathogenic bacteria. Clavulanic acid is a commercially and clinically important β-lactamase inhibitor, its extraction being possible by the application of aqueous two-phase system. In this study, clavulanic acid stability was investigated at different molar mass PEG (400, 1 000 and 20 000 g mol−1) and at different citrate concentrations (5 and 20%) PEG/citrate aqueous-two phase systems (...

  10. Mechanism of extractant loss in solvent extraction process (Ⅰ)——Transfer of saponified D2EHPA from organic phase to aqueous phase and its aggregation behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笃金; 吴瑾光; 李彦; 翁诗甫; 吴佩强; 徐光宪

    1995-01-01

    The phenomenon of the loss of saponified D2EHPA(di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid,HA)from organic phase to aqueous phase and its aggregation behaviour were studied with FT-IR and DLS(dynamic light scattering)techniques based on the fact that saponified extractant can form reversed micelles orw/o microemulsions in n-heptane,a non-polar diluent.The results indicate that "normal rnioelles" or o/wmicroemulsions are formed from acidic extractant and its sodium salt in aqueous phase,and the micelle ormicroemulsion drop has a non-polar core which can solubilize nheptane,so the equilibrated aqueous phasecontaining extractant is a complex fluid rather than a "real solution".Therefore,the aqueous aggregate for-mation leads to the extractant loss in solvent extraction process.Strong electrolytes can prevent or lessen theextractant loss.The results of this paper provide a theoretical possibility for solving the problem ofextractant and solvent loss in liquid-liquid extraction industry.

  11. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of visnagin and Ammi visnaga aqueous extract after oral administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Karin G; Weber, Benjamin; Hochhaus, Guenther; Butterweck, Veronika

    2012-11-01

    The furanochromone visnagin is one of the main compounds of Ammi visnaga L. (syn. Khella) with potential effects on kidney stone prevention. After determination of the pharmacokinetic properties of visnagin after intravenous bolus administration in rats, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of visnagin and an aqueous Ammi visnaga extract after oral administration in rats. In two separate experiments, three doses of visnagin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) solubilized in 25 % Captisol® and three doses of Ammi visnaga extract (standardized on visnagin and containing equivalent amounts of visnagin) were administered by oral gavage to male Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. Plasma samples were extracted and subsequently analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Plasma concentration-time profiles were explored by non-compartmental analysis. Visnagin plasma exposure (median AUClast and AUCinf) was significantly increased for all three doses (more than 10-fold for the low dose) when administered as an extract compared to the pure agent. For both the Ammi visnaga extract and the pure compound, AUClast and AUCinf increased disproportionately with an increase in dose. Visnagin resided significantly longer in the body when given in the form of AVE with up to a three times longer median MRTlast and MRTinf for the low dose. Cmax values after AVE administration were elevated and occurred at later time points in comparison to equivalent doses of pure visnagin. The terminal half-life increased with the dose for both AVE and pure visnagin, reaching a maximum value of 1.94 h for the 10 mg/kg pure compound group.In conclusion, the exposure of visnagin is enhanced after extract administration and could result in a superior efficacy of AVE compared to an equivalent dose of visnagin.

  12. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Chenopodium opulifolium schrad leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Abayomi M.; Tanayen, Julius Khidzee; Magomere, Albert; Ezeonwumelu, Joseph O. C.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Chenopodium opulifolium is a specie of the Chenopodiaceae commonly used as vegetables in local diet and for treating different ailment in Uganda. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of C. opulifolium leaves (AECO). Materials and Methods: The dried leaf of the plant was extracted by maceration in water. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidants, and membrane stabilizing effects were determined in the extract. The extract was then investigated for acute toxicity, antinociceptive (writhing, hot plate and open field test), and anti-inflammatory (egg albumin-induced paw edema) effects in rodents. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, and saponins in AECO. Total caffeic acid derivatives and total flavonoids content were 91.7 mgCAE/g sample and 94.7 mgRE/g sample, respectively. AECO demonstrated antioxidant effects in both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and NO assays. Significant membrane stabilizing activity was observed in both the heat and hypotonic solution-induced lysis of erythrocytes. The acute toxicity test showed that AECO (5000 mg/kg) did not cause any significant change in behavior or death in rats. AECO (100-400 mg/kg) produced a significant antinociceptive effect in both the writhing and hot plate tests, but no significant reduction in the locomotory activity in mice. Furthermore, the extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced egg albumin-induced rat paw edema by 44.2%, 44.5%, and 51.2%, respectively, after 120 min. Conclusion: The results showed that C. opulifolium extract possesses significant antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, and these affirm the reasons for its folkloric use. PMID:28163955

  13. Antidepressant and skeletal muscle relaxant effects of the aqueous extract of the Prosopis cineraria

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    Mathew George

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous leaves extract of Prosopis cineraria (AEPC is used traditionally for the treatment of various CNS disorder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extract for antidepressant and skeletal muscle relaxant activity. The antidepressant effect of the extract was evaluated using Forced swim test (FST. The immobility periods of control and treated mice were recorded. The antidepressant-like effect of tested compound was compared to that of imipramine (15 mg/kg. p.o. Muscle relaxant property was studied using rotarod apparatus and total fall off time for standard and control group was recorded. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and phenolic compounds. The leaf extract at doses of 200 mg/kg significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in FST. The efficacy of tested extract was found to be comparable to that of imipramine. Our results suggested that the aqueous extract of Prosopis cineraria leaves exerts antidepressant-like effect.O extrato aquoso de folhas de Prosopis cineraria (AEPC é utilizado, tradicionalmente, para o tratamento de várias disfunções do SNC. O propósito desse estudo foi avaliar o extrato quanto às atividades antidepressiva e relaxante muscular esquelética. O efeito antidepressivo do extrato foi avaliado usando o teste do nado forçado (FST. Registraram-se os períodos de imobilidade dos camundongos controle e dos tratados. O efeito antidepressivo do composto testado foi comparado com a imipramina ((15 mg/kg. p.o. A propriedade relaxante muscular foi estudada usando o cilindro giratório e o tempo total de queda para os grupos padrão e controle foram registrados. A triagem fitoquímica revelou a presença de saponinas, flavonoides, alcaloides, glicosídeos, taninos e compostos fenólicos. O extrato da folha em doses de 200 mg/kg diminui significativamente a duração do tempo de imobilidade no FST. A eficácia do extrato testado foi

  14. Effect of chickpea aqueous extracts, organic extracts, and protein concentrates on cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; del Mar Yust, María; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Millán, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Pulses should be part of a healthy diet, and it is also becoming clear that they have health-promoting effects. Nevertheless, most studies on the bioactive or health-promoting properties of pulses have been carried out using soybeans. We have studied cell growth-regulating properties, which may be responsible for anti-cancer properties, in chickpea seeds. Chickpea seeds are a staple in the traditional diet of many Mediterranean, Asian, and South and Central American countries. In addition, chickpea seeds have industrial applications since they can be used for the preparation of protein concentrates and isolates. The cell lines Caco-2 (epithelial intestinal) and J774 (macrophages) have been exposed to chickpea seed extracts and protein preparations in order to screen the different chickpea fractions for effects on cell growth. Both cell growth-promoting and cell growth-inhibiting effects were found. Most interestingly, a fraction soluble in ethanol and acetone specifically and almost completely inhibited the growth of Caco-2 cells exhibiting a cancerous phenotype. It is concluded that chickpea seeds are a source of bioactive components and deserve further study for their possible anti-cancer effect.

  15. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus in different growth stages

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    Ivette González-Palma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, metal ions chelating activity, reducing power assay and scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS radicals in aqueous and methanolic extracts obtained from mycelium, primordium and fruiting body of Pleurotus ostreatus in both fresh as dry, were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of dried samples was higher in aqueous extracts obtained both in room temperature and boiling. The total polyphenol content of the fresh samples obtained at room temperature and boiling was higher in aqueous extract of mycelium and in the methanolic extract of the fruiting body. In general, flavonoids represented a very small percentage of the total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity measured by the FRAP method of extracts from fresh samples were higher with respect to the dried samples. The results of the metal ion chelating activity indicate that all extracts tested had acted. Reducing the power of all samples was concentration dependent. In general, the extracts of dried samples showed higher reducing power than the extracts of fresh samples and tend to show greater reducing power by aqueous than methanolic extracts. It was observed that the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were positively correlated to the concentration of the extract. The results suggested that antioxidant activity could be due to polyphenols, but mainly by different molecules or substances present in the extracts. Overall, the fruiting body of Pleurotus ostreatus showed the best results and the possibility of continuing to investigate its functional properties of this fungus is opened. This is the first report where the antioxidant activity of Pleurotus ostreatus in different growth stage was reported.

  16. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus in Different Growth Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Palma, Ivette; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B.; Ponce-Alquicira, Edith; Téllez-Téllez, Maura; Gupta, Vijai K.; Díaz-Godínez, Gerardo; Soriano-Santos, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), metal ions chelating activity, reducing power assay and scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS radicals in aqueous and methanolic extracts obtained from mycelium, primordium, and fruiting body of Pleurotus ostreatus in both fresh as dry, were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of dried samples was higher in aqueous extracts obtained both in room temperature and boiling. The total polyphenol content of the fresh samples obtained at room temperature and boiling was higher in aqueous extract of mycelium and in the methanolic extract of the fruiting body. In general, flavonoids represented a very small percentage of the total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity measured by the FRAP method of extracts from fresh samples were higher with respect to the dried samples. The results of the metal ion chelating activity indicate that all extracts tested had acted. The reducing power of all samples was concentration dependent. In general, the extracts of dried samples showed higher reducing power than the extracts of fresh samples and tend to show greater reducing power by aqueous than methanolic extracts. It was observed that the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were positively correlated to the concentration of the extract. The results suggested that antioxidant activity could be due to polyphenols, but mainly by different molecules or substances present in the extracts. Overall, the fruiting body of P. ostreatus showed the best results and the possibility of continuing to investigate its functional properties of this fungus is opened. This is the first report where the antioxidant activity of P. ostreatus in different growth stage was reported. PMID:27462314

  17. Antioxidant effect of Ajuga iva aqueous extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb-Senouci, D; Ghomari, H; Krouf, D; Bouderbala, S; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible antioxidant effect of an aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (Ai) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Twelve diabetic rats were divided into two groups fed a casein diet supplemented or not with Ai (0.5%), for 4 weeks. In vitro, the Ai extract possessed a very high antioxidant effect (1 mg/ml was similar to those of trolox 300 mmol/l). The results indicated that plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were reduced by 41% in Ai-treated compared with untreated diabetic rats. TBARS concentrations were lower 1.5-fold in liver, 1.8-fold in heart, 1.9-fold in muscle and 2.1-fold in brain in Ai-treated than untreated group. In erythrocytes, Ai treatment increased significantly the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (+25%) and glutathione reductase (GSSH-Red) (+22%). Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in muscle (+22%), while GSH-Px activity was significantly higher in liver (+28%), heart (+40%) and kidney (+45%) in Ai-treated compared with untreated group. Liver and muscle GSSH-Red activity was, respectively, 1.6- and 1.5-fold higher in Ai-treated than untreated diabetic group. Catalase activity was significantly increased in heart (+36%) and brain (+32%) in Ai-treated than untreated group. Ai treatment decreased plasma nitric oxide (-33%), carbonyls (-44%) and carotenoids (-68%) concentrations. In conclusion, this study indicates that Ajuga iva aqueous extract improves the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes activities in plasma, erythrocytes and tissues of diabetic rats.

  18. Effectiveness of the aqueous extract of aloe in the treatment of oral alveolitis

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    Isidro de Jesús Nápoles González

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: alveolitis is a complication that may appear after the extraction of a tooth. It is considered a dental emergency due to the intense pain. Its prevalence is worrisome for the dental services for the complications and disability that it can provoke in patients.Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the aqueous extract of aloe with pharmaceutical use in the treatment of alveolitis.Method: an experimental study was carried out with 100 patients that visited the Provincial Teaching Dental Clinic, “La Vigía” Clinic, and “Julio Antonio Mella” Polycilinic of Camaguey in 2014, and that were diagnosed with alveolitis. The sample was made up of 50 patients in the control group treated with Alvogyl and 50 patients in the study group treated with aloe.Results: most of the patients belonged to the 26 to 45 age group. At 24 hours of treatment the results on pain relief were similar for both groups, with an 18 % for the study group and a 16 % for the control group. At 48 hours the best results were found in the control group, with 62 % of patients with no pain, and only a 30 % in the study group. At 72 hours this tendency was kept with 90 % in the control group and 72 % in the study group. In the study group an 84 % of the patients with wet alveolitis felt pain relief.Conclusions: the aqueous extract of aloe is a natural drug which is effective in the treatment of alveolitis, mainly in wet alveolitis and those affecting the maxillary bones. There were no adverse reactions with none of the used medications.

  19. The protective effect of Aloysia triphylla aqueous extracts against brain lipid-peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagni Vitar, Romina M; Reides, Claudia G; Ferreira, Sandra M; Llesuy, Susana F

    2014-03-01

    In a normal diet, the use of herbs may contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants and even be a better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extracts of Aloysia triphylla (infusion and decoction) against lipid-peroxidation of brain homogenates and to determine changes in the prooxidant/antioxidant balance when the plant material is added. In order to elucidate a possible antioxidant mechanism in vitro evaluation of total antioxidant capacity, oxygen species scavenging ability and reducing power (RP) were studied. Tested extracts had shown a strong inhibition of lipid-peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive products of lipid-peroxidation (TBARS) and chemiluminescence. Furthermore, infusion and decoction exhibited free radical trapping ability, expressed by the capacity to scavenge superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, both aqueous extracts presented antioxidant activity measured as total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS) scavenging activity and RP. These results suggest that the lipid-peroxidation inhibition mechanism proposed is that the antioxidants present in Aloysia triphylla could act as strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species not only at the initiation of the lipid-peroxidation chain reaction, but also at the propagation step. Therefore, they could be used as prophylactic and therapeutic agents for those diseases where the occurrence of oxidative stress and lipid-peroxidation contributes to the progression of damage.

  20. Fertility enhancing effects of aqueous extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria on reproductive functions of male rats

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    Dieudonne Massoma Lembe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medicinal plants are of great value in the field of treatment and cure of diseases, beside their strategic value in drug supply. This study has investigated the effects of Rauvolfia vomitoria bark extract on reproductive functions of male rats. Methods: Thirty adult male rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups and orally treated with vehicle, 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight per day of Rauvolfia vomitoria aqueous extract for 21 days. At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed. Hormone and biochemical analysis were done. Testis and accessory organs were removed and weighed. Sperm count, transit and motility were also evaluated. Results: After 21 days of treatment, body weight was slightly reduced dose-dependently. The relative weight of testis significantly increased at high doses (100 and 200 mg/kg, while the relative weight of the prostate and seminal vesicles also significantly increased in all treated animals. The daily sperm production at high doses as well as the sperm count in epididymis and vas deferens at low doses (25 and 50 mg/kg, showed a significant difference between experimental groups and control group. The sperm motility and transit was significantly higher at low doses when compared to control. Testicular and epididymal protein significantly increased at low doses, while the testicular cholesterol significantly increased at all doses when compared to control. The highest effect on testosterone level was observed at the dose of 200 mg/kg of Rauvolfia vomitoria. Conclusion: These results indicate that treatment with the aqueous extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria could improve the fertility of male rats. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(1.000: 43-49

  1. Effect of Aqueous Extract of the Seaweed Gracilaria domingensis on the Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Textural Features of Fermented Milks.

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    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Pereira, Elainy Virginia Dos Santos; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the Gracilaria domingensis seaweed aqueous extract in comparison with gelatin on the physicochemical, microbial, and textural characteristics of fermented milks processed with the mixed culture SAB 440 A, composed of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, were investigated. The addition of G. domingensis aqueous extract did not affect pH, titratable acidity, and microbial viability of fermented milks when compared with the control (with no texture modifier) and the products with added gelatin. Fermented milk with added the seaweed aqueous extract showed firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index at least 10% higher than those observed for the control product (P < 0.05). At 4 h of fermentation, the fermented milks with only G. domingensis extract showed a texture comparable to that observed for products containing only gelatin. At 5 h of fermentation, firmness and consistency increased significantly (P < 0.05) in products with only seaweed extract added, a behavior not observed in products with the full amount of gelatin, probably due to the differences between the interactions of these ingredients with casein during the development of the gel network throughout the acidification of milk. The G. domingensis aqueous extract appears as a promising gelatin alternative to be used as texture modifier in fermented milks and related dairy products.

  2. Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).

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    Er, Hui Meng; Cheng, En-Hsiang; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2007-09-25

    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (pCactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant and immunity-enhancing activities of Sargassum pallidum aqueous extract in gastric cancer rats.

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    Zhang, Rui-Li; Luo, Wen-Da; Bi, Tie-Nan; Zhou, Shen-Kang

    2012-07-11

    The effect of Sargassum pallidum (brown seaweed) aqueous extract on the immunity function and antioxidant activities in was studied gastric cancer rats. Treatment with Sargassum pallidum aqueous extract at oral doses 400, 600 or 800 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against N-methyl-N′-nitro-Nnitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced immunity damage and oxidative injury by enhancing serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels, preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and by inhibiting lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa. It can be concluded that Sargassum pallidum aqueous extract may enhance the immunity and antioxidant activities in gastric cancer rats.

  4. Wound healing activity of an aqueous extract of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

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    Gupta, Asheesh; Kirar, Vandana; Keshri, Gaurav Kr; Gola, Shefali; Yadav, Anju; Negi, Prem Singh; Misra, Kshipra

    2014-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) is popular because of its health-promoting properties. The effects of G. lucidum extract on cancer, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatitis have been reported by many researchers. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the healing efficacy of an aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum from the Indian Himalayan region on dermal excision wound in experimental rats. The extract used in the study was found to be rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. The healing efficacy was comparatively assessed with a reference povidone-iodine ointment. The G. lucidum extract showed significant enhanced healing activity, evidenced by an increase in wound contraction, collagen accumulation (hydroxyproline), hexosamine, and total protein contents. Histopathological findings further supported the biochemical indices. The results suggest that aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum possesses significant wound-healing activity.

  5. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

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    Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2010-11-25

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p basilicum before the administration of sodium arsenite resulted in the attenuation of the sodium arsenite-induced aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities: ALT (from 282.6% to 167.7% and 157.8%), AST (from 325.1% to 173.5% and 164.2%) for the group administered sodium arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium arsenite respectively, expressed as percentage of the negative control. These findings support the presence of hepatoprotective activity in the O.basilicum extracts.

  6. Ability of aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera to effectively alleviate paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental Wister albino rats

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    Emmanuel Ogboma Dania

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the preventive, protective and ameliorative activity of the aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. (P. dactylifera against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: A total of 50 male albino rats were used for the study and 2 g/kg body weight of paracetamol and 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of P. dactylifera were administered orally for the study. They were divided into 5 groups, namely group A (vehicle control, group B (paracetamol control, group C (preventive, group D (ameliorative and group E (protective, with 10 rats in each group. Group B was administered with paracetamol for 7 days; group C was administered with the extract for 7 days before administering with paracetamol for 7 days; group D was administered with paracetamol for 7 days, then the extract for 7 days; while group E was administered with paracetamol and the extract simultaneously for 7days. Results: The study revealed that the extracts of date palms contained active chemical compounds such as anthocyanins, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids and flavonoids. The levels of antioxidant enzymes activity such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase were found to be reduced while malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in the paracetamol-treated group. This trend was reversed in groups where the extract was administered, as the antioxidant enzymes level in the liver was raised. Conclusions: This study has shown that the aqueous extract of P. dactylifera can mitigate the hepatotoxicity effect of paracetamol with a better ameliorating effect than protective or preventive

  7. Evaluating Anti-Inflammatory activity of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus DC. (Apocynaceae

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    E O Agbaje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study explored the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus (SPH DC (Apocynaceae in rodents, using standard laboratory models. Doses of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of aqueous SPH were administered orally in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema, xylene-induced ear oedema in mice, and formalin-induced mice hind paw oedema (sub-acute 6 days, using indomethacin (10 mg/kg, dexamethasone 1 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, 100 mg/kg respectively as standard drugs. The study further explored the effect of the herbal drug on some inflammatory mediators-histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin, using only the highest dose of SPH. Results obtained showed that the extract exerted a dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, which compared favourably with the positive control.  Significant inhibitions of mediators were also recorded; however, the least inhibition (42.8 % was produced in the serotonin model. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and anthraquinones.  It is also noteworthy that zinc, copper, manganese, lead, and chromium were the elemental constituents in the aqueous extract of SPH, some of which have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory property. While 2 g/kg of SPH administered orally did not produce any mortality, the median lethal dose by i.p route was 39.81 mg/kg, and it is thought that the lead contribute to the toxicity recorded. The pH of the herbal drug was 6.7. Our findings substantiate the local use of SPH in the treatment of acute and sub-acute inflammatory conditions, while it also suggests some possible pathways for its anti-inflammatory activity.  Lastly, since the herbal drug is liable to producing toxic effects, it must be used with caution. Industrial relevance: Herbal remedies continue to serve as an important source of conventional therapies for diverse disease conditions

  8. Inhibitory effect of aqueous dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity

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    Han Huamin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, is an immunosuppressive disease that results in life-threatening opportunistic infections. The general problems in current therapy include the constant emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains, adverse side effects and the unavailability of treatments in developing countries. Natural products from herbs with the abilities to inhibit HIV-1 life cycle at different stages, have served as excellent sources of new anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-HIV-1 activity of aqueous dandelion extract. Methods The pseudotyped HIV-1 virus has been utilized to explore the anti-HIV-1 activity of dandelion, the level of HIV-1 replication was assessed by the percentage of GFP-positive cells. The inhibitory effect of the dandelion extract on reverse transcriptase activity was assessed by the reverse transcriptase assay kit. Results Compared to control values obtained from cells infected without treatment, the level of HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that dandelion extract has a potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity. The identification of HIV-1 antiviral compounds from Taraxacum officinale should be pursued. Conclusions The dandelion extract showed strong activity against HIV-1 RT and inhibited both the HIV-1 vector and the hybrid-MoMuLV/MoMuSV retrovirus replication. These findings provide additional support for the potential therapeutic efficacy of Taraxacum officinale. Extracts from this plant may be regarded as another starting point for the development of an antiretroviral therapy with fewer side effects.

  9. The effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rat

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    Rachael Ununuma Akpiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant Euphorbia came from Mount Atlas region of present-day Morocco and was probably the resin Spurge. This local herb is used by traditional herbalists for treatment of hypertension, diabetes and several other ailments. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect of aqueous extract of Euphorbia drupifera on the physiology of wistar rats. Considering objectives such as: determining the efficacy of Eupholobia drupifera in rat and determining if the extract is dose and time-dependent. Twenty  five (25 normal wistar rats were used for this study. They were acclimatized and randomly distributed into groups A-D and control. They were given, oral administration of Euphorbia extracts twice daily. Doses of 0.056ml/g, 0.118ml/g, 0.174ml/g and 0.254ml/g were given to groups A,B,C and D respectively. The higher the dosage, the shorter the time of death. The animals were observed for morphological changes afterwards. Five rats, one from each group were examined after death. The results obtained recorded a 100% mortality rate in the test groups of rats. Tissue observation showed swollen intestine. Behavioural observation showed continuous itching immediately after feeding with extract,  reduced activity, loss of appetite, drowsiness, and swollen jaws. E. drupifera  was found to have a severe toxic effect on the physiology of rats as 100% mortality was observed in all test groups(Group A, 144hrs; Group B, 96hrs; Group C, 48hrs; and Group D, 36hrs. Thus, caution should be taken in handling and general usage of the plant. No death occurred in the control group without the extract

  10. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

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    Dr.T.Jayasree

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim of the study was to evaluate the local anesthetic activity of betel leaf extract after autoclaving the extract of betel leaf. Materials and methods: Extract of plain betel leaf, was tested for surface anesthetic activity using rabbits. Aqueous extraction of Piper betel leaf (AEPBL done by Soxhelts apparatus .Twenty male Rabbit’s were taken and divided in to four groups each group contain 5 animals, Group I - Standard (2% xylocaine, Group II - Test 0.3% (AEPBL, Group III - Test 0.6 % (AEPBL,Group IV - Test 12 % (AEPBL was instilled in conjunctival sac of right eyes. Standard protocol was followed to elicit light reflex, corneal reflex and to measure pupillary size after instilling the test drugs in the eye. There was dose dependent increase in onset and duration of local anesthetic activity with 6% and 12% doses of alcoholic extract of Piper betel leaf. Results: Betel leaf showed significant surface anesthetic activity comparable to that of Xylocaine. Conclusion: As a surface anesthetic, the onset was as quick as xylocaine and the duration was shorter than xylocaine

  11. Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of Cyphostemma glaucophilla Aqueous Leaf Extract

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    E. Ojogbane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyphostemma glaucophilla is used in the treatment of several degenerative diseases. Phytochemical analyses was carried out on aqueous leaves extract and the anti oxidant activity were investigated using albino rats, which were divided into five groups of five animals each. Group A received (0.85% NaCl; 5ml/kg control while single daily oral doses of 10, 15, 20, 25mg/kg body weight of extract were administered to groups B, C, D and E for 21 days respectively. Animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed with ether anaesthesia and the liver homogenates were used for the assessment of protein, malondialdehyde and assay of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, anti lipid peroxidation and 2, 2- diphenyl-1-piccrylhydrazylhydrate (DPPH radical scavenging activities by standard methods. Results confirmed the presence of flavonoids, vitamin C, proteins, carbohydrates, steroids, O and C glycosides, traces of vitamin E and A. The extract induced significant (p<0.05 dose dependent increase in the concentration of proteins and inhibited significant (p<0.05 dose related decrease in the concentration of malondialdehyde. It produced significant (p<0.05 dose dependent increase in the concentration of glutathione peroxidase and SOD peaks at 25mg/kg (55 and 35% relative to control, there was also a significant (p<0.05 inhibition of lipid peroxidation by 18.80% in group B and 25.42% in E, the DPPH radical scavenging activity increased with increased concentration of extract by 14.31% and 37.23% in groups B and E respectively. Study has shown that extract contains phytochemicals of biological and pharmacological importance and has antioxidant capacity which can be utilized to alleviate the symptoms of chronic and degenerative diseases.

  12. Optimisation of the alcoholic fermentation of aqueous jerivá pulp extract

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    Guilherme Arielo Rodrigues Maia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determinate the optimum conditions for the alcoholic fermentation process of aqueous jerivá pulp extract using the response surface methodology and simplex optimisation technique. The incomplete factorial design 3³ was applied with the yeast extract, NH4H2PO4 and yeast as the independent variables and the alcohol production yield as the response. The regression analysis indicated that the model is predictive, and the simplex optimisation generated a formulation containing 0.35 g L-1 yeast extract, 6.33 g L-1 yeast and 0.30 g L-1NH4H2PO4 for an optimum yield of 85.40% ethanol. To validate the predictive equation, the experiment was carried out in triplicate under optimum conditions, and an average yield of 87.15% was obtained. According to a t-test, no significant difference was observed (on the order of 5% between the average value obtained and the value indicated by the simplex optimisation technique.

  13. The Aqueous Seed Extract Of Carica papaya Linn. Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats

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    A A Adeneye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Carica papaya Linn. is known to have a versatile application in African folkloric medicine. In the current study, the dose-dependent (100 – 400 mg/kg/day/oral route and time-course protective effects of the 400 mg/kg/oral route of the aqueous seed extract of unripe and mature Carica papaya fruit (CPE were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 hepatotoxic rats for 72 hours. Results showed the extract to cause significant (p<0.05, p<0.001, dose related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST, serum lipids (TG, TC, HDL-c, LDL-c and VLDL-c and serum proteins (TP and ALB. Maximum hepatoprotection was offered at an oral dose of 400 mg/kg/day of the extract. The biochemical results obtained were corroborated by improvements in the CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. In addition, maximum hepatoprotection was offered at the 400 mg/kg of CPE for up to 3 hours post-CCl4 induction. In conclusion, the results obtained in the current study justify the folkloric application of CPE in the treatment of drug-related hepatic injury. Industrial relevance: Results of the current study provide some scientific information to develop safe and effective products such as food supplements, dietary supplements, etc. that could be useful in the clinical management of patients with drug related hepatic disorders.

  14. Comparative central effects of the aqueous leaf extract of two populations of Passiflora edulis

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    Adriana S.F.S.J. Ayres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPassiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, has been used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. P. edulis is commonly known for its economic interests in Brazil. This species exhibits significant variability in the fruit rind color, then two subpopulations has been described (P. edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg. (PEF; P. edulis fo. edulis (PEE. This study compared phytochemical profile and biological actions of aqueous leaf extract of PEE and PEF. HPLC analysis showed marked distinct chromatograms to the P. edulisvarieties. However, in both extracts the major compounds observed were flavonoids C-glycosides. Behavioral studies showed that PEE (300 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. reduced anxiety in the elevated plus maze test. PEE (300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (1000 mg/kg, p.o. also induced antidepressant-like actions in the forced swimming test. PEE 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced distance moved, thus suggesting sedation. No alterations in sleeping time were observed with PEE and PEF extracts. In conclusion, despite the similarities between the biological actions observed for both P. edulis varieties, quite different phytochemical profile was herein reported. These data suggest that the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions are not due to a specific phytochemical component.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITYOF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCHINUS TEREBINTHIFOLIUS RADDI

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    A. Arnobio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy consists in all pharmaceutical preparation using certain part of plants as a feedstock with known pharmacological effects for medicinal purposes. In order to a better understanding of the biological effects associated with herbal medicines, many scientific studies have been conducted and developed in recent years. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira is native from Peru and is also found in Europe, Asia and some Latin American countries. This herbal remedy was chosen for study because of its wide use and interesting pharmacological actions. Among the effects documented in the literature, they are a potent antimicrobial agent. Its use as hydroalcoholic extract showed positive effect on cystotomy healing in rats and the studies indicate that Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi vaginal gel is effective and safe for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. The experimental model discussed in this study was the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC in different strains of protozoa. Evaluation of the effects of the extract with Trypanosomacruzi and Leishmaniaamazonensis strains was conducted at different concentrations of a dilution series to allow a more sensitive analysis, in a wide concentration range. A static or toxic action can be distinguished by the color reaction which is involved rezazorina. The results indicate that in none of the tested strains were observed cytotoxic effects of aqueous extract. There was also no inhibitory action on the development of tested strains.

  16. MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SOME STORED SEEDS AND THEIR CONTROL BY AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS

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    ZAKARIA A. M. BAKA*, MAMDOUH S. SERAG AND TAREK A. KARDOSHA

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne fungi associated with some seeds collected from Egypt markets during storage and the possibility of their control by medicinal plant extracts. The studied seeds were Sorghum bicolor, Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, Lens esculentus, Vigna sinensis, Arachis hypogea and Vicia faba. Thirteen fungal species were isolated from those Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum were the most prevalent. Sixteen medicinal plants named Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Mentha basilicum, Musa acuminate, Eucalptus rostrata, Datura stramonium, Zingiber officinale, Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas, Euphorbia peplis, Ocimum basilicum, Carum carvi, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nigella sativa, Cuminum cyminum and Citrullus colocynthis were screened for their antifungal activities. Aqueous plant extracts of all mentioned plants were tested against the most prodomonant fungal species. Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Datura stramonium and Citrullus colocynthis exhibited the highest antifungal activity within all plants tested. Treated seeds by plant extracts showed an increase of the percentage of their germination and reduction of seed-borne fungal infection. Mycotoxins of infected seeds and fungal pathogens were also determined.

  17. In vitro Anti Dermatophyte Activities of Crude Methanol and Aqueous Extracts of Lawsonia inermis

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    C. C. Ekwealor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro anti dermatophyte activities of crude methanol and aqueous extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves. The anti dermatophyte activities was tested against Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum ferrugineum, Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton rubrum, recovered from rice farmers with fungal skin infections in Anambra State, Nigeria. From the result obtained, growth of dermatophytes was inhibited at the varied concentrations of crude methanol extract with the diameter zone of inhibition increasing with the increase in concentration. At the lowest concentration of 10 mg/disc, diameter zone of inhibition range of 8.0 mm-16.8 mm was recorded against the different dermatophytes. At 80 mg/disc, T. rubrum showed the highest diameter zone of inhibition (18.8 mm, followed by M. audouinii (18.0 mm while T. megninii was the least inhibited (12.0 mm. Water extract of L. inermis also inhibited all the test dermatophyte. M. audouinii was the most susceptible with diameter inhibition zone of 14.5 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration was recorded at 25 mg/ml for all dermatophytes while fungicidal action was recorded at concentrations of 50 mg/ml for M. audouinii and T. rubrum, 100 mg/ml for M. ferrugineum and 200 mg/ml for T. megninii and T. tonsurans. These results demonstrated that L. inermis has anti dermatophyte activities and could be a good source for the production of plant based antifungal drugs.

  18. Extraction and recovery of 2-butoxyethanol from aqueous phases containing high saline concentration

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    Katherine E. Manz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE, also known as 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE, has been identified as a contaminant in hydraulic fracturing fluids. In order to determine the presence of 2-BE in hydraulic fracturing chemical additives, a reliable method for recovering 2-BE from aqueous phases by liquid-liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS was established. The liquid-liquid extraction method was applied to samples matrices containing various amounts of salt. Using methylene chloride for liquid-liquid extraction in a sample to solvent ratio of 1:3, ≥99% 2-BE recovery may be achieved with less than 5% standard error. The limit of detection was determined to be 0.957 mg L−1 2-BE. Accuracy was determined to be 2.58% and precision was determined using the coefficient of variation, which was 3.5%. The method was used to recover 2-BE in a hydraulic fracturing chemical additive called Revert Flow and to quantify the weight percent of 2-BE in the chemical additive. Weight percent of two additional components of Revert Flow, D-limonene and 1-butoxy-2-propanol, were also determined. We also used the method to determine the abiotic of 2-BE in water, which was 5.55 days. The persistence of 2-BE in hydraulic fracturing fluid was also investigated and determined that 2-BE is more persistent in this environment.

  19. Hypoglycaemic effect of the lyophilised aqueous extract of Ajuga iva in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

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    El Hilaly, Jaouad; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypoglycaemic effect of the lyophilised aqueous extract of the whole plant of Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Labiatae) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Single and repeated oral administration of the extract of Ajuga iva L (AI) at a dose of 10 mg/kg produced a slight and significant decrease in plasma glucose levels in normal rats 6 h after administration and after 3 weeks of treatment. AI reduced plasma glucose levels of streptozotocin diabetic rats from 337+/-9.3 to 102.2+/-17.7 mg/dl after 6 h of oral administration (P<0.001). Repeated oral administration of AI to streptozotocin diabetic rats significantly decreased the plasma glucose levels after 1 week of treatment (112+/-14.4 mg/dl at 1 week vs 337+/-9.3 mg/dl at the baseline values, (P<0.001). It continuously decreased thereafter and showed a rapid normalisation after 1 week of AI treatment. It is concluded that these results demonstrated that the water extract of the whole plant of AI possess a strong hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic rats, and support therefore, its traditional use in diabetes mellitus control.

  20. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneluc, Taíse; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; de Almeida, Gisele Nunes; Ayres, Maria Consuelo Caribé; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira; dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt, Thereza Cristina Bório; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2009-12-01

    The study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium leaves in two experiments. In vitro test, cultures of goat fecal samples were treated with different concentrations of extract (134.5 to 335.0 mg.mL(-1)). In vivo test was composed of 20 sheep: G1: treated with 0.63 g.kg(-1), during four days; G2: same dose, for eight days; G3: ivermectin (200 microg.kg(-1)) and G4 untreated group. In vitro results showed a reduction of Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae greater than 95% in the concentrations between 335.0 and 193.7 mg.mL(-1). Faecal egg counting reduction was 51, 56 and 90% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively, while immature stages and adults ranged from 0 to 91% in G1 and from 26 to 94% in G2. Ivermectin effectiveness was 99% for L4 and L5 of H. contortus and 100% for other nematodes species. Clinical and biochemical parameters have remained in the normality and histophatologic analyses did not show alteration suggesting absence of toxicity. Although the great effectiveness of Z. rhoifolium leaves extract in vitro test, it displayed poor efficiency in vivo regarding gastrointestinal nematodes reduction.

  1. Indium recovery from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction with D2EHPA: a statistical approach to the experimental design

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    Fortes M.C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work presents the optimization results of obtaining a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with D2EHPA solubilized in isoparaffin and exxsol. The variables studied in the extraction step were D2EHPA concentration, acidity of the aqueous phase and time of contact between phases. Different hydrochloric and sulfuric acid concentrations were studied for the stripping step. The optimum experimental conditions resulted in a solution with 99% indium extraction and less than 4% iron. The construction of a McCabe-Thiele diagram indicated two theoretical countercurrent stages for indium extraction and at least six stages for indium stripping. Finally, the influence of associated metals found in typical sulfate leach liquors from zinc plants was studied. Under the experimental conditions for maximum indium extraction, 96% indium extraction was obtained, iron extraction was about 4% and no Ga, Cu and Zn were co-extracted.

  2. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Ogbonnaya Enyinnaya; Ojeifo, Uadia Patrick

    2016-05-01

    The phytochemical composition and acute toxicity of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts were investigated in this study. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the pulverized leaf, root, pod and stem samples. Proximate analysis was also conducted for the root to ascertain the effect of drying procedures on its composition. Fifty-six (56) Wister albino rats, male and female were divided into two broad groups of 28 animals per group. The first group was randomly separated into seven (7) groups of four (4) animals per group. The control group received distilled water alone while the other groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of the Soluble and Insoluble Tefairia occidentalis root fraction. The second group of 28 animals was also distributed into 7 groups of 4 animals per group. Six test groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of Telfairia occidentalis fruit and stem extracts. The animals were observed for the first 12hr for any toxic symptoms and for 48 hr for mortality rate. Surviving animals were sacrificed after 48 hours. Phytochemical screening results reveal the presence of tannins, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoids, saponin, alkaloid, glycosides, proteins and carbohydrates. Flavonoid and saponin was not detected in stem sample; alkaloid is present in all samples except pod; and cyanogenic glycoside was found in both root and pod samples. Except for the fibre content, the method of preparation of the root had no significant effect on the proximate composition of the sample. The root extracts cause insignificant reduction in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, except for the significant reduction in ALT activity at highest dose. The pod extract significantly increased the ALT and AST activities, which is dose dependent, while the stem extract only caused increased activity of ALT, but not AST. None of the extracts administered had any significant effect on the

  3. Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Garcinia mangostana Fruit Peels

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    Kar Xin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs is performed by the reduction of aqueous gold metal ions in contact with the aqueous peel extract of plant, Garcinia mangostana (G. mangostana. An absorption peak of the gold nanoparticles is observed at the range of 540–550 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy. All the diffraction peaks at 2θ = 38.48°, 44.85°, 66.05°, and 78.00° that index to (111, (200, (220, and (311 planes confirm the successful synthesis of Au-NPs. Mostly spherical shape particles with size range of 32.96 ± 5.25 nm are measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. From the FTIR results, the peaks obtained are closely related to phenols, flavonoids, benzophenones, and anthocyanins which suggest that they may act as the reducing agent. This method is environmentally safe without the usage of synthetic materials which is highly potential in biomedical applications.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Umesh; Rastogi, Bhawna; Singh, Paramjit; Saraf, Dinesh K; Vyas, Suresh P

    2004-05-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of ethanol insoluble fraction of aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Linn. (TPEIF) have been investigated. After intraperitoneal administration of TPEIF in doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg body weight (BW) a significant increase in phagocytic index, leukocyte count and spleenic antibody secreting cells was noticed. Stimulation of humoral immune response was further observed with elevation in heamagglutination antibody titer. Heightened delayed type hypersensitivity reaction suggested convincing evidence for activation of cellular immune system. Protective action of herbal medicine in case of anaphylactic shock was also studied. In addition, elicitation of specific antibody titer against tetanus toxoid (TT) challenge was measured in order to explore the possible use as adjuvant along with clinical vaccination program to reduce number of non-responders. The results suggest that TPEIF influences both humoral as well as cell mediated immune system vis-a-vis assists in genesis of improved antibody response against specific clinical antigen.

  5. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Citric Acid by Aqueous Extract of Piper Nigrum L.

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    P. Matheswaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract of Piper Nigrum L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel at pH 12 has been evaluated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of inhibitor in citric acid medium at different concentration. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with the different concentration at two hour time interval at room temperature. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behaviour of Piper Nigrum L. is greater in 2 N Citric acid than 1 N Citric acid medium. So Piper Nigrum L. can be used has a good inhibitor for preventing mild steel material which is used in many construction purpose.

  6. Preparation of Nanosilver and Nanogold Based on Dog Rose Aqueous Extract

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    Jolanta Pulit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a process of obtaining nanosilver and nanogold based on chemical reduction using substances contained in the aqueous extract of dog rose (Rosa canina. The resulting products were subjected to spectrophotometric analysis (UV-Vis, and testing of the nanoparticles’ size and suspension stability was carried out by measuring the electrokinetic potential, ζ, via dynamic light scattering (DLS. Solid samples were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The obtained data were given to statistical analysis in order to illustrate the properties of the suspension depending on the values of the input parameters: metal salts concentration, pH of the reaction mixture, and process temperature. In the course of the work, samples of nanosilver and nanogold were obtained, which were stable for over two months and which had a monomodal particle size distribution.

  7. Selective separation and enrichment of proteins in aqueous two-phase extraction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Qu; Hao Qin; Min Dong; Dong Xu Zhao; Xin Ying Zhao; Jing Hua Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A simple aqueous two-phase extraction system(ATPS)of PEG/phosphate was proposed for selective separation and enrichment of proteins.The combination of ATPE with HPLC was applied to identify the partition of proteins in two phases.Five proteins (bovine serum albumin,Cytochrome C,lysozyme,myoglobin,and trypsin)were used as model proteins to study the effect of phosphate concentration and pH on proteins partition.The PEG/phosphate system was firstly applied to real human saliva and plasma samples,some proteins showed obviously different partition in two phases.The primary results manifest the selective separation and enrichment of proteins in ATPS provided the potential for high abundance proteins depletion in proteomics.

  8. Primary characterization and evaluation of anti ulcerogenic activity of an aqueous extract from callus culture of Cereus peruvianus Mill. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayme, Milena O; Ames, Franciele Q; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Machado, Maria de Fatima P S; Mangolin, Claudete A; Goncalves, Regina A C; de Oliveira, Arildo J B

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we reported cultivation, extraction procedure, analysis and preliminary characterization of the aqueous extract from Cereus peruvianus callus culture and evaluated its anti ulcerogenic activity in vivo models of experimental ulcers in Wistar rats. The obtained aqueous extract from callus (AC) was dialyzed and subjected to freeze-thaw process, providing a possible polysaccharide. The carbohydrate and protein contents of the aqueous extract were estimated at 53.4% and 0.66%, respectively, composed primarily of galactose, arabinose and galacturonic acid, with minor amounts of glucose. This appeared heterogeneous when analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS). The AC was found to be significantly effective against ethanol-induced lesions but was ineffective against indomethacin-induced lesions. The callus culture of C. peruvianus is an alternative source for the synthesis of substances originally produced by plants. The calluses grown indefinitely in vitro under controlled conditions are stable tissues, and the aqueous extract from calluses may be used instead of fully developed plants using the protocols described in this study.

  9. Effect of aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. on postmenopausal syndrome in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Urmila Aswar; Mayuri Gurav; Ganesh More; Khaled Rashed; Manoj Aswar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad.&Wendl. (Solanaceae) is present in many Ayurveda compound formulations including Chavanaprasha and Dasamoolarishta. The whole plant is used in conditions such as inflammation, constipation and promoting conception in females. In the present study, we carried out different tests to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum (SXE) in postmenopausal syndrome. METHODS: The study was carried out in bilaterally ovariectomized one-month-old Wistar rats (40-50 g). Bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=6) receiving different treatments, consisting of a vehicle (distilled water), aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum at two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) administered orally daily for 90 d and standard drugβestradiol at a dose of 1 mg/kg administered subcutaneously biweekly for 90 d. Estrogenic activity was assessed by vaginal corniifcation, sexual behavior, serum estradiol and uterine weight to body weight ratio. Antiosteoporotic activity was assessed on the basis of biomechanical and biochemical parameters followed by histopathological studies, and antidepressant activity was assessed by forced swim test. RESULTS:SXE showed presence of steroids. At the dose of 200 mg/kg, it signiifcantly improved all the parameters of sexual behavior (P<0.01), caused vaginal corniifcation, and increased serum estradiol and uterine weight (P<0.01). It also significantly improved all the parameters of bone strength as well as depression (P<0.01). Histopathology of bones conifrmed the above ifndings. CONCLUSION:The study indicated that SXE may provide an effective treatment in the prevention of postmenopausal symptoms.

  10. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats

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    Azadeh Sabetghadam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5-20 mg/kg, methanolic (50-200 mg/kg, and aqueous (100-400 mg/kg extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepared and orally administered to nine groups of rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c. and aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o. were used as control. Antagonism of the antinociceptive activity was evaluated by pretreatment with naloxone at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i.p.. Results showed that oral administration of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg, methanolic (200 mg/kg, and aqueous (400 mg/kg extracts significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response compared with control groups in both hot plate and tail flick tests (P < 0.05. Antinociceptive action of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg, methanolic (200 mg/kg, and aqueous (400 mg/kg extracts was significantly blocked by naloxone. In conclusion, these results suggest the presence of antinociceptive effect in various extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antinociceptive effective doses vary depending on the type of solvents used for extraction.

  11. In vitro antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition activity of aqueous extract of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition potential of aqueous extract of Lantana camara leaves. Methods: Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of L. camara was estimated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, metal chelating activity and reducing power assay. DNA damage inhibition was performed by photolysing H2O2 by UV radiation in the presence of pBR322 and extract. Estimation of phenolic content was carried out by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Results: Extract exhibited high antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenng assay (IC50= 42.66 μg/ml), metal chelating activity (IC50= 1036.4μg/ml) and reducing power assay. Extract also exhibited the complete protection of pBR322 plasmid DNA during DNA damage inhibition assay. Extract showed high phenolic content which justified the antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition properties of the plant. Conclusions:These observations emphasize that aqueous extract of L. camara possess high antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition potential, thus, the plant can be used to develop natural antioxidant compounds for therapeutic use.

  12. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of aqueous and methanol extracts of Nelsonia campestris in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan; Hadiza Lami Muhammad; Hussaini Anthony Makun; Musa Bola Busari; Abubakar Siddique Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of aqueous and methanol ex-tracts of Nelsonia campestris (N. campestris) in rats. Methods: Acute oral toxicity study of aqueous and methanol extracts was carried out by administration of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 600, 2 900 and 5 000 mg/kg body weight of N. campestris extracts to rats in the respective groups. Sub-acute toxicity study was conducted by oral administration of the extracts at daily doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight to another group of rats for 28 days, while rats in the control group received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Results: The LD50 of the N. campestris extracts in rats was determined to be greater than 5 000 mg/kg body weight. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the test groups administered with aqueous and methanol extracts in relation to the control group for serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO3−), serum albumin, total and conjugated bili-rubin. Similarly, mean organ-to-body weight ratio and all haematological parameters (white blood cell, red blood cell, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume) evaluated were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control. There was a significant increase (P Conclusions: Intake of high doses of this plant extracts may exhibit mild organ toxicity.

  13. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

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    M. I. Kazeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99% of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL. Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract.

  14. Improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads in aqueous media via dual-phase solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuling; Liu, Ruijin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke

    2009-08-15

    In this study, a novel and simple dual-phase solvent system for the improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads in aqueous sample was proposed. The method integrated MIP extraction and micro-liquid-liquid extraction (micro-LLE) into only one step. A magnetic MIP beads using atrazine as template was synthesized, and was applied to aqueous media by adding micro-volume of n-hexane to form a co-extraction system. The magnetic MIP beads preferred to suspend in the organic phase, which shielded them from the disturbance of water molecule. The target analytes in the water sample was extracted into the organic phase by micro-LLE and then further bound to the solid-phase of magnetic MIP beads. The beads specificity was significantly improved with the imprinting efficiency of template increasing from 0.5 to 4.4, as compared with that in pure aqueous media. The extraction capacity, equilibration process and cross-selectivity of the MIP dual-phase solvent extraction system were investigated. The proposed method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the analysis of atrazine, simazine, propazine, simetryn, prometryne, ametryn and terbutryn in complicated sample such as tomato, strawberry juice and milk. The method is selective, sensitive and low organic solvent-consuming, and has potential to broaden the range of MIP application in biological and environmental sample.

  15. Extraction and isolation of lithospermic acid B from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge using aqueous two-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong Xue; Shi, Chang Zhi; Zhang, Lei; Lv, Lin; Zhang, Yue Yong

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and effective method integrating separation and purification of lithospermic acid B from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge was developed by combining an aqueous two-phase system extraction with preparative chromatography. An aqueous two-phase system of n-butyl alcohol/KH2 PO4 was chosen from seven systems. The influence of parameters including concentration of KH2 PO4 , n-butyl alcohol concentration, pH, and the ratio of an aqueous two-phase system to crude extract were investigated using a single factor design. Response surface methodology was subsequently used to find the optimal compositions of an aqueous two-phase system. Keeping a solvent-to-solid ratio of 10, the final optimized composition of an aqueous two-phase system was 39.1% w/w n-butyl alcohol and 22.6% w/w KH2 PO4 . Under these conditions a recovery yield of 99.8% and a high partition coefficient of 310.4 were obtained. In a pilot-scale experiment using optimized conditions, 18.79 g of lithospermic acid B with a purity of 70.5% and in a yield of 99.8% was separated from 0.5 kg of crude extract. Subsequently, 9.94 g lithospermic acid B with a purity of 99.3% and recovery yield of 70.3% was obtained with a preparative chromatographic process, and the two-step total recovery was 70.1%.

  16. Effect of intake of aqueous stem extract of Anisopus mannii on haematological parameters in rats

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    D Sani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: These studies were conducted to investigate changes in haematological parameters of rats fed with prolong graded doses of Anisopus mannii. The limit dose test of Up and Down procedure as revised by Dixon was employed to determine the acute oral toxicity of the plant.  The result revealed that the Median lethal dose of the plant is greater than 3000mg/kg body weight. The repeated administration of graded doses of  the extract showed a  significant (P<0.05 dose dependent increase in the packed cell volume (PCV and red blood cells count on 21st and 28th day post extract treatment. However, there were no significant (P>0.05 difference in the total white blood cells and differential leukocyte count in all the treated groups of rats compared to there respective day zero and control group. These results show that the aqueous stem extract of Anisopus mannii is relatively safe following oral administration and have possible stimulatory effect on red blood cell production.   Industrial relevance: Blood is a good indicator to determine the physiological and pathological status of man and animal. The parameters measured include packed cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cell count and platelets count. The normal ranges of these parameters can be altered by the ingestion of some toxic plants. The plant Anisopus mannii (Family Asclepiadaceae, is known as ‘Sakayau’ or ‘Kashe zaki’( meaning sweet killer among the Hausas of the northern Nigeria, where a cold decoction of the stem is traditionally used as remedy for hyperglycaemia. Despite the widespread use of this plant in this environment, there is little literature on the scientific evaluation of its haematological effect thus screening of plants for toxicity aiming at ascertaining their safety seems to be promising, as toxicity following overdose or the active principles present in the plant could pose as limitation to their potential usefulness and may even lead to death. This present

  17. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  18. Tolerance, bioavailability, and potential cognitive health implications of a distinct aqueous spearmint extract

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    Kristin M. Nieman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive function can decline during the aging process and significantly reduce quality of life. Although a number of interventions have been investigated for cognitive dysfunction, including antioxidants, this prominent health concern emphasizes a need to explore methods to support cognitive health later in the life span. An aqueous extract from a proprietary spearmint line has been developed which contains a number of antioxidant compounds, including rosmarinic acid, at levels that are higher than found in commercially-bred spearmint. Therefore, this pilot trial assessed the tolerance, bioavailability, and potential cognitive health implications of a proprietary spearmint extract in men and women with self-reported memory impairment. Methods: Subjects consumed 900 mg/day spearmint extract for 30 days. The sample population (N = 11 was 73% female and 27% male with a mean age of 58.7 ± 1.6 y. Tolerability parameters were assessed at baseline and end of treatment visits. Computerized cognitive function tests were completed and blood was drawn at pre- and post-dose (0.5 to 4 h timepoints during baseline and end of treatment visits. Subjective cognition was also assessed at end of treatment. Results: No serious adverse events or clinically relevant findings were observed in any tolerability parameters. Plasma vanillic, caffeic, and ferulic acid sulfates, rosmarinic acid, and methyl rosmarinic acid glucuronide were detected in plasma following acute administration of the spearmint extract. Computerized cognitive function scores improved in reasoning (P =0.023 and attention/concentration (P = 0.002 after 30 days of supplementation. After acute administration, subjects had improved attention/concentration in two tests at 2 (P = 0.042 and P = 0.025 and 4 h (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002. Conclusions: The results from this pilot trial suggest that the spearmint extract, which contains higher rosmarinic acid content relative to extracts from

  19. Effect of aqueous extracts of selected medicinal plants on germination of windgrass [Apera spica-venti (L. P. Beauv.] and lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. seeds

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    Agnieszka Synowiec

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla, Hypericum perforatum, Achillea millefolium, and Urtica dioica containing allelopathic compounds on seed germination in lambsquarters (Chenopodium album and herbicide-resistant windgrass (Apera spica-venti. A Petri-dish experiment was carried out, in which the effects of five concentrations of aqueous extracts on the germination of weeds were assessed for 10 consecutive days. It was found that the dynamics of seed germination are closely related to the type and concentration of aqueous extract of medicinal plants. The 8% U. dioica aqueous extract posed the strongest inhibitory effect, limiting the germination of both lambsquarters and windgrass. Additionally, weed germination was delayed by 12–72 h in the presence of extracts, compared with the control. Summing up, the aqueous extracts of medicinal plants, especially their higher concentrations, pose a desirable inhibiting effect against the germination of lambsquarters and herbicide-resistant windgrass seeds.

  20. Aluminium-induced acute neurotoxicity in rats:Treatment with aqueous extract of Arthrophytum (Hammada scoparia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaddour Tar; Omar Kharoubi; Oussama Anouar Tar; Nouria Hellal; Imene Benyettou; Abdelkader Aoues

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the antioxidative and protective properties of aqueous extract of Hammada scoparia (H. scoparia) against the effects of sub-chronic aluminium (Al) intoxication on mnemonic process and some neurochemical markers. Methods: Al was administered intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg body weight, three times a week), and H. scoparia and malic acid were given orally by gavage at a daily dose (100 mg/kg body weight) to rats for 90 days. Results: Al caused significant short-term and long-term memory disturbances, a decrease in locomotor activity, a significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and a significant depletion of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) and glutathione. It significantly increased lipid peroxidation levels in cerebrum and cerebellum. However, treatment with H. scoparia extract pro-tected efficiently the neurological functions of intoxicated rats by considerably increasing antioxidants levels and decreasing production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances by 4.26%compared to untreated group. We noted some controversial results with malic acid. It showed some positive results but it was not as efficient as H. scoparia extract. Current results were consistent with histopathological observations including neurodegeneration and vacuolated cytoplasm (spongiosis) in Al treated sec-tions when H. scoparia and malic acid treated sections showed marked neuroprotection signs. Conclusions: This study strongly suggested that H. scoparia extract could possibly restore the altered neurological capacities and antioxidant power in rats, and it could even be a good alternative to chelating agents or other chemical medicines against Al-induced neurotoxicity.

  1. Active spermatogenesis induced by a reiterated administration of Globularia alypum L. aqueous leaf extract

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    Badreddine Fehri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae is a shrub growing in the Mediterranean basin and known to be used as a popular medicine for its several pharmacological properties against rheumatism, gout, typhoid, intermittent fever, and diabetes. Materials and Methods: The acute and chronic toxicities of a G. alypum L. aqueous leaf extract were studied in animals. Acute toxicity was performed in male and female mice whereas chronic toxicity was realized in male and female rats that orally received the drug at the doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/24 h for 30 days. Results: Acute toxicity showed that the extract, administered by the oral route, does not induce any mortality even for a dose of 10,000 mg/kg. Administered by the intra-peritoneal route to female and male mice, the LD 50 of the extract was found to be of 2750 and 2550 mg/kg, respectively. A chronic toxicity study showed that, compared to the control groups that only received the vehicle (water, the drugs affects weight growth (effects more pronounced in female than in male rats, some organs weight after autopsy, hematological and biochemical parameters and histology of some principal organs (lungs: histological grades I to II pulmonary hypertension (PHT, respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, and lymphoid hyperplasia; esophagus: thinning down of esophageal wall, atrophic muscular coat. The most important finding of the study was the recorded active spermatogenesis induced by the reiterated administrations of the drug that was confirmed by reducing the administered dose and the period of treatment (100 mg/kg/24 h for 15 days. Conclusion: It is suggested that the G. alypum L. leaf extract contains active substances with androgenic properties that could be used in human therapy.

  2. Influence of enzymes on the oil extraction processes in aqueous media

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    Ricochon Guillaume

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The methods of oil aqueous extraction process (AEP assisted by enzymes are, over the last 50 years, an alternative designed to replace traditional methods of extraction using organic solvents. To extract the oil using an AEP, the use of specific enzymes, able to hydrolyze some or all components of seeds, can significantly increase the yields of extraction. Hydrolyzing the different constituents of cell walls (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, proteins, etc., enzymes are able to enhance the liberation of the oil. A number of physico-chemical parameters must also be considered for the better expression of the enzymatic mixture, while maintaining the quality of oils and meals. This article presents the various factors influencing the release of oil in aqueous media and the main results obtained by this process on various substrates.

  3. Lycopene overproduction and in situ extraction in organic-aqueous culture systems using a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Jara, Julia; de Diego, Teresa; Del Real, Álvaro; Écija-Conesa, Ana; Manjón, Arturo; Cánovas, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Lycopene is an import ant compound with an increasing industrial value. However, there is still no biotechnological process to obtain it. In this study, a semi-continuous system for lycopene extraction from recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 cells is proposed. A two-phase culture mode using organic solvents was found to maximize lycopene production through in situ extraction from cells. Within the reactor, three phases were formed during the process: an aqueous phase containing the recombinant E. coli, an interphase, and an organic phase. Lycopene was extracted from the cells to both the interphase and the organic phase and, consequently, thus enhancing its production. Maximum lycopene production (74.71 ± 3.74 mg L(-1)) was obtained for an octane-aqueous culture system using the E. coli BL21LF strain, a process that doubled the level obtained in the control aqueous culture. Study of the interphase by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the proteo-lipidic nature and the high storage capacity of lycopene. Moreover, a cell viability test by flow cytometry (CF) after 24 h of culture indicated that 24 % of the population could be re-used. Therefore, a batch series reactor was designed for semi-continuous lycopene extraction. After five cycles of operation (120 h), lycopene production was similar to that obtained in the control aqueous medium. A final specific lycopene yield of up to 49.70 ± 2.48 mg g(-1) was reached at 24 h, which represents to the highest titer to date. In conclusion, the aqueous-organic semi-continuous culture system proposed is the first designed for lycopene extraction, representing an important breakthrough in the development of a competitive biotechnological process for lycopene production and extraction.

  4. Chromatographic and Spectral Analysis of Two Main Extractable Compounds Present in Aqueous Extracts of Laminated Aluminum Foil Used for Protecting LDPE-Filled Drug Vials

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    Samuel O. Akapo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated aluminum foils are increasingly being used to protect drug products packaged in semipermeable containers (e.g., low-density polyethylene (LDPE from degradation and/or evaporation. The direct contact of such materials with primary packaging containers may potentially lead to adulteration of the drug product by extractable or leachable compounds present in the closure system. In this paper, we described a simple and reliable HPLC method for analysis of an aqueous extract of laminated aluminum foil overwrap used for packaging LDPE vials filled with aqueous pharmaceutical formulations. By means of combined HPLC-UV, GC/MS, LC/MS/MS, and NMR spectroscopy, the two major compounds detected in the aqueous extracts of the representative commercial overwraps were identified as cyclic oligomers with molecular weights of 452 and 472 and are possibly formed from poly-condensation of the adhesive components, namely, isophthalic acid, adipic acid, and diethylene glycol. Lower molecular weight compounds that might be associated with the “building blocks” of these compounds were not detected in the aqueous extracts.

  5. Lycopene overproduction and in situ extraction in organic-aqueous culture systems using a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego-Jara, Julia; de Diego, Teresa; del Real, Álvaro; Écija-Conesa, Ana; Manjón, Arturo; Cánovas, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene is an import ant compound with an increasing industrial value. However, there is still no biotechnological process to obtain it. In this study, a semi-continuous system for lycopene extraction from recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 cells is proposed. A two-phase culture mode using organic solvents was found to maximize lycopene production through in situ extraction from cells. Within the reactor, three phases were formed during the process: an aqueous phase containing the recombinant...

  6. RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH A TRIISOOCTYLAMINE DILUENT SYSTEM

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    G. Malmary

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary alkylamines in solution with organic diluents are attractive extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous phases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for extraction of organic acids from water by a long-chain aliphatic tertiary amine. In order to attain this objective, we studied the liquid-liquid equilibria between the triisooctylamine + 1-octanol + n-heptane system as solvent and an aqueous solution of an individual carboxylic acid such as citric, lactic and malic acids. The experiments showed that the partition coefficient for a particular organic acid depends on the kind of solute, notably when the acid concentration in the aqueous phase is low. A mathematical model, where both chemical association and physical distribution are taken into consideration, is proposed. The model suggests that the various complexes obtained between amine and organic acids contribute to the distribution of the solute between the coexisting phases in equilibrium.

  7. Catechin-based procyanidins from Peumus boldus Mol. aqueous extract inhibit Helicobacter pylori urease and adherence to adenocarcinoma gastric cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastene, Edgar; Parada, Víctor; Avello, Marcia; Ruiz, Antonieta; García, Apolinaria

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of an aqueous extract from dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae) was evaluated. This extract displayed high inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease. Therefore, in order to clarify the type of substances responsible for such effect, a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy was carried out. The active compounds in the fractions were characterized through different chromatographic methods (RP-HPLC; HILIC-HPLC). The fraction named F5 (mDP = 7.8) from aqueous extract was the most active against H. pylori urease with an IC50  = 15.9 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL. HPLC analysis evidenced that F5 was composed mainly by catechin-derived proanthocyanidins (LC-MS and phloroglucinolysis). The anti-adherent effect of boldo was assessed by co-culture of H. pylori and AGS cells. Both the aqueous extract and F5 showed an anti-adherent effect in a concentration-dependent manner. An 89.3% of inhibition was reached at 2.0 mg GAE/mL of boldo extract. In conjunction, our results suggest that boldo extract has a potent anti-urease activity and anti-adherent effect against H. pylori, properties directly linked with the presence of catechin-derived proanthocyanidins.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Pentatropis capensis Linn. f. (Bullock

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    Saikat Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The observed effects were comparable with the standard drug-treated group thus demonstrating effective central analgesic and acute anti-inflammatory potentials of the P. capensis leaves aqueous extract and the observations substantiate its folklore use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  9. ISOLATION OF 12, 13-DIHYDRO-20, 20-DIHYDRO LUPEOL FROM THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM SEEDS.

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    Biradar Sanjivkumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to isolate phytoconstituets of aqueous extract pf Aesculus hippocastanum seeds. One compound was isolated from Aesculus hippocastanum by column chromatography method. The spectral analysis revealed the isolated compound as 12, 13-dihydro-20, 20-dihydro lupeol and is belongs to saponins.

  10. The effect of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract on acute non-inflammatory diarrhea in 1-5 year old children

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    Khoshdel Abofazl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. The most common complication of acute diarrhea is dehydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract in controlling non-inflammatory diarrhea in a hospital setting. Methods: In this case–controlled randomized double blind clinical trial 80 children in age range of 1-5 years were admitted in pediatric ward with diagnosis of non-inflammatory diarrhea. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 40 cases. The subject in the first group received aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract, 1.2 ml/Kg single dose for 4 days duration and the second group (control group 1.2 cm/Kg distilled water single dose for 4 days duration. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square and t-tests, using SPSS software. Results: The groups were similar regarding gender, mean age, and frequency, and consistency of defecation (p> 0.05. Although the children seemed better in regard to frequency and consistency of defecation, however the results showed that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not significantly effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the use of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea in children.

  11. Acute toxicity of the aqueous-methanolic Moringa oleifera (Lam leaf extract on female Wistar albino rats

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    Mitchel O. Okumu

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Based on these results, the LD50 of the AQ-ME MO leaf extract was found to be >2000 mg/kg in female wistar albino rats. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Aqueous-methanol, Wistar rats, OECD 425, Biochemical assays, Liver [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1856-1861

  12. Recovery of acetic acid from an aqueous pyrolysis oil phase by reactive extraction using tri-n-octylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasrendra, C. B.; Girisuta, B.; van de Bovenkamp, H. H.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Leijenhorst, E. J.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Windt, M.; Meier, D.; Heeres, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    The application of reactive extraction to isolate organic acids, particularly acetic acid, from the aqueous stream of phase splitted pyrolysis oil using a long chain aliphatic tertiary amine is reported. Acetic acid recovery was optimized by selecting the proper amine and diluent combination and adj

  13. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

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    Roberto Robson Borges-dos-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n=12: negative control (G1 (untreated, positive control (G2 (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w., and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP. Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC, hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P<0.05. An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P<0.05, during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition.

  14. Neuropharmacological effects of standardized aqueous stem bark extract of Parkia biglobossa in Wistar rats

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    Tijani Adeniyi Yahaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parkia biglobossa stem bark decoction is a popular medicinal plant preparation used as calming agent for tensed patients in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Parkia biglobossa (AEPB and its active fraction AEPBF3 on anxiety, spontaneous alternation behavior, and locomotor activity. The open field apparatus was used to evaluate effects of AEPB and AEPBF3 on locomotion.The APBE and the  active fraction AEPBF3 were standardized using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography to establish finger print to ascertain identity and stability of the extracts over time. Materials and Methods: The oral median lethal doses (LD50 of AEPB and AEPBF3 were evaluated using modified Lorke’s method in rats. The  effect of APBE (50-200 mg/kg p.o., APBEF3 (25 and 50 mg/kg p.o., diazepam (2.5 mg/kg, i.p., and 10 ml normal saline/kg on anxiety-like behavior, spontaneous alternation behavior, and locomotion activity were evaluated in rats on elevated plus maze (EPM, Zero-maze, Y-maze, and open field apparatus, respectively. The oral LD50 values of AEPB and AEPBF3 were estimated to be 5000 mg/kg and 3800 mg/kg body weight in rats, respectively. Results: AEPB and AEPBF3 significantly (F6, 41=2342, p

  15. DNA repair enhancement of aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa in a human volunteer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Y; Li, L; Holmgren, K; Pero, R W

    2001-07-01

    The Uncaria tomentosa water extracts (C-Med-100) have been shown to enhance DNA repair, mitogenic response and leukocyte recovery after chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in vivo. In this study, the effect of C-Med-100 supplement was evaluated in a human volunteer study. Twelve apparently healthy adults working in the same environment were randomly assigned into 3 groups with age and gender matched. One group was daily supplemented with a 250 mg tablet containing an aqueous extract of Uncaria tomentosa of C-Med-100, and another group with a 350 mg tablet, for 8 consecutive weeks. DNA repair after induction of DNA damage by a standard dose of hydrogen peroxide was measured 3 times before supplement and 3 times after the supplement for the last 3 weeks of the 8 week-supplement period. There were no drug-related toxic responses to C-Med-100 supplement when judged in terms of clinical symptoms, serum clinical chemistry, whole blood analysis and leukocyte differential counts. There was a statistically significant decrease of DNA damage and a concomitant increase of DNA repair in the supplement groups (250 and 350 mg/day) when compared with non-supplemented controls (p < 0.05). There was also an increased tendency of PHA induced lymphocyte proliferation in the treatment groups. Taken together, this trial has confirmed the earlier results obtained in the rat model when estimating DNA repair enhancement by C-Med-100.

  16. ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DENDROCNIDE SINUATA (BLUME CHEW

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    Binita Angom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous root extracts of Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume Chew (AEDS in Swiss albino mice and wistar rats. The animals were orally administered AEDS at doses 30 and 100 mgkg-1 (p.o. For analgesic study, acetic acid-induced Writhing test, Eddy’s hot plate and Tail Flick model was performed in mice. For antiinflammatory study, carrageen-induced paw edema study was performed in rats. In acetic acid induced model, effect of AEDS was comparable with the standard meloxicam 10 mgkg-1 (i.p. In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 30 min at a dose of 100 mgkg-1 (p.o which was comparable with the standard Pentazocine 10 mgkg-1 (p.o, whereas in the tail flick model no significant changes were observed. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, administration of AEDS showed significant (P < 0.05 dose dependent inhibition of edema formation. AEDS was effective in both narcotic and non-narcotic models of analgesia. It also showed a significant dose-dependent increase in antiedematogenic activity which revealed good peripheral anti-inflammatory properties of the extract.

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Dillenia indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Arghya; Gadewar, Manoj; Sharma, Pragya; Deka, Manab; Bora, Utpal

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report a novel method of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis using aqueous fruit extract of Dillenia indica. The phytochemicals present in the fruit extract act as an effective reducing and capping agent to synthesize AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized by spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. TEM studies revealed the particles of various sizes and mainly spherical in shape. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images confirmed the crystallinity of the particles. The XRD patterns showed peaks at (111), (200), (220) which exhibited preferential orientation of the AuNPs as face-centered cubic crystal. FTIR measurements confirmed the coating of phenolic compounds on the AuNPs indicating a possible role of biomolecules for the capping and efficient stabilization of the AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs did not show any form of cytotoxicity in the normal fibroblast cell line L929.

  18. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuji; Tang, Jingcheng; Zhu, Haimei; Jiang, Xueyun; Liu, Jiawang; Xu, Wenyun; Ma, Haiping; Feng, Qiqi; Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL) inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/(-)electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 μM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis.

  19. Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia

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    Bentolhoda Mousavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus L., which has the potentials to play a role in the treatment of many diseases. Although many researches are now going on this precious spice, there are few data on saffron safety in human, especially in patients with chronic mental illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of both saffron and crocin (its major constituent in adult patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: The capsules of saffron aqueous extract (SAE and crocin were used to evaluate short-term safety and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on patients with schizophrenia. The patients were all male and were divided into three 22-patient groups. While receiving their normal treatment, they also received a 12 week treatment with SAE (15 mg twice daily, crocin (15 mg twice daily or placebo. Results: A total of 61 patients completed the trial; none of them reported a serious side effect. WBC count increased significantly in patients receiving saffron aqua extract (SAE, but it was within the normal range and had no clinical significance. Other hematologic components, markers of thyroid, liver and kidney or inflammation markers had no statistically significant difference among the groups. Conclusions: This study showed that SAE and crocin in doses of 15 mg twice daily were safely tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activities using aqueous Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Bo; Tang, Ren-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    An eco-friendly approach for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using aqueous Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract was investigated. The reduction of silver ions in solution was monitored using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs at 435 nm was observed. The proper condition to biosynthesize AgNPs using E. japonica leaf extract was optimized by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurement (DLS). The biosynthesised nanoparticles were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), DLS, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD and EDX analyses confirmed the crystalline character of AgNPs and the presence of elemental silver. The prepared AgNPs were spherical in shape, and their average particle size determined by TEM was about 20 nm. Furthermore the AgNPs were found to exhibit effective antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Enhanced biocidal activities of Citrullus colocynthis aqueous extracts by green nanotechnology

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    A. M. Shawky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles is an attractive research area for their divers and potential implications in the field of nanomedicine. Recently, production of nanoparticles by biosynthetic method employing live plant or plant extract has emerged a simple and viable alternative to traditional methods. In the present study the biocidal; antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and larvicidal activities of greenly synthesized silver nanoparticles (SNPs in aqueous extracts (AEs of Citrullus colocynthis were investigated. SNPs Formed in C. colocynthis AEs were spherical and homogenous and their average mean sizes were 19.267 nm, 16.578 nm, 13.376.nm and 7.398 nm in AEs of fruits, seeds, leaves and roots respectively. The biosynthesized SNPs greatly enhanced the activities of C. colocynthis AEs. It showed  a significant inhibitory action against different bacterial species; Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes; antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Geotricum candidum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with inhibition zones ranging from 15.1 ± 0.44 to 25.2 ± 0.37 mm. Transmitted electron microscopic (TEM analysis of the morphological changes in S. aureus and E. coli cells revealed SNPs aggregated and located non-specifically on the cell wall, also, SNPs were seen within the cell wall or the cell of bacteria. The cells became severely distorted and disrupted showing a bactericidal action. Interestingly, a size dependence of SNPs' antiviral activity was observed. We found that the SNPs/ C. colocynthis roots AEs showed the strongest antiviral activity causing 70%, 73% and 75% reduction of the Cytopathic effect (CPE of hepatitis A virus, Herpes simplex virus type I and Herpes simplex virus type II respectively. Also, the SNPs/C. colocynthis showed a significant larvicidal activity against the 3

  2. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Oily Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Aqueous Extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats

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    Richard Zapata Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are the most common parasites found in ruminants in the world. These parasites cause parasitic gastroenteritis and have a negative effect on productivity. Nematode control has been based on the use of anthelmintic chemicals—against which nematodes have developed a certain degree of resistance—which have been rated as residual substances in goat products that may cause adverse effects on the final consumer. As a result, the study of plant components has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to control nematodosis in goats. The anthelmintic potential of aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and oily extracts of Azadirachta indica on gastrointestinal nematodes affecting the goat chain was evaluated in vitro in this study. Nematicidal activity tests were performed on stool samples from goats with a high parasite load (trichostrongyles, by performing dose/ response curves. Percent inhibition in egg hatch for the aqueous extract of N. tabacum and the oily extract of A. indica was 99% and 80%, respectively. Extracts showed an effect on larva 3 (infective stage, with a mean lethal time of 8 ± 1 minutes for extracts of N. Tabacum, and of 8 ± 1 minutes for extract of A. indica. The in vitro results of the nematicidal activity show that N. tabacum and A. indica extracts can be a promising alternative for controlling nematodes in ruminants.

  3. Aqueous root extract ofLecaniodiscus cupanioides restores the alterations in testicular parameters of sexually impaired male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quadri O Nurudeen; Taofeek O Ajiboye

    2012-01-01

    Objective:This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous root extract ofLecaniodiscus cupanioides (L.cupanioides)on the alterations in the testicular parameters of paroxetine-treated rats.Methods:Group A rats which is the control received distilled water orally for 5 d. Groups B, C, D, E and F consisted of paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction rats. In addition, Groups C, D, E and F rats were orally treated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract and 7.14 mg/kg body weight of PowMax once daily for 5 d respectively.Results:Paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction resulted into significant (P<0.05) reduction in the levels of testicular protein, sialic acid, glycogen and cholesterols. These decrease were dose dependently reversed by aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioides. The decrease in the specific activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase in the testes of paroxetine-treated rats were significantly (P<0.05) reversed. Testicular testosterone level decreased significantly (P<0.05) in sexually impaired rats. This decrease was significantly prevented by aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioides. All these alterations brought about by the administration of the extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) compared significantly (P<0.05) with the reference drug, while the 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract compared significantly (P<0.05) with the control.Conclusions:The results of this study showed that aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioidesrestored the alterations in the testicular function parameters of sexually impaired rats. Thus supporting the use of the plants in the management of sexual dysfunction in the folkloric medicine of Nigeria.

  4. Solvent extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous chloride medium using carbamoyl-carboxylic acid extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reyhaneh Safarbali; Mohammad Reza Yaftian; Abbasali Zamani

    2016-01-01

    N,N-dibutyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) and N,N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) were synthesized and characterized by con-ventional spectroscopic methods. These molecules were examined as extractants for extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III), as representative ions of light, middle and heavy rare earths, from aqueous chloride solutions. The analysis of the extraction equilibria revealed that the extracted species of lanthanum and europium ions by both of the extractants had a 1:3 metal to ligand ratio. It was suggested that erbium ions were extracted into the organic phase via the formation of Er(LI or I)2Cl complexes. The effect of the organic diluents on the extraction-separation efficiency of the studied rare earths by HLI and HLI was investigated by comparing the results obtained in dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride. Regardless to the diluent used, the order of selectivity presented by the investigated extractants was Er(III)>Eu(III)>La(III). It is noteworthy that, a significant enhancement in separation of the studied rare earths by the extractants was achieved in their competitive extraction experiments with respect to that obtained in single component extraction experiments. Applicability of the extractants for the removal of rare earth ions from spent Ni-MH batteries was tested by removal of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from simulated leach solution of such batteries.

  5. Wound healing activity of aqueous extract ofCrotalaria verrucosa in Wistar albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meena Kumari; Eesha BR; Mohanbabu Amberkar; Sarath babu; Rajshekar; Neelesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the wound healing effect of aqueous extract ofCrotalaria verrucosa (C. verrucosa) in rats.Methods: Three wound models including incision, excision and dead space wounds were used in this study. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision models, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in dead space wounds, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelialization in excision wound model.Results: Two doses of the extract with and without dexamethasone showed significant increases in mean hydroxyproline, total protein content and dry weight of granulation tissue but it was higher with dose800 mg/kg comparing with the control. The dexamethasone treated group showed a significant(P<0.001) reduction in the wound breaking strength when compared to control group in incision type of wound model. Coadministration ofC. verrucosa with dexamethasone significantly(P<0.001) increased the breaking strength compared to the dexamethasone treated only group. In excision wound model, the percentage of the wound contraction was significantly(P<0.01)increased by two doses of test extract on all the days except the lower dose which exhibited only on12th,16th days of drug treatment and it also reversed the dexamethasone suppressed wound contraction. It significantly (P<0.001) reduced the time required for epithelialization and reversed the epithelialization delaying effect of dexamethasone (P<0.001).Conclusions:C. verrucosawas found to possess significant wound healing property. This was evident by decrease in the period of epithelialization, increase in the rate of wound contraction, skin breaking strength, and granulation tissue dry weight content. HenceC. verrucosa could be a good wound healing agent.

  6. Effect of aqueous extract of Rheum ribes on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat

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    Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Rheum ribes extract prevents cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups: Group A considered as control group, group B were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg B.W. for 3 alternative days, and group C further to cisplatin received the aqueous extract of Rheum ribes (150 mg/rat. Results: Blood urea nitrogen (BUN level increased in group B on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 ( P < 0.001; it was also increased in group B vs. group A on day 14 ( P < 0.001. Rheum ribes extract decreased the serum BUN level on day 14 compared to group B ( P < 0.001. Serum creatinine level in group B had a similar profile as serum BUN level but Rheum ribes had no effect on blood creatinine level. Serum cholesterol level was increased in group B on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 ( P < 0.001. Also, cholesterol level was significantly increased in group B when compared to group A on day 14 ( P < 0.001. Rheum ribes decreased the blood cholesterol level on day 42 in comparison to group B ( P < 0.001. Serum glucose level was increased in group B on days 14 and 42 vs. day 0 ( P < 0.001. Also, glucose level was significantly increased in group B when compared to group A on day 42 ( P < 0.001. Rheum ribes increased the serum glucose level on days 14 and 42 compared to day 0 ( P < 0.05. Histology of kidneys exposed to cisplatin showed renal injury, but Rheum ribes had no effect on the kidney architecture. Conclusion: Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was confirmed in our study. Although Rheum ribes had some effects on biochemical parameters; its effect on renal histology in injured kidney was insignificant.

  7. Evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic activity in an Aqueous Extract obtained from Bauhinia forficata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Christina Costa Mazzeo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia forficata Link, popularly known as pata-de-vaca, unha-de-vaca, casco-de-vaca, has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. Leaves of B. forficata are used in popular medicine as a diuretic, hypoglycemic, tonic and cleanser, and to combat elephantiasis. However, despite the wide range of ethnopharmacological data surrounding the plant, there are no scientific data demonstrating a probable anti-ulcerogenic activity conferred by use of that species. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiulcer properties of an infusion of fresh leaves of B. forficata Link. From the leaves of B. forficata, an Aqueous extract (AqE was obtained and the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonols in this extract. In the gastric ulcer induced by administration of HCl-Ethanol model performed with four different doses of AqE (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg.Kg-1, the AqE showed significant preventive activity (*p<0.01 at doses of 1000 mg.Kg-1. The antiulcer activity of AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 could also be demonstrated in experimental models of NSAID-bethanechol (**p<0.001 and absolute ethanol (**p<0.001. Moreover, AqE (1000 mg.Kg-1 promoted a significant increase (**p<0.001 in the amount of gastric mucus. The data presented here demonstrated the potential gastroprotective activity from AqE, possibly attributed to the presence of flavonols in this extract. These results may serve as a support for the development of new treatments related to the pathology of gastric ulcer.Keywords: Gastric ulcer. Cytoprotection. Flavonoids. Bauhinia forficata.  

  8. Aqueous extract ofOcimum gratissimum Linn and ascorbic acid ameliorate nicotine-induced cellular damage in murine peritoneal macrophage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Somenath Roy

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To test thein vitro protective role of aqueous extract ofOcimum gratissimumLinn. (O. gratissimum) and ascorbic acid against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage. Methods: Peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10mM), nicotine (10 mM) with aqueous extract ofO. gratissimum (1 to25 μg/mL), and nicotine (10 mM) with ascorbic acid (0.01 mM) for12h in cell culture media, while the control group was treated with culture media. Levels of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels andDNA damage were observed and compared.Results:Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract has shown high amount of phenolics and flavonoids compound present in it. The significantly increased free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels andDNA damage were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to the control group; those were significantly reduced in aqueous extract ofO. gratissimum and ascorbic acid supplemented groups. Moreover, significantly reduced antioxidant status in nicotine exposed murine peritoneal macrophage was effectively ameliorated by these two products. Among the different concentration of aqueous extract ofO. gratissimum, the maximum protective effect was observed at 10 μg/mL which does not produce any significant change in the normal cell.Conclusions:These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role ofO. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced cellular damage in murine peritoneal macrophage.

  9. Ethanopharmacological study of the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ismaiel Ali-Abd Alrheam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropisprocera is a member of the plant family Asclepiadaceae, a shrub about 6m high and is widely distributed in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to show some medicinal potentials and biological activity of Calotropisprocera and to discover new natural, safe and effective materials available in the Saudi Arabia environment. Marerial and Methods:The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocerawere investigated for its anti-hyperglycemic effect in Male Wister Albino rats. Diabetes was induced by administration of single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg, I.P. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats as follows: Group I : Normal control, Group II: Diabetic control, Group III: Diabetic rats given Glibenclamide 600 and #956;g/kg, Group IV: Diabetic rats given aqueous leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group V: Diabetic rats given chloroform leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VI: Diabetic rats given ethanol leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VII: Diabetic rats given latex of C. procera200mg/kg b. wt.The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera were administered as single dose per day to diabetes-induced rats for a period of 15 days.The effect of C. proceraon blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile (Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density, and high density lipoprotein also were measured. The activities were also compared to that effect produced by a standard anti-diabetic agent, glibenclamide 500 and #956;g/kg. Results and Discussion:The results showed a significant decrease in the mean level of blood glucose and serum cholesterol, Triglycrides, HDL, LDL. Calotropisprocera appears to be a rich source of phytoconstituents that activate and inhence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the

  10. Matrix supported tailored polymer for solid phase extraction of fluoride from variety of aqueous streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Wagh, D.N. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Das, Sadananda; Pandey, Ashok K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumar, Sangita D., E-mail: sangdk@barc.gov.in [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Reddy, A.V.R. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2012-01-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Th complexed with poly (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]phosphate) as tailored polymer membranes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membranes offered high capacity and selectivity for fluoride in aqueous media. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative uptake (80 {+-} 5%) of fluoride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast sorption kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reusability of polymer membranes. - Abstract: Fluoride related health hazards (fluorosis) are a major environmental problem in many regions of the world. It affects teeth; skeleton and its accumulation over a long period can lead to changes in the DNA structure. It is thus absolutely essential to bring down the fluoride levels to acceptable limits. Here, we present a new inorganic-organic hybrid polymer sorbent having tailored fixed-sites for fluoride sorption. The matrix supported poly (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl]phosphate) was prepared by photo-initiator induced graft-polymerization in fibrous and microporous (sheet) host poly(propylene) substrates. These substrates were conditioned for selective fluoride sorption by forming thorium complex with phosphate groups on bis[2-methacryloyloxy)-ethyl] phosphate (MEP). These tailored sorbents were studied for their selectivity towards fluoride in aqueous media having different chemical conditions. The fibrous sorbent was found to take up fluoride with a faster rate (15 min for Almost-Equal-To 76% sorption) than the sheet sorbent. But, the fluoride loading capacity of sheet sorbent (4320 mg kg{sup -1}), was higher than fibrous and any other sorbent reported in the literature so far. The sorbent developed in the present work was found to be reusable after desorption of fluoride using NaOH solution. It was tested for solid phase extraction of fluoride from natural water samples.

  11. Investigation on the extraction of strontium ions from aqueous phase using crown ether-ionic liquid systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of strontium ions using DCH18C6 as the extractant and various ionic liquids(ILs) as solvents has been investigated.The distribution ratio of Sr2+ can reach as high as 103 under certain conditions,much larger than that in DCH18C6/n-octanol system.The extraction capacity depends greatly on the structure of ionic liquids.In Ils-based extraction systems,the extraction efficiency of strontium ions is reduced by increasing the concentration of nitric acid and can also be influenced directly by the presence of Na+ and K+ in the aqueous phase.It is confirmed that the extraction proceeds mainly via a cation-exchange mechanism.

  12. Investigation on the extraction of strontium ions from aqueous phase using crown ether-ionic liquid systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chao; SHEN XingHai; CHEN QingDe; GAO HongCheng

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of strontium ions using DCH18C6 as the extractant and various ionic liquids (Ils) as solvents has been investigated.The distribution ratio of Sr~(2+) can reach as high as 10~3 under certain conditions,much larger than that in DCH18C6/n-octanol system.The extraction capacity depends greatly on the structure of ionic liquids.In Ils-based extraction systems,the extraction efficiency of strontium ions is reduced by increasing the concentration of nitric acid and can also be influenced directly by the presence of Na~+ and K~+ in the aqueous phase.It is confirmed that the extraction proceeds mainly via a cation-exchange mechanism.

  13. Efficient and eco-friendly extraction of corn germ oil using aqueous ethanol solution assisted by steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Yang, Ruijin

    2016-04-01

    An improved aqueous extraction method has been established for extraction of oil from corn germs. This method primarily included steam explosion pretreatment and aqueous ethanol extraction. Process variables such as steam pressure, resident time, particle size and ethanol concentration were investigated. The highest yield of 93.74 % was obtained when ground steam-exploded corn germ (1.3 MPa, 30 s, 30-35 μm particle size) was treated with 30 % (v/v) aqueous ethanol for 2 h, at 60 °C and pH 9.0. The residual oil content in water and sediment phase decreased dramatically to 4 % and 3 %, respectively. The enhancement mechanism of the process induced by steam explosion was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The quality of extracted crude oil was also investigated. The results showed that the quality of extracted oil was superior to commercial oils.

  14. In vitro vasodilatory effect of aqueous leaf extract of Thymus serrulatus on thoracic aorta of Guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bekesho; Geleta; Mebrahtu; Eyasu; Selamu; Kebamo; Asfaw; Debella; Eyasu; Makonnen; Abiy; Abebe

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the vasodilatory effecl of Thymus serrulatus(T.serrulatus) aqueous leaf extract on KCl(high K~+.80 mmol/L) induced precontracted isolated thoracic aorta rings on guinea pigs and the role of aorta endothelium on this action.Methods:Guinea pig thoracic aorta was removed and placed in an organ bath containing Krebs-Henseleit solution and aorta contractions were recorded isometrically.Results:The results revealed that T.serrulalus aqueous leaf extract(0.5-5 mg/mL)significantly(P<0.001) reduced KCl-induced contractions of guinea pig thoracic aorta in both intact(n=5) and denuded(n=5) endothelium in a concentration dependent manner,and the vasodilatory effect of the extract on intact endothelium was significantly(P<0.05) higher than that on denuded endothelium.Glibenclamide(10 μmol/L) significantly(P<0.001) increased the vasodilatory effect of extract in intact endothelium as compared to methylene blue(10μmol/L).atropine(10 μmol/L) and indomethacin(10 μmol/L).The effecl was more obvious on intact than that on denuded endothelium.Conclusions:The present findings demonstrate that T.serrulalus aqueous leaf extract has vasodilator)’ activity which might result in antihypertensive effect and its vasodilatory effect is endothelium-dependent.This might support the traditional claim of the plant in hypertensive.

  15. Determination of aromatic amines in aqueous extracts of polyurethane foam using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddar Johnson, Jakob, E-mail: jakob.riddarjohnson@anchem.su.se [Work Environment Chemistry, Stockholm University, P.O. Box 460, 281 24 Haessleholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Daniel; Dalene, Marianne; Skarping, Gunnar [Work Environment Chemistry, Stockholm University, P.O. Box 460, 281 24 Haessleholm (Sweden)

    2010-09-23

    A method is presented for the determination of aromatic amines in aqueous extracts of polyurethane (PUR) foam. The method is based on the extraction of PUR foam using aqueous acetic acid (0.1%, w/v) followed by determination of extracted aromatic amines using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with positive electrospray ionisation. The injections of volumes up to 5 {mu}L of aqueous solutions were made possible by on-column focusing with partially filled loop injections. The fragmentation patterns for 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diamine (TDA) and 4,4'-methylene dianiline (MDA) were clarified by performing a hydrogen-deuterium exchange study. TDA and MDA were determined using trideuterated 2,4- and 2,6-TDA and dideuterated 4,4'-MDA as internal standards. Linear calibration graphs were obtained over the range 0.025-0.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1} with correlation coefficients >0.996 and the instrumental detection limit for each compound was <50 fmol. The stability of the amines was influenced by the matrix, so their concentrations decreased over time. Agreement was observed between the results of analyses of PUR foam extracts by HILIC-MS/MS and results obtained by ethyl chloroformate derivatisation and reversed phase (RP) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). TDA was observed to be unstable in extracts of foam but not in pure solutions.

  16. Acute Toxicity and Determination of the Active Constituents of Aqueous Extract of Uncaria tomentosa Bark in Hyphessobrycon eques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis Aguinaga, Jefferson; Claudiano, Gustavo S; Marcusso, Paulo F; Ikefuti, Cynthia; Ortega, George G; Eto, Silas F; da Cruz, Claudinei; Moraes, Juliet R E; Moraes, Flávio R; Fernandes, João B K

    2014-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine by Amazon tribes. In this study the constituents of aqueous extract of U. tomentosa bark were quantified by chromatographic technique and its lethal concentration 50 (48 h) in Hyphessobrycon eques was determined. The chromatography showed high levels of oxindole alkaloids, quinovic acid glycosides, and low molecular weight polyphenols. The CL50 48 h was 1816 mg/L. Fish showed behavior changes at concentrations above 2000 mg/L, accompanied by a significant decrease of dissolved oxygen. At the highest concentration 100% mortality was observed attributed to oxygen reduction by the amount of oxindole alkaloids, polyphenols accumulation of the extract in the gills, and the interaction of these compounds with dopamine. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of U. tomentosa did not alter the chemical components and it was shown that U. tomentosa has low toxicity to H. eques; therefore, it can be used safely in this species.

  17. Therapeutic efficacies of Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract against metronidazole-induced genotoxicity in Channa punctatus peripheral erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talapatra, Soumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Subham; Guha, Gunjan; Auddy, Moumita; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha

    2010-12-01

    Metronidazole (MTZ), a nitroimidazole drug, is primarily used as an anti-protozoan or an anti-bacterial agent in humans, although its genotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been widely reported, particularly in aquatic organisms. MTZ may induce DNA damages through single-strand breaks, modification of bases, DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links, ultimately leading to apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we have assessed the genotoxicity of MTZ in the peripheral erythrocytes of Channa punctatus, using micronucleation (MN) and binucleation (BN) as genotoxicity markers. The therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum against MTZ-induced genotoxicity has also been examined. The results show significant (Psativum leaf extract. Hence, we establish that MTZ can produce considerable degrees of micronucleus and binucleus formation in peripheral erythrocytes of C. punctatus, and such deleterious effect of MTZ treatment can be mitigated by aqueous extract of C. sativum leaves.

  18. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Viola odorata against paracetamol-induced liver injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imran Qadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally Viola odorata is used for liver protection. To provide scientific support to its traditional use, aqueous methanolic extract of V. odorata (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg was given to mice intoxicated with paracetamol. Obtained results demonstrated that the extract significantly (p<0.01-0.001 reduced paracetamol induced increase levels of serum hepatic enzymes and total bilirubin. Histopathological studies showed that the plant attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. HPLC results showed the presence of hepatoprotective flavonoids (isorhamnetin and luteolin in the extract. It was concluded from the present study that V. odorata has hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced liver injury in mice.

  19. Effect of aqueous extract ofMurraya koenigii on haematological, hormonal and lipid proifle of Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushmita Choudhury; Manoranjan Prasad Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of aqueous extract ofMurraya koenigii leaves on some haematological, hormonal and serum lipid parameters in rats. Methods: We evaluated whether oral administration ofMurraya koenigii affected the haematological, hormonal and lipid parameters. After 7 days of oral administration of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight, other profiles were investigated. Results: The results showed that the extract administered significantly increased (P Conclusions: This study suggests that the extracts may have beneficial effect on serum cholesterol concentration, can act as a stimulant to thyroid functions as well as in anemia and immunity dependent disorders and also as a potent contraceptive.

  20. Aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction of four acetophenones from the Chinese medicinal plant Cynanchum bungei Decne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yinshi; Liu, Zhengbo; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Saifei; Li, Baiqing; Xu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction (ILUAE) method for the extraction of the four acetophenones, namely 4-hydroxyacetophenone (1), 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone (2), baishouwubenzophenone (3) and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone (4) from the Chinese medicinal plant Cynanchum bungei was developed. Three kinds of aqueous l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different anion and alkyl chain were investigated. The results indicated that ionic liquids (ILs) showed remarkable effects on the extraction efficiency of acetophenones. In addition, the ILUAE, including several ultrasonic parameters, such as the ILs concentration, solvent to solid ratio, power, particle size, temperature, and extraction time have been optimized. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 0.6M [C(4)MIM]BF(4), solvent to solid ratio of 35:1, power of 175 W, particle size of 60-80 mesh, temperature of 25 ° C and time of 50 min), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of four acetophenones 286.15, 21.65, 632.58 and 205.38 μg/g, respectively. The proposed approach has been evaluated by comparison with the conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE) and regular UAE. The results indicated that ILUAE is an alternative method for extracting acetophenones from C. bungei.

  1. Effect of Aqueous-Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Acacia polyacantha on Blood Glucose Levels on Normoglycemic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Okpanachi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the blood glucose reducing effect (hypoglycemic effect of stem bark extract of Acacia polyacantha on normal wistar rats over a 24 h period. Three groups of previously fasted wistar rats, with each group made up of 5 rats each were administered with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o of aqueous methanolic stem bark extract of A. polyacantha. The hypoglycemic effect of A . polyacantha stem bark aqueous methanolic extract was compared with that of Metformin (250 mg/kg in fasted normal rats. Following treatment, relatively moderate to high doses of A. polyacantha (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. produced a dose-dependent, significant reduction (p<0.05 in blood glucose levels of fasted normal rats. The three doses of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels after 2 h of extract administration. After 8 and 16 h of extract administration at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 decreased the blood glucose levels when compared to control, while the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose levels after 4, 8 and 16 h of extract administration when compared with the control group. The Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids and saponins. The median lethal dose (LD50 in rats was calculated to be 3807.9 mg/kg body weight. In conclusion the aqueous methanolic extract of Acacia polyacantha possesses hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic rats.

  2. Ability of aqueous extract ofPhoenix dactylifera to effectively alleviate paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental Wister albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Ogboma Dania; John Ezerioha

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the preventive, protective and ameliorative activity of the aqueous extract ofPhoenix dactylifera L. (P. dactylifera) against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: A total of 50 male albino rats were used for the study and 2 g/kg body weight of paracetamol and 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract ofP. dactylifera were administered orally for the study. They were divided into 5 groups, namely group A (vehicle control), group B (paracetamol control), group C (preventive), group D (ameliorative) and group E (protective), with 10 rats in each group. Group B was administered with paracetamol for 7 days; group C was administered with the extract for 7 days before administering with paracetamol for 7 days; group D was administered with paracetamol for 7 days, then the extract for 7 days; while group E was administered with paracetamol and the extract simultaneously for 7days. Results:The study revealed that the extracts of date palms contained active chemical compounds such as anthocyanins, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids and flavonoids. The levels of antioxidant enzymes activity such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase were found to be reduced while malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in the paracetamol-treated group. This trend was reversed in groups where the extract was administered, as the antioxidant enzymes level in the liver was raised. Conclusions:This study has shown that the aqueous extract ofP. dactylifera can mitigate the hepatotoxicity effect of paracetamol with a better ameliorating effect than protective or preventive.

  3. Garcinia kola seeds: is the aqueous extract a true aphrodisiac in male Wistar rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Quadri, A L

    2012-01-01

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male rats. Male rats weighing 215.00 ± 18.58 g were randomized completely into four groups (A-D) of six animals each. Animals in group A received, orally, 0.5 ml of distilled water only while those in groups B, C and D received same volume containing 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the seed extract respectively. Frequencies of mount (MF), intromission (IF), genital toilet (GTF) and ejaculation (EF) as well as latencies of mount (ML), intromission (IL) and ejaculation (EL) were evaluated following the pairing of male rats (1:1) with non-oestrous female rats. The parameters were monitored for the first (15-30 min), second (75-90 min) and third (180195 min) observatory periods. The levels of testosterone, luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) were also determined. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of saponins (2.78%), cardiac glycosides (0.26%), cardenolides and dienolides (0.24%), flavonoids (1.28%) and steroids (1.14%). The 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight increased (P<0.05) the MF whereas the ML was decreased by all the doses of the extract. MF and ML were not altered during the second observatory period whereas the 50 mg/kg body weight increased these parameters during the third observatory period. Other sexual behaviour parameters as well as serum testosterone, FSH and LH were not significantly altered throughout the observatory periods. Overall, the results revealed that G. kola seeds did not have sex enhancing potential as claimed. Therefore, the acclaimed pro sexual effect of Garcinia kola seeds is scientifically untrue. This study has refuted the claim that one of the rationales for consuming the seeds

  4. Extraction of formic and acetic acids from aqueous solution by dynamic headspace-needle trap extraction temperature and pH optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Da-Wei; Lee, Xinqing; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-08-08

    A combined method of dynamic headspace-needle trap sample preparation and gas chromatography for the determination of formic and acetic acids in aqueous solution was developed in this study. A needle extraction device coupled with a gas aspirating pump was intended to perform sampling and preconcentration of target compounds from aqueous sample before gas chromatographic analysis. The needle trap extraction (NTE) technique allows for the successful sampling of short chain fatty acids under dynamic conditions while keeping the headspace (HS) volume constant. Two important parameters, including extraction temperature and effect of acidification, have been optimized and evaluated using the needle trap device. The method detection limits for the compounds estimated were 87.2microg/L for acetic acid and 234.8microg/L for formic acid in spite of the low flame ionization detection response for formic acid and its low Henry's law constant in aqueous solution. Precision was determined based on the two real samples and ranged between 4.7 and 10.7%. The validated headspace-needle trap extraction method was also successfully applied to several environmental samples.

  5. Toxicological study on aqueous extract of Allanblackia froribunda (Clusiaceae on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieudonn and eacute; Massoma Lemb and egrave;

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The acute and sub-acute toxic effects of aqueous extract of Allanblackia froribunda (Clusiaceae were studied in rats. Methods: The acute toxicity was carried out orally with 0, 14, 16, 18 and 20 g kg-1 b/w and intraperitoneally with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mg kg-1 body weight, while the subacute was only carried out orally with 0(distilled water, 400, 500 and 600 mg kg-1 b/w for four weeks. Results: In acute test, the oral administration did not cause any death treatment related signs. The LD50 estimated to be 125 mg kg-1 (Intraperitoneal route. We noted a decrease in food, water consumption and body weight of treated animals. Diarrhea occurred in rats at dose 150 mg kg-1. Analysis of serum showed an increase in ALT at dose 50 mg kg-1 (p <0.05 and serum creatinine at doses 50 and 100 mg kg-1 (p <0.05 and p <0.01 respectively while serum proteins decreased at dose 100 mg kg-1 (p <0.001. The histological changes of the main target organs (liver and lung were observed while section of kidney and gonads remained normal (data not shown. In subacute treatment, neither significant difference was observed on body weight, food and water consumption nor organs and haematological parameters. The biochemical analysis showed that the level of ALT dose dependently decreased (p <0.01 at all doses in male and female while tissue creatinine decreased (p <0.05 only in female. Conclusion: These results suggest that the extract does not present danger orally, but parenteral administration is not recommended. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 23-28

  6. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-04-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4.3H2O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  7. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya