WorldWideScience

Sample records for aqueducts

  1. Patency of the cochlear aqueduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muren, C.; Vignaud, J.; Wilbrand, H.; Wilbrand, S.

    The patency of the cochlear aqueduct is discussed against the background of radioanatomic studies of 225 plastic casts of temporal bone specimens and additional experimental and clinical observations. The occasional presence of a wide venous channel running parallel with the cochlear aqueduct, as well as the existence of up to three accompanying venous channels can simulate a pathologically wide cochlear aqueduct radiographically. This could constitute a diagnostic pitfall in the absence of other clinical and radiographic signs of malformation.

  2. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  3. Investigation of the vestibular aqueduct and the cochlear aqueduct by temporal bone CT scan

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    Shimizu, Ryuichi; Kamei, Tamio; Ito, Fumihide (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-02-01

    The visualization of the vestibular aqueduct and the cochlear aqueduct was investigated by temporal bone CT scan. The vestibular aqueduct was visualized in horizontal CT sections of 70.0% of normal ears, 61.5% of ears with chronic otitis media, 58.3% of ears with combined hearing impairment, 66.7% of ears in cases of sudden deafness, 70.8% of ears of patients with sensorineural hearing impairment without sudden deafness, 71.4% of cases of vertigo without hearing impairment and 12.5% of both diseased and contralateral ears of patients with Meniere's disease. Only in Meniere's disease was the vestibular aqueduct less visible in the diseased than in the normal ear (P<0.01). The cochlear aqueduct was visible in coronal sections of 50.0% of normal ears, 76.9% of those with chronic otitis media, 58.3% of those with combined hearing impairment, 66.7% of those with sudden deafness 41.7% of those with sensorineural hearing impairment without sudden deafness, 50.0% of the diseased ears of patients with Meniere's disease, 37.5% of the contralateral ears of those with Meniere's disease and 64.3% of those with vertigo without hearing impairment. Although the cochlear aqueduct was thus highly demonstrable in patients with chronic otitis media or sudden deafness, the difference between the percentage of visualization in these diseased and in normal ears was not statistically significant.

  4. An unusual cause of hydrocephalus: aqueductal developmental venous anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagmurlu, Banu; Fitoz, Suat; Atasoy, Cetin; Erden, ilhan [Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Deda, Gulhis; Unal, Ozlem [Ankara University School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Vascular malformations are infrequent causes of aqueductal stenoses, developmental venous anomaly (DVA) being the rarest among them. DVAs, also known as venous angiomas, are congenital in origin and characterized by dilatation of vessels in the superficial and deep venous system. Although they are usually clinically silent, they can be complicated by hemorrhage, seizures and neurologic deficits. Herein, we report MR imaging findings of a 7-year-old girl whose hydrocephalus was due to an abnormal vein coursing through the aqueduct. (orig.)

  5. Morphological analysis of the vestibular aqueduct by computerized tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Sergio Ricardo [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: sergioanat.morf@epm.br; Smith, Ricardo Luiz [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Isotani, Sadao [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Alonso, Luis Garcia [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Anadao, Carlos Augusto [Otorhinolaryngology Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Prates, Jose Carlos [Morphology and Genetics Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Disciplina de Anatomia Descritiva e Topografica, Rua Botucatu, 740-Edificio Leitao da Cunha, CEP 04023-900, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Image Diagnosis Department, Sao Paulo Federal University-Paulista Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Objective: In the last two decades, advances in the computerized tomography (CT) field revise the internal and medium ear evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the morphology and morphometric aspects of the vestibular aqueduct on the basis of computerized tomography images (CTI). Material and method: Computerized tomography images of vestibular aqueducts were acquired from patients (n = 110) with an age range of 1-92 years. Thereafter, from the vestibular aqueducts images a morphometric analysis was performed. Through a computerized image processing system, the vestibular aqueduct measurements comprised of its area, external opening, length and the distance from the vestibular aqueduct to the internal acoustic meatus. Results: The morphology of the vestibular aqueduct may be funnel-shaped, filiform or tubular and the respective proportions were found to be at 44%, 33% and 22% in children and 21.7%, 53.3% and 25% in adults. The morphometric data showed to be of 4.86 mm{sup 2} of area, 2.24 mm of the external opening, 4.73 mm of length and 11.88 mm of the distance from the vestibular aqueduct to the internal acoustic meatus, in children, and in adults it was of 4.93 mm{sup 2}, 2.09 mm, 4.44 mm, and 11.35 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Computerized tomography showed that the vestibular aqueduct presents high morphological variability. The morphometric analysis showed that the differences found between groups of children and adults or between groups of both genders were not statistically significant.

  6. Vestibular tributaries to the vein of the vestibular aqueduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Marsner; Qvortrup, Klaus; Friis, Morten

    2010-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The vein of the vestibular aqueduct drains blood from areas extensively lined by vestibular dark cells (VDCs). A possible involvement in the pathogenesis of an impaired endolymphatic homeostasis can be envisioned at the level of the dark cells area. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study...... was to investigate the vascular relationship between the vein of the vestibular aqueduct and the vestibular apparatus, with focus on the VDCs. METHODS: Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided into groups of 6 and 10. In the first group, 2 µm thick sections including the vein of the vestibular aqueduct, utricle......, and crista ampullaris of the lateral ampulla were examined by light microscopy and computer-generated three-dimensional imaging. In the second group, ultrathin sections including venules and VDCs were examined by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: A microvascular network was observed in close...

  7. Aqueduct: a methodology to measure and communicate global water risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassert, Francis; Reig, Paul

    2013-04-01

    The Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas (Aqueduct) is a publicly available, global database and interactive tool that maps indicators of water related risks for decision makers worldwide. Aqueduct makes use of the latest geo-statistical modeling techniques to compute a composite index and translate the most recently available hydrological data into practical information on water related risks for companies, investors, and governments alike. Twelve global indicators are grouped into a Water Risk Framework designed in response to the growing concerns from private sector actors around water scarcity, water quality, climate change, and increasing demand for freshwater. The Aqueduct framework organizes indicators into three categories of risk that bring together multiple dimensions of water related risk into comprehensive aggregated scores and includes indicators of water stress, variability in supply, storage, flood, drought, groundwater, water quality and social conflict, addressing both spatial and temporal variation in water hazards. Indicators are selected based on relevance to water users, availability and robustness of global data sources, and expert consultation, and are collected from existing datasets or derived from a Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) based integrated water balance model. Indicators are normalized using a threshold approach, and composite scores are computed using a linear aggregation scheme that allows for dynamic weighting to capture users' unique exposure to water hazards. By providing consistent scores across the globe, the Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas enables rapid comparison across diverse aspects of water risk. Companies can use this information to prioritize actions, investors to leverage financial interest to improve water management, and governments to engage with the private sector to seek solutions for more equitable and sustainable water governance. The Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas enables practical applications of scientific data

  8. Evolution of Cretan Aqueducts and Their Potential for Hydroelectric Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllia G. Nikolaou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, several archaeological, historical and other aspects of aqueducts in Crete, Greece, since the prehistoric times until today, are reviewed and presented. In Crete, since the Minoan era, various water management techniques that are found in modern water technologies were developed and applied. One of the most significant features of the Minoan civilization was the architecture of water supply systems in the palaces and other settlements. These technologies were continued and improved mainly during the Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods and at the same time spread to other towns in the mainland and islands. The aqueduct technologies developed during the Classical and Hellenistic periods were further developed by Romans, mainly by enlarging their application scale (e.g., water bridges. Several paradigms of Cretan aqueducts are considered by which the significance of those technologies for water supply in areas with limited water resources is justified. A brief presentation and discussion of climatic conditions, the karst hydrogeology and the water resources management in Crete is also included. The article also describes the present water management profile of the island, in terms of the water plants, water supply–irrigation networks, and water renewable energy exploitation of dams and water pipelines.

  9. A New Palaeo-environmental Proxy from Roman Aqueducts: What Can We Learn from Calcareous Sinter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmelihindi, G.; Passchier, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Roman aqueducts belong to the greatest engineering structures of the ancient world. Recently, carbonate deposits in the remains of aqueduct bridges and channels were recognized as a new proxy for palaeo-environmental changes. These deposits show similar fabric and lamination characteristics as other types of terrestrial carbonates from caves and rivers such as freshwater tufa, and hot spring deposits like travertine.We present a multi-disciplinary study on calcium carbonate deposits from aqueduct sites in Southern France and Turkey, assisted by monitoring studies at aqueduct water sources in Italy of water composition and recent carbonate growth. The microstructure of the deposits shows considerable variation, even along a single aqueduct, mainly due to different climatic regimes, variations in channel type, aqueduct gradient and water velocity. However, downstream samples of several aqueducts show regular laminations associated with a strong δ18O cyclicity that can be interpreted as an effect of seasonal warming and cooling of water in the aqueduct channel. δ13C isotope curves are more complicated but commonly show antithetic cyclicity to δ18O. Deposits from aqueducts in the eastern Mediterranean, at Aspendos and Patara (Southern Turkey), typically show a regular layering of alternating sparite and micrite, which coincides with δ18O cyclicity. This reflects extreme seasonal cyclicity in temperature and rainfall in southern Turkey. However, deposits from the aqueduct of Cahors (Southern France), have cyclicity in δ18O that shows poor correlation with the microstructure and δ13C. This is probably due to the more variable, less seasonal rainfall patterns in southern France.Carbonate deposits from ancient aqueducts can serve as a high-resolution data source of palaeoclimate, and to determine the number of years the aqueducts functioned. Besides a regular lamination, most deposits also show single, distinct layers that can be a proxy for extreme weather events or

  10. 1000 Years of Usage: The Life Story of a Roman Aqueduct Provides Tectonic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootes, P. M.; Nadeau, M.; Roth, S.; Andersen, N.; Huels, M.; Meghraoui, M.; Sbeinati, R.

    2006-12-01

    The history of the Roman aqueduct of Al Harif, Syria, was reconstructed from information contained in the tufa deposits precipitated on its walls. The aqueduct was placed directly across a branch of the northern extension of the tectonically active Dead Sea Fault System (Missyaf Segment) and its disruption by earth quakes was recorded in its tufa deposits. Today the parts across the fault are offset by 13.5 m. As the aqueduct itself carried the tufa precipitating waters, the tufa precipitating system at the walls is directly dependent on a functioning aqueduct. Any damage to the aqueduct modified the carbonate factory at the walls; destruction of aqueduct sections stopped precipitation completely at those parts, which were cut-off from the water flow. Four tufa cores to bedrock from different sections of the aqueduct were sampled in detail for radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis, following core stratigraphy based on computer X-ray tomography and core sedimentology. From the radiocarbon dates and a climate-stratigraphic correlation of the tufa oxygen isotope records with the Greenland ice cores we derived the following conclusions. The aqueduct was built between BC 64, the Roman conquest of Syria and AD 65 and functioned for approx. thousand years. Two earth quake events seriously damaged the structure and stopped water flow across the fault in AD 600+/-50 and AD 975+/- 75. After the AD 600+/-50 earthquake the aqueduct was repaired; the AD 975+/-75 quake tore apart the aqueduct such that it was never rebuilt. A minor event can be inferred between 100 and 350 AD. After ca. AD 1100 water flow to the aqueduct stopped. In combination with stratigraphic information on tectonic movements from nearby trenches the results imply an earthquake recurrence during the lifetime of the aqueduct of approximately every 300 to 400 years.

  11. Aqueduct: an interactive tool to empower global water risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Paul; Gassert, Francis

    2013-04-01

    The Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas (Aqueduct) is a publicly available, global database and interactive tool that maps indicators of water related risks for decision makers worldwide. Aqueduct makes use of the latest geo-statistical modeling techniques to compute a composite index and translate the most recently available hydrological data into practical information on water related risks for companies, investors, and governments alike. Twelve global indicators are grouped into a Water Risk Framework designed in response to the growing concerns from private sector actors around water scarcity, water quality, climate change, and increasing demand for freshwater. The Aqueduct framework includes indicators of water stress, variability in supply, storage, flood, drought, groundwater, water quality and social conflict, addressing both spatial and temporal variation in water hazards. It organizes indicators into three categories of risk that bring together multiple dimensions of water related risk into comprehensive aggregated scores, which allow for dynamic weighting to capture users' unique exposure to water hazards. All information is compiled into an online, open access platform, from which decision-makers can view indicators, scores, and maps, conduct global risk assessments, and export data and shape files for further analysis. Companies can use this tool to evaluate their exposure to water risks across operations and supply chains, investors to assess water-related risks in their portfolio, and public-sector actors to better understand water security. Additionally, the open nature of the data and maps allow other organizations to build off of this effort with new research, for example in the areas of water-energy or water-food relationships. This presentation will showcase the Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas online tool and the features and functionalities it offers, as well as explain how it can be used for both private and public sector applications. The session will

  12. Do as the Romans: Construct an Aqueduct! Grades 6-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    In this activity, students work with specified materials to create aqueduct components to transport two liters of water across a short distance in the classroom. The goal is to build an aqueduct that will supply Aqueductis, a Roman city, with clean water for private homes, public baths, and glorious fountains. By introducing various ideas and…

  13. Development of Conceptual Designs for the Prevention of Ice Formation in the Proposed Maple River Aqueduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    10 2.3.3 Briare Aqueduct...10 6 Briare Aqueduct (Clair 2006...years Briare Canal, Châtillon-sur- Loire, France 1896 Steel 20 × 7 × 2170 ft 85 ft 40 ft 76 254 Loire River/ Loire to Briare Canals Sluices to

  14. Bilateral macrostomia associated with aqueductal stenosis and glial heterotopias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Ernesto; Petricig, Paola; Peretta, Paola; Cinalli, Giuseppe

    2007-09-01

    We report on an Italian boy, born to normal and nonconsanguineous parents with a prenatal diagnosis of ventriculomegaly and subependymal glial heterotopias. At birth bilateral macrostomia was diagnosed without other evident facial anomalies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed triventricular hydrocephalus and aqueductal stenosis and confirmed the nodules of glial heterotopia. The bilateral macrostomia was surgically corrected with the vermilion square flap method and W-plasty technique and follow up MRI at 6 months showed mild increase of ventricular dilatation without signs of active hydrocephalus. The association between macrostomia and hydrocephalus has been reported only in rare cases of complex malformative syndromes but never with isolated macrostomia.

  15. Rhombencephalosynapsis as a cause of aqueductal stenosis: an under-recognized association in hydrocephalic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States); Grimm, John; Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Rhombencephalosynapsis is a rare genetic aberration characterized by variable vermian hypoplasia/aplasia in conjunction with united cerebellar hemispheres. Genetic defects in the isthmic organizer at the mesencephalic-metencephalic junction are presumably responsible for the associated aqueductal stenosis. We performed a retrospective review of 20 children with rhombencephalosynapsis to evaluate for and emphasize the association of aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus. We retrospectively reviewed the MR and CT images of 20 children (0-11 years old) with rhombencephalosynapsis encountered at two academic children's hospitals. Rhombencephalosynapsis spectrum severity was graded based on pre-existing literature. We analyzed examinations for ventriculomegaly and degree of aqueductal stenosis. The collicular distances were measured from the collicular apices. Imaging studies were also analyzed for malformations of cortical and cerebellar development. Thirteen of the 20 children (65%) with rhombencephalosynapsis presented with clinical or imaging evidence of hydrocephalus and aqueductal stenosis, principally involving the caudal cerebral aqueduct. All children with aqueductal stenosis had collicular fusion. All six children with complete rhombencephalosynapsis had aqueductal stenosis. The cerebral aqueduct varied from normal to stenotic in children with incomplete rhombencephalosynapsis. Corpus callosum dysgenesis was present in four children. Aqueductal stenosis in the setting of rhombencephalosynapsis is an under-recognized cause of noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Our findings support the hypothesis that a defect involving the common gene(s) responsible for the differentiation and development of both the roof plate and midline cerebellar primordium at the mesencephalon/first rhombomere junction may be responsible for the association of aqueductal stenosis and rhombencephalosynapsis. (orig.)

  16. Identification of Historical Veziragasi Aqueduct Using the Operational Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ercan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a model updating study conducted on a historical aqueduct, called Veziragasi, in Turkey. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the structure were used to update a finite element model of the structure. For the purposes of developing a solid model of the structure, the dimensions of the structure, defects, and material degradations in the structure were determined in detail by making a measurement survey. For evaluation of the material properties of the structure, nondestructive and destructive testing methods were applied. The modal analysis of the structure was calculated by FEM. Then, a nondestructive dynamic test as well as operational modal analysis was carried out and dynamic properties were extracted. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were determined from both theoretical and experimental modal analyses and compared with each other. A good harmony was attained between mode shapes, but there were some differences between natural frequencies. The sources of the differences were introduced and the FEM model was updated by changing material parameters and boundary conditions. Finally, the real analytical model of the aqueduct was put forward and the results were discussed.

  17. Identification of Historical Veziragasi Aqueduct Using the Operational Modal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, E.; Nuhoglu, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a model updating study conducted on a historical aqueduct, called Veziragasi, in Turkey. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the structure were used to update a finite element model of the structure. For the purposes of developing a solid model of the structure, the dimensions of the structure, defects, and material degradations in the structure were determined in detail by making a measurement survey. For evaluation of the material properties of the structure, nondestructive and destructive testing methods were applied. The modal analysis of the structure was calculated by FEM. Then, a nondestructive dynamic test as well as operational modal analysis was carried out and dynamic properties were extracted. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were determined from both theoretical and experimental modal analyses and compared with each other. A good harmony was attained between mode shapes, but there were some differences between natural frequencies. The sources of the differences were introduced and the FEM model was updated by changing material parameters and boundary conditions. Finally, the real analytical model of the aqueduct was put forward and the results were discussed. PMID:24511287

  18. Papillary Ependymoma WHO Grade II of the Aqueduct Treated by Endoscopic Tumor Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M. Stark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary ependymoma is a rare tumor that may be located along the ventricular walls or within the spinal cord. We report the case of a 54-year-old patient with a papillary ependymoma WHO grade II arising at the entrance of the aqueduct. The tumor caused hydrocephalus. The tumor was completely removed via a right-sided endoscopic approach with restoration of the aqueduct. The free cerebrospinal fluid passage through the aqueduct was not only visualized by endoscopy but also controlled by intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, an additional endoscopic third ventriculostomy was unneccessary.

  19. Cine-MR imaging aqueductal CSF flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus syndrome before and after CSF shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascalchi, M. (Sezione di Radiodiagnostica, Dipt. di Fisiopatologia Clinica, and Dipt. di Scienze Neurologiche, Florence Univ. (Italy)); Arnetoli, G. (Sezione di Radiodiagnostica, Dipt. di Fisiopatologia Clinica, and Dipt. di Scienze Neurologiche, Florence Univ. (Italy)); Inzitari, D. (Sezione di Radiodiagnostica, Dipt. di Fisiopatologia Clinica, and Dipt. di Scienze Neurologiche, Florence Univ. (Italy)); Dal Pozzo, G. (Sezione di Radiodiagnostica, Dipt. di Fisiopatologia Clinica, and Dipt. di Scienze Neurologiche, Florence Univ. (Italy)); Lolli, F. (Sezione di Radiodiagnostica, Dipt. di Fisiopatologia Clinica, and Dipt. di Scienze Neurologiche, Florence Univ. (Italy)); Caramella, D. (Sezione di Radiodiagnostica, Dipt. di Fisiopatologia Clinica, and Dipt. di Scienze Neurologiche, Florence Univ. (Italy)); Bartolozzi, C. (Sezione di Radiodiagnostica, Dipt. di Fisiopatologia Clinica, and Dipt. di Scienze Neurologiche, Florence Univ. (Italy))

    1993-11-01

    Reproducibility of the aqueductal CSF signal intensity on a gradient echo cine-MR sequence exploiting through plane inflow enhancement was tested in 11 patients with normal or dilated ventricles. Seven patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) syndrome were investigated with the sequence before and after CSF shunting. Two patients exhibiting central flow void within a hyperintense aqueductal CSF improved after surgery and the flow void disappeared after shunting. One patient with increased maximum and minimum aqueductal CSF signal as compared to 18 healthy controls also improved and the aqueductal CSF signal was considerably decreased after shunting. Three patients with aqueductal CSF values similar to those in the controls did not improve, notwithstanding their maximum aqueductal CSF signals decreasing slightly after shunting. No appreciable aqueductal CSF flow related enhancement consistent with non-communicating hydrocephalus was found in the last NPH patient who improved after surgery. Cine-MR with inflow technique yields a reproducible evaluation of flow-related aqueductal CSF signal changes which might help in identifying shunt responsive NPH patients. These are likely to be those with hyperdynamic aqueductal CSF or aqueductal obstruction. (orig.).

  20. Cochlear Implantation in Isolated Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome: Report of Three Cases and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhananga,Rabindra; Natarajan, Kiran; Devarasetty, AmarNath; Kameswaran, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) is characterized by the enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct associated with sensorineural hearing loss. It is the most common radiographically detectable inner ear anomaly in congenital hearing loss. LVAS may occur as an isolated anomaly or in association with other inner ear malformations. Objective To report three cases of isolated LVAS with a focus on preoperative assessment, surgical issues, and short-term postoperative follow-u...

  1. Following Roman waterways from a computer screen: GIS-based approaches to the analysis of Barcino’s aqueducts

    OpenAIRE

    Orengo, Hèctor A.; Miró, Carme

    2011-01-01

    From the 1950's until today the Roman colony of Barcino (modern Barcelona) has been believed to posses two aqueducts. One was transporting water from the Montcada mountains and the other one from the Collserola range. In this article, GIS-based least-cost route analysis (LCR) in combination with more traditional archaeological techniques is applied to analyse these aqueduct’s routes. The results obtained suggest Barcino had only one aqueduct: the one carrying water from Montcada. The aqueduct...

  2. Monitoring invasive quagga mussels, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae, and other benthic organisms in a western US aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mark Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov, 1897 invasion of an aqueduct in Arizona was monitored from 2007 – 2011using colonization substrates. As numbers increased, a filtering-collector caddisfly (Smicridea fasciatella McLachlan, 1871 declinedsignificantly in abundance. After two years of colonization, freshwater sponges were detected and associated with a decline in D. r. bugensisnumbers. Periphyton biomass increased considerably on substrates; perhaps partially, the result of decreased turbidity. Aqueduct biofoulerscould have major impacts on costs associated with aqueduct maintenance. From an operations viewpoint, mussels are undesirable due to flowrestriction associated with increased friction. Augmented sponge and periphyton biomass may also influence aqueduct operations andefficiencies.

  3. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) related with recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzari, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    The vestibular aqueduct is a bony canal related to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear and represents the non-sensory components of the endolymph-filled, closed, membranous labyrinth. The association of congenital sensorineural hearing loss with a large or enlarged vestibular aqueduct is well known as the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). The enlarged VA (EVA) comprises abnormalities not only in the structure of the inner ear, but also in the physiology of the auditory and vestibular systems. The clinical picture of this clinical entity is variable [Yetiser S, Kertment M, Ozkaptan Y. Vestibular disturbance in patients with Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (LVAS). Acta Otolaryngol (StochK) 1999;119: 641-646]. Signs and symptoms of the auditory impairment are more commonly described in the literature: hearing loss ranges from mild to profound, arising from fluctuating to stepwise progressive or sudden. Vestibular disturbances, ranging from mild imbalance to episodic vertigo, are rarely described in the literature. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a labyrinthine disorder with a typical behavior: intense crises of rotational vertigo induced by postural changes of the head, with short duration and usually good responsiveness to rehabilitative maneuvers. These maneuvers are effective in about 80% of patients with BPPV. BPPV often recurs. About 1/3 of patients have a recurrence in the first year after treatment, and by five years, about half of all patients have a recurrence. Vestibular aqueduct has been demonstrated by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT), however, CT scans cannot show the membranous labyrinth itself. On MR images it is not the vestibular aqueduct that is visualized but its contents, the endolymphatic duct and sac, and can show the abnormalities of the fluid spaces related to the membranous labyrinth. It is proposed that recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is related with volumetric abnormalities

  4. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging reveals net retrograde aqueductal flow in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringstad, Geir; Emblem, Kyrre Eeg; Eide, Per Kristian

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT The objective of this study was to assess the net aqueductal stroke volume (ASV) and CSF aqueductal flow rate derived from phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) in patients with probable idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery, and to compare observations with intracranial pressure (ICP) scores. METHODS PC-MRI at the level of the sylvian aqueduct was undertaken in patients undergoing assessment for probable iNPH. Aqueductal flow in the craniocaudal direction was defined as positive, or antegrade flow, and net ASV was calculated by subtracting retrograde from antegrade aqueductal flow. Aqueductal flow rate per minute was calculated by multiplying net ASV by heart rate. During the same hospital admission, clinical examination was performed using NPH score and overnight continuous ICP monitoring. Twelve patients were followed prospectively 12 months after shunt placement with clinical assessment and a second PC-MRI. The study also included 2 healthy controls. RESULTS Among 21 patients examined for iNPH, 17 (81%) received a shunt (shunt group), and 4 were treated conservatively (conservative group). Among the patients with shunts, a clinical improvement was observed in 16 (94%) of the 17. Net ASV was negative in 16 (76%) of 21 patients before shunt placement and in 5 (42%) of 12 patients after shunt placement, and increased from a median of -5 μl (range -175 to 27 μl) to a median of 1 μl (range -61 to 30 μl; p = 0.04). Among the 12 patients with PC-MRI after shunt placement, 11 were shunt responders, and in 9 of these 11 either a reduced magnitude of retrograde aqueductal flow, or a complete reversal from retrograde to antegrade flow, occurred. Net ASV was significantly lower in the shunt group than in the conservative group (p = 0.01). The aqueductal flow rate increased from -0.56 ml/min (range -12.78 to 0.58 ml/min) to 0.06 ml/min (range -4.51 to 1.93 ml/min; p = 0.04) after shunt placement. CONCLUSIONS In

  5. The relationship of the round window membrane to the cochlear aqueduct shown in three-dimensional imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ; Wit, HP

    2005-01-01

    The round window membrane and cochlear aqueduct complex in the guinea pig are reconstructed with 3D-imaging, using orthogonal plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS). The 3D-images show that the periotic duct and the aqueduct are connected to a pouch-like extension of the round window. The fun

  6. Faulted Ancient Aqueduct and Successive Displacements along the Dead Sea Fault in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbeinat, R.; Meghraoui, M.; Gomez, F.; van der Woerd, J.; Layyous, I.; Al-Ghazzi, R.; Barazangi, M.

    2003-04-01

    We conducted a combined study in archeoseismology with detailed descriptions and mapping with a total station of a faulted ancient aqueduct, and in paleoseismology with a 15-m-long and 3.5-m-deep trench near the aqueduct and across the fault. Micro-topographic surveys and trenching show that the fault offsets left-laterally an ancient aqueduct which is repeatedly fractured and younger than BC 410. Projecting the aqueduct walls into the north-south striking DSF displays a total left-lateral displacement of 13.6 ±0.2 m between the two blocks of the faulted aqueduct. Moreover, the northern warped wall shows a deflection (with cracks and brecciated travertines below) that amount 4.3 m and can be considered as a minimum for the first left-lateral displacement. The aqueduct also displays at least two kinds of building stones suggesting rebuilding episodes. Using radiocarbon dating of faulted young alluvial deposits we document the occurrence of three large earthquakes in the past 2200 years (between BC 150 - AD 750, between AD 700 - 1030 and between AD 990 - 1210). The most recent faulting event may correspond to the well-documented large earthquake of AD 1170 for which we estimate Mw = 7.3 - 7.5. Our study provides the timing of late Holocene earthquakes and constrains the 6.9 ± 1.2 mm/yr. slip rate of the Dead Sea transform fault in northwestern Syria (the Missyaf fault segment). Reports of large earthquakes and their associated damage in the Middle East are frequently reported during the Greek, Hebrew, Assyrian, Roman, Byzantine and Islamic times. The ˜830 years of seismic quiescence along the Missyaf fault segment implies that a large earthquake is overdue and may result in a major catastrophe to the population centres of Syria and Lebanon.

  7. Historical and Technical Notes on Aqueducts from Prehistoric to Medieval Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Feo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of aqueduct technologies through the millennia, from prehistoric to medieval times. These hydraulic works were used by several civilizations to collect water from springs and to transport it to settlements, sanctuaries and other targets. Several civilizations, in China and the Americas, developed water transport systems independently, and brought these to high levels of sophistication. For the Mediterranean civilizations, one of the salient characteristics of cultural development, since the Minoan Era (ca. 3200–1100 BC, is the architectural and hydraulic function of aqueducts used for the water supply in palaces and other settlements. The Minoan hydrologists and engineers were aware of some of the basic principles of water sciences and the construction and operation of aqueducts. These technologies were further developed by subsequent civilizations. Advanced aqueducts were constructed by the Hellenes and, especially, by the Romans, who dramatically increased the application scale of these structures, in order to provide the extended quantities of water necessary for the Roman lifestyle of frequent bathing. The ancient practices and techniques were not improved but survived through Byzantine and early medieval times. Later, the Ottomans adapted older techniques, reintroducing large-scale aqueducts to supply their emerging towns with adequate water for religious and social needs. The scientific approach to engineering matters during the Renaissance further improved aqueduct technology. Some of these improvements were apparently also implemented in Ottoman waterworks. Finally the industrial revolution established mechanized techniques in water acquisition. Water is a common need of mankind, and several ancient civilizations developed simple but practical techniques from which we can still learn. Their experience and knowledge could still play an important role for sustainable water supply

  8. Contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct in MR imaging: its frequency and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Naganawa, S.; Fukatsu, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Ishigaki, T. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, 466-8550, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Aoki, I.; Ninomiya, A. [Medical Systems Company, Toshiba Corporation, Nasu Operations, Otawara-shi, Tochigi (Japan); Nakashima, T. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-09-01

    There have been no previous reports on contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct in magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and significance of this finding. Thirty-one patients (15 men and 16 women; age range 18-81 years) with otologic symptoms (sudden sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, or tinnitus) were examined using contrast-enhanced imaging on a 1.5-T MR scanner. The normal ear served as the control. Two radiologists evaluated contrast enhancement in the area of the cochlear aqueduct. Forty-eight of 62 ears (77.4%) showed contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct, but no significant differences in the frequency of contrast enhancement were observed between patients with and patients without vertigo, tinnitus, sensorineural hearing loss, cerebellopontine angle tumors, or a high-riding jugular bulb. In addition, no gender- or age-related differences were noted. Contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct was frequently observed, but the frequency of enhancement in symptomatic ears was not significantly higher than in control ears. The results of this study may prove helpful in avoiding unnecessary examinations and potential diagnostic confusion. (orig.)

  9. Multidisciplinary investigations on the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum (Basilicata, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romans built the ancient town of Grumentum during the 3rd century B.C. in the southern part of the Agri high Valley (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy near the confluence of the Sciaura stream in the Agri River. Now it is one of the most important archaeological sites of Southern Italy. In fact, after a period of wars in this area between Romans and Carthaginians, a great deal of restoration was started in 57 B.C. These works affected the city walls, public buildings and finally endowed the Roman colony with important infrastructures, such as the new aqueduct. In this work, we attempt to reconstruct the ancient layout of the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum. As a starting point, we followed some descriptions from the 19th century, when the structure was still well preserved. Then, we performed a multidisciplinary geophysical approach to the best preserved remains of the aqueduct. In particular, the geophysical investigation started with the use of a portable GPS allowing us to acquire the co-ordinates of the outcropping rests of the ancient structure. Then, we used an optical pumping magnetometer to perform seven gradiometric maps over a broad area of about 8000 m2. From the literature descriptions, dating to the first part of the 19th century, we can deduce that the state of preservation of the Roman aqueduct was much better than the present one. Thus we can hypothesise as the cause of its fast involution the fact that it was located in the epicentral area of the large destructive earthquake which occurred in the Basilicata Region in 1857 (Mallet, 1862. To this aim, we performed a first attempt to correlate the state of preservation of the aqueduct remains with the local seismic amplification by means of the HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio technique. This survey allowed us to obtain the site amplification spectra along the aqueduct layout and assess the fundamental vibration frequency of the investigated structure

  10. Ventricular dilation and elevated aqueductal pulsations in a new experimental model of communicating hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagshul, M.; Smith, S.; Wagshul, M.; McAllister, J.P.; Rashid, S.; Li, J.; Egnor, M.R.; Walker, M.L.; Yu, M.; Smith, S.D.; Zhang, G.; Chen, J.J.; Beneveniste, H.

    2009-03-01

    In communicating hydrocephalus (CH), explanations for the symptoms and clear-cut effective treatments remain elusive. Pulsatile flow through the cerebral aqueduct is often significantly elevated, but a clear link between abnormal pulsations and ventriculomegaly has yet to be identified. We sought to demonstrate measurement of pulsatile aqueductal flow of CSF in the rat, and to characterize the temporal changes in CSF pulsations in a new model of CH. Hydrocephalus was induced by injection of kaolin into the basal cisterns of adult rats (n = 18). Ventricular volume and aqueductal pulsations were measured on a 9.4 T MRI over a one month period. Half of the animals developed ventricular dilation, with increased ventricular volume and pulsations as early as one day post-induction, and marked chronic elevations compared to intact controls (volume: 130.15 {+-} 83.21 {mu}l vs. 15.52 {+-} 2.00 {mu}l; pulsations: 114.51 nl {+-} 106.29 vs. 0.72 {+-} 0.13 nl). Similar to the clinical presentation, the relationship between ventricular size and pulsations was quite variable. However, the pulsation time-course revealed two distinct sub-types of hydrocephalic animals: those with markedly elevated pulsations which persisted over time, and those with mildly elevated pulsations which returned to near normal levels after one week. These groups were associated with severe and mild ventriculomegaly respectively. Thus, aqueductal flow can be measured in the rat using high-field MRI and basal cistern-induced CH is associated with an immediate change in CSF pulsatility. At the same time, our results highlight the complex nature of aqueductal pulsation and its relationship to ventricular dilation.

  11. Intracranial pressure pulse waveform correlates with aqueductal cerebrospinal fluid stroke volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert; Baldwin, Kevin; Fuller, Jennifer; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao; Bergsneider, Marvin

    2012-11-01

    This study identifies a novel relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stroke volume through the cerebral aqueduct and the characteristic peaks of the intracranial pulse (ICP) waveform. ICP waveform analysis has become much more advanced in recent years; however, clinical practice remains restricted to mean ICP, mainly due to the lack of physiological understanding of the ICP waveform. Therefore, the present study set out to shed some light on the physiological meaning of ICP morphological metrics derived by the morphological clustering and analysis of continuous intracranial pulse (MOCAIP) algorithm by investigating their relationships with a well defined physiological variable, i.e., the stroke volume of CSF through the cerebral aqueduct. Seven patients received both overnight ICP monitoring along with a phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) of the cerebral aqueduct to quantify aqueductal stroke volume (ASV). Waveform morphological analysis of the ICP signal was performed by the MOCAIP algorithm. Following extraction of morphological metrics from the ICP signal, nine temporal ICP metrics and two amplitude-based metrics were compared with the ASV via Spearman's rank correlation. Of the nine temporal metrics correlated with the ASV, only the width of the P2 region (ICP-Wi2) reached significance. Furthermore, both ICP pulse pressure amplitude and mean ICP did not reach significance. In this study, we showed the width of the second peak (ICP-Wi2) of an ICP pulse wave is positively related to the volume of CSF movement through the cerebral aqueduct. This finding is an initial step in bridging the gap between ICP waveform morphology research and clinical practice.

  12. Calcareous sinter from ancient aqueducts as a source of data in paleoclimate, tectonics and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmelihindi, G.; Passchier, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    During the lifetime the Roman Empire (300BC-400AD), about 1200 major aqueducts were built to supply cities in the Mediterranean with drinking water. The ruins of many of these channels contain sinter (calcium carbonate), which was deposited at a rate of 0.5-5 mm/year over the life of the aqueduct, usually 50-200 but up to 1000 years. Calcareous sinter inside the ancient aqueduct channels can give important insight into paleoclimatology in the form of temperature and rainfall, reflect palaeohydrology of water, water chemistry, flow rate, bacterial activity and source area of the water. This type of data is important to build climate models and to understand earthquake and flood patterns in the Mediterranean, and can be a new, additional source of information besides speleothems, travertine and tufa deposits. In our study we focus on Mediterranean climate patterns, and selected four aqueduct sites from Southern Turkey, Greece and Italy. The calcareous sinter deposits may reflect annual or subannual lamination characterized by alternating light, dense, coarse-grained and dark, porous, microcrystalline layers which are thought to represent winter and summer conditions respectively. Moreover, abrupt changes in the sequence of lamination can be a signal of natural hazards such as earthquakes or flood events. Deposits from the aqueduct of Patara (Southern Turkey) show 40-50 laminae couples, which may be annual layers. δ18O and δ 13C stable isotope data indicate high cyclicity within the sinter samples from Patara during the Roman period. Higher δ18O values correspond with dark, porous layers and lower values with light, dense layers. Major geochemical analyses show similar seasonal changes. Electron microprobe study shows that within dark laminae, detrital Fe, Mg, K, Al and Si are enriched whereas the light layers have high Ca content. Trace element analyses by LA-ICP-MS also indicate higher Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values in the dark layers, which can be interpreted in terms

  13. Characterization of building materials from the aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, Yacine; de Sigoyer, Julia; Carlut, Julie; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Dessales, Hélène; Pamir, Hatice; Karabacak, Volkan

    2015-07-01

    The Roman aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Turkey), a city located near the junction between the active Dead Sea fault and the East Anatolian fault, has been damaged several times due to historical earthquakes, as mentioned in ancient texts. The traces of repairs are studied in order to identify their potential seismic origin. The deformations of the structure were characterised thanks to a LIDAR scan. Several bricks were sampled on different parts of the city's aqueducts, on the original structure and on repaired parts. The bricks were characterized through a petrological approach. 14C and archaeomagnetism were tested on the bricks in order to constrain the age of their production. The synthesis of all the data showed a local origin for the bricks, and led to the identification of several manufacturing techniques and several types of production, thus, confirming the potentiality of this approach to date and characterise post-seismic repairs.

  14. Cochlear Implantation in Isolated Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome: Report of Three Cases and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhananga, Rabindra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS is characterized by the enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct associated with sensorineural hearing loss. It is the most common radiographically detectable inner ear anomaly in congenital hearing loss. LVAS may occur as an isolated anomaly or in association with other inner ear malformations. Objective To report three cases of isolated LVAS with a focus on preoperative assessment, surgical issues, and short-term postoperative follow-up with preliminary auditory habilitation outcomes. Resumed Report One girl and two boys with LVAS were assessed and cochlear implantation was performed for each. Various ways of intraoperative management of cerebrospinal fluid gusher and postoperative care and outcomes are reported. Conclusion Cochlear implantation in the deaf children with LVAS is feasible and effective.

  15. "Flow comp off": An easy technique to confirm CSF flow within syrinx and aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow compensation, a gradient pulse used for artifact reduction, often used to suppress cerebrospinal fluid (CSF flow artifacts in spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, can be switched off to make the CSF flow voids within syrinx (syringomyelia and within aqueduct [normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH] more obvious (thus confirming CSF flow. It is a simple method which does not require much time or expertise.

  16. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in the Only Hearing Ear: Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Kemal Koray; Ismi, Onur; Bucioglu, Helen; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Gorur, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Sudden hearing loss in the only hearing ear cases are rarely published in the English literature; most of the cases are idiopathic. It is an otologic emergency needing urgent treatment. Delayed diagnosis can interfere with patient's social life with interrupting the verbal communication. In this case report we presented a 33-year-old female patient having sudden sensorineural hearing loss in the only hearing ear diagnosed as bilateral large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

  17. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in the Only Hearing Ear: Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Koray Bal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden hearing loss in the only hearing ear cases are rarely published in the English literature; most of the cases are idiopathic. It is an otologic emergency needing urgent treatment. Delayed diagnosis can interfere with patient’s social life with interrupting the verbal communication. In this case report we presented a 33-year-old female patient having sudden sensorineural hearing loss in the only hearing ear diagnosed as bilateral large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

  18. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in the Only Hearing Ear: Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Kemal Koray; Bucioglu, Helen; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Gorur, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Sudden hearing loss in the only hearing ear cases are rarely published in the English literature; most of the cases are idiopathic. It is an otologic emergency needing urgent treatment. Delayed diagnosis can interfere with patient's social life with interrupting the verbal communication. In this case report we presented a 33-year-old female patient having sudden sensorineural hearing loss in the only hearing ear diagnosed as bilateral large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. PMID:28018692

  19. A high-resolution palaeoenvironmental record from carbonate deposits in the Roman aqueduct of Patara, SW Turkey, from the time of Nero

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelis Passchier; Gül Sürmelihindi; Christoph Spötl

    2016-01-01

    An inscription on the supporting wall of the inverted siphon of the aqueduct of the ancient Roman city of Patara, SW Turkey, explains how the wall collapsed during an earthquake and was subsequently restored. Carbonate deposits formed inside the aqueduct channel show cyclic stable isotope changes representing 17 years of deposition. This sequence, together with the text of the inscription, allows dating the earthquake to 68 AD and the original inauguration of the aqueduct to the winter of 51/...

  20. Relationship between the external aperture and hearing loss in large vestibular aqueduct syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Backgroud Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) is a major cause of hearing loss in childhood. This study aimed at measuring external aperture of enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) and analyzing relationship between the size of external aperture and hearing loss.Methods Diagnostic criteria of LVAS were based on hearing loss and CT images. CT images of temporal bone of 100 LVAS patients were collected and 60 control subjects were reviewed retrospectively in the past 10 years. A battery of audiometric and vestibular function tests were performed. The width of the vestibular aqueduct (VA) was measured on axial CT images of the temporal bone.Results One hundred patients (65 men, 35 women) were diagnosed as having the isolated EVA. Hearing loss mostly occurred in early childhood. The diagnosis age of LVAS was 7.7 years on average. The causes of hearing loss could not be confirmed by initial consult. Typically, audiometric curve is the high-frequency down-sloping configuration. 92% of the cases had severe or profound sonsorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The mean size of the external aperture was (7.5±1.2) mm in present LVAS. Statistical analysis showed that the degree of hearing loss is unrelated to the width of VA. Conclusions LVAS is a distinct clinical entity characterized by fluctuating, progressive SNHL. The degree of hearing loss is unrelated to the size of external aperture of VA. The protective management and hearing aid have become the main therapies. The cochlear implantation might be performed if the hearing loss affected learning at school.

  1. COMPUTATIONAL INVESTIGATION ON CSF FLOW ANALYSIS IN THE THIRD VENTRICLE AND AQUEDUCT OF SYLVIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Azali Hadzri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three dimensional (3D model of the third ventricle and aqueduct of Sylvius derived from MRI scans was constructed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modeling. Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF can be modeled as a Newtonian Fluid and its flow through the region of interest (ROI was visualized using Engineering Fluid Dynamics (EFD.The constructed ROI was regarded as rigid walled and only steady state flow was able to be defined due to the limitations of current software. Different flow rate was simulated at the Foramen of Monro and a small stenosis was modeled at the middle of the aqueduct of Sylvius at a fixed location. This was made corresponding to normal patients with variation of CSF flow rate physiologically and abnormal patients with tumor causing obstruction to or within the aqueduct of Sylvius, respectively. Due to the small dimensions of the ROI geometry, gravity and complex external gravity that acted upon it was considered to be neglected. The results show as the flow rate increase, the pressure drop of CSF in the ROI proportionally increased. For normal CSF flow rate, the presence of stenosis in the aqueduct demonstrates a significant increased pressure drop.ABSTRAK-Dalam kajian ini, model tiga dimensi (3D untuk ventrikel ketiga dan akueduk Sylvius, yang terhasil daripada pengimejan resonans magnetik telah dikonstruksi menggunakan Permodelan Perkomputeran Dinamik Bendalir (Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Cecair serebrospinal (Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dimodelkan sebagai bendalir Newtonan dan alirannya melalui kawasan kepentingan (region of interest (ROI digambarkan menggunakan Dinamik Bendalir Kejuruteraan (Engineering Fluid Dynamics (EFD. Kawasan kepentingan yang dikonstruksi dianggap sebagai dinding tegar dan hanya aliran keadaan tunak yang dapat ditakrifkan berdasarkan pengehadan perisian komputer terkini. Kadar aliran yang berbeza disimulasikan di foramen monro dan laluan stenosis yang kecil dimodelkan di tengah

  2. Cochlear aqueduct flow resistance is not constant during evoked inner ear pressure change in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; Feijen, RA; Albers, FWJ

    2003-01-01

    Inner ear fluid pressure was measured during 6.25 mHz square wave middle ear pressure manipulation, with a perforated tympanic membrane. After a negative-going middle ear pressure change the calculated flow resistance of the inner ear pressure release routes (mainly the cochlear aqueduct) was approx

  3. There were giants in the Earth in those days: the ancient catchment and aqueduct of 'Triglio' near Taranto (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilotro, Giuseppe; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Canora, Filomena; Pellicani, Roberta

    2014-05-01

    In the area between the towns of Crispiano, Statte and Taranto, partly along the Gravina (canyon) of the Triglio, a huge aqueduct, which presently reaches Taranto, develops. The water intake apparatus, which is constituted by small underground tunnels some kilometers long and with regularly spaced pits for the digging and for the aeration of the conduct, is very notable. As a matter of fact, the water intake works deep inside very permeable calcareous rocks testify the capability of withdrawal water even from an unfriendly environment like a karst vadose zone in a semi-arid region. The first part of the work is attributed at Roman age and more precisely in the interval between the 1st century BC and AC. In 950 A.D., after the fall of the Roman Empire, Nicephorus II Phocas, Emperor of the East, rebuilds Taranto after the wars and restructures the Triglio Aqueduct that remains outside the city walls. In 1334, Catherine II of Valois, Princess of Taranto, completes the aqueduct bringing it into the city. In the nineteenth century, the aqueduct becomes the "Public Source" and the Apulian Aqueduct Authority uses the structure to provide water until 1922, when the city began to be served by the Sele. The aqueduct presently extends for about 12 km and can be divided into three parts: (1) water intake apparatus, hypogeum stretch for water interception, formed by branches of tunnels converging in a single pipe; (2) hypogeum conductor apparatus, which is a unique underground pipeline entirely excavated in the rock; (3) epigeum conductor apparatus, the final stretch of the aqueduct where it emerges from the ground level. The trend of the tunnels of the water intake apparatus has been reconstructed through studies carried out by Speleo Group Statte and other researchers. The water intake apparatus is composed by tunnels and pits excavated into a calcareous mass, draining the karst vadose zone and the alluvial deposits, where the tunnel is parallel to the water course of the

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Canals and Aqueducts of the United States 201406 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the canals, aqueducts, and the Intracoastal Waterway in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands....

  5. Optimizing CT for the evaluation of vestibular aqueduct enlargement:Inter-rater reproducibility and predictive value of reformatted CT measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Misun Hwang; Ryan Marovich; Samuel S. Shin; David Chi; Barton F. Branstetter IV

    2015-01-01

    Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA), the most frequent identifiable cause of congenital hearing loss, is evaluated with high-definition multi-detector CT in the axial plane. Our purpose was to determine which reformatted CT measurements are most reproducible. Seven multiplanar reformatted images were created for each of the 64 temporal bones in patients with EVA. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess inter-observer variability, and both linear regression and ROC analyses were used to compare the measurements with severity of hearing loss, as assessed by pure tone audiometry. All seven measurements had excellent inter-observer variability, with average-measure ICC ranging from 0.92 to 0.98. There was no statistically significant correlation between the radiologic degree of aqueduct enlargement and severity of hearing loss using any of the seven measurements;ROC analyses revealed areas under the curves ranging from 0.57 to 0.73. Optimal accuracy was obtained with a threshold of 1.75 mm as measured at the aqueductal aperture in the P€oschl plane, with sensitivity of 0.75 and specificity of 0.63. Although the radiologic measurement may not serve as a reliable tool for assessing severity of EVA, P€oschl plane reformatting has proven to be better than conventional axial acquisition plane for identifying patients with clinically significant hearing loss.

  6. Deformation of a Roman Aqueduct (II-III Century A.D.) near Rome, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, P.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.

    2002-12-01

    Along the modern trace of the Tiburtina road, approximately 20 km north-east of the city of Rome, recent archaeological diggings have brought to light a system of aqueduct galleries constructed by roman engineers (II-III century A.D). Two narrow water channels (A and B) of this aqueduct system were strongly deformed by tectonic movement that occurred subsequent to their construction. The archaeological site falls inside the Acque Albule basin (AAB): a travertine plateau, upper Pleistocene in age with a medium thickness of approximately 60 m. The AAB has been interpreted as a rhomb-shaped pull-apart basin (7 km long, 4 km wide) created by strike-slip faulting within a N-S shear zone that crosses the Rome area. Its evolution is attributed to Middle-Upper Pleistocene times. The principal N-S water channel (A) evidences both brittle (extensive) and ductile (compressive) deformations, whereas the shorter channel (B) to the south-west reveals predominantly ductile deformations associated with compression. A detailed survey of the A channel indicates a segmented course along the length of the entire structure, with orientations ranging between N10°E and N10°W, and with one section oriented at N35°W. The smaller B channel situated to the south-west of the principal excavation indicates that deformation can be linked to transverse compression resulting in a restriction and rotation of the structure. The geometry of the deformation pattern and the brittle structures affecting the surrounding rock, the presence of sections deformed in a ductile manner, the segmentation of the two channels into tracts rotated in different directions, the narrowing of an internal section of the B channel orientated N15°W, are all elements compatible with strike-slip tectonics. To provide additional quantitative support for these observations, 3 sites (35 samples) were drilled, for paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analyses, in the "Pozzolane Rosse" Formation (457

  7. Congenital idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of sylvius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, L; Boute, O; Mention, K; Vinchon, M; Boman, F; Gottrand, F

    2004-09-15

    We present the first report of an association between hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius (HSAS) and a specific form of congenital idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) in an infant. Diagnosis of HSAS was suspected during the neonatal period because of a severely dilated ventricular system associated with bilateral adducted thumbs, and was confirmed by demonstration of a mutation in the gene encoding L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM). L1CAM mutations cause a variable clinical spectrum. This gene is located at Xq28 and encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration. Hirschprung disease has been reported to involve an L1CAM mutation that manifests as a quantitative defect in the migration of neural crest cells in distal segments of the gut. We report an association that suggests that alterations of L1CAM may cause another type of intestinal pseudo-obstruction distension with a qualitative defect in differentiated Cajal's cells in the anterior part of the gut. This observation suggests that L1CAM has a role in the developmental regulation of multiple systems. Further clinical descriptions of gastroenterological and neuropathological data are required to extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying L1CAM functions.

  8. High resolution CT appearance of large vestibular aqueduct in infant%婴儿前庭导水管扩大的高分辨率CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保隆; 孙积宁; 曹福志; 于清霞; 赵巍

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore and study the high resolution CT ( HRCT) appearances of large vestibular aqueduct in infant. Methods; The HRCT appearances of 21 cases (42 ears) with large vestibular aqueduct were analyzed retrospectively. The axial images and multi - planar reconstruction were performed in all patients. Results: Twenty - one patients all were bilateral large vestibular aqueduct malformations. The number of large vestibular aqueduct malformations is 42 ears. The malformations were; ( 1 ) Isolated large vestibular aqueduct, without other malformations (10 ears), (2) Large vestibular aqueduct only with cochlear malformation (24 ears) , ( 3 ) Large vestibular aqueduct with vestibular or semicircular canals malformations (4 ears) , ( 4 ) Large vestibular aqueduct with cochlea and vestibular or semicircular canals malformations simultaneously (4 ears) . Conclusion: The HRCT has very important value in the diagnosis of the congenital large vestibular aqueduct malformations.%目的 探讨婴儿前庭导水管扩大畸形的高分辨率CT表现.方法 回顾性分析21例(42耳)婴儿(35天~5个月)先天性前庭导水管扩大畸形患者的CT表现,所有患者均做多层螺旋高分辨率CT横断面扫描及多平面重建.结果 21例先天性前庭导水管扩大畸形患者双侧畸形者21例,前庭导水管扩大畸形共计42耳.具体分布如下:(1)单纯性前庭导水管扩大,不伴其它畸形(10耳),(2)仅伴耳蜗畸形(24耳),(3)仅伴前庭或半规管畸形(4耳),(4)同时伴耳蜗及前庭或半规管畸形(4耳).结论 高分辨率CT对先天性前庭导水管扩大畸形具有重要的诊断价值,应提高对本病的影像学认识.

  9. Systematization of vestibular aqueduct anatomical study by high-resolution computed tomography in patients with unilateral Meniere's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Eliezia Helena de Lima [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: elimaalvarenga@ibest.com.br; Cruz, Oswaldo Laercio Mendonca [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Yamashita, Helio Kiitiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Lima, Eliece Jose de; Alvarenga, Adalberto Martins; Bisinoto, Sirlei Maria Barra

    2006-09-15

    Objective: to systematize the assessment of vestibular aqueduct by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with unilateral Meniere's disease as compared with a control group. Materials and methods: ee have selected 20 patients with unilateral Meniere's disease, according to the guidelines proposed by the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. The control group consisted of ten individuals with normal audiometric tests. Overall, we have studied 60 ears, equally divided into three groups: group I - Meniere's disease, affected ear; group II - Meniere's disease, non-affected ear; group III - control. All the individuals have undergone temporal bones HRCT. Images were blindly reviewed, trying to evaluate the visibility of the descendent portion of the ventricular aqueduct. Afterwards data were correlated with their respective groups. Results: we have identified the vestibular aqueduct in 95% of ears in group I, 90% in group II, and 100% in group III. Conclusion: it is possible to perform a systematic evaluation of the vestibular aqueduct by axial HRCT, using the same radiological technique, anatomical knowledge and sequential images of inner ear structures. With this systematic approach we have obtained a high rate of vestibular aqueduct visualization, with no statistically significant difference between the groups.(author)

  10. Geodermatophilus aquaeductus sp. nov., isolated from the ruins of Hadrian's aqueduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezbri, Karima; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Sghaier, Haïtham; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Gtari, Maher

    2015-07-01

    An orange-black, Gram-positive, aerobic and gamma-ray resistant actinobacterium was isolated from the ruins of a Roman aqueduct located in Northern Tunisia. The optimal growth for the strain was found to be at 25-35 °C and at pH 6.0-9.5. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Geodermatophilus. The peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid. The main polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified aminophospholipid; MK-9(H4) was found to be the dominant menaquinone and galactose was detected as the diagnostic sugar, with glucose, ribose and mannose also present. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as branched-chain saturated acids iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0 and iso-H-C16:0. The 16S rRNA gene showed 95.4-99.6 % sequence identity with the type strains of the genus Geodermatophilus. DNA-DNA relatedness values with closely related species were 39.9 ± 4.9, 33.9 ± 1.9, 27.0 ± 2.5 and 13.2 ± 1.35 % with Geodermatophilus amargosae, G. normandii, G. saharensis and G. tzadiensis respectively. Based on phenotypic results and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain BMG801(T) (=DSM 46834(T) = CECT 8822(T)) is proposed to represent the type strain of a novel species, Geodermatophilus aquaeductus sp. nov.

  11. A high-resolution palaeoenvironmental record from carbonate deposits in the Roman aqueduct of Patara, SW Turkey, from the time of Nero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passchier, Cornelis; Sürmelihindi, Gül; Spötl, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    An inscription on the supporting wall of the inverted siphon of the aqueduct of the ancient Roman city of Patara, SW Turkey, explains how the wall collapsed during an earthquake and was subsequently restored. Carbonate deposits formed inside the aqueduct channel show cyclic stable isotope changes representing 17 years of deposition. This sequence, together with the text of the inscription, allows dating the earthquake to 68 AD and the original inauguration of the aqueduct to the winter of 51/52 AD. Thus, the carbonate deposits represent a high-resolution record of palaeotemperature and precipitation for SW Turkey covering the complete reign of the Emperor Nero. The period shows a cooling and drying trend after an initial warm and more humid period, interrupted by a few anomalous years. These 2 cm of calcite highlight the significance of carbonate deposits in ancient water supply systems as a high-resolution archive for palaeoclimate, palaeoseismology and archaeology.

  12. Evidence of active tectonics on a Roman aqueduct system (II-III century A.D.) near Rome, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Montone, Paola; Pirro, Mario; Boschi, Enzo

    2004-04-01

    In this paper we describe evidence of strong tectonic deformation affecting two aqueducts of Roman age (II-III century A.D.). The channels are located approximately 20 km northeast of Rome along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Brittle and ductile deformation affects these two structures, including extensional joint systems, NE-oriented faults, and horizontal distortion. This deformation is consistent with right-lateral movement on major N-striking faults, and represents the first evidence that tectonic deformation took place in historical times in the vicinity of Rome, with local strike-slip movement superimposed on a regional extensional fault system.

  13. Bidirectional recovery patterns of Mojave Desert vegetation in an aqueduct pipeline corridor after 36 years: I. Perennial shrubs and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Weigand, James F.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Mack, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    We studied recovery of 21 perennial plant species along a severely disturbed aqueduct corridor in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa plant alliance in the Mojave Desert 36 years after construction. The 97-m wide corridor contained a central dirt road and buried aqueduct pipeline. We established transects at 0 m (road verge), 20 m and 40 m into the disturbance corridor, and at 100 m in undisturbed habitat (the control). Although total numbers of shrubs per transect did not vary significantly with distance from the verge, canopy cover of shrubs, species richness, and species diversity were higher in the control than at the verge and other distances. Canopy cover of common shrubs (Ericameria nauseosa, Ambrosia salsola, A. dumosa, L. tridentata, Grayia spinosa) and perennial grasses (Elymus elymoides, Poa secunda) also varied significantly by location. Discriminant analysis clearly separated the four distances based on plant composition. Patterns of recovery were bidirectional: secondary succession from the control into the disturbance corridor and inhibition from the verge in the direction of the control. Time estimated for species composition to resemble the control is dependent on location within the disturbance corridor and could be centuries at the road verge. Our findings have applications to other deserts.

  14. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct

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    Yan Xiaofei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity. The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (isolated Mondini deformity in a Chinese population. Methods In total, 144 patients with sensorineural hearing loss were included and subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT. Among them, 28 patients with isolated Mondini dysplasia (MD group, 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct with Mondini dysplasia (EVA with MD group, 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct without Mondini dysplasia (EVA group, and 16 patients with other types of inner ear malformations (IEM group were identified. The coding exons of SLC26A4 were analyzed in all subjects. Results DNA sequence analysis of SLC26A4 was performed in all 144 patients. In the different groups, the detection rate of the SLC26A4 mutation differed. In the isolated MD group, only one single allelic mutation in SLC26A4 was found in one patient (1/28, 3.6%. In the EVA with MD group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0% and three patients (3/50, 6.0%, respectively. Also, in the EVA group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0% and three patients (3/50, 6.0%, respectively. These percentages were identical to those in the EVA plus MD group. Only two patients carried monoallelic mutations of the SLC26A4 gene in the IEM group (2/16, 12.5%. There were significant differences in the frequency of SLC26A4 mutation among the groups (P SLC26A4 mutation in the isolated MD group was

  15. The pathophysiology of the aqueduct stroke volume in normal pressure hydrocephalus: can co-morbidity with other forms of dementia be excluded?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Grant A. [John Hunter Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Newcastle (Australia); Levi, Christopher R.; Wang, Yang; Lovett, Elizabeth C. [Hunter Medical Research Institute, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Newcastle (Australia); Schofield, Peter [James Fletcher Hospital, Neuropsychiatry Unit, Newcastle (Australia)

    2005-10-01

    Variable results are obtained from the treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) by shunt insertion. There is a high correlation between NPH and the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on brain biopsy. There is an overlap between AD and vascular dementia (VaD), suggesting that a correlation exists between NPH and other forms of dementia. This study seeks to (1) understand the physiological factors behind, and (2) define the ability of, the aqueduct stroke volume to exclude dementia co-morbidity. Twenty-four patients from a dementia clinic were classified as having either early AD or VaD on the basis of clinical features, Hachinski score and neuropsychological testing. They were compared with 16 subjects with classical clinical findings of NPH and 12 aged-matched non-cognitively impaired subjects. MRI flow quantification was used to measure aqueduct stroke volume and arterial pulse volume. An arterio-cerebral compliance ratio was calculated from the two volumes in each patient. The aqueduct stroke volume was elevated in all three forms of dementia, with no significant difference noted between the groups. The arterial pulse volume was elevated by 24% in VaD and reduced by 35% in NPH, compared to normal (P=0.05 and P=0.002, respectively), and was normal in AD. There was a spectrum of relative compliance with normal compliance in VaD and reduced compliance in AD and NPH. The aqueduct stroke volume depends on the arterial pulse volume and the relative compliance between the arterial tree and brain. The aqueduct stroke volume cannot exclude significant co-morbidity in NPH. (orig.)

  16. 100 km under ground. Longest well-known aqueduct tunnel of the antique in Jordan and Syria; 100 km unter Tage. Laengster bisher bekannter Aquaedukttunnel der Antike in Jordanien und Syrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, Mathias [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). IWTG

    2010-05-15

    Since 2004, the author of the contribution under consideration investigates an ancient tunnel system with unknown extents in the border area between Jordan and Syria. It is a part of a nearly 170 km long Roman aqueduct which supplies three cities with water. The nearly 106 km long, partly plastered tunneling system was built from approximately 2,900 building pits with stairs in open ends tunneling. Not only mallet and iron, but also half-mechanical propulsion equipment were used due to regular cut traces. The aqueduct might be one the most extensive aqueducts in the Roman antiquity. The tunnel might be the longest well-known tunnel from the antiquity.

  17. Hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct: mechanistic insights from clinical phenotypes, genotypes, and mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Andrew J; Wangemann, Philine

    2011-11-01

    Enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is one of the most common inner ear malformations associated with sensorineural hearing loss in children. The delayed onset and progressive nature of this phenotype offer a window of opportunity to prevent or retard progression of hearing loss. EVA is not the direct cause of hearing loss in these patients, but rather is a radiologic marker for some underlying pathogenetic defect. Mutations of the SLC26A4 gene are a common cause of EVA. Studies of an Slc26a4 knockout mouse demonstrate that acidification and enlargement of the scala media are early events in the pathogenesis of deafness. The enlargement is driven by fluid secretion in the vestibular labyrinth and a failure of fluid absorption in the embryonic endolymphatic sac. Elucidating the mechanism of hearing loss may offer clues to potential therapeutic strategies.

  18. Evaluation of aqueductal patency in patients with hydrocephalus: Three-dimensional high-sampling efficiency technique(SPACE) versus two-dimensional turbo spin echo at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucar, Murat; Guryildirim, Melike; Tokgoz, Nil; Kilic, Koray; Borcek, Alp; Oner, Yusuf; Akkan, Koray; Tali, Turgut [School of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-15

    To compare the accuracy of diagnosing aqueductal patency and image quality between high spatial resolution three-dimensional (3D) high-sampling-efficiency technique (sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions [SPACE]) and T2-weighted (T2W) two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin echo (TSE) at 3-T in patients with hydrocephalus. This retrospective study included 99 patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE was added to the routine sequences which consisted of T2W 2D-TSE, 3D-constructive interference steady state (CISS), and cine phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Two radiologists evaluated independently the patency of cerebral aqueduct and image quality on the T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE. PC-MRI and 3D-CISS were used as the reference for aqueductal patency and image quality, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was calculated using kappa statistics. The evaluation of the aqueductal patency by T2W 3D-SPACE and T2W 2D-TSE were in agreement with PC-MRI in 100% (99/99; sensitivity, 100% [83/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]) and 83.8% (83/99; sensitivity, 100% [67/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]), respectively (p < 0.001). No significant difference in image quality between T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE (p = 0.056) occurred. The kappa values for inter-observer agreement were 0.714 for T2W 2D-TSE and 0.899 for T2W 3D-SPACE. Three-dimensional-SPACE is superior to 2D-TSE for the evaluation of aqueductal patency in hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE may hold promise as a highly accurate alternative treatment to PC-MRI for the physiological and morphological evaluation of aqueductal patency.

  19. Aqueducts and geoglyphs : the response of Ancient Nasca to water shortages in the desert of Atacama (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    The desert of Atacama is a plateau in South America, covering a 1,000-kilometre strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains, between Chile and Peru. Due to the confluence of a cold ocean current (the Humboldt Current) along with other climatic factors, connected to the particular topography and geomorphology of the region, Atacama desert is one of the most arid areas of the world. In particular, in Nasca region (Southern Peru) the lack of water was (and still is) due to the following causes: (i) the scarce pluvial precipitations and the (ii) high infiltration capacity, and the consequent yearly significant reduction of the surface water (Schreiber & Lancho Rojas 2009). Over the millennia long periods of drought occurred and frequently the lack of water was persistent for several decades. Despite the arid and extreme nature of the environment, this region was populated by important civilizations, such as Paracas and Nasca, which flourished in the Early Intermediate period (200 BCE-500 AD) (Silvermann & Proulx 2002). In particular the Nasca civilization is well-known for its refined and colourful pottery, characterized by a rich icononographic repertory, and, above all, by the huge and mysterious geoglyphs drawn on the arid plateaus of the Rio Grande de Nasca Basin. In order to practice agriculture, the Nasca developed adequate strategies to cope with hostile environmental factors and water scarcity, building a very efficient aqueduct system. They were aided by the fact that underground water was likely enough close to the surface and accessible by constructing wells and underground aqueducts, known with quechua name of puquios (Schreiber & Lancho Rojas 2009; Lasaponara & Masini 2012a; 2012b) The effectiveness of the techniques of hydraulic engineering depended on the climate and the weather events that sometimes underwent drastic changes, as results of the cyclical phenomenon of El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO). Hence the

  20. KCNJ10 may not be a contributor to nonsyndromic enlargement of vestibular aqueduct (NSEVA in Chinese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic enlargement of vestibular aqueduct (NSEVA is an autosomal recessive hearing loss disorder that is associated with mutations in SLC26A4. However, not all patients with NSEVA carry biallelic mutations in SLC26A4. A recent study proposed that single mutations in both SLC26A4 and KCNJ10 lead to digenic NSEVA. We examined whether KCNJ10 excert a role in the pathogenesis of NSEVA in Chinese patients. METHODS: SLC26A4 was sequenced in 1056 Chinese patients with NSEVA. KCNJ10 was screened in 131 patients who lacked mutations in either one or both alleles of SLC26A4. Additionally, KCNJ10 was screened in 840 controls, including 563 patients diagnosed with NSEVA who carried biallelic SLC26A4 mutations, 48 patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss due to inner ear malformations that did not involve enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA, 96 patients with conductive hearing loss due to various causes, and 133 normal-hearing individuals with no family history of hereditary hearing loss. RESULTS: 925 NSEVA patients were found carrying two-allele pathogenic SLC26A4 mutations. The most frequently detected KCNJ10 mutation was c.812G>A (p.R271H. Compared with the normal-hearing control subjects, the occurrence rate of c.812G>A in NSEVA patients with lacking mutations in one or both alleles of SLC26A4 had no significant difference(1.53% vs. 5.30%, χ(2 = 2.798, p = 0.172, which suggested that it is probably a nonpathogenic benign variant. KCNJ10 c.1042C>T (p.R348C, the reported EVA-related mutation, was not found in patients with NSEVA who lacked mutations in either one or both alleles of SLC26A4. Furthermore, the normal-hearing parents of patients with NSEVA having two SLC26A4 mutations carried the KCNJ10 c.1042C>T or c.812G>A mutation and a SLC26A4 pathogenic mutation. CONCLUSION: SLC26A4 is the major genetic cause in Chinese NSEVA patients, accounting for 87.59%. KCNJ10 may not be a contributor to NSEVA in Chinese population. Other

  1. SLC26A4 gene copy number variations in Chinese patients with non-syndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jiandong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA have either only one allelic mutant of the SLC26A4 gene or lack any detectable mutation. In this study, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was used to screen for copy number variations (CNVs of SLC26A4 and to reveal the pathogenic mechanisms of non-syndromic EVA (NSEVA. Methods Between January 2003 and March 2010, 923 Chinese patients (481 males, 442 females with NSEVA were recruited. Among these, 68 patients (7.4% were found to carry only one mutant allele of SLC26A4 and 39 patients (4.2% lacked any detectable mutation in SLC26A4; these 107 patients without double mutant alleles were assigned to the patient group. Possible copy number variations in SLC26A4 were detected by SALSA MLPA. Results Using GeneMapper, no significant difference was observed between the groups, as compared with the standard probe provided in the assay. The results of the capillary electrophoresis showed no significant difference between the patients and controls. Conclusion Our results suggest that CNVs and the exon deletion in SLC26A4 are not important factors in NSEVA. However, it would be premature to conclude that CNVs have no role in EVA. Genome-wide studies to explore CNVs within non-coding regions of the SLC26A4 gene and neighboring regions are warranted, to elucidate their roles in NSEVA etiology.

  2. Utility of two types of MR cisternography for patency evaluation of aqueduct and third ventriculostomy site: Three dimentsional sagittal fast spin echo sequence and steady-state coherent fast gradient echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Park, Jong Bin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Se; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Lee, Kyung Mi [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    We aimed to evaluate the utility of two types of MR cisternography [fast spin echo sequence and steady-state coherent gradient echo (GRE) sequence] in addition to phase contrast-cine imaging (PC-cine), for assessing patency at the aqueduct and third ventriculostomy site. 43 patients (35 patients with suspected aqueductal stenosis and 8 patients with third ventriculostomy) were retrospectively analyzed. PC-cine, 3 dimensional sagittal fast spin echo sequence [driven-equilibrium imaging (DRIVE) or volumetric isotrophic T2-weighted acquisition (T2 VISTA)] and steady-state coherent fast GRE sequence (balanced turbo field echo; bTFE) imaging were performed in all patients. The patency of the aqueduct or third ventriculostomy site was scored. Some pitfalls of each sequence were also analyzed in individual cases. 93% of all cases showed consistent scores in PC-cine, DRIVE/T2 VISTA, and bTFE imaging. DRIVE/T2 VISTA imaging provided functional information of cerebrospinal fluid flow with flow-related artifacts, while bTFE imaging allowed direct visualization of the aqueduct or ventriculostomy site. However, evaluation of anatomical structures was difficult in three cases with strong flow-related artifacts on DRIVE/T2 VISTA and in 2 cases with susceptibility artifacts on bTFE. Both DRIVE/T2 VISTA and bTFE imaging have complementary roles in evaluating the patency of the aqueduct and 3rd ventriculostomy site.

  3. Analysis method of capacity spectrum of isolated aqueduct%隔震渡槽结构的能力谱分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷开娟; 周逸仁

    2014-01-01

    Based on the displacement of seismic design theory,this paper introduced the basic principle and implementation of capacity spectrum method.With the background of the south to north water diver-sion project,it studied the seismic performance of an aqueduct structure, and then compared with the re-sults of nonlinear time-history analysis.Considering the particularity of aqueduct structure,when calcu-lating the demand spectrum curve,it used constant ductility elastoplastic demand spectrum which based on the code for seismic design of hydraulic structures.Analysis show that capacity spectrum method can be used for seismic performance evaluation of isolated aqueduct.%基于位移的抗震设计理论,介绍了能力谱法的基本原理和实施步骤。以南水北调工程为背景,应用该方法对渡槽结构的抗震性能进行了研究,并与非线性时程分析结果作对比。考虑到渡槽结构的特殊性,在计算需求谱曲线时,采用基于水工建筑物抗震设计规范的等延性弹塑性需求谱。分析表明:能力谱法可以用于隔震渡槽结构的抗震性能评估。

  4. Aqueductal stenosis and mental retardation associated with O S odontoideum, "hypermobile" atlantoaxial dislocation and congenital stenosis of atlas leading to spastic quadriparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupant K Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The authors report a unique concomitant occurrence of mental retardation, hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis, a freely floating atlas (having anterior, posterior and transverse atlantoaxial dislocation [AAD] consequent to an orthotopic os odontoideum and stenosis of atlantal ring. There were no features of coexisting chondroskeletal dysplasias or other systemic diseases. To the best of the authors′ knowledge, this is the first reported case of its type in the literature. Case Report: This 17-year-old girl with delayed milestones had enlarging head with vomiting at 1 year of age. Her CT scan revealed hydrocephalus with aqueductal stenosis, and she underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. She subsequently had progressive quadriparesis. A minor fall led to transient unconsciousness and aggravation of her symptoms. Radiology of the craniovertebral junction revealed os odontoideum with anterior, posterior and transverse C1-2 subluxation and atlantal ring stenosis with marked cervical compression. A C1 laminectomy with occipitocervical contoured rod fusion with onlay autologous bone graft under guidance of intraoperative image intensifier was performed. Conclusion: The concomitant presence of hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis, mental retardation and congenital stenosis of the atlantal ring points towards a congenital origin for the os odontoideum. The free floating atlantal ring on the axis led to anteroposterior and transverse AAD, necessitating intubation and occipitocervical stabilization in absolutely neutral position of the neck since both flexion as well as extension movements would have been deleterious. Congenital stenosis of atlas is an extremely rare entity; it contributed to cervical canal compromise even in neutral position of the cervical spine when the AAD had been adequately reduced, requiring an additional C1 laminectomy. The simultaneous presence of all these anomalies merited unique management considerations.

  5. Lower rates of symptom recurrence and surgical revision after primary compared with secondary endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Eric W; Goodwin, C Rory; Jusué-Torres, Ignacio; Elder, Benjamin D; Hoffberger, Jamie; Lu, Jennifer; Blitz, Ari M; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is the treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus; however, the success of ETV in patients who have previously undergone shunt placement remains unclear. The present study analyzed 103 adult patients with aqueductal stenosis who underwent ETV for obstructive hydrocephalus and evaluated the effect of previous shunt placement on post-ETV outcomes. METHODS This study was a retrospective review of 151 consecutive patients who were treated between 2007 and 2013 with ETV for hydrocephalus. One hundred three (68.2%) patients with aqueductal stenosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus were included in the analysis. Postoperative ETV patency and aqueductal and cisternal flow were assessed by high-resolution, gradient-echo MRI. Post-ETV Mini-Mental State Examination, Timed Up and Go, and Tinetti scores were compared with preoperative values. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed comparing the post-ETV outcomes in patients who underwent a primary (no previous shunt) ETV (n = 64) versus secondary (previous shunt) ETV (n = 39). RESULTS The majority of patients showed significant improvement in symptoms after ETV; however, no significant differences were seen in any of the quantitative tests performed during follow-up. Symptom recurrence occurred in 29 (28.2%) patients after ETV, after a median of 3.0 (interquartile range 0.8-8.0) months post-ETV failure. Twenty-seven (26.2%) patients required surgical revision after their initial ETV. Patients who received a secondary ETV had higher rates of symptom recurrence (p = 0.003) and surgical revision (p = 0.003), particularly in regard to additional shunt placement/revision post-ETV (p = 0.005). These differences remained significant after multivariate analysis for both symptom recurrence (p = 0.030) and surgical revision (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS Patients with obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis exhibit symptomatic improvement after ETV, with a

  6. Intrinsic factors determining the physical behaviour and durability ofthe Miocene sandstones used to build the Zaghouan-Carthage aqueduct (Tunis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoghlami, K.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the relationship between the intrinsic factors, physical behaviour and durability of Miocene Age sandstone used to build Tunisian Heritage Monuments, and more specifically the Zaghouan-Carthage aqueduct. A petrography study (optical microscopy and mercury intrusion porosi metry was conducted to characterize the porous system of the rock. Stone hydric behaviour was also determined by finding vacuum saturation, desorption, capillary and water vapor transmission. Finally, mechanical strength (compressive strength, abrasion resistance and durability (via accelerated sodium sulfate crystallization ageing were also found. The results obtained were indicative of good hydric performance due to the macroporous nature of the stone and the connectivity of its porous system. This rock was also found to have very low mechanical strength due to its scant lithification, making it particularly susceptible to salt weathering. It was also observed to be highly resistant to chemical alteration, given the absence of chemically unstable minerals in its composition. The durability of the material was consequently found to depend directly on the presence or absence of salts in the monument.

    En este trabajo se estudia la relación entre los factores intrínsecos, el comportamiento físico y la alterabilidad de la arenisca miocénica utilizada en el Patrimonio Monumental de Túnez, en concreto, en el acueducto romano de Zaghouan-Cartago. A partir del estudio petrográfico detallado de la roca se ha caracterizado el sistema poroso mediante microscopía y porosimetría de mercurio. También se ha caracterizado su comportamiento hídrico (absorción al vacío, desorción, capilaridad, permeabilidad al vapor de agua, se ha determinado su comportamiento mecánico (resistencia a compresión, resistencia al desgaste por rozamiento y su durabilidad mediante ensayos acelerados de cristalización de sales (sulfato de sodio. Los resultados

  7. 南水北调中线湍河渡槽槽身施工方案研究%Construction scheme of Tuanhe aqueduct of Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简兴昌; 梁仁强; 杨谢芸

    2014-01-01

    To meet the design requirements of quality and construction schedule of Tuanhe aqueduct of South- to-North Wa-ter Diversion, the paper compares the construction schemes and technologies by two methods of full scaffold and aqueduct fabrica-tion machine according to engineering and structural properties of the aqueduct. With the tech-economic comparison from five aspects of construction quality, period, cost, safety and construction diversion, the optimized construction scheme by aqueduct fabrication machine with 40m width of span and 1600t weight is selected and successfully applied in engineering practice. The project was totally completed on September 28, 2013. The successful experience has significant promoting effect to the construc-tion equipment, technology and techniques of large-scale aqueducts in China.%为保证南水北调中线湍河渡槽的施工质量和工期满足设计要求,结合渡槽的工程特性及槽身结构特点,对槽身满堂支架法及造槽机法的施工方案及施工工艺进行了研究。经施工质量、工期、造价、安全、施工导流等方面的技术经济比较,优选出40 m跨1600 t重的造槽机施工方案,并成功应用于工程实践。工程于2013年9月28日完成全部施工,其成功经验,对我国大型渡槽施工设备、施工工艺、施工技术具有巨大推动作用。

  8. Study on structural design and foundation treatment of Chengzi aqueduct in Maliba area%云南麻栗坝城子渡槽结构设计与基础处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝琼

    2016-01-01

    云南麻栗坝城子渡槽虽然设计过流量小,但槽身长,工程地质条件复杂,易产生不均匀沉降问题。结合城子渡槽的工程地质条件和建筑物特点,对槽身的结构型式及渡槽的断面型式进行了比选,在此基础上提出了渡槽结构与基础处理设计方案。桩基试验与工程实践表明,城子渡槽采用的梁式U型结构型式、钻孔钢筋混凝土灌注桩基础方案以及跨河段采用的三连拱结构、重力墩基础方案合理可靠。%The design of Chengzi aqueduct is characterized as small flow and long aqueduct body and the problem of uneven settlement exists due to the complex engineering -geologic conditions .In combination with the engineering -geologic conditions and features of the structure , structural form of the aqueduct body and cross section forms were compared and selected , and the design of aqueduct structure and foundation treatment were studied on this basis .The pile foundation tests and engineering prac-tice indicate that it is reasonable , feasible, safe and reliable to adopting the U -shaped beam structure and reinforced concrete with filling pile foundation for the aqueduct , and 3-arched structure and gravity pier foundation scheme for the cross -river sec-tion.

  9. Observation of the CSF pulsatile flow in an aqueduct using cine MRI with presaturation bolus tracking, (2); The classification of pulsatile-flow patterns in adult patients with ventriculomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Satoshi; Akada, Shouhiro; Deguchi, Itaru; Miwa, Tetsurou; Itoh, Hiroshi (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    Various to-and-fro motion patterns of the CSF flow in an aqueduct were analyzed in ten normal volunteers, in ten patients with secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus, in nine patients with idiopathic ventriculomegaly, and in five cases of brain atrophy using cine MRI with presaturation bolus tracking. The to-and-fro motion patterns were classified into four types. Type I; in which the velocity of the CSF in the aqueduct is slower than 15 mm/sec, and the duration of the flow in the caudal direction is longer than in the rostral. Type II; in which the velocity of the CSF in the aqueduct is faster than 15 mm/sec, and the duration of the flow in the caudal direction is longer than in the rostral. Type III; in which the velocity is relatively faster than Type I, but the duration of the flow in the caudal direction is shorter than in the rostral. Type IV; in which the velocity is slower than 15 mm/sec, and the duration of the flow in the caudal direction is shorter than in the rostral. In secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), the flow patterns were all of Type II. In idiopathic ventriculomegaly, the cases of which showed ventricular reflux on RI-cisternography, the flow patterns were divided into three types (II, III and IV). In the cases of brain atrophy, who did not show ventricular reflux on RI-cisternography, the flow patterns were all of Type I. We conclude that the evaluation of the CSF pulsatile flow in the aqueduct can give new clinical information for use in investigating the pathogenesis of the ventriculomegaly. (author).

  10. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-07-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone.

  11. Analysis on Key Points for Supervision Quality Control of Aqueduct Construction, Pengshui Hydropower Project%浅析重庆彭水水电站渡槽施工监理质量控制要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董团结

    2014-01-01

    渡槽上连明渠段,下接升船机,是彭水水电站通航建筑物的重要组成部分。通过参建各方努力,在监理工程师有效的质量控制下,克服了单根箱梁体型较大、结构复杂、质量要求高、安装困难、安全问题突出。安全、顺利的完成了渡槽箱梁的预制、安装、铺装层钢纤维混凝土浇筑等施工。整个渡槽施工质量良好,投入使用后,运行正常,达到了各项设计要求。%The aqueduct, which is connected the open canal at upstream and lift lock at downstream, is one important component of the navigation structures of Pengshui Hydropower Project.With the effective quality control by the Supervision Engineer, difficulties in terms of large box girder, complicated structure, high quality requirement and outstanding safety factors are overcome.The aqueduct box girder is smoothly precast , installed and steel-fiber concreted .The quality-secured construction of the aqueduct satisfies design requirements and assures its normal operation after being put into service.

  12. Petrophysical behaviour and durability of the Miocene sandstones used in the architectural heritage of Tunisia (Roman aqueduct of Oued Miliane and Uthina Roman site)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghlami, K.; Gómez-Gras, D.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryIn the present work, the relationship between intrinsic factors, mechanical properties and durability of Miocene sandstones used in the architectural heritage of Tunisia, specifically in the Roman aqueduct of Oued Miliane and Uthina site, are studied. The petrographic study and the characterisation of porous network have been carried out using optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry and laser scanner confocal microscopy (LSCM). The hygric behaviour has also been determined from water absorption under vacuum, drying, capillary water absorption and water vapour permeability. The mechanical properties have been assessed from compressive strength and abrasion tests. Rock durability has been evaluated from salt crystallization (sodium sulphate) accelerated aging tests. The results show good hygric behaviour characterised by a high evaporation rate and almost no retention of water; due to the macroporous character of the rock and the good connectivity of the pore network. Because of the poor lithification, the stone has a very low mechanical strength which makes it very vulnerable to the salt crystallization effects. The absence of chemically unstable minerals preserves the rock from chemical alteration. The durability of the building stone is mainly conditioned by salt loading of the monument.

  13. Effects of hazardous pollutants on the walls of Valence Aqueduct (Istanbul) by Raman spectroscopy, SEM-EDX and Geographical Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsalan, O; Kuzucuoglu, A H

    2016-01-01

    This study involves Raman spectroscopic (176-2900cm(-1)), SEM-EDX and Geographical Information System studies of the pollutants on the walls of Valence Aqueduct (Bozdoğan Kemeri), Istanbul, Turkey. Raman spectroscopy is a useful analytical method in characterization of painting materials and corrosion products. Especially, when it is not possible to take the samples from the place they exist, handheld Raman spectrometers play an important role to identify the materials in these samples. Furthermore, more information could be gathered when it is combined with SEM-EDX studies. On the other hand, regarding the cultural heritage, it is crucial to determine precise coordinates of the historical peninsula and the samples which have been exposed to pollutants, by Geographical Information Systems in order to study them and take precautions for the future. Handheld Raman spectrometer (NanoRam by B&WTek) allows recording of acceptable and good quality spectra of a large majority of minerals outdoors. Raman spectra of minerals and pollutants in this study were obtained using 785nm laser excitation source. Observed Raman bands are found at correct wavenumber positions within ±3cm(-1) compared to reference values in the literature. Taking into account the resolution of the spectrometer (9cm(-1)), the results are still reliable and applicable on such systems. Areas of potential applications of these instruments include all kind of common geoscience work outdoors.

  14. 基于概率密度演化的渡槽结构抗震分析%Seismic Analysis of Large-scale Aqueduct Structures Based on the Probability Density Evolution Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾波; 邢彦富; 刘章军

    2014-01-01

    Using the orthogonal expansion method of random processes,the non-stationary seismic acceleration process is represented as a linear combination of the standard orthogonal basis func-tions and the standard orthogonal random variables.Then,using the random function,these stand-ard orthogonal random variables in the orthogonal expansion are expressed as an orthogonal func-tion form of the basic random variable.Therefore,this method can use a basic random variable to express the original earthquake ground processes.The orthogonal expansion-random function ap-proach was used to generate 126 representative earthquake samples,and each representative sam-ple was assigned a given probability.The 126 representative earthquake samples were combined with the probability density evolution method of stochastic dynamical systems and random seis-mic responses of large-scale aqueduct structures was investigated.In this study,four cases were considered;aqueduct without water,aqueduct with water in the central trough,aqueduct with wa-ter in a two-side trough,and aqueduct with water in three troughs,and probability information of seismic responses for these cases were obtained.Moreover,using the proposed method,the seis-mic reliability of the aqueduct structures was efficiently calculated.This method provides a new and effective means for precise seismic analysis of large-scale aqueduct structures.%应用随机过程的正交展开方法,将地震动加速度过程展开为标准正交基函数与标准正交随机变量的线性组合形式。在此基础上采用随机函数的思想,将正交展开式中的标准正交随机变量表达为基本随机变量的函数形式,从而实现用一个基本随机变量来表达原地震动过程的目的。结合地震动过程的正交展开-随机函数模型与概率密度演化方法,对某大型渡槽结构进行随机地震反应分析与抗震可靠度计算;重点研究空槽和三槽有水等四种工况下渡槽结构

  15. Radiological findings of the cochlear aqueduct in patients with Meniere's disease using high-resolution CT and high-resolution MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonas J-H; Shen, Anmin; Keil, Sebastian; Kraemer, Nils; Westhofen, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cochlear aqueduct (CA) in Meniere's disease (MD) and to disclose radiological differences of CA between MD and non-MD patients by means of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI). Radiological data of 86 ears of MD patients which were separated into 52 ears of diseased side group (MD-D group) and 34 ears of contralateral non-affected side group of unilateral MD (MD-ND group), 27 ears of patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL group) and 56 ears of patients with somatoform dizziness and normal hearing (control group) were analyzed retrospectively. The bony type of CA, the bony length of CA, and the bony width of CA medial orifice was measured in HRCT. The visibility of CA in HRMRI was scored. Fluid length in CA and fluid width in medial orifice were measured in HRMRI. Data were compared between MD-D, MD-ND, SNHL, and control group. There were no significant differences in the bony type of CA, bony length of CA, bony width of CA medial orifice, and fluid width of CA medial orifice between MD-D, MD-ND, SNHL and control group (p > 0.05). However, CA fluid length of MD-D (5.13 ± 1.88 mm) and of MD-ND group (5.44 ± 1.81 mm) was significantly shorter than fluid length of SNHL (6.90 ± 1.55 mm) (p < 0.001, p = 0.001) and of control group (7.43 ± 1.24 mm) (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). The ratio between CA fluid length and CA bony length was the smallest in MD-D group (0.403; p = 0.009). CA bony dimensions of affected ears of MD are normal, but CA fluid length is decreased.

  16. Molecular epidemiology and functional assessment of novel allelic variants of SLC26A4 in non-syndromic hearing loss patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in SLC26A4, which encodes pendrin, are a common cause of deafness. SLC26A4 mutations are responsible for Pendred syndrome and non-syndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA. The mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 varies widely among ethnic groups. To investigate the incidence of EVA in Chinese population and to provide appropriate genetic testing and counseling to patients with SLC26A4 variants, we conducted a large-scale molecular epidemiological survey of SLC26A4. METHODS: A total of 2352 unrelated non-syndromic hearing loss patients from 27 different regions of China were included. Hot spot regions of SLC26A4, exons 8, 10 and 19 were sequenced. For patients with one allelic variant in the hot spot regions, the other exons were sequenced one by one until two mutant alleles had been identified. Patients with SLC26A4 variants were then examined by temporal bone computed tomography scan for radiological diagnosis of EVA. Ten SLC26A4 variants were cloned for functional study. Confocal microscopy and radioisotope techniques were used to examine the membrane expression of pendrin and transporter function. RESULTS: Of the 86 types of variants found, 47 have never been reported. The ratio of EVA in the Chinese deaf population was at least 11%, and that in patients of Han ethnicity reached at least 13%. The mutational spectrum and mutation detection rate of SLC26A4 are distinct among both ethnicities and regions of Mainland China. Most of the variants caused retention of pendrin in the intracellular region. All the mutant pendrins showed significantly reduced transport capability. CONCLUSION: An overall description of the molecular epidemiological findings of SLC26A4 in China is provided. The functional assessment procedure can be applied to identification of pathogenicity of variants. These findings are valuable for genetic diagnosis, genetic counseling, prenatal testing and pre-implantation diagnosis in EVA families.

  17. 华北滨海地区土地整治中的管道输水灌溉工程研究%Research on Aqueduct Irrigation Project in Land Reclamation over Coastal Areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘风建; 尹永红

    2012-01-01

    河北省沧州市滨海地区耕地整治潜力大,水资源严重不足,节水灌溉措施成为区域土地整治持续的重要基础.该文以沧州市南大港孔庄子南土地整治项目为例,在种植业资源环境分析的基础上,针对滨海地区土地整治项目中管道输水工程的设计,从灌溉水源情况、取水工程布置、田间管道输水灌溉工程中管道布置及保护装置的设置等方面进行了分析和探讨,认为发展管道输水灌溉工程应是滨海地区扩大土地整治规模的重要措施.%The coastal areas in Cangzhou City Hebei Province have a great potential of reclamation on cultivated land. With a serious shortage of water resources, water-saving irrigation measures become an important basis for continued regional land reclamation. Taking land reclamation project in south of Kongzhuangzi County Nandagang Region in Cangzhou City as an example, based on analysis of farming resources and environment, the situation of irrigation water, set of intake water project and arrangement of aqueduct and protection device in field aqueduct irrigation were studied. The results showed that the development of aqueduct irrigation project is an important measure to expand the scale of land reclamation.

  18. Observation of the CSF pulsatile flow in the aqueduct using cine MRI with presaturation bolus tracking, 3; The pathophysiological significance of the pulsatile flow patterns in adult patients with ventriculomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Satoshi (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-06-01

    The to-and-fro motion patterns of the CSF flow in the aqueduct in ten normal adults, ten patients with secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), and fourteen patients with idiopathic ventriculomegaly were analyzed using cine MRI with presaturation bolus tracking. The to-and-fro motion patterns of the CSF flow in the aqueduct were thus classified into four types according to their maximum velocity and the relative time duration of their flow in the rostral and caudal directions. The correlation between the clinical symptoms, the CT findings, the RI-cisternography findings, the results of the ICP monitorings, and the CSF pulsatile-flow patterns were then analyzed. In secondary NPH disclosing frequent B waves on ICP monitoring, the maximum velocity of the CSF flow in the aqueduct was over 15 mm/sec, and the duration of the CSF flow was longer in the caudal direction than in the rostral direction. Furthermore, the faster the maximum velocity of the CSF flow, the larger the ventricular size on CT and the more severe the CSF malabsorption on cisternography. In idiopathic ventriculomegaly, only two cases demonstrated the same CSF flow pattern as was shown in secondary NPH; the other cases demonstrated other CSF flow patterns, which were considered to indicate hydrocephalus ex vacuo or arrested hydrocephalus. The CSF pulsatile-flow pattern was assumed to change according to the degree of the CSF circulatory disorder, its compensatory process, and the plasticity of the brain. The investigation of the CSF pulsatile flow gives important information for the evaluation of various hydrocephalic conditions. (author).

  19. Sur le fonctionnement d'un ouvrage de grande hydraulique antique, l'aqueduc de Nîmes et le pont du Gard (Languedoc, France)The hydraulic engineering of the ancient aqueduct of Nimes and the Pont du Gard (Languedoc, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossy, Gonzague; Fabre, Guilhem; Glard, Yves; Joseph, Christian

    2000-06-01

    The aqueduct at Nimes is the best known of all the Gallo-Roman aqueducts in France. Interdisciplinary, permanent and recent research (topography, karstic hydrology, hydraulic modelling...) provides a new insight into its functioning. It was fed exclusively by the Eure karstic springs (Uzes, Gard) and the water passed through a channel with successive segmented reaches and horizontal banks. This made it possible to regulate the flow according to demand and to control it through small hydraulic structures directly connected to the channel. The maximum discharge ranged from 200 to 400 L·s -1.

  20. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B Beggs

    Full Text Available Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV cross-sectional area (CSA in these two groups, something previously unknown.65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years and 74 healthy controls (HCs (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA.PLSCA revealed a significant difference (p<0.001; effect size = 1.072 between MS patients and HCs in the positive relationship between CSF pulsatility and IJV-CSA at C5-T1, something not detected at C2-C4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019 and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020; and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026 and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039, whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021. Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015.In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients.

  1. 前庭导水管扩大致突发性耳聋的临床治疗体会%Clinical experience in treatment of sudden deafness caused by enlargement of vestibular aqueduct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝剑萍; 师天祥; 闫文斐; 折萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the treatment option and efficacy of sudden deafness caused by enlargement of vestibular aqueduct. Methods 7 children with sudden deafness caused by enlargement of vestibular aqueduct from Jan 2011 to Dec 2011 in our department were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the level of hearing loss before admission , and received different treatment. Ginkgo biloba extracts and glucocorticoids were applied to patients with mild or moderate hearing loss; gangliosides GMI and glucocorticoids to those with severe or profound hearing loss. The efficacy was observed. Results There was no significant difference between the effects of the two kinds of treatment when the level of hearing loss was mild or moderate. However, as for children with severe and profound hearing loss, the hearing was significantly improved when using Gangliosides GMI and glucocorticoids. Conclusion Gangliosides GMI and glucocorticoids have obvious significant efficacy especially in the treatment of severe and profound sudden deafness caused by enlargement of vestibular aqueduct.%目的 探讨前庭导水管扩大致突发性耳聋的治疗方案及疗效.方法 分析2011年1月~2011年12月住院治疗的7例因前庭导水管扩大致突发性耳聋患儿的临床资料.根据入院前听力损失程度的不同分为两组,分别采用不同的治疗方案.对轻、中度突聋患儿采用银杏叶提取物加泼尼松治疗;对重度、极重度突聋患儿采用单唾液酸四己糖神经苷脂加泼尼松治疗,观察其疗效.结果 在听力损伤为轻、中度时,两种治疗方案没有显著差别;但听力损伤为重度、极重度时,用单唾液酸四己糖神经节苷脂加糖皮质激素治疗,听力改善效果比较明显.结论 采用单唾液酸四己糖神经节苷脂加糖皮质激素治疗因前庭导水管扩大导致突发性耳聋特别是重度、极重度聋效果明显.

  2. SLC26A4 p.Thr410Met homozygous mutation in a patient with a cystic cochlea and an enlarged vestibular aqueduct showing characteristic features of incomplete partition type I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Naito, Yasushi; Moroto, Saburo; Tamaya, Rinko; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Fujiwara, Keizo; Ito, Juichi

    2014-12-01

    Mutations of SLC26A4 are associated with incomplete partition type II (IP-II) and isolated enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA). We experienced a congenitally deaf 6-year-old boy with a rare p.Thr410Met homozygous mutation in SLC26A4 who underwent bilateral cochlear implantation. He had bilateral inner ear malformation, in which the dilated vestibule and EVA were identical to those in IP-II, but the cochlea lacking a bony modiolus resembled that in incomplete partition type I. These results suggest that homozygous mutations in SLC26A4 are always associated with EVA, while the severity of cochlear malformation may vary depending on the type of SLC26A4 mutation.

  3. Síndrome do aqueduto vestibular alargado: relato de 3 casos e revisão bibliográfica Enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome: report of 3 cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Pinto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome do Aqueduto Vestibular Alargado (SAVA é caracterizada por um alargamento do aqueduto vestibular associado a uma perda auditiva neurossensorial, algumas vezes mista, que pode ser congênita ou adquirida na infância. A disacusia pode ser dividida em leve, moderada ou profunda, associada com períodos de melhora ou de piora súbita. O alargamento do aqueduto vestibular é a anomalia da orelha interna mais comum. A SAVA é admitida como resultado de uma anormalidade genética no desenvolvimento do aqueduto vestibular anterior à quinta semana de gestação. A incidência de SAVA está entre 1% e 1,3%, podendo chegar a 7% dependendo da população examinada. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar 3 casos de SAVA atendidos no Núcleo de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço de São Paulo e no serviço de Radiologia do Hospital São Camilo - São Paulo, sendo que dois pacientes são irmãos somente por parte materna. Dois pacientes eram do sexo feminino, um do sexo masculino e a idade variou de 9 a 30 anos. O método diagnóstico de eleição é a TC de osso temporais. A conduta para os casos foi o tratamento conservador com ressalva a cuidados como traumatismos cranianos, barotraumas e, quando necessário, uso de próteses auditivas.Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome is characterized by a widening of the vestibular aqueduct, associated with sensorineural hearing loss, or sometimes with mixed hearing loss, which may be congenital or acquired during childhood. The sensorineural hearing loss may be classified into mild, moderate and severe, associated with sudden periods of improvement or aggravation. The enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct is the most common inner ear anomaly. This syndrome is admitted as a result of a genetic abnormality of the vestibular aqueduct development, previous to the fifth week of gestation. The incidence of this syndrome ranges from 1% to 1.3%, with the possibility of getting up to 7

  4. 大前庭水管综合征患儿人工耳蜗植入术8例临床分析%Clinical analysis of cochlear implantation in 8 patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旋; 陈锡辉; 刘敏

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价大前庭水管综合征患者人工耳蜗植入术的安全性和效果.方法 大前庭水管综合征患者8例为内耳畸形组,其中语前聋6例,语后聋2例,以8例耳蜗发育正常的植入者作为对照组,进行手术及术后效果对比.结果 8例患者人工耳蜗电极植入顺利,7例耳蜗底回开窗时发生井喷,迅速用颞肌筋膜牢固封闭开窗处制止井喷.全部患者术后未出现脑脊液漏、颅内感染、面瘫、中耳炎等并发症,畸形组与对照组术中和术后并发症差异无显著性意义.术后听阈畸形组多数患者达到30~45dBHL,与内耳正常对照组相似,经统计学分析差异无显著性(P>0.05),听觉语言康复效果畸形组多数与对照组接近.结论 大前庭水管综合征患者在人工耳蜗植入术中易发生井喷,术中可控,术后未出现并发症,所观察患者术后听力及语言康复效果满意,因此,大前庭水管综合征患者行人工耳蜗植入术是安全有效的.%Objective To evaluate the intraoperative safe and post-operative effect of cochlear implantation in children with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.Methods 8 patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome(cochlear malformation group)received cochlear implantation.The postoperative effect of 8 cases with cochlear malformation were compared with 8 cases with norma lcochlea( control group).Results Via cochleostomy pulsatile clear fluid gusher occurred in 7 cases,which were easily controlled by quickly inserting the electrode array and sealing the cochleostomy with muscle tissue in each instance.The implant was inserted without difficulty in all patients.There have been no post-operatively complications,Post-operative hearing threshold of most cases were 30 ~45 dBHL,which similar with normal cochlea.There was no statistically significan difference between the group of malformation and the control group( P > 0.05),most of them received the similar hearing and speech

  5. Causes of misdiagnosis and Missed diagnosis in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS)%大前庭水管综合征患者误诊与漏诊原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀丽; 姚艺文; 王立志; 康建蕴; 李旭敬; 孙月华; 徐军; 王路阳

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解大前庭水管综合征(large vestibular aqueduct syndrome,LVAS)患者的临床特征,分析造成误诊和漏诊的原因.方法 观察19例被误诊或漏诊的LVAS患者,详细了解诊治经历,行纯音测听、声导抗测听及脑干诱发电位等听功能检查,所有患者均行颞骨高分辨CT检查.结果 19例患者确诊年龄为8.34±8.09岁,而最初发现听力下降的年龄为1.69±1.42岁.本组患者曾被误诊为感音神经性耳聋10例、混合性聋3例、梅尼埃病2例,另4例没有注意到听力障碍而被漏诊.年龄>6岁患者7例(14耳)纯音测听平均听阈为84.5±12.8 dB nHL,其中7耳低频区存在骨-气导差;年龄≤6岁患者12例(22耳)进行ABR检查显示客观听阈平均为67.81 +18.53 dBnHL.颞骨高分辨CT检查显示前庭水管中点宽度全部36耳平均为3.96±1.36 mm,其中32耳前庭水管与半规管总脚相通、10耳与前庭相通,23耳合并mondini畸型.结论 对于难以解释的儿童波动性感音神经性听力损失、混合性听力损失及平衡功能障碍的患者,颞骨高分辨CT检查应该作为常规检查.%Objective To summarize clinical characteristics of patients suffering from large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) and analyze possible reasons for misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis. Methods Nineteen cases of misdiag-nosed or unrecognized LVAS were included in this study. Clinical histories, pure tone audiometry, immittance audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR), and high resolution CT (HRCT) image of temporal bone were reviewed in each case. Results The mean age at diagnosis in the 19 patients was 8.34 ± 8.09 years, although the mean age of hearing loss onset was 1.69 ± 1.42 years. Among the 19 patients, 10 were misdiagnosed for sensorinearal deafness, 3 for mixed deafness, 2 for Meniere' s disease, and 4 were not diagnosed because hearing loss was ignored by their parents. Seven patients (14 ears) were older than 6 years and their mean hearing

  6. 76例大前庭水管综合征患者的临床诊治分析%Experience of 76 cases of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome, clinical diagnosis and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万良财; 郭梦和; 谢南屏; 刘双秀; 陈浩; 龚剑; 陈帅君

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨大前庭水管综合征(LVAS)的发病、临床表现及防治措施.方法:回顾性分析2002~2008年确诊的76例(152耳)LVAS患者的病史、听力、前庭功能检查及治疗过程.结果:93.4%的患者表现为感音神经性聋,61.8%的患者在低频处存在不同程度的气骨导差,听力损失>40~60 dB HL 43耳,>60~80 dB HL 47耳,>80 dB HL 62耳.听力图以下降型曲线为特征,高频下降型112耳,平坦型29耳,岛状11耳.46例患者行前庭功能检查,显示前庭功能低下.鼓室导抗图141耳A型,11耳C型.高分辨率颞骨CT扫描示:前庭水管管径最小2.2 mm,最大6.2 mm,表现为开口较宽,深部较狭窄,呈"三角形"或"喇叭形".本组76例均为单纯前庭水管扩大,无大前庭及半规管畸形或耳蜗畸形,均无智力及其他发育障碍.根据听力损失程度,20例表现为听力突然下降的患者经药物治疗后听力恢复好,11例验配了适宜的助听器,并进行听觉语言康复,45例极重度聋患者行人工耳蜗植入术,术后1个月开始编程调试效果好.结论:LVAS临床主要表现为波动性进行性听力下降,患者应尽早行颞骨高分辨CT检查,该病目前尚无确切有效的治疗方法,对有残余听力的聋儿应尽早选配助听器进行语言康复训练,对极重度聋而助听器无法达到有效补偿者,应尽早行人工耳蜗植入术.%Objective:To explore the disease incidence, clinical symptoms, prevention and treatment measures of the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). Method: Retrospective analyse the medical history, hearing, vestibular function examination and treatment of 76 LVAS patients who were diagnosed in our department of Otolaryngology from 2002 to 2008. Result: Most patients(93. 4%)showed sensorineural hearing loss. Part of patients (61. 8%)showed air-bone conduction gap in low frequency . The hearing loss of 43 ears is >40 - 60 dB HL, >60 - 80 dB HL 47 ears, >80 dB HL 62 ears. Decline curve is the

  7. LVAS与耳蜗发育状态及CI术后效果分析%Analysis of the Development of Cochlear in Large Vestibular Aqueduct and Effects after Cochlear Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏金霏; 丁秀勇; 张道行

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between the large vestibular aqueduct (LVA) and cochlear malformation,and analysize the postoperative effects after cochlear implantation (CI). Method 426 recipients of CI with 1arge vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) diagnosised by high resolution CT (HRCT) were measured and the relation of LVA to cochlear malformations was analyzed by comparing with nomal cochlea from June,2001 to December,2015.The effects of postoperative hearing, language degree of LVAS with cochlear dysplasia were compared and analyzed, too. Results Confirmed by CI, all the recipients were with dysplasia of the cochlea.There were 354 cases whose apical turn was absent, accounting for 83%. There were 72 cases whose cochlear developed less than 2 turns,accounting for 17%.In addition, there were 79 cases found perilymphatic“gusher”in CI, accounting for 18.5%. Conclusion In our study, 426 recipients of LVAS were all with partly cochlear dysplasia. It was nearly 1/5 that osseous internal auditory canal fundus was incomplete and connected with inner ear abnormally. The different effects of these patients after CI lied in the extent of the cochlea dysplasia.%目的:探讨大前庭水管畸形与耳蜗发育不良之间的关系,对人工耳蜗植入术(cochlear implantation,CI)后效果进行分析。方法自2001年6月~2015年12月间,对426例颞骨高分辨率CT( high resolution CT,HRCT)诊断为大前庭水管畸形的行CI患者的耳蜗发育状况行影像学的测量,与正常耳蜗的形态相比较,分析大前庭水管畸形与耳蜗发育状态的形态学关系,并将大前庭水管畸形伴耳蜗发育不良程度进行CI术后的听觉、言语效果的比较、分析。结果经CI证实,426例大前庭水管畸形均伴有伴耳蜗发育不良,其中耳蜗顶圈缺如354例,占83%,耳蜗发育不足小于2圈大于1.5圈者72例,占17%。79例术中出现“井喷”,占18.5%。结论①本组426例大前庭水

  8. 导水管梗阻所致巨大脑室脑积水的内镜治疗%Endoscopic treatment of ventriculomegaly hydrocephalus caused by primary or secondary aqueduct obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳平; 梁晖; 陈国强; 肖庆; 冯增伟

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the indications of surgical treatment of ventriculomegaly hydrocephalus caused by primary or secondary aqueduct obstruction and the prevention of complications. Method Endoscopic treatment of 32 cases of overt ventriculomegaly patients in total, 25 cases were subject to transfrontal -approach endoscopic third ventriculostomy, 1 case was subject to SCC cyst fistulation, 5 cases was subject to suboccipital - approach endoscopic skull cranial fossa cyst resection and cyst - cistema magnafistulation and 1 case was subject to suboccipital approach hydrocephalus plasty. Results After 1-4 years of follow - up, among 32 cases of patients of unstable walking, urinary incontinence, decreased intelligence quotient, psychomotor retardation, the symptoms of 26 cases were significantly improved and the symptoms of 6 cases of patients showed no continuous progression. The post - surgical symptoms of the six cases of patients with preoperative high intracranial pressure symptoms were improved. Conclusions The magnetic resonance imaging test shows the aqueduct stenosis or obstruction is a clear indication of patients of overt ventriculomegaly no matter whether there is clinical symptom of intracranial hypertension or not after surgical treatment As long as attentions are paid to the details during the operation process, the improvement of surgical techniques can avoid the occurrence of complications.%目的 探讨导水管梗阻所致巨大脑室脑积水手术治疗的指征及并发症预防.方法 神经内镜下共治疗32例巨大脑室脑积水患者,其中25例行经额入路第三脑室底造瘘术,1例行经额小脑上池囊肿造瘘术,5例行枕下入路内镜下后颅窝囊肿切除、囊腔枕大池造瘘,1例行经枕下入路导水管成形术.结果 术后随访1-4年,32例具有行走不稳、尿失禁、智商下降、精神运动发育迟缓的患者中,26例症状明显改善,6例症状未继续进展.6例术前存在高颅压症

  9. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EVA. However, this is a rare event in commercial aircraft with pressurized cabins. If you have EVA, ... of communication, such as sign language or cued speech, or using assistive devices, such as a hearing ...

  10. A questionnaire study on cochlear implantation in patients with large Vestibular aqueduct syndrome%前庭水管扩大行人工耳蜗植入言语康复效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓燕; 孙家强; 陈建文

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical experiences and access the Auditory performance and speech intelligibility of cochlear implantation in patients with large Vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS).Method:Utilized in this survey were the questionnarires of leveldiscriminating standards of Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) and Speech Intelligibility Rating criteria (SIR) to evaluate the speech perception and producing abilities after the the operation of cochlear implant.Results:After the regular rehabilitation,the long term follow-up of the auditory performance and speech intelligibility were very positive.There was no significant difference between normal group and malformed inner ear.Conclusion:The cochlear implantation can be performed safely in patients with LVAS.The results suggest that cochlear implantation could also provide long-term benefits to those malformed inner ear cases.%目的:探讨使用听觉和言语问卷分级评估比较前庭水管扩大伴耳蜗畸形与前庭水管扩大不伴耳蜗畸形耳聋患儿人工耳蜗植入术后的听觉言语康复效果.方法:按术前影像学检查将前庭水管扩大人工耳蜗植入患儿分为耳蜗正常组和耳蜗畸形组,并配对组合,应用问卷式听觉行为分级标准和言语识别率分级标准分别评估人工耳蜗植入患者术后的言语感知及言语产生能力,并对两组患者的耳蜗圈数与康复效果之间的相关性进行统计学分析.结果:经统计学分析,前庭水管扩大伴耳蜗畸形与前庭水管扩大伴耳蜗正常组行人工耳蜗植入术后听觉言语无显著性差异.结论:前庭水管扩大伴耳蜗畸形患者人工耳蜗植入术后,听力言语康复效果与耳蜗解剖结构正常植入者相同;人工耳蜗植入术可帮助前庭水管扩大伴耳蜗畸形的重度耳聋患者重建听力;听觉行为分级标准和言语识别率分级标准是评估人工耳蜗术后听觉言语能力的客观标准.

  11. Clinical efficacy of endoscopic third ventriculostomy for the treatment of late-onset idiopathic aqueduct stenosis%神经内镜治疗迟发特发性中脑导水管狭窄脑积水的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文龙; 詹升全; 王鹏; 周东; 唐凯; 秦琨

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨神经内镜下第三脑室底造瘘术(endoscopic third ventriculostomy,ETV)对迟发特发性中脑导水管狭窄(Late-onset idiopathic aqueduct stenosis,LIAS)脑积水的临床疗效.方法 2009年1月至2012年12月间收治的15例LIAS患者,在神经内镜下行第三脑室底造瘘治疗,并利用MRI、临床症状、蒙特利尔认知评估量表(MoCA)在术前和术后对患者进行评估、比较分析,了解LIAS患者的临床特点和神经内镜治疗效果.结果 15例LIAS患者术前MRI均有可见的中脑导水管狭窄或梗阻,侧脑室和第三脑室扩大,脑组织相对萎缩,无室管膜下渗出;术后3个月MRI显示第三脑室底造瘘口通畅,脑室缩小.MoCA、临床症状评估显示术后3个月较术前有明显改善.所有病人利用Odom评价标准进行调查,显示患者对手术效果满意度高.结论 神经内镜第三脑室底造瘘可明显改善LIAS患者的认知功能和临床症状,注意不应该把此类患者定义为静止性脑积水进行保守治疗.%Objective To analyze the clinical outcomes of Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy for the treatment of Late-onset idiopathic aqueduct stenosis (LIAS).Methods A total of 15 patients of LIAS were diagnosed during the period time from 2009.01 to 2012.12,and ETV were undergone to all of them.Evaluation were taken before and after operation (3 months) in terms of clinical symptoms,MRI results,MoCA Scale,which were analyzed and compared after operation so as to learn the cognitive characteristics of LIAS and the efficacy of ETV.Results Pre-op MRI scanning showed obvious aqueduct stenosis without any neoplasm,ventriculomegaly of the lateral and third ventricle,relatively encephalatrophy and no signs of subependymal effusion in all these patients.Post-op MRI indicated flow through the stoma at the floor of third ventricle and decreased in the size of ventricle.MoCA evaluation and clinical symptoms showed an obviously improvements after surgery and the rate

  12. 前庭导水管MSCT斜矢状位图像重建的研究%Study on the reconstruction of oblique sagittal images of multislice spiral CT for vestibular aqueduct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帆; 靳激扬; 储成凤; 葛洪; 顾康康; 靳晶

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare and analyze the full display rate for vestibular aqueduct ( VA) by a variety of MPR recon-struction methods withmultislice spiral CT so as to find VA best display image reconstruction method for VA as well as to obtain the range of normal value of VA diameter width ( MDVA) and width ( OMVA) .Methods MSCT scan data of temporal bone of individuals without obvious malformations of outside, middle and inner ear which were obtained from Tongren Hospital, Affiliated to Medical College of Southeast University, and Gulou Hospital, Affiliated to Medical College of Southeast University from 2010 to 2014, were retrospectively studied and those individuals were divided into infant group ( below nine years old) and adolescent and adult group ( over nine years old) , with 500 (1000 ears) in each group.The left and right ears were performed the MPR recon-structions of axial, sagittal, oblique standard of 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees,75 degrees sagittal and oblique sagittal plane parallel to the medial vestibular bone wall.The entire situation of VA was observed and the full display rate of VA was calculated.Finally, the eight methods for the whole disply of VA were evaluated to show whether there were differences in the display rate and the differences between different age groups were compared.The VA maximum diameter width and the normal value range of the width of the outer mouth were obtained in the reconstruction method with the highest display rate of VA.Results According to the above eight kinds of MPR reconstruction, the whole display of VA in the group of nine years old was as follow-ings:684 ears (347 right ears, left 337 ears);789 ears (387 right ears, left 402 ears);801 ears (398 right ears, left 402 ears);774 ears (385 right ears, left 389 ears);577 ears (290 right ears, left 287 ear), 284 ears (140 right ears and left 144 ears), 198 ears (right 95 ears, left 103 ears) 934 ears (469 right ears, left 465 ears), respectively

  13. 两个大前庭水管综合征家系的临床及SLC26A4基因的检测分析%Clinical and Molecular Diagnosis in Two Chinese Families with Enlargement of Vestibular Aqueduct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓丽; 崔书平; 段乃超; 马建刚; 蒋新霞; 黄爱萍; 刘艳平; 朱庆文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the clinical diagnosis and molecular pathogenesis of LAVS in two Chinese families. Methods Clinical data and DNA samples were obtained from two LAVS families. The exons and flanking spliciding sites of SLC26A4 were screened in 6 hearing loss patients and 6 normal members in the two families by PCR and direct sequencing. Results There were 9 people and a fetus in the first family of a total of 3 generations. Among them only the third generation had 2 deafness patients. There were 14 people in the second family of a total of 3 generations. Among them the second genera-tion had 3 deafness patients and the third had one deafness patient. The clinical characteristics of patients in the two families included pre-and post-lingual sensorineural hearing loss, dysphonia and enlarged vestibular aqueduct. A total of 5 different types of SLC26A4 mutations were identified in the two families. Conclusions Hearing loss in the 6 patients of the two families are probably caused by different biallelic mutations of SLC26A4. The fetus in the first family appears to be a carrier. Enhanc-ing pre-pregnancy and prenatal screening of deafness gene is of great significance in preventing this kind of deafness in new-born children.%目的:分析两个非综合征型前庭水管扩大耳聋家系的临床特征和SLC26A4基因检测特点。方法对两个非综合征型前庭水管扩大耳聋小家系进行临床表型分析,并对两个家系中的6例耳聋患者、6例听力正常者及1例胎儿进行SLC26A4基因全编码序列的检测。结果第一个家系共3代9人,其中仅第三代2人为耳聋患者,2例均为语后感音神经性聋,颞骨CT显示均为前庭水管扩大,1例胎儿。第二个家系共三代14人,其中4人为耳聋患者,1例为语后感音神经性聋,3例为语前感音神经性聋。颞骨CT显示均为前庭水管扩大。两个家系共发现SLC26A4基因1022delC、c.919-2A>G、p.G497S、p. H723R、p.T410M五种

  14. A Pathogenesis Analysis of SLC26A4 Gene Mutations in 3 Families Associated with Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome%3个大前庭水管综合征家系的SLC26A4致病位点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑娟; 梁鹏飞; 王剑; 陈阳; 查定军; 邱建华

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析大前庭水管综合征(large vestibular aqueduct syndrome,LVAS)患者家系的SLC26A4基因突变方式并确定其是否致病。方法采集3个特殊LVAS家系的血样,测序分析SLC26A4基因型。采用在线软件SIFT、Polyphen-2预测这3个家系中所携带的罕见突变方式的致病性,利用排除法证明c.2343+69C>A的非致病性。结果共检出5种突变方式,其中4种为致病性基因突变。先证者基因型为IVS7-2A>G/c.1594A>C,IVS7-2A>G/c.1327G>C,IVS7-2A>G/c.1667A>G,均为LVAS。基因型为c.1594A>C/2343+69C>A,c.1327G>C/c.2343+69C>A,c.1667A>G/c.2343+69C>A的受检者听力正常。结论 SLC26A4基因c.2343+69C>A突变方式是非致病的基因多态;3个家系先证者的父母再次妊娠出现聋儿的风险为25%。%Objective To sequence and analyze the pathogenesis of the mutation of SLC26A4 gene in 3 families of LVAS.Methods Blood samples and clinical data of 3 families of LVAS were collected. A pathogenesis analysis was conducted on the rare genemutation in the families using online software. Using a process of elimination to prove that c.2343+69C>A is benign.Results We detected five SLC26A4 gene mutations from 3 families, and confirmed that four mutations out of them are pathogenic.The genotypes of IVS7-2A>G/c.1594A>C, IVS7-2A>G/c.1327G>C, IVS7-2A>G/c.1667A>G are the probands. The genotypes of c.1594A>C/c.2343+69C>A,c.1327G>C/c.2343+69C>A, c.1667A>G/c.2343+69C>A case have normal hearing.Conclusion According to our results, SLC26A4 c.2343+69C>A is not likely to be a pathogenic mutation.If the parents of any proband of these three families want to rebirth, the newborn might have 25 percent chance to be with EVAS as the proband.

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY THROUGH LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS - CASE STUDY: OLD ROMAN AQUEDUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors chose the specific implementation approach through quality leadership function, using, therefore, a well-known model of quality implementation in modern organizations, setting the hypothesis of its possible application in the construction of water supply in ancient Rome.

  16. Multidisciplinary investigations on the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mucciarelli; S. I. Giano; D. Chianese; M. Bavusi

    2004-01-01

    The Romans built the ancient town of Grumentum during the 3rd century B.C. in the southern part of the Agri high Valley (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) near the confluence of the Sciaura stream in the Agri River. Now it is one of the most important archaeological sites of Southern Italy. In fact, after a period of wars in this area between Romans and Carthaginians, a great deal of restoration was started in 57 B.C. These works affected the city walls, public buildings ...

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY THROUGH LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS - CASE STUDY: OLD ROMAN AQUEDUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Arsovski; Srđan Nikezić; Srđan Vladetić

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors chose the specific implementation approach through quality leadership function, using, therefore, a well-known model of quality implementation in modern organizations, setting the hypothesis of its possible application in the construction of water supply in ancient Rome.

  18. Draft Environmental Statement/Environmental Impact Report. North Bay Aqueduct (Phase II Facilities) Solano County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    restricted to the area between Napa and costs for pumping ground water locally St. Helena , with an estimated range in were S15.50/acre-foot in the Putah...Plain safe yield of 5,500-28,150 acre-feet per area, the additional costs of a water year. /11,12/ North of St. Helena transport system would be...of Water Resources, Central District. /6/ Ibid. /7/ Personal communication; Curtis , Don; Public Works Director, City of Benicia. /8/ Personal

  19. Progressive fluctuant hearing loss, enlarged vestibular aqueduct, and cochlear hypoplasia in branchio-oto-renal syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, M.H.; Stinckens, C.I.C.; Kumar, S.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Joosten, F.B.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the results of petrosal bone imaging and audiometric long-term follow-up of two patients with branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome and relate them to the clinical features, including caloric responses. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal case study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENT

  20. Cochlear implantation in Pendred syndrome and non-syndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct - clinical challenges, surgical results, and complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mey, Kristianna; Bille, Michael; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2016-01-01

    or on populations with mixed cochlear malformations. PS/NSEVA accounts for up to 10% of congenital SNHL, rendering this a large group of cochlear implant candidates. The abnormal inner ear anatomy of these patients may be associated with a lower surgical success rate and a higher rate of complications. STUDY DESIGN...

  1. Thoughts Regarding the Dimensions of Faults at Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas, Nye County, Nevada, Based on Surface and Underground Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drellack, S.L.; Prothro, L.B.; Townsend, M.J.; Townsend, D.R.

    2011-02-01

    The geologic setting and history, along with observations through 50 years of detailed geologic field work, show that large-displacement (i.e., greater than 30 meters of displacement) syn- to post-volcanic faults are rare in the Rainier Mesa area. Faults observed in tunnels and drill holes are mostly tight, with small displacements (most less than 1.5 meters) and small associated damage zones. Faults are much more abundant in the zeolitized tuffs than in the overlying vitric tuffs, and there is little evidence that faults extend downward from the tuff section through the argillic paleocolluvium into pre-Tertiary rocks. The differences in geomechanical characteristics of the various tuff lithologies at Rainier Mesa suggest that most faults on Rainer Mesa are limited to the zeolitic units sandwiched between the overlying vitric bedded tuffs and the underlying pre-Tertiary units (lower carbonate aquifer–3, lower clastic confining unit–1, and Mesozoic granite confining unit).

  2. Community Knowledge Sharing and Co-Production of Water Services: Two Cases of Community Aqueduct Associations in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Llano-Arias

    2015-06-01

    These new forms of citizenship based on claims of sovereignty over natural, common goods are gradually transforming Colombian democratic space. The article draws on debates around active citizenship, deepening democracy, and participatory communication approaches to explain the aims of community organisations and the mechanisms by which they are self-organising and managing water at the local level.

  3. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of section 14 to its intersection with the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct, T4S, R2E; then (15) Follow the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct west-southwest approximately 4.2 miles to the Aqueduct's intersection with the...

  4. 颅内疾病对导水管脑脊液流量的影响%Correlation of intracranial disorder with CSF flow alterations in the aqueduct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓林; 罗志刚; 戈明媚; 廖玉珍

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨用磁共振相位对比电影(PC cine)对导水管脑脊液定量测量的临床应用价值.方法:将35例中枢神经系统不同疾病分三组,用PC cine方法进行导水管脑脊液流量测量.结果:在脑血管病组伴白质改变时导水管流量增加;梗阻性脑积水导水管流量减少,流动波形异常;交通性脑积水导水管流量增加,波形圆钝.结论:磁共振PC cine方法测量导水管脑脊液流量简单易行,可为临床提供更多的影像信息.

  5. Selection and Installation Technology of Geothermal Water Aqueduct%地热水输水管道的选型及安装技术的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立生

    2013-01-01

    With the implementation of the national policy of energy saving and emission reduction, local thermal heating and hot water units also start to reduce costs and increase efficiency. Because the tubing of traditional water pipe is carbon steel and the hot water has more serious corrosion to the pipes, so network maintenance costs are increasing, and it is imperative to choose new corrosion resistant pipe. This article starts with the analysis of corrosion mechanism of geothermal water on the steel pipe, and discusses the ways to select the new pipe material with temperature resistance feature according to actual situation of Bohai Petroleum Hydro Service Company.%  随着国家节能减排政策的实施,各地热供暖及地热供水单位也在降本增效,由于传统的输水管道采用碳钢管材,而地热水对管道的腐蚀较为严重,造成管网维护费用增大,这样输水管道选用新型抗腐蚀管材势在必行。文章从分析地热水对钢管的腐蚀机理入手,根据渤海石油水电公司实际情况对输送热水的耐温新型管材如何选用及施工方法进行探讨。

  6. Design and Construction Technical Problems of Gravity Aqueduct under Complex Topographic and Geologic Conditions%复杂地形地质条件下自流式输水管道设计施工技术问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学志

    2013-01-01

      在基岩山区复杂地形地质条件下,怎样能使自流输水管道设计施工科学经济合理,做到投资少效果好,这是工程技术人员在设计施工中应解决的问题。只要抓住自流输水管道的水气流原理,采取适当的工程措施,使水压传递连续,问题就容易解决。%In complex terrain mountainous bedrock geological conditions, how to conduct scientific economic and rational design and construction of artesian water pipelines and achieve less investment and good effect is the issue to be addressed by engineering and technical personnel in the design and construction. Only grasping the water and gas convection law of artesian water pipelines and taking appropriate engineering measures can the problem be easily solved.

  7. Hydrography, Surface water within Sedgwick County including rivers, streams, lakes, ponds and floodways. Some additional drainage ways and aqueducts are also included., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Surface...

  8. Imaging analysis of enlarged vestibular aqueduct complicated with inner ear malformations%前庭导水管扩大合并内耳畸形的影像学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢庆娜; 张小安; 赵鑫; 姚晓宾

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨前庭导水管扩大(EVA)和耳蜗发育异常、前庭耳蜗发育不良等内耳畸形间的关系.方法:回顾性分析郑州大学第三附属医院2010-2012年诊断为EVA的患者30例60耳.均行MSCT及MRI检查,评估EVA患者合并的其他内耳异常.结果:选取的60耳均患有EVA,双侧EVA 26例,单侧EVA 4例,12例女性和18例男性.平均年龄1.8岁(6月~4.2岁).45(80.4%)耳EVA同时合并有一个或多个内耳异常.30(53.6%)耳合并耳蜗发育不良,9(16.1%)耳合并前庭耳蜗发育不良.结论:小视野、薄层MSCT和磁共振内耳水成像相结合,可以准确的发现EVA通常合并的内耳发育畸形,尤以耳蜗发育不良最常见.

  9. North Bay Aqueduct (Phase II Facilities), Solano County, California. Regulatory Permit Application Made by the California Department of Water Resources to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Public Notice 12950-58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    ground water storage. In essence , it would operate as an enlargement of San Luis Reservoir. Los Banos Grandes Reservoir would be in the hills just south...basins have an estimated safe pump- vegetation can also be found along some ing yield that ranges from 106,000 to of the larger creeks. Eucalyptus trees...concentrated in the northeastern portion eucalyptus )(Plate 2a). of the project area. Row crops, such as corn and sugarbeets, are the most common

  10. 考虑剪力滞影响的渡槽单元刚度矩阵分析%Aqueduct Structure Element Stiffness Matrix Analysis Considering Shear Lag Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周士虎

    2010-01-01

    有限元法在结构分析中的应用已经非常成熟,但是在很多具体模型中,由于要求不一样,结构单元刚度矩阵和单元质量矩阵需要考虑的内容不一样,因此结构单元刚度矩阵和单元质量矩阵的型式和内容也有所区别.文章采用理论方法推导出渡槽结构考虑剪力滞影响的单元刚度矩阵,使有限元法在渡槽结构的非线性结构反应分析中得到应用.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid flow and production in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus studied by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C

    1994-01-01

    An interleaved velocity-sensitised fast low-angle shot pulse sequence was used to study cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the cerebral aqueduct, and supratentorial CSF production in 9 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and 9 healthy volunteers. The peak aqueduct CSF flow, both caudal...

  12. Application of phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging in endoscopic aqueductoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jiaping; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Yunsheng

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endoscopic aqueductoplasty (EA) for patients with obstructive hydrocephalus. The clinical diagnosis of hydrocephalus caused by aqueduct obstruction in 23 patients was confirmed by phase-contrast cine MRI examination. The patients were treated with EA and MRI was repeated during the follow-up. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow velocity in the aqueduct was measured to determine whether the aqueduct was obstructed. The results of phase-contrast cine MRI examinations indicated that there was no CSF flow in the aqueduct for all patients prior to surgery. Aqueductoplasty was successfully performed in all patients. The results of phase-contrast cine MRI examinations performed a week after surgery demonstrated an average CSF flow velocity of 4.74±1.77 cm/sec. During the follow-up, intracranial hypertension recurred in two patients in whom CSF flow was not observed in the aqueduct by the phase-contrast cine MRI scan. Aqueduct re-occlusion was revealed by an endoscopic exploration. By measuring the CSF flow velocity, phase-contrast cine MRI accurately identifies aqueduct obstruction. Cine MRI is a nontraumatic, simple and reliable method for determining whether the aqueduct is successfully opened following aqueductoplasty.

  13. Perilymphatic pressure dynamics following posture change in patients with Meniere's disease and in normal hearing subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosingh, HJ; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    1998-01-01

    The hydrostatic pressure of the inner ear depends on the cerebrospinal fluid pressure through the cochlear aqueduct. The time-course of inner ear pressure change following rapid change in cerebrospinal fluid pressure is related to the aqueduct patency. In this study the patency of the cochlear aqued

  14. NEUROCISTICERCOSIS CON LOCALIZACION EN ACUEDUCTO DE SILVIO: DESCRIPCION DE CASO Y REVISION DE LA LITERATURA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dominguez de la Ossa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. We report a patient with neurocysticercosis in Silvio aqueduct . A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was place and there were not surgical complications the surgical procedure is described and we analized the inusual localization in Silvio aqueduct

  15. The new Bracciano water supply system; Il nuovo acquedotto del lago di Bracciano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaco, Mario; Eramo, Biagio; Martino, Giorgio [ACEA, Azienda Comunale Energia ed Ambiente, Rome (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    The New Bracciano Aqueduct will almost complete the Rome Water Supply System planned since 1955; as well it represents the prosecution of the ancient Rome water supply tradition started more than two thousand years ago. The new aqueduct, with its present discharge of 3.2 m{sup 3}/s increasable to 8.0 m{sup 3}/s in the future, will improve Rome water system reliability. It will be possible, infact, to put ``out of service`` one of the other main roman aqueducts without creating any problem to users. This is of great importance for the reliability actually related to incertain stability condition of the oldest roman aqueduct as well as Peschiera (about 50 years old) and Acqua Marcia (more of 90 years old) Aqueducts.

  16. Water supply of Rome in antiquity and today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, P.; Boni, C.

    1996-03-01

    In ancient Rome, water was considered a deity to be worshipped and most of all utilized in health and art. The availability of huge water supplies was considered a symbol of opulence and therefore an expression of power. The countryside around Rome offered a spectacular view: it was adorned with an incalculable number of monuments, temples, and villas, and it was crossed by sturdy aqueducts with magnificent arcades. The aqueduct as a superelevated monumental work is a typical concept of the Roman engineering, although it is possible to recognize that the inspiration and the basic ideas came from Etruscan technology. The Etruscans did not construct real aqueducts, even though they built hydraulic works as irrigation channels, drainage systems, dams, etc. The Greeks had also built similar hydraulic structures, before the Roman influence. Interesting aqueduct remains are in Rome, Segovia (Spain), Nimes (France), and Cologne (Germany), among other places.

  17. An analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabe, Hideo; Nagai, Hajime (Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Banno, Tatsuo

    1994-07-01

    Using a cine mode technique and a gradient-echo magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing, the MR signal intensity of the aqueduct has been evaluated in twelve patients suspected of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). In patients with a substantial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation disturbance in the subarachnoid space, marked changes in the signal intensity of the aqueduct were seen during heart cycles, whereas in patients with less of a CSF circulation disturbance, changes in the signal intensity of the aqueduct were not as marked. Further, all patients manifesting marked changes in the signal intensity of the aqueduct showed a clinical improvement in their symptoms after undergoing a shunt. These results suggest that cine-mode MRI is useful for assessing the CSF dynamics and may be helpful in selecting patients who would benefit from shunt therapy. (author).

  18. Congenital hydrocephalus following X-irradiation of pregnant rats on an early gestational day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, I.K.; Takeuchi, Y.K.

    1986-03-01

    When pregnant rats were X-irradiated at a dose of 100 R on gestational day 9.5, a considerable number of postnatally-viable hydrocephalic offspring resulted, all of which were accompanied with bilateral micro- or anophthalmia. Histological studies revealed that the cerebral aqueduct of the congenital hydrocephalic brain was severely stenosed, and the subcommissural organ was reduced in size and displaced at some distance from the anterior end of the cerebral aqueduct. From embryological studies, it was considered that the maldevelopment of the subcommissural organ in the X-irradiated fetus might cause a reduction in the amount of its secretions which function as a cushion preventing complete closure of the cerebral aqueduct during fetal life, resulting in stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct.

  19. Application of Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Engineering Site Investigation. A Case Study on Prospective Hospital Site, Varamin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Amin; Ramazi, Hamidreza

    2016-12-01

    The article addresses the application of electrical resistivity imaging for engineering site investigation in Pishva Hospital, Varamin, Iran. Some aqueduct shafts exist in the study area backfilled by loose materials. The goals of this study are to detect probable aqueduct tunnels and their depth, investigate filling quality in the shafts as well as connection(s) between them. Therefore, three profiles were surveyed by dipoledipole electrode array. Also, to investigate the potentially anomalous areas more accurately, five additional resistivity profiles were measured by a Combined Resistivity Sounding-Profiling array (CRSP). According to the results of 2-D inversion modelling, a main aqueduct tunnel was detected beneath the central part of the site. Finally, the resistivity pattern of the detected aqueduct system passing the investigated area was provided using the obtained results.

  20. Application of Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Engineering Site Investigation. A Case Study on Prospective Hospital Site, Varamin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the application of electrical resistivity imaging for engineering site investigation in Pishva Hospital, Varamin, Iran. Some aqueduct shafts exist in the study area backfilled by loose materials. The goals of this study are to detect probable aqueduct tunnels and their depth, investigate filling quality in the shafts as well as connection(s between them. Therefore, three profiles were surveyed by dipoledipole electrode array. Also, to investigate the potentially anomalous areas more accurately, five additional resistivity profiles were measured by a Combined Resistivity Sounding-Profiling array (CRSP. According to the results of 2-D inversion modelling, a main aqueduct tunnel was detected beneath the central part of the site. Finally, the resistivity pattern of the detected aqueduct system passing the investigated area was provided using the obtained results.

  1. Neuroependymal Denudation is in Progress in Full-term Human Foetal Spina Bifida Aperta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, Deborah A.; Guerra, Montserrat; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Batiz, Luis F.; Alvial, Genaro; Castaneyra-Perdomo, Agustin; Rodriguez, Esteban M.

    2011-01-01

    In human spina bifida aperta (SBA), cerebral pathogenesis [hydrocephalus, Sylvius aqueduct (SA) stenosis and heterotopias] is poorly understood. In animal models, loss of ventricular lining (ependymal denudation) causes SA stenosis and hydrocephalus. We aimed to investigate whether ependymal denudat

  2. The continuity of Roman water supply systems in post-Roman Spain: the case of Valentia, a reliable example?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Jiménez, Javier (Archaeologist)

    2011-01-01

    Even if the general assumption is that Roman water supply systems (aqueducts in particular) ceased to function during the late Roman period, and that these were not present in medieval cities, recent archaeological research is proving that this was not always the case. Several cities in Spain show archaeological continuity in their water supply systems into the Visigothic period, and one of these seems to be Valencia. There is archaeological evidence to suggest a functioning aqueduct until th...

  3. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for March Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-28

    which is bounded by the Jacinto Fault on the east and the Elsinore Fault on the west. Ground surface elevations within the March AFB bound- Z aries...approx- imately one mile south of the base. Lake Mathews, located approximately 10 miles west of the baze, is the terminal reservoir of this aqueduct...State Project water is brought into the Perris Valley via the California Aqueduct, which runs north and east of March Air Force Base. Lake Perris

  4. Simulation of hydrocephalus condition in infant head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, Erna; Arif, Idam

    2014-03-01

    Hydrocephalus is a condition of an excessive of cerebrospinal fluid in brain. In this paper, we try to simulate the behavior of hydrocephalus conditions in infant head by using a hydro-elastic model which is combined with orthotropic elastic skull and with the addition of suture that divide the skull into two lobes. The model then gives predictions for the case of stenosis aqueduct by varying the cerebral aqueduct diameter, time constant and brain elastic modulus. The hydrocephalus condition which is shown by the significant value of ventricle displacement, as the result shows, is occurred when the aqueduct is as resistant as brain parenchyma for the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. The decrement of brain elastic modulus causes brain parenchyma displacement value approach ventricle displacement value. The smaller of time constant value causes the smaller value of ventricle displacement.

  5. Perilymphatic pressure dynamics following posture change in patients with Menière's disease and in normal hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosingh, H J; Wit, H P; Albers, F W

    1998-01-01

    The hydrostatic pressure of the inner ear depends on the cerebrospinal fluid pressure through the cochlear aqueduct. The time-course of inner ear pressure change following rapid change in cerebrospinal fluid pressure is related to the aqueduct patency. In this study the patency of the cochlear aqueduct in 27 patients with Menière's disease (28 affected ears, 16 non-affected ears) and in 12 normal hearing subjects (18 control ears) was assessed non-invasively by means of the MMS-10 Tympanic Displacement Analyser. Following a rapid change in body position, changes in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid pressure were found to influence perilymphatic pressure within 1 min. No significant differences were found among affected ears, non-affected ears and control ears.

  6. Genetic deletion of afadin causes hydrocephalus by destruction of adherens junctions in radial glial and ependymal cells in the midbrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Adherens junctions (AJs play a role in mechanically connecting adjacent cells to maintain tissue structure, particularly in epithelial cells. The major cell-cell adhesion molecules at AJs are cadherins and nectins. Afadin binds to both nectins and α-catenin and recruits the cadherin-β-catenin complex to the nectin-based cell-cell adhesion site to form AJs. To explore the role of afadin in radial glial and ependymal cells in the brain, we generated mice carrying a nestin-Cre-mediated conditional knockout (cKO of the afadin gene. Newborn afadin-cKO mice developed hydrocephalus and died neonatally. The afadin-cKO brain displayed enlarged lateral ventricles and cerebral aqueduct, resulting from stenosis of the caudal end of the cerebral aqueduct and obliteration of the ventral part of the third ventricle. Afadin deficiency further caused the loss of ependymal cells from the ventricular and aqueductal surfaces. During development, radial glial cells, which terminally differentiate into ependymal cells, scattered from the ventricular zone and were replaced by neurons that eventually covered the ventricular and aqueductal surfaces of the afadin-cKO midbrain. Moreover, the denuded ependymal cells were only occasionally observed in the third ventricle and the cerebral aqueduct of the afadin-cKO midbrain. Afadin was co-localized with nectin-1 and N-cadherin at AJs of radial glial and ependymal cells in the control midbrain, but these proteins were not concentrated at AJs in the afadin-cKO midbrain. Thus, the defects in the afadin-cKO midbrain most likely resulted from the destruction of AJs, because AJs in the midbrain were already established before afadin was genetically deleted. These results indicate that afadin is essential for the maintenance of AJs in radial glial and ependymal cells in the midbrain and is required for normal morphogenesis of the cerebral aqueduct and ventral third ventricle in the midbrain.

  7. Palaeomagnetic results from an archaeological site near Rome (Italy): new insights for tectonic rotation during the last 0.5 Myr

    OpenAIRE

    De Pirro, M; P. Montone; Marra, F.; Florindo, F.; Boschi, E.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 20 km north-east of Rome, along the modern trace of the Tiburtina road, recent archaeological diggings have brought to light a system of aqueduct galleries constructed by Roman engineers. This site falls inside the Acque Albule Basin, a travertine plateau Upper Pleistocene in age, that has been interpreted as a rhombshaped pull-apart basin created by strike-slip faulting within a N-S shear zone. This study provides evidence that two narrow water channels of this aqueduct system ...

  8. Menière-lignende symptomer efter meningeom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Klokker, Mads; Fugleholm, Kåre

    2010-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman who presented with a right sided hearing loss, tinnitus and attacks of dizziness was initially diagnosed with Ménière's disease. A meningioma was found along the posterior surface of the petrosal bone, centred partly on the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct with no ......A 36-year-old woman who presented with a right sided hearing loss, tinnitus and attacks of dizziness was initially diagnosed with Ménière's disease. A meningioma was found along the posterior surface of the petrosal bone, centred partly on the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct...

  9. The North Anatolian Fault in the Region of Iznik (Turkey) : Geomorphological Evolution and Archeoseismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, Y. N.; de Sigoyer, J.; Sahin, M.; Garambois, S.; Dessales, H.

    2015-12-01

    This work based on a pluridisciplinary approach coupling earth sciences and archaeology aims to study the recent tectonics along Iznik Lake, which follows the North Anatolian fault middle strand (NAFMS), south of the Marmara Sea in Turkey. Today this strand records a low seismicity and presents a lower slip rate (roman aqueduct of Iznik which is cut and deformed by a small fault.

  10. An Appraisal of Qualifying Role of Hydraulic Heritage Systems: A Case Study of Qanat in the Central Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasihi Harandi, M.; De Vries, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic heritage systems, both underground and exposed, have been known to be sustainable for millennia. Persian and also Roman aqueducts are examples of such hydrosystems. Their value is often overlooked but they have undeniable advantages: they have functional interconnectedness with their surro

  11. Suprasellar arachnoid cyst - a case report -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Young; Byun, Woo Mok; Park, Bok Hwan; Choi, Byung Yearn; Cho, Soo Ho [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Kyungsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    Arachnoid cysts are relatively common disease entity, but its location at sarsaparilla region it is important to differentiate with ependymal cysts or third ventricle or third ventricular enlargement secondary to either aqueductal stenosis of extraventricular obstructive hydrocephalus. We recently experienced a case of suprasellar arachnoid cyst and reviewed literature.

  12. Neuropathology and Structural Changes in Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bigio, Marc R.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of spina bifida, hydrocephalus is usually caused by crowding of the posterior fossa with obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow from the forth ventricle, and less often by malformation of the cerebral aqueduct. Enlargement of the cerebral ventricles causes gradual destruction of periventricular white matter axons. Motor, sensory,…

  13. WATER SYSTEM OPERATOR TRAINING FOR THE CENTRAL ARIZONA PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is designed to bring about 1.5 million acre-feet of Colorado River water per year to Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal counties in Arizona. CAP carries water from Lake Havasu down to Tucson. The CAP canal system is a 336-mile long system of aqueducts, tunnels, pumping pla...

  14. Beaked Whale Necropsy Findings for Strandings in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and Madeira, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    intracochlear blood and its dispersal pattern are also consistent with the subarachnoid hemorrhage and suggest a cochlear aqueduct route , at least...present on the left side of the anterior melon, sublingually on the right, and near the right intramandibular tusk. There are anomalous and extensive

  15. World's leading physics lab shut for poisoning water

    CERN Multimedia

    Popham, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Gran Sasso National Laboratory, the most advanced laboratory in the world for underground research into astroparticle physics, has been shut after polluting the environment. The laboratory, deep beneath the Apenninnes is said to have poisoned an aqueduct with waste from its equipment and committed numerous other infringements and ommissions (1 page)

  16. Cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear bone malformations with posterior labyrinth involvement: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeque Vera, Juan Miguel; Platero Sánchez-Escribano, María; Gómez Hervás, Javier; Fernández Prada, María; González Ramírez, Amanda Rocío; Sainz Quevedo, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Inner ear bone malformations are one cause of profound sensorineural hearing loss. This investigation focused on those affecting the posterior labyrinth, especially enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome, which is associated with fluctuating and progressive hearing loss. The objectives of this study were to analyze the behavior of the electrical stimulation, auditory functionality and linguistic development in patients with inner ear malformations involving the posterior labyrinth. The study included ten patients undergoing cochlear implantation (cases: five with enlarged vestibular aqueduct, two with vestibular aqueduct stenosis/aplasia, and three with semicircular canal disorders). Post-implantation, data were gathered on the electrical stimulation threshold and maximum comfort levels and on the number of functioning electrodes. Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech (EARS) subtests were used to assess auditory functionality and language acquisition at 6, 12, and 24 months post-implantation. Results were compared with findings in a control group of 28 cochlear implantation patients without these malformations. No significant differences were found between case and control groups in electrical stimulation parameters; auditory functionality subtest scores were lower in cases than controls, although the difference was only statistically significant for some subtests. In conclusion, cochlear implantation patients with posterior labyrinth bone malformations and profound hearing loss, including those with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome, showed no significant difference in electrical stimulation threshold with controls. Although some auditory functionality test results were lower in cases than in controls, cochlear implantation appears to be beneficial for all patients with these malformations.

  17. Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by total parenteral nutrition in patient with acute leukaemia: unusual involvement of caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aprile, P.; Tarantino, A.; Carella, A. [Division of Neuroradiology, Policlinico, Univ. of Bari (Italy); Santoro, N. [Inst. of Paediatric Clinic I, Policlinico, University of Bari, Bari (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    We report a 13-year-old girl with leukaemia and Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by total parenteral nutrition. MRI showed unusual bilateral lesions of the caudate nuclei and cerebral cortex, as well as typical lesions surrounding the third ventricle and aqueduct. After intravenous thiamine, the patient improved, and the abnormalities on MRI disappeared. (orig.)

  18. Normal pressure hydrocephalus presenting as delusional disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH is caused by aqueductal stenosis resulting in syndrome of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence. Late onset psychosis should be evaluated thoroughly to rule out any organic cause. We present the case of a female patient presenting with delusions, gait disturbances, urinary incontinence in her 50s.

  19. Encefalitis bacteriana e hidrocefalia

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1982-01-01

    Nueve imágenes de una encefalitis bacteriana en un niño con hidrocefalia por oclusión del acueducto de Silvio. Nine pictures of a bacterial encephalitis in a child with hydrocephalus caused by an occlusion of the Sylvian aqueduct.

  20. Unilateral Hearing Loss in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as degree of hearing loss, chronic external or middle ear pathology, and maturity level. Any child under the age of 18 years requires medical ... him or her to the doctor. Has your child been diagnosed with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVA)? This is a particular formation of the ...

  1. Long-term hydrocephalus alters the cytoarchitecture of the adult subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Ordoñez, Tania; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Rigamonti, Daniele; García-Verdugo, Jose M; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2014-11-01

    Hydrocephalus can develop secondarily to a disturbance in production, flow and/or absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Experimental models of hydrocephalus, especially subacute and chronic hydrocephalus, are few and limited, and the effects of hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of long-term obstructive hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone, which is the neurogenic niche lining the lateral ventricles. We developed a new method to induce hydrocephalus by obstructing the aqueduct of Sylvius in the mouse brain, thus simulating aqueductal stenosis in humans. In 120-day-old rodents (n=18 per group), the degree of ventricular dilatation and cellular composition of the subventricular zone were studied by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. In adult patients (age>18years), the sizes of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule were analyzed by magnetic resonance images obtained from patients with and without aqueductal stenosis (n=25 per group). Mice with 60-day hydrocephalus had a reduced number of Ki67+ and doublecortin+cells on immunofluorescence, as well as decreased number of neural progenitors and neuroblasts in the subventricular zone on electron microscopy analysis as compared to non-hydrocephalic mice. Remarkably, a number of extracellular matrix structures (fractones) contacting the ventricular lumen and blood vessels were also observed around the subventricular zone in mice with hydrocephalus. In humans, the widths of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule in patients with aqueductal stenosis were significantly smaller than age and gender-matched patients without aqueductal stenosis. In summary, supratentorial hydrocephalus reduces the proliferation rate of neural progenitors and modifies the cytoarchitecture and extracellular matrix compounds of the subventricular zone. In humans, this similar process reduces the subventricular

  2. Diffuse choroid plexus hyperplasia: an under-diagnosed cause of hydrocephalus in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Azian Abd.; Coleman, Lee [Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Morokoff, Andrew; Maixner, Wirginia [Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Department of Neurosurgery, Parkville (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder in children and the result of a variety of causes. However, with the advancement of imaging modalities, particularly MRI, previously reported rarer causes of hydrocephalus in children are now being more readily appreciated. We report an 11-year-old boy with diffuse villous hyperplasia of the choroid plexus. He had a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt in-situ and a prior diagnosis from infancy of congenital aqueduct stenosis as the cause of his hydrocephalus. His current presentation was with further shunt dysfunction. CT and MRI demonstrated enlarged choroid plexuses but did not confirm aqueduct stenosis. CSF overproduction was demonstrated from the externalized ventricular drain. The enlarged choroid plexuses were surgically resected and histology confirmed choroid plexus hyperplasia. Identification of choroid plexus hyperplasia is important since the neurosurgical management of hydrocephalus is not VP shunt insertion, but resection of the hyperplastic choroid plexus. (orig.)

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid production and dynamics in normal aging: a MRI phase-mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Ståhlberg, F

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phase mapping was used for non-invasive evaluation of the to-and-fro motion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral aqueduct, and to measure the supratentorial CSF production in vivo, in 13 healthy volunteers to determine whether normal aging affects...... these parameters. Eight young healthy volunteers (mean age 29.8 years) and five elderly healthy volunteers (mean age 69.0 years) were examined, all were normal on conventional MRI. Slightly higher aqueductal CSF peak flow velocities and peak volume flow in both the caudal and rostral directions were found...... in fact occurs at this relatively high rate. Our study further suggests that the differences found in human CSF production rates are caused by interindividual factors other than age....

  4. Computed tomography of common congenital lesions of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, H.Y. E-mail: drhyyuen@doctors.org.uk; Ahuja, A.T.; Wong, K.T.; Yue, V.; Hasselt, A.C. van

    2003-09-01

    This pictorial review describes the application of high-resolution computed tomography to the investigation and pre-operative work-up of the common lesions of congenital hearing loss, including congenital aural dysplasia, various congenital ossicular anomalies, inner ear dysmorphology, large vestibular aqueduct syndrome, and congenital absence of cochlear nerve and labyrinthitis ossificans from previous infection. The aim is to help radiologists to provide a more accurate diagnosis of underlying aetiology and assist in surgical planning.

  5. Two siblings with progressive, fluctuating hearing loss after head trauma, treated with cochlear implantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, M.J.F. de; Honings, J.; Joosten, F.B.M.; Hoefsloot, L H; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Cremers, C W R J

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Description of two siblings with unexplained, progressive, perceptive hearing loss after head trauma. DESIGN: Case report. SUBJECTS: Two siblings aged six and eight years old with bilateral, intermittent but progressive hearing loss. RESULTS: These patients had a c.1172G>A (p.Ser391Asn) mutation in the SLC26A4 gene, which has not previously been reported and which caused Pendred or enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome. The diagnosis was based on the perceptive hearing loss, com...

  6. Patofysiologiske mekanismer bag øjensymptomer ved primaere tumorer i corpus pineale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, N O; Møller, M; Garde, E

    1993-01-01

    Primary tumors of the pineal body can produce dyscoordinative movements of the eye, pupillary dilatation, paralysis of adduction during convergence and nystagmus. Obstruction of the aqueduct can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Diabetes insipidus may...... manifestations prior to evident appearance of symptoms related to primary tumor growth. A primary tumor of the pineal body should be considered in patients where a monosymptomatic uveoretinitis presents without associated provoking factors. Furthermore, analyses of S-antigen in the spinal fluid can be useful...

  7. A Methodology to Validate the InSAR Derived Displacement Field of the September 7th, 1999 Athens Earthquake Using Terrestrial Surveying. Improvement of the Assessed Deformation Field by Interferometric Stacking

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Papoutsis; Panagiotis Elias; Spyros Karamitsos; Dimitrios Paradissis; Charalabos Kontoes; Ioannis Kotsis

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is the evaluation of the InSAR derived displacement field caused by the 07/09/1999 Athens earthquake, using as reference an external data source provided by terrestrial surveying along the Mornos river open aqueduct. To accomplish this, a processing chain to render comparable the leveling measurements and the interferometric derived measurements has been developed. The distinct steps proposed include a solution for reducing the orbital and atmospheric inter...

  8. American River Watershed Project, California. Part 1: Main Report. Part 2: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report. Supplemental Information Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    planned to increase the supply. The Coastal Branch Aqueduct is currently under construction and will serve San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties...the Rincon -Marvin- Tehama association, Sycamore-Tyndall association, and Capay-Sacramento association. These diverse soils support irrigated orchards...deliveries. "* CVP south of Delta deliveries. "* CVP storage in Clair Engle, Shasta, and Whiskeytown Reservoirs and the CVP share of San Luis

  9. Palaeomagnetic results from an archaeological site near Rome (Italy: new insights for tectonic rotation during the last 0.5 Myr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pirro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20 km north-east of Rome, along the modern trace of the Tiburtina road, recent archaeological diggings have brought to light a system of aqueduct galleries constructed by Roman engineers. This site falls inside the Acque Albule Basin, a travertine plateau Upper Pleistocene in age, that has been interpreted as a rhombshaped pull-apart basin created by strike-slip faulting within a N-S shear zone. This study provides evidence that two narrow water channels of this aqueduct system were significantly deformed by tectonic movement that occurred subsequent to their construction (II-III century A.D.. The geometry of the deformation pattern is compatible with that expected for a shear zone bounded by N-S oriented, right-lateral faults. The palaeomagnetic study of the volcanic formation («Pozzolane Rosse» Formation, 457± 4 kyr containing the Roman aqueduct system evidences significant clockwise rotation around sub-vertical axis, consistent with the above-mentioned tectonic style.

  10. Sources of ground movement at Vesuvius before the AD 79 eruption: Evidence from contemporary accounts and archaeological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, Aldo

    2008-11-01

    Historical sources have recorded earthquake shocks, their effects and difficulties that local inhabitants experienced before the AD 79 Pompeii eruption. Archaeological studies pointed out the effects of such seismicity, and have also evidenced that several water crises were occurring at Pompeii in that period. Indeed numerous sources show that, at the time of eruption, and probably some time before, the civic aqueduct, having ceased to be supplied by the regional one, was out of order and that a new one was being built. Since Roman aqueducts were usually built with a recommended minimum mean slope of 20 cm/km and Pompeii's aqueduct sloped from the nearby Apennines toward the town, this slope could have been easily cancelled by uplift that occurred in the area even if this was only moderate. For the crustal deformations a volcanic origin is proposed and a point source model is used to explain the observations. Simple analysis of the available data suggests that the ground deformations were caused by a < 2 km 3 volumetric change at a depth of ˜ 8 km that happened over the course of several decades.

  11. Mutation spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlation of hearing loss patients caused by SLC26A4 mutations in the Japanese: a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Maiko; Nishio, Shin-Ya; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2014-05-01

    Mutations in SLC26A4 cause a broad phenotypic spectrum, from typical Pendred syndrome to nonsyndromic hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Identification of these mutations is important for accurate diagnosis, proper medical management and appropriate genetic counseling and requires updated information regarding spectrum, clinical characteristics and genotype-phenotype correlations, based on a large cohort. In 100 patients with bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct among 1511 Japanese hearing loss probands registered in our gene bank, goiter data were available for 79, of whom 15 had Pendred syndrome and 64 had nonsyndromic hearing loss. We clarified the mutation spectrum for the SLC26A4 mutations and also summarized hearing levels, progression, fluctuation and existence of genotype-phenotype correlation. SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 82 of the 100 patients (82.0%). Of the Pendred syndrome patients, 93% (14/15) were carriers, as were 77% (49/64) of the nonsyndromic hearing loss patients. Clinical characteristics of patients with SLC26A4 mutations were congenital, fluctuating and progressive hearing loss usually associated with vertigo and/or goiter. We found no genotype-phenotype correlations, indicating that, unlike in the case of GJB2 mutations, the phenotype cannot be predicted from the genotype. Our mutation analysis confirmed the importance of mutations in the SLC26A4 gene among hearing loss patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct and revealed the mutation spectrum, essential information when performing genetic testing.

  12. Severe second-trimester obstructive ventriculomegaly related to disorders of diencephalic, mesencephalic and rhombencephalic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagneaux, M; Vasiljevic, A; Massoud, M; Allias, F; Massardier, J; Gaucherand, P; Guibaud, L

    2013-11-01

    By review of a series of cases, we set out to identify sonographic features suggestive of an obstructive mechanism in second-trimester fetuses with ventriculomegaly and describe developmental disorders related to pathological differentiation of the diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon that lead to obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow. We studied retrospectively 11 fetuses referred for severe second-trimester ventriculomegaly of undetermined origin. Neurosonography was performed with detailed analysis of the third ventricle, thalami, cerebral aqueduct and cerebellum. The cerebral imaging data were compared with neuropathological data in eight patients, with a focus on the level and etiology of the obstruction. Parenchymal thinning and reduction of the pericerebral spaces were highly suggestive of ventriculomegaly due to an obstructive mechanism. The ventriculomegaly was related to diencephalosynapsis (thalamic fusion and third ventricle atresia) in five cases and partial/complete aqueduct stenosis in six; it was associated with cerebellar hypoplasia in six cases, including rhombencephalosynapsis in two cases. In nine patients, disorders of the diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon were present. In cases of severe isolated ventriculomegaly in which sonographic features are suggestive of an obstructive mechanism, close examination of the third ventricle, thalami, aqueduct of Sylvius and cerebellum may reveal pathological differentiation of the diencephalon, mesencephalon or rhombencephalon, often in combination.

  13. Groundwater utilization through the centuries focusing οn the Hellenic civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, Andreas N.; Voudouris, Konstantinos S.; Mariolakos, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater has been utilized since the Prehistoric times. Water supply of some Minoan settlements on the eastern side of the island of Crete (Greece) was based on groundwater. Later on, many wells were constructed in several areas of Greece and their use expanded through subsequent periods. The greatest achievement in groundwater exploitation by ancient Greeks was the construction of long underground galleries or qanats, which collected water from springs and alluvial deposits. In Classical times, most of the wells were on private properties and their owners were forced by regulations to maintain the wells in good condition and ready for use in wartime. During that period, the first scientific theories of Aristotle and Theophrastus were developed in regards to hydrological phenomena, and the processes involved in the formation of surface water and groundwater were clarified. Wells played a major part in urban water supply during the Roman period, in which famous aqueducts were constructed to transfer water; however, several regions of Greece were self-sufficient in water, supplied by many wells from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine period. People understood the local geological conditions and, according to their culture, constructed and managed their own types of wells. In addition to the wells and aqueducts, the hydraulic technology included cisterns to store rainwater, and systems to capture spring water for transport by aqueducts. The examples of hydro-technologies and water management practices described in this paper may have some relevance for water engineering even in modern times.

  14. Age-specific characteristics and coupling of cerebral arterial inflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Schmid Daners

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to quantify age-related differences in the characteristics and coupling of cerebral arterial inflow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dynamics. To this end, 3T phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging blood and CSF flow data of eleven young (24 ± 3 years and eleven elderly subjects (70 ± 5 years with a comparable sex-ratio were acquired. Flow waveforms and their frequency composition, transfer functions from blood to CSF flows and cross-correlations were analyzed. The magnitudes of the frequency components of CSF flow in the aqueduct differ significantly between the two age groups, as do the frequency components of the cervical spinal CSF and the arterial flows. The males' aqueductal CSF stroke volumes and average flow rates are significantly higher than those of the females. Transfer functions and cross-correlations between arterial blood and CSF flow reveal significant age-dependence of phase-shift between these, as do the waveforms of arterial blood, as well as cervical-spinal and aqueductal CSF flows. These findings accentuate the need for age- and sex-matched control groups for the evaluation of cerebral pathologies such as hydrocephalus.

  15. CSF Flow in the Brain in the Context of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, W G

    2015-05-01

    CSF normally flows back and forth through the aqueduct during the cardiac cycle. During systole, the brain and intracranial vasculature expand and compress the lateral and third ventricles, forcing CSF craniocaudad. During diastole, they contract and flow through the aqueduct reverses. Hyperdynamic CSF flow through the aqueduct is seen when there is ventricular enlargement without cerebral atrophy. Therefore, patients presenting with clinical normal pressure hydrocephalus who have hyperdynamic CSF flow have been found to respond better to ventriculoperitoneal shunting than those with normal or decreased CSF flow. Patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus have also been found to have larger intracranial volumes than sex-matched controls, suggesting that they may have had benign external hydrocephalus as infants. While their arachnoidal granulations clearly have decreased CSF resorptive capacity, it now appears that this is fixed and that the arachnoidal granulations are not merely immature. Such patients appear to develop a parallel pathway for CSF to exit the ventricles through the extracellular space of the brain and the venous side of the glymphatic system. This pathway remains functional until late adulthood when the patient develops deep white matter ischemia, which is characterized histologically by myelin pallor (ie, loss of lipid). The attraction between the bare myelin protein and the CSF increases resistance to the extracellular outflow of CSF, causing it to back up, resulting in hydrocephalus. Thus idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus appears to be a "2 hit" disease: benign external hydrocephalus in infancy followed by deep white matter ischemia in late adulthood.

  16. Computational Investigation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in the Posterior Cranial Fossa and Cervical Subarachnoid Space in Patients with Chiari I Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støverud, Karen-Helene; Langtangen, Hans Petter; Ringstad, Geir Andre; Eide, Per Kristian; Mardal, Kent-Andre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have demonstrated that the Chiari malformation is associated with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the cervical part of the subarachnoid space (SAS), but the flow in the SAS of the posterior cranial fossa has received little attention. This study extends previous modelling efforts by including the cerebellomedullary cistern, pontine cistern, and 4th ventricle in addition to the cervical subarachnoid space. Methods The study included one healthy control, Con1, and two patients with Chiari I malformation, P1 and P2. Meshes were constructed by segmenting images obtained from T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences. CFD simulations were performed with a previously verified and validated code. Patient-specific flow conditions in the aqueduct and the cervical SAS were used. Two patients with the Chiari malformation and one control were modelled. Results The results demonstrated increased maximal flow velocities in the Chiari patients, ranging from factor 5 in P1 to 14.8 in P2, when compared to Con1 at the level of Foramen Magnum (FM). Maximal velocities in the cervical SAS varied by a factor 2.3, while the maximal flow in the aqueduct varied by a factor 3.5. The pressure drop from the pontine cistern to the cervical SAS was similar in Con1 and P1, but a factor two higher in P2. The pressure drop between the aqueduct and the cervical SAS varied by a factor 9.4 where P1 was the one with the lowest pressure jump and P2 and Con1 differed only by a factor 1.6. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrates that including the posterior cranial fossa is feasible and suggests that previously found flow differences between Chiari I patients and healthy individuals in the cervical SAS may be present also in the SAS of the posterior cranial fossa. PMID:27727298

  17. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Oebele F

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation may trigger cerebral pathology. In fetuses with MMC, little is known about neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and the initiating pathological events. The objective of this study was to investigate whether neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation occurs in human fetuses and neonates with MMC, and if so, whether it is associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. Methods Seven fetuses and 1 neonate (16–40 week gestational age, GA with MMC and 6 fetuses with normal cerebral development (22–41 week GA were included in the study. Identification of fetal MMC and clinical surveillance of fetal head circumference and ventricular width was performed by ultrasound (US. After birth, MMC was confirmed by histology. We characterized hydrocephalus by increased head circumference in association with ventriculomegaly. The median time interval between fetal cerebral ultrasound and fixing tissue for histology was four days. Results At 16 weeks GA, we observed neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the aqueduct and telencephalon together with sub-cortical heterotopias in absence of hydrocephalus and/or Chiari II malformation. At 21–34 weeks GA, we observed concurrence of aqueductal neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and progenitor cell loss with the Chiari II malformation, whereas hydrocephalus was absent. At 37–40 weeks GA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation coincided with Chiari II malformation and hydrocephalus. Sub-arachnoidal fibrosis at the convexity was absent in all fetuses but present in the neonate. Conclusion In fetal SBA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the telencephalon and the aqueduct can occur before Chiari II malformation

  18. Exploring the efficacy of endoscopic ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus treatment via a multicompartmental poroelastic model of CSF transport: a computational perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Vardakis

    Full Text Available This study proposes the implementation of a Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET model coupled with finite-volume computational fluid dynamics for the purpose of studying, in detail, the effects of obstructing CSF transport within an anatomically accurate cerebral environment. The MPET representation allows the investigation of fluid transport between CSF, brain parenchyma and cerebral blood, in an integral and comprehensive manner. A key novelty in the model is the amalgamation of anatomically accurate choroid plexuses with their feeding arteries and a simple relationship relaxing the constraint of a unique permeability for the CSF compartment. This was done in order to account for the Aquaporin-4-mediated swelling characteristics. The aim of this varying permeability compartment was to bring to light a feedback mechanism that could counteract the effects of ventricular dilation and subsequent elevations of CSF pressure through the efflux of excess CSF into the blood system. This model is used to demonstrate the impact of aqueductal stenosis and fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (FVOO. The implications of treating such a clinical condition with the aid of endoscopic third (ETV and endoscopic fourth (EFV ventriculostomy are considered. We observed peak CSF velocities in the aqueduct of the order of 15.6 cm/s in the healthy case, 45.4 cm/s and 72.8 cm/s for the mild and severe cases respectively. The application of ETV reduced the aqueductal velocity to levels around 16-17 cm/s. Ventricular displacement, CSF pressure, wall shear stress (WSS and pressure difference between lateral and fourth ventricles (ΔP increased with applied stenosis, and subsequently dropped to nominal levels with the application of ETV. The greatest reversal of the effects of atresia come by opting for ETV rather than the more complicated procedure of EFV.

  19. Geochemistry and mineralogy approaches to characterize brick and its lake sediments sources: Antioch Roman City (Southern Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Hubert, Aurelia; Benjelloun, Yacine; Chene, Grégoire; Strivay, David; De Sigoyer, Julia; Pamir, Hatice; Karabacak, Volkan; Fagel, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The Roman aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Southern Turkey) is situated close to the Antioch city. This last is located near the Amik Lake (Lake of Antioch) and close to the junction between the active Dead Sea fault and the East Anatolian fault. During the Roman period, the Amik Plain was more densely occupied than at any time in its history [1]. The study focuses on the bricks and the lake sediments characterization in order to determine the source area as well as the technical productio...

  20. Water in Athens Then and Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christaki, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The presentation examines the water sources and the water supply projects in Athens in relation to the historical, urban and demographic development since 3500 BC. Athens and the Athens basin were inhabited from the Late Neolithic period (about 5300-4500 BC.). In recent years, after thorough investigations and excavations in the north and south side of the Acropolis, the Agora and the Dipylon, conclusions were drawn regarding the historical construction and residential development of Athens. The findings show that the Athenians had settled permanently on the sides of the Acropolis from Hysteroneolithic or Final Neolithic period (3500-3000 BC.). The water provision was primarily secured by using wells and natural springs, such as the Neolithic wells near the Klepsydra spring. The climate in Attica is dry Mediterranean with sunny and dry summers and wet and mild winters. The annual precipitation in the city of Athens is about 400 mm and long dry periods are been detected in historical times all the way to today. Since prehistoric times, the city of Athens and the wider region of Attica did not contain many natural water sources so aquatic reserves were never adequate to meet the needs of residents, as these changed over time The lack of water in Attica drove its inhabitants to study the flow of rivers and penetration of rain into the earth to discover and extract hidden waters. This enabled Athenians to acquire technical expertise and develop a significant hydrotechnologic culture, as evidenced by their works. As the population of Athens and the need for water increased residents - among others - turned to obtaining water from distant sources and construct aqueducts that brought water into the city using gravity. In the mid of 6th century BC (tyranny of Peisistrateidon) and while the population was 300,000 the Peisistrateio aqueduct built. After the 6th. century BC there were, fountains, cisterns, reservoirs and aqueducts throughout the city. In Roman Athens, the

  1. Analyse van de morfologie en bewaringstoestand van een deel van het Romeinse aquaduct van Tongeren (prov. Limburg) met gebruik van het DHMV en erosiemodellering

    OpenAIRE

    Meylemans, Erwin

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the morphology and preservation of a part of the Roman Aqueduct of Tongeren (prov. of Limburg) using Lidar measurements and erosion modelling. Between 2000 and 2004 the Flemish government ordered the creation of the so-called �DTM-Flanders�, mainly to support Flanders flood prevention policy. The DTM, based on lidar data, is available for the whole of Flanders, with a resolution of one measure point per 20 m�. This article discusses the use of this instrument and a number of de...

  2. Assessment of CSF dynamics and venous flow in the superior sagittal sinus by MRI in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Sørensen, P S; Thomsen, C

    1994-01-01

    ). We examined 12 patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH; pseudotumour cerebri), and 10 healthy volunteers. The peak caudal and rostral CSF flow in the aqueduct during the cardiac cycle did not differ significantly between the patients and the volunteers. A significant correlation...... in the controls (mean 457 ml/min) was found, and in two patients showed very low values. We showed that MRI phase-mapping may be used to study the relative importance of the pathophysiological factors thought to play a role in the development of IIH....

  3. Positional moulding in premature hydrocephalics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven premature hydrocephalics presenting with lambdoid positional moulding (LPM were reviewed. All were treated for hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis, Dandy Walker Syndrome and infection. Parenchymal hemorrhage, intraventricular bleed, cortical atrophy, septal agenesis, cortical anomalies and subdural hygroma were the other common associations. These children did not show expected improvement in their higher mental functions at 6 months to 5.4 years of follow-up, following the management of hydrocephalus. It was not the LPM but associated intracranial anomalies, which were most probably responsible for their poor outcome. The differentiation from posterior plagiocephaly is also highlighted.

  4. CT study of 17 cases of congenital cochlear abnormality. Embryologic and anatomo-functional relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício, JC; Biscoito, L; Branco, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of cochlear malformations, 17 cases were studied by CT scan (high resolution-target program) including 10 males and 7 females. The anomaly was bilateral in 12 cases and unilateral in 7 (the latter included 2 Mondini type aplasias and one Michel). The cochlear malformation (whose most frequent expression was the cochlear hypoplasia with 1 or 1 1/2 spires-65% of the cases) was associated to semicircular canals and/or vestibular aqueduct anomaly in 82% of the patients; it was excl...

  5. Large-Scale Utilization of Saline Groundwater for Irrigation of Pistachios Interplanted with Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Sanden, Blake; Ferguson, Louise; Kallsen, Craig E.; Marsh, Brian; Hutmacher, Robert B.; Corwin, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Twelve, 19.5 acre test plots arranged in a randomized complete block design are set within two 155 acre fields to provide a realistic production environment. These blocks of welldrained Panoche clay loam were formerly irrigated with California Aqueduct water and sprinklers for the last 30 years. Overall the field electrical conductivity (EC) ranged from 0.5 to 4.5, averaging 1.57 dS/m to a 3-foot depth. Saturation extract boron was 0.6 ppm. The area is underlain by a semi-saline aquifer that ...

  6. Data and shape files for the sedimentation survey of Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    This data release contains spatial data associated the sedimentation survey conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey cfor the Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, during March and April 2015 to provide up-to-date information about the relation of pool elevation and storage volume in the reservoir. The survey was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. A total of 264 navigation lines were surveyed, using a depth sounding device coupled to a global positioning system. The results of the survey were used to prepare a bathymetric map showing the reservoir bottom referenced with respect to the spillway elevation.

  7. The science of structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Heyman, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    Structures cannot be created without engineering theory, and design rules have existed from the earliest times for building Greek temples, Roman aqueducts and Gothic cathedrals - and later, for steel skyscrapers and the frames for aircraft. This book is, however, not concerned with the description of historical feats, but with the way the structural engineer sets about his business. Galileo, in the seventeenth century, was the first to introduce recognizably modern science into the calculation of structures; he determined the breaking strength of beams. In the eighteenth century engineers move

  8. Organized Communities and Potable Water Public Utilities in Colombia: Advocacy for the Third Economic Option Based on the Common-pool Resources Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Moncada Mesa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory and institutional principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom, this paper explores whether Colombian organized communities are able to provide potable water public utility in a sustainable manner and manage it as a common-pool resource (CPR. For this purpose, a set of Colombian community aqueducts is selected and compared against the eight principles proposed by this theory. The results have shown that, in general it complies with institutional principles but it also highlights difficulties, particularly in regards to the "minimal recognition of organization rights" principle.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood flow in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a differential diagnosis from idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sankari Soraya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI enables quantification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF flow and total cerebral blood (tCBF flow and may be of value for the etiological diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. This investigation aimed to study CSF flow and intracerebral vascular flow in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI and to compare the results with patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH and with healthy elderly volunteers (HEV. Methods Ten a-MCI and 9 mild AD patients were identified in a comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological assessment. They underwent brain MRI; PC-MRI pulse sequence was performed with the following parameters: two views per segment; flip angle: 25° for vascular flow and 20° for CSF flow; field-of-view (FOV: 14 × 14 mm²; matrix: 256 × 128; slice thickness: 5 mm; with one excitation for exams on the 3 T machine, and 2 excitations for the 1.5 T machine exams. Velocity (encoding sensitization was set to 80 cm/s for the vessels at the cervical level, 10 or 20 cm/s for the aqueduct and 5 cm/s for the cervical subarachnoid space (SAS. Dynamic flow images were analyzed with in-house processing software. The patients' results were compared with those obtained for HEVs (n = 12, and for NPH patients (n = 13, using multivariate analysis. Results Arterial tCBF and the calculated pulsatility index were significantly greater in a-MCI patients than in HEVs. In contrast, vascular parameters were lower in NPH patients. Cervical CSF flow analysis yielded similar values for all four populations. Aqueductal CSF stroke volumes (in μl per cardiac cycle were similar in HEVs (34 ± 17 and AD patients (39 ± 18. In contrast, the aqueductal CSF was hyperdynamic in a-MCI patients (73 ± 33 and even more so in NPH patients (167 ± 89. Conclusion Our preliminary data show that a-MCI patients present with high systolic

  10. Emergency Water Planning for Natural and Man-Made Emergencies: An Analytical Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    include ... (1) facilities located at Hayward Fault Zone including the Claremont .- ’ Tunnel, the San Pablo raw-water tunnel, the Sequoia Aqueduct, and...Jay Forni Inc. L. B. Foster Co. ITT Grinnell Corp. 0 Pont-A Mousson S.A. Progressive Fabricators Inc. Pipe, Distribution, Other A/C Pipe Inc. J-M Mfg...Manchester Ave. Dresser Mfg. Div., Dresser Industries Box 443 41 Fisher Ave. Wabash, IN 46992 Bradford, PA 16701 . - Jay Forni Inc. Dyna-Torque Inc. 2449

  11. Trigeminal hypoplasia due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia: A new entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia" refers to anomalous dilatation of the intracranial arteries associated with elongation or tortuosity of the affected vessels. The etiology of the disease is unknown and is usually detected incidentally. The predominant clinical manifestations arise due to the mass effect of the dilated vessels and may include cranial nerve compression, extrinsic aqueductal compression, motor and sensory disturbances. Trigeminal hypoplasia is a very uncommon condition, usually described in association with Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome and has not yet been attributed to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia. The current case report highlights this rare association of trigeminal nerve hypoplasia and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia, leading to hemifacial and corneal anesthesia.

  12. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for post-inflammatory hydrocephalus in pediatric patients: is it worth a try?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouf, Alaa; Zidan, Ihab; Mohamed, Eshra

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a very common disease in developing countries. Congenital aqueductal obstruction and post-inflammatory hydrocephalus come on the top of the list of causes of hydrocephalus. Till the recent introduction of cranial endoscopy and despite their frequent complications, shunts were considered as the mainstream treatment for this disease. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), especially for obstructive hydrocephalus, introduced a new era of treatment that is free of lifetime shunt dependency. This study was done to assess the efficacy of ETV for treating post-inflammatory hydrocephalus in a unique group of patients thus preventing—if possible—the lifetime shunt dependency and suffering. ETV was tried as a first-line therapy in 35 children (23 males and 12 females) with hydrocephalus proved to be secondary to intracranial infection. Mean age was 9.2 months (4-15). Twenty-four patients (68.6%) were below the age of 6 months while 11 patients (31.4%) were above 6 months. Twenty-five patients (71.4%) had a head circumference of 3 cm and 10 patients (28.6%) had a 5 cm or more increase in the head circumference above the 95th percentile. All the patients included were followed postoperatively with regular clinical, computerized tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and culture. The overall success of ETV was 55.9% (19/34). Nine (81.9%) out of the 11 patients that were endoscopically documented to have aqueductal obstruction showed improvement. While out of the 23 patients with patent aqueduct, only 10 patients (43.4%) had improved. Procedure-related complications were not encountered. CSF leakage from the surgical wound occurred in three patients and mild CSF infection occurred in one patient. ETV is a simple, safe, and effective method in treating not only obstructive hydrocephalus due to non-inflammatory etiology, but also post-inflammatory hydrocephalus especially when the

  13. La fiebre amarilla y la creación del acueducto y alcantarillado del municipio de Socorro, Colombia (1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleidys Hernández Tasco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socorro, a municipality of Santander Colombia, was an important urban settlement during previous times, but throughout the nineteen century it lost its political important. Socorro came to be important again for the central government in 1929 amidst a yellow fever epidemic. In order to avoid the spreading of yellow fever, the central government constructed a sewage system and an aqueduct for Socorro. This paper analyzes how the yellow fever epidemic encouraged the development of sanitary actions in an urban space such as Socorro. This urban and social history allows situating Socorro and Colombia within the sanitary debated developed in Latina America in the early twentieth century.

  14. 引水灌区水工建筑物的病害及技术处理%Damages to hydrostructures in drawing and irrigation area and technical management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏富洲; 刘柏青; 赵世来

    2000-01-01

    For the existent rift, sinking, washing, corrosion and other damages to aqueducts, tunnels, sluice and other hydrostructures,this paper analyzed the generating reasons and put forward technical management measure to solve the problems in theory and practices.%针对引水灌区渡槽、隧洞、倒虹吸及水闸等水工建筑物存在的裂缝、沉陷、冲刷与磨蚀等主要病害从理论和实践方面进行了原因分析,提出了解决问题的技术处理措施。

  15. Routine and Recurring Small Transient and New Test Missions Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    statement will be prepared. Background information that suppons the research and development of the FONsr and the EA is on fil e at Edwards AFB and may...greater than 12 inches; coaxial cables for interstate communications; or aqueducts or canals for interbasin water transfer (BLM 1980). Power plants...34 ’I11es~ oonunents ar~ fOl’warded for tlse h\\ preparing your fil )al ~llvit011lnellt~1 document Should you need loor!: infol’trultion or olarIfication of

  16. Evidence for ground-rupturing earthquakes on the Northern Wadi Araba fault at the archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, Dead Sea Transform fault system, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeremy M.; Niemi, Tina M.; Atallah, Mohammad

    2006-10-01

    The archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, in the Wadi Araba, Jordan is located on the northern Wadi Araba fault segment of the Dead Sea Transform. The site contains a Roman-period fort, a late Byzantine Early Umayyad birkeh (water reservoir) and aqueduct, and agricultural fields. The birkeh and aqueduct are left-laterally offset by coseismic slip across the northern Wadi Araba fault. Using paleoseismic and archaeological evidence collected from a trench excavated across the fault zone, we identified evidence for four ground-rupturing earthquakes. Radiocarbon dating from key stratigraphic horizons and relative dating using potsherds constrains the dates of the four earthquakes from the sixth to the nineteenth centuries. Individual earthquakes were dated to the seventh, ninth and eleventh centuries. The fault strand that slipped during the most recent event (MRE) extends to just below the modern ground surface and juxtaposes alluvial-fan sediments that lack in datable material with the modern ground surface, thus preventing us from dating the MRE except to constrain the event to post-eleventh century. These data suggest that the historical earthquakes of 634 or 659/660, 873, 1068, and 1546 probably ruptured this fault segment.

  17. Morphological and behavioral changes in the pathogenesis of a novel mouse model of communicating hydrocephalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison B McMullen

    Full Text Available The Ro1 model of hydrocephalus represents an excellent model for studying the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus due to its complete penetrance and inducibility, enabling the investigation of the earliest cellular and histological changes in hydrocephalus prior to overt pathology. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy were used to characterize the histopathological events of hydrocephalus in this model. Additionally, a broad battery of behavioral tests was used to investigate behavioral changes in the Ro1 model of hydrocephalus. The earliest histological changes observed in this model were ventriculomegaly and disorganization of the ependymal lining of the aqueduct of Sylvius, which occurred concomitantly. Ventriculomegaly led to thinning of the ependyma, which was associated with periventricular edema and areas of the ventricular wall void of cilia and microvilli. Ependymal denudation was subsequent to severe ventriculomegaly, suggesting that it is an effect, rather than a cause, of hydrocephalus in the Ro1 model. Additionally, there was no closure of the aqueduct of Sylvius or any blockages within the ventricular system, even with severe ventriculomegaly, suggesting that the Ro1 model represents a model of communicating hydrocephalus. Interestingly, even with severe ventriculomegaly, there were no behavioral changes, suggesting that the brain is able to compensate for the structural changes that occur in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus if the disorder progresses at a sufficiently slow rate.

  18. Frequency analyses of CSF flow on cine MRI in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyati, Tosiaki; Kasuga, Toshio; Koshida, Kichiro; Sanada, Shigeru; Onoguchi, Masahisa [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80, Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Mase, Mitsuhito; Yamada, Kazuo [Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya City University Medical School, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8602 (Japan); Banno, Tatsuo [Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8602 (Japan); Fujita, Hiroshi [Department of Information Science, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    Our objective was to clarify intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics in normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Frequency analyses of CSF flow measured with phase-contrast cine MRI were performed. The CSF flow spectra in the aqueduct were determined in patients (n=51) with NPH, brain atrophy or asymptomatic ventricular dilation (VD), and in healthy volunteers (control group; n=25). The changes in CSF flow spectra were also analyzed after intravenous injection of acetazolamide. Moreover, a phase transfer function (PTF) calculated from the spectra of the driving vascular pulsation and CSF flow in the aqueduct were assessed. These values were compared with the pressure volume response (PVR). The amplitude in the NPH group was significantly larger than that in the VD or control group because of a decrease in compliance. The phase in the NPH group was significantly different from that in either the VD or the control group, but no difference was found between the VD and control groups. The amplitude increased in all groups after acetazolamide injection. The PTF in the NPH group was significantly larger than in the control group, and a positive correlation was noted between PTF and PVR. Frequency analyses of CSF flow measured by cine MRI make it possible to noninvasively obtain a more detailed picture of the pathophysiology of NPH. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic resonance velocity mapping of 3D cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics in hydrocephalus: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, St. Poelten (Austria); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany); Salomonowitz, Erich [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, St. Poelten (Austria); Brenneis, Christian [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Department of Neurology, St. Poelten (Austria); Ungersboeck, Karl [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Department of Neurosurgery, St. Poelten (Austria); Riet, Wilma van der [European MRI Consultancy (EMRIC), Strasbourg (France); Buchfelder, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    To investigate the detectability of CSF flow alterations in the ventricular system of patients with hydrocephalus using time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping. MR velocity mapping was performed in 21 consecutive hydrocephalus patients and 21 age-matched volunteers using a 3D phase-contrast (PC) sequence. Velocity vectors and particle path lines were calculated for visualisation of flow dynamics. CSF flow was classified as ''hypomotile flow'' if it showed attenuated dynamics and as ''hypermotile flow'' if it showed increased dynamics compared with volunteers. Diagnostic efficacy was compared with routine 2D cine PC-MRI. Seven patients showed hypomotile CSF flow: six had non-communicating hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. One showed oscillating flow between the lateral ventricles after craniotomy for intracranial haemorrhage. Seven patients showed normal flow: six had hydrocephalus ex vacuo due to brain atrophy. One patient who underwent ventriculostomy 10 years ago showed a flow path through the opening. Seven patients showed hypermotile flow: three had normal pressure hydrocephalus, three had dementia, and in one the diagnosis remained unclear. The diagnostic efficacy of velocity mapping was significantly higher except for that of aqueductal stenosis. Our approach may be useful for diagnosis, therapy planning, and follow-up of different kinds of hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  20. [Clinical features associated with sudden hearing loss in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiji, Hidenobu; Morimoto, Noriko

    2012-07-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is usually unilateral, and the cause is not identified in most adult cases. However, a specific cause has frequently been found in the case of children, in whom idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISHL) is comparatively rare. We investigated 20 cases of acute unilateral sensorineural hearing loss in children associated with a certain disease, but which was first diagnosed as ISHL. Thirteen patients aged 6 to 16 years old were diagnosed as having psychogenic (functional) hearing loss. Discrepancies in behavioral and objective tests are most valuable when functional hearing loss is suspected. Elevated pure-tone thresholds associated with normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) enable prompt further investigation. There are several conditions that may mimic functional hearing loss, so auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing is necessary to verify the actual cause. The unilateral profound hearing loss in 2 patients aged 7 and 11 years old was due to asymptomatic mumps proven by detecting the mumps IgM antibody. Total hearing recovery in the 125-1000 Hz frequencies occurred in one case. In 5 patients aged 6 to 12 years old with acute hearing loss and vertigo, high resolution CT imaging showed an abnormally enlarged vestibular aqueduct on the affected side. Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome should be considered in acute high-frequency sloping hearing loss with an A-B gap at low frequencies.

  1. Overexpression of nestin and vimentin in the ependyma of spinal cords from hydrocephalic infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, T; Becker, L E

    1997-02-01

    The ependyma of the spinal central canal in cases of hydrocephalus shows abnormalities which vary with the aetiology of ventricular dilatation. To determine whether these ependymal changes are developmental or reactive in nature, immunohistochemical findings were compared between nine normal controls and 12 cases of hydrocephalus (three each of congenital aqueductal stenosis. Dandy-Walker malformation, Chiari type II malformation, and post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus) using antisera to nestin, vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The main pathological findings were disruption of ependymal layer, apparent pseudostratification of ependyma, expansion, cleft or syrinx formation in relation to the central canal, and ependymal rosette formation. In normal developing fetal spinal cord, nestin and vimentin were expressed mainly in pseudostratified ependymal cells and radial fibres in the median septum. In cases with congenital hydrocephalus (congenital aqueductal stenosis. Dandy-Walker malformation, and Chiari type II malformation), nestin was overexpressed in immature ependymal cells, and strong vimentin immunoreactivity was detected in the long tract of radial fibres in the median septum. Nestin and vimentin were also expressed in small cells and their fibres which covered areas denuded of ependymal cells in cases of Chiari type II malformation and post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Two conclusions are suggested by this report. First, the ependyma of the spinal central canal in congenital hydrocephalus shows a delay in maturation of radial glial cells into mature astrocytes and ependymal cells. Second, areas of ependymal denudation may be repaired by the immature glial cells derived from subependymal cells.

  2. Prenatal hydrocephalus: outcome and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renier, D; Sainte-Rose, C; Pierre-Kahn, A; Hirsch, J F

    1988-08-01

    The clinical records of 108 infants presenting with hydrocephalus at birth and operated on from 1971 to 1981 were reviewed in order to evaluate the functional results. Premature newborns and spina bifida patients were excluded. Communicated hydrocephalus (39 cases) and aqueductal stenosis (32 cases, excluding 6 X-linked hydrocephalus and 4 toxoplasmoses) were the two main types of hydrocephalus in this series. Eighty-four percent of the infants were operated on before the age of 3 months. The mean follow-up time was 7 years (range 1 to 14 years). The survival rate, calculated by the life table method, was 62% at 10 years. The functional results were evaluated according to intellectual performance, academic level, and psychological status. Of the 75 surviving children, 28% have an I.Q. over 80 and 50% an I.Q. under 60. The mean I.Q. is 54 (range 0 to 130). Of the 52 children who have now reached school age, only 29% have reached a normal academic level. The psychological status is normal or borderline in 46% of the patients. The importance of head enlargement at birth, ventricular size, and the age at the time of surgery are not related to late functional results. The results were best when there were no associated malformations, no shunt infection, when hydrocephalus was due to aqueductal stenosis (excluding X-linked hydrocephalus and toxoplasmosis), or when the first developmental quotient measured at 6 months was over 80.

  3. Inner ear anomalies causing congenital sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Buchon(Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Many congenital dysplasias of the osseous labyrinth have been identified, and the differential diagnosis of these dysplasias is essential for delivering proper patient management. We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of 20 children who had congenital sensorineural hearing loss. The children included cases of enlarged vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac (n=8), aplasia of the semicircular canal (n=4), lateral semicircular canal-vestibule dysplasia (n=3), common cavity malformations with a large vestibule (n=1), cochlear hypoplasia (n=1), Mondini's dysplasia with large vestibular aqueduct (n=1), Mondini's dysplasia with a large vestibule (n=1), and small internal auditory canal (n=1). Six cases were unilateral. Nine cases had combined deformities, and nine cased had cochlear implants. CT was performed with a 1.0-mm thickness in the direct coronal and axial sections with using bone algorithms. MR was performed with a temporal 3D T2 FSE 10-mm scan and with routine brain images. We describe here the imaging features for the anomalies of the inner ear in patients suffering from congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

  4. PRESTACIÓN DEL SERVICIO DE AGUA POTABLE A TRAVÉS DE COMUNIDADES RURALES, MUNICIPIO DE OCAMONTE. IMPLICACIONES SOCIOJURÍDICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Silva Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed to understanding the problems of drinking water in rural areas of the municipality of Ocamonte, Santander, in key areas such as coverage, quality and condition of the fluid delivery by the local authority. Characterizes the problematic situation and explores the legal partner of organized rural communities, traditional owners of the aqueducts, can provide for the State service possible. Was done the analysis of the rules governing the matter, background and further exploration tools were applied to understand the real situation of rural aqueducts that supply water for human consumption and agricultural development work, as well as perceptions and perspectives are made of the people with the problem. As a result of government neglect in providing the vital service and lack of policies and investments to ad- dress the problem was evident. Was evidenced the legal possibility to develop mechanisms that will allow the rural community to provide water service constituting their self as nonprofit associations or firms and fulfilling requirements that law demand to providers.

  5. Cerebral venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B. Beggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the impact of restricted cerebral venous outflow on the biomechanics of the intracranial fluid system is investigated. The cerebral venous drainage system is often viewed simply as a series of collecting vessels channeling blood back to the heart. However there is growing evidence that it plays an important role in regulating the intracranial fluid system. In particular, there appears to be a link between increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius and constricted venous outflow. Constricted venous outflow also appears to inhibit absorption of CSF into the superior sagittal sinus. The compliance of the cortical bridging veins appears to be critical to the behaviour of the intracranial fluid system, with abnormalities at this location implicated in normal pressure hydrocephalus. The compliance associated with these vessels appears to be functional in nature and dependent on the free egress of blood out of the cranium via the extracranial venous drainage pathways. Because constricted venous outflow appears to be linked with increased aqueductal CSF pulsatility, it suggests that inhibited venous blood outflow may be altering the compliance of the cortical bridging veins.

  6. CT fluoroscopy: novel application for the treatment of ventricular pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Kieran; Gailloud, Philippe [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nussbaum, David A. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Recent advances in multidetector CT imaging (MDCT) provide real-time ''fluoroscopic-like'' capabilities with excellent spatial resolution. MDCT fluoroscopy expands our ability to perform image-guided interventions in anatomically complex locations. Although MDCT fluoroscopy is currently used at our institution for a variety of procedures ranging from spinal nerve blocks to RFA ablation, we believe these same techniques can be used to navigate within the ventricles of the central nervous system to treat conditions requiring placement of intraventricular catheters, depth electrodes, or potentially stents for the relief of CSF outlet obstruction. Using three fresh, unfrozen human cadavers, we studied the feasibility of using MDCT fluoroscopy for intraventricular catheter placement and to stent the aqueduct of Sylvius. The ventricles were entered via a single needle pass and catheters were placed over the wire. Contrast agent was then injected to visualize the distribution. To stent the aqueduct of Sylvius, a wire was passed into the 4th ventricle and a coronary stent was then inserted over the wire and deployed. Based on our success with these procedures, we believe this technique can be used to limit complications and improve efficacy of a number of neurosurgical procedures. (orig.)

  7. Case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kuwabara, Satoshi

    1983-05-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH/sub 2/O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy.

  8. Vestibular function is associated with residual low-frequency hearing loss in patients with bi-allelic mutations in the SLC26A4 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinsei; Seo, Young Wook; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Sung Huhn

    2016-05-01

    DFNB4 is non-syndromic, autosomal recessive type of hearing loss with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) caused by mutations in SLC26A4/pendrin. Although the characteristics of hearing loss are well known in DFNB4, vestibular function remains inconclusive. We evaluated the vestibular function of 31 patients with bi-allelic mutations in SLC26A4/pendrin and analyzed genetic, radiological, and audiological correlations with vestibular function. In a caloric test, unilateral and bilateral vestibulopathies were detected in 45.2% and 6.4% of patients, respectively; however, only 22.6% had subjective vertigo symptoms. While vestibular phenotype was not significantly associated with specific mutations in genetic alleles or the sizes of the endolymphatic sac and vestibular aqueduct, a residual hearing threshold at a low frequency (500 Hz) was definitely correlated with vestibular function in DFNB4 (p = 0.005). These findings may indicate that vestibular function in DFNB4 deteriorates unilaterally in ears when hearing loss occurs. In conclusion, DFNB4 shows vestibular dysfunction, which is strongly linked to hearing loss at low frequencies without any allelic or anatomical predisposing factor.

  9. Analysis of degradation phenomena in ancient, traditional and improved building materials of historical monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.

    2008-07-01

    A review is presented on constructive techniques plus materials and the processes involved in degradation phenomena observed in two historical monuments: the Zambujeiro dolmen (Portugal) and the Roman Aqueduct of Carthage (Tunisia). Dolmens are particularly impressive megalithic constructions for the dimensions of granite blocks. At Zambujeiro, the upright stones have undergone a catastrophic evolution after the archaeological exploitation due to accelerated weathering through a process apparently distinct from natural granite decay in nearby outcrops. The biological attack of granite minerals by lichen exudates has emphasized the hazardous character of bromine and more has been learnt about construction techniques, namely, the insertion in the mound of an impermeable clay stratum that hinders water penetration into the dolmen chamber. The characterization of original Roman ashlar blocks, including masonry and the diagnosis of Byzantine and medieval reconstruction testimonies in the Aqueduct of Carthage were the object of a detailed study by X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. Traditional constructive techniques and local construction materials were studied and successive historical, modern and recent rehabilitations were reappraised.

  10. The mechanism of pathological changes of intraventricular hemorrhage in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jiong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an independent risk factor for both morbidity and mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and subarchnoid hemorrhage. The pathophysiological mechanisms by which blood within the ventricles causes brain damage are still poorly understood. Settings and Design : We developed a canine (dog model with long-term survival. Aims : To study the mechanisms of pathological changes associated with IVH. Materials and Methods : The neurological status, cranial computed tomographic findings, and the pathological changes were studied in the dogs with IVH and also in the control dogs, intraventiricular saline injection. Results : In all the dogs in the control group there were no abnormalities in all the three parameters studied. The dogs in the IVH group developed neurological deficits after the blood injection. There was linear relationship between the ventricular volume and blood clot volume in the first week. After the first week, there was progressive enlargement of the ventricular volume, while the clots continued to shrink. There was complete lysis of the clots within 4 weeks. Pathological studies showed distruction of the ependymal lining of the ventricular system, subependymal gliosis and ischemia of the neurons in the subependymal areas, prominently around the aqueduct. Conclusion : Ventricular dilation was the prominent feature following intraventricular injection of the blood. The other pathological features included disruption of ependymal lining, subependymal gliosis, and ischemic necrosis of neurons in the periventricular tissue of the third ventricle, aqueduct, and the fourth ventricle. These pathological may have some role in the ventricular dilatation following IVH.

  11. Central neurocytomas of uncommon locations: report of two cases Localizações incomuns do neurocitoma central: relato de dois casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francinaldo Lobato Gomes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We report two patients with central neurocytomas at an uncommon location in the brain. The first, a 58-year-old man presenting with signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, had a tumor located at the pineal region. The second, a 21-year-old woman with tumor in the aqueductal region had worsening migraine-like headaches and diplopia. Both patients had obstructive hydrocephalus treated by neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy of the tumors. No additional treatment was done. We conclude that neurocytomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors located in the pineal and aqueductal regions.Relatamos dois pacientes com neurocitoma central com localização incomum no sistema nervoso central. O primeiro, 58 anos, masculino, apresentava sinais e sintomas de hipertensão intracraniana, tinha um tumor na região da pineal. O segundo, feminino, 21 anos, tinha um tumor na região do aqueduto de Sylvius e apresentava cefaléia migranosa progressiva e diplopia. Ambos apresentavam hidrocefalia obstrutiva tratada com terceiroventriculostomia endoscópica e biópsia da lesão. Não foi feito tratamento adicional. Concluimos que os neurocitomas devem ser considerados no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores localizados na região da pineal e do aqueduto.

  12. Factors affecting surgical outcome of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in congenital hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Ajay; Suri, Ashish; Bansal, Sumit; Chandra, P Sarat; Kumar, Rajinder; Singh, Manmohan; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is an accepted modality of treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus, with good results in adult patients. However in the pediatric age group results vary from poor to similar to the adult population. This study evaluates the outcome of ETV in congenital hydrocephalus of both early and delayed presentation, and investigates factors that determine the outcome. Patients with congenital hydrocephalus who underwent ETV between January 2006 and December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Any conditions potentially influencing the need for redo surgery (persistent cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] leak not responding to local measures, tense fontanelle, increased ventricular size, recurrence of symptoms or radiological evidence of failure) were analyzed. A total of 102 patients with a mean age of 7.45years were included. Presenting features were increasing head circumference and delayed milestones. Ninety-eight patients had triventricular hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. Procedures performed were ETV only (n=74), ETV with aqueductoplasty (n=22), ETV with cystoventriculostomy (n=2) and aqueductoplasty only (n=2). Failure of ETV occurred in 11 patients and all were managed with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. CSF leak in the perioperative period was the only factor that was significantly associated with failure of ETV. ETV is a safe procedure with a good success rate and can be offered to children with aqueductal stenosis. There is a higher chance of failure if there is a CSF leak in the early or late postoperative period.

  13. Paradoxical migrating cyst: an unusual presentation of intraventricular neurocysticercosis with a coincidental pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shanchita; Al-Khalili, Rend; Liu, James K; Slasky, Shira E

    2014-06-01

    Intraventricular neurocysticercosis is an uncommon entity which may become symptomatic due to cerebrospinal fluid flow obstruction. Migration of intraventricular cysts through the ventricular spaces is a rare occurrence. This phenomenon is poorly understood but may be due to pressure changes within the ventricular cavities. We present a patient with intraventricular neurocysticercosis with paradoxical transaqueductal migration of the cyst from the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle shortly after ventricular drain placement for acute hydrocephalus. The patient also presented with a coincidental sellar and suprasellar mass, later pathologically proven to be a pituitary adenoma. The migration of this cyst resulted in spontaneous relief of obstruction at the cerebral aqueduct, thus restoring normal cerebrospinal fluid pathways and avoiding permanent shunting. We discuss the possible mechanisms and implications of cyst migration, and the diagnostic challenges of concomitant findings of a pituitary mass and neurocysticercosis. Although the presence of a sellar and suprasellar mass in a patient with known neurocysticercosis should raise clinical suspicion for the possibility of sellar neurocysticercosis, pituitary macroadenoma is a more common entity and a more likely etiology for a sellar lesion.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with lateral cerebral ventriculomegaly in English Bulldogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Christopher T; Glass, Eric N; Seiler, Gabriela; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Mai, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Multiple congenital or developmental anomalies associated with the central nervous system have been reported in English Bulldogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify and describe the prevalence and MRI characteristics of these anomalies and their association with presence and degree of cerebral ventriculomegaly. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of 50 English Bulldogs were evaluated. Forty-eight dogs had some degree of cerebral ventriculomegaly, 27 of which had an otherwise normal brain. Presence of lateral ventriculomegaly was not significantly associated with presence of another intracranial lesion. Appearance of the septum pellucidum was variable, ranging from intact to incomplete or completely absent. The corpus callosum was subjectively thinned in all but three dogs, two of which had normal lateral ventricles. Fusion of the rostral colliculi was not found in any dog. A persistent craniopharyngeal canal was identified in one dog. Aqueductal stenosis caused by fusion of the rostral colliculi was not identified in any dog. Findings indicated that cerebral ventriculomegaly is a common finding in English Bulldogs with or without other intracranial lesions, aqueductal stenosis caused by fusion of the rostral colliculi is unlikely to be a common etiology leading to obstructive hydrocephalus, and a large craniopharyngeal canal is a rare finding that has unknown clinical significance at this time.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging flow void changes after cerebrospinal fluid shunt in post-traumatic hydrocephalus: clinical correlations and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missori, Paolo; Miscusi, Massimo; Formisano, Rita; Peschillo, Simone; Polli, Filippo M; Melone, Antonio; Martini, Stefano; Paolini, Sergio; Delfini, Roberto

    2006-07-01

    The assessment of the flow-void in the cerebral aqueduct of patients with post-traumatic hydrocephalus on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation could concur the right diagnosis and have a prognostic value. We analysed prospectively 28 patients after a severe head injury (GCSaqueduct is diagnostic for post-traumatic hydrocephalus and its reduction after ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is correlated with a neurological improvement. In already shunted patients, a persistent fast flow-void is associated with a lack of or very slow clinical improvement and it should be considered indicative of under-drainage.

  16. Psychotic symptoms in normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziioannidis, S; Charatsidou, I; Nikolaidis, N; Garyfallos, G; Giouzepas, I

    2013-01-01

    Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus due to idiopathic aqueductal stenosis is a chronic abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the cerebral ventricles caused by an obstruction in the Sylvian aqueduct. This leads to a dilatation of the ventricular system and to subsequent damage of the adjacent parenchyma. Although NPH typically presents with the progressive 'triad' of cognitive impairment, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence, it has been described that it rarely manifests in the form of predominant psychotic symptoms. It has been suggested that thought and perceptual disorders could develop secondary to the damage caused by NPH. Although precise anatomical correlates have not yet been established, certain cerebral regions -primarily the frontal cortex, mesencephalic and diencephalic structures of the brain- have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalic psychosis. Because frontal lobe lesions are traditionally known to facilitate one's inability to integrate and correct perceptual distortions in the face of contradictory evidence, frontal lobe dysfunction may be integral in delineating the etiology of delusions in NPH. We present the case of a 30-year-old female, admitted involuntarily to our acute psychiatric department because she exhibited aggressive behavior while being in an agitated state with delusions of persecution. Her neurological examination disclosed subtle bradykinesia. Neuropsychological batteries and intelligence testing revealed mild cognitive impairment and a CT scan showed considerable dilatation of the ventricular system due to idiopathic aqueductal stenosis. While a conservative approach was chosen for the treatment of NPH, our patient was initiated on 2nd generation antipsychotics showing marked improvement of her psychiatric symptomatology. The atypical presentation of hydrocephalus in the aforementioned case underlines the necessity to thoroughly investigate the possible presence of an underlying organic factor in those

  17. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige, E-mail: epons@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe [CEREMA, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes (France); Douville, Eric [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Dumont, Emmanuel [CEREMA, rue de l' égalité Prolongée, 93352, Le Bourget cedex 319 (France)

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were

  18. Brain ultrasonography in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrac, Corinne; Couture, Alain; Saguintaah, Magali; Baud, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    Brain ultrasonography plays a central role in the detection and management of neonatal disease in the preterm infant. Although morphological study, using high-frequency transducers, remains the cornerstone of imaging, pulsed and colour Doppler scans provide additional information and improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of ultrasonography. Particular features of normal brain US in the extremely preterm infant are reported. Cerebral haemorrhage and its different patterns (intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction) are described. The value of Doppler techniques is emphasized, e.g. demonstration of coloured signal within the aqueduct of Sylvius, visualization of patency of the terminal veins, demonstration of Doppler spectrum fluctuations, recognition of low blood flow, and the detection of vasodilatation. The sonographic diagnosis of periventricular leucomalacia and its difficulties are documented. Some uncommon brain lesions of the premature infant are illustrated, e.g. gangliothalamic ischaemic damage, cortical necrosis, focal infarcts, etc. The importance of repeating the US examinations until near term is highlighted.

  19. Rilievo e ricostruzione virtuale del Ponte Sud di Hierapolis di Frigia (Turchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Di Giacomo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the topographical survey and the 3D reconstruction of a Roman bridge-aqueduct located immediately to the south of Hierapolis in Phrygia (south-western Turkey, along the ancient route directed to Colosse and the internal Anatolia; only its southern abutment and scarce remains of the northern one are preserved. It is in a very difficult location, inside the narrow and deep valley, and it was never studied before. During the 2011 field work campaign of the Italian Archaeological Mission, it was surveyed using a high precision differential GPS system (for the plan documentation and its positioning in the digital archaeological map of Hierapolis and through a Motorized Robotic Total Station (for the documentation of the elevation and the creation of a 3D model of the southern side with the aim of its virtual reconstruction.

  20. Case Report: Acute obstructive hydrocephalus associated with infratentorial extra-axial fluid collection following foramen magnum decompression and durotomy for Chiari malformation type I [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Munakomi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to infratentorial extra-axial fluid collection (EAFC is an extremely rare complication of foramen magnum decompression (FMD and durotomy for Chiari malformation type I. Presence of infratentorial  EAFC invariably causes obstruction at the level of the fourth ventricle or aqueduct of Silvius, thereby indicating its definitive role in hydrocephalus. Pathogenesis of EAFC is said to be a local arachnoid tear as a result of durotomy, as this complication is not described in FMD without durotomy. Controversy exists in management. Usually EAFC is said to resolve with conservative management; so hydrocephalus doesn’t require treatment. However, in this case EAFC was progressive and ventriculo-peritoneal shunting (VPS was needed for managing progressive and symptomatic hydrocephalus.

  1. Discovery Mondays: 'Sensors, or the art of measuring limits'

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The gigantic LHC machine and experiments will be teeming with minuscule sensors like this one, capable of measuring the tiniest of phenomena. In their study of the infinitesimally small, CERN's physicists, engineers and technicians work at the highest levels of precision. To ensure maximum performance, the most sensitive accelerator and detector components have to be positioned with razor-sharp precision. Detector components, for instance, sometimes need to be aligned to the nearest thousandth of a millimetre! The positioning of the LHC beam is another crucial operation requiring similarly phenomenal precision. Come to the next Discovery Monday and see how different types of sensors are used to achieve the required degrees of precision. The Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS), for instance, relies on the same principle of communicating vessels that was already employed in antiquity for the construction of aqueducts, bridges and other edifices. You will discover the instrumentation that makes it possible to ...

  2. Bobbling head in a young subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bobble-head Doll Syndrome is a rare and unique movement disorder found in children. Clinically, it is characterized by a to and fro or side to side movement of the head at the frequency of 2 to 3 Hz. It is mostly associated with cystic lesions around the third ventricle, choroid plexus papilloma, aqueductal stenosis and other rare disorders. An eleven year old child presented in the outpatient department with continuous to and fro movement of the head and declining vision for the last one month. MRI Scan showed a large contrast-enhanced lesion in the region of the third ventricle along with gross hydrocephalus. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was inserted and the movements of the head disappeared completely. Bobble-head doll syndrome is a rare condition and therefore this case is presented and the literature reviewed.

  3. Retroflexed holoprosencephaly. X-ray CT findings and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, N.; Ohno, K.; Masaoka, H.; Fukai, N.; Matsushima, Y.

    1987-02-01

    We report a case of holoprosencephaly with retroflexion and discuss the usefulness of X-ray CT in its diagnosis. A 2-month-old infant, admitted with severe hydrocephalus, underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. The brain was retroflexed with subdural fluid collection after the procedure. The pathological condition was, however, gradually improved by the use of an additional subduro-peritoneal shunt. The shift and distortion of the brain were observed by means of serial X-ray CT scans. MRI revealed the brain stuck mainly to the frontal bone, monoventricle, the so-called dorsal sac, and probably the pituitary gland, but not the fourth ventricle nor the aqueduct. Sagittal and coronal sections of MRI and axial sections of X-ray CT proved to be useful in the diagnosis and classification of the holoprosencephaly, even without other invasive diagnostic procedures.

  4. Mouse models for pendrin-associated loss of cochlear and vestibular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangemann, Philine

    2013-01-01

    The human gene SLC26A4 and the mouse ortholog Slc26a4 code for the protein pendrin, which is an anion exchanger expressed in apical membranes of selected epithelia. In the inner ear, pendrin is expressed in the cochlea, the vestibular labyrinth and the endolymphatic sac. Loss-of-function and hypo-functional mutations cause an enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) and sensorineural hearing loss. The relatively high prevalence of SLC26A4 mutations provides a strong imperative to develop rational interventions that delay, ameliorate or prevent pendrin-associated loss of cochlear and vestibular function. This review summarizes recent studies in mouse models that have been developed to delineate the role of pendrin in the physiology of hearing and balance and that have brought forward the concept that a temporally and spatially limited therapy may be sufficient to secure a life-time of normal hearing in children bearing mutations of SLC26A4.

  5. Hydrocephalus caused by conditional ablation of the Pten or beta-catenin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohtoshi Akihira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the roles of Pten and β-Catenin in the midbrain, either the Pten gene or the β-catenin gene was conditionally ablated, using Dmbx1 (diencephalon/mesencephalon-expressed brain homeobox gene 1-Cre mice. Homozygous disruption of the Pten or β-catenin gene in Dmbx1-expressing cells caused severe hydrocephalus and mortality during the postnatal period. Conditional deletion of Pten resulted in enlargement of midbrain structures. β-catenin conditional mutant mice showed malformation of the superior and inferior colliculi and stenosis of the midbrain aqueduct. These results demonstrate that both Pten and β-Catenin are essential for proper midbrain development, and provide the direct evidence that mutations of both Pten and β-catenin lead to hydrocephalus.

  6. A hydroelastic model of hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, Alan; Sobey, Ian; Molnar, Zoltan

    2005-09-01

    We combine elements of poroelasticity and of fluid mechanics to construct a mathematical model of the human brain and ventricular system. The model is used to study hydrocephalus, a pathological condition in which the normal flow of the cerebrospinal fluid is disturbed, causing the brain to become deformed. Our model extends recent work in this area by including flow through the aqueduct, by incorporating boundary conditions that we believe accurately represent the anatomy of the brain and by including time dependence. This enables us to construct a quantitative model of the onset, development and treatment of this condition. We formulate and solve the governing equations and boundary conditions for this model and give results that are relevant to clinical observations.

  7. Two Hundred Thirty-Six Children With Developmental Hydrocephalus: Causes and Clinical Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Hannah M; Ishak, Gisele E; Rue, Tessa C; Dempsey, Jennifer C; Browd, Samuel R; Millen, Kathleen J; Doherty, Dan; Dobyns, William B

    2016-03-01

    Few systematic assessments of developmental forms of hydrocephalus exist. We reviewed magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and clinical records of patients with infancy-onset hydrocephalus. Among 411 infants, 236 had hydrocephalus with no recognizable extrinsic cause. These children were assigned to 1 of 5 subtypes and compared on the basis of clinical characteristics and developmental and surgical outcomes. At an average age of 5.3 years, 72% of children were walking independently and 87% could eat by mouth; in addition, 18% had epilepsy. Distinct patterns of associated malformations and syndromes were observed within each subtype. On average, children with aqueductal obstruction, cysts, and encephaloceles had worse clinical outcomes than those with other forms of developmental hydrocephalus. Overall, 53% of surgically treated patients experienced at least 1 shunt failure, but hydrocephalus associated with posterior fossa crowding required fewer shunt revisions. We conclude that each subtype of developmental hydrocephalus is associated with distinct clinical characteristics, syndromology, and outcomes, suggesting differences in underlying mechanisms.

  8. [Water pipelines conduits and urban sanitation in Cartagena in the beginning of the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, A L

    2000-01-01

    Throughout its history, Cartagena de Indias, a seaport in the Colombian Caribbean, has been handicapped for not offering salubrious conditions to its people and visitors. The lack of an aqueduct and a sewerage system was an impairment to progress. For nearly forty years (1890-1930) these problems have caused a myriad of medical discourses formulated by scientists, technicians and politicians. Cartagena's contribution to solve the sanitation problem in cities has consisted in making use of engineers' knowledge. The construction of urban facilities in the beginning of the twentieth century required a more technical knowledge, one which would advance a comprehensive solution to the water problem, ensure sufficient supply and efficient drainage. Thus, in the last turn of the century, the medical doctor is no longer the only authoritative voice when it comes to the management of urban life. The construction works which require an engineer, involving him in public health, have drawn a distinction between "hygiene" and "sanitary science".

  9. Endoscopic management of large multicompartmental intraventricular arachnoid cyst extending from foramen magnum to foramen of Monro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment options for symptomatic arachnoid cysts are shunting, open craniotomy, and endoscopic fenestration. Endoscopic fenestration of large arachnoid cyst is safe and effective. Postoperative subdural hematoma and intraparenchymal hemorrhage can be avoided by endoscopic fenestration. This technique has the additional advantage of identifying and treating ventricular abnormalities, such as foramen of Monro stenosis and cerebral aqueduct occlusion. This report describes endoscopic dual fenestration in a child with large multicompartmental intraventricular arachnoid cyst extending from foramen magnum to foramen of Monro. The child presented with difficulty to hold the neck in upright position, irritability, vomiting, and large head. Follow-up postoperative magnetic resonance imaging at 3 months showed a significant reduction in size of the cyst. Clinically, the patient showed a gradual improvement at 10 months follow-up. Probably this is the first report of this nature.

  10. [Pendred syndrome and nonsyndromic related deafness: a same entity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemeau, Jean-louis; Vincent, Christophe; Dubrulle, Frédérique; Ladsous, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive familial disorder, defined as a sensorineural deafness coinciding with a goiter related to an iodine organification defect. It constitutes 4 to 10 % of all causes of familial congenital hearing loss. It is now well established that this condition was caused by mutations in the SLC26A4 gene which codes for pendrin, a protein involved in the transport of anions (I-, Cl, HCO3-), particularly in apical iodine efflux in thyroid cells and chloride (Cl-|HCO3-) at the cochlear level. A current issue is to determine factors that distinguish Pendred syndrome from other varieties of isolated deafness also including enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct, but without evidence of thyroid expression. A prospective investigation of these 2 situations, conducted in Lille, leads us to redefine diagnostic criteria and assessment methods, and to discuss genetic or environmental factors contributing to the phenotypes.

  11. Imaging assessment of profound sensorineural deafness with inner ear anatomical abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Jing Wu; Xin Chen; Jing-Kun Li; Tao Peng; Yun-Peng Dong; Xue-Zhong Liu; Ding-Hua Xie; Xiang-Bo He; Li-Hua Tan; Peng Hu; An-Quan Peng; Zi-An Xiao; Shu Yang; Tian Wang; Jie Qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: :To explore the value of a combined computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating profound sensorineural deafness patients before cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Methods:A retrospective analysis of 1012 cases of profound sensorineural deafness that received CI was performed. Results:A total of 96 cases were diagnosed with inner ear abnormalities including large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS, n ¼ 61), Michel deformity (n ¼ 3), cochlear incomplete partition I (n ¼ 2), cochlear incomplete partition II (n ¼ 6), cochlear hypoplasia with vestibular malformation (n ¼ 3), cochlear ossification (n ¼ 3), bilateral internal auditory canal obstruction (n ¼ 5) and internal auditory canal stenosis (n ¼ 2). Conclusion:High resolution CT (HRCT) can display bony structures while MRI can image the membranous labyrinth in preoperative evaluation for cochlear implantation. The combination of these two modalities provides reliable anatomical information regarding the bony and mem-branous labyrinths, as well as the auditory nerve.

  12. Resolution of sudden sensorineural hearing loss following a roller coaster ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aman; Sinha, Amrita; Al-Waa, Ahmad M

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of sudden onset during an aeroplane flight, which completely resolved during a roller coaster ride at Alton Towers theme park. A review of the literature concerning sudden idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss and spontaneous resolution are discussed. Initially, pure-tone audiometry showed a profound sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear and mild sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear (of note, the hearing was normal prior to the episode). Following resolution of the patient's symptoms during a roller coaster ride, pure-tone audiometry showed normal hearing thresholds in both ears. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a symptom of cochlear injury and the mechanism of the patient's symptoms was attributed to a patent cochlear aqueduct.

  13. Analyzing the Dynamics of Inter-state water peace: A study of the Huitzilapan-Xalapa Water Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maganda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political conflict surrounding the interstate transfer of water in the Huitzilapan-Xalapa Aqueduct, from which about 60% of the water resources for the city of Xalapa, state capital of Veracruz, come. This interstate water transfer has eventually lead to political and social conflict based on misinformation about perceived water shortages to Xalapa. The article examines a case in which water officials from Xalapa have apparently complied with guidelines related to procedural, distributive, and ecological justice. Therefore, the article proposes a focus on «justice as responsible (and informed dialogue» as a central element of procedural justice. The analysis is based on a review of official documents, such as Mexican water laws and the water concession under which this water transfer has occurred, press reviews published in regional newspapers, a field visit and interviews with key stakeholders and researchers mostly in Veracruz state.

  14. Conference Proceedings: World Wise 99 -- Conference on sustainable infrastructure: emerging technologies for the new millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Energy conservation and sustainable development through emerging technologies was the focus of this third biennial conference of the Manitoba Heavy Construction Association. Papers presented discussed a wide range of topics including a few pertaining to developments in the livestock industry in Manitoba, a substantial number of papers involving road and bridge construction and management, paving and concrete building products, aqueduct and trenchless sewer rehabilitation, and cathodic protection of water mains. The majority of the speakers discussed topics related to sustainable development and environmental protection such as stormceptor hydrology, chemical contamination in site remediation projects, optimization of wastewater stabilization ponds, recycling organic residuals and land rehabilitation, harnessing the energy of ocean waves, alternative energy sources, and the beneficial re-use of glass, rubber and geotextiles in road construction. Commercializing new technology was the subject of an extended panel discussion.

  15. [Water for human consumption and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, G M; D'Alessandro, D

    2003-01-01

    Providing enough water of good quality to all human communities is a difficult task, which has been satisfied only recently and only for the developed world. A large part of the developing world still suffers from scarcity and/or bad quality of water supply. Examples from the past are described, including the cholera epidemics of London 1848-1853 and the chromium pollution of the Milan area, 1958. A synthetic description of the different kinds of biological and chemical pollution are also described, then the complex mechanisms of biological and chemical pollution of the waters are illustrated, which require complicated interventions for reclamation after pollution or, better, even more complicated surveillance to avoid pollution. Finally the problem of safeguard of waters during the distribution is illustrated, when a bad maintenance of the aqueducts can inactivate all the precautions taken during the supply an the treatment of waters.

  16. Human thermal comfort at Nimes in summer heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, X. [C.N.R.S., roupe Ecothermique, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2000-07-01

    Various aspects of comfort are analysed through a set of questions asked of 90 urban pedestrians. Answers show the contribution that clothes, time adaptation and other non thermal effects make in lowering the skin wetness and the perception of warmth. A shift exists between theory (established with subjects in climatic chambers) and statements. Searching for a comfortable feeling in this city, the hottest in France (metropolis), but without any river, lake or seaside, results from water evaporation at the clothing level for the immediate body environment, and also for the outside air cooling. The enormous need of water for a natural air conditioning was one reason for the aqueduct built by the Romans. (author)

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in Chiari malformation associated with syringomyelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; WANG Zhen-yu; XIE Jing-cheng; HAN Hong-bin; PEI Xin-long

    2007-01-01

    Background About 50%-70% of patients with Chiari malformation I (CMI) presented with syringomyelia (SM), which is supposed to be related to abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow around the foramen magnum. The aim of this study was to investigate the cerebrospinal fluid dynamics at levels of the aqueduct and upper cervical spine in patients with CMI associated with SM, and to discuss the possible mechanism of formation of SM.Methods From January to April 2004, we examined 10 adult patients with symptomatic CMI associated with SM and 10 healthy volunteers by phase-contrast MRI. CSF flow patterns were evaluated at seven regions of interest (ROI): the aqueduct and ventral and dorsal subarachnoid spaces of the spine at levels of the cerebellar tonsil, C2-3, and C5-6. The CSF flow waveforms were analyzed by measuring CSF circulation time, durations and maximum velocities of cranial- and caudal-directed flows, and the ratio between the two maximum velocities. Data were analyzed by ttest using SPSS 11.5.Results We found no definite communication between the fourth ventricle and syringomyelia by MRI in the 10 patients.In both the groups, we observed cranial-directed flow of CSF in the early cardiac systolic phase, which changed the direction from cranial to caudal from the middle systolic phase to the early diastolic phase, and then turned back in cranial direction in the late diastolic phase. The CSF flow disappeared at the dorsal ROI at the level of C2-3 in 3 patients and 1 volunteer, and at the level of C5-6 in 6 patients and 3 volunteers. The durations of CSF circulation at all the ROIs were significantly shorter in the patients than those in the healthy volunteers (P=0.014 at the midbrain aqueduct, P=0.019 at the inferior margin of the cerebellar tonsil, P=0.014 at the level of C2-3, and P=0.022 at the level of C5-6). No significant difference existed between the two groups in the initial point and duration of the caudal-directed CSF flow during a cardiac cycle at

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid flow. Pt. 3; Pathological cerebrospinal fluid pulsations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroth, G. (Dept. of Neuradiology, Tuebingen Univ. (Germany)); Klose, U. (Dept. of Neuradiology, Tuebingen Univ. (Germany))

    1992-12-01

    Cardiac- and respiration-related movements of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were investigated by MRI in 71 patients. In most patients with arteriosclerotic occlusive vascular disease CSF pulsations are normal. Decreased pulsatile flow is detectable in those with arteriovenous malformations, intracranial air and following lumbar puncture and withdrawal of CSF. Increased pulsatile flow in the cerebral aqueduct was found in 2 patients with large aneurysms, idiopathic communicating syringomyelia and in most cases of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). CSF flow in the cervical spinal canal is, however, reduced or normal in NPH, indicating reduction of the unfolding ability of the surface of the brain and/or inhibition of rapid CSF movements in the subrachnoid space over its convexity. (orig.)

  19. EnviSAT ASAR Monitoring Of The Natural And Archaeological Landscape Of Nasca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    We exploit the 4year-long archive of ENVISAT ASAR IS2 C-band imagery available through ESA Cat-1 project id.11073 over Nasca (Southern Peru), to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its impacts on the natural and cultural heritage preserved within this region, well- known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations who flourished between the 4th century BC and the 6th century AD. Inferences about the recent changes of the cultural landscapes and the main landforms in 2003-2007 were retrieved based on SAR backscattering (σ0) time series. Ancient aqueduct systems (the so-called puquios) and the famous geoglyphs ('Nasca Lines') were detected, even at a medium-resolution scale provided by ENVISAT images.

  20. Bãile Herculane Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Baile Herculane is a balneary resort located in Caraş-Severin County, in South-Western Romania and is located 41 km to the Northwest of the city of Drobeta Turnu Severin, Mehedinti County. Resort Baile Herculane is documentary attested since 153 a.d. and is an attraction for its healing power of water. The Romans will be arriving in Dacia were impressed with the power of exceptional quality healing waters of the Cernei Vally, therefore, have made an important point of attraction here. In those times you keep bathrooms, statues, coins, culverts, signs of gratitude to the gods that were cured with water. The aqueducts, baths and hot springs from the time of the Romans. The beauty of the places where the resort Baile Herculane cannot be described in words, you have to go to see with your eyes

  1. A Methodology to Validate the InSAR Derived Displacement Field of the September 7th, 1999 Athens Earthquake Using Terrestrial Surveying. Improvement of the Assessed Deformation Field by Interferometric Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Ioannis; Kontoes, Charalabos; Paradissis, Dimitrios; Karamitsos, Spyros; Elias, Panagiotis; Papoutsis, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is the evaluation of the InSAR derived displacement field caused by the 07/09/1999 Athens earthquake, using as reference an external data source provided by terrestrial surveying along the Mornos river open aqueduct. To accomplish this, a processing chain to render comparable the leveling measurements and the interferometric derived measurements has been developed. The distinct steps proposed include a solution for reducing the orbital and atmospheric interferometric fringes and an innovative method to compute the actual InSAR estimated vertical ground subsidence, for direct comparison with the leveling data. Results indicate that the modeled deformation derived from a series of stacked interferograms, falls entirely within the confidence interval assessed for the terrestrial surveying data. PMID:27879926

  2. A Methodology to Validate the InSAR Derived Displacement Field of the September 7th, 1999 Athens Earthquake Using Terrestrial Surveying. Improvement of the Assessed Deformation Field by Interferometric Stacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Papoutsis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is the evaluation of the InSAR derived displacement field caused by the 07/09/1999 Athens earthquake, using as reference an external data source provided by terrestrial surveying along the Mornos river open aqueduct. To accomplish this, a processing chain to render comparable the leveling measurements and the interferometric derived measurements has been developed. The distinct steps proposed include a solution for reducing the orbital and atmospheric interferometric fringes and an innovative method to compute the actual InSAR estimated vertical ground subsidence, for direct comparison with the leveling data. Results indicate that the modeled deformation derived from a series of stacked interferograms, falls entirely within the confidence interval assessed for the terrestrial surveying data.

  3. Influence of cochleostomy and cochlear implant insertion on drug gradients following intratympanic application in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, EB; Hartsock, JJ; O'Leary, SJ; Salt, AN

    2013-01-01

    Locally-applied drugs can protect residual hearing following cochlear implantation. The influence of cochlear implantation on drug levels in scala tympani (ST) after round window application was investigated in guinea pigs using the marker trimethylphenlyammonium (TMPA) measured in real-time with TMPA-selective microelectrodes. TMPA concentration in the upper basal turn of ST rapidly increased during implantation and then declined due to cerebrospinal fluid entering ST at the cochlear aqueduct and exiting at the cochleostomy. The TMPA increase was found to be caused by the cochleostomy drilling, if the burr tip partially entered ST. TMPA distribution in the second turn was less affected by implantation procedures. These findings show that basal turn drug levels may be changed during implantation and the changes may need to be considered in the interpretation of therapeutic effects of drugs in conjunction with implantation. PMID:24008355

  4. Estimates of natural streamflow at two streamgages on the Esopus Creek, New York, water years 1932 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Gazoorian, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Streamflow in the Esopus Creek watershed is altered by two major watershed management activities carried out by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection as part of its responsibility to maintain a water supply for New York City: (1) diversion of water from the Schoharie Creek watershed to the Esopus Creek through the Shandaken Tunnel, and (2) impoundment of the Esopus Creek by a dam that forms the Ashokan Reservoir and subsequent release through the Catskill Aqueduct. Stakeholders in the Catskill region are interested and concerned about the extent to which these watershed management activities have altered streamflow, especially low and high flows, in the Esopus Creek. To address these concerns, natural (in the absence of diversion and impoundment) daily discharge from October 1, 1931, to September 30, 2012, was estimated for the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages at Coldbrook (station number 01362500), downstream of the Shandaken Tunnel discharge, and at Mount Marion (01364500), downstream of the Ashokan Reservoir.

  5. [Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome. Which characteristics must the HNO doctor consider in its diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, J M; Jäger, L; Naumann, A; Schorn, K

    2005-03-01

    Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome (Kabuki make-up syndrome) is a congenital disorder with characteristic facial features and possibly anomalies of the skeletal system and internal organs. There is an increasing number of reports of patients with combined hearing impairment, inner ear deformities or sensorineural hearing impairment. In addition, the patients often suffer from therapy-resistant chronic otitis media. In addition to multiple cardiac and renal deformities, our 3 year old patient has a hearing impairment due to chronic otitis media with chronic otorrhea, and requires a hearing aid. A high-definition CT scan of the petrosal bone revealed, for the first time in a patient with Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome, a large vestibular aqueduct syndrome and deformities of the vestibular system. We examine the problems involved with treating chronic otorrhea in chronic otitis media and providing patients with BTE hearing aids.

  6. MRI of intracranial germ cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Uozumi, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Mukada, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Arita, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Sugiyama, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Onda, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Satoh, H. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Migita, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed MRI findings in proven intracranial germ cell tumours in 22 cases, 12 of whom received Gd-DTPA. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity of the tumour parenchyma was moderately low in 19 cases and isointense in 3; on T2-weighted images, it was high in all cases. Regions of different intensity thought to be cysts were found in 17 (77 %): 7 of 12 patients with germinoma (58 %) and in all other cases. Of the 13 patients with pineal lesions T1-weighted sagittal images showed the aqueduct to be obstructed in 5, stenotic in 7 and normal in 1. Strong contrast enhancement was observed in all 12 cases. Of the 14 patients with suprasellar lesions, 5 were found to have an intrasellar extension, and in 3 of these, the normal pituitary gland, which could be distinguished from the tumour, was displaced anteriorly. Ten patients (45 %) had multiple lesions. (orig.)

  7. Completion Report for Well ER-12-4, Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain (includes Errata Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2006-05-01

    Well ER-12-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in May 2005, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit in the north-central portion of the Nevada Test Site. The well is located on Rainier/Aqueduct Mesa, northwest of Yucca Flat, within Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site. The well provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in U12t Tunnel, information on the pre-Tertiary rocks in the area, and depth to the regional water table.

  8. History of Water Cisterns: Legacies and Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Mays

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of water cisterns has been traced back to the Neolithic Age; this paper thus presents a brief historical development of water cisterns worldwide over the last 5500 years. This paper is not an exhaustive presentation of all that is known today about water cisterns, but rather provides some characteristic examples of cistern technology in a chronological manner extending from prehistoric times to the present. The examples of water cistern technologies and management practices given in this paper may have some importance for water resource sustainability for the present and future. Cisterns have been used to store both rainfall runoff water and aqueduct water originating in springs and streams for the purpose of meeting water needs through seasonal variations. Cisterns have ranged in construction from simple clay pots to large underground structures.

  9. Documentación, valorización y difusión del patrimonio hidráulico romano en el Valle medio del Ebro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Uribe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, how to focus the last geometric documentation techniques applied to cultural heritage, aiming a didactic application, is being a complex process. The development of this purpose must balance research process with the social spreading of the scientific knowledge. Based on this concern, the aim of this research project is the geometric documentation - accompanied by a highlighting and spreading on a web environment - of a representative selection of Roman hydraulic structures. The choice of the sites has been done focusing on archaeological discovers in the Ebro’s Valley, concretely in monuments located in La Rioja, Navarra and Aragon. In this way, the purpose of the project is to document the sites and spread the knowledge about Roman aqueducts, dam, sewers, tanks and cisterns, which is essential to understand the water cycle during the Roman period.

  10. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lopes Furlanetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Neuroendoscopic surgery in children has particular features and is associated with different success rates (SR. The aim of this study was to identify putative factors that could influence the outcome in pediatric patients. Methods Clinical data of 177 patients under 18 years of age submitted to 200 consecutive neuroendoscopic procedures from January 2000 to January 2010 were reviewed. Results The overall success rate was 77%. Out of the patients with successful outcomes, 46% were under six months, 68% were between six months and one year of age, and 85% older than one year. Neuroendoscopic techniques provide very good results for a wide number of indications in children. Tumor-related cerebrospinal fluid (CSF circulation problems and aqueductal stenosis seem to be particularly well suited to neuroendoscopic treatment regardless of the patient's age. Conclusion Patients' age and etiology of hydrocephalus were associated with a different outcome. In all cases, surgical experience is extremely important to reduce complications.

  11. COMPUTER MODELING OF SELECTED WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Kruszyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of computer modeling of flowsand the age of the water in two rural communi-ties province Podlasie - Rutka and Jeleniewo. The model is made using Epanet. In the study, a series of variants of models simulating the behavior of existing distribution systems and water analyzes were performed century. Analysis of the age of the water in water works modeled showed areas where standing water is aging, not having the estuary and not giving way to fresh. Age of water in the pipes is an important indicator of its quality and shelf life. The longer standing water in the aqueduct, the more likely that it will develop dangerous bacteria and produce deposits which remain on the walls of the ducts.

  12. Hydrocephalus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Limbrick, David D; Warf, Benjamin C

    2016-02-20

    Hydrocephalus is a common disorder of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) physiology resulting in abnormal expansion of the cerebral ventricles. Infants commonly present with progressive macrocephaly whereas children older than 2 years generally present with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The classic understanding of hydrocephalus as the result of obstruction to bulk flow of CSF is evolving to models that incorporate dysfunctional cerebral pulsations, brain compliance, and newly characterised water-transport mechanisms. Hydrocephalus has many causes. Congenital hydrocephalus, most commonly involving aqueduct stenosis, has been linked to genes that regulate brain growth and development. Hydrocephalus can also be acquired, mostly from pathological processes that affect ventricular outflow, subarachnoid space function, or cerebral venous compliance. Treatment options include shunt and endoscopic approaches, which should be individualised to the child. The long-term outcome for children that have received treatment for hydrocephalus varies. Advances in brain imaging, technology, and understanding of the pathophysiology should ultimately lead to improved treatment of the disorder.

  13. Abnormal ocular motility with brainstem and cerebellar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlow, T J; Bicknell, J M

    1978-01-01

    The disorders of ocular motility seen in association with brainstem or cerebellar disorders may point to rather specific anatomical or pathological correlations. Pontine gaze palsy reflects involvement of the pontine paramedian reticular formation. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia signifies a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Skew deviation may result from a lesion anywhere in the posterior fossa. Ocular bobbing typically results from a pontine lesion. The Sylvian aqueduct syndrome is characteristic of involvement in the upper midbrain-pretectal region, usually a pinealoma. Cerebellar lesions may be manifested by gaze paresis, skew deviation, disturbances of saccadic or smooth pursuit movements, ocular myoclonus, or several characteristic forms of nystagmus. Familiarity with these disorders may be of great help to the physician dealing with a patient with a possible posterior fossa lesion.

  14. Under seize: neurocysticercosis in an immigrant woman and review of a growing neglected disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Meredith; Garcia, Hector H; Chin-Hong, Peter; Baxi, Sanjiv M

    2015-12-18

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a significantly neglected tropical disease and, with increasing globalisation, a notable emerging infection in the developed world. We describe a case of ventricular NCC in a 22-year-old Mexican-American woman with a history of seizures, who presented with 2 weeks of headaches and intermittent fevers progressing to altered mental status and vomiting. Initial imaging revealed a cystic mass at the posteroinferior aspect of the third ventricle superior to the aqueduct of Sylvius, calcifications scattered throughout the parenchyma, and enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. Initial laboratories were unrevealing and serum investigations for Taenia solium antibody were negative, but T. solium antibody was subsequently returned positive from cerebrospinal fluid. This case highlights important issues regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of NCC relevant to providers not only in areas with endemic disease but, importantly, in locales with diverse immigrant populations.

  15. Effect of a grey water heat recovery unit on storage volumes needed for domestic hot water; Influence d'un recuperateur de chaleur des eaux grises sur le volume de stockage requis pour l'eau chaude domestique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, D.; Bernier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a method of reducing the energy consumption associated with domestic hot water (DHW) heating. The method involved a gravity film heat exchanger (GFX) to recuperate part of the energy contained in wastewater following a shower. A study was conducted in which the energy saved by the GFX was quantified for various configurations. The nature of a GFX installation is such that water flows simultaneously in the drain and in a heat recuperating coil, and is therefore well suited for showers. The potential for energy recovery can be significant. Simulations were performed using the TRNSYS simulation software for a typical hot water consumption profile and the actual water temperature in Montreal's water supply aqueduct. It was determined that large amounts of energy required to heat water for showers can be recuperated depending on the placement of the GFX in the plumbing circuit. 12 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Acute obstructive hydrocephalus complicating decompression surgery of the craniovertebral junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Junichi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Ryuji; Saito, Nobuhito; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive hydrocephalus has been described as a rare complication following foramen magnum decompression for Chiari malformation. However, there are few reports of obstructive hydrocephalus after spinal surgery for other pathologies of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). The authors herein report a 52-year-old female with achondroplasia presenting with an 8-month history of myelopathy due to spinal cord compression at CVJ. She underwent resection of the C1 posterior arch and part of the edge of the occipital bone. A computed tomography (CT) scan obtained 1-week after the surgery revealed bilateral infratentorial fluid collection. The patient was first managed conservatively; however, on the 17th day, her consciousness level showed sudden deterioration. Emergency CT demonstrated marked hydrocephalus due to obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct. Acute obstructive hydrocephalus can occur late after decompression surgery at the CVJ, and thus should be included in the differential diagnosis of a deteriorating mental status. PMID:27366268

  17. Earthquakes and Uplift At Somma-vesuvius Before The 79 A.d. Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, A.

    In the morning of 24 August of the year 79 A. D. the famous eruption of Pompei be- gan with a phreatomagmatic manifestation. For several years a number of earthquakes are likely to have occurred at Vesuvius together with unrest episodes. The event of 5 February 62 A.D., which is the best known and the strongest earthquake ever gener- ated by the Vesuvius, and that of 64, are the only events that can be historiographically dated. However, a number of historical epigraphical and archeological evidences ad- vocate the view that several seismic crisis occurred, characterized by strong enough earthquakes to damage the building structures. At Pompei, plenty of evidence of gener- alized, sometimes hasty, reconstructions (even of refined buildings), had erroneously validated the view of a decaying town; more likely, people were only suspiciously waiting for more imminent dangers to come. In 79 A.D. several restoration works were under way to repair the damage caused by an earthquake which had occurred shorty time before. Probably the seismicity was particularly intense in the early years of sixth decad, as well as in the early and in the end of the seventh, just before the erup- tion. At this same time the civic aqueduct of Pompei was out of use. Deep trenches ran along most of the streets for the layng of new tubes. From the 43 fountains of the town didnSt gush a drop of water, and the Castellum aquae was not supplied by regional aqueduct coming from near Apennines crossing the Campanian Plain from North to South. Two different chemical calcareous deposits in the roman water main attest two sources and two water supply stops at least. This phenomenon is interpreted with a relative uplift of the volcano respect to the external areas begun several years before 79 eruption in according with the sensible seismic precursors observed for long a time.

  18. Late Holocene Paleoseismic Timing and Slip History Along the Missyaf Segment of the Dead Sea Fault in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, M.; Gomez, F.; Sbeinati, R.; Van der Woerd, J.; Mouty, M.; Hijazi, F.; Darkal, A.; Darawcheh, R.; Radwan, Y.; Al-Najjar, H.; Layous, I.; Al-Ghazzi, R.; Barazangi, M.

    2001-12-01

    We investigate the timing of Holocene earthquakes and related slip rate along the main segment of the Dead Sea fault south of the Ghab pull-apart basin in western Syria. The 60-70 km long Missyaf segment consists of a single fault branch of the north-south trending left-lateral fault at the plate boundary between Africa and Arabia. The late Quaternary tectonic activity along the fault is characterized by (1) deflected streams with consistent left-lateral displacements of different sizes (50 to 300 m), and (2) evidence of large shutter-ridge structures and small pull-apart basins. Microtopographic surveys and trenching across the fault at two sites document the size and timing of paleoseismic events and the related faulting behavior. Near El Harif village, the fault cut across a Roman aqueduct (younger than 22 AD) and induces 10.5 ±0.1 m of left-lateral displacement. Nearby trench-excavations and test pits exhibit the fault with the shear zone affecting a succession of young alluvial deposits of a terrace meander. Radiocarbon dating of the faulting events with vertical displacements reveal the occurrence of a large seismic event prior to 408-380 BC, a penultimate event between 22 - 979 AD and the most recent event between 979 - 1255 AD. The two most recent events being most likely responsible for the Roman aqueduct total displacement, it implies an average coseismic left-lateral movement of 5 m and a slip rate of about 5 mm/yr. The correlation with the historical seismicity catalogue suggests that the most recent faulting event may correspond to the well documented large earthquake of 1170 AD.

  19. Late Holocene Paleoseismic Timing and Slip Rate Along The Missyaf Segment of The Dead Sea Fault In Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, M.; Gomez, F.; Sbeinati, R.; van der Woerd, J.; Mouty, M.; Darkal, A.; Darawcheh, R.; Radwan, Y.; Al-Ghazzi, R.; Barazangi, M.

    We investigate the timing of Holocene earthquakes and related slip rate along the main segment of the Dead Sea fault south of the Ghab pull-apart basin in western Syria. The 60-70 km long Missyaf segment consists of a single fault branch of the north-south trending left-lateral fault at the plate boundary between Africa and Arabia. The late Quaternary tectonic activity along the fault is characterized by (1) deflected streams with consistent left-lateral displacements of different sizes (50 to 300 m), and (2) ev- idence of large shutter-ridge structures and small pull-apart basins. Microtopographic surveys and trenching across the fault at two sites document the size and timing of paleoseismic events and the related faulting behaviour. Near El Harif village, the fault cut across a Roman aqueduct (younger than 22 AD) and induces 13.6 s0.1 m of left-´ lateral displacement. Nearby trench-excavations and test pits exhibit the fault with the shear zone affecting a succession of young alluvial deposits of a terrace meander. First radiocarbon dating of the faulting events with vertical displacements reveal the occur- rence of a large seismic event prior to 348 BC - 810 BC, a penultimate event between 650 - 1152 AD and the most recent event between 979 - 1255 AD. The two most re- cent events being most likely responsible for the Roman aqueduct total displacement, it implies a coseismic left-lateral movement of 6.8 m per event at this location and a slip rate of about 6 - 7 mm/yr for the last 2000 years. The correlation with the histor- ical seismicity catalogue suggests that the most recent faulting event may correspond to the well documented large earthquake of 1170 AD for which we estimate Mw = 7.3 - 7.5.

  20. A quantitative study of CSF pulsatile flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus; An analysis of flow patterns before and after a shunting procedure using cine MR phase imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Shinji; Makabe, Tetsuo; Itoh, Takahiko (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1992-06-01

    In the previous report, we described the visualization and quantitative analysis of a normal CSF pulsatile flow using cine MR phase imaging. In the present study, CSF flow velocities were measured in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) before and after a shunting procedure. All of the healthy subjects showed a similar flow pattern in the time-velocity flow profiles (TVFP). However, patients with NPH showed a variable pattern of TVFP and could be divided into the following four types: Type 0: the CSF flow pattern was similar to that of the healthy subjects. Type I: the caudal peak flow was delayed more than 190 msec on TVFP. Type II: the caudal peak flow was not apparent, but the CSF flow through the aqueduct was remarkable on phase images. Type III: the amplitude of TVFP was very small, and no CSF flow through the aqueduct was identified. The patients with Type III TVFP showed significantly lower NPH scores. The lumbar CSF pressures tended to be high in the patients with Type III TVFP, but nevertheless failed to reach a statistically significant level. The amplitude of TVFP increased in the patients who improved clinically after the shunting procedure. Some of the Type III patients changed into Type II, I, and 0; also, one of the Type II patients changed into a Type I patients after the shunting procedure. We conclude that cine MR phase imaging is useful for analyzing the CSF flow of the patients with NPH before and after the shunting procedure as well as for evaluating shunt patency. (author).

  1. Hydrocephalus in mice following X-irradiation at early gestational stage. Possibly due to persistent deceleration of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aolad, H.M.; Inouye, Minoru; Darmanto, W.; Hayasaka, Shizu; Murata, Yoshiharu [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    2000-09-01

    The pathogenesis of X-ray-induced congenital hydrocephalus was studied. Pregnant mice were irradiated at 1.4 Gy on gestational day 7 (G7). Four hours after irradiation, extensive cell death was evident in the neuroepithelium and underlying mesoderm of the head region, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells almost disappeared. Embryos with thinner lamina terminalis of the telecephalon, when compared with that of the control, were found in the irradiated group on G9. As early as G11 in some irradiated embryos the telencephalic wall was thinner and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. The choroid invagination from the lamina terminalis began on G11 in the control brain, but not in the affected brain. During the following development, fetuses with readily apparent hydrocephalus were consistently found among irradiated fetuses. In these brains the brain mantle was thinner, the corpus striatum and thalamic regions were smaller, and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. Even on G11 and G13 the frequencies of PCNA-positive cells in the brain mantle and other brain regions were lower in the hydrocephalic brain than those of the control, suggesting a decelerated proliferation of successive cell generations following exposure to X-rays. The cerebral aqueduct was open in the hydrocephalic brain during the fetal period when the lateral ventricles were dilated. The head was vaulted after birth but the cerebral aqueduct was not completely occluded even in these animals. These findings suggested that cell death in the neuroepithelium followed by a persistent deceleration of neural cell proliferation, resulting in the hypoplasia of brain parenchyma with compensatory ventricular dilatation, is important for the establishment of hydrocephalus. (author)

  2. Decreased cerebrospinal fluid flow through the central canal of the spinal cord of rats immunologically deprived of Reissner's fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, M; Rodríguez, S; Pérez, J; Grondona, J M; Rodríguez, E M; Fernández-Llebrez, P

    1994-01-01

    The subcommissural organ is an ependymal brain gland that secretes glycoproteins to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the third ventricle. They condense to form a fibre, Reissner's fibre (RF), that runs along the aqueduct and fourth ventricle and the central canal of the spinal cord. A single injection of an antibody against the secretory glycoproteins of RF into a lateral ventricle of adult rats results in animals permanently deprived of RF in the central canal and bearing a "short" RF extending only along the aqueduct and the fourth ventricle. These animals, together with untreated control animals were used to investigate the probable influence of RF in the circulation of CSF in the central canal of the spinal cord. For this purpose, two tracers, (horseradish peroxidase and rabbit immunoglobulin) were injected into the ventricular CSF. The animals were killed 13, 20, 60, 120 and 240 min after the injection, and the amount of the tracers was estimated in tissue sections obtained at proximal, medial and distal levels of the spinal cord. In rats deprived of RF, a significant decrease in the amount of tracers present in the central canal was observed at all experimental intervals, being more evident at 20 min after the injection of the tracers. This suggests that lacking a RF in the central canal decreases the bulk flow of CSF along the central canal. Turbulences of the CSF at the entrance of the central canal of RF-deprived rats might explain the inability of the regenerating RF to progress along the central canal, as well as the reduced flow of CSF in the central canal of these animals.

  3. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yad Ram Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is considered as a treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. It is indicated in hydrocephalus secondary to congenital aqueductal stenosis, posterior third ventricle tumor, cerebellar infarct, Dandy-Walker malformation, vein of Galen aneurism, syringomyelia with or without Chiari malformation type I, intraventricular hematoma, post infective, normal pressure hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, multiloculated hydrocephalus, encephalocele, posterior fossa tumor and craniosynostosis. It is also indicated in block shunt or slit ventricle syndrome. Proper Pre-operative imaging for detailed assessment of the posterior communicating arteries distance from mid line, presence or absence of Liliequist membrane or other membranes, located in the prepontine cistern is useful. Measurement of lumbar elastance and resistance can predict patency of cranial subarachnoid space and complex hydrocephalus, which decides an ultimate outcome. Water jet dissection is an effective technique of ETV in thick floor. Ultrasonic contact probe can be useful in selected patients. Intra-operative ventriculo-stomography could help in confirming the adequacy of endoscopic procedure, thereby facilitating the need for shunt. Intraoperative observations of the patent aqueduct and prepontine cistern scarring are predictors of the risk of ETV failure. Such patients may be considered for shunt surgery. Magnetic resonance ventriculography and cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging are effective in assessing subarachnoid space and stoma patency after ETV. Proper case selection, post-operative care including monitoring of ICP and need for external ventricular drain, repeated lumbar puncture and CSF drainage, Ommaya reservoir in selected patients could help to increase success rate and reduce complications. Most of the complications develop in an early post-operative, but fatal complications can develop late which indicate an importance of

  4. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 1 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Institute (DRI), Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno,NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Southern Nevada Courier Service, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  5. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 6 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  6. Unmasking the 1349 earthquake source (southern Italy): paleoseismological and archaeoseismological indications from the Aquae Iuliae fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Paolo Antonio Costantino; Naso, José Alfredo

    2009-02-01

    The 9th September, 1349, earthquake was one of the most catastrophic events experienced along the Apennines. At least three main shocks struck a vast area of the Molise-Latium-Abruzzi regions, and damage was even sustained by the distant monumental buildings of Rome. The southern-most shock (Mw ˜ 6.7) occurred at the border between southern Latium and western Molise, razing to the ground the towns of Isernia, Venafro and Cassino, amongst others, and devastating Montecassino Abbey. As with other Medieval catastrophic sequences (e.g., in December 1456, Mw ˜ 6.5-7.0), this earthquake has not yet been associated to any seismogenic source; thus, it still represents a thorn in the flesh of earthquake geologists. We have here carried out a reappraisal of the effects of this earthquake, and through an interpretation of aerial photographs and a field survey, we have carried out paleoseismological analyses across a poorly known, ˜N130 normal fault that crosses the Molise-Campania border. This structure showed repeated surface ruptures during the late Holocene, the last one of which fits excellently with the 1349 event, both in terms of the dating and the rupture dimension. On the other hand, archaeoseismic analyses have also indicated the faulting of an Augustean aqueduct. The amount of apparent offset of the aqueduct across the fault traces shows that there were other surface faulting event(s) during the Roman-High Middle-Age period. Therefore, in trying to ascertain whether these events were associated with known (potentially of 346 AD or 848 AD), or unknown earthquakes in the area, it became possible that this ˜20-km-long fault (here named the Aquae Iuliae fault) is characterized by high slip rates and a short recurrence time. This is in agreement with both the similar behaviour of the neighbouring northern Matese fault system, and with recent GPS analyses showing unexpectedly high extension rates in this area.

  7. Expansion of the lateral ventricles and ependymal deficits underlie the hydrocephalus evident in mice lacking the transcription factor NFIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Diana; Harris, Lachlan; Harvey, Tracey J; Evelyn Heng, Yee Hsieh; Smith, Aaron G; Osinski, Jason; Hughes, James; Thomas, Paul; Gronostajski, Richard M; Bailey, Timothy L; Piper, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Nuclear factor one X (NFIX) has been shown to play a pivotal role during the development of many regions of the brain, including the neocortex, the hippocampus and the cerebellum. Mechanistically, NFIX has been shown to promote neural stem cell differentiation through the activation of astrocyte-specific genes and via the repression of genes central to progenitor cell self-renewal. Interestingly, mice lacking Nfix also exhibit other phenotypes with respect to development of the central nervous system, and whose underlying causes have yet to be determined. Here we examine one of the phenotypes displayed by Nfix(-/-) mice, namely hydrocephalus. Through the examination of embryonic and postnatal Nfix(-/-) mice we reveal that hydrocephalus is first seen at around postnatal day (P) 10 in mice lacking Nfix, and is fully penetrant by P20. Furthermore, we examined the subcommissural organ (SCO), the Sylvian aqueduct and the ependymal layer of the lateral ventricles, regions that when malformed and functionally perturbed have previously been implicated in the development of hydrocephalus. SOX3 is a factor known to regulate SCO development. Although we revealed that NFIX could repress Sox3-promoter-driven transcriptional activity in vitro, SOX3 expression within the SCO was normal within Nfix(-/-) mice, and Nfix mutant mice showed no abnormalities in the structure or function of the SCO. Moreover, these mutant mice exhibited no overt blockage of the Sylvian aqueduct. However, the ependymal layer of the lateral ventricles was frequently absent in Nfix(-/-) mice, suggesting that this phenotype may underlie the development of hydrocephalus within these knockout mice.

  8. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 5 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  9. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 2 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  10. Neuropathological review of 138 cases genetically tested for X-linked hydrocephalus: evidence for closely related clinical entities of unknown molecular bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adle-Biassette, Homa; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Razavi, Férecheté; Drouot, Nathalie; Bazin, Anne; Beaufrère, Anne-Marie; Bessières, Bettina; Blesson, Sophie; Bucourt, Martine; Carles, Dominique; Devisme, Louise; Dijoud, Frédérique; Fabre, Blandine; Fernandez, Carla; Gaillard, Dominique; Gonzales, Marie; Jossic, Frédérique; Joubert, Madeleine; Laurent, Nicole; Leroy, Brigitte; Loeuillet, Laurence; Loget, Philippe; Marcorelles, Pascale; Martinovic, Jelena; Perez, Marie-José; Satge, Daniel; Sinico, Martine; Tosi, Mario; Benichou, Jacques; Gressens, Pierre; Frebourg, Thierry; Laquerrière, Annie

    2013-09-01

    L1 syndrome results from mutations in the L1CAM gene located at Xq28. It encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases, X-linked hydrocephalus being the most severe phenotype detected in utero, and whose pathophysiology is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to report detailed neuropathological data from patients with mutations, to delineate the neuropathological criteria required for L1CAM gene screening in foetuses by characterizing the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the cardinal signs, and to discuss the main differential diagnoses in non-mutated foetuses in order to delineate closely related conditions without L1CAM mutations. Neuropathological data from 138 cases referred to our genetic laboratory for screening of the L1CAM gene were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-seven cases had deleterious L1CAM mutations. Of these, 100 % had hydrocephalus, 88 % adducted thumbs, 98 % pyramidal tract agenesis/hypoplasia, 90 % stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius and 68 % agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Two foetuses had L1CAM mutations of unknown significance. Seventy-nine cases had no L1CAM mutations; these were subdivided into four groups: (1) hydrocephalus sometimes associated with corpus callosum agenesis (44 %); (2) atresia/forking of the aqueduct of Sylvius/rhombencephalosynapsis spectrum (27 %); (3) syndromic hydrocephalus (9 %), and (4) phenocopies with no mutations in the L1CAM gene (20 %) and in whom family history strongly suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission. These data underline the existence of closely related clinical entities whose molecular bases are currently unknown. The identification of the causative genes would greatly improve our knowledge of the defective pathways involved in these cerebral malformations.

  11. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th-18th centuries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.180+/-0.003). The mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181+/-0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183+/-0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172+/-0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975+/-15 years) deposit ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.148+/-0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.181+/-0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore).

  12. Urbanization impact on sulfur content of groundwater revealed by the study of urban speleothem-like deposits: Case study in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, E; Roy-Barman, M; Jean-Soro, L; Guillerme, A; Branchu, P; Fernandez, M; Dumont, E; Douville, E; Michelot, J L; Phillips, A M

    2017-02-01

    Speleothem-like deposits that develop underground in urban areas are an archive of the environmental impact of anthropic activities that has been little studied so far. In this paper, the sulfate content in shallow groundwater from northern Paris (France) is compared with the sulfur content in two 300-year-old urban carbonate deposits that grew in a historical underground aqueduct. The present-day waters of the aqueduct have very high sulfur and calcium contents, suggesting pollution from gypsum dissolution. However, geological gypsum levels are located below the water table. Sulfur content was measured by micro-X-ray fluorescence in these very S-rich carbonate deposits (0.5 to 1% of S). A twofold S increase during the second half of the 1800s was found in both samples. These dates correspond to two major periods of urbanization above the site. We discus three possible S sources: anthropic sources (industries, fertilizers…), volcanic eruptions and input within the water through gypsum brought for urbanization above the studied site (backfill with quarry waste) since the middle of the 19th century. For the younger second half of the studied section, S input from gypsum brought during urbanization was confirmed by the study of isotopic sulfur composition (δ(34)S=+15.2‰ at the top). For the oldest part, several sulfur peaks could be related to early industrial activity in Paris, that caused high local air pollution, as reported in historical archives but also to historical gypsum extraction. This study provides information on the origin and timing of the very high SO4(2-) levels measured nowadays within the shallow groundwater, thus demonstrating the interest in using carbonate deposits in urban areas as a proxy for the history of urbanization or human activities and their impact on water bodies.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of a Case of Central Neurocytoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Ugurel, Mehmet Sahin; Ramadani, Naser; Mucaj, Sefedin; Zeqiraj, Kamber

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI features of central neurocytoma. Case report: A 45 year old man with 3 months of worsening daily headaches. These headaches were diffuse, lasted for several hours, and mostly occurred in the morning. She was initially diagnosed and treated for migraines but later he had epileptic attack and diplopia and neurolog recomaded MRI. Methods: precontrast MRI; TSE/T2Wsequence in axial/coronal planes; 3D–Hi-resolution T1W sagittal; FLAIR/T2W axial; FLAIR/T2W and Flash/T2W oblique coronal plane (perpendicular to temporal lobes) GRE/T2W axial plane for detection of heme products. Post-contrast TSE/T1W sequence in axial, coronal and sagittal planes. Diffusion weighted and ADC mapping MRI images for EPI sequence in axial plane. Results: A 23x12mm heterogeneous mass within aqueductus cerebri, with calcified and hemorrhagic foci and extending downwards till fourth ventricle. It’s originating from the right paramedian posterior aqueductal wall (tectum), and also extending to and involving the tegmentum of mesencephalon at its right paramedian aspect. CSF flow obstruction secondary to described aqueductal mass, with resultant triventricular hydrocephalus). Marked transependymal CSF leak can be noted at periventricular white matter, secondary to severe hydrocephalus. After IV injection of contrast media, this mass shows mild-to-moderate heterogenous speckled enhancement. Conclusion: MRI is helpful in defining tumor extension, which is important in preoperative planning. Although IN is a relatively rare lesion, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraventricular lesions in the presence of such typical MR findings. However, a definitive diagnosis requires immunochemical study and electron microscopy. PMID:28077908

  14. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 3 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  15. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.

    1991-01-01

    Owens Valley, a long, narrow valley located along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada in east-central California, is the main source of water for the city of Los Angeles. The city diverts most of the surface water in the valley into the Owens River-Los Angeles Aqueduct system, which transports the water more than 200 miles south to areas of distribution and use. Additionally, ground water is pumped or flows from wells to supplement the surface-water diversions to the river-aqueduct system. Pumpage from wells needed to supplement water export has increased since 1970, when a second aqueduct was put into service, and local concerns have been expressed that the increased pumpage may have had a detrimental effect on the environment and the indigenous alkaline scrub and meadow plant communities in the valley. The scrub and meadow communities depend on soil moisture derived from precipitation and the unconfined part of a multilayered aquifer system. This report, which describes the hydrogeology of the aquifer system and the water resources of the valley, is one in a series designed to (1) evaluate the effects that groundwater pumping has on scrub and meadow communities and (2) appraise alternative strategies to mitigate any adverse effects caused by, pumping. Two principal topographic features are the surface expression of the geologic framework--the high, prominent mountains on the east and west sides of the valley and the long, narrow intermountain valley floor. The mountains are composed of sedimentary, granitic, and metamorphic rocks, mantled in part by volcanic rocks as well as by glacial, talus, and fluvial deposits. The valley floor is underlain by valley fill that consists of unconsolidated to moderately consolidated alluvial fan, transition-zone, glacial and talus, and fluvial and lacustrine deposits. The valley fill also includes interlayered recent volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks. The bedrock surface beneath the valley fill is a narrow, steep-sided graben

  16. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy

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    P. De Vita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the issues most debated by the scientific community with a special focus to the combined effects of anthropogenic modifications of the atmosphere and the natural climatic cycles. Various scenarios have been formulated in order to forecast the global atmospheric circulation and consequently the variability of the global distribution of air temperature and rainfall. The effects of climate change have been analysed with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods, remaining mainly limited to the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle. Consequently the impact of the climate change on the recharge of regional aquifers and on the groundwater circulation is still a challenging topic especially in those areas whose aqueduct systems depend basically on springs or wells, such as the Campania region (Southern Italy.

    In order to analyse the long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater circulation, we analysed decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, in the period from 1921 to 2010, choosing 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations among those with the most continuous functioning as well as arranged in a homogeneous spatial distribution. Moreover, for the same period, we gathered the time series of the winter NAO index (December to March mean and of the discharges of the Sanità spring, belonging to an extended carbonate aquifer (Cervialto Mount located in the central-eastern area of the Campania region, as well as of two other shorter time series of spring discharges. The hydrogeological features of this aquifer, its relevance due to the feeding of an important regional aqueduct system, as well as the unique availability of a long-lasting time series of

  17. Treatment of suprasellaer arachnoid cysts in children with neuroendoscopy%神经内镜造瘘术治疗小儿鞍上池蛛网膜囊肿(附15例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆国; 周煜; 韩彤; 李亚斌; 亢建民; 闫学江; 杨玉山

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨脑室囊肿造瘘联合囊肿桥前池造瘘术(VCC)在治疗小儿鞍上池蛛网膜囊肿(SACs)的有效性和安全性.方法 总结2008年1月至2011年10月天津市环湖医院收治的15例小儿鞍上池囊肿患者,全部病例应用神经内镜脑室囊肿联合囊肿脑池造瘘手术,手术前后进行对比分析,评价指标包括脑积水症状缓解,鞍上池囊肿引起的内分泌改变,影像学脑积水缓解程度,囊肿缩小程度,视交叉和脑干恢复情况,导水管开放.结果 全部病例造瘘手术顺利完成,术中观察到导水管开放,术后脑积水症状改善明显,内分泌症状中多饮多尿缓解最明显,影像学检查脑积水缓解,囊肿缩小,视交义位置下降并后移,脑干位置部分恢复,造瘘口和(或)导水管可见脑脊液流动影像,上述指标术前后对比差异有统计学意义.结论 神经内镜囊肿造瘘沟通脑室和囊肿以及囊肿与脑池的手术方式有效地解决了由鞍上池囊肿引起的各类症状,该术式有效且安全.%Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safty of the ventriculocystostomy (VC)combined with cystocisternostomy (CC) in dealing with the suprasellae arachaid cysts (SACs) and secondary hydrocephalus.Methods 15 pediatric patients with SACs and secondary hydrocephalus were admitted into Tianjin Huanhu Hospital during Jan.2008 to Oct.2011.They received operation with neuroendoscopy to make fenestrations to communicate the suprasellar cyst with lateral ventricules and the prepontine cistern named ventriculocystocister nostomy (VCC).The outcomes were analyzed contrastively with several indexes,such as neuroendocrine symptoms improvements,shrinkage of the cyst,replacement of the pontine,optic chiasm and the opening of the Sylvian aqueduct.With the method of MRI-cine,the CSF flowing could be observed at the inferior fistula ora and/or Sylvian aqueduct.Results The operation were achieved and symptoms of hyhrocephalus were released in

  18. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection

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    Hwang Jong-Hee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or αPD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap, effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase, synapse remodeling (Complement 1q, and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of

  19. An Analysis of the Imaging Features in Patients with Cerebrospinal Fluid Gusher during Cochlear Implantation%人工耳蜗植入术中发生脑脊液“井喷”病例的影像学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林娥; 赵春丽; 张道行

    2013-01-01

      目的分析人工耳蜗植入术中发生脑脊液“井喷”的原因及影像学特点。方法回顾性分析1998年1月~2011年7月2238例人工耳蜗植入患者中,发生脑脊液井喷的134例患者术前的影像学特征。结果134例人工耳蜗植入术中发生脑脊液“井喷”的病例中,大前庭导水管合并与内耳有骨性交通11例,大前庭导水管伴Mondini畸形合并内听道与内耳骨性交通28例,Mondini畸形伴内听道底与内耳骨性交通88例,耳蜗与内听道共同腔畸形7例。结论伴有内听道底骨缺损与内耳相通的任何内耳畸形患者,人工耳蜗植入术中必然发生脑脊液“井喷”。%Objective To analyze the causes and imaging features of cases with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gusher during cochlear implant surgery. Methods The preoperative imaging examination results of 134 cases with CSF gusher during cochlear implantation were retrospectively analyzed. Results According to the CT and MRI findings, there were 11 cases with bony defects in the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus plus large vestibular aqueduct, 28 cases with bony defects in the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus plus large vestibular aqueduct and Mondini malformation, 88 cases with bony defects in the fundus of the internal acoustic meatus plus Mondini malformation only and 7 cases with common cavity between cochlea and internal acoustic meatus in all the 134 cases. Conclusion CSF gusher occurred in all inner ear malformation cases with bony defects of internal acoustic meatus fundus communicating with inner ear during cochlear implant surgery.

  20. MR内耳水成像在儿童人工耳蜗植入术前评估中的价值%The value of MR hydrography of inner ear in evaluation of children with cochlear implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包杰; 闫昆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of MR hydrography of inner ear in evaluation of children with co-chlear implantation .Methods 24 children with hearing impairment scheduled for cochlear implantation were scanned by use of Siemens Avanto 1 .5 T MRI scanner .The water signal in the region of inner ear was collected and sent to the work-station for image post-processing .Finally ,the imaging manifestations and characteristics were analyzed .Results Of these 24 cases ,18 had normal inner ear morphology ,1 case had cochlear malformation associated with enlarged vestibular aque-duct ,3 cases only had the dilated vestibular aqueduct ,1 case had abnormal semicircular canal ,and ,1 case had Mondini malformation .Conclusion MR hydrography can clearly show the fine anatomical structures of membranous labyrinth and internal auditory canal in the inner ear ,thereby providing important information for the diagnosis of inner ear lesions as well as for the preoperative evaluation for cochlear implantation .%目的:探讨M R内耳水成像在儿童人工耳蜗植入术前评估中的临床应用价值。方法使用Siemens Avanto 1.5 T磁共振扫描仪对24例听觉障碍拟行人工耳蜗植入术的患儿进行扫描,采集内耳所在区域内的水信号,并送后处理工作站进行图像后处理。最后分析其影像学表现及特征。结果24例患者中内耳形态正常18例,耳蜗发育畸形伴前庭导水管扩张1例,单纯前庭导水管扩张3例,半规管异常1例,M o ndini畸形1例。结论 M R内耳水成像技术能清晰显示内耳膜迷路以及内听道精细解剖结构,对于内耳病变的诊断及人工耳蜗植入术的术前评估提供重要信息。

  1. Wernicke脑病的MRI表现%MRI diagnosis of Wernicke encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥林; 王倩; 谭威; 马贺骥

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Wernicke脑病(Wernicke's encephalopathy,WE)的MRI表现,以提高诊断水平.方法 收集临床确诊并具有完整MRI资料的11例WE进行回顾性分析.结果 5例病变对称性分布于丘脑内侧、第三脑室周围灰质及乳头体.3例病变位于第三脑室周围灰质、中脑导水管周围灰质.2例病变位于中脑导水管周围灰质、丘脑内侧并乳头体萎缩.1例病变位于丘脑内侧、第三脑室周围灰质及顶枕叶皮质区.病变于T1WI为等或低信号,T2WI表现为高信号;FLAIR序列呈高信号;4例急性期病变DWI图像呈高信号.2例增强扫描病例示乳头体呈结节状强化.结论 WE具有典型的MRI表现,对临床诊断有重要意义.%Objective To explore MRI features of Wernicke encephalopathy in order to improve accurate rate of diagnosis of this disease. Methods MRI data of Wernicke encephalopathy in 11 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Results The lesions were sym-metrically located at medial thalamus, the grey matter surrounding the third ventricle and mammillary body in 5 cases, at the grey matter surrounding the third cerebral ventricle and aqueduct in 3 cases,at the grey matter surrounding aqueduct and medial thalamus with mammillary body atrophy in 2 cases, at medial thalamus and the grey matter surrounding the third cerebral ventricle in 1 case with the cortex of parietal and occipital lobe involved. The lesions appeared as isointensity or hypointensity on T1 WI, hyperintensity on T2 WI and FLAIR. In 4 acute cases, the lesions appeared as hyperintensity on DWI. Mammillary body showed nodular enhance-ment in 2 cases after administration of contrast medium. Conclusion Wernicke encephalopathy has typical features on MRI, which provide great value in clinical diagnosis.

  2. L’adduction d’eau à Dieppe aux XVIe et XVIIe siècles : de l’utile à l’apparat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Manase

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La ville de Dieppe a bénéficié dès le XVIe siècle d’une adduction d’eau particulièrement dense, précoce illustration d’hygiène publique et d’urbanisme. Difficilement mis en place par le fontainier Pierre Toustain, l’aqueduc gravitaire qui sur 6,7 km mena l’eau d’une source abondante jusqu’à la ville subsiste encore en partie. En 1579 il pourvoyait en eau pas moins de seize fontaines publiques soigneusement ornées, brillantes émanations du prestige de la cité. En 1617, une originale fontaine mécanique « en forme de rocher » est édifiée en l’honneur de la venue de Louis XIII. Inspirée par les travaux du célèbre ingénieur dieppois Salomon de Caus, elle charme alors les populations par ses jeux d’eau et ses oiseaux artificiels chantants.From the sixteenth century, the city of Dieppe had an important and well-developed public water system which may be seen as an early illustration of a public health service and as an aspect of town planning. Not without difficulty, a gravitational aqueduct was built by the engineer Pierre Toustain, carrying spring water to the city over a distance of some 6.7 kilometres. Part of this aqueduct still survives. In 1579, the water flowed from no fewer than sixteen decorative fountains, symbols of the city’s prestige. In 1617, an original mechanical fountain ‘in the shape of a rock’ was constructed in honour of a visit to the city by Louis XIII. Inspired by the works of the famous engineer Salomon de Caus of Dieppe, this fountain charmed the population with its dancing waters and artificial singing birds.

  3. Satellite SAR imagery for site discovery, change detection and monitoring activities in cultural heritage sites: experiments on the Nasca region, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapete, D.; Cigna, F.; Masini, N.; Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    Besides their suitability for multi-temporal and spatial deformation analysis, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image archives acquired by space-borne radar sensors can be exploited to support archaeological investigations over huge sites, even those partially or totally buried and still to be excavated. Amplitude information is one of the main properties of SAR data from which it is possible to retrieve evidences of buried structures, using feature extraction and texture analysis. Multi-temporality allows the reconstruction of past and recent evolution of both landscape and built-up environment, with the possibility to detect natural and/or anthropogenic changes, including human-induced damages to the conservation of cultural heritage. We present the methodology and first results of the experiments currently undertaken using SAR data in the Nasca region (Southern Peru), where two important civilizations such as Paracas and Nasca developed and flourished from 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. The study areas include a wide spectrum of archaeological and environmental elements to be preserved, among which: the archaeological site of Cahuachi and its surroundings, considered the largest adobe Ceremonial Centre in the World; the Nasca lines and geoglyphs in the areas of Palpa, Atarco and Nasca; the ancient networks of aqueducts and drainage galleries in the Puquios area, built by Nasca in the 1st-6th centuries AD. Archaeological prospection and multi-purpose remote sensing activities are currently carried out in the framework of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), with the direct involvement of researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, Italian National Research Council. In this context, C- and L-band SAR images covering the Nasca region since 2001 were identified for the purposes of this research and, in particular, the following

  4. Frequency analysis of CSF flow on cine-MRI in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyati, Tosiaki; Kasuga, Toshio; Imai, Hiroshi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Fujita, Hiroshi; Mase, Mitsuhito; Itikawa, Katuhiro

    2001-09-01

    To clarify the flow dynamics of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), frequency analyses of CSF flow measured with an ECG-gated phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. The amplitude and phase in the CSF flow spectra in the aqueduct were determined in patients with NPH after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH-NPH group, n=26), an idiopathic NPH (I-NPH group, n=4), an asymptomatic ventricular dilation or a brain atrophy (VD group, n=21), and in healthy volunteers (control group, n=25). The changes of CSF flow spectra were also analyzed 5 and 15 minutes after an intravenous injection of acetazolamide. Moreover, a phase transfer function (PTF) calculated from the spectra of the driving vascular pulsation and CSF flow in the aqueduct were assessed in patients with SAH-NPH and control groups before and after acetazolamide injection. There values were compared with the pressure volume response (PVR). The amplitude of the 1st-3rd harmonics in the SAH-NPH or I-NPH group was significantly larger than in the control or VD group because of a decrease in compliance (increase in PVR). The phase of the 1st harmonic in the SAH-NPH group was significantly different from that in the control or VD group, but no difference was found between the control and VD groups. The amplitude of the 0-3rd harmonics increased, and the phase of the 1st harmonic changed in all groups after an acetazolamide injection. An evaluation of the time course of the direct current of CSF flow provided further information about the compensatory faculty of the cerebrospinal cavity. A PTF of the 1st harmonic in the SAH-NPH group was significantly larger than in the control group, and a positive correlation was noted between PTF of the 1st harmonic and PVR. In conclusion, frequency analyses of CSF flow measured by cine-MRI make it possible to obtain noninvasively a more detailed picture of the pathophysiology of NPH and of changes in intracranial

  5. 视神经脊髓炎患者头颅磁共振成像特点%Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities of neuromyelitis optica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆正齐; 吕科峰; 胡学强; 游文霞; 邹艳

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in brain MRI scan in neuromyelitis optica (NMO).Methods MRI images in 27 cases with NMO were examined in a retrospective study.Results Twenty-two of 27 patients (81.5%) had abnormal brain MRI findings,which were classified as nonspecific (7 cases),atypical (1 case),multiple sclerosis-like (3 cases) and ventricle-aqueduct-syringocoele lesions (11 cases).The lust type is the most common (40.7%).Furthermore,the analysis showed that the number of brain lesions positively correlated with lag time from the onset to the last MRI scan (r=0.475,P=0.025).Conclusions Brain lesions in NMO are diverse,which might result from different pathogenesis.However,ventricle-aqueduct-syringocoele is the most common lesion.Early brain MRI examination of suspected cases is essential.%目的 分析视神经脊髓炎(neuromyelitis optica,NMO)患者头颅MRI特点.方法 对27例NMO患者的头颅MRI进行回顾性分析.结果 22例(81.5%)NMO患者存在不同类型的头部病灶,并可分为非特异性(7例)、非典型性(1例)、多发性硬化样(MS-like,3例)及脑室-导水管-中央管周围型(11例),但以脑室-导水管-中央管周围型最为常见(40.7%),且NMO患者颅内的病灶数与最后一次MRI检查的时间呈正相关(r=0.475,P=0.025).结论 NMO患者脑内病灶类型多样,但以脑室-导水管-中央管周围型最为常见,可能存在不同机制.对疑似病例早期进行头颅MRI检查相当必要.

  6. Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Two-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Sefidbakht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is gradually becoming more common for thorough visualization of the fetus than ultrasound (US, especially for neurological anomalies, which are the most common indications for fetal MRI and are a matter of concern for both families and society. Objectives We investigated fetal MRIs carried out in our center for frequency of central nervous system anomalies. This is the first such report in southern Iran. Materials and Methods One hundred and seven (107 pregnant women with suspicious fetal anomalies in prenatal ultrasound entered a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013. A 1.5 T Siemens Avanto scanner was employed for sequences, including T2 HASTE and Trufisp images in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes to mother’s body, T2 HASTE and Trufisp relative to the specific fetal body part being evaluated, and T1 flash images in at least one plane based on clinical indication. We investigated any abnormality in the central nervous system and performed descriptive analysis to achieve index of frequency. Results Mean gestational age ± standard deviation (SD for fetuses was 25.54 ± 5.22 weeks, and mean maternal age ± SD was 28.38 ± 5.80 years Eighty out of 107 (74.7% patients who were referred with initial impression of borderline ventriculomegaly. A total of 18 out of 107 (16.82% patients were found to have fetuses with CNS anomalies and the remainder were neurologically normal. Detected anomalies were as follow: 3 (16.6% fetuses each had the Dandy-Walker variant and Arnold-Chiari II (with myelomeningocele. Complete agenesis of corpus callosum, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, and aqueductal stenosis were each seen in 2 (11.1% fetuses. Arnold-Chiari II without myelomeningocele, anterior spina bifida associated with neurenteric cyst, arachnoid cyst, lissencephaly, and isolated enlarged cisterna magna each presented in one (5.5% fetus. One fetus had concomitant schizencephaly and complete

  7. Using open source software for the supervision and management of the water resources system of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozanis, S.; Christofides, A.; Efstratiadis, A.; Koukouvinos, A.; Karavokiros, G.; Mamassis, N.; Koutsoyiannis, D.; Nikolopoulos, D.

    2012-04-01

    The water supply of Athens, Greece, is implemented through a complex water resource system, extending over an area of around 4 000 km2 and including surface water and groundwater resources. It incorporates four reservoirs, 350 km of main aqueducts, 15 pumping stations, more than 100 boreholes and 5 small hydropower plants. The system is run by the Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP) Over more than 10 years we have developed, information technology tools such as GIS, database and decision support systems, to assist the management of the system. Among the software components, "Enhydris", a web application for the visualization and management of geographical and hydrometeorological data, and "Hydrognomon", a data analysis and processing tool, are now free software. Enhydris is entirely based on free software technologies such as Python, Django, PostgreSQL, and JQuery. We also created http://openmeteo.org/, a web site hosting our free software products as well as a free database system devoted to the dissemination of free data. In particular, "Enhydris" is used for the management of the hydrometeorological stations and the major hydraulic structures (aqueducts, reservoirs, boreholes, etc.), as well as for the retrieval of time series, online graphs etc. For the specific needs of EYDAP, additional GIS functionality was introduced for the display and monitoring of the water supply network. This functionality is also implemented as free software and can be reused in similar projects. Except for "Hydrognomon" and "Enhydris", we have developed a number of advanced modeling applications, which are also generic-purpose tools that have been used for a long time to provide decision support for the water resource system of Athens. These are "Hydronomeas", which optimizes the operation of complex water resource systems, based on a stochastic simulation framework, "Castalia", which implements the generation of synthetic time series, and "Hydrogeios", which employs

  8. Sources and Cycling of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta, California, Using Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Doctor, D. H.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Fram, M. S.; Kraus, T.

    2006-12-01

    An important water quality concern of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta portion of the Calfed Bay-Delta restoration program is the generation of disinfection byproducts (DBP) as a result of chlorination or ozonation of San Francisco Bay Delta drinking water. One means of reducing DBPs is through monitoring and control of water sources from the various delta environments entering the California aqueduct with the objective of reducing the quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and lowering the fraction with the highest DBP formation potential. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotopic compositions of DOM to help differentiate DOM sources and interpret seasonal variations. For this purpose, water samples collected from five general delta environments between December 1999 and June 2001 were analyzed for d13C, d15N, and d34S of DOM as well as for various chemical and optical properties. Monthly averages of d13C and d15N values for DOM retained on XAD-4 and XAD-8 resins show distinctive compositions for island drain and wetland environments throughout the year which reflect the agriculturally- related terrestrial sources of DOM from island drains, and the aquatic sources for the wetland areas. On average, the d13C values of DOM from open water (flooded island) environments, channels, and the Sacramento River water are indistinguishable from each other from spring through fall and show a progressive increase in d13C, which is likely controlled by the cycle of aquatic production through the growing season. The isotopic values from these environments diverge in the winter reflecting a change in the relative importance of the various mechanisms (sources and cycling) controlling DOM production. Sulfur isotopes show both the effects of sulfate reduction and the influence of seawater sulfate on local biota. The d13C, d15N, and d34S values show a number of correlations related to both environment and season, reflecting the

  9. Terpenoids as major precursors of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachates, surface water, and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Nanny, M.A.; McIntyre, C.

    2003-01-01

    13C NMR analyses of hydrophobic dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions isolated from a landfill leachate contaminated groundwater near Norman, OK; the Colorado River aqueduct near Los Angeles, CA; Anaheim Lake, an infiltration basin for the Santa Ana River in Orange County, CA; and groundwater from the Tomago Sand Beds, near Sydney, Australia, found branched methyl groups and quaternary aliphatic carbon structures that are indicative of terpenoid hydrocarbon precursors. Significant amounts of lignin precursors, commonly postulated to be the major source of DOM, were found only in trace quantities by thermochemolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the Norman Landfill and Tomago Sand Bed hydrophobic DOM fractions. Electrospray/tandem mass spectrometry of the Tomago Sand Bed hydrophobic acid DOM found an ion series differing by 14 daltons, which is indicative of aliphatic and aryl-aliphatic polycarboxylic acids. The product obtained from ozonation of the resin acid, abietic acid, gave a similar ion series. Terpenoid precursors of DOM are postulated to be derived from resin acid paper sizing agents in the Norman Landfill, algal and bacterial terpenoids in the Colorado River and Anaheim Lake, and terrestrial plant terpenoids in the Tomago Sand Beds.

  10. SEASONAL DROUGHT DYNAMICS IN EL-BEHEIRA GOVERNORATE, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Mossad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most damaging climate-related hazards due to the prolonged absence of precipitation. Therefore, understanding the drought dynamics is important for irrigation water management to mitigate the negative impacts on agriculture. In this study, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI were used as effective tools for tracking the changes of water status occurred at five agro-meteorological stations (Etay Al Baroud, Wadi El-Natrun, Al Boseli, Badr and Nubariyah within El-Beheira governorate, Egypt. In addition, the overall water risk for agro-meteorological stations was estimated using the Aqueduct-GIS tool. The results clarified that Badr agro-meteorological station is representing the highest of water deficit by 96.6%, whereas, Al Boseli agro-meteorological station is representing the lowest water deficit by 86.9%. However, The SPI over El-Beheira region often confined in the near normal class, while the SPEI showed a notable increase of drought (SPEI = 0 to -4 in last 10 years of the analyses. The results suggested that El-Beheira governorate is moving toward the drought in general and Wadi El-Natrun and Nubariyah are the most drought affected areas in the future.

  11. Evidence for 830 years of seismic quiescence from palaeoseismology, archaeoseismology and historical seismicity along the Dead Sea fault in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha; Gomez, Francisco; Sbeinati, Reda; Van der Woerd, Jerome; Mouty, Michel; Darkal, Abdul Nasser; Radwan, Youssef; Layyous, Ihsan; Al Najjar, Haithem; Darawcheh, Ryad; Hijazi, Fouad; Al-Ghazzi, Riad; Barazangi, Muawia

    2003-05-01

    The long historical record of earthquakes, the physical effects on ancient building structures and the palaeoseismology provide a unique opportunity for an interdisciplinary tectonic analysis along a major plate boundary and a realistic evaluation of the seismic hazard assessment in the Middle East. We demonstrate with micro-topographic surveys and trenching that the Dead Sea fault (DSF) offsets left-laterally by 13.6±0.2 m a repeatedly fractured ancient Roman aqueduct (older than AD 70 and younger than AD 30). Carbon-14 dating of faulted young alluvial deposits documents the occurrence of three large earthquakes in the past 2000 years between AD 100 and 750, between AD 700 and 1030 and between AD 990 and 1210. Our study provides the timing of late Holocene earthquakes and constrains the 6.9±0.1 mm/yr slip rate of the Dead Sea transform fault in northwestern Syria along the Missyaf segment. The antepenultimate and most recent faulting events may be correlated with the AD 115 and AD 1170 large earthquakes for which we estimate Mw=7.3-7.5. The ˜830 yr of seismic quiescence along the Missyaf fault segment implies that a large earthquake is overdue and may result in a major catastrophe to the population centres of Syria and Lebanon.

  12. Congenital hydrocephalus and abnormal subcommissural organ development in Sox3 transgenic mice.

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    Kristie Lee

    Full Text Available Congenital hydrocephalus (CH is a life-threatening medical condition in which excessive accumulation of CSF leads to ventricular expansion and increased intracranial pressure. Stenosis (blockage of the Sylvian aqueduct (Aq; the narrow passageway that connects the third and fourth ventricles is a common form of CH in humans, although the genetic basis of this condition is unknown. Mouse models of CH indicate that Aq stenosis is associated with abnormal development of the subcommmissural organ (SCO a small secretory organ located at the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon. Glycoproteins secreted by the SCO generate Reissner's fibre (RF, a thread-like structure that descends into the Aq and is thought to maintain its patency. However, despite the importance of SCO function in CSF homeostasis, the genetic program that controls SCO development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the X-linked transcription factor SOX3 is expressed in the murine SCO throughout its development and in the mature organ. Importantly, overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal diencephalic midline of transgenic mice induces CH via a dose-dependent mechanism. Histological, gene expression and cellular proliferation studies indicate that Sox3 overexpression disrupts the development of the SCO primordium through inhibition of diencephalic roof plate identity without inducing programmed cell death. This study provides further evidence that SCO function is essential for the prevention of hydrocephalus and indicates that overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal midline alters progenitor cell differentiation in a dose-dependent manner.

  13. Antiquity versus modern times in hydraulics - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroia, L.; Georgescu, S. C.; Georgescu, A. M.

    2010-08-01

    Water supply and water management in Antiquity represent more than Modern World can imagine about how people in that period used to think about, and exploit the resources they had, aiming at developing and improving their society and own lives. This paper points out examples of how they handled different situations, and how they managed to cope with the growing number of population in the urban areas, by adapting or by improving their water supply systems. The paper tries to emphasize the engineering contribution of Rome and the Roman Empire, mainly in the capital but also in the provinces, as for instance the today territory of France, by analysing some aqueducts from the point of view of modern Hydraulic Engineering. A third order polynomial regression is proposed to compute the water flow rate, based on the flow cross-sectional area measured in quinaria. This paper also emphasizes on contradictory things between what we thought we knew about Ancient Roman civilization, and what could really be proven, either by a modern engineering approach, a documentary approach, or by commonsense, where none of the above could be used. It is certain that the world we live in is the heritage of the Greco-Roman culture and therefore, we are due to acknowledge their contribution, especially taking into account the lack of knowledge of that time, and the poor resources they had.

  14. Cerebral hemodynamics and functional prognosis in hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Osamu; Nishikawa, Michio; Watanabe, Shu; Yamakawa, Hiroyasu; Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Uno, Akira; Handa, Hajime (Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    The functional outcome of cerebral hemodynamics in the chronic stage of juvenile hydrocephalus was determined using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Five patients including three with aqueductal stenosis, one with post-meningitic hydrocephalus, and one case with hydrocephalus having developed after repair of a huge occipital encephalocele. Early images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were obtained 25 minutes after intravenous injection of 123-I-iodoamphetamine (IMP), and late images were scanned 3 hours later. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) was also measured using {sup 99m}Tc in three patients. Twenty cases with adult communicating hydrocephalus were also investigated from the point of view of shunt effectiveness. Although there was no remarkable change in the cerebrovascular bed in the juvenile cases, CBF of the remnant brain parenchyma was good irrespective of the degree of ventricular dilatation. There was a periventricular-related IMP uptake in each case; however, it somehow matched the ventricular span. Functional outcome one to 23 years after the initial shunt operation was good in every case, despite multiple shunt revisions. Redistribution on late images had no bearing on clinical states. In adult cases, 8 patients with effective shunting demonstrated a relatively localized periventricular low perfusion, with preoperative increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. On the contrary, 12 patients with no improvement with or without ventricular-reduced IMP uptake, despite low CSF pressure. The present study indicates that periventricular hemodynamics may play an important role in cerebral function compromised by hydrocephalus. (J.P.N.).

  15. Slit like ventricle and isolation of CSF pathway as complications of shunt procedure in child hydrocephalus, (3). Hydrodynamic change in isolated ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, Shizuo (National Kagawa Children' s Hospital (Japan)); Matsumoto, Satoshi

    1983-12-01

    The shunt procedure in hydrocephalus in 164 children (under 15 years of age) was followed by a slit-like ventricle in 46 cases, an isolated fourth ventricle in 6 cases, an isolated unilateral hydrocephalus in 4 cases, and a loculated ventricle in 3 cases. The pathological conditions of the isolation of the CSF pathway were observed and confirmed by metrizamide CT cisternography and ventriculography, while the hydrodynamics of the CSF under these pathological conditions was sequentially and dynamically analyzed. There was a complication of a slit ventricle in 4 cases of an isolated fourth ventricle, in all 4 cases of an isolated unilateral hydrocephalus, and in 1 case of a loculated ventricle, and a re-dilation of the slit-like ventricle resulted in an improvement in the pathological conditions in 2 cases, 1 case, and the 1 case respectively (reversible isolation). In 2 cases of an isolated fourth ventricle, the obstruction of the aqueduct of the midbrain persisted (permanent isolation), regardless of changes in the paracelic function of the shunt tube, resulting in a double compartment; the installation of a separate shunt tube was required in both cases. Some cases of isolated fourth ventricle remained asymptomatic (asymptomatic isolated fourth ventricle), although it could be confirmed on the basis of an examination of the CSF, that the pathological conditions had been completed.

  16. SURGERY FOR TUMORS OF THE FOURTH VENTRICLE: THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCESSES AND THE ROLE OF ENDOSCOPIC TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Karakhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of current accesses to the tumors of the fourth ventricle, which fill and compress from the outside its cavity, was assessed in 28 patients. Original associated endomicrosurgical techniques were used. Two groups and five topographic types of fourth ventricle tumors are identified. Basic accesses — telovelar and supracerebellar — eliminate the necessity of dissecting the vermis cerebelli. The key endoscopic technique is to provide a simultaneous survey of the lower and upper poles of a tumor during its removal. The technique of trochlear removal of metastatic nodes from the fourth ventricle is shown. The benefits of endoscopic techniques are to early examine the vulnerable vascular and neural structures blocked by a tumor at the access step; to reduce the volume of an access itself and the traction of cerebellar and truncal structures; to completely survey the Sylvian aqueduct without additionally displacing or dissecting the vermis cerebelli; to maintain optical sharpness within sight of differently remote microstructures. Overall, incorporation of the endoscopic method realizes the principle of mini-invasive neurosurgery. 

  17. Vascular anomalies, sutures and small canals of the temporal bone on axial CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, Sabrina [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Halle, E. Grube Str. 40, 06097 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: sabrina.koesling@medizin.uni-halle.de; Kunkel, Petra [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Leipzig (Germany); Schul, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Subtle bony structures, small canals and fine sutures cause sometimes problems in the analysis of CTs of the temporal bone. The aim of this study was: to analyze the visibility of subtle structures and to estimate the incidence of vascular anomalies. Patients and method: We retrospectively analyzed axial scans of 223 high-resolution CTs of the temporal bone obtained as single slice or spiral CT with 1 mm slice thickness. All CTs had clinical indications. Two experienced radiologists studied CTs regarding the visibility of the fine sutures, fissures and small canals and the occurrence of vascular anomalies. Results: The following structures were seen commonly: sphenosquamosal suture (76%), arcuate artery canal (93%), vestibular aqueduct (89%), mastoid emissary vein (82%), singular canal (56%). Not so commonly were observed: tympanosquamosal suture (31%), mastoid canaliculus (28%), lateral sigmoid sinus (28%), petrotympanic fissure (24%), tympanomastoid suture (10%). Seldom we identified: the inferior tympanic canaliculus (6%), high jugular bulb (6%), anterior sigmoid sinus (5%), dehiscent internal carotid artery canal (2%), persistent petrosquamosal sinus (1%), dehiscent jugular bulb (1%). Persistent stapedial artery, aberrant internal carotid artery, dehiscent jugular bulb, high jugular bulb with diverticulum, anterior and dehiscent sigmoid sinus were detected in below 1% of the analyzed temporal bones. The frequency of asymmetry of the jugular foramen, which varied between 3% and 42%, depended on different criterions of size. Conclusion: A profound knowledge of normal anatomy and anomalies of the temporal bone avoids misinterpretation as pathological lesions and iatrogenic bleedings.

  18. Rare association between cystic fibrosis, Chiari I malformation, and hydrocephalus in a baby: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jea Andrew

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cystic fibrosis, an epithelial cell transport disorder caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene, is not generally associated with malformations of the central nervous system. We review eight previously published reports detailing an infrequent association between cystic fibrosis and Chiari I malformation. Case presentation To the best of our knowledge, our report describes only the ninth case of a baby presenting with a new diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and Chiari I malformation, in this case in a 10-month-old, full-term Caucasian baby boy from the United States of America. Neurosurgical consultation was obtained for associated developmental delay, macrocephaly, bulging anterior fontanel, and papilledema. An MRI scan demonstrated an extensive Chiari I malformation with effacement of the fourth ventricle, obliteration of the outlets of the fourth ventricle and triventricular hydrocephalus without aqueductal stenosis. Our patient was taken to the operating room for ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. Conclusions It is possible that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene may play a previously unrecognized role in central nervous system development; alternatively, this central nervous system abnormality may have been acquired due to constant valsalva from recurrent coughing or wheezing or metabolic and electrolyte imbalances that occur characteristically in cystic fibrosis.

  19. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Previously Shunted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brichtova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  20. A 2-D simulation of hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro of the human ventricular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammourah, S.; Aroussi, A. [Univ. of Nottingham, School of Mechanical, Materials, Manufacturing and Management, University Park, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: eaxsaka@nottingham.ac.uk; Vloeberghs, M. [Queen' s Medical Centre, Dept. of Child Health, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This study investigates the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow behavior in a two-dimensional plane (2-D) of the human ventricular system when the hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro (F.O.M) occurs. In order to understand the CSF behaviour when the hydrocephalus occurs, it is essential to comprehend its normal flow dynamics i.e. the healthy case with no hydrocephalus. This had been done numerically by reconstructing the ventricular system geometry from the MRI scans and then made a 15{sup o} degree cut in the surgical line to obtain the outlines of the 2-D plane. The healthy cases were solved for the CSF actual flow rate, which is between 100-500 ml/day in 100 incremental steps. The unhealthy cases were studied for the average flow rate, which is 300 ml/day but for blockage ratios of the Foramen diameter of 20%, 50% and 75%. These obstructions are designed to simulate the hydrocephalus. The results show that as the flow rate increases the pressure and the velocity values increases, but no changes in the flow pattern occurs. The maximum pressure on the normal cases occurred in the lateral ventricles and the maximum velocity occurred in the aqueduct neck. The results of the hydrocephalus cases show that as the obstruction degree increases the pressure in the lateral ventricle increases accompanied with a velocity increase in the obstructed Foramen, which may cause unwanted stress on the neighboring tissues. (author)

  1. 合并梗阻性脑积水的松果体区脑膜瘤的手术治疗%Surgery of pineal region meningioma combining obstructive hydrocephelus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xiang; Gang Zhao; Xianli Lv

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The aim of our study was to find out the best operative therapeutic regimen by reviewing the comprehension of operation, the improvement of operative method and the selection of operative approach concerning pineal region meningioma combining obstructive hydrocephalus. Methods:We retrospected the clinic data, comprehension of operation and prognosis of 6 cases of pineal region meningioma. Results:Six tumors were all removed, after that the back wall of the up, the manifestation of hydrocephalus disappeared, other symptoms were relieved more or less without any complication with one patient dismissing. The regular MRI examination indicated that the lesions had not reoccur and the cerebral ventricles had been normal. Conclusion:We identify the nourish arteries of the tumor and anatomy relationship between the tumor and its peripheral blood vessels through modern imaging devices, to select reasonable operative method are the premier therapy of pineal region meningioma. The back wall of the third ventricle becomes thin and the suprapineal recess develops shallow and wide, so the third ventricle-quadrigeminal cistern fistulation can effectively eliminate the obstructive hydrocephalus due to the long-term compression on the aqueduct after removing the tumor.

  2. Camk2a-Cre-mediated conditional deletion of chromatin remodeler Brg1 causes perinatal hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mou; Wu, Jiang I

    2015-06-15

    Mammalian SWI/SNF-like BAF chromatin remodeling complexes are essential for many aspects of neural development. Mutations in the genes encoding the core subunit Brg1/SmarcA4 or other complex components cause neurodevelopmental diseases and are associated with autism. Congenital hydrocephalus is a serious brain disorder often experienced by these patients. We report a role of Brg1 in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus disorder. We discovered an unexpected early activity of mouse Camk2a-Cre transgene, which mediates Brg1 deletion in a subset of forebrain neurons beginning in the late embryonic stage. Brg1 deletion in these neurons led to severe congenital hydrocephalus with enlargement of the lateral ventricles and attenuation of the cerebral cortex. The Brg1-deficient mice had significantly smaller subcommissural organs and narrower Sylvian aqueducts than mice that express normal levels of Brg1. Effects were non-cell autonomous and may be responsible for the development of the congenital hydrocephalus phenotype. Our study provides evidence indicating that abnormalities in Brg1 function result in defects associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and autism.

  3. Water Sovereignty: Social impact of the phenomenon of “water stress” in Colombia

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    Diana Gabriela Beltrán Gordillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Colombia, where each person would have the right to access 50.000 m3 of water per year, a 50% of population does not have access to potable water, 10 millions of Colombians do not own an aqueduct system and at least 800 municipal headers are about to disappear. In this article are presented the political factors that take over the water resources in state sovereignty terms; which could canalize the appearance of water stress phenomenon in the country, which is reality to Mexico and Peru. Materials and method: Reection from the literature review was realized through recompilation of 30 documents in Universidad Nacional of Colombia database. 22 articles were selected. Results: Water stress is the progressive deterioration of water resources of a country in terms of quality and quantity. This phenomenon begins to appear in Colombia as a social problem due to excessive use of water by the agricultural / livestock industries, and oil, gas and mining multinational companies, in which the state does not applies any control. Conclusions: The competent resource governance and protection are been forced by international politics shown especially in developing countries, which neglect their vulnerable communities. Being sovereignty an elemental characteristic of each state, it is governmental duty to regulate water resources as fundamental source of well-being and maintenance of its population.

  4. 镇平县铜钼选矿厂尾矿库地质灾害隐患分析及治理措施%Risk analysis and control measures of geological hazards from Cu-Mo mineral separation tailing ponds in Zhenping county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小二

    2014-01-01

    河南省镇平县铜钼选矿厂尾矿库已运行数十年,目前存在多处隐患,严重威胁下游水库及32万人口饮水安全。阐述了尾矿库的地质环境背景,分析了地质灾害隐患类型及特征,提出了尾矿库治理、拦渣坝及沉淀渡槽、地下水源修复等工程措施。%Tailing ponds of copper-molybdenum mineral separation in Zhenping county, Henan province, have operated for decades. The ponds present several hazards and pose a serious threat to downstream reservoirs and to the safety of drinking water for an estimated population of 320,000 people. This article examines the geological-environmental background of tailing ponds, and analyzes the types and characteristics of geological hazards that the ponds present. The study proposes several engineering measures, including tailing pond treatment, blocking of the dregs dam, precipitation aqueduct engineering, and groundwater restoration engineering.

  5. Co-occurrence of non-mosaic trisomy 22 and inherited balanced t(4;6)(q33;q23.3) in a liveborn female: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Folasade I; Anderson, Carol E; McGowan, Jane E; Jethva, Reena N; Wahab, Mohammed A; Glick, Adina R; Sterner, Mark R; Pascasio, Judy M; Punnett, Hope H; Liu, Jinglan

    2014-12-01

    Trisomy 22 is the third most common autosomal trisomy occurring in about 0.4% of all clinically recognized pregnancies. Complete non-mosaic trisomy 22 is extremely rare in live births. Most affected children die before one year of age. To date, only 29 liveborn cases have been reported and none has carried an additional genetic lesion. In this report, we describe the clinical presentation, cytogenetic, and cytogenomic findings in a liveborn female with complete non-mosaic trisomy 22 as well as a paternally inherited, balanced reciprocal chromosomal rearrangement t(4;6)(q33;q23.3). The proband manifested features commonly seen in individuals with non-mosaic trisomy 22 such as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), single umbilical artery, cranial abnormalities, short neck, cleft lip and palate, dysmorphic ears, hypoplastic nipples, digital malformation, congenital heart defects, dysplastic kidneys, and genital anomalies. In addition, she had lobar holoprosencephaly, aqueductal stenosis, and limb and eye problems that have not been associated with complete trisomy 22 in previous reports. She died at 35 days of age of complex heart disease and renal failure. We are hereby expanding the cytogenetic and clinical spectrum of this rare chromosome disorder. Clinical features of liveborn children with non-mosaic trisomy 22 are reviewed and compared to those in our proband. The impact of genomic content in relation to the survival of trisomies in humans is also discussed.

  6. Study on transport of powdered activated carbon using a rotating circular flume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹海龙; 邱敏燕; 徐祖信

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a rotating flume to examine the Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) transport with water flow. The initial PAC concentration was 10 mg/L-30 mg/L, and PAC concentration versus time under a specified cross-sectional averaging fluid shear was observed. Results show that compared with PAC deposition in still water, PAC is depleted to zero faster under a fluid shear of 0.02 Pa, due to PAC agglomeration with the fluid shear. However, since PAC floc size only ranges from a single particle (2mm) to approximate 6mm, an increasing of instantaneous turbulent fluctuations could counteract the force of PAC floc settling downward, and as a result the steady PAC concentration increases with the increase of shear stress. It is found that the critical shear stress for PAC deposition is about 0.60 Pa, and further the PAC deposition probability is presented according to the experimental scenarios between 0.02 Pa and 0.60 Pa. Combining the PAC transport and deposition formula with PAC-pollutant removal model provides an insight into PAC deployment in raw water aqueduct for sudden open water source pollution.

  7. Ventricular and extraventricular ependymal tumors in 18 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, L; de Lahunta, A; Baiker, K; Dobson, E; Summers, B A

    2013-03-01

    Ependymal tumors are reported rarely in domestic animals. The aims of this study were to examine the clinical and pathologic features of ventricular and extraventricular ependymomas and subependymomas in 18 domestic cats examined between 1978 and 2011. Parameters examined included age, sex, breed, clinical signs, and macroscopic and histopathologic features. The mean age of affected cats was 9 years, 4 months; median age, 8.5 years. There were 8 female and 4 male cats, and 6 cats for which sex was not recorded. Breeds included 10 domestic shorthaired, 2 domestic longhaired, 1 Persian, and 1 Siamese. Clinical signs included altered mentation or behavior, seizures, circling, propulsive gait, generalized discomfort, and loss of condition. The tumors often formed intraventricular masses and usually arose from the lining of the lateral or third ventricles, followed by the fourth ventricle, mesencephalic aqueduct, and spinal cord central canal. Three tumors were extraventricular, forming masses within the cerebrum and adjacent subarachnoid space. Histologically, 15 tumors were classified as variants of ependymomas (classic, papillary, tanycytic, or clear cell) and 3 as subependymomas. Tumors were generally well demarcated; however, 6 ependymomas focally or extensively infiltrated the adjacent neural parenchyma. Characteristic perivascular pseudorosettes were observed in all ependymomas; true rosettes were less common. Some tumors had areas of necrosis, mineralization, cholesterol clefts, and/or hemorrhage. This cohort study of feline ependymal tumors includes subependymoma and primary extraventricular ependymoma, variants not previously described in the veterinary literature but well recognized in humans.

  8. Imaging features of rosette-forming glioneuronal tumours (RGNTs): A series of seven cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medhi, Gorky; Prasad, Chandrajit; Saini, Jitender; Pendharkar, Hima; Bhat, Maya Dattatraya [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore (India); Pandey, Paritosh [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurosurgery, Bangalore (India); Muthane, Yasha [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuropathology, Bangalore (India)

    2016-01-15

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumours (RGNTs) are a recently described, rare, distinct nosological entity of the glioneuronal family. We describe imaging findings (CT and MRI) in seven patients with RGNTs. This retrospective study includes seven RGNT patients (4 male, 3 female; age range: 7-42 years; mean age: 25 years) diagnosed and treated at our institute. MR studies were performed on 3 T and 1.5-T clinical MR systems. All patients were reviewed by two experienced neuroradiologists and imaging findings were tabulated. Five tumours were located in the posterior fossa, and two were in the pineal region. One of the tumours demonstrated multiple satellite lesions, which involved the midbrain, pons, medulla as well as the cervical cord. Tumours located in the pineal region compressed the 3rd ventricle/aqueduct and extended below the tentorium cerebelli. All the tumours demonstrated enhancement, and susceptibility was evident in six of the seven patients. CSF dissemination was present in two patients. RGNTs are usually solid-cystic tumours and frequently demonstrate peripheral/heterogeneous enhancement upon post-contrast study. Haemorrhage is a common feature which may not be evident on CT. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination is a feature and appropriate imaging should be performed whenever an RGNT is suspected. (orig.)

  9. MRI characteristics of midbrain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B. [Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing (China). Neurosurgical Inst.]|[Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital (China); Wang, C.C.; Wang, J. [Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing (China). Neurosurgical Inst.

    1999-03-01

    We diagnosed 60 cases of midbrain tumours by MRI between 1993 to 1997. There were 39 males and 21 females, aged 2-64 years, mean 25.6 years. We found 38 patients with true intramedullary midbrain tumours, 11 predominantly in the tectum, 20 in the tegmentum and 7 with a downward extension to the pons; there were 7 within the cerebral aqueduct. There were 22 patients with infiltrating midbrain tumours extending from adjacent structures, 11 cases each from the thalamus and pineal region. All patients received surgical treatment. Gross total resection was achieved in 42 cases, subtotal (> 75 %) resection in 18. Pathological diagnoses included 16 low-grade and 15 high-grade astrocytomas; 5 oligodendroastrocytomas; 2 ependymomas; 11 glioblastomas; and 11 pineal parenchymal or germ-cell tumours. Midbrain tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, with wide variation in clinical and MRI features, related to the site and type of tumour. MRI not only allows precise analysis of their growth pattern, but also can lead to a correct preoperative diagnosis in the majority of cases. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 19 refs.

  10. CT findings of hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokiguchi, Susumu; Kurashima, Akihiko; Tsuchiya, Toshiaki; Ito, Jusuke; Naito, Haruhiko; Nagai, Hiroko; Wakabayashi, Masatoshi; Morita, Masahiro

    1987-12-01

    Hereditary dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) has recently been recognized as a clinicopathological entity. It may be defined as a multisystem degenerative disease of dominant inheritance, and characterized clinically by a combination of epilepsy, myoclonus, ataxia, dementia, and choreo-athetosis. This paper reports on the CT findings of ten patients (in four families) with DRPLA. In two families, the diagnosis was established on the basis of the clinicopathological findings, while in the other two, the diagnosis was made clinically. Although the CT findings were not identical in all patients, some degree of atrophic change was always observed in the cerebellum, brainstem, and cerebral cortex. Cerebellar atrophy was always accompanied by a dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Midbrain atrophy was characterized by a prominent tegmental atrophy and aqueductal dilatation, such as is seen in progressive supranuclear palsy. Of the four patients over 40 years of age, three had a diffuse hypodensity of the cerebral white matter on CT. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on this hypodensity in patients with spino-cerebellar degeneration or Huntington's chorea. CT may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of progressive neuro-degenerative disorders.

  11. «Aqvedvctivm» Una lectura tridimensional en la Forma Urbis Marmorea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monterroso Checa, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A volumetric reading of the Forma Urbis Marmorea is here proposed. It is based on the graphical descodification of the drawing belonging to the Arcus Neroniani in Monte Celio. These arches are shown in the fragments 4 ab, labelled as «aqvedvctivm». Thanks to an accurate building and archaeological analysis, it is understood that the approximate restitution of its architectural elevation and original orography is possible. The traditional proposal, which had understood that this aqueduct had been blinded by later attached construction, theoretically represented by means of those lines sited on the right riverside, is therefore rejected.Proponemos seguidamente una lectura volumétrica en la Forma Urbis Marmorea a partir de la descodificación gráfica del dibujo perteneciente a los Arcus Neroniani del Monte Celio; aquí mostrados en los fragmentos 4 ab bajo el nombre «aqvedvctivm». A través de un análisis constructivo y arqueológico detenido, entendemos que es posible restituir aproximativamente su alzado arquitectónico y orografía originaria. Desechamos así la tradicional propuesta que entendía este acueducto cegado por estructuras a él adosadas, teóricamente simbolizadas por las líneas que a derecha del cauce se muestran en este fragmento marmóreo.

  12. Malformations of the middle and inner ear on CT imaging in 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Elke; Verhaert, Nicolas; Willaert, Annelore; Devriendt, Koenraad; Swillen, Ann; Hermans, Robert; Op de Beeck, Katya; Hens, Greet

    2016-11-01

    The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most frequent microdeletion syndrome in humans, presents with a large variety of abnormalities. A common abnormality is hearing impairment. The exact pathophysiological explanation of the observed hearing loss remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the middle and inner ear malformations as seen on computer tomographic imaging in patients with 22q11DS. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 11 22q11DS patients who had undergone a CT of the temporal bone in the past. Of the 22 examined ears, two showed an abnormal malleus and incus, 10 presented with a dense stapes superstructure, and three ears had an abnormal orientation of the stapes. With regard to the inner ear, 12 ears showed an incomplete partition type II with a normal vestibular aqueduct. In four ears the vestibule and lateral semicircular canal were composed of a single cavity, in 14 ears the vestibule was too wide, and three ears had a broadened lateral semicircular canal. These findings suggest that malformations of the stapes, cochlea, vestibule, and lateral semicircular canal are frequent in 22q11DS. To our knowledge, the current study involves the largest case series describing middle and inner ear malformations in 22q11DS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Malformations and abnormalities of the petrous portion of the temporal bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U; Heumüller, I

    2014-04-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the procedure of choice in the diagnostics of abnormalities of the middle and inner ear. It allows a detailed presentation of anatomical features and achieves the prerequisites for selection of the various therapeutic options. The highly diverse abnormalities can be described using detailed imaging analyses. Malformations with an abnormally developed modiolus are assumed to be early embryological defects, such as the classical Mondini dysplasia. The essential therapeutic option for middle ear deformities is still a cochlear implant. The domain of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not only in the analysis of the cochlear nerve and for exclusion of fibrosis or ossification of the labyrinth but is also able to visualize details of isolated malformations, such as an extended vestibular aqueduct or subtle alterations to the vestibule or can visualize them better in comparison to CT. Radiological diagnostics are used not only for classification but also to recognize typical clinical problem situations and play a key role in the diagnostics of hearing disorders and selection of the optimal therapeutic procedure.

  14. Inner ear anomalies seen on CT images in people with Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrapiromkul, Jarunee; Aygun, Nafi; Yousem, David M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tunkel, David E. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carone, Marco [University of California, Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Although dysplasia of inner ear structures in Down syndrome has been reported in several histopathological studies, the imaging findings have not been widely studied. To evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of inner ear anomalies detected on CT images in patients with Down syndrome. The temporal bone CT images of patients with Down syndrome were assessed for inner ear anomalies; clinical notes and audiograms were reviewed for hearing loss. Logistic regression models were employed to identify which CT findings were associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Inner ear anomalies were observed in 74.5% (38/51) of patients. Malformed bone islands of lateral semicircular canal (LSCC), narrow internal auditory canals (IACs), cochlear nerve canal stenoses, semicircular canal dehiscence (SCCD), and enlarged vestibular aqueducts were detected in 52.5% (53/101), 24.5% (25/102), 21.4% (21/98), 8.8% (9/102) and 2% (2/101) of patients' ears, respectively. IAC stenosis had the highest odds ratio (OR = 5.37, 95% CI: 1.0-28.9, P = 0.05) for SNHL. Inner ear anomalies occurred in 74.5% of our population, with malformed (<3 mm) bone island of LSCC being the most common (52.5%) anomaly. Narrow IAC was seen in 24.5% of patients with Down syndrome and in 57.1% of ears with SNHL. High-resolution CT is a valuable for assessing the cause of hearing loss in people with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  15. Visualization of inner ear dysplasias in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. High-resolution MR imaging and volume-rendered reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingebiel, R.; Bockmuehl, U. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Werbs, M. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). ENT Dept.; Freigang, B. [O. von Guericke Univ., Magdeburg (Germany). ENT Dept.; Vorwerk, W. [St. Salvator Krankenhaus, Halberstadt (Germany). ENT Dept.; Thieme, N.; Lehmann, R. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-11-01

    Purpose: We evaluated a data acquisition and post-processing protocol for inner ear (IE) assessment by MR imaging in patients, suffering from various labyrinth malformations. Material and Methods: MR IE studies of 158 consecutive patients (316 IEs) suffering from sensorineural hearing loss without evidence of an acoustic neurinoma were reviewed for pathologies of the IE and internal acoustic meatus. High-resolution MR data of all abnormal IE studies (n=45) were post-processed to previously standardized 3D volume rendered (VR) reconstructions. Results: In 9 patients (5.7%) the following IE dysplasias were detected: malformation of the cochlea (6 IEs), vestibulum (4 IEs), semicircular canals (12 IEs) and vestibular aqueduct/endolymphatic sac (10 IEs). One patient showed evidence of an aplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. In 4 patients multiple IE dysplasias were encountered. Comprehensive 3D visualization of all labyrinthine dysplasias was achieved by the use of two VR reconstructions. The overall time for bilateral IE assessment amounted to 30-35 min. Conclusion: The imaging protocol allows for rapid and comprehensive visualization of various IE dysplasias, based on a limited number of VR reconstructions.

  16. CT-Scans of Cochlear Implant Patients with Characteristics of Pendred Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Roesch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL in newborns is estimated with an incidence around 1:10,000 per year and is divided into syndromic and non-syndromic forms. In case of present retrocochlear function‚ cochlear implantation allows speech and cognitive development in affected children, comparable to that of normal hearing children. Pathogenesis of SNHL remains unclear in many cases. Imaging of the temporal bone, such as computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, can reveal conspicuous findings, e.g. enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA and Mondini malformation (MM of the cochlea. These malformations can be a clinical sign for Pendred syndrome. Methods: We screened CT scans of 75 cochlear implant patients for EVA and MM. Results: Six patients were observed to have either EVA alone (n=3, or MM alone (n=2, or a combination of both (n=1. Further malformations of the temporal bone could be found within the whole group, as well. Conclusion: Our results confirm the general opinion on EVA and MM, being commonly found in patients with SNHL. A possible association with Pendred syndrome needs to be confirmed by genetic investigations with search for mutations in the SLC26A4 gene and further clinical tests, such as Perchlorate test for surveillance of thyroid function.

  17. The impact of the roman agriculture on the territory of Savaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Bödőcs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The first reconstruction of the centuriatio of Savaria was attempted by András Mócsy, who tried to draw itwith the utilization of mid-scale topographical maps. Since his publication there were no archaeological at-tempt in the last 40 years to prove his theory. In the last recent years we tried to continue the survey of theSavarian centuriatio’s existence with support of GIS methods. Fortunately, an interesting relationship wasnoted between the informations of some archaeological excavations and the aerial archaeological phenom-ena, thus, we were able to build a predictive model-network of the assumed centuriatio. The new grid totallydiffers from the previous reconstruction. The predictive model’s agglomeration of the assumed centuriatio-traces could be refined, and the refined model was controlled with the use of archaeological field survey andgeophysical survey as well. The new reconstruction resulted new opportunities in the interpretation of exca-vated sites or former known roman roads and aqueducts, discovered in the last decades. An other interestingrelationship could be found between the water courses that ran on the former territory of the colonia andthe roman field boundary system: the probable impact of the roman agriculture on the landscape that af-fected the “premodern” (prior to the modern stream regulations watercourse system.

  18. Mammal-like organization of the avian midbrain central gray and a reappraisal of the intercollicular nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy A Kingsbury

    Full Text Available In mammals, rostrocaudal columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG regulate diverse behavioral and physiological functions, including sexual and fight-or-flight behavior, but homologous columns have not been identified in non-mammalian species. In contrast to mammals, in which the PAG lies ventral to the superior colliculus and surrounds the cerebral aqueduct, birds exhibit a hypertrophied tectum that is displaced laterally, and thus the midbrain central gray (CG extends mediolaterally rather than dorsoventrally as in mammals. We therefore hypothesized that the avian CG is organized much like a folded open PAG. To address this hypothesis, we conducted immunohistochemical comparisons of the midbrains of mice and finches, as well as Fos studies of aggressive dominance, subordinance, non-social defense and sexual behavior in territorial and gregarious finch species. We obtained excellent support for our predictions based on the folded open model of the PAG and further showed that birds possess functional and anatomical zones that form longitudinal columns similar to those in mammals. However, distinguishing characteristics of the dorsal/dorsolateral PAG, such as a dense peptidergic innervation, a longitudinal column of neuronal nitric oxide synthase neurons, and aggression-induced Fos responses, do not lie within the classical avian CG, but in the laterally adjacent intercollicular nucleus (ICo, suggesting that much of the ICo is homologous to the dorsal PAG.

  19. A novel insertion-induced frameshift mutation of the SLC26A4 gene in a Korean family with Pendred syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagong, Borum; Seok, Jun Ho; Kwon, Tae-Jun; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2012-10-15

    Pendred syndrome (PS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, goiter, and incomplete iodide organification. Patients with PS also have structural anomalies of the inner ear such as enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA) and Mondini's malformation. The goiter, which is a major clinical manifestation of PS, usually develops around adolescence. PS is caused by biallelic mutations of the SLC26A4 gene, while nonsyndromic bilateral EVA is associated with zero or one SLC26A4 mutant allele. We report here a Korean family including a young female with PS who had goiter and progressive, fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss that could be partially recovered by oral steroid treatment. Genetic investigation revealed compound heterozygous mutations for p.R677AfsX11, a novel frameshift mutation, and p.H723R in the SLC26A4 gene. Our findings provide detailed information regarding the distribution of mutant alleles for PS and may serve as a foundation for studies to comprehend the genetic portion of syndromic hearing loss.

  20. Study on improvement of durability for reinforced concrete by surface-painting migrating corrosion inhibitor and engineering application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning; WANG, Zixiao; LIU, Zhiyong; Zhou, Jiyuan; Zheng, Duo

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion currents of steel bar in concrete with three W/B and four chloride contents after surface-painting two migrating corrosion inhibitors (PCI-2015 and MCI-A) 14d to 150d in atmospheric condition were measured. The results showed that the corrosion current density (I corr) of steel bar reduced to 0.1 μA.cm-2 from the initial highest 3.833 μA.cm-2 (W/B=0.65, NaCl-1%) after surface-painting PCI-2015 14 d, and the I corr was still lower than 0.1 μA.cm-2 until 150d. The compressive strength and chloride migration coefficient of concrete specimens were tested. The possible reasons of the mechanisms of durability improvement for reinforced concrete by applying PCI-2015 inhibitor were PCI-2015 may be reacted with calcium hydroxide in cement concrete and lots of inhibitor particles may be adsorbed on the active sites first and then a stable protective layer may be formed. The I corr of steel bars in a hydraulic aqueduct concrete structure after painting PCI-2015, MCI-A (the United States) and MCI-B (Europe) during 6 months was monitored by Gecor 8 tester. The results showed that the average values of I corr of steel bars after painting the PCI-2015 150d fulfilled the specification requirements in “Design code for concrete structure strengthening (E.3) ”(GB 50367-2013).

  1. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  2. Sedimentation survey of Lago Lucchetti, Yauco, Puerto Rico, September 2013–May 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-08-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Lucchetti, Yauco, Puerto Rico, in 2013–14 in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. The survey updated a previous survey, conducted in 2000, and provided accurate information regarding reservoir storage capacity and sedimen­tation rate using bathymetric techniques and a global positioning system coupled with a depth sounder device. The results of the 2013–14 survey indicated a total storage capacity for Lago Lucchetti of 10.21 million cubic meters and a long­-term sedimentation rate loss of 0.16 million cubic meters per year based on the original capacity in 1952. Sediment accumulation was about 10.14 million cubic meters over the life of the reservoir, which represents a storage decrease of about 50 percent of the original capacity in 1952. On the basis of a comparison between the 2013–14 and 2000 surveys, the useful life for Lago Lucchetti is projected to end in 2076.

  3. Pediatric Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy: A Narrative Review of Current Indications, Techniques and Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Haddadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocephalus is a disorder in which excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF collects in the brain. Possible managements for hydrocephalus contain CSF deviation through ventriculoperitoneal shunt assignment and endoscopic third ventriculostomy. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy has been in trend for the past two decades, as a tool in the field of the neurosurgery, for the management of hydrocephalus. Its utility has been confirmed consistently in congenital and acquired aqueductal stenosis, although the outcomes in communicating hydrocephalus and hydrocephalus secondary to other etiologies have not been impressive. It is a relatively harmless technique with the appropriate selection of patients with a low rate of enduring morbidity. Further studies in child should focus on the predictive factors that are specific to the older population. A combination of clinical, radiological, and intraoperative findings may be necessary to plan a clinical prediction rule suitable to this group of patients. The purpose of this review is to describe the current indications, management outcomes, techniques and complications of this method.

  4. Wernicke's encephalopathy due to hyperemesis gravidarum: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, V V; Prijesh, J; Praveenkumar, R; Saifudheen, K

    2016-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum-induced Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an underestimated condition. The purpose of this study is to improve its awareness and early diagnosis. We report five cases of WE secondary to hyperemesis gravidarum. Classic triad of encephalopathy, ataxia, and ocular signs was seen in four out of five patients. Two unusual features noted in this series were papilledema in one patient and severe sensory-motor peripheral neuropathy in one patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was abnormal in all the five patients, and high signal in medial thalamus and surrounding the aqueduct was the most common abnormality (5/5). Involvement of caudate nucleus was seen in two patients with severe psychosis, and two patients had bilateral cerebellar peduncle involvement. Median time delay between onset of neurological symptoms and diagnosis was 7 days. All patients improved with thiamine, but minor sequelae were seen in four patients at 12 months follow-up. One patient had a fetal demise. Hyperemesis gravidarum-induced WE is a common cause of maternal morbidity. Typical MRI findings of symmetric medial thalamic and periaqueductal signal changes may permit a specific diagnosis. A delay in diagnosis, therefore treatment, leads to worse prognosis.

  5. Development of Extended Period Pressure-Dependent Demand Water Distribution Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judi, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcpherson, Timothy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has used modeling and simulation of water distribution systems for N-1 contingency analyses to assess criticality of water system assets. Critical components considered in these analyses include pumps, tanks, and supply sources, in addition to critical pipes or aqueducts. A contingency represents the complete removal of the asset from system operation. For each contingency, an extended period simulation (EPS) is run using EPANET. An EPS simulates water system behavior over a time period, typically at least 24 hours. It assesses the ability of a system to respond and recover from asset disruption through distributed storage in tanks throughout the system. Contingencies of concern are identified as those in which some portion of the water system has unmet delivery requirements. A delivery requirement is defined as an aggregation of water demands within a service area, similar to an electric power demand. The metric used to identify areas of unmet delivery requirement in these studies is a pressure threshold of 15 pounds per square inch (psi). This pressure threshold is used because it is below the required pressure for fire protection. Any location in the model with pressure that drops below this threshold at any time during an EPS is considered to have unmet service requirements and is used to determine cascading consequences. The outage area for a contingency is the aggregation of all service areas with a pressure below the threshold at any time during the EPS.

  6. Cochlear implants: our experience and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins, Mariane Barreto Brandão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cochlear Implants are important for individuals with severe to profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Objective: Evaluate the experience of cochlear implant center of Otorhinolaryngology through the analysis of records of 9 patients who underwent cochlear implant surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed with the patients records. Number 0191.0.107.000-11 ethics committee approval. We evaluated gender, etiology, age at surgery, duration of deafness, classification of deafness, unilateral or bilateral surgery, intraoperative and postoperative neural response and impedance of the electrodes in intraoperative and preoperative tests and found those that counter-indicated surgery. Results: There were 6 pediatric and 3 adult patients. Four male and 5 female. Etiologies: maternal rubella, cytomegalovirus, ototoxicity, meningitis, and sudden deafness. The age at surgery and duration of deafness ranged from 2 - 46 years and 2 - 18 years, respectively. Seven patients were pre-lingual. All had profound bilateral PA. There were 7 bilateral implants. Intraoperative complications: hemorrhage. Complications after surgery: vertigo and internal device failure. In 7 patients the electrodes were implanted through. Telemetry showed satisfactory neural response and impedance. CT and MRI was performed in all patients. We found enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct in a patient and incudomalleolar malformation. Conclusion: The cochlear implant as a form of auditory rehabilitation is well established and spreading to different centers specialized in otoaudiology. Thus, the need for structured services and trained professionals in this type of procedure is clear.

  7. Geology of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park and Potomac River Corridor, District of Columbia, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Scott; Brezinski, David K.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Repetski, John E.; Denenny, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is 184.5 mi long and extends from Washington, D.C., to Cumberland, Md. The canal passes through three physiographic provinces including the Piedmont, Valley and Ridge, and the Blue Ridge; the map area also includes rocks of the Coastal Plain and Appalachian Plateaus provinces. Each province contains unique packages of rocks that influenced the character of the canal and towpath. The ages of the bedrock encountered along the length of the park range from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic and represent a variety of tectonic and depositional environments. The different rock types and surficial deposits dictated the various construction methods for the canal, which was excavated in Quaternary flood-plain deposits as well as through bedrock. The ancient course of the Potomac River and the deposits it left behind also influenced the location of the canal and towpath. The engineers made good use of the many rock types to construct the locks, dams, aqueducts, and culverts that guided water from the Potomac River into the canal and maintained the water level as canal boats traveled between higher elevations in western Maryland to sea level in Washington, D.C. The canal and towpath provide a unique transect across the central Appalachian region for examining the rich geologic diversity and history.

  8. Mouse Models for Pendrin-Associated Loss of Cochlear and Vestibular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philine Wangemann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The human gene SLC26A4 and the mouse ortholog Slc26a4 code for the protein pendrin, which is an anion exchanger expressed in apical membranes of selected epithelia. In the inner ear, pendrin is expressed in the cochlea, the vestibular labyrinth and the endolymphatic sac. Loss-of-function and hypo-functional mutations cause an enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA and sensorineural hearing loss. The relatively high prevalence of SLC26A4 mutations provides a strong imperative to develop rational interventions that delay, ameliorate or prevent pendrin-associated loss of cochlear and vestibular function. This review summarizes recent studies in mouse models that have been developed to delineate the role of pendrin in the physiology of hearing and balance and that have brought forward the concept that a temporally and spatially limited therapy may be sufficient to secure a life-time of normal hearing in children bearing mutations of SLC26A4.

  9. Our experience in the management of infantile hydrocephalus: A study on thirty-five regrouped cases in Yaounde, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F F Mouafo Tambo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydrocephalus is a frequent central nervous system disorder in children, and despite its importance, it has not been sufficiently studied in developing countries. Patients and Methods: A prospective and descriptive study on 35 cases of infantile hydrocephalus was carried out in the neurosurgery unit of the Yaounde Central Hospital, from March 2008 to January 2010. Results: The mean age of the patients was 6.69΁1.58 months, and the majority of them were in the 0-6 months age group (71.43%. The most frequent causes were congenital malformations, with stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius being the most represented (31.43%. As radiological workup, a CT scan was done in more than half of the cases (57.15%, and ventriculo-peritoneal shunting was the main surgical method of management used (94.29%. Infectious complications were observed in 22.86% of our cases. Conclusion: Hydrocephalus is a frequent disorder in this Cameroonian setting affecting mostly the 0-6months age group. For early diagnosis to be made, the head circumference of neonates should be routinely measured in the labour room and followed-up in all medical visits. To avert complications following surgery, rigorous surgical procedures with effective asepsis and appropriate methods and materials for shunting should be used.

  10. Cochlear implants: our experience and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mariane Barreto Brandão; de Lima, Francis Vinicius Fontes; Santos, Ronaldo Carvalho; Santos, Arlete Cristina Granizo; Barreto, Valéria Maria Prado; de Jesus, Eduardo Passos Fiel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Cochlear Implants are important for individuals with severe to profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Objective: Evaluate the experience of cochlear implant center of Otorhinolaryngology through the analysis of records of 9 patients who underwent cochlear implant surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed with the patients records. Number 0191.0.107.000-11 ethics committee approval. We evaluated gender, etiology, age at surgery, duration of deafness, classification of deafness, unilateral or bilateral surgery, intraoperative and postoperative neural response and impedance of the electrodes in intraoperative and preoperative tests and found those that counter-indicated surgery. Results: There were 6 pediatric and 3 adult patients. Four male and 5 female. Etiologies: maternal rubella, cytomegalovirus, ototoxicity, meningitis, and sudden deafness. The age at surgery and duration of deafness ranged from 2–46 years and 2–18 years, respectively. Seven patients were pre-lingual. All had profound bilateral PA. There were 7 bilateral implants. Intraoperative complications: hemorrhage. Complications after surgery: vertigo and internal device failure. In 7 patients the electrodes were implanted through. Telemetry showed satisfactory neural response and impedance. CT and MRI was performed in all patients. We found enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct in a patient and incudomalleolar malformation. Conclusion: The cochlear implant as a form of auditory rehabilitation is well established and spreading to different centers specialized in otoaudiology. Thus, the need for structured services and trained professionals in this type of procedure is clear. PMID:25991976

  11. Wernicke's encephalopathy due to hyperemesis gravidarum: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperemesis gravidarum-induced Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE is an underestimated condition. The purpose of this study is to improve its awareness and early diagnosis. We report five cases of WE secondary to hyperemesis gravidarum. Classic triad of encephalopathy, ataxia, and ocular signs was seen in four out of five patients. Two unusual features noted in this series were papilledema in one patient and severe sensory-motor peripheral neuropathy in one patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was abnormal in all the five patients, and high signal in medial thalamus and surrounding the aqueduct was the most common abnormality (5/5. Involvement of caudate nucleus was seen in two patients with severe psychosis, and two patients had bilateral cerebellar peduncle involvement. Median time delay between onset of neurological symptoms and diagnosis was 7 days. All patients improved with thiamine, but minor sequelae were seen in four patients at 12 months follow-up. One patient had a fetal demise. Hyperemesis gravidarum-induced WE is a common cause of maternal morbidity. Typical MRI findings of symmetric medial thalamic and periaqueductal signal changes may permit a specific diagnosis. A delay in diagnosis, therefore treatment, leads to worse prognosis.

  12. Identification of discrete functional subregions of the human periaqueductal gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Wager, Tor D; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Bianciardi, Marta; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Buhle, Jason T; Wald, Lawrence L; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-10-15

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region is organized into distinct subregions that coordinate survival-related responses during threat and stress [Bandler R, Keay KA, Floyd N, Price J (2000) Brain Res 53 (1):95-104]. To examine PAG function in humans, researchers have relied primarily on functional MRI (fMRI), but technological and methodological limitations have prevented researchers from localizing responses to different PAG subregions. We used high-field strength (7-T) fMRI techniques to image the PAG at high resolution (0.75 mm isotropic), which was critical for dissociating the PAG from the greater signal variability in the aqueduct. Activation while participants were exposed to emotionally aversive images segregated into subregions of the PAG along both dorsal/ventral and rostral/caudal axes. In the rostral PAG, activity was localized to lateral and dorsomedial subregions. In caudal PAG, activity was localized to the ventrolateral region. This shifting pattern of activity from dorsal to ventral PAG along the rostrocaudal axis mirrors structural and functional neurobiological observations in nonhuman animals. Activity in lateral and ventrolateral subregions also grouped with distinct emotional experiences (e.g., anger and sadness) in a factor analysis, suggesting that each subregion participates in distinct functional circuitry. This study establishes the use of high-field strength fMRI as a promising technique for revealing the functional architecture of the PAG. The techniques developed here also may be extended to investigate the functional roles of other brainstem nuclei.

  13. Endodermal cyst in pineal region: Rare location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Dolan, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pineal tumors are very uncommon intracranial lesions, and endodermal cysts in this location are extremely rare. Case Description: A 49-year-old right-handed female presented with 3 weeks history of progressive dizziness and imbalance. Imaging studies showed 1.8 cm × 1.7 cm × 1.8 cm pineal lesion with small enhancing mural component displacing ventrally the quadrigeminal plate and narrowing of aqueduct of Sylvius without hydrocephalus. In addition, she was found with small interhemispheric lipoma, and small posterior falx possible meningioma. Cerebrospinal fluid markers obtained by lumbar puncture were all negative. She underwent tumor resection, and final pathology reported endodermal cyst. No new deficits were encountered, and her gait imbalance improved significantly by 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: With evidence of enlargement or symptomatic pineal lesions, surgical consideration is necessary. Among pineal lesions, endodermal cysts are extremely uncommon and although benign pathology, long-term follow-up is advised due to unknown chronic behavior. PMID:27217965

  14. Water-surface elevation and discharge measurement data for the Red River of the North and its tributaries near Fargo, North Dakota, water years 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschen, William C.; Galloway, Joel M.

    2016-08-25

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fargo Diversion Board of Authority, collected water-surface elevations during a range of discharges needed for calibration of hydrologic and hydraulic models for specific reaches of interest in water years 2014–15. These water-surface elevation and discharge measurement data were collected for design planning of diversion structures on the Red River of the North and Wild Rice River and the aqueduct/diversion structures on the Sheyenne and Maple Rivers. The Red River of the North and Sheyenne River reaches were surveyed six times, and discharges ranged from 276 to 6,540 cubic feet per second and from 166 to 2,040 cubic feet per second, respectively. The Wild Rice River reach also was surveyed six times during 2014 and 2015, and discharges ranged from 13 to 1,550 cubic feet per second. The Maple River reach was surveyed four times, and discharges ranged from 16.4 to 633 cubic feet per second. Water-surface elevation differences from upstream to downstream in the reaches ranged from 0.33 feet in the Red River of the North reach to 9.4 feet in the Maple River reach.

  15. The rapid flow of cerebrospinal fluid from ventricles to cisterns via subarachnoid velae in the normal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, J D; Ghersi-Egea, J F; Finnegan, W; Chen, J L

    1997-01-01

    14C-sucrose in 0.5 microliter of buffered saline was infused over 30 sec into one lateral ventricle, and its subsequent distribution was determined in brain, meninges, cerebral blood vessels, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by quantitative autoradiography. Within 3.5 min, infused radiotracer had moved into the third ventricle, the velum interpositum (an extension of the subarchnoid system that contains many blood vessels), the aqueduct, the mesencephalic and fourth ventricles, and the superior medullary velum (a part of the subarachnoid system that touches the mesencephalic and fourth ventricles). The CSF within both of these velae appears to empty into the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns. Within 5 min radioactive sucrose was also found in the interpeduncular cistern. About 15% of the injected sucrose quickly left the ventricles and entered these large cisterns. In contrast to most CSF-brain interfaces, little sucrose moved from CSF into the medulla next to the lateral recesses and tissues such as the superior colliculus that lie adjacent to the large CSF cisterns. A thick, multilayered glia limitans visible on electron micrographs seemed to form a CSF-brain barrier at these interfaces. Some of the infused 14C-sucrose persisted in the perivascular spaces and walls of arteries and arterioles for more than 3.5 hr. These findings suggest that CSF may function to deliver various agents and factors to pial and parenchymal arteries and arterioles.

  16. Effects of irregular cerebrospinal fluid production rate in human brain ventricular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzri, Edi Azali; Shamsudin, Amir Hamzah; Osman, Kahar; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Aziz, Azian Abd

    2012-06-01

    Hydrocephalus is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the ventricles and cavities in the brain. It occurs when the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption is blocked or when excessive CSF is secreted. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal widening of the ventricles. This widening creates potentially harmful pressure on the tissues of the brain. In this study, flow analysis of CSF was conducted on a three-dimensional model of the third ventricle and aqueduct of Sylvius, derived from MRI scans. CSF was modeled as Newtonian Fluid and its flow through the region of interest (ROI) was done using EFD. Lab software. Different steady flow rates through the Foramen of Monro, classified by normal and hydrocephalus cases, were modeled to investigate its effects. The results show that, for normal and hydrocephalus cases, the pressure drop of CSF flow across the third ventricle was observed to be linearly proportionally to the production rate increment. In conclusion, flow rates that cause pressure drop of 5 Pa was found to be the threshold for the initial sign of hydrocephalus.

  17. Predicted water-level and water-quality effects of artificial recharge in the Upper Coachella Valley, California, using a finite-element digital model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Lindsay A.

    1978-01-01

    From 1936 to 1974, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the Palm Springs area and 60 feet in the Palm Desert area of the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. Water from the Colorado River Aqueduct is presently being recharged to the basin. The dissolved-solids concentration of native ground water in the recharge area is about 210 mg/liter and that of recharge water ranges from 600 to 750 mg/liter. A finite-element model indicates that without recharge the 1974 water levels in the Palm Springs area will decline 200 feet by the year 2000 because of pumpage. If the aquifer is recharged at a rate from about 7 ,500 acre-feet per year in 1973 increasing to 61,200 acre-feet per year in 1990 and thereafter, the water level in the Palm Springs area will decline about 20 feet below the 1974 level by 1991 and recover to the 1974 level by 2000. The solute-transport finite-element model of the recharge area indicates that the artificial recharge plume (bounded by the 300-mg/liter line) will move about 1.1 miles downgradient of the recharge ponds by 1981 and about 4.5 miles from the ponds by 2000. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. The Three Colorado Rivers: Comparing the Physical, Legal, and Economic Allocation of a Shared River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    : For many rivers, the legal allocation of surface water was settled decades ago. The process of apportioning surface water between multiple stakeholders is an arduous process with opposing interests competing for scarce resources. The political capital spent initially allocating a river often cannot be regained, stymieing future attempts for re-allocation. The Colorado River Compact (Compact), signed in 1922, has been "the law of the river" for over 90 years. Since its signing, the Colorado River Basin (CRB) population has increased tenfold, while average river flows have decreased due to threats unforeseeable to Compact signers, such as global climate change. Water sharing agreements, like the Compact, legally re-allocate physical river flows; however, water is increasingly shared through trade rather than aqueducts. Virtual water, or the water embodied by a good or service, is a trade adaption to resource scarcity, namely water and land. This study presents findings of a virtual water complement to the Compact. The goal of this study is to determine how the legal allocation of physical water resources are re-allocated as virtual water via economic trade in a shared river basin. Results are presented by at the sub-basin, state, and county-level, showing the geographic origin and destination of virtual water from CRB states and the Upper and Lower basins. A water stress index is calculated to show the indirect water stress of Colorado River water resources and network statistics are employed to rank the importance of virtual water sources in the CRB.

  19. A novel PIK3CD C896T mutation detected in bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss using next generation sequencing:An indication of primary immunodeficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zou; Xiangqiang Duan; Guiliang Zheng; Zhen Zhao; Shiyue Chen; Pu Dai; Hongliang Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate immune-related genetic background in bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Case report and methods: The case is a 45-year-old man presenting with a 7-year history of bilateral profound SSNHL. Blood biochemical testing demonstrated increased levels of total cholesterol (5.88 mmol/L). Tests for hepatitis B showed a positive antibody against the hepatitis B core antigen. Complement C3 was below the normal value, and complement C4 and IgG were in the lower range of normal values. CT images showed a normal inner ear and vestibular aqueduct but round window membranous ossification on both sides. A total number of 232 immune-associated genes were sequenced using the next generation sequencing technique. Results: Mutations were detected in 5 genes, including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta (PIK3CD), caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9), complement factor H-related (CFHR2), immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 1 Protein (IGLL1), and transmembrane channel-like gene family 8 (TMC8). In the PIK3CD gene, a C896T substitute in exon 7 was detected. This mutation causes primary immunodeficiency and is an autosomal dominant disease. Conclusion: The PIK3CD C896T mutation responsible for primary immunodeficiency may contribute to the onset of bilateral SSNHL with subsequent rapid progression.

  20. Human parasites in the Roman World: health consequences of conquering an empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2017-01-01

    The archaeological evidence for parasites in the Roman era is presented in order to demonstrate the species present at that time, and highlight the health consequences for people living under Roman rule. Despite their large multi-seat public latrines with washing facilities, sewer systems, sanitation legislation, fountains and piped drinking water from aqueducts, we see the widespread presence of whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and Entamoeba histolytica that causes dysentery. This would suggest that the public sanitation measures were insufficient to protect the population from parasites spread by fecal contamination. Ectoparasites such as fleas, head lice, body lice, pubic lice and bed bugs were also present, and delousing combs have been found. The evidence fails to demonstrate that the Roman culture of regular bathing in the public baths reduced the prevalence of these parasites. Fish tapeworm was noted to be widely present, and was more common than in Bronze and Iron Age Europe. It is possible that the Roman enthusiasm for fermented, uncooked fish sauce (garum) may have facilitated the spread of this helminth. Roman medical practitioners such as Galen were aware of intestinal worms, explaining their existence and planning treatment using the humoural theory of the period.

  1. Un informe de Pedro de Ribera para Nueva España: el abastecimiento de agua a Guadalajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recio Mir, Álvaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The project proposed by the Franciscan architect Pedro Antonio de Buzeta to supply water to the New Spanish city of Guadalajara was sent to Madrid for review and supervision by the Council of the Indies. The Madrid architect Pedro de Ribera dealt with its technical aspects, and in 1735 he wrote an interesting critique of the plan. Among other questions, he defended the use of underground aqueducts, demonstrated his erudition and considered diverse improvements to Buzeta’s project.El proyecto que el arquitecto franciscano Pedro Antonio de Buzeta planteó para abastecer de agua a la ciudad novohispana de Guadalajara fue enviado a Madrid para que lo supervisase el consejo de Indias. De sus aspectos técnicos se ocupó el arquitecto madrileño Pedro de Ribera, que firmó una interesante crítica a la empresa en 1735. Entre otras cuestiones, hizo una defensa de los acueductos subterráneos, demostró su erudición y planteó diversas correcciones al proyecto de Buzeta.

  2. Gestión de las empresas prestadoras del servicio de alcantarillado: un análisis de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geidy Liseth Martha Tiuso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article is shown a descriptive, casual, correlational and analytical study of management for the companies that provides the sewerage service in the cities; Bogota and Cartagena, Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogota (Aqueduct and Sewerage of Bogota –EAAB-, and Aguas de Cartagena (Waters of Cartagena –Acuacar, Respectively. It has been taken as theoretical referents: the institutions analyzed by North, Urrutia, Robinson and Acemoglu; the organization theory by Williamson; the analysis of the value chain by Michael Porter; and the economies of scale generated for productive clusters studied by Cuervo and González. While Bogota’s coverage is up to 100%, in Cartagena the coverage is 87.93%, it is used the model of the Cost and expenses simplified to analyze the company’s strategic management plan and to identify the strategies used in each city to improve the coverage level. In addition it is determined, which is the variable with high impact over the coverage with the Ordinary Least squares method (OLS LOG-LOG, using monthly data from 2003 until 2011. In conclusion, it has been found that the variables with high impact over the coverage in Bogota and Cartagena are the population density, total value billed and the total given subsidy. However in Bogota, the use of expenses and administrative cost and the per capita investment in infrastructure are also significant and explicative variables related with the coverage level reached in this city.

  3. El agua en Segobriga (Saelices, Hispania Citerior: Las fistulae plumbeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebrián, Rosario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the lead pipes found in the archaeological site of Segobriga and in its surroundings are presented. Some of these fistulae are related to the siphon aqueduct that brought drinking water from Fuente la Mar in Saelices, while others correspond to the internal water supply in the city. Both epigraphic references containing the abbreviated name of the municipality, r(es p(ublica S(egobrigensis vel Segobrigensium, identified on a fistula and in a lead cover, show the public property of the Segobriga hydraulic network.En este artículo presentamos las tuberías de plomo halladas en el yacimiento arqueológico de Segobriga y su entorno. Algunas de estas fistulae están relacionadas con el sifón del acueducto que condujo el agua potable desde la Fuente de la Mar en Saelices, mientras que otras corresponden a la red de distribución del agua en el interior de la ciudad. Las dos menciones epigráficas con el nombre abreviado del municipio, r(es p(ublica S(egobrigensis vel Segobrigensium, documentadas en una fistula y en la tapa de un registro ponen de manifiesto la propiedad pública del sistema hidráulico de Segobriga.

  4. Can We Mitigate Climate Extremes using Managed Aquifer Recharge: Case Studies California Central Valley and South-Central Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Faunt, C. C.; Pool, D. R.; Uhlman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Frequent long-term droughts interspersed with intense floods in the southwestern U.S. underscore the need to store more water to manage these climate extremes. Here we show how managed aquifer recharge can enhance drought resilience in the southwestern U.S. with ~ 70% of California under extreme drought and 75% of Arizona under moderate drought. Data on water sources, transportation, and users were compiled for managed aquifer recharge systems in the Central Valley and south-central Arizona. Groundwater depletion of 115 to 145 km3 in the 1900s created large subsurface reservoirs in thick alluvial basins in these regions. Large canals and aqueducts up to several 100 km long allow water to be imported from reservoirs, mostly in more humid regions. Imported water is either used instead of groundwater or is applied in surface spreading basins primarily during wet periods (≤1.3 km3/yr Central Valley, ≤0.7 km3/yr Arizona) and is extracted during droughts. The dominant water users include irrigators and municipalities both within and outside the managed aquifer recharge systems. Groundwater modeling indicates that recharge basins significantly increase groundwater storage in the Central Valley. Managed aquifer recharge systems significantly enhance drought resilience and increase sustainability of water resources in semiarid regions, complementing surface water reservoirs and conjunctive surface water/groundwater use by providing longer term storage.

  5. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Toa Vaca, Puerto Rico, June-July 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2004-01-01

    The Lago Toa Vaca dam is located in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, and is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. Construction was completed in 1972 as the first phase of a multi-purpose project that contemplated four possible diversions from other basins to mitigate the rapid storage capacity loss of Lago Guayabal, located immediately downstream of the Toa Vaca dam. The latter phases of the intra-basin diversions were cancelled, and currently, the reservoir receives runoff from only 56.8 square kilometers of its drainage area. Lago Toa Vaca reservoir when constructed was to be used for irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plain. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 68.94 million cubic meters. Sedimentation has reduced the storage capacity by only 7 percent between 1972 and 2002 to 64.08 million cubic meters. This represents a long-term sedimentation rate of about 162,000 cubic meters per year. Based on the 2002 sedimentation survey, Lago Toa Vaca has a sediment trapping efficiency of about 98 percent and a drainage area-normalized sedimentation rate of about 3,086 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1972 and 2002. At the current long-term sedimentation rate the reservoir would lose its storage capacity by the year 2400.

  6. Spatial data for sedimentation survey of Lago Caonillas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, September-November 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

    2016-01-01

    This data release contains spatial data for sedimentation survey of Lago Caonillas, Utuado, Puerto Rico and includes reservoir bottom contours and water depth data. The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Caonillas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. Construction of the Lago Caonillas reservoir was completed in 1948 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 55.66 million cubic meters (Mm 3 ). Because of the importance of Lago Caonillas to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Caonillas between September and November 2012. Data collection began in September 2012; however, low water levels restricted the survey extent to about half of the reservoir, leaving the river deltas unaccounted for. Intense rainfall during October 2012 raised the water level to spillway elevation, and the remaining part of the reservoir was then surveyed. The results of these surveys were used to update the reservoir water storage capacity and to estimate its useful life.

  7. Computer tomography-aided ventriculography and cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernoch, Z.; Sercl, M.; Heger, L.; Parizek, J. (Karlova Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1983-01-28

    Computer tomography was used in 42 patients for the exploration of ventricular and subarachnoidal spaces following intraventricular, lumbar or suboccipital injections of 3 to 5 ml Amipaque using the kind of manoeuvre to permit optimum filling of the region concerned. This type of CT ventriculo- or cisternography is a significant supplement to plain CT examination particularly because it supplies data on the causes of CSF passage blocks. Thus, in two female patients it proved possible to localize cysts in the 3rd ventricle, the density of which was no different from that of CSF. As regards benign stenoses of the aqueduct, it is likely to yield less information than conventional specific ventriculography. On the other hand, the technique gives perfect visualization of all possible communications between pathological intracranial cavities and the ventricular system. CT cisternography proved useful for the identification of small-size isodense growths in the region of the sella turcica, and brought convincing evidence of the causes of profuse liquorrhea by demonstrating the presence of nasal meningocele. It was also found helpful in the analysis of the craniocervical region, otherwise difficult to survey.

  8. MRI findings in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Es, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); North, K.N. [Dept. of Neurology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); McHugh, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); De Silva, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia)

    1996-07-01

    To determine the frequency and nature of MRI lesions in children with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), 50 patients aged 8 to 16 years were evaluated prospectively with cranial MRI. Forty-one children were asymptomatic with respect to central nervous system pathology, and 50% were macrocephalic. Sixteen patients (32%) had normal MRI examinations. Thirty-two patients (64%) had high intensity lesions of T2-weighted images and 16 patients (32%) had hyperintense lesions on T1-weighted images. Seven patients (14%) had ventricular dilatation (associated with increased intracranial pressure in 2) and 11 patients (22%) had optic pathway lesions (optic glioma in 7). MRI was superior to CT in differentiating optic sheath thickening and optic nerve tortuosity from optic glioma in four patients. An intracranial tumour (ependymoma) and sphenoid wing dysplasia were evident in individual patients. Findings previously unreported in NF1 included an aqueductal web resulting in hydrocephalus, intracular neurofibroma resulting in retinal detachment, and asymptomatic enlargement of the septum pellucidum. T1 and T2 signal abnormalities in isolation were not associated with neurological deficits or the occurrence of macrocephaly, and all lesions that required intervention were suspected clinically. Macrocephaly in the absence of increased intracranial pressure or accelerated head growth is not an indication for neuroimaging in children with NF1. However, the majority of children (68%) had disease-specific abnormalities and thus MRI may provide a useful adjunct to clinical evaluation in the diagnosis of equivocal cases. (orig.)

  9. Estimation of the Lateral Ventricles Volumes from a 2D Image and Its Relationship with Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaarani Bader

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This work suggests a fast estimation method of the lateral ventricles volume from a 2D image and then determines if this volume is correlated with the cerebrospinal fluid flow at the aqueductal and cerebral levels in neurodegenerative diseases. Materials and Methods. FForty-five elderly patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (19, normal pressure hydrocephalus (13, and vascular dementia (13 were involved and underwent anatomical and phase contrast MRI scans. Lateral ventricles and stroke volumes were assessed on anatomical and phase contrast scans, respectively. A common reference plane was used to calculate the lateral ventricles’ area on 2D images. Results. The largest volumes were observed in hydrocephalus patients. The linear regression between volumes and areas was computed, and a strong positive correlation was detected (R2=0.9. A derived equation was determined to represent the volumes for any given area. On the other hand, no significant correlations were detected between ventricles and stroke volumes (R2≤0.15. Conclusion. Lateral ventricles volumes are significantly proportional to the 2D reference section area and could be used for patients’ follow-up even if 3D images are unavailable. The cerebrospinal fluid fluctuations in brain disorders may depend on many physiological parameters other than the ventricular morphology.

  10. MECHANISM OF PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF INTRAVENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGE IN DOGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴炯; 李善泉; 李骁雄; 徐斌斌; 熊文浩; 王勇; 张晓华; 沈加林

    2004-01-01

    Objective To probe the mechanism of pathological changes of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Methods The evaluation of neurological status, serial CT scans and pathological examination were ap plied on the canine model of lVH. The ventricular volume and blood clot volume were measured based on the CT images. Results The normal adult canine ventricle tend to be slitlike. After injection, the ventricle was obviously dilated by the blood clot. The linear regression of ventricular volume against blood clot volume was significant in the first week. From then on, however, while the clots continued to shrink, the ventricular volume showed progressive enlargement. The clots were lysed completely within 3 to 4 weeks. The linear regression of the degree of ventricular dilatation against the first clot volume was also significant. In the pathological examination, we found the ependymal lining of ventricular system was destroyed and neurons in the subependymal areas developed acidophil necrosis, which was prominent around Sylvian aqueduct. Conclusion Hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation(HVD) is a prominent feature of IVH and also is a strong indicator for poor prognosis. lschemic changes of periventricular neurons in some important structures may be the most direct cause for poor outcome of IVH. It may be induced by periventricular vascular structures compressed by HVD, increased intracranial pressure ,cerebral vasospasm and others.

  11. Salinization processes in a coastal aquifer system (Siracusa, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti Caputo, D.; Vaccaro, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Syracuse area (Southeastern Sicily, Italy) is famous since ancient times for its natural springs, like Aretusa and Ciane, as well as for the hydraulic management handicraft know from 480 B.C. Unfortunately, the recent hyper-exploitation of the underground water resources and the concomitant decrease of the precipitations caused a general lowering of the piezometric level of the aquifers therefore enhancing the intrusion of marine salty waters. In the present work, numerous hydrochemical parameters have been investigated, among which the pH, the total dissolved solid, the electric conductivity, the temperature and the concentration of Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl and SO4. The data have been collected from five well fields located at different distances from the coast. Analyses have been performed in order to understand the relationships between the intense exploitation and the geochemical characteristics of the underground water resources. Our results obtained by applying classical geochemical methodologies integrated with techniques of multivariate statistics emphasise, firstly, the predominance of the Ca-HCO3 hydrochemical facies. Secondly, we could determine the evolution of mixing phenomena between salty and fresh waters approaching the coast line (San Nicola field). This behaviour is mainly associated to the pumping increase. Obviously, this intrusive process characterised by chlorides concentrations larger than 2000 mg/l affects all the coastal natural environment and generates severe problems to the entire aqueduct network.

  12. Application of Cochlear Nerve Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Sensorineural Hearing Loss%蜗神经磁共振成像在感音神经性聋中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晶; 娄昕; 吴南洲; 王大勇; 王秋菊

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨蜗神经磁共振成像在感音神经性聋(SNHL)中的应用价值.方法 采用GE TwinExct 1.5T磁共振扫描仪对130例(260耳)SNHL患者进行蜗神经磁共振成像及内耳水成像.蜗神经成像序列为斜矢状位FRFSE T2加权像,内耳水成像为3D FIESTA序列.结果 90例大于等于18岁的患者中,85例170耳显示蜗神经、迷路正常;1例2耳前庭导水管扩大;1例1耳蜗神经信号缺失;3例6耳蜗神经细小;40例小于18岁的患者中,19例38耳显示蜗神经、迷路正常;2例3耳Michel畸形;6例12耳Mondini畸形;1例2耳共腔畸形;12例24耳前庭导水管扩大;21例畸形中7例14耳蜗神经信号缺失.2例4耳显示内听道狭窄伴蜗神经细小.结论 磁共振内耳成像对诊断SNHL有着重要的价值,对判断患者内耳蜗神经发育情况及内耳畸形有着不可替代的作用,是这类患者进行人工耳蜗植入术前必要检查.%Objective To evaluate the value of the cochlear nerve magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of sensori-neural hearing loss (SNHL). Methods One hundred and thirty patients (260 ears) with SNHL underwent imaging of the cochlear nerve and internal auditory canal (IAC) on a GE TwinExct 1.5T MR scanner. The cochlear nerve was scanned with the oblique sagittal FRFSE T2 weighted sequence, while the IAC was imaged with the 3D Fiesta sequence. Results Among 90 patients who were 18 years old or older, 85 (170 ears) showed normal cochlear nerve and labyrinth; 1 (2 ears) showed large vestib-ular aqueduct; 1 (1 ear) showed absence of cochlear nerve signal; and 3 (6 ears) showed small cochlear nerves. Among 40 patients who were younger than 18 years, 19 (38 ears) showed normal cochlear nerves; 2 (3 ears) showed Michel malformation; 6 (12 ears) showed Mondini malformation; 1 (2 ears) showed common cavity malformation; and 12 (24 ears) showed large vestibu-lar aqueduct. Among 21 cases of malformations, 7 (14 ears) showed missing cochlear nerve signal; and 2 (4 ears

  13. 86例非综合征型耳聋患者耳聋基因芯片检测结果分析%Deafness Gene Chip Testing Results in 86 Cases of Non-Syndromic Deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙捷; 韦桂玲; 陈俞; 张华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of deafness gene chip testing in patients with non-syndromic deafness. Methods Using a deafness gene chip kit capable of detecting 9 mutation sites in four deafness-associated genes (SLC26A4, GJB3, GJB2 and mtDNA12s rRNA), 86 patients with non-syndromic deafness were tested. All patients received imaging studies of the temporal bone, brain and internal auditory canal as well as cochlear fluid imaging. Results Among these 86 pa-tients with non-syndromic deafness, 51.16% were found to carry hotspot mutations of deafness associated genes, involving the GJB2 gene (n=24, 27.91%), the GJB3 gene (n=2) and the SLC26A4 gene (n=19) with enlarged vestibular aqueducts on temporal bone CT and cochlear malformations (apical turn hypoplasia). There was no mtDNA12s rRNA gene mutation, possi-bly related to the small sample size. Conclusion Deafness gene chip kit can be used for screening of hotspot mutations in the multi-ethnic region of Xinjiang, although gene sequencing should be a necessary complement. SLC26A4 gene test results in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome are consistent with their temporal bone imaging findings.%  目的探讨遗传性耳聋基因芯片用于非综合征型耳聋患者检测的临床意义。方法采用遗传性聋基因芯片试剂盒对86例非综合征型耳聋患者基因组DNA的GJB2、SLC26A4、GJB3和mtDNA12s rRNA四个耳聋相关基因的9个致聋突变位点进行检测;对所有患者进行颞骨高分辨率CT(HRCT)、头颅MRI、内听道扫描,耳蜗水成像。结果在86例非综合征型耳聋患者中携带所检测热点耳聋相关基因突变者占51.16%;其中GJB2基因突变携带者24例(27.91%,24/86),GJB3基因突变携带者2例,SLC26A4基因突变携带者19例,颞骨CT均显示前庭水管扩大,而且均伴有耳蜗发育畸形,表现为蜗顶发育不全;mtDNA12s rRNA基因突变0例,考虑与样本量少有关。结论遗传性聋基因芯片试剂

  14. Mechanism of Arsenic Sequestration in High-Iron Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, R. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Hering, J. G.; O'Day, P. A.

    2005-12-01

    Naturally occurring elevated concentrations of arsenic in the runoff of the eastern Sierra Nevada and feed waters of the Los Angeles Aqueduct are remediated by the Los Angeles Department of Power and Water (LADPW) up stream of the Haiwee Reservoir (Olancha, CA). To reduce total arsenic in drinking water supplies, the LADPW adds ferric chloride and a cationic polymer coagulant to the aqueduct. The treatment precipitates as an amorphous iron oxide, spectrally similar to 6-line ferrihydrite, that adsorbs and sequesters arsenic as arsenate. As the channeled flow enters North Haiwee Reservoir, the As(V)-enriched iron floc settles as sediments in the inlet channel. Buried As(V) is reduced to As(III) near the sediment-water interface (0-10cm), and only As(III) is observed at depths below the steep (1-2cm) near-surface redox gradient. Sediment samples from 30-cm push cores were collected from the edge of the reservoir along the inlet channel in tandem with in situ porewater measurements using an inert polyacrylamide gel probe sampler. Sediments were analyzed to characterize the redox gradient, host mineralogy, and variation in bulk elemental composition with depth. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine the depth of the microbially driven redox boundary where As (V) is reduced to As (III) and to investigate the molecular bonding of arsenic adsorbed to iron hydroxide surfaces. Specific and characteristic iron and arsenic phases were isolated by sequential extraction; extracted and bulk concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Splits of specific extraction steps were analyzed by synchrotron EXAFS and XRD to determine the identity of separated phases. The primary mineralogy of sediments along the inlet channel is detrital quartz, plagioclase feldspar, and phyllosilicates weathered from the Sierra Nevada granitic batholith. Notably, crystalline magnetite, hematite, and goethite, phases that would indicate transformation of hydrous iron phases to more stable

  15. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C deficient C57BL/6 mice develop a severe hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Lena; Schäfer, Julia; Liebner, Stefan; Mittelbronn, Michel; Deutsch, Urban; Enzmann, Gaby; Adams, Ralf H; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Plate, Karl H; Imhof, Beat A; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C(-/-) mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C(-/-) mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C(-/-) mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3(rd) ventricle in JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C.

  16. Immunocytochemical study of the subcommissural organ of rats with induced postnatal hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoin, C; Rodríguez, E M; Heinrichs, M; Frese, K; Herzog, S; Oksche, A; Rott, R

    1990-01-01

    The subcommissural organ (SCO)-Reissner's fiber (RF) complex of rats suffering from postnatal hydrocephalus was investigated immunocytochemically (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique) by use of an anti-serum against bovine RF. Hydrocephalus was induced by injecting kaolin into the cisterna magna or by intracerebral infection with Borna disease virus. The kaolin-injected, hydrocephalic male rats were divided into two groups: (1) possessing an open communication between the fourth ventricle and the central canal of the spinal cord; (2) enduring an obliteration of this communication. In the latter group of rats the dilation of the ventricular cavities was far greater than in the former group. The Borna disease virus-infected female rats developed a severe hydrocephalus although in these animals all ventricular cavities and the central canal were in fully open communication. All rats belonging to the above-mentioned three groups displayed essentially the same alterations of their SCO-RF complex: (i) A reduction in the size of SCO and in the height of the ependymal secretory cells. (ii) A progressive disappearance of the immunoreactive hypendymal cells. (iii) The amount of AFRU-immunoreactive secretory material located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum was reduced. (iv) In contrast, the amount, location and immunoreactivity of the apical secretory granules did not undergo variations in comparison to sham-operated rats. (v) In the area of the SCO the layer of pre-RF material was thin or missing and a RF was not formed, and thus the central canal was also free of such secretory products. (vi) Clusters of AFRU-immunoreactive material were found attached to the wall of the Sylvian aqueduct.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Diagnostic Value of Prenatal USG and MRI in the Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Herman-Sucharska

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The purpose of the study was"nto compare the diagnostic values of prenatal ultrasound"nand MRI in fetal central nervous system defects."nPatients and Methods: Three-hundred eighty-five"nMRIs were performed in pregnant women with the"nultrasound suspicion of fetal defect. US was conducted"nwith the Voluson-Kretz730PRO. In 158 cases (41%"nfetal CNS defect was found. MR was performed with the"n1.5T system, torso surface coil, SSFSET2 sequence. MR"nresults were compared with prenatal US and verified"nafter the delivery by physical tests, US, TK and surgery"nor in cases of infant death with a pathomorphological"nexamination."nResults: Of 158 infants, eight died after delivery, 93 were"nconsulted in the neurosurgical clinic, 19 underwent a"nneurosurgery treatment and the remaining seven infants'"nfate is unknown. Fetal MRI widened the pertinent US"ndiagnoses in 62%. The 100% compliance is pertained"nto hydrocephalus and anencephaly. US results failed"nin some cases of corpus callosum agenesis, aqueductal"nstenosis, intracranial cyst, holoprosencephaly,"nschizencephaly, Dandy-Walker complex, syringomyelia,"ndiplomyelia and myelomeningocele. In 15 cases, MRI"ncompletely changed the prognosis and treatment"n(holoprosencephaly, myelomeningocoele, diplomyelia,"nintracranial cyst, lung hypoplasia, urinary bladder"nagenesis-not detected during prenatal US. Postnatal"nexaminations and surgery confirmed the results of"nprenatal MRI."nConclusion: MRI compared with prenatal US proved"nbetter effectiveness in imaging of fetal CNS defects,"nespecially in the imaging of the posterior fossa structures,"nthe ventricular system, the corpus callosum, the"nevaluation of meningocoele contents and the complex"nmalformations of the central nervous system.

  18. The Apame Project: Archeo-Paleoseismology for the Protection of Archeological Sites and Cultural Heritage in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    APAME Working Group

    2007-12-01

    The APAME EC project (Contract ICA3-CT-2002-10024) consists of multidisciplinary studies of seismically active regions along the Dead Sea Fault. Several medieval cities, citadels, fortresses and known archeological sites of the Middle East suffered of severe earthquake damage in the past. A repetition of similar seismic events nowadays will cause tremendous damage and destruction mainly due to the last century increase in population and modern constructions. In the APAME project, we combine historical, archeo-paleoseismological and earthquake hazard studies and provide an integrated analysis of their consequent seismic hazard. The results are: 1) An inventory with maps of archeological and cultural sites affected by past earthquakes and detailed archeoseismological and paleoseismological studies of some specific sites using precise dating techniques. 2) An analysis of damage distribution based on the historical archives, new documents and field investigations and preparation of updated sesimicity catalogue of past earthquakes. 3) Investigations of man-made constructions and building practices for each site with a comparison between heavily damaged and undamaged buildings. Striking results are ~ 40 m fault offset of a Tell site in the Amik Basin (Turkey), the severe earthquake damage in the remaining "lost villages" and ~ 13.6 m offset of a Roman Aqueduct in northern Syria, the trace of the 1837 and 1759 earthquake fault ruptures in southern Lebanon, and the constraint of fault slip rate using offset streams and paleoclimatic reconstructions along the Jordan Valley Fault. A fault segmentation is obtained from the compiled instrumental and historical earthquake catalogue and related damage distribution. The rich historical seismicity catalogue and fault segmentation combined with the tectonic and geodetic strain pattern along the DSF contribute to the characterization of rupture zones with a potential for a future large earthquake.

  19. New Tools to Explore Troy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    During the Golden Age of Greece the poet Homer wrote of the epic battles between Agamemnon and Priam-the fabled Trojan War. Although the city of Troy was a tourist attraction in Greek and Roman times, by the 1800s its location was lost, and many believed the story was only a myth. Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann thought otherwise, and in the 1870s began excavating an earthen mound in western Turkey, near the Dardanelles. The site did indeed turn out to be the legendary city of Troy, and much more. Different layers-each corresponding to a different city-revealed evidence of a sequence (progression) of human habitation stretching back almost 5000 years. Although the ruins of Troy have been explored for 130 years, archaeologists have only excavated 10 percent of the site. To help them, NASA scientists are exploring new ways of using remote sensing data. The image above shows Troy and the surrounding image in true color. Taken by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) aboard the EO-1 satellite, the full-size image has a resolution of 10 meters. The city of Troy is circled, and the body of water to the north is the Dardanelles. These and other sensors may help find the boundaries of a harbor near Trojan-war era Troy that has since filled with sediment, trace the route of a Roman aqueduct that carried water to the city 2000 years ago, locate an ancient cemetary, and map the outer walls. A high-resolution image of Troy from the Ikonos satellite, posted previously on the Earth Observatory, reveals more details of the city. Image courtesy Konstantinos Stefanidis, EO-1 team

  20. A multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach to define structural and hydrogeological implications of the Molinaccio spring (Spello, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoli, Maurizio; Pauselli, Cristina; Forte, Emanuele; Di Matteo, Lucio; Mazzocca, Massimiliano; Frigeri, Alessandro; Federico, Costanzo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach has been applied in the complex area of Molinaccio spring (Spello, Umbria, Central Italy) to: 1) understand the large-scale geologic and tectonic structure of the area; 2) define the hydrogeological behavior of the various formations in relationship with the identified structural elements; 3) highlight at small-scale the tectonic structures and their relationships with the water caption tunnel, which is the draining structure of a still working, ancient Roman aqueduct giving water to the village of Spello and to the surrounding plain. Our approach includes different techniques like Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), direct geological investigations, archaeological studies, GIS data collection and integration. The GPR data revealed, in the area of the water-caption tunnel, two main tectonic structures, both also confirmed by ERT data: the presence of a zone (maximum 2 m wide), interpreted as a normal fault area and an overthrust that puts in contact the permeable Scaglia Rossa limestone (Early Turonian-Middle Eocene), and the Scaglia Variegata-Cinerea marly limestones (Middle Eocene-Upper Oligocene) on the footwall, characterized by lower hydraulic permeability. Using some rough information available on the sub-surface path of the tunnel, that shows a sharp bend after a long straight course, together with the geophysical images, was possible to describe how Romans built the tunnel: they probably followed the wet outcropping rock during the excavation, and changed abruptly the dig direction when they intercepted the normal fault area, aligning then the excavation along its strike. This latter result is important also because recently a multidisciplinary project has been developed to restore and exploit the entire water supply structure, which is not only a well-preserved example of Roman remains with high archaeological value, but also a vital

  1. Response of periphyton fatty acid composition to supplemental flows in the upper Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Scott D.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2016-01-07

    Fatty acid analysis of periphyton is an emerging tool for assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem on the basis of its water quality. The study presented in this report was designed to test the hypothesis that periphyton communities have a fatty acid profile that can detect excessive turbidity and suspended sediment. The fatty acid composition of periphyton was assessed during two seasons upstream and downstream from an underground aqueduct that provides supplemental flows, which are a potential source of turbidity and suspended sediment on the upper Esopus Creek, New York. These data were compared with measurements of periphyton standing crop, diatom community structure and integrity, and basic water-quality parameters. Periphyton standing crop and diatom community integrity indicated little evidence of impairment from the supplemental flows. The relative abundances of two physiologically important fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (18:3ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3), were significantly lower downstream from the supplemental flows and multivariate analyses of fatty acid profiles identified significant differences between sites upstream and downstream from the supplemental flows. Individual fatty acids and summary metrics, however, were not significantly correlated with turbidity or suspended sediment. Together, these results indicate that the supplemental flows may cause some measurable effects but they do not constitute a major disturbance to the periphyton community on the upper Esopus Creek. Fatty acid analysis may have potential as a tool for monitoring changes in periphyton nutritional composition that may reflect water quality and ecosystem health but needs to be further evaluated around a more definitive source of water-quality impairment.

  2. Didymosphenia geminata in the Upper Esopus Creek: Current Status, Variability, and Controlling Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Daniel George

    Full Text Available In May of 2009, the bloom-forming diatom Didymosphenia geminata was first identified in the Upper Esopus Creek, a key tributary to the New York City water-supply and a popular recreational stream. The Upper Esopus receives supplemental flows from the Shandaken Portal, an underground aqueduct delivering waters from a nearby basin. The presence of D. geminata is a concern for the local economy, water supply, and aquatic ecosystem because nuisance blooms have been linked to degraded stream condition in other regions. Here we ascertain the extent and severity of the D. geminata invasion, determine the impact of supplemental flows from the Portal on D. geminata, and identify potential factors that may limit D. geminata in the watershed. Stream temperature, discharge, and water quality were characterized at select sites and periphyton samples were collected five times at 6 to 20 study sites between 2009 and 2010 to assess standing crop, diatom community structure, and density of D. geminata and all diatoms. Density of D. geminata ranged from 0-12 cells cm(-2 at tributary sites, 0-781 cells cm(-2 at sites upstream of the Portal, and 0-2,574 cells cm(-2 at sites downstream of the Portal. Survey period and Portal (upstream or downstream each significantly affected D. geminata cell density. In general, D. geminata was most abundant during the November 2009 and June 2010 surveys and at sites immediately downstream of the Portal. We found that D. geminata did not reach nuisance levels or strongly affect the periphyton community. Similarly, companion studies showed that local macroinvertebrate and fish communities were generally unaffected. A number of abiotic factors including variable flows and moderate levels of phosphorous and suspended sediment may limit blooms of D. geminata in this watershed.

  3. Intracranial structures of meningomyelocels studied by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, M.; Tamaki, N.; Matsumoto, S. (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1980-10-01

    We have had experience with forty-two patients with meningomyeloceles; their intracranial structures have been studied and analysed by CT. Six patients (16%) revealed no abnormalities, while thirty-six (82%) had hydrocephalus. All the cases have undergone repair of the meningomyelocele, and thirty-five parties, a shunt operation for hydrocephalus. The CT analysis of the intracranial structures of the meningomyelocele revealed that scaphocephalus was present in 40%, posteriorly dominant ventricular dilatation in the lateral ventricle in 73%, and enlarged massa intermedia in 54%. The following postoperative changes were found: sharp edges of the anterior and posterior horns were found in 81%, prominent dilatation of quadrigeminal and retrothalamic cisterns in 76%, and the interdigitation of the medial cerebral cortex in 69%. In the posterior fossa, a hypoplastic cerebellar tentorium was found in 70% of the cases and a pear-shaped deformity of the upper cerebellum in 62%. The brain stem was enclosed laterally by the anteriorly situated ventral portion of the cerebellum in 74%, and the fourth ventricle was collapsed or narrowed in 76%. An absence of the septum pellucidum was associated in six cases; a quadrigeminal cyst, in two, and a cavum septi pellucidum, in one. CT is a useful and safe apparatus for evaluating the intracranial structures of Arnold-Chiari malformations. Trivial morphological changes, such as the ectopic gray matter, beaking tectum, enlarged accessory commissure, and aqueduct stenosis observed in autopsy cases, are still impossible to demonstrate on CT. It is, however, hoped that with the improvement of the CT image, the sagittal image will become more precise for evaluating the downward displacement of the brain stem and the fourth ventricle.

  4. MRI evidence for preserved regulation of intracranial pressure in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinel, Felix G.; Fischer, Judith; Pomschar, Andreas; Wöhrle, Natalie; Koerte, Inga K.; Steffinger, Denise [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Laubender, Rüdiger P. [Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander [European Cyberknife Center Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Alperin, Noam [Department of Radiology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Ertl-Wagner, Birgit, E-mail: birgit.ertl-wagner@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate intracranial pressure and associated hemo- and hydrodynamic parameters in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations AVMs. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients with arteriovenous malformations (median age 38.7 years, 27/30 previously treated with radiosurgery) and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were investigated on a 3.0 T MR scanner. Nidus volume was quantified on dynamic MR angiography. Total arterial cerebral blood flow (tCBF), venous outflow as well as aqueductal and craniospinal stroke volumes were obtained using velocity-encoded cine-phase contrast MRI. Intracranial volume change during the cardiac cycle was calculated and intracranial pressure (ICP) was derived from systolic intracranial volume change (ICVC) and pulse pressure gradient. Results: TCBF was significantly higher in AVM patients as compared to healthy controls (median 799 vs. 692 mL/min, p = 0.007). There was a trend for venous flow to be increased in both the ipsilateral internal jugular vein (IJV, 282 vs. 225 mL/min, p = 0.16), and in the contralateral IJV (322 vs. 285 mL/min, p = 0.09), but not in secondary veins. There was no significant difference in median ICP between AVM patients and control subjects (6.9 vs. 8.6 mmHg, p = 0.30) and ICP did not correlate with nidus volume in AVM patients (ρ = −0.06, p = 0.74). There was a significant positive correlation between tCBF and craniospinal CSF stroke volume (ρ = 0.69, p = 0.02). Conclusions: The elevated cerebral blood flow in patients with AVMs is drained through an increased flow in IJVs but not secondary veins. ICP is maintained within ranges of normal and does not correlate with nidus volume.

  5. Evaluating the effect of hydrocephalus cause on the manner of changes in the effective parameters and clinical symptoms of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Seifollah; Fatouraee, Nasser; Seddighi, Amir Saeed; Seddighi, Afsoun

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the heads of 11 normal subjects and 21 patients affected by hydrocephalus due to three different causes were simulated using fluid-structure interaction (FSI). To validate the results, the calculated diagram of CSF velocity in aqueduct of Sylvius (AS) was compared with the similar velocity diagram measured using Cine PC-MRI for the same subject. After ensuring the agreement of results, other outputs such as CSF pressure were calculated non-invasively using FSI. The intracranial pressure and CSF pressure in AS and behind the optic nerve sheath were in patients 5-5.3 times the value in normal subjects and the ventricular system volume in patients was 10.2-11.1 times the value in normal subjects. However, the difference between the coefficient of variation and the maximum value of pressure and volume in different types of hydrocephalus was small. Furthermore, the difference between CSF stroke volumes in various types of hydrocephalus patients was less than 4.4%. Results showed that the intensity of clinical symptoms was similar in patients with similar CSF pressure and the cause of the hydrocephalus disease didn't have any significant effect on the intensity of patients' clinical symptoms and the manner of changes in effective parameters on disease. It was also found that the relation of CSF pressure and volume was 16.7% greater in patients with non-communicating hydrocephalus than in patients with communicating hydrocephalus. These results enhance the insight into hydrocephalus bio-mechanism and can help to choose the proper treatment method for hydrocephalus patients.

  6. Acute triventricular hydrocephalus caused by choroid plexus cysts: a diagnostic and neurosurgical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spennato, Pietro; Chiaramonte, Carmela; Cicala, Domenico; Donofrio, Vittoria; Barbarisi, Manlio; Nastro, Anna; Mirone, Giuseppe; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Cinalli, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Intraventricular choroid plexus cysts are unusual causes of acute hydrocephalus in children. Radiological diagnosis of intraventricular choroid plexus cysts is difficult because they have very thin walls and fluid contents similar to CSF and can go undetected on routine CT studies. METHODS This study reports the authors' experience with 5 patients affected by intraventricular cysts originating from the choroid plexus. All patients experienced acute presentation with rapid neurological deterioration, sometimes associated with hypothalamic dysfunction, and required urgent surgery. In 2 cases the symptoms were intermittent, with spontaneous remission and sudden clinical deteriorations, reflecting an intermittent obstruction of the CSF pathway. RESULTS Radiological diagnosis was difficult in these cases because a nonenhanced CT scan revealed only triventricular hydrocephalus, with slight lateral ventricle asymmetry in all cases. MRI with driven-equilibrium sequences and CT ventriculography (in 1 case) allowed the authors to accurately diagnose the intraventricular cysts that typically occupied the posterior part of the third ventricle, occluding the aqueduct and at least 1 foramen of Monro. The patients were managed by urgent implantation of an external ventricular drain in 1 case (followed by endoscopic surgery, after completing a diagnostic workup) and by urgent endoscopic surgery in 4 cases. Endoscopic surgery allowed the shrinkage and near-complete removal of the cysts in all cases. Use of neuronavigation and a laser were indispensable. All procedures were uneventful, resulting in restoration of normal neurological conditions. Long-term follow-up (> 2 years) was available for 2 patients, and no complications or recurrences occurred. CONCLUSIONS This case series emphasizes the necessity of an accurate and precise identification of the possible causes of triventricular hydrocephalus. Endoscopic surgery can be considered the ideal treatment of choroid plexus

  7. Frequency and long-term follow-up of trapped fourth ventricle following neonatal posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeraniec, I Jonathan; Ksendzovsky, Alexander; Ellis, Scott; Roberts, Sarah E; Jane, John A

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication of premature neonates with small birth weight, which often leads to hydrocephalus and treatment with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting procedures. Trapped fourth ventricle (TFV) can be a devastating consequence of the subsequent occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct and foramina of Luschka and Magendie. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 8 consecutive cases involving pediatric patients with TFV following VP shunting for IVH due to prematurity between 2003 and 2012. The patients ranged in gestational age from 23.0 to 32.0 weeks, with an average age at first shunting procedure of 6.1 weeks (range 3.1-12.7 weeks). Three patients were managed with surgery. Patients received long-term radiographic (mean 7.1 years; range 3.4-12.2 years) and clinical (mean 7.8 years; range 4.6-12.2 years) follow-up. RESULTS The frequency of TFV following VP shunting for neonatal posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus was found to be 15.4%. Three (37.5%) patients presented with symptoms of posterior fossa compression and were treated surgically. All of these patients showed signs of radiographic improvement with stable or improved clinical examinations during postoperative follow-up. Of the 5 patients treated conservatively, 80% experienced stable ventricular size and 1 patient experienced a slight increase (3 mm) on imaging. All of the nonsurgical patients showed stable to improved clinical examinations over the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of TFV among premature IVH patients is relatively high. Most patients with TFV are asymptomatic at presentation and can be managed without surgery. Symptomatic patients may be treated surgically for decompression of the fourth ventricle.

  8. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of endoscopic third ventriculostomy patency with differently acquired fast imaging with steady-state precession sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucic, Milos A; Koprivsek, Katarina; Kozic, Dusko; Spero, Martina; Spirovski, Milena; Lucic, Silvija

    2014-08-16

    The aim of the study was to determine the possibilities of two differently acquired two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP 2D) magnetic resonance sequences in estimation of the third ventricle floor fenestration patency after endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in the subjects with aqueductal stenosis/obstruction.Fifty eight subjects (37 males, 21 females, mean age 27 years) with previously successfully performed ETV underwent brain MRI on 1.5T MR imager 3-6 months after the procedure. Two different FISP 2D sequences (one included in the standard vendor provided software package, and the other, experimentally developed by our team) were performed respectively at two fixed slice positions: midsagittal and perpendicular to the ETV fenestration, and displayed in a closed-loop cinematographic format in order to estimate the patency. The ventricular volume reduction has been observed as well.Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the ETV fenestration was observed in midsagittal plane with both FISP 2D sequences in 93.11% subjects, while in 6.89% subjects the dynamic CSF flow MRI was inconclusive. In the perpendicular plane CSF flow through the ETV fenestration was visible only by use of experimentally developed FISP 2D (TR30/FA70) sequence. Postoperative volume reduction of lateral and third ventricle was detected in 67.24% subjects.Though both FISP 2D sequences acquired in midsagittal plane may be used to estimate the effects of performed ETV, due to achieved higher CSF pulsatile flow sensitivity, only the use of FISP 2D (TR30/FA70) sequence enables the estimation of the treatment effect in perpendicular plane in the absence of phase-contrast sequences. 

  9. Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy Patency With Differently Acquired Fast Imaging With Steady-State Precission Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos A. Lucic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the possibilities of two differently acquired two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP 2D magnetic resonance sequences in estimation of the third ventricle floor fenestration patency after endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV in the subjects with aqueductal stenosis/obstruction.Fifty eight subjects (37 males, 21 females, mean age 27 years with previously successfully performed ETV underwent brain MRI on 1.5T MR imager 3-6 months after the procedure. Two different FISP 2D sequences (one included in the standard vendor provided software package, and the other, experimentally developed by our team were performed respectively at two fixed slice positions: midsagittal and perpendicular to the ETV fenestration, and displayed in a closed-loop cinematographic format in order to estimate the patency. The ventricular volume reduction has been observed as well.Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF flow through the ETV fenestration was observed in midsagittal plane with both FISP 2D sequences in 93.11% subjects, while in 6.89% subjects the dynamic CSF flow MRI was inconclusive. In the perpendicular plane CSF flow through the ETV fenestration was visible only by use of experimentally developed FISP 2D (TR30/FA70 sequence. Postoperative volume reduction of lateral and third ventricle was detected in 67.24% subjects.Though both FISP 2D sequences acquired in midsagittal plane may be used to estimate the effects of performed ETV, due to achieved higher CSF pulsatile flow sensitivity, only the use of FISP 2D (TR30/FA70 sequence enables the estimation of the treatment effect in perpendicular plane in the absence of phase-contrast sequences. 

  10. Expressions and clinical significance of CD147 and CK19 in hepatocellular carcinoma%CD147和CK19在肝细胞肝癌中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidong Wang; Ming Zhao; Yujun Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of CD147 and CK19 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their clinical significance. Methods: The expressions of CD147 and CK19 were determined by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 272 cases of HCC and 81 cases of adjacent tumorous tissue. Results: The positive expression of CD147 in HCC and adjacent tumorous tissue was 73.53% (200/272) and 13.58% (11/81) with significant difference (P 0.05). The expression of CK19 in HCC were closely correlate to the tumor-free survival, histological grade, diameter of tumor, liver cirrhosis, micro-satellites, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage; but not to patients' sex,age, number of tumor, invasion liver involucrum, AFP level, infection of HBV and embolus of cancer in aqueduct or portal vein (P > 0.05). Among the patients of positive expression of CD147, the median replacing time and overall survival were 13 and 24 months, lower than 48 and 60 months in the patients of negative expression (P < 0.05). Among the patients of positive expression of CK19, the median replacing time and overall survival were 7 and 13 months, lower than 31 and 42 months in the patients of negative expression (P < 0.05). The expression of CD147 had no correlation with the expression of CK19 (r =0.061, P = 0.317). Conclusion: The positive of CD147 and CK19 closely correlate with the clinical prognosis of HCC, it may indicate poor prognosis of HCC.

  11. Spectrum and frequency of GJB2, GJB6 and SLC26A4 gene mutations among nonsyndromic hearing loss patients in eastern part of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Bidisha; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Paul, Silpita; Bankura, Biswabandhu; Pattanayak, Arup Kumar; Biswas, Subhradev; Maity, Biswanath; Das, Madhusudan

    2015-12-01

    Genetically caused nonsyndromic hearing loss is highly heterogeneous. Inspite of this large heterogeneity, mutations in the genes GJB2, GJB6 and SLC26A4 are major contributors. The mutation spectrum of these genes varies among different ethnic groups. Only a handful of studies focused on the altered genetic signature of these genes in different demographic regions of India but never focused on the eastern part of the country. Our study for the first time aimed to characterize the mutation profile of these genes in hearing loss patients of West Bengal state, India. Mutations in GJB2, GJB6 and SLC26A4 genes were screened by bidirectional sequencing from 215 congenital nonsyndromic hearing loss patients. Radiological diagnosis was performed in patients with SLC26A4 mutations by temporal bone CT scan. The study revealed that 4.65% and 6.97% patients had monoallelic and biallelic GJB2 mutations respectively. Six mutations were identified, p.W24X being the most frequent one accounting for 71.05% of the mutated alleles. Mutations in GJB6 including the previously identified deletion mutation (GJB6-D13S1830) were not identified in our study. Further, no patients harbored biallelic mutations in the SLC26A4 gene or the common inner ear malformation Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (EVA). The mutation profile of GJB2 in our study is distinct from other parts of India, suggesting that the mutation spectrum of this gene varies with ethnicity and geographical origin. The absence of GJB6 mutations and low frequency of SLC26A4 mutations suggest that additional genetic factors may also contribute to this disease.

  12. Sedimentation Survey of Lago La Plata, Puerto Rico, July 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2008-01-01

    Lago La Plata dam is located between the municipalities of Naranjito and Toa Alta in north central Puerto Rico, about 5 kilometers south of the town of Toa Alta and about 5 kilometers north of the town of Naranjito. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio de La Plata, the Rio Guadiana, and the Rio Ca?as, and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District, which provides about 35 percent of the total water demand for the area (Soler-Lopez and others, 2000). The reservoir has a drainage area of about 469 square kilometers. The dam was constructed in 1974 and is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool elevation of 52.00 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). During October 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to assess the impact of Hurricane Georges on the storage capacity of the reservoir. Between July 17 and 20, 2006, the USGS and the PRASA conducted an additional bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to update the reservoir storage capacity and determine the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 survey data with the 1998 survey data.. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1998. Historical (1974) data are referenced as needed to account for long-term storage capacity loss trends...

  13. Gene Wash and Copper Basin Dams are surviving alkali-aggregate reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Gene Wash and Copper Basin Dams were constructed in 1937 and 1938, and are owned and operated by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD). The dams are located in San Bernardino County, California, close to the Colorado River, and very close to the easternmost point of California. They form two intermediate storage facilities on the Colorado River Aqueduct system which conveys water from Lake Havasu to the Los Angeles and San Diego areas. The locations of the dams are shown. Gene Wash Dam is a concrete arch structure, with a maximum height of arch of 131 feet. There is a gravity thrust block on the right abutment and the total crest length is 430 feet. Copper Basin Dam is a concrete arch dam with a maximum height of arch of 187 feet and a crest length of 253 feet. Plans, elevations and sections for both dams. The dams are in the Whipple Mountains at the eastern edge of the Mojave Desert. Between June and October, maximum temperatures usually exceed 100 degrees Farenheit, while daily low temperatures in this period are generally in the 60`s and 70`s. Winter temperatures are mild, with daytime highs in the 70`s and 80`s, and lows only occasionally below freezing. The area is arid, with total annual rainfall generally between two and ten inches. Both dams were built in desert washes with no permanent flow. The foundation for both structures is a strong, erosion-resistant, red-brown, non-marine sandstone and conglomerate of Tertiary age known as the Copper Basin Formation (Buwalda, 1937). Spillways for both dams are ungated ogee crests, which are separate from the dams. Gene Wash Dam and Copper Basin Dam are geographically close together, are of similar design, and were constructed at the same time, using the same materials. Their performance since construction, not surprisingly, has been similar.

  14. Influence of dioxin intoxication on the human system and possibilities of limiting its negative effects on the environment and living organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Całkosiński

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Despite the restrictive legal regulations related to the reduction of dioxins emission, their concentration in the environment is still too high. Mainly, this is related to the illegal utilisation of electronic equipment and combustion of wastes, and also to intensified activity and maintenance of ships, especially in developing countries. The most important remaining source in Europe is the metal industry. Studies on the mechanism of impact of dioxins are still being carried out. This review points at new possibilities for limiting the molecular mechanisms of dioxins activity, inter alia, through the application of high doses of tocopherol and acetylsalicylic acid while treating dioxins intoxication. [b]Brief description of the state of knowledge. [/b]Apart from the knowledge of dioxins affinity to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, the multi-stage radical-form actions and the pro-inflammatory mechanism associated with cyclooxygenase-II enzyme (COX-2 are under intense investigation at the moment. Due to the high affinity of dioxins to animals adipose tissue and their ability to accumulate in it, they can enter the food chain. Furthermore, high dioxin doses can cause poisoning manifested as advanced clinical symptoms, whereas in smaller doses, when cumulated, can cause metabolic changes which are often difficult to associate with their presence. Recently, some serious food contaminations by dioxins have been demonstrated. Sea fish and products from contaminated aqueducts still constitute potential sources of dioxins pollution. [b]Conclusion.[/b] According to recent studies, dioxins are present in different concentrations in the environment and cause specific and long-time effects. These effects could be limited by the use of tocopherol and acetylsalicylic acid.

  15. Pediatric Epidemic of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in the Area of L’Aquila, Italy, Four Years after a Catastrophic Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nigro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Salmonella enterica epidemic occurred in children of the area of L’Aquila (Central Italy, Abruzzo region between June 2013 and October 2014, four years after the catastrophic earthquake of 6 April 2009. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory children. Routine investigations for Salmonella infection were carried out on numerous alimentary matrices of animal origin and sampling sources for drinking water of the L’Aquila district, including pickup points of the two main aqueducts. Results: Salmonella infection occurred in 155 children (83 females: 53%, aged 1 to 15 years (mean 2.10. Of these, 44 children (28.4% were hospitalized because of severe dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, and fever resistant to oral antipyretic and antibiotic drugs. Three children (1.9% were reinfected within four months after primary infection by the same Salmonella strain. Four children (2.6%, aged one to two years, were coinfected by rotavirus. A seven-year old child had a concomitant right hip joint arthritis. The isolated strains, as confirmed in about the half of cases or probable/possible in the remaining ones, were identified as S. enterica serovar Typhimurium [4,5:i:-], monophasic variant. Aterno river, bordering the L’Aquila district, was recognized as the main responsible source for the contamination of local crops and vegetables derived from polluted crops. Conclusions: The high rate of hospitalized children underlines the emergence of a highly pathogenic S. enterica strain probably subsequent to the contamination of the spring water sources after geological changes occurred during the catastrophic earthquake.

  16. Tectal glioblastoma Glioblastoma tetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Chaddad Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain stem gliomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising mostly in paediatric patients. Tectal plate gliomas represent a particular type of brain stem tumours usually with a benign, indolent clinical course, presenting with signs of raised intracranial hipertension due to supra-tentorialhydrocephalous caused by aqueductal stenosis. Seldom high-grade lesions arise in this location with tremendous therapeutic implications. When a malignant tumour is clinically and radiographically suspected a biopsy should be performed to obtain histhological confirmation. Treatment is then planned in a case-by-case basis. We present the case of a glioblastoma of the tectal plate in a 22 years-old woman operated upon by a supracerebellar-infratentorial approach.Os gliomas do tronco cerebral são um grupo heterogêneo de neoplasias que acometem habitualmente crianças. Os gliomas da placa quadrigeminal representam um tipo particular de tumores do tronco cerebral, habitualmente com um curso benigno e indolente, surgindo com sinais de hipertensão intracraniana devido a hidrocefalia supra-tentorial provocada por compressão do aqueduto cerebral. Raramente surgem lesões de alto grau nesta região, mas as implicações terapêuticas são tremendas. Quando existe suspeita clínica e imagiológica de que se trata de lesão maligna, esta deve ser biopsada para se obter confirmação histológica. O tratamento deve então ser planejado caso a caso. Apresentamos o caso de glioblastoma da placa quadrigeminal em uma paciente de 22 anos intervencionado por via supracerebelar-infratentorial.

  17. Storage capacity and sedimentation trends of Lago Garzas, Puerto Rico, 1996-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Lopez, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Lago Garzas is located in west-central Puerto Rico, about 3.5 kilometers southwest of the town of Adjuntas, in the confluence of the Río Vacas and three other unnamed tributaries (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), and was constructed in 1943 for hydroelectric power generation and municipal water use along the southern coast. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill embankment lined with boulders, and has a height of 61.57 meters, a top width of 9.14 meters, a base width of 365.76 meters, and a crest length of 227.37 meters; State Road PR-518 crosses the top of the dam. A morning-glory-type spillway is located near the west abutment of the dam at an elevation of 736.12 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority, 1969). Figure 2 shows an aerial photograph of the Lago Garzas earthfill dam and the morning-glory spillway section. Additional information and operational procedures are provided in Soler-López and others (1999). During July 17-18, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Garzas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1996 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Garzas during July 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1996.

  18. Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

    2011-01-01

    The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ≥5 years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children.

  19. Extremadura (Spain): a case to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maribel; Tejado, Juanjo; Pereira, Dolores

    2015-04-01

    Extremadura is geologically located in the Iberian Massif, belonging part of the Central Iberian Zone, in the north of the region, and the Ossa Morena zone, in the south of it. The Central Iberian Zone is characterized by the abundance of clastic metasedimentary rocks and greywacke, sandstones, shales, conglomerates, quartzites and lesser amounts of carbonate materials such as limestone and dolomite (600-300 Ma). Also featured are Hercynian granitic intrusions. The rocks from the Ossa-Morena zone are metamorphic, intrusive igneous and volcanic (650-300 Ma). Extremadura, given its strategic geographical position, has been the site of human settlement since ancient times, and this civilisation has left its influence on the building materials used in buildings and monuments. The rocks used in building, are directly related to the geology of the immediate area, since rock outcrops, near the construction are mostly granites, slates and marbles. The historic and artistic heritage from Extremadura includes Roman treasures (like the bridges located in the Via de la Plata, dams, walls and milestones), Islamic and Christian treasures as well as medieval and Renaissance Jewish treasures. Extremadura has three World Heritage Sites declared by UNESCO: the old town of Cáceres, the archaeological site at Merida and the monastery of Guadalupe. The latter is built mainly of bricks and masonry. In Merida, granites and diorites of various facies of the batholiths located north of the city are used together with Sierra Carija's marble and quartzite alluvial gravels from the river Guadiana. Among the constructions in Merida, granite utilisation in the theater and amphitheater, aqueduct of Miracles and the Proserpina dam, are remarkable. The old town of Cáceres is characterised by the presence of narrow streets and monuments, medieval churches and Renaissance palaces, built with granite and flanked by a wall constructed during the Muslim period. This granite comes from the quarries

  20. Value of MRI in diagnosing sensorineural hearing loss in children before cochlear implantation%MRI对儿童感音神经性耳聋人工耳蜗植入术前的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 张岚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of MRI in children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) before cochlear implantation. Methods MRI of 80 children with SHNL was retrospectively analyzed in correlation with the classification of inner ear malformation. Results Of 80 children with 160 ears,.152 inner ear malformations involved the cochlea (38),.vestibula (33), semicircular canal (41), internal auditory canal (40), vestibular aqueduct (37), and cochlear nerve (46). Conclusion MRI provides detailed and reliable anatomical information for classification of SNHL in children before cochlear implantation.%目的:探讨磁共振成像在儿童感音神经性耳聋(SNHL)人工耳蜗植入术前的诊断价值及临床应用。方法回顾性分析80例临床诊断为SNHL拟行人工耳蜗植入的患儿MRI图像,结合内耳畸形的最新分类标准进行影像学分类诊断。结果80例(160耳)发现中内耳畸形152耳,其中耳蜗畸形38耳,前庭畸形33耳,半规管畸形41耳,内耳道畸形40耳,前庭导水管扩大37耳,蜗神经畸形46耳。结论 MRI能对儿童感音神经性耳聋人工耳蜗植入术前提供丰富详细的解剖学信息,并进行分类诊断,对指导手术、评估预后等都具有重要的临床意义。

  1. Malformations and abnormalities of the petrous portion of the temporal bone; Fehlbildungen und Missbildungen des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Heumueller, I. [Westpfalzklinikum Kaiserslautern, Institut fuer Radiologie, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the procedure of choice in the diagnostics of abnormalities of the middle and inner ear. It allows a detailed presentation of anatomical features and achieves the prerequisites for selection of the various therapeutic options. The highly diverse abnormalities can be described using detailed imaging analyses. Malformations with an abnormally developed modiolus are assumed to be early embryological defects, such as the classical Mondini dysplasia. The essential therapeutic option for middle ear deformities is still a cochlear implant. The domain of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not only in the analysis of the cochlear nerve and for exclusion of fibrosis or ossification of the labyrinth but is also able to visualize details of isolated malformations, such as an extended vestibular aqueduct or subtle alterations to the vestibule or can visualize them better in comparison to CT. Radiological diagnostics are used not only for classification but also to recognize typical clinical problem situations and play a key role in the diagnostics of hearing disorders and selection of the optimal therapeutic procedure. (orig.) [German] Die hochaufloesende CT ist das Verfahren der Wahl in der Diagnostik von Fehlbildungen des Mittel- und Innenohrs. Sie erlaubt die detaillierte Darstellung anatomischer Details und schafft die Voraussetzung fuer die unterschiedlichen Therapieoptionen. Durch detaillierte bildgebenden Analysen koennen die unterschiedlichsten Fehlbildungen beschrieben werden. Fehlbildungen mit einem nicht normal ausgebildeten Modiolus werden als fruehere embryologische Schaedigungen als die klassische Mondini-Dysplasie angesehen. Die wesentliche therapeutische Option bei Mittelohrfehlbildung bleibt das Kochleaimplantat. Die Domaene der MRT liegt nicht nur in der Analyse des N. cochlearis und im Ausschluss von Fibrosierungen oder Ossifikationen des Labyrinths, sondern darueber hinaus ist sie in der Lage, Details einzelner

  2. "COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH INNER EAR MALFORMATIONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Borghei S. Abdi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Performing cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformation has always been a matter of dispute. This study was designed to analyze the operative findings,complications, and postoperative performance of patients with inner ear anomalies who underwent cochlear implantation. Six patients with inner ear malformations underwent implantation in our academic tertiary referral center from 1997 to 2002. The average follow-up period was 27 months. Malformations included one incomplete partition, one common cavity, one narrow internal acoustic canal (IAC in a patient with Riley-Day syndrome and 3 cases of large vestibular aqueduct. All received multi-channel implants either Nucleus 22 or Clarion device. Facial nerve was anomalous in 2 cases. CSF gusher occurred in 4 patients, which was controlled with packing the cochleostomy site. In all cases, the full length of electrode array was inserted, except one with Mondini's dysplasia where insertion failed in the first operation and was referred to another center for a successful surgery on the opposite ear. No other surgical complications were encountered. In 4 cases, all the 22 electrodes could be activated. All patients showed improved hearing performance after implantation. Four showed open-set speech recognition. The one with narrow IAC showed improved awareness to environmental sounds. In the other case (common cavity, the perception tests could not be performed because of very young age. Cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformations is a successful way of rehabilitation, although complications should be expected and auditory responses may be highly variable and relatively moderate.

  3. Value of multi-slice CT in patients with congenital inner ear malformation before cochlear implantation%多层螺旋CT在内耳畸形的人工耳蜗植入术前评估中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琛; 熊玉伟; 周运锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨多层螺旋CT在患有内耳畸形的人工耳蜗植入术前评估中的价值。方法:搜集我院因听力障碍拟行人工耳蜗植入的患者34例,所有患者均行多层螺旋CT检查。结果:34例患者中患内耳畸形的有10例共19耳,多数病耳合并多种畸形,其中耳蜗畸形8耳,前庭导水管扩大畸形8耳,前庭、半规管畸形4耳,内听道发育异常3耳。结论:多层螺旋CT扫描结合后处理技术可以更加准确地对内耳畸形做出诊断,在人工耳蜗植入术前具有重要的指导价值。%Objective:To evaluate the value of multi-slice CT in patients with congenital inner ear malformation before cochlear implantation .Methods:Multi-slice CT was performed in 34 patients with hearing impairment before cochlear implantation .Results:In 34 patients,inner ear malformation was de-tected in 10(19 ears),and more cases were complicated with multiple malformations,in which 8 cases were cochlear malformations,8 enlarged vestibular aqueduct malformation,4 vestibule and semi-circular canal malformations,and 3 internal auditory cannal malformations.Conclusion:Multi-slice CT can make accurate diagnosis of congenital inner ear malformations before cochlear implantation .

  4. Cochlear implantation in children with "CHARGE syndrome": surgical options and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giampietro; Trabalzini, Franco; Faralli, Mario; D'Ascanio, Luca; Cristi, Cristina; Molini, Egisto

    2014-03-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a rare, polymalformative disease, representing one of the major causes of associated blindness and deafness. Bilateral, severe-profound, sensorineural hearing loss is common in CHARGE children. Aim of this study is to present our results in children with "CHARGE syndrome" submitted to cochlear implantation (CI). The frequency of anatomic anomalies, possible variations in the surgical technique of CI, and the audiological/rehabilitative benefits attained in our patients are reported. we submitted 5 children affected by CHARGE syndrome with profound, bilateral, sensorineural hearing loss to CI. Otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response, acoustic impedance testing, cranial computed tomography and magnetic resonance were carried out preoperatively in all children. CI was performed using the mastoidotomy-posterior tympanotomy approach in two cases, and the suprameatal approach in three children. Infant toddler-meaningful auditory integration scale was used to evaluate kid's audiological performance before and after CI. Intra-operatory findings and postsurgical complications were evaluated. Among our patients, intraoperative anatomical malformations were cochlear hypoplasia (100 %), ossicles malformations (100 %), semicircular canals aplasia (100 %), oval window atresia (60 %), round window atresia (40 %), widening of the aqueduct of the vestibule (20 %), and aberrant course of the facial nerve (20 %). No intra- or postoperative complication was recorded in relation to implant positioning. After a follow-up ranging from 1 to 4.5 years, only 2/5 patients used oral language as the sole mean of communication, 1 started utilizing oral language as the main mean of communication, while 2 patients did not develop any linguistic ability. In conclusion, CI in patients with CHARGE association is feasible and, despite results variability, it should be carried out in CHARGE children with severe hearing loss as soon as possible. Although the selection of a

  5. Postural-induced changes in intracranial pressure evaluated non-invasively using the MMS-10 tympanic displacement analyser in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, N; Walsted, A

    2000-01-01

    Inner ear pressure reflects intracranial pressure (ICP) primarily because of the direct communication of perilymph and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the cochlear aqueduct (CA). The MMS-10 tympanic displacement analyser (TDA) is a relatively new device for measuring perilymphatic pressure non-invasively, and thereby also indirectly measuring intracranial pressure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of the TDA in a daily clinical setting. Other aims were to investigate changes in perilymphatic pressure from sitting to lying position in healthy volunteers in two age groups (mean age: 33 years and 50 years) and to compare the patency of the CA in these groups using the MMS-10 TDA. Tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) analyses were performed in the test subjects initially twice in sitting position (test-retest) and then in sitting and supine positions. We found that the MMS-10 TDA is easy to use, and that it gives reproducible values in repeated tests, but with large inter-subject differences. The TMD test showed curves, which, in the whole test group, were more negative in supine position, in accordance with an increasing intracranial and inner ear pressure when lying down. The change from sitting to lying position was larger in the younger group than in the older group. In 11% of the younger group (males) and in 30% of the older group (females), the CA was considered to be non-patent, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, the finding is in keeping with the hypothesis of a greater proportion of patent CA in younger than in older individuals.

  6. Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

  7. SLC26A4 Variations Among Graves’ Hyper-Functioning Thyroid Gland

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    Hassen Hadj-Kacem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS, an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA, and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL. However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21 of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junctions among patients affected with Graves' disease (GD hyperthyroidism. Ten mono-allelic variants were identified, seven of which are intronic and previously unreported. Two, c.898A>C (p.I300L and c.1061T>C (p.F354S, of the three exonic variants are non synonymous. The p.F354S variant is already described to be involved in PS or NSHL inheritances. The exploration by PCR-RFLP of p.I300L and p.F354S variants among 132 GD patients, 105 Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT, 206 Healthy subjects and 102 families with NSHL have shown the presence of both variants. The p.F354S variation was identified both among patients (1~HT and 3 GD and healthy subjects (n=5. Whereas, the p.I300L variant was identified only in GD patients (n=3. Our studies provide evidence of the importance of systematic analysis of SLC26A4 gene sequences on models other than deafness. This approach allows the identification of new variants and the review of the pathogenic effects of certain mono-allelic variants reported responsible for PS and NSHL development.

  8. A rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle: infratentorial form of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Takashi; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Hirose, Takanori

    2002-05-01

    Eleven cases of a distinctive tumor of the posterior fossa are described. The patients (age range 12-59 years) presented with headache and/or ataxia. Neuroimaging revealed a relatively discrete, focally enhancing mass(es) primarily involving the aqueduct, fourth ventricle, and cerebellar vermis. Hydrocephalus was present in seven cases, and two lesions were multicentric. In two cases a significant increase in tumor size was documented. Gross total or subtotal resections were achieved in 10 cases. One patient underwent biopsy alone and another received postoperative irradiation. Histologically, two components were identified in all cases. One consisted of neurocytes forming neurocytic and/or perivascular pseudorosettes in a fibrillary, partly microcystic matrix. The second, astrocytic component resembled pilocytic astrocytoma in 10 cases and consisted of fibrillated spindle cells with oval nuclei associated with occasional Rosenthal fibers, granular bodies, glomeruloid capillaries, and microcalcifications. Regionally, this component was more diffuse and patternless, consisting of sheets of round to oval, oligodendrocyte-like cells. Rare ganglion cells were seen in four cases. The rosettes were consistently synaptophysin and MAP-2 immunoreactive, whereas the spindle cells were positive for S-100 protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Overall, atypia was minimal; no mitoses were found, and Ki67 labeling indices were low. Ultrastructurally, the neurocytic cells featured processes containing microtubules and occasional dense core granules. Mature synapses were found in one of the four cases studied. Although the histologic features of this unique tumor superficially resemble those of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, rosette formation by neuronal cells, the frequent presence of a pilocytic astrocytoma component, and the growing nature of the lesion argue against that diagnosis, as does occasional multifocality.

  9. Inter-Basin Water Transfer Impact Assessment on Environment of Pennar to Cauvery Link Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S. V. J. S. S.; Prakasa Rao, B. S.; Niranjan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Owing to its striking differences in its climatic conditions, India is frequently facing with extremities such as heavy rain fall in some regions where as some other regions endure little rainfall. The regions receiving heavy precipitation are facing floods resulting in huge amount of water runs into the sea. Contrarily, the regions, without adequate rainfall are suffering from persistent droughts. To overcome such disparities in the distribution of water, National Water Development Agency (NWDA) put a proposal to transfer water through link canals between rivers. The current study is limited to two river basins, Pennar and Cauvery. The present study is confined to Pennar (somasila) to Cauvery (Grand Anicut) whose length is 483 km. The study consist of10 km. buffer on either side of the canal and it occupies 17,215.68 sq. km. out of these 10,105.96 sq.km.is proposed command area which falls in Chittoor, Chengalpattu, North Arcott and South Arcott districts. Using IRS-P6, LISS-III data the characteristics of the rocks, lineaments, drainage, settlements and land use/land cover are mapped for better analysis and the environmental impact. The study indicated that Current fallow land of 5340.14 km2 and 6307.98 km2 of cropland will be brought under cultivation which is more than what is NWDA estimated land that will be benefited. The canal will provide water for irrigation and drinking to 4597 villages and 244 villages to be rehabilitated. 119 culverts/canal bridges and 24 aqueducts have to be constructed across the canal.

  10. Servicios ambientales, agua y economía

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    Juan Pablo Ruiz Soto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Los servicios ambientales (SA asociados a los ecosistemas naturales están seriamente amenazados por acciones locales y por el calentamiento global. El SA asociado al agua y su efecto sobre calidad y cantidad en cuencas hidrográficas aportantes a acueductos y sistemas de riego, son de gran importancia económica y social. Para Bogotá-Colombia el SA de los páramos y bosque nublado en la cuenca de Chingaza representa US$18,2 millones anuales. Para el abastecimiento de agua a la ciudad de Quito-Ecuador, el efecto negativo del cambio climático (CC asociado a la contracción de los glaciares representa un incremento en la inversión de un 31% versus el escenario sin CC. Se deben tomar medidas para asegurar la permanencia de los SA y mitigar los efectos del CC./ Environmental services (ES related to natural ecosystems are seriously threatened by local activities and global warming. The ES related to water and its effect on quality and quantity in watersheds that supply aqueducts and irrigation systems has great social and economic importance. For Bogotá-Colombia the ES of páramos and cloudy forest in the Chingaza basin represents US$18.2 million per year. For water supply in the city of Quito-Ecuador, the negative effect of climate change (CC related to the contraction of glaciers represents a 31% increase in investments versus the scenario without CC. Measures must be taken to ensure the permanence of ES and mitigate the effects of CC.

  11. Intracranial germinoma with ventricular system dissemination

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    Shi-yun CHEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the clinical, neuroimaging and histopathological features of intracranial germinoma.  Methods One case of intracranial germinoma with ventricular system dissemination was reported, and related literatures were reviewed.  Results A 34-year-old male complained of progressive dizziness for 30 d and manifested unsteady gait for 45 d. Radiological examinations revealed low signal intensity on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI in the corpus callosum, left cerebellum, around the fourth ventricle, aqueduct mesencephalon, the ventral pons and pineal region, with even or uneven enhancement after contrast. The clinical initial diagnosis was "intracranial multiple focal lesions and high possibility of multiple sclerosis". After well response to glucocorticoid impact and dehydration, the patient stopped taking drugs but presented relapse and exacerbation. Later, he underwent biopsy on pineal region and was diagnosed as intracranial germinoma. Microscopically, the big germ cells and lymphocytes coexisted. Tumor cells were epithelioid cells with transparent cytoplasm, prominent nuclei and mitotic activity. Lymphocytes were distributed along interstitial substance of vessel and fiber, and individual syncytiotrophoblasts were sprasely distributed. Immunohistochemical staining showed tumor cells were positive for CD117 and OCT3/4, and the syncytiotrophoblasts were positive for β-human chorionic gonadotropin ( β-hCG. The clinical symptoms were completely alleviated after radiotherapy and chemotherapy.  Conclusions Because of the sensitivity for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, intracranial germinoma can be diagnosed and treated early to improve its prognosis. However, it is very easy to disseminate along with ventricular system and form multiple lesions, leading to atypical clinical and imaging manifestations, which is a big challenge for clinical diagnosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.010

  12. Neurosurgery Education and Development program to treat hydrocephalus and to develop neurosurgery in Africa using mobile neuroendoscopic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquer, José; Qureshi, Mubashir Mahmood; Young, Paul H; Dempsey, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT A shortage of neurosurgeons and a lack of knowledge of neuroendoscopic management of hydrocephalus limits modern care in sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, a mobile teaching project for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) procedures and a subsequent program to develop neurosurgery as a permanent specialty in Kenya and Zanzibar were created and sponsored by the Neurosurgery Education and Development (NED) Foundation and the Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery. The objective of this work was to evaluate the results of surgical training and medical care in both projects from 2006 to 2013. METHODS Two portable neuroendoscopy systems were purchased and a total of 38 ETV workshops were organized in 21 hospitals in 7 different countries. Additionally, 49 medical expeditions were dispatched to the Coast General Hospital in Mombasa, Kenya, and to the Mnazi Moja Hospital in Zanzibar. RESULTS From the first project, a total of 376 infants with hydrocephalus received surgery. Six-month follow-up was achieved in 22%. In those who received follow-up, ETV efficacy was 51%. The best success rates were achieved with patients 1 year of age or older with aqueductal stenosis (73%). The main causes of hydrocephalus were infection (56%) and spina bifida (23%). The mobile education program interacted with 72 local surgeons and 122 nurses who were trained in ETV procedures. The second project involved 49 volunteer neurosurgeons who performed a total of 360 nonhydrocephalus neurosurgical operations since 2009. Furthermore, an agreement with the local government was signed to create the Mnazi Mmoja NED Institute in Zanzibar. CONCLUSIONS Mobile endoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus in East Africa results in reasonable success rates and has also led to major developments in medicine, particularly in the development of neurosurgery specialty care sites.

  13. Diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders: is MRI obsolete?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downer, Jonathan James; Carter, Ranjana; Kueker, Wilhelm; Quaghebeur, Gerardine [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Leite, Maria Isabel; Palace, Jacqueline [Oxford University, Department of Clinical Neurology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating disease that preferentially involves spinal cord and optic nerve. It is part of a spectrum of neurological conditions associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4). This study investigates the role of MRI where novel, more sensitive AQP4 antibody immunoassay techniques are being used. Retrospective review of neuroimaging in 69 patients (25 antibody positive, 44 antibody negative), investigated in the context of suspected NMO or NMO spectrum disorder, was performed independently by two consultant neuroradiologists. Longitudinally extensive, central spinal cord lesions were more frequent in AQP4 positive patients (95.2% vs 35.5%, p < 0.0001; 85.7% vs 45.2%, p = 0.015). Multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria were less frequently fulfilled on brain MRI in antibody positive patients (5.6% vs 33.3%, p = 0.035). Juxtacortical and corpus callosal lesions were also less common in this group (16.7% vs 46.7%, p = 0.063; 5.6% vs 46.7%, p = 0.0034). Hypothalamic and periependymal disease related to the aqueduct was not seen in antibody negative patients. T1 hypointensity was more common in cord lesions of antibody positive patients (75.0% vs 35.3%, p = 0.037). However, this characteristic did not discriminate antibody positive and negative longitudinally extensive cord lesions (73.3% vs 62.5%, p = 0.66). The NMO spectrum of diseases are among an increasing number of neurological conditions defined by serological tests. However, despite improved immunoassay techniques, MRI of the brain and spinal cord continues to be among the first-line investigations in these patients, providing valuable diagnostic information that will help guide patient management. (orig.)

  14. Sedimentation survey of Lago Caonillas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, September–November 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

    2016-11-09

    During September–November 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Caonillas to estimate current (2012) reservoir storage capacity and the recent (2000–2012) reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2012 bathymetric survey data with the February 2000 data. The Lago Caonillas storage capacity, which was 42.27 million cubic meters in February 2000, decreased to 39.55 million cubic meters by September–November 2012. The intersurvey (2000–2012) storage capacity loss was about 6 percent, corresponding to a decrease of about 0.5 percent per year; this loss represents a reservoir sedimentation rate of about 226,670 cubic meters per year between 2000 and 2012. On a long-term basis, however, the sedimentation rate has remained nearly constant, decreasing from about 257,500 to 251,720 cubic meters per year during 1948–2000 and 1948–2012, respectively. Most of the sediment accumulation and associated storage capacity loss of Lago Caonillas has occurred within the eastern and Río Caonillas branches of the reservoir. In the vicinity of the Caonillas Dam, minor sediment deposition and scour have occurred. The Lago Caonillas drainage area sediment yield has decreased by about 2 percent since the previous survey, from 1,266 cubic meters per square kilometer per year in 2000 to 1,237 cubic meters per square kilometer per year in 2012. If the long-term sedimentation rate of 251,720 cubic meters per year remains constant, the useful life of Lago Caonillas may end in about 2169.

  15. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM-C deficient C57BL/6 mice develop a severe hydrocephalus.

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    Lena Wyss

    Full Text Available The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C(-/- mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C(-/- mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C(-/- mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3(rd ventricle in JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C.

  16. Endoscopic approach to fourth ventricle cysticercosis Tratamento endoscópico da cisticercose do quarto ventrículo

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    Samuel Tau Zymberg

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most frequently observed parasitosis of the central nervous system worldwide. The fourth ventricle is the most frequent site of intraventricular infestation, a location that carries a higher risk for CSF blockage and intracranial hypertension due to CSF blockage. A great number of patients become shunt dependent which carries a poorer prognosis. We report on a case of a patient with symptomatic obstructive hydrocephalus due to cysticercus in the fourth ventricle where an endoscopic approach via a frontal burr hole was performed. Although there is no consensus in the literature for the optimal treatment of this disease, this method seemed adequate for treatment of fourth ventricle cysticercosis in patients with hydrocephalus, aqueductal and foramen of Monro dilatations.A neurocisticercose é a parasitose mais freqüentemente encontrada no sistema nervoso central. O quarto ventrículo é o local mais frequente de infestação intraventricular, uma localização que acarreta grande risco de bloqueio da circulação liquórica e subseqüente hipertensão intracraniana. Grande número de pacientes se torna dependente de derivações liquóricas, o que determina pior prognóstico. Relatamos o caso de um paciente com quadro de hidrocefalia obstrutiva secundária a cisticerco localizado no quarto ventrículo que foi abordado por via endoscópica. Apesar de, até o momento, não haver consenso na literatura sobre o melhor tratamento da neurocisticercose intraventricular, o tratamento neuroendoscópico parece ser método eficaz de tratamento nos pacientes com hidrocefalia e dilatação dos forames de Monro e do aqueduto.

  17. Potentiometric determination of trace amounts of aluminium utilizing polyvinyl chloride membrane and coated platinum sensors based on E-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) benzohydrazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Somayeh; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Sheikhshoaie, Iran

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance characteristics of novel polyvinyl chloride membrane (PME) and coated platinum (CPtE) aluminium (Al) ion selective electrodes based on E-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) benzohydrazide. The electrodes exhibited linear responses with near Nernstian slopes of 19.9 +/- 0.3 (PME) and 20.1 +/- 0.4 (CPtE) mV/decade of activity within the Al3+ ion concentration range of 3.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-2) M for the PME and 1.0 x 10(-7)-1.0 x 10(-2) M for the CPtE. These sensors were applicable in a pH range of 3.0 to 7.0. The LODs of the PME and CPtE were 1.7 x 10(-7) and 5.6 x 10(-8) M, respectively. They had a response time of less than 10 s and could be used practically for a period of at least 2 months without measurable divergence in results. The isothermal temperature coefficient of the PME was 1.12 x 10(-3) V/degrees C, and it can tolerate partially nonaqueous media up to 25%. The electrodes showed excellent selectivity towards Al3+ ions in the presence of a wide range of alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals ions. They were successfully applied for the direct determination of Al3+ ions in tap water, aqueduct water, mineral water, and Al-Mg syrup and as indicator electrodes in potentiometric titration of Al ions with EDTA.

  18. Integration of Geomatic Techniques for the Urban Cavity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidda, M.; Sanna, G.

    2013-07-01

    Cagliari, county seat of Sardinia Region (Italy), situated in the southern part of the island, is characterized by a subsoil full of cavities. The excavations in fact, which lasted more than 4000 years, had a great development due also to the special geological characteristics of the city subsoil. The underground voids, which the city is rich in, belong to different classes such as hydraulic structures (aqueducts, cisterns, wells, etc.), settlement works (tunnels, bomb shelters, tombs etc.) and various works (quarries, natural caves, etc.). This paper describes the phases of the survey of a large cavity below a high-traffic square near the Faculty of Engineering in the city of Cagliari, where the research team works. The cave, which is part of a larger complex, is important because it was used in the thirteenth century (known as the Pisan age) as a stone quarry. There are traces of this activity that have to be protected. Moreover, during the last forty years the continuous crossover of vehicles cracked the roof of the cave compromising the stability of the entire area. Consequently a plan was developed to make the whole cavity safe and usable for visits. The study of the safety of the cave has involved different professionals among which geologists, engineers, constructors. The goal of the University of Cagliari geomatic team was to solve two problems: to obtain geometrical information about the void and correctly place the cave in the context of existing maps. The survey and the products, useful for the investigation of the technicians involved, had to comply with tolerances of 3 cm in the horizontal and 5 cm in the vertical component. The approach chosen for this purpose was to integrate different geomatic techniques. The cave was surveyed using a laser scanner (Faro Photon 80) in order to obtain a 3D model of the cave from which all the geometrical information was derived, while both classic topography and GPS techniques were used to include the cave in the

  19. Groundwater resource degradation in coastal plains: The example of the Cecina area (Tuscany - Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Sergio [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@igg.cnr.i; Cortecci, Gianni; Squarci, Paolo [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    The paper describes the degradation of the groundwater resources in the Cecina area, where seawater intrusion, B contamination and NO{sub 3} pollution are all affecting the heavily exploited Pleistocene aquifer. Over-pumping has brought water levels to about 0 m.a.s.l. as far as about 7 km from the shore line, thereby promoting the seawater intrusion. The intrusion, which is characterized by cation exchange phenomena and Ca-Cl type waters, enters the plain mostly through the shallower horizons. The saline front, which advanced from 0.5 to 1 km in 4 a, has by now reached the foot of the hills to the east of the town, where it is also affecting wells of the local aqueduct. Boron contamination, linked to past discharge of industrial waste transported downstream by the river, reached concentrations as high as 3.5 mg/L in the mid-1980s. Although a decreasing trend is now under way, B content is still close to 1 mg/L. The presence of high NO{sub 3}, which, together with the seawater intrusion, represents a major issue for groundwater management in the area, is linked to the widespread utilization of fertilizers. Nitrate concentration, which reaches a maximum of about 300 mg/L in the shallow aquifer horizons and then decreases rather regularly with depth, is strongly influenced by precipitation. However, irrigation also contributes significantly to transporting the NO{sub 3} contamination to depth, as clearly shown by {delta}{sup 18}O data. The severe decline in the quality of the groundwater resource in the Cecina area is further compounded by an overall decrease in water availability in the region of Tuscany, as evidenced by long-term monitoring of precipitation and fluvial discharge.

  20. Neonatal high pressure hydrocephalus is associated with elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-18 and IFNγ in cerebrospinal fluid

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    Schaller Carlo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In human neonatal high pressure hydrocephalus (HPHC, diffuse white matter injury and gliosis predispose to poor neuro-developmental outcome. The underlying mechanism for diffuse white matter damage in neonatal HPHC is still unclear. Analogous to inflammatory white matter damage after neonatal hypoxemia/ischemia, we hypothesized that pro-inflammatory cytokines could be involved in neonatal HPHC. If so, early anti-inflammatory therapy could ameliorate white matter damage in HPHC, before irreversible apoptosis has occurred. In HPHC and control neonates, we therefore aimed to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations of IL18, IFNγ and sFasL (interleukin 18, interferon gamma and apoptosis marker soluble-Fas ligand, respectively. Methods In neonatal HPHC (n = 30 and controls (n = 15, we compared CSF concentrations of IL18, IFNγ and sFasL using sandwich ELISA. HPHC was grouped according to etiology: spina bifida aperta (n = 20, aqueduct stenosis (n = 4, and fetal intra-cerebral haemorrhage (n = 6. Neonatal control CSF was derived from otherwise healthy neonates (n = 15, who underwent lumbar puncture for exclusion of meningitis. Results In all three HPHC groups, CSF IL18 concentrations were significantly higher than control values, and the fetal intracranial haemorrhage group was significantly higher than SBA group. Similarly, in all HPHC groups CSF-IFNγ concentrations significantly exceeded the control group. In both HPHC and control neonates, CSF FasL concentrations remained within the range of reference values. Conclusion Independent of the pathogenesis, neonatal HPHC is associated with the activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-18 and IFNγ in the CSF, whereas CSF apoptosis biomarkers (sFasL were unchanged. This suggests that anti-inflammatory treatment (in addition to shunting could be helpful to preserve cerebral white matter.

  1. The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle and brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Bollam, Papireddy; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective The superior transvelar approach is used to access pathologies located in the fourth ventricle and brainstem. The surgical path is below the venous structures, through the superior medullary velum. Following splitting the tentorial edge, near the tentorial apex, the superior medullary velum is split in the cerebello-mesencephalic fissure. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial, transtentorial or parietal interhemispheric routes, the superior medullary velum is approached. Splitting this velum provides a detailed view of the fourth ventricle and its floor. Materials and Methods A total of 10 formalin-fixed specimens were dissected in a stepwise manner to simulate the superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle. The exposure gained the distance from the craniotomy site and the ease of access was assessed for each of the routes. We also present an illustrative case, operated by the senior author (AN). Results The superior transvelar approach provides access to the entire length of the fourth ventricle floor, from the aqueduct to the obex, when using the parietal interhemispheric route. In addition, this approach provides access to the entire width of the floor of the fourth ventricle; however, this requires retracting the superior cerebellar peduncle. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial route gives a limited exposure of the superior part of the fourth ventricle. The occipital interhemispheric route is a compromise between these two. Conclusion The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle provides a route for approaching the fourth ventricle from above. This approach does not require opening the posterior fossa in the traditional way, and provides a reasonable alternative for accessing the superior fourth ventricle.

  2. Land use and water use in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, W.E.; Phillips, S.P.; Cherry, D.E.; DeBortoli, M.L.; Haltom, T.C.; McPherson, K.R.; Mrozek, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Urban land use and water use in the Antelope Valley, California, have increased greatly since the devel- opment of the valley began in the late 1800's. Ground water always has been a major source of supply in this area because of limited local surface-water resources. Ground-water pumpage reportedly increased from about 29,000 acre-feet in 1919 to about 400,000 acre-feet in the 1950's. Declines in ground-water levels and increased costs of electrical power in the 1970's resulted in a reduction in the quantity of ground-water pumped annually for irrigation uses. Ground-water pumpage was further reduced in the 1970's following the completion of the California Aqueduct, which conveys water from northern California. Total annual reported ground-water pumpage decreased to a low of about 53,200 acre-feet in 1983 and increased again to about 91,700 acre-feet in 1991. Rapid urban development and the 1987-92 drought renewed concern about a possible return to extensive ground-water- storage depletion and increased land subsidence. Water-demand forecasts in 1980 for the Antelope Valley indicated that total annual demand by the year 2020 was expected to be about 250,000 acre- feet per year, with agricultural uses to be about 65 percent of this total demand. In 1990, total demand. In 1993, preliminary forecasts for total demand for 2010 ranged from about 127,000 to 329,000 acre-feet with urban water uses accounting for all but a few percent of the total anticipated demand. This history of forecasts indicates that expectations change with time. Factors that affect water demand change and different forecasting methods are used. Water-conservation options may be adopted to employ best-management practices that would further influence future water demands in the Antelope Valley.

  3. Water Quality and Supply Issues of Irrigated Agricultural Regions - Lessons from the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, C. J.; Wang, D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley of California covers 4 million hectares of farmland and produces $25 billion of agricultural products annually, but its average annual rainfall ranges from only 130 mm in the south to 330 mm in the north and nearly all occur in the winter. On the east side of the valley, irrigation water is mostly derived from the Sierra snow melt. On the west side, water is imported from the northern part of the state through the Sacramento Delta and a network of canals and aqueducts. Ground water is also used for both east and west sides of the valley to supplement surface water sources, especially during droughts. After years of intense irrigation, a number of water supply and water quality issues have emerged. They include groundwater overdraft, land subsidence, water contamination by agricultural drainage laden with selenium, salinity buildup in soil and water, nutrients contamination from fertilizers and livestock production, competition for water with megalopolis and environmental use and restoration. All these problems are intensified by the effect of climate change that has already taken place and other geological hazards, such as earthquakes that can bring the water supply system to a complete halt. In addition to scientific and technical considerations, solutions for these complex issues necessarily involve management planning, public policy and actions. Currently, they include furloughing marginally productive lands, groundwater recharge and banking, water reuse and recycle, salinity and nutrient management, integrated regional water management planning, and public education and outreach. New laws have been enacted to better monitor groundwater elevations, and new bond measures to improve storage, infrastructures, and reliability, have been placed on the public ballot. The presentation will discuss these complex water issues.

  4. Integrating Infrastructure and Institutions for Water Security in Large Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, J.; Jawitz, J. W.; Carrera, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban growth has forced cities to procure more freshwater to meet demands; however the relationship between urban water security, water availability and water management is not well understood. This work quantifies the urban water security of 108 large cities in the United States (n=50) and Africa (n=58) based on their hydrologic, hydraulic and institutional settings. Using publicly available data, urban water availability was estimated as the volume of water available from local water resources and those captured via hydraulic infrastructure (e.g. reservoirs, wellfields, aqueducts) while urban water institutions were assessed according to their ability to deliver, supply and regulate water resources to cities. When assessing availability, cities relying on local water resources comprised a minority (37%) of those assessed. The majority of cities (55%) instead rely on captured water to meet urban demands, with African cities reaching farther and accessing a greater number and variety of sources for water supply than US cities. Cities using captured water generally had poorer access to local water resources and maintained significantly more complex strategies for water delivery, supply and regulatory management. Eight cities, all African, are identified in this work as having water insecurity issues. These cities lack sufficient infrastructure and institutional complexity to capture and deliver adequate amounts of water for urban use. Together, these findings highlight the important interconnection between infrastructure investments and management techniques for urban areas with a limited or dwindling natural abundance of water. Addressing water security challenges in the future will require that more attention be placed not only on increasing water availability, but on developing the institutional support to manage captured water supplies.

  5. Round window membrane intracochlear drug delivery enhanced by induced advection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkholder, David A; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D

    2014-01-28

    Delivery of therapeutic compounds to the inner ear via absorption through the round window membrane (RWM) has advantages over direct intracochlear infusions; specifically, minimizing impact upon functional hearing measures. However, previous reports show that significant basal-to-apical concentration gradients occur, with the potential to impact treatment efficacy. Here we present a new approach to inner ear drug delivery with induced advection aiding distribution of compounds throughout the inner ear in the murine cochlea. Polyimide microtubing was placed near the RWM niche through a bullaostomy into the middle ear cavity allowing directed delivery of compounds to the RWM. We hypothesized that a posterior semicircular canalostomy would induce apical flow from the patent cochlear aqueduct to the canalostomy due to influx of cerebral spinal fluid. To test this hypothesis, young adult CBA/CaJ mice were divided into two groups: bullaostomy approach only (BA) and bullaostomy+canalostomy (B+C). Cochlear function was evaluated by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds during and after middle ear infusion of salicylate in artificial perilymph (AP), applied near the RWM. The mice recovered for 1week, and were re-tested. The results demonstrate there was no significant impact on auditory function utilizing the RWM surgical procedure with or without the canalostomy, and DPOAE thresholds were elevated reversibly during the salicylate infusion. Comparing the threshold shifts for both methods, the B+C approach had more of a physiological effect than the BA approach, including at lower frequencies representing more apical cochlear locations. Unlike mouse cochleostomies, there was no deleterious auditory functional impact after 1week recovery from surgery. The B+C approach had more drug efficacy at lower frequencies, underscoring potential benefits for more precise control of delivery of inner ear therapeutic compounds.

  6. Reconnaissance of Volatile Synthetic Organic Chemicals at Public Water Supply Wells Throughout Puerto Rico, November 1984-May 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Rios, Senen; Garcia, Rene; Aviles, Ada

    1987-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ground water is the principal source of drinking water for about 850,000 people in Puerto Rico (National Water Summary, 1985). Ground-water withdrawals for public supply, agricultural, and industrial water uses in Puerto Rico are about 250 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) (Torres-Sierra and Aviles, 1985). The development of the most accessible surface water supplies will result in an increasing demand for ground water. Recent investigations conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey, WRD (USGS) have shown the presence of toxic synthetic organic chemicals in ground water throughout Puerto Rico (Gomez-Gomez and Guzman-Rios, 1982). Volatile synthetic organic chemicals (VOC's) have been detected in water from public water supply wells in concentrations ranging from 1 to 500 micrograms per liter (Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1984 and Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1985). As result of these findings, pumpage was discontinued at 6 wells operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico agency responsible for public-water supply. Monitoring of 10 additional wells in the vicinity of those wells is being conducted by the USGS in cooperation with PRASA. In 1985, the USGS began a comprehensive islandwide study of VOC's in drinking water. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) and PRASA. Samples were collected from 243 public-water supply wells operated by PRASA (flgure 1). The authors wish to acknowledge the support, assistance and cooperation of the PRASA staff throughout Puerto Rico in the sample collection effort. The authors are especially grateful to Engineer Carlos Garcia-Troche from the PRASA main office in San Juan.

  7. Study on the Relationship between the Pathogenic Mutations of GJB2、SLC26A4 and CT Phenotypes of Inner Ear in Patient with Sensorineural Hearing Loss%GJB2、SLC26A4基因致病性突变与内耳CT表型关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝春; 代志瑶; 黄莎莎; 韩冰; 袁永一; 苏钰; 康东洋; 戴朴

    2014-01-01

    Objects Study on the relationship between the pathogenic mutations of GJB2、SLC26A4 and CT pheno-types of inner ear. Explore the feasibility of using the method of gene sequence analysis to help CT examination in diagnosing of patients with inner ear malformation. Methods 2686 cases of patients were detected by GJB2 and SLC26A4 with the meth-od of DNA sequence. CT phenotypes of those patients were classified according to the method proposed by Sennaroglu. We analyzed the relationship between the pathogenic mutations of gene and the CT phenotypes. Results 1、429 cases were de-tected with pathogenic mutations of GJB2 (220 cases were homozygous, 207 cases were compound heterozygous and 2 case carried dominant mutation). 596 cases were detected with pathogenic mutations of SLC26A4 (169 cases were homozygous, 427 cases were compound heterozygous). 2、873 cases of inner ear malformations were diagnosed by CT examination(371 cas-es of Mondini malformation, 338 cases of enlarged vestibular aqueduct malformation and 164 cases of other types), normal was 1813 cases. 3、99.30%(426/429) cases carried pathogenic mutation of GJB2 were detected in the normal group and 100%(596/596)cases carried pathogenic mutation of SLC26A4 were detected in the group related to vestibular aqueduct malforma-tion. Conclusion The results suggested that pathogenic mutations of GJB2 is closely related to the CT phenotype of normal and pathogenic mutations of SLC26A4 is closely related to the CT phenotype of vestibular aqueduct malformation.%目的:研究感音神经耳聋GJB2、SLC26A4基因致病性突变与内耳CT表型之间的关系,探讨这两种基因检测在诊断感音神经性耳聋患者是否存在内耳畸形方面的作用。方法按DNA测序的方法检测2686例感音神经性耳聋患者GJB2、SLC26A4基因致病性突变情况,以Sennaroglu分类为标准统计以上患者内耳CT表型情况,分析GJB2、SLC26A4基因型与CT表型之间的关系。结果1、2686

  8. The inter-relationships between urban dynamics and water resource and supply based on multitemporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Alexandru; Aldea, Mihaela

    2016-08-01

    The growth and concentration of population, housing and industry in urban and suburban areas in the continuous evolution of a city over time causes complex social, economic, and physical challenges. The population and its relationship with the use and development of the land and water is a critical issue of urban growth, and since ancient times land, water and man were directly involved in the human populations' survival. Nevertheless the current potential of study over this relationship between urban growth, water supply, drainage and water resources conditions becomes more and more attractive due to the possibility to make use of the broader variety of information sources and technologies readily available in recent years, with emphasis on the open data and on the big data as primary sources. In this regard we present some new possibilities of analyses over the demographics, land use/land cover and water supply and conservation based on a study over a Romanian region of development (Bucharest-Ilfov). As urban development usually outgrows the existing water supply systems, the resolution consists in drilling new and deeper wells, building new water distribution pipelines, building longer aqueducts and larger reservoirs, or finding new sources and constructing completely new water supply systems, water supplies may evolve this way from a result into a cause and driver of urban growth. The evolution trends of the studied area was estimated based on the open satellite time-series imagery and remote sensing techniques by land use/land cover extraction and the identification of the changes in urbanization. The survey is mainly focused on the expansion of the water network in terms of areal, total length and number of connections correlated with the amount of water produced, consumed and lost within a supply zone. Some urban human activities including the industrial ones alter water resource by pollution, over pumping of groundwater, construction of dams and reservoirs

  9. Application of ultrasound differential diagnosis in abnormalities of fetus central nerve system%超声鉴别诊断技术在胎儿中枢神经系统畸形诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓学东; 李红; 梁青; 常红梅; 姜小力; 唐亚奇; 梁泓; 冯鸿; 陆伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To improve the clinical application of ultrasound differential diagnosis in abnormalities of fetus central nerve system. Methods Ultrasound imaging features in 217 cases of abnormalities in central nerve system confirmed by autopsy or follow-up were analyzed retrospectively. Results A total of 217 cases of anomaly in the central never system were examined prenatally by ultrasound and each showed typical imaging feature. Among these cases , there were 45 cases of anencephaly, 4 cases of hydranencephaly, 5 cases of arachnoid' s cyst, 2 cases of aneurysm of the vein of Galen, 78 cases of ventriculomegaly ( among them 46 cases of aqueduct stenosis), 13 cases of cephalocele, 17 cases of Dandy-Walker complex, 23 cases of spina bifida, 9 cases of holoprosencephaly, 5 cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum,8 cases of sacrococcygeal teratoma and 8 cases of choroid plexus cysts.Conclusion Application of ultrasound differential diagnosis by ultrasound for detection of abnormalities in fetus central nerve system( i. e. three sections and 12clues ), is extremely important.%目的 探讨产前超声鉴别诊断技术在胎儿中枢神经系统畸形诊断中的应用.方法 对经随访或引产证实217例中枢神经系统畸形的声像图特征进行回顾性分析.结果 产前超声诊断217例胎儿中枢神经系统畸形,其中无脑儿45例、水脑畸形4例、蛛网膜囊肿5例、Galen静脉瘤2例、脑室扩张78例(其中46例是中脑导水管狭窄)、脑膨出13例、Dandy-Walker综合征17例、开放性脊柱裂23例、前脑无裂畸形9例、胼胝体缺失5例、骶尾部畸胎瘤8例、脉络丛囊肿8例.结论 掌握超声检查胎儿中枢神经系统畸形的鉴别诊断技术,即三个切面和12种分析思路,对产前超声检查极为重要.

  10. Notes on the relation between rails and cultural and architectural heritage conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mauro

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The railways, like all other types of linear transport infrastructures (highways, motorways, waterways, pipelines, power lines, etc., and even sheep tracks in our not to distant past cross the country and interact with the environment. More often than not, this interaction due to transport modalities has a “negative” connotation because of the impact on the environment of the infrastructure as such and associated effects due to: noise and vibrations, atmospheric pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, accidents, and traffic congestion. If we analyse the effects of the various transport modalities in terms of their comparative external costs (the social and economic costs of the environmental impact, we can see that, from a quantitative point of view, the railways are the most ecologically compatible modality. This kind of analysis should be improved by taking into consideration other effects such as those due to land use, fragmentation of landscape, and effects on the cultural and architectural heritage. To illustrate this approach, the birth and early period of railways in the city of Roma and in the Roman Campagna, and the evolution of the great station of Roma Termini, are briefly reviewed and discussed. In this way, important elements are evidenced; inter alia: the continuing interaction in such a historically ancient urban and suburban settlement due to transport infrastructures (from ancient Roman roads and aqueducts to modern motorways and railways; the large variety of architectural and archaeological structures (including the artistic and landscaping aspects affected by the interaction; the frequent occurrence of architectonic objects marking the urban landscape in a such a way that the site appears peculiarly recognizable (for instance, the Servian Walls Aggere for the central station of Roma Termini. Finally, the archaeological sites discovered during the construction works of new High Speed Train (TAV lines are briefly

  11. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  12. Didymosphenia geminata in the Upper Esopus Creek: current status, variability, and controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    In May of 2009, the bloom-forming diatom Didymosphenia geminata was first identified in the Upper Esopus Creek, a key tributary to the New York City water-supply and a popular recreational stream. The Upper Esopus receives supplemental flows from the Shandaken Portal, an underground aqueduct delivering waters from a nearby basin. The presence of D.geminata is a concern for the local economy, water supply, and aquatic ecosystem because nuisance blooms have been linked to degraded stream condition in other regions. Here we ascertain the extent and severity of the D. geminata invasion, determine the impact of supplemental flows from the Portal on D. geminata, and identify potential factors that may limitD. geminata in the watershed. Stream temperature, discharge, and water quality were characterized at select sites and periphyton samples were collected five times at 6 to 20 study sites between 2009 and 2010 to assess standing crop, diatom community structure, and density of D. geminata and all diatoms. Density of D. geminata ranged from 0–12 cells cm-2 at tributary sites, 0–781 cells cm-2 at sites upstream of the Portal, and 0–2,574 cells cm-2 at sites downstream of the Portal. Survey period and Portal (upstream or downstream) each significantly affected D. geminata cell density. In general, D. geminata was most abundant during the November 2009 and June 2010 surveys and at sites immediately downstream of the Portal. We found that D. geminata did not reach nuisance levels or strongly affect the periphyton community. Similarly, companion studies showed that local macroinvertebrate and fish communities were generally unaffected. A number of abiotic factors including variable flows and moderate levels of phosphorous and suspended sediment may limit blooms of D. geminatain this watershed.

  13. Flow Rate Capacity Reduction Due to Temporal and Dynamic Processes in Large Pipelines. Study with Field Measurements; Efectos dinamicos y temporales en la reduccion de la capacidad de conduccion en grandes acueductos. Estudio con medidas en prototipo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona Paredes, Rafael; Ortiz Nunez, Luis Alfonso; Sanchez Huerta, Alejandro [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-06-01

    More than 15 years of operation have show that some water transport pressurized pipelines change their flow rate capacity faster than expected due to normal roughness increase. As explained by the tubular pinch effects, the radial migration of suspended particles in a flow can produce a high concentration close to the pipe wall. The non-uniform particle concentration leads to higher velocities at the center of the tube, equivalent to a reduced hydraulic section that increases the head losses. A model to explain field measurements at the Chapala-Guadalajara Aqueduct is proposed that suggests to hydraulic engineers to be more distrustful when using traditional head loss formulas to analyze water transport pipelines. [Spanish] La perdida de la capacidad de conduccion es un grave problema en la operacion de grandes acueductos. Mas de 15 anos de estudios y de inspeccion directa al interior de las tuberias de varios sistemas de abastecimiento de agua potable han mostrado el desarrollo de capas de material fino fuertemente adheridas a la pared de los tubos. En algunos casos, la variacion de la perdida de carga no ha podido ser explicada con los modelos tradicionales de crecimiento de la rugosidad interna, por lo que para explicar de forma adecuada las mediciones de campo realizadas en el acueducto Chapala-Guadalajara ha sido necesario incorporar de manera simultanea fenomenos dinamicos y temporales. Con base en el fecto de elongacion tubular (o tubular pinch effect), descrito por otros autores, mas observaciones directas al interior de las tuberias, en este trabajo se plantea como una posible de la disminucion de capacidad de conduccion en el acueducto Chapala-Guadalajara un cambio aparente en la seccion efectiva del flujo, originado por la migracion radial hacia la pared del tubo de las particulas suspendidas en el agua. El modelo que propone reproduce las medidas en campo con diferencias menores al 10% e invita a reflexionar sobre las practicas convencionales para

  14. The Debris Flow of September 20, 2014, in Mud Creek, Mount Shasta Volcano, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, J. A.; Bachmann, S.; Courtney, A.; Meyers, N.; Mikulovsky, R.; Rust, B.; Coots, F.; Veich, D.

    2015-12-01

    The debris flow in Mud Creek on September 20, 2014 occurred during a warm spell at the end of an unusually long and hot summer. No precipitation was recorded during or immediately before the event, and it appears to have resulted from rapid glacial melt. It initiated on the toe of the Konwakiton Glacier, and immediately below it. The flow track was small in the upper parts (40 feet wide), but between 8,000 and 10,000 feet in elevation, it entrained a large volume of debris from the walls and bed of the deeply incised gorge and transported it down to the apex of the Mud Creek alluvial fan (4,800'). At that point, it overflowed the channel and deposited debris on top of older (1924) debris flow deposits, and the debris plugged a road culvert 24 feet wide and 12 feet high. A small fraction of the flow was diverted to a pre-existing overflow channel which parallels Mud Creek, about 1,000 feet to the west. The main debris flow traveled down Mud Creek, confined to the pre-existing channel, but locally got to within a foot or so of overflowing the banks. At elevation 3920', video was taken during the event by a private citizen and placed on YouTube. The video revealed that the flow matrix consisted of a slurry of water/clay/silt/sand/gravel, transporting boulders 1-6 feet in diameter along with the flow. Cobble-sized rock appears to be absent. Sieve analysis of the debris flow matrix material revealed a fining of particles in a downstream direction, as expected. The thickness of deposits on the fan generally decreased in a downstream direction. Deposits were 5-6 feet deep above the Mud Creek dam, which is at 4,800' elevation, and 4-5 feet deep at the dam itself. Further downstream, thicknesses decreased as follows: 3920'aqueduct crossing, 3-4 feet; 3620' Pilgrim Creek Road crossing, 2-3 feet; 3,520', 1-2 feet; 3,440' abandoned railroad grade, 1 foot. This event damaged roads, and future events could threaten life and property. There is a need to better understand local

  15. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children: prospective, multicenter results from the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Holubkov, Richard; Browd, Samuel R; Cochrane, D Douglas; Drake, James M; Limbrick, David D; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Simon, Tamara D; Tamber, Mandeep S; Wellons, John C; Whitehead, William E; Kestle, John R W

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is now established as a viable treatment option for a subgroup of children with hydrocephalus. Here, the authors report prospective, multicenter results from the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) to provide the most accurate determination of morbidity, complication incidence, and efficacy of ETV in children and to determine if intraoperative predictors of ETV success add substantially to preoperative predictors. METHODS All children undergoing a first ETV (without choroid plexus cauterization) at 1 of 7 HCRN centers up to June 2013 were included in the study and followed up for a minimum of 18 months. Data, including detailed intraoperative data, were prospectively collected as part of the HCRN's Core Data Project and included details of patient characteristics, ETV failure (need for repeat hydrocephalus surgery), and, in a subset of patients, postoperative complications up to the time of discharge. RESULTS Three hundred thirty-six eligible children underwent initial ETV, 18.8% of whom had undergone shunt placement prior to the ETV. The median age at ETV was 6.9 years (IQR 1.7-12.6), with 15.2% of the study cohort younger than 12 months of age. The most common etiologies were aqueductal stenosis (24.8%) and midbrain or tectal lesions (21.2%). Visible forniceal injury (16.6%) was more common than previously reported, whereas severe bleeding (1.8%), thalamic contusion (1.8%), venous injury (1.5%), hypothalamic contusion (1.5%), and major arterial injury (0.3%) were rare. The most common postoperative complications were CSF leak (4.4%), hyponatremia (3.9%), and pseudomeningocele (3.9%). New neurological deficit occurred in 1.5% cases, with 0.5% being permanent. One hundred forty-one patients had documented failure of their ETV requiring repeat hydrocephalus surgery during follow-up, 117 of them during the first 6 months postprocedure. Kaplan-Meier rates of 30-day, 90-day, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year failure

  16. Tracking recent climate and anthropogenic change in Central America in sediments form the lower fan of the Rio Yaqui, Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.; Moraes, R.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of preliminary sedimentologic analyses of a ~3.3m long piston core (P13) collected in the lower fan of the Rio Yaqui (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California; depth, 1859m) by UNAM's (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) research ship El Puma in 2014. The core was collected to test the potential for high-resolution reconstructions of basin-scale paleoclimate in the Pacific and the Mesoamerican region. Shipboard and post-cruise analyses include magnetic susceptibility (MS), smear slide counts and laser diffraction particle size analysis. The core is being analyzed for X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and color reflectance, and a 210Pb age model is being constructed. Preliminary results show that Rio Yaqui lower fan sediment differs significantly from that in the Guaymas Basin, which is dominantly diatom ooze. The lower ~2m of core P13 show prominent alternations (~10-20cm) between very-fine-grained, clay intervals characterized by higher MS and mixed diatom and clay intervals, with coarser grain size and lower MS values. In contrast, the upper ~1m has distinctive high MS sand turbidites alternating with diatom-rich layers. Previous core studies from nearby ODP Leg 64 site show sedimentation rates of ~1.2 m/ka; as these sites are further away from the Yaqui delta the sedimentation rates for core P13 should be higher possibly recording only the last few hundred years of sedimentation. Clay/diatom cycles in the lower part of the core could record decadal- or ENSO-scale wet/aridity cycles in the Sonoran Mainland. Conversely, the coarser siliciclastic intervals and the diatom layers in the upper part of the core could reflect the last few decades of land usage in the watershed of the Rio Yaqui, the most important river in the state of Sonora, Mexico. These include large modifications to the river's hydrography (e.g. construction of dams and aqueducts), rapidly expanding mass agricultural practices in the region, and increased eutrophication in the Gulf.

  17. CT and MRI study in severe sensorineural hearing loss in children%儿童重度感音神经性聋的CT及MRI影像学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏忠芳; 王智楠; 邵剑波; 徐忠强; 徐恩明; 张艳; 涂燕君

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨CT和MRI在儿童重度感音神经性聋(SNHL)诊断中的价值.方法:对96例重度SNHI.患儿进行颞骨高分辨率CT和MRI检查,并进行三维立体成像.结果:15例患儿CT(MRI)显示异常,其中耳蜗不发育(Michel畸形)1例,耳蜗发育不良1例,共同腔畸形1例,Mondini畸形1例,内耳道狭窄及闭锁各1例,蜗神经未发育1例,前庭水管扩大8例;其余81例CT和MRI均未见内耳及内耳道畸形.结论:部分先天性SNHI.患儿存在内耳畸形,颞骨高分辨率CT能显示内耳骨迷路畸形,MRI则能显示畸形的迷路内腔及内耳道内前庭耳蜗神经,为制定干预策略及选择治疗方式提供了重要依据.%Objective: To investigate the value of CT and MRI in diagnosing the children with gensorineural hearing loss. Method; Ninty-six cases suspected as severe sensorineural hearing loss were examined by CT/MRI system and 3D reconstruction. Result:Of 96 cases, 15 cases were found malformation these malformation included Michel, cochlear hypoplasia,commun cavity,Mondini,inner cannel straitness.cochlear nerve undeveloped and ves-tibular aqueduct enlargements. Conclusion; There are 15.63% inner ear malformation occurred in sensorineural hearing loss children. CT and MRI of inner ear have a great clinical value in diagnosing children sensorineural hearing loss by learning the anatomy.

  18. Expression of TRPM8 in the distal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons in the brain mesencephalon of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Licai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that distal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (dCSF-CNs exist near the ventral midline of the midbrain aqueduct and also in the grey matter of the inferior third ventricle and the fourth ventricle floor in the superior segment of the pons. The dCSF-CNs communicate between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the brain parenchyma and may participate in the transduction and regulation of pain signals. The cold sensation receptor channel, TRPM8 is involved in analgesia for neuropathic pain, but whether the TRPM8 receptor exists on dCSF-CNs remains unknown. However, there is preliminary evidence that TRPM8 is expressed in dCSF-CNs and may participate in the transmission and regulation of sensory information between brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in rats. Methods Retrograde tracing of the cholera toxin subunit B labeled with horseradish peroxidase (CB-HRP injected into the lateral ventricle was used to identify dCSF-CNs. A double-labeled immunofluorescent technique and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to identify the expression of TRPM8 in dCSF-CNs. Software Image-Pro Plus was used to count the number of neurons in three sections where CB-HRP positive neurons were located in the mesencephalon of six rats. Results The cell bodies of CB-HRP-positive dCSF-CNs were found in the brain parenchyma near the midline of the ventral Aq, also in the grey of the 3V, and the 4V floor in the superior segment of the pons. In the mesencephalon their processes extended into the CSF. TRPM8 labeled neurons were also found in the same area as were CB-HRP/TRPM8 double-labeled neurons. CB-HRP/TRPM8 double-labeled neurons were found in 42.9 ± 2.3% of neurons labeled by TRPM8, and all CB-HRP-labeled neurons were also labeled with TPRM8. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that the cold sensation receptor channel, TRPM8, is localised within the dCSF-CNs of the mesencephalon. TRPM8 acts as receptor of d

  19. Intraventricular infusion of hyperosmolar dextran induces hydrocephalus: a novel animal model of hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy Satish

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Popular circulation theory of hydrocephalus assumes that the brain is impermeable to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and is therefore incapable of absorbing the CSF accumulating within the ventricles. However, the brain parenchyma is permeable to water due to the presence of specific ion channels as well as aquaporin channels. Thus, the movement of water into and out of the ventricles may be determined by the osmotic load of the CSF. If osmotic load determines the aqueous content of CSF in this manner, it is reasonable to hypothesize that hydrocephalus may be precipitated by pathologies and/or insults that produce sustained elevations of osmotic content within the ventricles. Methods We investigated this hypothesis by manipulating the osmotic content of CSF and assaying the development of hydrocephalus in the rat brain. This was achieved by continuously infusing artificial CSF (negative control; group I, fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 solution (positive control; group II and hyperosmotic dextran solutions (10 KD and 40 KD as experimental solutions: groups III and IV for 12 days at 0.5 μL/h. The osmolality of the fluid infused was 307, 664, 337 and 328 mOsm/L in Groups I, II, III and IV, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to evaluate the ventricular volumes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with pairwise group comparisons was done to assess the differences in ventricular volumes among the four groups. Results Group I had no hydrocephalus. Group II, group III and group IV animals exhibited significant enlargement of the ventricles (hydrocephalus compared to group I. There was no statistically significant difference in the size of the ventricles between groups II, III and IV. None of the animals with hydrocephalus had obstruction of the aqueduct or other parts of CSF pathways on MRI. Conclusion Infusing hyperosmolar solutions of dextran, or FGF into the ventricles chronically, resulted in ventricular enlargement. These

  20. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 1, California, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planert, Michael; Williams, John S.

    1995-01-01

    California and Nevada compose Segment 1 of the Ground Water Atlas of the United States. Segment 1 is a region of pronounced physiographic and climatic contrasts. From the Cascade Mountains and the Sierra Nevada of northern California, where precipitation is abundant, to the Great Basin in Nevada and the deserts of southern California, which have the most arid environments in the United States, few regions exhibit such a diversity of topography or environment. Since the discovery of gold in the mid-1800's, California has experienced a population, industrial, and agricultural boom unrivaled by that of any other State. Water needs in California are very large, and the State leads the United States in agricultural and municipal water use. The demand for water exceeds the natural water supply in many agricultural and nearly all urban areas. As a result, water is impounded by reservoirs in areas of surplus and transported to areas of scarcity by an extensive network of aqueducts. Unlike California, which has a relative abundance of water, development in Nevada has been limited by a scarcity of recoverable freshwater. The Truckee, the Carson, the Walker, the Humboldt, and the Colorado Rivers are the only perennial streams of significance in the State. The individual basin-fill aquifers, which together compose the largest known ground-water reserves, receive little annual recharge and are easily depleted. Nevada is sparsely populated, except for the Las Vegas, the Reno-Sparks, and the Carson City areas, which rely heavily on imported water for public supplies. Although important to the economy of Nevada, agriculture has not been developed to the same degree as in California due, in large part, to a scarcity of water. Some additional ground-water development might be possible in Nevada through prudent management of the basin-fill aquifers and increased utilization of ground water in the little-developed carbonate-rock aquifers that underlie the eastern one-half of the State

  1. Del funcionalismo a la concepción sistémica:El caso del sistema de gestión de calidad: De METROAGUA S.A

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    Alberto Carvajalino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito es un resumen de una investigación realizada por los autores y gira en torno a la experiencia histórica de la empresa prestadora del servicio de acueducto y alcantarillado de Santa Marta: Metroagua S.A. Se parte de un pasado reciente, en el cual la concepción funcionalista de la organización estaba impregnada de un fuerte manejo político; las decisiones gerenciales estaban sustentadas en la racionalidad política. Los resultados obtenidos bajo ese esquema provocaron el colapso de la organización. La implementación de una política de gestión de la calidad, conllevó a cambios profundos en todas las dimensiones al interior de la organización, no sólo en su concepción, sino también al interior de cada uno de sus integrantes, generando un nuevo orden epistemológico en los individuos que la integran.Palabras Clave: El método empleado es de contrastación empírica del proceso experimentado por la organización objeto de estas líneas. Of the functionalism to the sistemica conception through system of management of quality: The case of Metroagua S.A.AbstractThe present writing is a summary of an investigation made by the authors and turns around the historical experience of the lending company of the service of aqueduct and sewage system of Santa Marta: Metroagua S.A.Part of a recent past, in which the funcionalista conception of the organization was impregnated of a fort political handling; the managemental decisions were sustained in the political rationality. The results obtained under that scheme caused the collapse of the organization.The implementation of a policy of management of the quality, it entailed to deep changes in all the dimensions to the interior of the organization, not only in its conception, but also to the interior of each one of its members, generating a new order epistemologic in the individuals that integrate it.Keywords: empirical contrast of the process experienced by the organization

  2. [Neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen type 1 (NF1) - clinical picture and molecular-genetics diagnostic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrák, Bořivoj; Bendová, Šárka; Lisý, Jiří; Kraus, Josef; Zatrapa, Tomáš; Glombová, Marie; Zámečník, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen type 1 (NF1) is a multisystem, autosomal dominant hereditary neurocutaneous disease characterized by skin, central and peripheral nervous system , eyes , bone, endocrine, gastrointestinal and blood vessel wall involvement. It has an estimated frequency of 1 in 3000. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is caused by mutations in the large NF1 gene located on chromosome 17q11.2, encoding the cytoplasmic protein neurofibromin. It is expressed in multiple cell types but is highly expressed in Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, astrocytes and leukocytes. Neurofibromin is known to act as a tumor suppressor via Ras-GTPase activation, which causes down-regulation of cellular signaling via the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Failure of this function is associated with a tendency to form tumors which are histologically hamartomas as well as benign tumors. Tumors of the central nervous system include low-grade gliomas (pilocytic astrocytomas grade I), especially optic pathway gliomas. They are often clinically asymptomatic. Other intracranial tumors are in the brain stem and also elsewhere in the brain and spinal cord. Hydrocephalus may be a complication of NF1 gliomas or due to stenosis of the distal part of the aqueduct Silvii. Cutaneous and subcutaneous neurofibromas or plexiform neurofibromas are localized in the peripheral nervous system. Plexiform neurofibromas have a significant lifetime risk of malignancy. The clinical diagnosis of NF1 is defined by diagnostic criteria. The NF1 diagnosis is satisfied when at least two of the seven conditions are met. The method of direct DNA analysis of large NF1 gene (61 exons) is available. The results of studies of genotype - phenotype established few correlations. But predicting the disease by finding mutations is not currently possible. NF1 exhibits a wide range of variability of expression and complete penetrance, even within the same family. About half of cases are new

  3. Comprehensive molecular etiology analysis of nonsyndromic hearing impairment from typical areas in China

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    Kang Dongyang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year, 30,000 babies are born with congenital hearing impairment in China. The molecular etiology of hearing impairment in the Chinese population has not been investigated thoroughly. To provide appropriate genetic testing and counseling to families, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the molecular etiology of nonsyndromic deafness in two typical areas from northern and southern China. Methods A total of 284 unrelated school children with hearing loss who attended special education schools in China were enrolled in this study, 134 from Chifeng City in Inner Mongolia and the remaining 150 from Nangtong City in JiangSu Province. Screening was performed for GJB2, GJB3, GJB6, SLC26A4, 12S rRNA, and tRNAser(UCN genes in this population. All patients with SLC26A4 mutations or variants were subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT scan to verify the enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Results Mutations in the GJB2 gene accounted for 18.31% of the patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss, 1555A>G mutation in mitochondrial DNA accounted for 1.76%, and SLC26A4 mutations accounted for 13.73%. Almost 50% of the patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss in these typical Chinese areas carried GJB2 or SLC26A4 mutations. No significant differences in mutation spectrum or prevalence of GJB2 and SLC26A4 were found between the two areas. Conclusion In this Chinese population, 54.93% of cases with hearing loss were related to genetic factors. The GJB2 gene accounted for the etiology in about 18.31% of the patients with hearing loss, SLC26A4 accounted for about 13.73%, and mtDNA 1555A>G mutation accounted for 1.76%. Mutations in GJB3, GJB6, and mtDNA tRNAser(UCN were not common in this Chinese cohort. Conventionally, screening is performed for GJB2, SLC26A4, and mitochondrial 12S rRNA in the Chinese deaf population.

  4. 热湿传导模型在早龄期混凝土非结构性裂缝分析中的应用%Analysis of non-structural cracks at early ages by coupled heat and humidity transmission model in the concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许朴; 朱岳明; 贵能慧

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model for the analysis of concrete structure is introduced. The numerical model takes into account both the time-dependent thermal variations due to hydration heat and non-uniform moisture distribution during drying, and the coupling effect between the heat transfer and the moisture diffusion. Calcula-tion of the temperature and internal relative humidity variations of concrete structure is followed by determination of stres-ses due to thermal gradients, differential drying shrinkage, and average drying shrinkage. The mechanical properties of concrete at early ages, determined from numerous experimental studies, are taken into consideration to improve the accu-racy of the numerical results. The validity of the proposed procedure is verified by comparing the measured data with the numerical results for concrete aqueduct.%为了更加准确的分析混凝土结构早龄期非结构性裂缝的产生机理,提出了混凝土三维有限元热湿传导数值计算模型.该模型考虑了水泥水化放热引起的混凝土温度变化、表面干燥失水而造成的混凝土湿度非均匀分布和热传导与湿度扩散之间的耦合作用;采用考虑水化度的混凝土弹性模量和抗拉强度计算公式来表征早龄期时温度变化对其力学性能的影响,同时在应力分析中采用Bazant的双幂函数徐变模型.算例分析表明,该模型能很好地预测实际条件下混凝土温度、湿度变化和相应产生的应力,具有一定的工程应用价值.

  5. Tracing the sources of pollution of wells and Karst springs supplying water to the City of Ragusa, South-Eastern Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Ruggieri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the pollution occurs in two important karst springs, supplying the aqueduct to the city Ragusa, started since September2010 and is still continuing. Both springs show higher values of ammonia and the presence of salmonella, elements ascribable to wastewater of animal origin. This investigations identified a number of farms present within the springs protected areas which likely to have caused the pollution. These were imposed by ordinances to build adequate storage tanks for the animal waste water. Paradoxically, the construction of these tanks led to a further worsening of the state of pollution, as the latter from episodic, linked to rainfall, became continuous due to the overflowing of wastewater from the tanks never emptied, as it was ascertained. A geological and geochemical study, preparatory to the execution of tracer tests, conducted by the Water Dept. of Genio Civile of Ragusa and ARPA (Regional Agency for the Environmental Protection, allowed a hydrogeological characterization of the recharge area and the definition of the hydrologic regime of the springs, that in this case, resulted as interconnected. Follow-up tests with fluorescent tracers, carried out on a few farms, were then interrupted because of the opposition of one of the owners. From that moment on, everything stops as for the research of the origin of the pollutant, while at the same time the situation gets worse, both in terms of environment, for the devastating effect on the ecosystem of the Ciaramite stream due to the spill in the riverbed of the polluted water springs, and for the resulting pollution of two municipal drinking water wells placed at the confluence of the Ciaramite stream with the Irminio river. The lack of further drinkable water determined the starting of the crisis of the city water distribution system having to turn to a supply of chance with tank trucks and shifts that created situations of considerable discomfort to major part

  6. Accidental contamination during hydrocarbon exploitation and the rapid transfer of heavy-mineral fines through an overlying highly karstified aquifer (Paradiso Spring, SE Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Rosario; Forti, Paolo; Antoci, Maria Lucia; De Waele, Jo

    2017-03-01

    The area around Ragusa in Sicily is well known for the exploration of petroleum deposits hosted in Mesozoic carbonate rocks. These reservoirs are overlain by less permeable rocks, whereas the surface geology is characterized by outcrops of Oligo-Miocene carbonate units hosting important aquifers. Some of the karst springs of the area are used as drinking water supplies, and therefore these vulnerable aquifers should be monitored and protected adequately. In the early afternoon (14:00) of 27 May until the late evening (19:30) of 28 May 2011, during the construction of an exploitation borehole (Tresauro 2), more than 1000 m3 of drilling fluids were lost in an unknown karst void. Two days later, from 06:30 on 30 May, water flowing from Paradiso Spring, lying some 13.7 km SW of the borehole and 378 m lower, normally used as a domestic water supply, was so intensely coloured that it was unfit for drinking. Bulk chemical analyses carried out on the water have shown a composition that is very similar to that of the drilling fluids lost at the Tresauro borehole, confirming a hydrological connection. Estimations indicate that the first signs of the drilling fluids took about 59 h to flow from their injection point to the spring, corresponding to a mean velocity of ∼230 m/h. That Paradiso Spring is recharged by a well-developed underground drainage system is also confirmed by the marked flow rate changes measured at the spring, ranging from a base flow of around 10-15 l/s to flood peaks of 2-3 m3/s. Reflecting the source and nature of the initial contamination, the pollution lasted for just a few days, and the water returned to acceptable drinking-water standards relatively quickly. However, pollution related to heavy-mineral fines continues to be registered during flooding of the spring, when the aqueducts are normally shut down because of the high turbidity values. This pollution event offers an instructive example of how hydrocarbon exploitation in intensely karstified

  7. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  8. Diagnostic Value of SLC26A4 Mutation Status in Hereditary Hearing Loss With EVA: A PRISMA-Compliant Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ya-Jie; Yao, Jun; Wei, Qin-Jun; Xing, Guang-Qian; Cao, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Many SLC26A4 mutations have been identified in patients with nonsyndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). However, the roles of SLC26A4 genotypes and phenotypes in hereditary deafness remain unexplained. This study aims to perform a meta-analysis based on the PRISMA statement to evaluate the diagnostic value of SLC26A4 mutant alleles and their correlations with multiethnic hearing phenotypes in EVA patients. The systematic literature search of the PubMed, Wiley Online Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases was conducted in English for articles published before July 15, 2015. Two investigators independently reviewed retrieved literature and evaluated eligibility. Discrepancy was resolved by discussion and a third investigator. Quality of included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Data were synthesized using random-effect or fixed-effect models. The effect sizes were estimated by measuring odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five eligible studies involved 2294 cases with EVA data. A total of 272 SLC26A4 variations were found in deafness with EVA and 26 mutations of SCL26A4 had higher frequency. The overall OR was 646.71 (95% CI: 383.30-1091.15, P = 0.000). A total of 22 mutants were considered statistically significant in all ethnicities (ORs >1, P 1, P 1, P G mutations in SLC26A4 were found to have the highest frequency in deafness individuals with EVA phenotype (62.42%). Moreover, subgroups for studies limited to cases with EVA phenotype, 11 mutants relevant risks (RRs) were P G bi-allelic mutants assayed in a deafness population (RR = 0.880, P = 0.000). Diagnostic accuracy of SLC26A4 mutation results also identified the significant association of IVS7-2A>G (AUC = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99) and p.H723R (AUC = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-1.00) detecting deafness with EVA. To conclude, the IVS7-2A>G and H723R in SLC26A4 present a significant predicting value and

  9. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

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    P. De Vita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  10. Radiocarbon Depression in Aquatic Foodwebs of the Colorado River, USA: Coupling Between Carbonate Weathering and the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickman, J. O.; Huang, W.; Lucero, D.; Anderson, M.

    2012-12-01

    The 14C isotopic composition of living organisms is generally considered to be in isotopic equilibrium with atmosphere CO2. During the course of investigations of aquatic foodwebs of the Colorado River, we measured substantial radiocarbon depression of organisms within planktonic and benthic foodwebs of Copper Basin Reservoir, a short residence-time water body at the intake to the Colorado River Aqueduct. All trophic levels had depressed radiocarbon content with inferred "age" of ca. 1,200 radiocarbon years (range: 0.85 to 0.87 fraction modern carbon (fmc)). Additional measurements of the radiocarbon content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were made in other major rivers in California (New (near Salton Sea), Santa Ana (near Riverside), San Joaquin (near Fresno) and Salinas (near San Luis Obispo)). In the New River (which is composed primarily of irrigation tailwater derived from the Colorado River), the radiocarbon values for DIC closely matched those found in biota of the Copper Basin Reservoir (0.85 to 0.87 fmc), but radiocarbon values for DOC were slightly higher (0.91 to 0.95 fmc). In the other California rivers, radiocarbon concentrations in DIC were generally below modern and lower than corresponding levels in DOC; in the case of the Santa Ana River, DOC was older than DIC as a result of wastewater inputs from upstream treatment plants. Together these data suggest that the carbonate equilibrium of California rivers is influenced by weathering of carbonate minerals which produces HCO3- with no 14C. We hypothesize that this dead carbon can move into aquatic foodwebs via algae and phytoplankton uptake during photosynthesis, depressing the 14C content of aquatic foodwebs below that of the atmosphere. Based on a simple two-component mixing model incorporating carbonate weathering and atmospheric CO2, we estimate that 15-17% of the carbon in the aquatic foodweb of Copper Basin is derived directly from mineral weathering of

  11. Preliminary finding on reconstruction of the late Roman water structure in Sinop (TurkeySinop (Türkiye geç Roma dönemi su yapılarının rekonstrüksiyonuna ait ön bulgular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Turoğlu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various water structures of the late Roman period are found in Sinop and its vicinity. These consist of channels, aqueducts, water collection ponds, wells and cisterns. This study has combined the results of various archeological finds with geographic data from Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing technologies (GIS. First findings indicate that Sinop (in the later Roman period was supplied with water from mainly 2 sources. The routes of the main water channels have been reconstructed using natural slope conditions. Water structures that make up the rest of the water transport system are currently being investigated by a multidisciplinary team. ÖzetRoma dönemi su yapılarını; su kanalları, su kemerleri, su toplama havuzları, kuyular ve sarnıçlar olarak sınıflamak mümkündür. Sinop ve yakın çevresinde Roma dönemine ait bu tür su yapılarına sıkça rastlanmaktadır. Bu çalışmada arkeolojik buluntular ile coğrafi veriler birlikte, Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri (CBS ve Uzaktan Algılama teknolojileri kullanılarak değerlendirilmiştir. İlk bulgular; Sinop’taki Roma şehrinin su ihtiyacının, temel olarak, iki kaynaktan sağlandığını göstermektedir. Su, bu kaynaklardan kanal ile şehre taşınmış olmalıdır. Doğal eğim koşulları kullanılarak su kanalı güzergâhlarının rekonstrüksiyonu yapılmıştır. Sinop’taki geç Roma dönemi su yapılarının araştırılmasına multidisipliner bir ekip ile devam edilmektedir.

  12. Sedimentation survey of Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, March–April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-10-31

    IntroductionLago La Plata is operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District. The reservoir serves a population of about 425,000 people. During 2013 the reservoir provided 0.307 million cubic meters (Mm3 ) of water per day (about 81 million gallons per day), which is equivalent to 31 percent of the total water demand for the metropolitan area (Wanda L. Molina, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2015). The dam was constructed in 1974 and is located about 5 kilometers (km) south of the town of Toa Alta and 5 km north of the town of Naranjito (fig. 1). The drainage area upstream from the Lago La Plata dam is about 469 square kilometers (km2 ). The storage capacity at construction in 1974 was 26.84 Mm3 with a spillway elevation of 47.12 meters (m) above mean sea level (msl). Storage capacity was increased to 40.21 Mm3 in 1989 after the installation of bascule gates to provide a normal dam pool elevation at 52 m above msl (Puerto Rico Electric and Power Authority, 1979). The maximum height of the dam is about 40 m above the river bottom near the dam, and the intake structure consists of six 1.82-m-diameter ports facing upstream, with 6-m vertical spacing that begins at an elevation of 19 m above msl. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of the Lago La Plata reservoir during March and April 2015. The hydrographic survey was designed to provide an update of the reservoir storage capacity and sedimentation rate. Areas with substantial sediment accumulation are also discussed in this report. The results of the survey were used to prepare a bathymetric map showing the reservoir bottom (fig. 2) referenced with respect to the spillway elevation. This report also includes a summary of a previous bathymetric survey conducted in 2006 (Soler-López, 2008).

  13. Geo-arqueología del Monumento Nacional Guayabo (MNG, Turrialba, Costa Rica Geo-archaeology of Monumento Nacional Guayabo, Turrialba, Costa Rica

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    Luis G Obando

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación geoarqueológica del Monumento Nacional Guayabo (M.N.G. mostró, lo siguiente: problemas con aguas de inundación pasiva, con pH bajos de 5,5-6,0 hasta 7, en las calzadas, lo cual parece ser un problema crónico, la causa puede ser descargas de manantiales, colapso del acueducto o pobre infiltración de suelo. Proliferación descontrolada de líquenes que ya han cubierto por completo rocas y objetos arqueológicos, probablemente los líquenes son encostrantes deteriorando la lítica. Desde el punto de vista geodinámica externa, se han observado deslizamientos de tierra y roca. El sitio M.N.G, no tiene evidencia de deslizamientos recientes y se encuentra asentado en un área estable. La petrografía muestra que las rocas son andesitas-basálticas con mucho vidrio en la matriz y de textura fluidal, lo cual generan laminaciones y lajamientos, tales rasgos no deben ser necesariamente interpretados como lítica en deterioro.The geoarchaeology evaluation of the Monumento Nacional Guayabo (M.N.G. shows the following problems: the water, with pH 5,5-6,0 or 7, flows over the rocks paths, it is a chronic problem, the cause could be springs, aqueduct collapse, poor soil infiltration. The low pH, could cause colored precipitates. The abundant flora, like lichens, have covered the rock and other geoarchaeological features. The lichens could damage the lithic and glyphs. The geological study, shows regional and big landslides, but the M.N.G. seems to be stable and there are not in the Monument itself. The petrography shows a basaltic-andesite rocks with glass matrix. It means that the rock is easily eroded. The fluidal texture produces natural laminations. It is means no harmful rocks just it is a natural feature.

  14. Clinical and audiological evaluation of hearing impaired children

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    Zafarullah Beigh

    2012-01-01

    .85%, premature (5.71%, low birth weight (4.28%, hyperbilirubinemia (4.28%, and consanguinity (42.86%. Possible cause revealed after proper systemic examination includes 2.85% children with craniofacial abnormalities, 2.85% children with Down′s syndrome, and 1.42% with Usher′s syndrome. OAE revealed 70% bilateral REFER and 30% bilateral PASS. Impedance audiometric results were mostly Type A tympanogram. Pure tone audiometric results were mostly on profound hearing loss (86.69%. BERA findings were mostly on profound hearing loss (85.79%. Conclusion: In this study large vestibular aqueduct (LVAQ is most common cause of abnormality detected in hearing impaired children.

  15. Microanatomy study of transcerebellomedullary fissure approach%小脑延髓裂入路相关显微解剖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔栎; 张新定; 郭小红; 刘建雄; 韩广; 周旺宁

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the microanatomy of related structures of transcerebellomedullary fissure approach (trans -CMF approach), and to refine the trans -CMF approach to obtain an appropriate operative view without splitting the inferior vermis. Methods The microsurgical anatomy structures of trans - CMF approach were studied by using 5 formalin - fixed, silicone - perfused cadaveric heads specimens.Results Trans -CMF approach provided a sufficient operative access to fourth ventricle from the lower opening of aqueduct and foramina of Luschka to the obex. There was no difference in portrait distance ( P> 0.05) between the approach splitting the inferior vermis and trans - CMF approach, but there was statistically significant difference in lateral distance ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Trans - CMF approach chould provid a sufficient operative view from the fourth ventricle to dorsolateral part of pons and medulla through normal anatomic spaces and reduce the injury of nervous tissue , thus obtain an appropriate operative view and security.%目的 研究经小脑延髓裂(CMF)入路相关的显微解剖结构和毗邻关系,在不切开下蚓部情况下,分离CMF获得最充分的术野.方法 应用显微外科解剖技术,对经甲醛固定、血管乳胶灌注的5具成人湿性尸头标本,按不同手术入路逐层解剖,观察相关组织和血管的形态结构和毗邻关系,并做了测量和统计分析.结果 CMF入路不需切开下蚓部,可完全纵向显露从闩部至导水管下口,侧向显露从闩部至外侧孔的第四脑室底及脑桥背外侧区域.比较小脑下蚓部入路,CMF入路纵向显露距离差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),侧向显露距离明显大于下蚓部入路(P<0.05).结论 CMF入路可充分显露CMF、第四脑室周围、脑桥区域,比较下蚓部入路,显露充分,神经组织损伤小,手术安全性提高.

  16. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lopes Furlanetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNeuroendoscopic surgery in children has particular features and is associated with different success rates (SR. The aim of this study was to identify putative factors that could influence the outcome in pediatric patients.MethodsClinical data of 177 patients under 18 years of age submitted to 200 consecutive neuroendoscopic procedures from January 2000 to January 2010 were reviewed.ResultsThe overall success rate was 77%. Out of the patients with successful outcomes, 46% were under six months, 68% were between six months and one year of age, and 85% older than one year. Neuroendoscopic techniques provide very good results for a wide number of indications in children. Tumor-related cerebrospinal fluid (CSF circulation problems and aqueductal stenosis seem to be particularly well suited to neuroendoscopic treatment regardless of the patient's age.ConclusionPatients' age and etiology of hydrocephalus were associated with a different outcome. In all cases, surgical experience is extremely important to reduce complications.ObjetivoA cirurgia neuroendoscópica em crianças apresenta particularidades e está associada a diferentes taxas de sucesso (TS. O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em identificar fatores que pudessem influir no resultado do tratamento em pacientes pediátricos.MétodosDados clínicos de 177 pacientes com idade inferior a 18 anos submetidos a 200 procedimentos neuroendoscópicos consecutivos entre janeiro de 2000 e janeiro de 2010 foram revisados.ResultadosA taxa de sucesso global foi de 77%. Os pacientes com idade inferior a seis meses apresentaram taxa de sucesso de 46%; pacientes entre seis meses e um ano de vida obtiveram êxito em 68% dos casos; dentre os maiores de um ano, 85% dos procedimentos foram bem-sucedidos. Técnicas neuroendoscópicas proporcionam muito bons resultados para uma grande variedade de indicações em crianças. Independentemente da faixa etária, o tratamento endoscópico apresenta

  17. 脑囊虫病的软性神经内镜治疗%Flexible Neuroendoscopic Management of Cerebral Cysticercosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖庆; 陈国强; 郑佳平; 郭宇鹏; 梁晖; 黄乙洋; 左焕琮

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨应用软性神经内镜治疗脑囊虫病的疗效. 方法 2007年10月~2011年1月,应用软性神经内镜(主机为FUJINON EPX - 2200电子视频内镜系统;镜体为FUJINON EB - 270P超细软性内镜,外径3.8 mm,工作通道直径1.2mm,观察视野120°,工作长度365 mm)治疗脑囊虫病15例,其中7例为院外脑室-腹腔分流术后分流故障.术中经额部钻孔,内镜下先行透明隔及第三脑室底造瘘,导水管闭塞者加行导水管成形,对脑室及基底池全面探查,摘除所见囊虫囊泡,灌洗清洁脑室. 结果 15例顺利完成手术,摘除脑室或基底池内所见囊虫囊泡,7例脑室-腹腔分流术后均成功摆脱了分流依赖.镜下手术时间15 ~40 min,(26±8)min.出血量15~50 ml,(27±6)ml.除2例术后出现高热延迟出院外,其余13例均于术后6d出院.15例术后随访8~ 46个月,平均29.8月,术前症状缓解,无复发及其他不良反应,磁共振检查示脑积水缓解,导水管区、第四脑室正中孔及第三脑室底瘘口脑脊液流动良好. 结论 电子神经内镜下经单侧额部钻孔侧脑室入路可对整个脑室系统及基底池进行探查,寻找并摘除囊虫囊泡,手术操作简便,创伤小,恢复快.%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of flexible neuroendoscopic management for cerebral cysticercosis. Methods A total of IS cases of cerebral cysticercosis, including 7 cases of shunt malfunction, were treated by flexible neuroendoscope (FUJINON EPX-2200 and FUJINON EB-270P, outer diameter 3. 8 mm, operational channel 1.2 mm, observation field 120°, operational length 365 mm) through a frontal keyhole in our hospital from October 2007 to January 2011. Endoscopic septostomy and third ventriculostomy were carried out on the patients, and then followed by aqueductoplasty in those with occlusive aqueduct so that to make a thorough exploration and remove all the vesicae and cysticerci in the whole ventricular system and basal cisterna

  18. Diagnosis of non-obstructive hydrocephalus with quantitative phase-contrast MRI%PC-MRI技术在非梗阻性脑积水诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤敏; 杨萌; 邓秦喆; 程苗; 陈思攀; 刘鹏; 张小玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨相位对比MRI(PC-MRI)技术在诊断非梗阻性脑积水和脑小血管病中的应用价值。方法采用Phillips 3.0 T PC-MRI设备,测量11例交通性脑积水、6例正常压力性脑积水、9例脑小血管病病人及13例健康志愿者的中脑导水管脑脊液(CSF)动力学指标(峰值流速、搏出量),并分别对4组的各项指标采用SNK-q检验进行组间两两比较。结果①正常对照组、非梗阻性脑积水组和脑小血管病组的中脑导水管水平CSF运动呈双向、“U”型曲线,非梗阻性脑积水组的峰值流速较高,且收缩期峰值流速高于舒张期。②交通性脑积水组与正常压力性脑积水组,以及正常压力性脑积水组与脑小血管病组间CSF收缩期峰值流速的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),而且此3组收缩期峰值流速均高于对照组。非梗阻性脑积水组舒张期峰值流速高于正常对照组和脑小血管病组。4组间搏出量两两比较其差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05),且非梗阻性脑积水组搏出量呈反向,脑小血管病组搏出量较对照组明显减低。结论 PC-MRI可用来诊断非梗阻性脑积水,并对鉴别非梗阻性脑积水和脑小血管病有重要价值。%Objebtive To discuss the application value of quantitative phase-contrast MRl in diagnosing non-obstructive hydrocephalus and cerebral small-vessel disease. Methods All subjects, including 11 cases of communicating hydrocephalus, six cases of normal-pressure hydrocephalus, nine cases of cerebral small-vessel disease, and 13 cases of healthy volunteers, underwent quantitative phase-contrast MRl. Cerebro-spinal fluid(CSF) velocity and flow volume were measured at the level of aqueduct of Sylvius. A SNK-q was used to compare the difference among the 4 groups. Results ①In all subjects, the CSF flow at the level of aqueduct of Sylvius was bidirectional. The velocity curve presented as"U" shape , maximum

  19. 多层螺旋 CT 多平面重组在诊断先天感音神经性耳聋儿童内耳畸形中的应用%The diagnostic value of multiplanar reconstruction of multi-slice spiral CT in pediatric sensorineural hearing loss children induced by inner ear malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡辉军; 李国照; 王东烨; 张翔; 沈君

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) of multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) in inner ear malformation of children. Methods Retrospective analysis of 223 children in Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital suspected sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) clinically was performed between September 2010 and March 2014. All the patients received MSCT scan and 68 patients of inner ear malformation were detected. Deformed bony labyrinths of 68 patients and two cases of normal inner ear were reconstructed with the method of MPR on basis of raw data of MSCT images by one radiologist. In 68 patients of inner ear malformation, there were 33 males and 35 females (aged from 9 days to 16 years). Two senior radiologists evaluated the MSCT manifestations of 68 patients and than statistics analysis of classification for inner ear malformation were performed. Results Sixty-eight patients (5 patients with single ear malformation, 63 patients with bilateral ear malformation, 131 ears in total) with SNHL were clearly shown by MPR images. There were 33 ears of cochlear malformation, 39 ears of vestibular malformation, 42 ears of semicircular canal malformation, 18 ears of internal auditory canal malformation and 86 ears of vestibular aqueduct malformation. In 68 patients (131 ears), single constructive malformation was detected in 8 ears (6. 1% ), two or more kinds of combined malformations were detected in 123 ears (93. 9% ). Conclusions Most of these patients suffered from two or more kinds of combined malformations. MPR images can display the structures of cochlear, vestibule, semicircular canal, internal auditory canal and vestibular aqueduct. The application of this kind of post-processing technology is expected to improve the detection rate of inner ear malformation, especially the various structural malformations, which is conducive to the treatment decisions making and surgical planning.%目的:探讨多层螺旋 CT(MSCT)多平面重组(MPR)技术在

  20. Clinical Features of Children with Congenital Malformations of Inner Ear in Sensorineural Hearing Loss%儿童感音神经性耳聋中先天性内耳畸形的临床特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幼瑾; 杨军; 李蕴

    2011-01-01

    middle ear malformations. Among the 124 patients, 2(4 ears)were found to be Michel deformity, 1 (1 ears) was found to be Cochlear aplasia, 10( 14 ears)were found to be common cavity deformity,2(2 ears)incomplete partition,2(2 ear) cochleovestibular hypoplaisa,19(29 ears)incomplete partition Ⅱ (Mondini deformity),91 (170 ears) accompanied by large vestibular aqueduct, 30(46 ears)semicircular canal deformity,internal auditory canal deformity 35(49ears). Conclusions: The patients with large vestibular aqueduct are more in patients with inner ear malformations than in patients with other inner ear malformations. Hearing loss is typically bilateralor total deafness.CT examinations are of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of children with inner ear malformations.

  1. Land subsidence along the Delta-Mendota Canal in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, California, 2003-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin; Solt, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Extensive groundwater withdrawal from the unconsolidated deposits in the San Joaquin Valley caused widespread aquifer-system compaction and resultant land subsidence from 1926 to 1970—locally exceeding 8.5 meters. The importation of surface water beginning in the early 1950s through the Delta-Mendota Canal and in the early 1970s through the California Aqueduct resulted in decreased pumping, initiation of water-level recovery, and a reduced rate of compaction in some areas of the San Joaquin Valley. However, drought conditions during 1976–77 and 1987–92, and drought conditions and regulatory reductions in surface-water deliveries during 2007–10, decreased surface-water availability, causing pumping to increase, water levels to decline, and renewed compaction. Land subsidence from this compaction has reduced freeboard and flow capacity of the Delta-Mendota Canal, the California Aqueduct, and other canals that deliver irrigation water and transport floodwater. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the San Luis and Delta-Mendota Water Authority, assessed land subsidence in the vicinity of the Delta-Mendota Canal as part of an effort to minimize future subsidence-related damages to the canal. The location, magnitude, and stress regime of land-surface deformation during 2003–10 were determined by using extensometer, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), spirit leveling, and groundwater-level data. Comparison of continuous GPS, shallow extensometer, and groundwater-level data, combined with results from a one-dimensional model, indicated the vast majority of the compaction took place beneath the Corcoran Clay, the primary regional confining unit. Land-surface deformation measurements indicated that much of the northern portion of the Delta-Mendota Canal (Clifton Court Forebay to Check 14) was fairly stable or minimally subsiding on an annual basis; some areas showed

  2. A Historical Evaluation of the U12n Tunnel, Nevada national Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Part 2 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Jones, Robert C [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12n Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12n Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. A total of 22 nuclear tests were conducted in the U12n Tunnel from 1967 to 1992. These tests include Midi Mist, Hudson Seal, Diana Mist, Misty North, Husky Ace, Ming Blade, Hybla Fair, Mighty Epic, Diablo Hawk, Miners Iron, Huron Landing, Diamond Ace, Mini Jade, Tomme/Midnight Zephyr, Misty Rain, Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Middle Note, Misty Echo, Mineral Quarry, Randsburg, and Hunters Trophy. DTRA sponsored all tests except Tomme and Randsburg which were sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Midnight Zephyr, sponsored by DTRA, was an add on experiment to the Tomme test. Eleven high explosive tests were also conducted in the tunnel and included a Stemming Plan Test, the Pre-Mill Yard test, the two seismic Non-Proliferation Experiment tests, and seven Dipole Hail tests. The U12n Tunnel complex is composed of the portal and mesa areas, encompassing a total area of approximately 600 acres (240 hectares). Major modifications to the landscape have resulted from four principal activities. These are road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, site preparation for activities related to testing, and construction of retention ponds. A total of 202 cultural features were recorded for the portal and mesa areas. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general everyday operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, ventilation

  3. Investigation on prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of fetal agenesis of septum pellucidum cavity%胎儿透明隔腔缺如的产前超声诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符燕鸣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of fetus isolation chamber is absent . Methods Our hospital from October 2012 to October 2014 pregnant women for prenatal ultrasonic examination system between 8650 cases, including 8 cases of symptoms, the isolation chamber was absent for key observe cerebral ultrasound , ultrasonic characteristics and analyze its related abnormalities .Results All the 8 cases of fetal prenatal brain two-dimensional ultrasonic are transparent insulation cavity , its deficiency such as fetal related deformities has the following kinds: 1 ) the subcallosal sacral defect in 1 case, for lack of completeness; 2 ) holoprosencephaly in 2 cases, including leaves in 1 case, half leaf type 1 case;3) split brain malformation in 1 case;4) hole brain in 1 case; 5) type water anencephaly in 1 case; 6) severe hydrocephalus in 2 cases, including 1 case caused by midbrain aqueduct stenosis , 1 case caused by open spina bifida .Conclusions Cavity of septum pellucidum can be used as a middle and late ultrasonic observation important index of the fetal central nervous system development , if the isolation chamber is absent tend to cause various brain malformation fetus , such as frontal lesions and midline structure dysplasia .In double top diameter plane make prenatal ultrasound can observe transparent insulation cavity , it can be as an important observation methods have transparent insulation cavity.%目的:研究胎儿透明隔腔缺如的产前超声诊断。方法选取我院自2012年10月至2014年10月间进行产前系统超声检查的孕妇8650例,其中有8例透明隔腔缺如症状,对其进行颅脑超声重点观察,并且分析其相关畸形超声特征。结果所有8例胎儿的产前颅脑二维超声均未显示透明隔腔,其缺如胎儿的相关畸形有以下几种:(1)胼骶体缺失1例,为完全性缺失;(2)前脑无裂畸形2例,其中包括无叶型1例,半叶型1例;(3)脑裂畸形1

  4. Reconstructing the natural hydrology of the San Francisco Bay-Delta watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fox

    2015-04-01

    first reported estimate of natural Delta outflow. We then compared these "natural" Delta outflows with current Delta outflows for the same climate and the existing landscape, including its re-engineered system of reservoirs, canals, aqueducts and pumping plants. This analysis shows that the long-term, annual average Delta outflow under natural landscape conditions is equal to current Delta outflow because the amount of water currently used by farms, cities, and others is about equal to the amount of water formerly used by native vegetation. The development of water resources in California's Central Valley transferred water formerly used by native vegetation to new beneficial uses without reducing the long-term annual average supply to the San Francisco Bay-Delta estuary. Thus, it is unlikely that reductions in annual average Delta outflow have caused the decline in native freshwater aquatic species.

  5. Preliminary study of cine phase contrast imaging on CSF flow measurement%磁共振相位对比法电影成像技术在脑脊液测速中的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈富珍; 雷益; 夏军; 刘晓蕾; 王未

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小角度快速激发扰相位梯度回波序列相位对比法电影成像技术在脑脊液测速中的应用价值。方法采用德国Siemens Avanto 1.5T超导磁共振扫描仪,对16例健康志愿者先行头颅MRI检查,再行( Cine phase contrast,Cine PC)相位对比法电影成像技术结合使用外周的指脉或心电门控等技术并应用Argus软件进行数据测量及分析,在横轴位图像上勾画出ROI(感兴趣区),测量中脑导水管在一个心动周期内脑脊液流动的各动力学参数值。结果16例健康人的MRI PC幅值图均清晰显示测量区域的解剖结构,定位准确;相位图( phase image)均可判断脑脊液流动的方向、流速的快慢、信号的强弱,并能应用Argus软件进行数据测量及分析。结论相位对比法电影成像技术结合心电同步采集技术,具有成像速度快、突出T1 WI加权、电影成像的特点,可以作为脑脊液测速的常规扫描技术。%Objective To investigate the application value of Cine phase contrast ( Cine PC) imaging technique with small angle stimulation on spoiled gradient echo.Methods Performed head MRI examinations for 16 healthy volunteers on the 1.5T Siemens Avanto MRI, and then applied Cine PC imaging technique combined with peripheral pulse or ECG trigger.Analyzed the data with the Argus software, and marked the region of interest ( ROI) on the transverse axis of the image to measure the kinetic parameters of cerebrospinal fluid ( CSF) flow at aqueduct of sylvius in a cardiac cycle.Results All PC amplitude images from the 16 healthy volunteers'MRI examinations displayed the exact localization of anatomical structures at the region measured.The direction, velocity and signal strength of CSF flow could all be estimated and analyzed on the phase images by using the Argus software.Conclusions The Cine PC imaging technique combined with ECG synchronous acquisition could be used as general routine

  6. The lost church of Montemurro (Basilicata, Italy): Ground Penetrating Radar and Electrical Resistivity Tomography for detecting its buried remains in S. Maria Square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Giocoli, Alessandro; de Martino, Gregory; Loperte, Antonio; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    one in the central part and constituted by 48 electrodes 1 m spaced for a length of 47 m, allowed to investigate up to about 4.5 m. Both Wenner and dipole-dipole sequences gathered along two arrays were inverted by using Res2DInv software (Loke and Barker, 1996). They showed several shallow high resistive nuclei. Their positions are in good agreement with those of the reflectors showed in the radargrams and time slices. Joint interpretation of GPR and ERT results suggests the presence of cavities and manmade structures under the square. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the traffic policeman, the technicians, the workers and the mayor Mario Di Sanzio of the Commune of Montemurro. References Bavusi M., Chianese D., Giano S.I., Mucciarelli M. (2004). Multidisciplinary investigations on the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum (Basilicata, Southern Itlay). Annals of geophysics, 47 (6), 1791-1801. Cello G., , Tondi E., Micarelli L. and Mattioni L. (2003). Active tectonics and earthquake sources in the epicentral area of the 1857 Basilicata earthquake (southern Italy). Journal of Geodynamics, 36 (1,2), 37-50. Loke M.H., Barker R.D., (1996). Rapid least-square inversion of apparent resistivity pseudosections using a quasi-Newton method. Geophysical Prospecting, 44, 131 -152. Mallet R. (1862) - Great Neapolitan Earthquake of 1857. London 1862, 2, Chapmann and Hall.

  7. Clinical characteristics and MR imaging features of nonalcoholic acute Wernicke encephalopathy%非酒精性急性Wernicke 脑病的临床及MRI特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董季平; 陈慧玲; 刘红生; 宁文德; 李安泰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨非酒精性急性Wernicke 脑病的临床及MRI表现.方法 回顾分析6例非酒精性急性Wernicke 脑病的临床与MRI所见.均为女性,年龄21~75岁,平均45岁.无嗜酒史.使用GE 1.5T MR扫描仪,行常规T1WI、T2WI、T2FLAIR、DWI扫描,2例行增强扫描.结果 6例均有2周以上呕吐及不能进食史.起病急,首发症状均为精神异常及意识障碍,其中2例发病后即进入昏迷状态.其他症状有眼部症状4例,共济失调1例.MRI表现:6例均有双侧对称性第三脑室旁、丘脑内侧、大脑导水管周围、中脑被盖长T1长T2异常信号.其他部位信号异常的有第四脑室底部4例,桥脑延髓3例,乳头体3例.DWI病灶区呈扩散受限的高信号.增强扫描病灶边缘有强化.经大剂量维生素B1治疗,临床好转5例,死亡1例.结论 非酒精性急性Wernicke 脑病有特征性的MRI表现,是诊断本病的重要影像学方法.%Objective To investigate the clinical and MR] features of nonalcoholic acute Wernicke encephalopathy( WE). Methods The clinical and MR imaging findings of six cases with nonalcoholic acute WE were analyzed retrospectively. All of them were female with an average age of 45 ycars( range, 20-75ycars). All patients denied a history of alcoholic abuse. 6 cases underwent conventional MR imaging and 2 cases were imaged with contrast enhanced MR imaging. Results All patients had vomiting and less intake of food for more than 2 weeks,symptoms were acute onset. Initial central nervous system (CNS) symptoms included psychotic disorder and disturbance of consciousness, including 2 patients with coma. Some patients had other symptoms:A with ocular abnormalities, 1 with ataxia. MR imaging findings: All six patients showed symmetrically abnormal long T, and long T2 signals in the arc-as surrounding the third ventricle and aqueduct, medial thalami and tegmentum of brain, another areas of abnormal signal intensity were observed in the floor of forth vcntriclc (4

  8. Molecular genetic analysis of the SLC26A4 IVS7-2A > G mutation in patients with non-syndromic hearing loss%非综合征型聋SLC26A4基因IVS7-2A>G突变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建瑞; 刘涛; 严江; 杨雅冉; 李琦; 戴朴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the signification of genes by analyzing the prevalence of SLC26A4 IVS7-2A >G mutation in 95 patients with non-syndromic hearing loss from Erdos, Inner Mongolia. Methods The medical history of 95 deaf school students was recruited by a questionnaire survey. An audiological examination was conducted with pure-tone audiometry and acoustic immittance measurement. The SLC26A4 IVS7-2A > G mutation was identified by both the testing kit with PAGE silver staining and direct sequencing. Results 95 patients with non-syndromic hearing loss (SNHL) were all diagnosed as sensorineural hearing impairment. The positive rate was 10.5%. 6 homozygotes and 4 heterozygotes were found to carry the IVS7-2A > G mutation by testing with PAGE silver staining. The results were all confirmed by sequence analysis. Conclusions The rate of the SLC26A4 IVS7-2A > G mutation in this group was relatively high. SLC26A4 IVS7-2A > G is one of the most important mutation spot in gene preventive testing for non-syndromic hearing loss. It is also significant evidence for diagnosing Dilated Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome. The PAGE silver staining method is convenient, inexpensive and suitable.%目的 通过分析非综合征型聋患者中SLA26A4基因IVS7-2 A>G突变,以探讨该突变的检测在非综合征型聋基因筛查和临床诊断中的意义.方法 对95例非综合征型散发性耳聋患者进行病因问卷调查、纯音听阈测试、声导抗测试,用银染酶切和DNA序列分析的方法对SLA26A4基因IVS7-2A>G突变进行检测.结果 95例全部为感音神经性耳聋.IVS7-2A>G纯合突变6例,杂合突变4例,二者占10.5%,银染酶切法与测序法结果完全吻合.结论 SLC26A4基因IVS7-2A>G突变导致的耳聋有较高的比例;该基因位点是非综合征型耳聋基因筛查重要的检测位点之一;是大前庭水管扩大综合征临床诊断的重要依据.银染酶切法是该突变经济、简便的检测方法.

  9. 烧房沟滑坡型泥石流工程治理及效果分析%ENGINEERING MEASURES AND THEIR EFFECT FOR MOBILIZATION OF DEBRIS FLOW FROM LANDSLIDES AT SHAOFANGGOU STREAM VALLEY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜祥航; 唐川; 屈永平; 常鸣; 程霄

    2016-01-01

    The function and effect of check dams and griile dams in certain catchments are studied extensively in China.However,there has been comparatively little research oncontrol measures and their effect to mobilization of debris-flow from landslides.A rainstorm induced debris flow hazard occurred on August 1 4,2008 in Yingxiu Town of Sichuan Province,where was affected by the Wenchuan earthquake.The paper examines the motion process and the gully characteristics,landslides blocking point,the high depth of cutting,and their combinations.It is discovered that the whole basin comprehensive treatment shall prevent clogging and cutting.In order to control debris flow disaster happening again,check dams can weaken the leading kinetic energy in the upper reaches of the valley.Retaining plate and bed boards can control the landslide blocking point and protect the toecap in the middle reaches of the valley.Grillage damsand aqueduct can intercept the coarse particle and discharge debris flow smoothly.Then the paper compares the accumulated rainfall,solid matter involved in quantity,dynamic energy reserves and the gully characteristics around control measures.After discussing the initiation,the engineering measures for mobilization of debris-flow from landslides at Shaofang stream course has a good result.It provides a reference for engineering measures for debris-flow mobilization from landslides in the earthquake areas.%国内对泥石流治理措施谷坊坝、格栅坝的作用和效果研究较多,而对滑坡型泥石流的综合治理措施和效果研究较少。2010.8.14强降雨过程导致汶川震区映秀镇烧房沟滑坡型泥石流暴发,通过分析其运动过程和现状沟道特征,结合滑坡堵点和沟道深切的特点,治理工程采用“防堵防切”综合工程结构形式:“上游谷防群+中游抗滑桩、挡土板和肋板护脚护底+下游3座格栅坝+渡槽明洞跨越 G213”,并分析各分项工程作用:“

  10. Assessing the ecological state and managing Armenia's farmlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghatelyan, Armen; Asmaryan, Shushanik; Muradyan, Vahagn; Tepanosyan, Garegin; Minasyan, Lilit

    2014-05-01

    information which underlay development of field maps of the noted communities of the six marzes, was selected. Schematic maps required for implementation of field works, which helped indicate optimal routes and evaluate accessibility of separate sites, were produced. • Through collation between maps and satellite images visual signatures of interpretation of satellite images of separate objects (cliffs, rocky river slopes, etc.) were developed, which in chamber conditions would help calculate and exclude idle, vegetation- barren and impassable areas from pastures. Based on field observations and tests the overall state of natural pastures and the level of degradation was assessed. In final stage for the 23 communities series of cartographic layers was produced that included relief, river-ravine and road networks, infrastructure (roads, aqueducts, electricity cables, gas pipelines, irrigation points, structures erected on grazing sites); data on land use and soil types in the noted communities were processed, a relevant database was compiled and mapped. Finally, with a view of assessing the usable area of vegetation cover on the grazing sites, the area occupied by objects found on separate pastures (stone contents, stone fields, rocks, rocky-side ravines etc.) was calculated. The latter underpinned the assessment of ecological status of all the grazing sites.

  11. Reading carbonate deposits from ancient water installations: why are they useful for geoarchaeology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürmelihindi, Gül; Passchier, Cees

    2016-04-01

    Water has always been a basic need of life, to remain alive and clean, and to irrigate fertile land, which provides food to people. While looking for a source of water suitable for their requirements, ancient civilizations considered three important factors: to have a reliable supply of water; in sufficient amount and quality; and at affordable costs to transport it to where it was needed. Water lifting and distribution devices were therefore selected and improved with these essential factors in mind. Our understanding of the development of water technology in ancient cultures is mainly based on archaeology and textural sources, focusing on details of the construction of water works and water machines, and on their location in individual settlements. However, the geographic distribution of water technology in Mediterranean and Middle East is poorly understood: both the local economical basis and palaeo-environmental conditions may have played a role in the choice of certain water technologies. As a consequence, some water-lifting devices, e.g. the bucket-chain and Archimedean screw, were only used where favorable conditions prevailed. The use of ancient water installations, however, cannot easily be studied from architectural remains alone: carbonate deposits in and around such installations can provide information, not only on their use but also on palaeo-environmental conditions during their functioning and on local economical conditions. This applies mostly to water installations of Roman or Medieval age. Since the Romans maintained their water technologies routinely, any thick carbonate deposit may give information on periods of economical hardship, too. Carbonate deposits (calcareous sinter) are presently mainly used to study palaeo-environmental changes from Roman aqueducts, but water lifting machines and water mills, which are commonly build of wood, can also be studied in this way. The Romans were the first to apply waterpower to several industrial

  12. A Historical Evaluation of the U12n Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Jones, Robert C [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12n Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12n Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. A total of 22 nuclear tests were conducted in the U12n Tunnel from 1967 to 1992. These tests include Midi Mist, Hudson Seal, Diana Mist, Misty North, Husky Ace, Ming Blade, Hybla Fair, Mighty Epic, Diablo Hawk, Miners Iron, Huron Landing, Diamond Ace, Mini Jade, Tomme/Midnight Zephyr, Misty Rain, Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Middle Note, Misty Echo, Mineral Quarry, Randsburg, and Hunters Trophy. DTRA sponsored all tests except Tomme and Randsburg which were sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Midnight Zephyr, sponsored by DTRA, was an add on experiment to the Tomme test. Eleven high explosive tests were also conducted in the tunnel and included a Stemming Plan Test, the Pre-Mill Yard test, the two seismic Non-Proliferation Experiment tests, and seven Dipole Hail tests. The U12n Tunnel complex is composed of the portal and mesa areas, encompassing a total area of approximately 600 acres (240 hectares). Major modifications to the landscape have resulted from four principal activities. These are road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, site preparation for activities related to testing, and construction of retention ponds. A total of 202 cultural features were recorded for the portal and mesa areas. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general everyday operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, ventilation

  13. Strategy of endoscopic surgery for posterior cranial fossa cysts with hydrocephalus in children%儿童颅后窝囊肿合并脑积水的内镜治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱广通; 胡志强; 黄辉; 戴缤; 关峰; 王劭恒; 毛贝贝; 任乐宁; 康庄

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the surgical approach, techniques and efficacy for different types of posterior cranial fossa cysts treated by endoscopic surgery. Methods Clinical data of 26 patients with posterior cranial fossa cysts complicated by hydrocephalus were analyzed retrospectively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Cine MRI and radionuclide cisternography were performed in all the patients preoperatively. The endoscope-assisted microsurgery through infratentorial posterior median approach was performed in 3 cases, and endoscopic surgery alone via supratentorial transfrontal cortical approach in 23. Results High intracranial pressure improved to different degrees in all the patients postoperatively, limb dyskinesia improved in 1 case and was not obviously changed in 2.Postoperatively intracranial pressure declined to normal level after releasing CSF by lumbar puncture. CSF leaked into the hypoderma in 1 case and no other serious complications occurred postoperatively. Cine MRI 1 week after operation showed CSF flowed through the ostomy of third ventricle floor in all patients undergoing surgery via supratentorial approach. MRI reexamination was performed in all the patients 6 months after operation, the cysts shrank in 18 cases and was not obviously changed in 8, and the size of ventricles diminished in 11 cases and was not obviously changed in 15. Conclusions Endoscopic surgery through supratentorial transfrontal cortical approach has obvious therapeutic efficacy for huge posterior cranial fossa cysts encroached on the tentorium cerebelli and Dandy-Walker malformation with expanded midbrain aqueduct, which can solve the mass effect caused by hydrocephalus and cysts at the same time.%目的 探讨神经内镜手术治疗不同类型颅后窝囊肿的手术入路、技巧及疗效.方法 回顾性分析26例颅后窝囊肿合并脑积水病人的临床资料.术前均行脑脊液磁共振电影成像(Cine MRI)和同位素脑池显像检查.采用幕下后正中

  14. The Value of 64-slice Spiral CT with 3D Transparency Reconstruction in the Diagnosis of Inner ear Malformation:Analysis of 32 Cases%64排CT三维透明化重组在内耳畸形诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 曹绍东; 申宝忠; 张同; 白荣杰; 王可铮; 徐艳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨三维透明化重组在内耳畸形诊断中的应用价值,为先天性内耳疾病提供准确的影像诊断和临床治疗信息.资料与方法 回顾32耳内耳畸形的64排高分辨率CT(HRCT)容积数据,行三维透明化重组处理,按内耳畸形分类总结三维透明化重组方法及影像表现.结果 32耳的三维透明化容积再现(VR)图像结合透明化多平面重组(MPR)图像均能很好揭示内耳畸形病变部位及程度,内耳病变整体显示方面及蜗窗、前庭窗、半规管等细节病变显示中透明化VR像及透明化MPR像明显优于轴位像及普通MPR像;在耳蜗内部结构的显示中,透明化MPR、轴位像及普通MPR像优于透明化VR像.32耳先天内耳发育畸形有以下几种:耳蜗未发育(2耳);共同腔畸形(4耳);不完全分隔Ⅰ型(2耳,2例患者对侧耳均为共同腔畸形);不完全分隔Ⅱ型(即Mondini型)(16耳,多合并前庭、半规管及前庭导水管畸形);单纯前庭-半规管畸形(2耳);单纯前庭导水管扩大(6耳).结论 三维透明化个性重组能准确}半价内耳先天性疾病的类型和程度,为临床治疗提供重要的参考依据.%Objective To investigate the role of 3D transparency reconstruction in displaying the inner ear malformation. Materials and Methods Thirty-two cases of inner ear malformation were analyzed retrospectively. The data of 64 slice HRCT were processed using 3D transparency reconstruction. The imaging findings were summarized according to the categorization of the disease. Results The malformations included cochlear aplasia(2 ears), Common cavity deformity (4 ears), incomplete partition Ⅰ (2 ears ), incomplete partition Ⅱ ( Mondini deformity ) ( 16 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations(3 ears) and vestibular aqueduct dilate(6 ears). The site and degree of inner ear malformation were displayed clearly by 3D transparent reconstruction imaging and MPR transparent imaging. Transparent MPR and VR

  15. 磁共振对感音神经性耳聋人工耳蜗术前诊断的价值%Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pre-operative Evaluation of Cochlear Implant Candidates with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨磁共振在人工耳蜗术前内耳成像在儿童感音神经性耳聋(SNHL)中的应用价值。方法搜集80例SNHL患儿均需要人工耳蜗,用signa HDe 1.5 T超导磁共振仪,先进行脑MRI平扫,排除颅内有无其他异常,再进行3D/FLESTA轴位扫描及MYTOOLS、Batch.oblique的超薄斜矢壮处理,迷路病变采用MIP重建。结果80例75耳可显示听神经及迷路正常,5例10耳Mondini畸型;4例4耳Michel畸型;16例28耳表现为前庭导水管扩大;6例4耳显示内听道狭窄伴蜗神经变细,31例畸形中有12例20耳同时伴有耳蜗前庭神经信号不同程度的缺失、部分变细。结论 MRI内耳成像技术对诊断感音神经性耳聋有很高的价值,能显示患儿蜗神经、前庭上下神经、面神经及内耳迷路的发育,人工耳蜗置换术前MRI检查是必须的。%Objective To explore the application of MRI in pre-operative evaluation of cochlear implant candidates with sensorineural hearing loss. Methods Eighty patients with sensorineural hearing loss who needed cochlear implant were studied with signa HDe 1.5-T MRI. B TFE Slim oblique sagittal scan and 3D/FLESTA. MYTOOLS、Batch.oblique.axial scan were performed in these patients with conventional brain scan to exclude intracranial abnormalities while MIP reconstruction was applicated on labyrinth with lesions. Results MRI scan clearly showed the results of 75 ears of 80 cases with normal auditory nerve and labyrinth,10 ears of 5 cases with severe Mondini malformation, 4 ears of 4 cases with severe Michel malformation , 28 ears of 16 cases with enlarged vestibular aqueduct, 4 ears of 6 cases with auditory canal stenosis accompanied slimsy cochlear nerve,20 ears of 12 cases in 31 patients with malformation with vestibular cochlear nerve signals missing and small size of cochleovestibular nerve. Conclusions Inner ear MRI has a great value for diagnosis of pediatric SNHL. It clearly shows the development of

  16. 感音神经性聋患儿中先天性内耳畸形的构成、影像学及临床听力学特征%Constitute, imaging and auditory characteristics of pediatric patients with congenital malformations of inner ear in sensorineural hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幼瑾; 杨军; 李蕴

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析婴幼儿、儿童先天性感音神经性聋(SNHL)中先天性内耳畸形的构成、影像学及临床听力学特征.方法:回顾性分析2005-02-2010-01上海交通大学医学院附属上海儿童医学中心耳鼻咽喉科诊治的860例先天性SNHL患儿中,经颞骨高分辨率CT及MRI发现有先天性内耳畸形的125例(225耳)患儿的听力学及影像学资料.结果:860例先天性SNHL患儿中有先天性内耳畸形者占14.5%;累及双侧98例(78.4%),单侧27例(21.6%).225耳中167耳(74.2%)为极重度聋,36耳(16%)为重度聋,22耳(9.8%)为中度聋.该组内耳畸形中,前庭水管扩大最多见(75.6%),其次为前庭畸形(32%),再次为耳蜗前庭畸形(23.1%).耳蜗前庭畸形中以Mondini畸形最常见(55.8%),其次为共同腔畸形(28.9%).累及耳蜗的内耳畸形中极重度聋者明显多于未累及耳蜗的内耳畸形中极重度聋者.结论:对了解中国婴幼儿、儿童先天性SNHL中先天性内耳畸形的构成,对先天性SNHL的病因诊断以及对包括助听器、耳蜗植入等在内的干预策略的制订及其预后有一定意义.%Objective:To analyze the constitute, imaging and auditory characteristics of pediatric patients with congenital malformations of inner ear in sensorineural hearing loss(SNHL). Method.. Imaging and auditory data of 125 cases(225 ears) in 860 pediatric patients with congenital SNHL who referred to ENT department of Shanghai Children Medical Center from February 2005 to January 2010 were retrospectively studied. Result:Congenital malformations of inner ear accounted for 14.5 % in 860 pediatric patients with congenital SNHL. Bilateral ear was involved in 98 cases(78. 4%), unilateral in 27cases(21.6%). One hundred and sixty-seven ears (74. 2%) were identified as profound deafness, 36 ears (16%) severe deafness and 22 ears (9.8%) moderate deafness in 225 ears,respectively. In present group, large vestibular aqueduct (75.6 %) was the most common and next

  17. Cochlear implant in patients with congenital malformation of the inner ear%先天性内耳畸形患者人工耳蜗植入的临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万良财; 郭梦和; 钱宇虹; 刘双秀; 张宏征; 陈帅君; 陈浩; 龚剑

    2009-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical experience with multi-channel cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformations and evaluate and the outcomes of speech rehabilitation. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in 295 patients receiving cochlear implantation from 1998 to 2007, including 25 patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS), 9 with Modini malformation, and 5 with common cavity deformity. All the patients received the Nucleus24 cochlear implants. In LVAS cases, 4 had Nucleus 24R (ST) implants, 8 had Contuor implants, 10 had Contuor Advance, and the remaining cases used Nucleus24(M) straight-electrode implants. Results Severe gusher appeared in 3 cases of LVAS, and perilymph fluctuation were seen in aother 15 cases. Four patients with Mondini malformation and 2 with common cavity malformation also experienced severe gusher, but the electrodes were inserted smoothly in all the patients without postoperative facial paralysis or cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The hearing threshold in these patients was similar to that in patients with normal cochlear structure. After speech rehabilitation for over 6 months, the abilities of speech discrimination and spoken language improved in all the cases in comparison with the preoperative lingual functions. Conclusion Multi-channel cochlear implantation can be performed in patients with inner ear malformation, but should not be attempted in patients with poor cochlear and cochlear nerve development. A comprehensive pre-operative radiographic and audiological evaluation is essential.%目的 探讨先天性内耳畸形重度或极重度感音神经性聋患者人工耳蜗植入方法及术后言语康复效果.方法 回顾性分析1998-2007年于我科行人工耳蜗植入295例患者的临床资料,其中前庭水管扩大25例,Modini畸形9例,共同腔畸形5例.所有患者均采用澳大利亚Nucleus24型人工耳蜗.对大前庭水管综合症患者,4例采用Nucleus 24R(ST)型植入体.8

  18. The clinical value of MRI in preoperative evaluation of cochlear implantation%磁共振成像在人工耳蜗植入术前评估中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋彪; 余永强; 王海宝

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation of cochlear implants age,inner ear malformation with prognosis after cochlear implan-tation (CI),and provide effective method for preoperative assessment and postoperative follow up.Methods Eighty-four children with con-genital deafness and detailed clinical data from September 201 1 to November 201 2 were recruited in this study.All children received MR ima-ging of inner ear and imaging finding,the age of cochlear implants were correlated with postoperative categories of auditory performance (CAP)and speech intelligengibity rating (SIR)score.The hearing and speech recovery level of different inner ear malformation was com-pared.Results The age of cochlear implants had some effects on early postoperative hearing and speech recovery.The postoperative CAP and SIR scores in children with inner ear malformation were different from those without obvious inner ear malformation,and the difference had sta-tistical significance,but the difference was not significant in children with large vestibular aqueduct.Conclusion MR imaging is a useful tool to clear the inner ear development situation,and the inner ear malformation has great relation with hearing and language outcome of CI.%目的:探讨不同耳蜗植入者年龄、内耳畸形与人工耳蜗植入(CI)预后的关系,为聋儿提供术前评价及术后疗效预估的有效方法。方法选择2011年9月至2012年11月收治的有详细病史资料的84例先天性耳聋患儿,行头颅内听道MRI检查,患者的影像学检查结果、耳蜗植入年龄及CI术后听觉行为分级标准(CAP)及言语可懂度分级标准(SIR)评分进行列表,统计不同内耳畸形聋儿术后听力及言语恢复水平。结果不同耳蜗植入年龄对聋儿CI术后早期听觉及言语恢复有一定影响;内耳畸形组与无明显内耳畸形组CI术后CAP及SIR评分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但前庭导水管扩大聋儿与无明显内耳畸

  19. High-resolution computerized tomography appearances of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear%先天性外中耳畸形的高分辨率CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广保; 聂玉霞; 谭子琨

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of clinical application of high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) in the diagnose of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear.Methods The imaging data of 40 congenital malformations of the external and middle ear patients with HRCT were collected and analyzed retrospectively.All the temporal bones were scanned with HRCT.All images were targeted using high-bone-detail algorithms.Results 13 cases of external ear abnormalities were found,including 1 case of accessory auricle,1 case of accessory with stenosis of external acoustic meatus,3 cases of stenosis of external acoustic meatus,5 cases of externai auditory canal bony atresia and 3 cases of external auditoer canal atresia film,8 cases of middle ear abnormalities,17 cases of external and middle ear malformation,2 cases of external,middle and inner ear malformation.Conclusion External ear malformation and middle ear malformation are usually unilateral,while enlargement of vestibular aqueduct is bilateral.Congenital atresia of external acoustic meatus is the most common type in the external ear malformation.HRCT can provide clear images of temporal bone and auditory ossicles,which help us diagnose the malformations of external ear,middle ear and osseous labyrinth.%目的 探讨不同类型的先天性外中耳畸形的高分辨率CT(HRCT)的诊断价值.方法 收集诊断为先天性外中耳畸形患者40例的影像学资料进行回顾性研究,所有患者均行HRCT扫描,骨算法成像.结果 在本研究的40例先天性外中耳畸形患者中,单纯外耳畸形13例,其中副耳1例,副耳合并外耳道狭窄1例,外耳道狭窄3例,外耳道骨性闭锁5例,外耳道膜性闭锁3例,单纯中耳畸形8例,外耳并中耳畸形17例,外耳、中耳及内耳混合畸形2例.结论 外耳畸形及中耳畸形单侧发病常见,外耳、中耳畸形常同时发生.外耳畸形中先天性外耳道闭锁常见,中耳畸形以听骨链异常常见.HRCT对

  20. 磁共振内耳水成像在人工耳蜗植入术中的应用价值分析%Application value of Magnetic Resonance Hydrography of Inner Ear Imaging in Cochlear Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全; 周航; 朱琳; 姜洪; 孙臣义; 宋长悦

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨磁共振内耳水成像在人工耳蜗植入术中的应用价值。方法筛选2012年1月至2014年1月于我院进行人工耳蜗植入术患者146例,作为研究对象。于手术治疗前进行头颅内听道MRI及螺旋CT检查,对所有影像学结果进行分析总结及统计学处理,探讨MRI内耳水成像在人工耳蜗植入术中的应用价值。结果146例患者中(行双侧检查共292耳),其中MRI检出前庭导水管异常13例(20耳),CT检出5例;MRI检出内耳畸形15例(19耳), CT检出11例,漏诊4例;MRI检出内听道狭窄5例(8耳),CT检出2例,漏诊3例;MRI检出耳蜗纤维化4例(5耳),CT检出4例(4耳);单纯依据CT检查诊断正确率为77.40%(113/146),单纯依据MRI检查诊断正确率为93.84%(137/146)。结论 MRI水成像技术可应用于人工耳蜗植入术前的影像评价,可提供准确、可靠的内耳膜迷路及内听道神经的解剖学信息,可对耳蜗纤维化、神经发育等诊断提供准确依据,对治疗方案的选择具有指导性意义。%Objective To explore the application value of magnetic resonance hydrography of inner ear imaging in cochlear implantation.Methods 146 patients underwent cochlear implantation in our hospital were selected from January 2012 to January 2014 as the research objects. Internal auditory canal MRI and CT were performed before the surgery. All the imaging data was analyzed and statistically summarized. The application value of magnetic resonance hydrography of inner ear imaging in cochlear implantation were explored.Results Of all the 146 cases(292 ears), 13 cases(20 ears) were detected with vestibular aqueduct abnormality by MRI and 5 cases by CT; 15 cases(19 ears) were detected with inner ear malformations by MRI and 11 cases by CT with 4 cases of missed diagnosis. 5cases (8 ears) were detected with internal auditory canal stenosis by MRI and 2 cases by CT with 3 cases of missed diagnosis. 4 cases(5 ears) were

  1. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Maximum (MIS 2), the shoreline retreats eastwards, reaching the 100-120 m isobaths. In these conditions, the surface drainage base level was very low. Phreatic nape closely followed the river valleys dynamics. Mean depth aquifer discharged on the inner shelf , where Sarmatian limestones outcrop. The deep aquifer discharge was restricted by the Capidava- Ovidiu Fault to the north-east and by a presumed seawards longitudinal Fault. This process enabled the migration of the prehistoric human communities, from Asia to Europe, who established settlements on the newly created alluvial plain on the western Black Sea shelf. The Holocene Transgression (MIS 1) determined a sea level rise up to the modern one, and probably higher. Under the pressure of these environmental changes, the Neolithic settlements slowly retreated upstream. During the Greek colonization, the rising sea level caused the salinisation of the previous drinking water phreatic sources. In these conditions, in the Roman Age, a new hydraulic infrastructure had to be developed, using aqueducts for available inland water delivery.

  2. Evaluation of consolidating and water repellent treatments applied to the miocene sandstone used in Tunisian Heritage Monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoghlami, K.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary The research reported in the present paper focused on the behaviour of the Miocene sandstone used to build the Roman aqueduct at Zaghouan-Carthage and other Tunisian Heritage monuments, after application of water repellent and consolidating treatments as a preliminary to restoration. Commercial consolidants and water repellents were used in the experiments: two ethyl silicate consolidants, Tegovakon (TV and Keim-Silex OH (KSOH; two (siloxane water repellents, Tegosivin THE 328 (THE and Tegosivin HLJ00 (THE; and a dual (consolidate and water repellent action substance, Keim- Silex H (KSH (silicate acid ester base with siloxane. A mixed treatment consisting of successive coats of TV and THL (TVHL was also applied. These organosilicate consolidants and water repellents acted on the porous structure of the sandstone, reducing total porosity and water vapour permeability. The water repellent THE was found to affect these properties least, with a pore size distribution that resembled the distribution in the untreated sandstone most closely. Water repellents diminish water absorption and consolidants increase mechanical strength. The TV-THL mix, which yielded results similar to those obtained with water repellents alone, was unable to prevent the substantial scaling that occurs during (RILEM salt crystallisation-induced artificial ageing. The best results were found with the dual action consolidant! water repellent product (KSH, which improved the mechanical properties while affording protection from the decay caused by salts in artificial ageing trials. This substance was found to reduce water vapour permeability, however

    Esta investigación se centra en la evaluación del comportamiento de la arenisca miocénica utilizada en el acueducto de Zaghouan-Cartago y otros monumentos del Patrimonio Monumental de Túnez tras la aplicación de tratamientos de hidrofugación y de consolidación. Para los tratamientos se han seleccionado productos

  3. Multiscale Geoarchaeological Approaches from the Laurentine Shore, Castelporziano, Lazio, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicket, A. R.; Rendell, H. M.; Claridge, A.; Rose, P.; Brown, F. S. J.

    2009-04-01

    effective mapping of dune ridges, from aerial photography, under the extremely dense vegetation that hinders easy access across much of the site. The D-GPS georeferenced DEM has been linked to the diatom analysis of a cored salt marsh to peat sediment transition providing valuable biostratigraphic information for deriving an accurate measurement of the Roman period sea level (Lambeck et al., 2004a). This measurement is in line with published literature from nearby coastal sites, ca. - 1.3m RSL (Lambeck et al., 2004b). Understanding the sites geomorphological development in the context of eustatic sea level is a key consideration for issues of sand supply driving dune formation, linked ultimately to the development of the Tiber Delta since the Last Glacial Maximum and throughout the Holocene. On this larger spatial scale, the archaeological sites described within the Laurentine Shore, built upon the Roman period coastline, are now preserved several hundred metres inland of the contemporary shoreline. The development of the shoreline can now be investigated within the macro-scale progradation of the Tiber delta relative to eustatic sea level rise. Archaeological excavations since the 1980's have provided a rich record of high status villas, and also the supporting infrastructure of a village settlement (vicus), roads, aqueduct and the large aquaculture ponds. The dominant geomorphological features on the site are preserved coastal dune ridges. Sampling was undertaken along an alongshore transect and three inland transects. This sampling regime focuses upon the contemporary deposition of sands on the beach and the phases of dune formation, preservation and alteration recorded by the relict dune crests in relation to the archaeological record. A campaign of optical dating of the relict dune crests has provided a Late Pleistocene and Holocene record of sandsheet and dune formation linked to delta progradation that permits the larger spatial- and temporal-scale context of the

  4. Accelerations from the September 5, 2012 (Mw=7.6) Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simila, G. W.; Quintero, R.; Burgoa, B.; Mohammadebrahim, E.; Segura, J.

    2013-05-01

    reports were of damage to homes, bridges, roads, aqueducts, schools and public buildings. There were 12 structures reported with damages in hospitals and health care sites, specifically in Hojancha, Nandayure, Nicoya, Santa Cruz and Puntarenas. There are no reports of deaths from the earthquake and only 78 injured and a total of 1474 people mobilized, which includes hospital evacuations and preventive transfers. 223 schools were reported with various damages, mostly in Santa Cruz, Nicoya, Carrillo, Nandayure, and Puntarenas. A total of 98 homes were reported with severe damage, 805 with moderate damage and 87 with minor damage. In general, the buildings in the Nicoya Peninsula (where the highest intensities were reported) endured the Nicoya Earthquake. Also, acceleration data from OVSICORI, UCR, LIS-UCR, and the Seismic Strong Motion Array Project (SSMAP) show a range of accelerations (500 - 10 cm/sec2) for distance range of 30-250 km, respectively.

  5. Seismic calibration shots conducted in 2009 in the Imperial Valley, southern California, for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Janice; Goldman, Mark; Fuis, Gary; Rymer, Michael; Sickler, Robert; Miller, Summer; Butcher, Lesley; Ricketts, Jason; Criley, Coyn; Stock, Joann; Hole, John; Chavez, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault, from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard facing California in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of lifelines (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that would bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the Nation's efforts to prevent a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects are underway to increase our knowledge of Earth processes in the area and to mitigate the effects of such an event. One such project is the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), which is a collaborative venture between the United States Geological Survey (USGS), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). This project will generate and record seismic waves that travel through the crust and upper mantle of the Salton Trough. With these data, we will construct seismic images of the subsurface, both reflection and tomographic images. These images will contribute to the earthquake-hazard assessment in southern California by helping to constrain fault locations, sedimentary basin thickness and geometry, and sedimentary seismic velocity distributions. Data acquisition is currently scheduled for winter and spring of 2011. The design and goals of SSIP resemble those of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) of the 1990's. LARSE focused on examining the San Andreas Fault system and associated thrust-fault systems of the Transverse Ranges. LARSE was successful in constraining the geometry of the San Andreas Fault at depth and in relating this geometry to mid-crustal, flower-structure-like decollements in the Transverse Ranges that splay upward into the network of hazardous thrust faults that caused the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1987 M 5

  6. A Slope Debris Flow in the Dujiangyan-Wenchuan Highway and Its Prevention%G213线都汶路豆芽坪坡面泥石流及其防治方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳金峰; 游勇; 陈晓清; 陈兴长

    2015-01-01

    Large number of loose solid materials triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake provided favorable condi-tions for the formation of slope debris flows.The Dujiangyan-Wenchuan road of the 213 National way in Sichuan of China is the lifeline for connecting the Wenchuan County and outside.In each rainy season after the earthquake, many slope debris flows occurred along the road resulting in frequent interruption of G213 road and causing great damages.The Douyaping slope debris flow is described and analyzed as a typical case that occurred on the Dujian-gyan-Wenchuan road.Through field investigation,aerial photograph interpretation,mitigation situation investiga-tion,the debris flow history and relative damages was made clear,the volume of loose solid material was estimated and the mitigation plan was proposed.The results indicate that large number loose materials are still exist in the ar-ea,and the volume is estimated as 184.8 ×104 m3 which about 26.5 ×104 m3 can participate in the formation of slope debris flow.Under the action of heavy rainfall,debris flows will occur.Consequently,it is very essential to make engineering mitigation.Therefore,the mitigation thought was proposed as “channel and slope stabilization, water interception and drainage,debris flow drainage for road safety”.The mitigation measures and the design plan was made for engineering projects including consolidation dam,diversion dike,water interception channel,debris flow drainage channel and road aqueduct.%以G213线都(江堰)汶(川)公路豆芽坪坡面泥石流为研究对象,通过野外考察,查明了泥石流的灾害史及灾情;通过航片解译及现场勘查,对“5·12”汶川地震造成的松散物源进行了估算;在分析泥石流防治现状与危害性的基础上,提出了泥石流防治的思路及土工工程设计方案。豆芽坪流域存在大量松散固体物质,通过估算,松散物源总储量184.8×104 m3,可能参与泥

  7. A clinicopathological analysis of papillary endolymphatic sac tumor in inner ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Yu-jing

    2013-05-01

    were minimal cellular pleomorphism and rare mitotic activity and necrosis was not observed. There were cystic glandular spaces filled with colloid-like material which was remarkably similar to thyroid tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells were diffusely positive for CK (AE1/AE3, Vim, EMA and focally positive for CEA, but negative for Syn, CgA, S-100, GFAP, TG and TTF-1. The Ki-67 index was less than 1%. The colloid-like material showed positive reactivity with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS. Based on clinical presentation and histological findings, a final histological diagnosis of primary papillary ELST in cerebellopontine angle was made according to the criteria of WHO classification. The patient had not received radiotherapy or chemotherapy and attended follow-up for 3 months, without any neurological deficit or signs of recurrence. Conclusion ELST is rare skull base tumor originating from endolymphatic epithelium within the vestibular aqueduct, characterized clinically by slow growth with local invasion and bone destruction. Due to the rarity of this tumor, it can easily be confused with other tumors of skull base with papillary architecture such as chorioid plexus papilloma, papillary ependymoma, papillary meningioma, middle ear adenoma, and metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Complete excision is the best guarantee against tumor recurrence, while recurrence may occur due to subtotal resection.

  8. Archaeological prospection of cultural heritage in the Nasca region, Peru, by coupling ENVISAT ASAR 2003-2007 and optical-VHR time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapete, Deodato; Cigna, Francesca; Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    We present the radar-interpretation of a 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR imagery, integrated and cross-validated with optical-Very High Resolution (VHR) data from QuickBird2, GeoEye and WorldView-1/2, and carried out over the cultural and natural heritage of the Nasca region in Southern Peru. This research is performed thanks to the provision of free-access archive SAR data from the European Space Agency (ESA) through the Cat-1 project 11073, and is supporting the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. The whole ENVISAT ASAR imagery archive, consisting of 8 ASAR IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, was processed by exploiting and analyzing SAR amplitude information and change detection to reconstruct the temporal evolution of radar signatures and related backscattering coefficient (σ0) of the targets on the ground in the monitoring period 2003-2007. The selection of a SAR amplitude-based change detection method was made to explore its actual potentials for archaeological prospection and monitoring purposes, complementarily to approaches of interferometric coherence used by other scholars over the same region of investigation. The novel contribution to heritage studies over Nasca includes remote sensing insights into the renowned UNESCO-WHL Nasca geoglyphs and archaeological mounds of the adobe Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi, as well as the ancient puquios within the Rio Grande drainage basin. The latter are prehispanic underground aqueducts, and nowadays represent not only important cultural features to preserve, but also a potential driver to revitalize waterways and oases in such a dry region

  9. Rapid distribution of intraventricularly administered sucrose into cerebrospinal fluid cisterns via subarachnoid velae in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi-Egea, J F; Finnegan, W; Chen, J L; Fenstermacher, J D

    1996-12-01

    The intracranial distribution of [14C]sucrose, an extracellular marker infused for 30 s into one lateral ventricle, was determined by autoradiography of frozen-dried brain sections. Within 3.5 min [14C]sucrose appeared in: (i) the third ventricle, including optic, infundibular and mammillary recesses; (ii) the aqueduct of Sylvius; (iii) the velum interpositum, a part of the subarachnoid space that runs along the roof of the third ventricle and contains many blood vessels; (iv) the mesencephalic and fourth ventricles; and (v) the superior medullary velum, a highly vascular extension of the subarachnoid space that terminates at the walls of the mesencephalic and fourth ventricles. Within 5 min, radioactivity was present in the interpeduncular, ambient and quadrigeminal cisterns, which encircle the midbrain. By 10 min, approximately 11% of the radioactivity had passed into the subarachnoid space via a previously undescribed flow pathway that included the velum interpositum and superior medullary velum. At many places along the ventricular system, [14C]sucrose appeared to move from cerebrospinal fluid into the adjacent tissue by simple diffusion, as reported previously (Blasberg R. G. et al. (1974) J. Pharmac. exp. Ther. 195, 73-83; Levin V. A. et al. (1970) Am. J. Physiol. 219, 1528-1533; Patlak C. and Fenstermacher J.D. (1975) Am. J. Physiol. 229, 877-884; Rosenberg G. A. and Kyner W.T. (1980) Brain Res. 193, 56-66; Rosenberg G. A. et al. (1986) Am. J. Physiol 251, F485-F489). Little sucrose was, however, taken up by: (i) circumventricular organs such as the subfornical organ; (ii) medullary and cerebellar tissue next to the lateral recesses; and (iii) the superior and inferior colliculi and cerebral peduncles. For the latter two groups of structures, entry from cerebrospinal fluid was apparently blocked by a thick, multilayered glia limitans. Although [14C]sucrose was virtually absent from the rest of the subarachnoid system after 1 h, it remained in the

  10. Evaluación y dinámica de uso del recurso hídrico en el corregimiento de Barú (Cartagena, Bolívar, Colombia Evaluation and use dynamics of water in Barú (Cartagena, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzón Javier

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El corregimiento insular de Barú (Cartagena, Bolívar, Colombia carece de los servicios de acueducto y alcantarillado; sin embargo, sus habitantes logran manipular el agua para suplir sus necesidades básicas. Partiendo de este hecho, se evaluó la calidad del recurso hídrico y se caracterizó la dinámica de su uso en la localidad durante la época seca (marzo de 2003, respondiendo dos preguntas básicas: ¿Es apta para el consumo humano el agua disponible en Barú? y ¿Cuáles son los eventos, flujos y procesos involucrados en su manejo? La evaluación de la calidad del agua se hizo por comparación de
    algunas variables fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas frente a lo  establecido en la legislación colombiana y se encontró que, en general, el agua utilizada y consumida en Barú no es segura, debido a la presencia de coliformes. La dinámica de uso del agua en el corregimiento se estudió a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas a los habitantes y caminatas de reconocimiento de la infraestructura disponible en la localidad, con lo que se obtuvo información de las prácticas de consumo, los hábitos y métodos de tratamiento de agua dulce, la disposición de aguas servidas y el volumen consumido por persona (91,4 L día. Con base en esta información, se construyó un modelo del flujo de agua utilizando el programa STELLA 7.0.3® y se determinó que el sistema tiene baja sostenibilidad debido a la marcada estacionalidad de lluvias en la zona y a la gran dependencia de factores externos y de trabajo humano interno requeridos para su funcionamiento.The insular town of Barú (Cartagena, Bolívar, Colombia lacks aqueduct and sewer system services; however, Barú's habitants manipulate the water to satisfy their basic necessities. In this way, we evaluated water quality and characterized the dynamic of its use in Barú during the dry season (March of 2003. We answer two basic questions: is the available water in Barú suitable for human

  11. Disostose espôndilo-costal associada a defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural Spondylocostal dysostosis associated with neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2009-09-01

    evaluation, she presented hypotonia, short stature, dolichocephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, bilateral epicanthal folds, and short trunk with an asymmetric thorax. Radiographic examination showed multiple hemivertebrae, butterfly vertebrae, fusion and absence of some ribs. Patient 2: white girl, 22 months old, with moderate neuropsychomotor delay, short stature, deep set eyes, bilateral epicanthal folds, short neck and trunk with an asymmetric thorax, protruding abdomen, hemangioma at the level of lumbosacral transition and deep sacral dimple. The radiographic evaluation showed hemivertebrae, incomplete fusion of vertebrae and butterfly vertebrae, costal malformations and spina bifida occulta in L5/S1. Patient 3: white girl, nine days old, with upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal bridge, anteverted nostrils, low-set and posteriorly rotated ears, short trunk with asymmetric thorax, and thoracolombar meningocele. Radiographic evaluation showed several hemivertebrae, malformation, absence of some ribs, and diaphragmatic agenesia at left. Brain tomography showed an aqueductal stenosis. COMMENTS: Several neural tube defects, from spina bifida occulta to large meningomyelocele, are observed in patients with SCD. Thus, these patients should be carefully evaluated regarding the possible presence of such defects.

  12. Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The new Diamond Valley Lake Reservoir near the city of Hemet in Riverside County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S.history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million cubic meters of foundation excavation and 84 million cubic meters of embankment construction. This set of MISR images captures the most recent phase in the reservoir's activation. At the upper left is a natural-color view acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on March 14, 2000 (Terra orbit 1273), shortly after the Metropolitan Water District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the surrounding land. The image at the upper right was acquired nearly one year later on March 1, 2001 (Terra orbit 6399), and shows a clear increase in the reservoir's water content. When full, the lake will hold nearly a trillion liters of water.According to the Metropolitan Water District, the 7 kilometer x 3 kilometer reservoir nearly doubles Southern California's above-groundwater storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a major aqueduct. In the face of electrical power shortages, it is also expected to reduce dependence on the pumping of water from northern mountains during the high-demand summer months. An unexpected result of site excavation was the uncovering of mastodon and mammoth skeletons along with bones from extinct species not previously thought to have been indigenous to the area, such as the giant long-horned bison and North American lion. A museum and interpretive center is being built to protect these finds.The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view combining data from the instrument's 26-degree forward view (displayed as blue) with data from the 26-degree backward view

  13. A Hydrostrat Model and Alternatives for Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainer Mesa-Shoshone Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Geotechnical Sciences Group

    2007-03-01

    The three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit was completed in Fiscal Year 2006. The model extends from eastern Pahute Mesa in the north to Mid Valley in the south and centers on the former nuclear testing areas at Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Shoshone Mountain. The model area also includes an overlap with the existing Underground Test Area Corrective Action Unit models for Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa. The model area is geologically diverse and includes un-extended yet highly deformed Paleozoic terrain and high volcanic mesas between the Yucca Flat extensional basin on the east and caldera complexes of the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field on the west. The area also includes a hydrologic divide between two groundwater sub-basins of the Death Valley regional flow system. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the model area. Three deep characterization wells, a magnetotelluric survey, and reprocessed gravity data were acquired specifically for this modeling initiative. These data and associated interpretive products were integrated using EarthVision{reg_sign} software to develop the three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Crucial steps in the model building process included establishing a fault model, developing a hydrostratigraphic scheme, compiling a drill-hole database, and constructing detailed geologic and hydrostratigraphic cross sections and subsurface maps. The more than 100 stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 43 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the volcanic units in the model area into 35 hydrostratigraphic units that include 16 aquifers, 12 confining units, 2 composite units (a mixture of aquifer and confining units), and 5 intrusive

  14. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Owyhee and Vale Projects, Oregon and Idaho, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, F.A.; Mullins, W.H.; Schuler, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was conducted during 1990--91 in the Owyhee and Vale projects in eastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho, as well as at a number of sites in the Snake River and tributaries to the Snake River in the area of study. The objective of the study was to determine if agricultural drainwater entering the study area was causing, or had the potential to cause, significant harmful effects to human health, fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Approximately 153,000 acres of land are irrigated annually within the areas of the Owyhee and Vale projects. Large quantities of water are required because of the semiarid climate and relatively high evaporation rates. Several reservoirs in the area are filled annually during the wet, nonirrigation season to sustain irrigation during the dry summer months. During the irrigation season, this impounded water, along with direct diversions from the Malheur, Owyhee, and Snake Rivers, is transported to the irrigated areas through a series of diversion tunnels, siphons, canals, aqueducts, ditches, and drains. Major crops grown in the area include sugar beets, alfalfa hay and other hay crops, onions, and winter wheat. Minor crops include corn, potatoes, mint, various seed crops, and fruit. In 1987, it was estimated that the following amounts of pesticides were used in the project areas: 2,4-D (21,000 lbs [pounds]), chlorpyrifos (1,000 lbs), dacthal (40,000 lbs), dicamba (320 lbs), endosulfan (2,500 lbs), ethion (11,000 lbs), malathion (24,000 lbs), parathion (5,000 lbs), and phorate (11,000 lbs). Median concentrations and values for total dissolved solids, alkalinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and hardness in the Vale project area were greater than 1.5 times those values observed in the Owyhee project area or at other Snake River locations. During irrigation (August 1990), total dissolved solids, alkalinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and hardness values increased in a

  15. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally regional commodity. Water resources vary in quality and quantity from region to region, but because of its ubiquity, and because of the enormous volumes in which it is used, there is relatively little long-distance trade in water. As a consequence, water management policies are highly regionalized. Therefore, projecting the water footprint of a given hydrogen facility requires site-specific knowledge of available water resources. Only in the most constrained regions, water may be drawn from remote sources and conveyed long distances by pipeline or aqueduct. Regional water conditions can change over time as fresh and ground water levels change, competing demands become more acute, and shifts in historical climatic patterns take hold. For hydrogen plant stakeholders, a robust development and operating plan would incorporate these regional issues.

  16. 囊肿脑池造瘘治疗儿童中颅窝蛛网膜囊肿%Cystocistern fenestration for the treatment of middle cranial fossa cyst in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李禄生; 张雨婷; 梁平; 李映良; 翟瑄; 周渝冬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the curative effect of cystocistern fenestration for the treatment of middle cranial fossa cyst in children and the value of post-operative evaluation using phase-contrast MRI.(PC-MRI).Methods 28 patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts (IAC) underwent PC-MRI assessment.Cystocistern fenestration was decided in those who were found to have NCIAC.A retrospective study was carried out analysing the clinical manifestations before and after surgery,postoperative decrease of the cyst size using phase-contrast cine MRI scan in these cases.The fistula flow of cerebrospinal fluid,the cerebrospinal fluid dynamics index (peak velocity,flow and flow wave) were obtained.Results Phase-contrast cine MR imaging showed no communication between IAC and the adjacent subarachnoid space in 20 of 28 patients pre-operation and they underwent cystocistern fenes tration.In these patients,arachnoid cysts reduced in size post-operatively.Furthermore,the clinical symptoms were improved or cured.CSF flow direction in the fistula of the basal cistern were bi-directional,which was similar to normal aqueduct flow waveform,suggesting patent fistula.In the 8 patients who were diagnosed to have communicating arachnoid cyst (CIAC),there was no clinical manifestation and no progressive increase in cyst size.Conclusions 1.Cystocistern fenestration could be an effective treatment of children with middle cranial fossa cysts; 2.PC cine MRI can be used to diagnose and assess post-operative progress of non-communicating IAC.%目的 探讨囊肿脑池造瘘术治疗儿童中颅窝蛛网膜囊肿(intracranial arachnoid cyst,IAC)的效果及MRI相位对比电影(phase-contrast cine,PC cine)用于囊肿分型诊断及术后疗效评估的价值.方法 对28例中颅窝IAC患儿行PC cine检查,选择非交通性蛛网膜囊肿(non-communicating intracranial arachnoid cysts,NCIAC)的患儿,行显微镜下囊肿脑池造瘘术.回顾分析术前术后临床表现、术后随

  17. Application Effect Analysis and Development of the Rainwater-collecting Products in Arid Mountains%干旱山地集雨装置系统研制及其应用效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢尚军; 徐振; 刘方春; 马丙尧; 马海林; 杜振宇

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at solving the problem of low afforestation survival caused by uneven rainwater distribution in north China,a new type of rainwater collecting systems,suitable application in arid mountain was designed.The rainwater-collecting system was composed of runoff surface,sedimentation tank,transporting pool and rain-collecting pool.To collect much rainwater,an aqueduct was used to connect the rain-collecting pool.Rain was collected in wet season and it was used for irrigation in low flow season.Connection type of rain-collecting pool was characteristic of the abundant rain-collecting,longer service life,and easily construction.The total cost of three rain-collecting pools which one pool can collect for 50 m3,a corresponding rain-collecting yard was about 14 776.49 yuan.The total rain-collecting water amount was 150 m3,which was used to irrigate Lonicera japonica Thunb.and Platycladus orientalis.The results showed that four liter of rain water was used each time,with four times every year.Under the same stand conditions,survival rate of afforestation was raised by 12.7%,the preservation rate of the second year was increased above 41.3%,as well as the dry matter accumulation of Chinese arborvitae was increased by 64.2%.In Longting,Xintai,Shandong,three rain-collecting pools were built and rain was used for irrigation to sweet cherry,which resulting to an economic income of ten thousand yuan.In conclusion,rain-collecting system was beneficent to the rainwater collection,low afforestation survival in arid mountains,as well as the fully utilization of arid mountains,and the people's economic income.%针对我国北方年降雨时空分布不均和山地缺水、造林困难的特点,设计适宜干旱瘠薄山地推广应用的连接式集雨系统。该装置主要由雨水径流面、沉淀池、雨水中转池和集雨池组成,集雨池之间通过导水管相连接以扩大集雨量。丰水季节集水,枯水季节浇灌。连接式集雨池集雨的方式具有

  18. 儿童先天性脑积水的诊治探讨%Diagnosis and treatment of congenital hydrocephalus in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智强; 刘水源; 林志雄; 梅文忠; 龚清永; 何理盛; 康德智; 吴喜跃

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨并总结儿童先天性脑积水的诊治经验. 方法 回顾性分析福建医科大学附属第一医院神经外科自2007年6月至2011年6月收治的29例儿童先天性脑积水患者的临床资料,其中合并神经系统畸形27例,包括胼胝体缺如或发育不全6例、导水管狭窄5例、脑膜膨出3例、脊膜膨出3例、Dandy-Walker畸形2例、Chiari 1型畸形1例、脑灰质异位并脑裂畸形1例、脑发育不全1例、脑裂畸形1例、神经纤维瘤病1型1例、第四脑室囊肿1例、枕大池囊肿1例、透明隔囊肿1例;伴其他脏器畸形4例,包括胸7半椎体脊柱侧弯并右足马蹄内翻足1例、乳糜漏1例、腹股沟斜疝1例、脐疝1例.26例患者行脑室腹腔分流术,3例行囊肿腹腔分流术,均应用可调压分流管. 结果 29例患者中有效26例,疗效不佳3例.术后出现并发症13例,其中分流管感染3例,分流管近端堵塞或引流不畅3例,分流管腹腔端堵塞或引流不畅3例,硬膜下积液1例,硬膜下积液并硬膜下血肿1例,腹腔囊肿1例,分流管人右侧阴囊并阴囊肿胀1例. 结论 儿童先天性脑积水常合并脏器发育畸形,应注意相关检查以明确,并针对性治疗,以改善预后.%Objective To summarize the diagnosis and treatment experience of congenital hydrocephalus in children.Methods The clinical data of 29 children with congenital hydrocephalus,admitted to our hospital from June 2007 to June 2011,were analyzed retrospectively; in these patients,27 had combined nervous system malformations,including corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia in 6,aqueduct stenosis in 5,meningocele in 3,spinal meningocele in 3,Dandy-Walker malformation in 2,Chiaril malformation in 1,Heterotopic gray matter combined with schizencephaly in 1,atelencephalia in 1,schizencephaly in 1,neurofibromatosis type 1 in 1,fourth ventricle cysts in 1,arachnoid cyst in cerebello-medullary cistern in 1 and septum pellucidum cysts in 1; 4 was

  19. 43例耳聋家庭再生育前的遗传学分析与指导%Prenatal genetic counseling and instruction for deaf families by genetic test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩明昱; 黄莎莎; 王国建; 袁永一; 康东洋; 张昕; 戴朴

    2011-01-01

    Objective Analyzed the molecular pathogenesis of probands by means of genetic test and assisted the local Family Planning Institute by providing prenatal genetic counseling and instruction for deaf families who eager to have more baby.Methods Total of forty-three deaf families were recruited by two institutes for family planning from Guangzhou and Weifang.Forty-two families had one deaf child with normal hearing parents.One family was that parents and their child were all deaf.Genetic testing of GJB2,SLC26A4 and mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) 12SrRNA were firstly performed in probands and their parents,following medical history,physical examination,auditory test and CT scan of temporal bone were completed.And then the genetic information and instruction were provided to each deaf family.Results Fifteen of these 43 families had positive results of genetic test.In fifteen families,one family was confirmed that the parents and their child all carried homozygous GJB2 mutations and the recurrence risk was 100%.Twelve families were confirmed that the probands carried homozygous/compound GJB2 or SLC26A4 mutations while their parents were GJB2 or SLC26A4 carriers,and the recurrence risk was 25%.One family was confirmed that the proband,diagnosed with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome (EVAS) by CT scan,carried heterozygous SLC26A4 mutation from the mother,and the recurrence risk was still 25% based on the hereditary pattern of EVAS although another SLC26A4 mutation from the father was not found.One family was confirmed that the proband carried a heterozygous GJB2 mutation from the mother and the possibility to be GJB2 carrier for offsprings was 50%.The rest 28 families were that all probands and their parents did not carry GJB2,SLC26A4 and mtDNA 12SrRNA pathological mutation.Conclusions Genetic testing can provide more accurate and useful prenatal genetic counseling and instruction to deaf families.Meanwhile,it is an ideal way to develop a cooperative relationship

  20. Endoscopic third ventricul ostomy versus ventricul operitoneal shunt:clinical study of obstructive hydro cephalus in infants%婴幼儿阻塞性脑积水两种手术方式的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江峰; 赵阳; 孙莲萍; 金惠明; 马杰

    2011-01-01

    often performed and reported neuroendoscopic procedure in the treatment of hydrocephalus caused by pure aqueductal stenosis. Compare to VP shunt group , ETV group had no mortaliity, lower failure rate , higher early complication rate but transient and mild.No more neurologic defect occured by follow-up in ETV group. In this group of infants, ETV is a significant altemative to ventricular shunt placement.%目的 回顾性分析2005年以来上海交通大学医学院附属新华医院收治的2岁以下阻塞性脑积水患儿的临床资料,比较神经内镜下第三脑室底造瘘术(ETV)与传统的脑室腹腔分流术(VP shunt)治疗婴儿阻塞性脑积水的疗效.方法 2005年以来作者收治36例阻塞性脑积水患儿,均为单纯导水管狭窄,根据手术方式分为ETV治疗组和VP shunt治疗组,比较两组围手术期情况、影像学检查结果以及临床症状,并进行统计学分析.结果 36例中,ETV治疗组20例;VP shunt治疗组16例.均手术顺利,无术中并发症.ETV组有2例术后当天出现癫痫,考虑为间脑发作,经药物治疗后未再复发;1例出现脑室内出血,1例出现硬膜下出血,均予药物治疗后吸收;1例术后第10天出现伤口渗液、脑脊液漏,改行VP shunt治疗后痊愈;ETV组成功率95%,再手术率5%,近期并发症发生率25%,无远期并发症.VP shunt组16例中,1例术后第10天出现头端伤口感染,予抗感染治疗后好转,2个月后出现颅内感染,行拔管术,抗感染治疗好转后重新置管;1例术后5个月后复发脑积水,行ETV后好转;1例转流功能障碍,行再次VP shunt后好转;1例分流管头端脱出,行再次VP shunt后好转,手术总成功率75%,再手术率25%,近期并发症发生率6.25%,远期并发症发生率18.75%.结论 2岁以下婴幼儿阻塞性脑积水ETV与分流治疗对比,ETV近期并发症的发生率高于VP shunt,长期随访未出现新的神经功能障碍,远期并发症明显少于VP shunt,具有推广价值.

  1. Hydrogeology and groundwater availability in Clarke County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, David L.; Moberg, Roger M.

    2010-01-01

    seasonal highs and lows tend to shift in response to the current conditions. Springs generally are present along faults and fold axes, and discharges for the study period ranged from dry to 10 cubic feet per second. A similar downward trend in discharges correlates with the trend in water levels and is indicative of an aquifer system that, over time, drains to a base level controlled by springs and streams. Point discharge from springs can occur as the start of flows of streams and creeks, along banks, and as discrete discharge through streambeds in the Great Valley. For the most part, streams, creeks, and rivers in the Great Valley function as aqueducts. Springs in the Blue Ridge have relatively low discharge rates, have small drainage areas, and are susceptible to current meteorological conditions. Estimates of effective groundwater recharge from 2001 to 2007 ranged from 6.4 to 23.0 inches per year (in/yr) in the Dry Marsh Run and Spout Run Basins with averages of 11.6 and 11.9 in/yr, respectively. Base flow accounted for between 80 and 97 percent of mean streamflow and averaged about 90 percent in these basins. The high base-flow index values (percent of streamflow from base flow) in the Dry Marsh Run and Spout Run Basins indicate that groundwater is the dominant source of streamflow during both wet and drought conditions. Between 46 and 82 percent of the precipitation that fell on the Dry Marsh Run and Spout Run Basins from 2001 to 2007 was removed by evapotranspiration, and an average of approximately 30 percent of the precipitation reached the water table as effective recharge. The high permeability of the rocks and low relief in these basins are not conducive for runoff; therefore, on average, only about 3 to 4 percent of the precipitation becomes runoff. Groundwater flow systems in the county are extremely vulnerable to current climatic conditions. Successive years of below-average effective recharge cause declines in water levels, spring discha

  2. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khodadadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heavy metals are the most toxic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. This contamination can result from the release of heavy metal elements during alteration and weathering of ultramafic and mafic rocks (ophiolite zones. Among the important metals and pollutants in the ophiolite; chromium, cobalt, nickel, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper could be noted. Basically, a mass of serpentine consists of serpentine, amphibole, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and the remainder of olivine, pyroxene and spinel (Kil et al., 2010. In such areas, the prevailing cold climate, during the serpentinization, chloritization and epidotiization, the activity of the solvent, such as chloride, fluoride, carbonates, sulfide, sulfosalt would be able to import the elements such as magnesium and iron, copper and zinc into the soil and groundwater. The study area is located in northwestern Iran. This area is located in the northwest of the city of Khoy. Because of the proximity to the north and northwest Khoy plains with ophiolite rocks, the soil of this region could possibly show the potential of contamination with heavy metals. Due to the toxicity and disease of unauthorized grades of these elements in groundwater in the study area, this study is focused on the more contaminated groundwater of the areas. Materials and methods In this study, over a period of 5 days, sampling from 42 water sources, including fountains, aqueducts, wells, piezometers and wells in operation, was performed. The container was washed with acid and then rinsed 3 times with the water sample. The pH and temperature of the water in the samples was measured in the field. Then to each of the samples was taken from 2 to 5 ml of concentrated nitric acid (This causes that the metal elements would not adsorbed or precipitated by these particles and pH of the samples was measured with litmus paper to reach level 2. This was done to ensure the consolidation of the water samples. Analysis of

  3. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    The Imperial and Coachella Valleys are being formed by active plate-tectonic processes. From the Imperial Valley southward into the Gulf of California, plate motions are rifting the continent apart. In the Coachella Valley, the plates are sliding past one another along the San Andreas and related faults (fig. 1). These processes build the stunning landscapes of the region, but also produce damaging earthquakes. Rupture of the southern section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), from the Coachella Valley to the Mojave Desert, is believed to be the greatest natural hazard that California will face in the near future. With an estimated magnitude between 7.2 and 8.1, such an event would result in violent shaking, loss of life, and disruption of infrastructure (freeways, aqueducts, power, petroleum, and communication lines) that might bring much of southern California to a standstill. As part of the nation’s efforts to avert a catastrophe of this magnitude, a number of projects have been undertaken to more fully understand and mitigate the effects of such an event. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded jointly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), seeks to understand, through seismic imaging, the structure of the Earth surrounding the SAF, including the sedimentary basins on which cities are built. The principal investigators (PIs) of this collaborative project represent the USGS, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and Stanford University. SSIP will create images of underground structure and sediments in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys and adjacent mountain ranges to investigate the earthquake hazards posed to cities in this area. Importantly, the images will help determine the underground geometry of the SAF, how deep the sediments are, and how fast

  4. Application of MSCT multimodal 3D reconstruction in the assessment of temporal bone structures and cochlear ;implantation%MSCT 多模态三维重建观测颞骨结构及对人工耳蜗手术的指导意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一红; 李瑞玉; 陈彩龙; 王晓燕; 林美福; 周硕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application and value of MSCT multimodal three-dimensional (3D)recon-struction in cochlear implantation.Methods ① The membranous structures with 3D imaging of cochlea,vestibular, semicircular canal and temporal bone transparent imaging were constructed with a double threshold reconstruction tech-nique,where the anatomical relationship between ossicles,inner ear and temporal bone were displayed.② The facial nerve reconstruction displayed the path of the facial nerve.The ultrastructure showed the facial nerve,f