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Sample records for aquecimento solar para

  1. Water heating solar system for popular houses; Sistema solar de aquecimento de agua para residencias populares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogawer, Tamer; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we present a case study for the design of a low cost solar heating system for a popular residence in an isolated rural community in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. This scaling can be extended to several rural communities that are in the same situation in Brazil as well as the wider use of solar power between the low-income people who do not have the benefits of electricity in their homes or want to have a lower cost of electricity. In this context, there are very interesting alternatives, among which is the replacement of electric heating bath water by heating by solar energy. According to several sources the electric shower, as it is now simple and extremely cheap, is the villain of the national electrical system. It is used in peak hours of consumption, something like 10% of electric generating capacity installed in Brazil, forcing many industries to switch off the machines because of the high cost of electricity during this period. Using the heating by solar energy, we can reduce consumption of electric shower and also increase the use of clean energy in popular homes and in isolated rural communities. This paper will address the use of solar energy with the basic purpose of heating water for bathing in popular residences and in isolated rural areas, using low cost systems, built with easily materials that is found in any area of the country. (author)

  2. Solar energy using for water heating in residences; Uso de energia solar para aquecimento de agua em residencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Carlos Augusto Halila [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), DF (Brazil); Freitas, Marcos Villaca [Companhia Energetica de Brasilia (CEB), DF (Brazil)

    1998-10-01

    It is presented the implantation experience of solar heating in residences of Brasilia, Brazil, substituting the electric showers, bringing an advantageous cost/benefit ratio both for the consumer and the concessionaires relating the relief in the energy supply system during peak hours.

  3. Análise de um sistema de aquecimento de água para residências rurais, utilizando energia solar A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy

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    Luiz H. Basso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A conscientização da importância do meio ambiente tem incentivado o estudo de novas fontes energéticas renováveis e menos poluentes. Dentre essas fontes, a energia solar destaca-se por ser perene e limpa. A utilização da energia solar em sistemas de aquecimento de água residencial rural pode colaborar com a economia de energia elétrica, base da matriz energética brasileira. Conhecer os fatores que influenciam na operação de um sistema de aquecimento de água por energia solar é importante na determinação de sua viabilidade técnica, visando a sua difusão em residências rurais. Para tanto, construiu-se um protótipo, no câmpus da Faculdade Assis Gurgacz, em Cascavel - PR, com características similares a um equipamento utilizado em residências para dois habitantes, para funcionar com circulação natural ou termossifão e sem auxílio de sistema de aquecimento complementar. O equipamento mostrou-se viável tecnicamente, alcançando a temperatura mínima para banho de 35 °C, sempre que a radiação solar foi superior a 3.500 Wh m-2, o que aconteceu para a maioria dos dias estudados.The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Paraná, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or

  4. Protótipo de um sistema de aquecimento de água para população de baixa renda usando energia solar e elétrica, com reaproveitamento de calor

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    Marco Antônio Silva Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo consiste em uma pesquisa sobre os vários meios de aquecimento de água para o banho, buscando o uso de alternativas para viabilizar o acesso da população de baixa renda a esses benefícios. A ideia principal é fazer uma combinação dos vários sistemas existentes a fim de produzir um protótipo eficiente e de baixo custo. O protótipo constitui-se de um sistema de aquecimento solar, recuperador de calor e de um misturador de água automatizado. A representação do sistema foi obtida por meio de uma maquete do protótipo ecológico de chuveiro, englobando as diversas tecnologias estudadas.Palavras-chave: Aquecedor solar. Recuperador de calor. Misturador automatizado. Microcontrolador.Prototype of a water heating system for low-income population using solar energy and power, with reuse of heatAbstractThis paper consists of a survey on the various means of heating water for the bath, trying to use of alternatives to allow access of the low-income population. The main idea is to make a blend of various existing systems in order to produce an efficient and cost effective prototype. The prototype consists of a system of solar heating, heat recovery and an automated water mixer. The representation of the system was obtained through a model of the ecological prototype shower encompassing the several studied technologies.Keywords: Solar heating. Heat recovery. Automated mixer. Microcontroller.

  5. Sistema automatizado de aquecimento solar para controle de fitopatógenos da água de irrigação Automatic solar heating system for control of pathogens in irrigation water

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    Carlos A. da S. Braga

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O sistema automatizado de aquecimento solar, baseou-se em um processo misto de aquecimento da água em circuito fechado, através de coletores planos e dois princípios integrados de transmissão de calor, um por convecção natural e o outro por convecção forçada. A automatização foi realizada por monitores termostáticos diferenciais. Os testes normativos abrangeram as temperaturas programadas de 50, 55 e 60 ºC, que contemplam a faixa de temperatura letal para a maioria dos fitopatógenos. Os resultados indicaram rendimentos térmicos da ordem de 63, 55 e 52%, superiores, quando comparados aos rendimentos médios de 50, 47 e 45% dos sistemas convencionais. Os resultados experimentais mostraram que o sistema é eficiente para a eliminação de patógenos da água de irrigação, sendo promissor como uma opção de baixo custo para ser usado em viveiros, casas-de-vegetação e pequenas ou médias propriedades agrícolas.In the system proposed, which uses flat collectors, both natural and forced convection are responsible for the transfer of heat to the circulating water. The automation of the system is performed by thermostats, placed in different places, electrically connected to other components like valves and a water pump. Under identical test conditions and in the range of temperatures considered (50, 55 and 60 ºC, which includes the reference lethal temperature range for pathogens, the thermal efficiencies attained were 63, 55 and 52%, which compare favorably with those obtained in conventional systems, these being 50, 47 and 42% respectively, as reported. The results of the experimental trials show that the system described is a viable option to eliminate pathogens present in irrigation water, while its low cost makes it attractive for use in nurseries, greenhouses and on small farms.

  6. A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy; Analise de um sistema de aquecimento de agua para residencias rurais, utilizando energia solar

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    Basso, Luiz H.; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Siqueira, Jair A.C.; Nogueira, Carlos E.C.; Santos, Reginaldo F. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], emails: melegsouza@yahoo.com, ssouza@unioeste.br, jairsiqueira@unioeste.br, cecn1@yahoo.com.br, rfsantos@unioeste.br

    2010-01-15

    The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Parana, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or thermo siphon and without help of a complementary heating system. The equipment revealed technical viability, reaching the minimum temperature for shower, of 35 deg C, whenever the solar radiation was above the 3,500 Wh m{sup -2}, for the majority of the studied days. (author)

  7. Thermal analysis of a solar collector consisting of V cavities for water heating; Analise termica de um coletor solar composto de cavidades V para aquecimento de agua

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    Moreira, Michel Fabio de Souza

    2009-03-15

    The solar water heating is carried through, in Brazil, by means of solar heaters compound for collectors flat plate of the type plate-and-pipes, devices that operate in stationary position and they do not require tracking of the sun. A compound collector for some formed V-trough concentrators can be an alternative to the conventional solar collectors flat plate. This compound collector for V-trough is considered, each one, for side-walls which are specularly reflecting surfaces associates in V (equivalent to a triangular gutter). Next to the vertex to each V-trough concentrators an absorber tube is fixed, for flow of the fluid to be heated. Interconnection of the absorbers tubes forms a similar tubular network existing in solar collectors of the type the plate and pipe. V-trough concentrators with the absorbers tubes are made use in series in the interior a prismatic box, which have one of its faces consisting by a glass covering and directed toward incidence of the solar radiation. An analysis of thermal performance of these devices operating stationary and without tracking of the sun is researched. A mathematical model for the computational simulation of the optical and thermal performance of these concentrative devices is elaborated, whose implementation was carried through software EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The efficiency optics of V-trough concentrators with cylindrical absorbers is calculated from the adaptation of the methodology used for Fraidenraich (1994), proposal for Hollands (1971) for V-trough cavities with plain absorbers. The thermal analysis of the considered collector was based on the applied methodology the CPC for Hsieh (1981) and Leao (1989). Relative results to the thermal performance of V-trough concentrators suggest that these configurations are not competitive, technique and economically, with the conventional plain collectors. Although some geometric configurations presented next thermal efficiencies to the conventional plain

  8. Appropriate technology for solar energy system aiming water heating for human bath in houses of rural areas; Tecnologia apropriada para sistema de energia solar visando aquecimento de agua para o banho humano em moradias do meio rural

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    Rispoli, Italo Alberto Gatica [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], e-mail: gatica@dglnet.com.br; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian land receives a great amount of solar radiation all over the year, therefore, because both the culture and practical aspects, Brazilians use in a non-moderate way the electricity to boil the water for human bath in the rural homes, in the lower income residences even at part of the medium class homes. That happens due to the very low price of an electrical shower, about US$ 6,5. In fact, that way of heating water is largely used because, besides the very low electrical shower price, it is not necessary to install a complete hot water both hydraulic and electrical building systems, but just both single hydraulic pipes and electrical devices. On the other hands, at rural regions where the electricity does not achieve the rural people uses firewood in order to get hot water for human bath. At the rural places the use of electrical showers has meaning an increase in the electrical transformers powers, heavier electrical transmission rural lines, with greater prices and, at the urban zones, the use of electrical showers in the lower social classes has contributed to a more expressive electrical load at the nacional electrical system load peck, between 5:30 to 8:30 a.m. The public administration, mostly, does not take into account both social, economic and environmental costs in order to think about the electricity offer. The solar heating systems, generally used in Brazil, conserves the same reservoirs used in France at 1880. Therefore, this paper presents some technical subsidies applied to rural homes, even to lower income people's homes aiming to stimulate the Brazilian public authorities to make a public police to facilitate both the industrialization and dissemination of solar heating systems, appropriate to the rural area, with lower costs, compounded by good technology equipment, with guarantee of lasting and quality. (author)

  9. Optimization of a computer simulation code to analyse thermal systems for solar energy water heating; Aperfeicoamento de um programa de simulacao computacional para analise de sistemas termicos de aquecimento de agua por energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzebon, Felipe Barin

    2009-02-15

    The potential of solar water heating systems through solar energy in Brazil is excellent due to the climatic features of the country. The performance of these systems is highly influenced also by the materials used to build it and by the dimension of its equipment and components. In face of global warming, solar energy gains more attention, since it is one of the renewable energy that will be largely used to replace some of the existing polluting types of energy. This paper presents the improvement of a software that conducts simulations of water heating systems using solar energy in thermosyphon regime or forced circulation. TermoSim, as it is called, was initiated at the Solar Labs, and is in its version 3.0. The current version is capable of simulating 6 different arrangements' possibilities combined with auxiliary energy: systems with solar collectors with auxiliary energy with gas, electric energy, internal electric energy, electric energy in series with the consumption line, and no auxiliary energy. The software is a tool to aid studies and analysis of solar heating systems, it has a friendly interface that is easy to comprehend and results are simple to use. Besides that, this version also allows simulations that consider heat losses at night, situation in which a reverse circulation can occur and mean efficiency loss, depending on the simulated system type. There were many simulations with the mathematical models used and comparisons were made with the climatic data of the city of Caxias do Sul, in Rio Grande do Sul state, in Brazil, determining the system with the most efficient configuration for the simulated water consume profile. The paper is finalized with simple economic analyses with the intention of foreseeing the time for payback on the investment, taking into account the current prices for electrical energy in the simulated area and the possible monthly economy provided with the use of a solar energy heating system. (author)

  10. Thermal study of a residential water solar heating system with two different absorbing surface configurations; Estudo termico de um sistema solar de aquecimento de agua residencial para duas configuracoes de superficie absorvedora

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    Abreu, Rivaldo Ferreira

    2009-10-15

    A solar collector to be used in a system for heating water for bathing, whose main characteristics are its low cost and easy manufacturing and assembly is presented. The absorbing surface of the collector is formed by an aluminum plate with eight flaps where they lodge PVC pipes. The catchment area of solar radiation corresponds to 1.3 meters. The collector box was made of wood, it is covered by transparent glass and thermal insulation of tire chips and expanded polystyrene (EPS). Absorber tubes were connected in parallel through the use of PVC fittings and fixed to the plate by the use of metal poles and rivets. The entire absorber received paint fiat black for better absorption of sunlight. The system worked on a thermosyphon assembly and absorber of the collector has been tested in two configurations: with the tubes facing up, directly exposed to the impact of sunlight and facing down, exchanging heat with the plate by conduction. The most efficient configuration for the connect purpose was determined. The solar collector was connected to a thermal reservoir, also alternative, low-cost forming the system of solar water heating. We evaluated thermal parameters that proved the viability of the heating system studied. (author)

  11. Solar heating of the produced water of petroleum; Aquecimento solar da agua produzida de petroleo

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    Santos, Rogerio Pitanga; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Bezerra, Magna A. Santos; Melo, Josette Lourdes Sousa de; Oliveira, Jackson Araujo de; Ramos, Rafael E. Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Schuhli, Juliana Bregenski; Andrade, Vivian Tavares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, experimental data of solar heating for common water and saline solution were measured. The solar heater is formed by a flat-plane collector and a thermal reservoir ('boiler'). The objective is to quantify the variation of fluids' temperature, and correlate it to environment variables, especially solar irradiation. Thereby, it is possible to estimate the solar heating of produced water of petroleum. The solar heater is part of a system of treatment of produced water, and its function is to pre-heat the fluid that enters into the solar distiller, increasing the productivity of distilled water. A saline solution that represents produced water was used in the experiments, using sodium chloride (1000 ppm). The experimental data demonstrates that the solar heater is capable to heat the fluid to temperatures close to 70 deg C, reaching temperatures close to 50 deg C even during cloudy days with low solar radiation. Furthermore, the solar collector energy system provides a higher rate of heating and trough of the thermal reservoir the temperature can remain longer. These are important aspects to the integration with solar distillation. (author)

  12. Present status of the solar heating utilization; Panorama atual da utilizacao de aquecimento solar

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    Mesquita, Lucio Cesar Souza [Associacao Brasileira de Refrigeracao, Ar Condicionado, Ventilacao e Aquecimento (ABRAVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Aquecimento Solar

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the status of the solar heating utilization in Brazil. The paper consider the subjects as follows: general aspects of solar heating, systems re dimensioning, collectors, thermal reservoirs,systems installation, large scale systems, hydraulics and hot water utilization, and maintenance.

  13. Países pobres e aquecimento global: tempos sombrios para o desenvolvimento

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    Henrique Rattner

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O crescimento dos países pobres está contribuindo para as mudanças climáticas. Entretanto, eles já estão entre suas maiores vítimas, sofrendo imensas devastações, ora por secas prolongadas, ora por chuvas torrenciais, ciclones e tsunamis.

  14. Water solar heating at the city or Arequipa, Peru; Aquecimento solar de agua na cidade de Arequipa, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, Miguel; Faga, Murilo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: salcedo@iee.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a pilot test laboratory of solar collectors suggesting procedures for the viabilization of wide and immediate utilization and also some results are presented of surveys performed close to industries and consumers allowing to put in evidence relevant aspects of the thermal solar technology.

  15. Analysis of a solar water thermosyphon system; Analise do aquecimento solar de agua por sistema a termosifao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Abner Barzola

    1992-07-01

    A design methodology and to perform the simulation of flat plate solar collectors coupled with a water storage tank and operating by natural convection circulation is presented. For a given site the incident solar radiation on a tilted and previously oriented surface is determined from solar astronomy and the dally average of the monthly data of the horizontal total solar radiation. Huancayo situated in Peru (at 12.05 deg S, long. 76.18 deg W, altitude 3,312 m), is chosen as the site to be installed the solar water system, as a mean to improve the peasant's standard of life. An optimum tilt angle for a north oriented collector surface is obtained in order to have a maximum solar capture during the water. The theoretical methodology use here is based upon the ONG's paper (1976), and in attrition is considered the hot water drainage due to the dally consumption. For the sake of comparison, the calculated flowrate values are confronted with the experimental data obtained by FERNANDEZ, for a same site location (Rio de Janeiro) and are used identical dimensions for the water thermosyphon heater. Finally, the economic feasibility of the solar water system is demonstrated when it is compared with the usual immersion electric resistance boiler. For the Peruvian conditions the more adequate solar water system for a rural or domestic usage is a 1.4 m{sup 2} area solar collector (6 parallel, 15,875 mm copper tubes), 100 l capacity for the water storage tank, 33.5 mm for the connecting tubes, being of 300 mm. The height between the collector top and the bottom of the tank. (author)

  16. Desenvolvimento e construção de fornalha para biomassa com sistema de aquecimento direto e indireto do ar = Development and construction of a furnace for biomass with system of direct and indirect air heating

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    Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira Melo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Uma fornalha, com opção para aquecimento direto e indireto de ar, foiprojetada e construída para utilizar, como combustível complementar à lenha, biomassa particulada, resíduo agroindustrial abundante e desperdiçado em boa parte. No intuito de verificar o funcionamento da fornalha, na opção de aquecimento direto e indireto, foram realizados três testes preliminares utilizando somente lenha como combustível. Nestes testes, avaliaram-se as temperaturas do ar ambiente, do ar aquecido na saída da fornalha e depois do ventilador, fluxo de ar, poder calorífico inferior e eficiência térmica. Com os dados obtidos nos testes, nas opções de aquecimento direto e indireto de ar, a fornalha mostrou-se flexível na opção de aquecimento, de fácil construção e operação, não exigindo mão-de-obra qualificada.A furnace, with a system for direct and indirect air heating, was projected and constructed to use biomass, particulate biomass, abundant and largely wasted agroindustrial refuse, as complementary fuel to firewood. With the objective of verifying furnace operation, in the option of direct and indirect heating, three preliminaries tests were conducted using only firewood as fuel. In these tests, the following variables were monitored: room air temperature, heated air temperature at the exit of the furnace and after the fan; room air relative humidity; warm air flow; lower calorific power and thermal efficiency of the furnace. In the tests the results showed, for both direct and indirect air heating, the furnace was shown to be flexible in the heating option, of easy construction and operation, not requiring skilled labor.

  17. Software didático para modelagem do padrão de aquecimento dos tecidos irradiados por ultra-som fisioterapêutico Didactic software for modeling heating patterns in tissues irradiated by therapeutic ultrasound

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    LE Maggi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O ultra-som é um recurso bastante utilizado em Fisioterapia. Entretanto, a aplicação inadequada pode promover aquecimento insuficiente ou causar danos aos tecidos biológicos. Por isso, é importante que se conheçam os parâmetros ótimos para atingir a temperatura adequada, dentro dos limites seguros. A geração de calor é função dos parâmetros do equipamento e das propriedades físicas dos tecidos. Este trabalho apresentou um software que simula a variação da energia e da temperatura nos tecidos ao longo do tempo, permitindo ao usuário visualizar o padrão de aquecimento nos tecidos em função dos parâmetros. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O software foi implementado com base na equação biotérmica, supondo quatro camadas (pele, gordura, músculo e osso, das quais o usuário pode alterar espessura e propriedades acústicas e térmicas. Pode-se também escolher intensidade, freqüência e tempo de aplicação. São apresentados gráficos com o percentual de energia absorvida ao longo da profundidade e a respectiva variação de temperatura por cada milímetro de tecido. RESULTADOS: Foram realizadas simulações exemplificando situações de interesse para a terapia, variando tempo de aplicação, espessura e freqüência do ultra-som. Podem ser observadas as diferenças do padrão de aquecimento, em especial nas fronteiras das interfaces. CONCLUSÕES: O software permitiu o estudo do aquecimento de tecidos biológicos por ultra-som e pode ser usado tanto para fins didáticos como para planejamento de doses de aquecimento, para ondas contínuas. Numa próxima etapa, pretende-se adequá-lo para estimar qual dose deve ser regulada no aparelho, para manter a temperatura desejada pelo tempo escolhido. Software disponível em: http://www.peb.ufrj.br/lus.htm.INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound is a resource commonly used in Physical Therapy. However, its inadequate application may produce insufficient heating or cause damage to biological

  18. Sistema de destilação solar com pré-aquecimento em concentrador cilindro parabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rudson de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Devido à crescente necessidade de promover o uso de recursos que favoreçam o ambiente e a indústria limpa, a ciência tem desenvolvido-se na área da utilização de recursos naturais visando uma melhor utilização de fontes de energias renováveis. Tendo em vista também a grande necessidade de água potável e a grande disponibilidade de água salgada ou salobra, agregado ao grande potencial energético solar da região nordeste do Brasil, foi desenvolvido um destilador solar cuja princi...

  19. The performance of water heating systems in condominiums; Performance de sistemas de aquecimento solar de agua em condominios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J.C.A. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The use of Solar for water heating in buildings may be a great alternative for both consumers and energy suppliers. However, this will be a true statement only if the equipment is sized according to the conditions of use and if it installed following special procedures. If the instructions are followed, the savings on electric energy in what concerns the consumption with water heating may exceed the limits of 80%. (author). 15 figs

  20. An?lise do potencial solar t?rmico em um segmento do setor de alimentos e bebidas na Para?ba

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A energia solar ? a fonte energ?tica mais abundante do nosso planeta, por?m, ainda pouco explorada pela sociedade moderna se comparada com outras fontes. Essa disserta??o analisou as potencialidades do uso de coletores solares t?rmicos em um segmento da ind?stria de alimentos e bebidas na Para?ba. E, de forma espec?fica, primeiramente analisou por meio de indicadores regionais, a relev?ncia dos segmentos potenciais de alimentos e bebidas paraibanos para o uso de Sistemas de Aquecimento Solar ...

  1. Microclima de abrigos escamoteadores para leitões submetidos a diferentes sistemas de aquecimento no período de inverno Microclimate of creep for piglets submitted to different systems of heating during the winter period

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    Héliton Pandorfi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a eficiência dos diferentes sistemas de aquecimento em abrigos escamoteadores para leitões. Foi desenvolvida na sala da maternidade, com 80 animais entre o nascimento e o desmame, adotando-se 4 diferentes sistemas de aquecimento: piso térmico, lâmpada incandescente, resistência elétrica e lâmpada infravermelha. As variáveis ambientais foram registradas no ambiente externo, sala da maternidade e no interior de cada abrigo escamoteador avaliado, ao longo de 18 dias. Para avaliação zootécnica foram registrados ganho de peso diário (GPD e mortalidade. A análise técnico-econômica foi feita considerando-se o consumo de energia elétrica e o GPD dos animais. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 4 tratamentos e 18 blocos. Os sistemas de aquecimento apresentaram diferenças significativas para temperatura de bulbo seco umidade relativa do ar (UR, e para os índices de conforto, carga térmica radiante e entalpia, sendo que os tratamentos que se mostraram mais adequados, do ponto de vista térmico e técnico-econômico, foram lâmpada incandescente e resistência elétrica.The general objective of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of different systems of heating in creep for piglets. The experiment was conducted in a commercial swine production farm, located in Elias Fausto city, in the State of São Paulo. The research was developed in the farrowing house, with 80 animals between the birth and weanning, adopting 4 different heating systems: heat mat, standard heating lamp, electrical resistance and infrared lamp. The ambient variables were observed inside and outside the farrowing house and inside each studied creep, during 18 days. For animal production evaluation of daily weight gain and mortality were registered too. The techno-economic analysis was made considering the consumption of electric energy and the weight gained by animals. The statistical design of the

  2. Otimização térmica e econômica de bomba de calor para aquecimento de água, utilizando programação quadrática sequencial e simulação através do método de substituição Newton Raphson

    OpenAIRE

    Obed Alexander Córdova Lobatón

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: O trabalho apresenta metodologias computacionais de otimização e simulação para o desenvolvimento do projeto de um sistema de bomba de calor para aquecimento de água em prédios residenciais, especialmente para uso em banho na região de Campinas. O sistema bomba de calor foi simulado focando o estudo nos trocadores de calor (evaporador e condensador). Cada componente foi otimizado mediante uma análise térmica e econômica que permitiu reduzir custos de investimento e de operação através...

  3. Avaliação de controles PID adaptativos para um sistema de aquecimento resistivo de água Evaluation of adaptive PID controls for a resistive system of heating water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Berto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho consiste na implementação de um controle convencional PID/SISO-feedback para obter um ajuste fino na temperatura de entrada da água de aquecimento em um processo de pasteurização. Para isto utilizou-se uma resistência de 2500 Watts instalada na linha do fluido secundário da seção de aquecimento do pasteurizador e um Pt100 para a medição de sua temperatura. Como o comportamento desta temperatura em função de uma mesma perturbação degrau de potência na resistência é dependente da vazão de trabalho, objetivou-se encontrar um controle único para que a mesma fosse mantida no set-point desejado na faixa de operação de vazão da água do processo (300 a 700L/h. Três sintonias para o controlador adaptativo PID foram testadas: a primeira consistiu na implementação de uma função adaptativa dos parâmetros PID, ajustada através dos valores individuais obtidos para cada vazão de trabalho conforme metodologia da curva de reação do processo; a segunda consistiu em configurar os parâmetros do PID com os valores médios destes calculados individualmente para cada vazão, e a terceira consistiu na sintonia através de uma função adaptativa ajustada pelos parâmetros de sintonia obtidos pela metodologia de Aström & Hägglund. A avaliação do desempenho das sintonias dos controladores adaptativos foi realizada por comparação dos valores dos índices de erro, obtidos por perturbações do sistema em malha fechada na vazão de água. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que dentre as sintonias testadas, a terceira sintonia, popularmente conhecida como "Bang-Bang", apresentou menores oscilações e os menores valores dos índices de erros.The aim of this work is to implement a conventional PID/SISO feedback control to obtain a fine adjustment of the water inlet temperature at a pasteurization process. For that, a resistance of 2500 Watts and a Pt100 to measure the temperature were installed in the water inlet line of the

  4. Diferentes aquecimentos no desempenho de repetições máximas na musculação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Atanázio da Luz Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Apesar do aquecimento ser considerado essencial na prática dos esportes, pouco se conhece sobre seu efeito no treinamento de força. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito de diferentes estratégias de aquecimento no desempenho neuromuscular em adultos jovens submetidos a testes de repetições máximas de membro superior e inferior. Métodos: Dois experimentos foram realizados separadamente. Para o primeiro experimento, 16 adultos jovens hígidos realizaram um teste de repetições máximas a 70% de 1RM no supino reto (previamente determinado. Quatro condições de aquecimento foram testadas: Controle (CON sem aquecimento prévio, esteira (EST 5' a 60% VO2max, resistência de força (REF 15 repetições com 40% de 1RM e força máxima (FM duas séries de duas repetições com 90% de 1RM. Para o segundo experimento, 14 adultos jovens hígidos, realizaram um teste de repetições máximas a 70% de 1RM no leg press unilateral (previamente determinado. Cinco condições de aquecimento foram testadas: controle (CON sem aquecimento prévio, esteira (EST 5' a 60% VO2max, bicicleta (BIC 5' a 60% VO2max, resistência de força (REF 15 repetições com 40% de 1RM e força máxima (FM duas séries de duas repetições com 90% de 1RM. Para ambos os experimentos o número de repetições realizadas e a percepção subjetiva de esforço foram avaliadas. Resultados: Para o primeiro experimento o protocolo FM foi superior a todos os outros protocolos. Não foram observadas diferenças entre as outras condições. Para o segundo experimento, foi observado diferenças entre todos os protocolos, exceto CON e EST. Sendo FM>BIC>REF>EST=CON. Conclusão: Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que um aquecimento de força máxima levou a uma maior produção de força para os membros superiores e inferiores. Adicionalmente, aquecimentos aeróbios e de resistência de força apresentaram melhora no desempenho de força para os membros inferiores em uma menor

  5. Utilização de sistemas fototérmicos com concentradores para higienização de salas de ordenha Use of the thermal solar systems with concentrators for the hygiene of milking parlor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Altoé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, analisou-se a viabilidade do uso de concentradores de radiação solar em sistemas fototérmicos para higienização de salas de ordenha. Foram analisadas três opções para aquecimento de água com reservatório de acumulação: sistema com resistência elétrica, sistema solar com concentrador e sistema solar sem concentrador. Calculou-se o custo total dessas alternativas e o valor presente líquido do sistema solar suplementado por lenha de eucalipto comprada, lenha de eucalipto produzida na propriedade rural, energia elétrica e gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP. Realizou-se uma análise de sensibilidade do sistema fototérmico variando o número de vacas lactantes, o custo da energia elétrica e da lenha, a taxa de juros, o custo dos componentes do sistema, a vida útil e o subsídio no valor do equipamento. O sistema fototérmico com concentrador suplementado por lenha produzida na propriedade foi a alternativa de aquecimento mais viável economicamente. O uso dos concentradores gera uma redução de cerca de 10% no custo de aquisição do sistema de aquecimento solar.In this study, we analyzed the feasibility of using radiation concentrators in thermal solar systems for the hygiene of milking parlors. We analyzed three options for water heating with tank accumulation: system with electric resistance, the solar system with concentrator and the solar system without concentrator. It was calculated the total cost of these alternatives and the net present value of the solar system supplemented by purchased eucalyptus wood, eucalyptus wood produced on the farm, electricity and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. A sensitivity analysis of the thermal solar system varying the number of dairy cows, the electricity and the firewood costs, the interest rate, the system's components cost, the life expectancy and the subsidy on the equipment value. The thermal solar system with concentrator supplemented by firewood produced on the property

  6. Cinética de sinterização para sistemas à base de SnO2 por taxa de aquecimento constante Sintering kinetics for SnO2-based systems by constant heating rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Tebcheran

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerâmicas densas de óxido de estanho são muito promissoras para aplicações tecnológicas como varistores e cadinhos de fusão de vidros corrosivos. Vários aditivos em pequenas concentrações podem ser usados como promotores de densificação desta cerâmica. No presente trabalho foram estudadas as cinéticas de sinterização do óxido de estanho, considerando o efeito de atmosfera de sinterização e da concentração de MnO2. Sistemas de SnO2-MnO2 foram preparados pelo método dos precursores poliméricos e os pós obtidos foram caracterizados por medidas de área de superfície específica (BET e por difração de raios X. Pós de SnO2 com concentrações variadas de MnO2 foram compactados de forma cilíndrica e sinterizados em dilatômetro com taxa de aquecimento constante e atmosferas controladas. Amostras sinterizadas foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A influência da atmosfera (argônio, ar ou CO2 como também das concentrações de MnO2 na cinética de sinterização foram determinadas. Os dados cinéticos da retração linear foram analisados pelos modelos cinéticos para a fase inicial de sinterização (Woolfrey e Bannister como também para a sinterização global (Su e Johnson permitindo determinar a energia de ativação aparente. De acordo com a determinação da curva mestre de sinterização, a energia de ativação aparente de todo o processo de sinterização foi determinada bem como sua dependência com a atmosfera e concentrações de manganês. Baseado nestes valores e no expoente n, pode-se determinar, pela equação clássica de crescimento de grão, que o mecanismo de sinterização mais provável é de difusão por contorno de grão com redistribuição superficial controlando a cinética de sinterização.Dense tin oxide based ceramics are very promising for technological applications such as varistors and crucibles for melting very corrosive glasses. Several additives have been used

  7. Analysis of the electric heating conventional system replacement by the solar heating in day-care centers at Poco de Caldas - MG; Analise da substituicao de sistema convencional de aquecimento eletrico por aquecimento solar em creches em Pocos de Caldas -MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Carlos Tadeu [Escola Tecnica Limassis, Delfim Moreira, MG (Brazil); Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Located in the South of Minas Gerais, average altitude of 1186 m and population about 170.000 inhabitants Pocos de Caldas is one of the most developed tourist cities of Minas Gerais. Beyond this quality, that makes it one of the best cities in quality of life in Brazil, measured for the HDI, the city presents an enviable educational polar region comparing to cities of the south region. With 91 institutions of education, from children's education to superior education, Pocos de Caldas has more than 49,000 students today. From this scholar population, 1870 pupils represent the children's education in particular or municipal day-care centers, called CEI. Pocos de Caldas has its own generation of energy through the Municipal Department of Electricity, DME. The energy production today arrives the house of 58 MW reaching 100% of the population in 2005. The analysis of the substitution of conventional system of electric heating for solar heating in day-care centers has left of an unknown project, with the objective to minimize the consumption of energy unfastened during the children's baths who stay at CEI. In this context, this work presents a study carried through this project, after the implantation of the related system in four of the eleven day-care centers that the initial project composes. The data had been collected in the DME and the City department of Education. The pathological manifestations in the points of water consumption of the related day-care centers as well as the state of conservation of the systems of implanted solar heating had been investigated also. (author)

  8. O ALONGAMENTO E O AQUECIMENTO INTERFEREM NA RESPOSTA NEUROMUSCULAR? UMA REVISÃO DE LITERATURA - DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18511/0103-1716/rbcm.v21n1p158-165

    OpenAIRE

    Wouber Hérickson de Brito Vieira; Departamento de Fisioterapia – Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN); João Felipe de Souza Nogueira; Programa de Pós-Graduação Lato Senso em Fisioterapia Ortopédica e Desportiva - FARN; Jéssica Cardoso de Souza; Programa de Mestrado e Doutorado - Universidade Católica de Brasília (UCB); Jonato Prestes; Programa de Mestrado e Doutorado - Universidade Católica de Brasília

    2013-01-01

    O alongamento e o aquecimento são comumente utilizados antes de qualquer atividade esportiva, seja ela competitiva ou recreacional. O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar uma breve revisão da literatura, dos últimos 15 anos, a respeito da influência do alongamento e aquecimento na resposta neuromuscular. Para essa análise foram utilizados periódicos das seguintes bases bibliográficas: Pubmed, Scielo, Isi Web of Knowledge e Lilacs. Os artigos revisados mostram que o aquecimento pode, por m...

  9. Impacto do aquecimento global no cultivo do feijão-caupi, no Estado da Paraíba Impact of global warming on the cowpea cultivation in the State of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João H. B. da C. Campos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo se avaliam os impactos da mudança do clima com base nos relatórios do Painel Intergovernamental em Mudanças do Clima (IPCC, no zoneamento agrícola de riscos climáticos para a cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cultivado em sistema de sequeiro, no Estado da Paraíba. Utilizou-se o modelo do balanço hídrico associado a técnicas de geoprocessamento, e se objetivou a identificação das regiões do Estado em que a cultura do feijão-caupi sofrerá restrições em face das mudanças climáticas. As variáveis consideradas no modelo foram precipitação pluvial, coeficientes de cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e duração das fases fenológicas da cultura. Adotou-se, como limite para o índice de satisfação da necessidade de água para a cultura (ISNA, o valor de 0,50. A data foi considerada adequada para a semeadura quando a simulação do balanço hídrico apresentou resultados de ISNA com frequência mínima de 80%, superior ao valor do critério adotado. Tendo em vista um aumento de temperatura do ar de 3 e 6 oC, como sugerido pelo IPCC, o cultivo do feijão-caupi sofrerá uma redução significativa nas áreas atualmente favoráveis ao seu cultivo no Estado da Paraíba.This study evaluates the impacts of climate change, based on the reports of the IPCC, on the agricultural zoning of climatic risk of the rainfed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp crop grown in the Paraíba state. The water balance model combined with GIS techniques was used for identifying areas in the state where the cowpea crop will suffer yield restrictions due to climate changes. Model input variables were: rainfall, crop coefficients, potential evapotranspiration and duration of the crop cycle. The limit value of 0.5 was adopted for the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI. The date acceptable for seeding was that when the water balance simulation presented, for at least 80% minimum frequency, WRSI value greater than

  10. Behavior of a portable solar dryer for pineapple fiber Comportamento de um secador solar para fibras de abacaxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Costa Rica, there has been a growing interest to use pineapple fiber from plant, for which current processes need to be improved or new processes need to be developed, with emphasis on drying methods. This work presents the design and evaluation of the behavior of a prototype portable solar dryer in four sites of Costa Rica. The design describes the main parts of the dryer, as well as how they were constructed. The behavior was evaluated according to temperature and relative humidity inside e outside the chamber, and the influence of direct and indirect solar radiation. In order to achieve improved dryer efficiency, a dehumidifier was used to control relative humidity, and a heating system was implemented during the hours of low temperature, low solar radiation and high relative humidity. Based on drying time, final moisture content of fibers of pineapple leaves from plant, and the varying hours when fibers were put to dry, the evaluation of the dryer revealed that the best fiber-drying interval is from 6h00 to 14h00, and after that, it is convenient to inject hot air and use a dehumidifier in the dryer in order to increase its efficiency.Na Costa Rica, o interesse pelo uso da fibra proveniente da folha de abacaxizeiro. Tem almentado e essa atividade precisa de melhoramento ou implementação de novos processos para alcançar maior eficiência, principalmente na secagem da fibra. O presente trabalho apresenta o design e comportamento de uma protótipo portátil de secadora solar em 4 sites geográficos da Costa Rica. Estão descritas as principais partes do secador, bem como a metodologia de construção. O comportamento foi avaliado de acordo com a temperatura e umidade relativa interna e externa da câmara e a influencia da radiação direta e indireta. Com a finalidade de melhorar a eficiência da secadora, foi usado um desumidificador para controlar a umidade relativa e ainda um sistema de aquecimento durante as horas de baixa temperatura

  11. Desarrollo de motores stirling para aplicaciones solares

    OpenAIRE

    García Menéndez, David

    2013-01-01

    Los sistemas de conversión termosolar basados en motores Stirling figuran entre las líneas de investigación actuales que pretenden contribuir al uso racional de la energía y al desarrollo sostenible. La presente Tesis Doctoral tiene como objetivo proporcionar criterios de análisis, diseño, fabricación y ensayo útiles para el desarrollo de motores Stirling alimentados con energía solar, a diferentes niveles de salto térmico. La metodología empleada está basada principalmente en técnicas...

  12. Perfil de temperatura dos funis magnetosféricos de estrelas T Tauri com aquecimento alfvênico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas T Tauri Clássicas são objetos jovens circundados por discos de gás e poeira e que apresentam uma intensa atividade magnética. Seu espectro mostra linhas de emissão alargadas que são razoavelmente reproduzidas nos modelos de acresção magnetosférica. No entanto, o perfil de temperatura dos funis magnéticos é desconhecido. Aquecimento magnético compressional e difusão ambipolar foram considerados para estas estruturas, porém as temperaturas obtidas não são suficientes para explicar as observações. Neste trabalho, examinamos o aquecimento gerado pelo amortecimento de ondas Alfvén através de quatro mecanismos, os amortecimentos não-linear, turbulento, viscoso-resistivo e colisional como função da freqüência da onda. Inicialmente, a temperatura é ajustada para reproduzir as observações e o grau de turbulência requerido para que o mecanismo seja viável é calculado. Os resultados mostram que este é compatível com os dados observacionais. Apresentam-se, também, resultados preliminares do cálculo auto-consistente do perfil de temperatura dos funis, levando-se em conta fontes de aquecimento Alfvênica e fontes de resfriamento.

  13. Influência do resfriamento e do aquecimento local na flexibilidade dos músculos isquiotibiais

    OpenAIRE

    Brasileiro,JS; Faria, AF; Queiroz,LL

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O propósito deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos do resfriamento e do aquecimento sobre a flexibilidade dos músculos isquiotibiais, observando os efeitos agudos e crônicos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta voluntários foram aleatoriamente incluídos em um dos quatro grupos (n=10): 1) grupo controle; 2) grupo alongamento (técnica sustentar-relaxar) para os músculos isquiotibiais, por duas semanas consecutivas; 3) grupo alongamento precedido da aplicação de crioterapia (25 minutos) na região posterio...

  14. Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

  15. Efeitos do resfriamento e aquecimento articular no desempenho funcional do ombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane de Oliveira Estevam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Um dos recursos mais utilizados na reabilitação de lesões musculoesqueléticas é a termoterapia por subtração de calor (crioterapia, enquanto a termoterapia por adição de calor é considerada o procedimento mais antigo de reabilitação física. Entretanto, há poucas evidências que tenham investigado os efeitos desses recursos sobre o desempenho de membros superiores. OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito do resfriamento e do aquecimento articular sobre o desempenho funcional do membro superior. MÉTODOS: Trinta e quatro voluntários (22,23 ± 2,17 anos; 22,39 ± 2,53 kg/m2, de ambos os sexos, foram divididos aleatoriamente em um dos três grupos: 1 grupo crioterapia GCR (n=10: submetidos ao resfriamento articular por compressas frias; 2 grupo termoterapia - GTE (n=10: submetidos ao aquecimento articular por ondas curtas e 3 grupo controle - GCO (n=14, não submetidos a qualquer intervenção. Os voluntários foram avaliados, pré e pós-intervenção, quanto ao desempenho funcional de membros superiores por meio dos testes de estabilidade da extremidade superior em cadeia cinética fechada (TEESCCF e das condições de equilíbrio em apoio bimanual sobre o baropodômetro. Ainda, os voluntários foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho funcional virtual por meio do jogo Mario Kart (Nintendo Wii (r . RESULTADOS: Houve melhora significativa nos valores pós-intervenção no TEESCCF para o GCR (p0,05. Entretanto, na condição de olhos fechados, houve piora de desempenho para GTE (p=0,04 e melhora de desempenho para o GCO (p=0,02. Não houve alteração significativa no desempenho funcional virtual para os três grupos (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Embora não tenha favorecido o desempenho funcional em todos os testes reais e virtuais utilizados, o resfriamento articular foi mais efetivo que o aquecimento articular para manter o desempenho muscular do membro superior, especialmente nas condições de equilíbrio sobre membros superiores na condi

  16. Mudanças climáticas: aquecimento e esfriamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Rattner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Após inúmeras reuniões e conferências nacionais, regionais e internacionais, nas quais se destacam a COP-15 realizada em 2009 em Copenhague, a COP-16 de 2010 realizada em Cancun, México e a próxima, programada para realizar-se em Durban, África do Sul, em 2011, é preciso admitir que os debates, sobretudo as medidas concretas para conter o aquecimento global pouco tem progredido, apesar dos Protocolos anteriormente assinados de Kyoto (1995 e de Montreal (1987 e vários outros. 

  17. Cinética da degradação de carotenoides e da alteração de cor do azeite de pequi submetido ao aquecimento em temperatura de fritura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lina Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O azeite de pequi possui coloração vermelho-alaranjada devido à presença de carotenoides. Possíveis alterações químicas nesses compostos durante o processamento podem influenciar em modificações físicas do produto que ocorrem quando este é submetido ao aquecimento. Este estudo teve como objetivo utilizar parâmetros cinéticos para avaliar a degradação de carotenoides e a alteração de cor do azeite de pequi submetido ao aquecimento em temperatura de fritura. Para avaliar o efeito do aquecimento, o azeite de pequi foi tratado termicamente a 180°C em intervalo crescente de 10 minutos até uma hora de aquecimento. Realizaram-se as análises de carotenoides totais e cor e com esses resultados determinaram-se os parâmetros cinéticos. Ao longo do aquecimento, o teor de carotenoides foi praticamente todo degradado e consequentemente a cor foi bastante alterada. A cinética de degradação dos carotenoides foi de primeira ordem e da alteração de cor foi de ordem zero. Essas cinéticas refletiram as observações visuais das amostras do azeite de pequi obtidas depois de cada tratamento.

  18. Simulação da transferência de calor na articulação do joelho em modelo animal para condições de aquecimento e resfriamento

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A aplicação terapêutica de calor e de frio é amplamente utilizada na prática clínica da fisioterapia, sendo especialmente relevante no tratamento de lesões do sistema musculoesquelético (osso, ligamento, músculo e tendão). Para que os benefícios decorrentes dessas terapias possam ser alcançados é necessário, entretanto, que o tecido alvo atinja uma faixa ótima de temperatura. Temperaturas fora da faixa terapêutica recomendada podem promover tratamentos ineficazes e até mesmo dano térmico ao t...

  19. Impact of additional prices of the electricity consumed at peak hours; Impactos da adocao de tarifas diffenciadas de energia eletrica sobre o projet otimizado de sistemas de aquecimento solar de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, T. P. E.; Colle, S.; Wendel, M.

    2004-07-01

    Multi objective optimization techniques were used as a decision tool for sizing an additional price to the electricity consumed at peak hours. The proposed method uses mathematical programs linked to a long-term hourly simulation routine. The resulting optimal synthesis model was used to correlate additional peak-hour prices to optimal design solutions for appliances. A case study regarding solar water heaters for Campinas city, Southeastern Brazil was presented. The resulting tradeoff curve showed the existence of adverse regions for the consumers and for the utilities. There is also a good trading region for both parts. (Author)

  20. Seguidor Solar de Dos Ejes para un Horno Solar Two-Axis Sun Tracking System for a Solar Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Villeda; Alejandro Castañeda; José T Vega; Jorge Pineda

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta el diseño y fabricación de un seguidor solar de dos ejes (rotación-elevación), el cual controla un helióstato de un horno solar para la cocción de tabiques de arcilla. El sistema trabaja con motores controlados desde una computadora personal. El algoritmo para el seguidor solar se desarrolló en un lenguaje de programación visual, calcula los ángulos de seguimiento primario y secundario del helióstato y los despliega en una pantalla. El microcontrolador está programado para control...

  1. Active cutaneous warming systems to prevent intraoperative hypothermia: a systematic review Métodos activos de calentamiento cutáneo para la prevención de hipotermia en el período intraoperatorio: revisión sistemática Métodos ativos de aquecimento cutâneo para a prevenção de hipotermia no período intraoperatório: revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Brito Poveda

    2012-02-01

    íveis na literatura sobre a efetividade dos diferentes métodos ativos de aquecimento cutâneo, para a prevenção de hipotermia no período intraoperatório. Para tal, a revisão sistemática foi empregada como método de revisão. A busca por estudos primários foi realizada nas bases de dados CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials e MEDLINE. A amostra da revisão foi composta por 23 ensaios clínicos randomizados controlados. Na literatura, há evidências que indicam que o sistema de circulação de água aquecida é o método mais efetivo à manutenção da temperatura corporal. Os resultados evidenciados podem subsidiar a tomada de decisão do enfermeiro na implementação de medidas efetivas para a manutenção da temperatura corporal. Recomenda-se, entretanto, que a escolha do sistema em cada serviço de saúde seja também baseada na análise custo/benefício, devido aos custos relativos à aquisição dos sistemas investigados.

  2. Uso de controlador PID como tecnologia eficiente em sistema de aquecimento de creche suína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de S. G. Barros

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O uso racional de energia elétrica em creches suínas pode ser viabilizado sem afetar o desempenho produtivo dos animais visando à sustentabilidade do setor razão por que o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de duas tecnologias de controle de temperatura em sistema de aquecimento resistivo em creche suína, no uso de energia elétrica e no ganho de peso dos leitões. Os sistemas avaliados foram: resistências elétricas suspensas com controle PID (proporcional, integral e derivativo e resistências elétricas suspensas com termostato. O experimento foi realizado durante o período de inverno, entre maio e setembro de 2013. Os critérios de comparação foram: consumo de energia elétrica (kWh, consumo específico (kWh kg-1, custo específico (R$ kg-1, indicador de eficiência elétrica no aquecimento, ganho de peso (kg e ganho de peso diário (kg d-1. O sistema de aquecimento com controlador PID, apesar de apresentar maior consumo médio, foi mais eficiente quanto ao uso de energia elétrica para produzir 1 kg de peso vivo (2,88 kWh kg-1, quanto ao custo específico (0,75 R$ kg-1 e quanto ao ganho de peso dos leitões (7,3 kg em comparação com o sistema com termostato (3,98 kWh kg-1, 1,03 R$ kg-1 e 5,2 kg, respectivamente.

  3. Seguidor Solar de Dos Ejes para un Horno Solar Two-Axis Sun Tracking System for a Solar Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Villeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el diseño y fabricación de un seguidor solar de dos ejes (rotación-elevación, el cual controla un helióstato de un horno solar para la cocción de tabiques de arcilla. El sistema trabaja con motores controlados desde una computadora personal. El algoritmo para el seguidor solar se desarrolló en un lenguaje de programación visual, calcula los ángulos de seguimiento primario y secundario del helióstato y los despliega en una pantalla. El microcontrolador está programado para controlar el funcionamiento de los motores a pasos, los cuales mueven el helióstato del horno solar. El seguimiento primario y secundario es el mismo para los equinoccios, mientras que para los solsticios son diferentes debido a que durante el verano en el hemisferio norte existe mayor altura solar que en invierno. El seguidor solar permite una captación más eficiente de la radiación solar debido a que sigue minuto a minuto el movimiento aparente del Sol.The design and manufacture of a two-axis sun tracking system (rotation-elevation, which controls a heliostat of a solar furnace for clay brick firing is presented. The system works with motors controlled through a personal computen The algorithm for the sun tracking system was developed in a visual programming language, calculates the primary and secondary tracking angles of the heliostat and shows them in a screen. The microcontroller is programmed to control the step driver engines, which move the heliostat of the solar furnace. The primary and secondary tracking is the same for the equinoxes, whereas for the solstices are different because the solar altitude is greater in summer than in winter in the northern hemisphere. The sun tracking system permits a more efficient capture of the solar radiation since it continuously follows the apparent movement of the Sun.

  4. Sistema de Secado Solar para Frutos Tropicales Drying Solar System for Tropical Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R.S Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la construcción de un secador solar en el que se realizaron ensayos de secado de frutos tropicales y se desarrolla el modelado matemático simplificado del proceso. Se empleó un sistema de adquisición de datos y control de temperatura de secador, usando energía de convección forzada de aire y radiación solar. El sistema es complementado, para emergencia, con resistencias eléctricas. Se realizaron experimentos de secado de bananas en forma de placa, obteniéndose sus pesos y contenidos acuosos en función del tiempo. Se realizó el modelado matemático del proceso de secado, con la ecuación de transferencia de materia, obteniéndose la difusividad del agua en los frutos. Los valores obtenidos concuerdan con datos de la literatura y pueden ser empleados en el diseño preliminar del secador. El sistema estudiado entrega información para calcular la cantidad de agua evaporada del alimento para una determinada temperatura promedio del secador solar, la potencia y el tiempo necesarios para el secado.The construction of a solar dryer is presented in this work. Experimental runs for the drying of tropical fruits were performed and a simplified model of the drying process. A data acquisition system was used and the drying temperature was controlled by means of an air stream heated by a simultaneous process of forced convection and solar radiation. The system also included electric resistances, for emergency situations. Drying experiments were performed with banana slabs, monitoring their weight and water content as a function of time. A simplified mathematical model was developed considering only the mass transfer equation, estimating the water diffusivity on the fruits. The values of these diffusivities are in agreement with other values reported in the literature, so they can be used in a preliminary design of solar dryer. The system studied provides a way of calculating the amount of water to be evaporated in the dryer at a

  5. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um secador solar para grãos, associado a silo subterrâneo Development and evaluation of a solar drier for grains associated to underground bin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. da S. Braga

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Um secador com aquecimento solar, tipo barcaça, com sistema mecânico de descarregamento, foi testado na secagem de grãos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.. Em comparação com o sistema tradicional (secagem em terreiro, foram alcançadas reduções de: 83%, no tempo de secagem; 76% na área necessária à operação e 95% no tempo de descarregamento do secador e enchimento do silo respectivo.A batch-type, solar-heated air drier with mechanical system of unloading was tested in drying edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.. Reductions in drying time and area, reached 83 and 76%, respectively, as compared with the natural drying process. A hand-driven mechanical unloading system incorporated allows 95% reduction in unloading time.

  6. Adaptation process of hygiene routine of the manual milking materials after implantation of a solar water heating system in rural property; Processo de adaptacao da rotina higienica de materiais de ordenha manual apos implantacao de um sistema de aquecimento solar de agua com materiais reciclaveis em propriedade rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremasco, Camila P. [Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Bioestatistica], email: camila@fatecpp.edu.br; Choueri, Matheus [Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Silva, Helenice de O. Florentino [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Bioestatistica

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, most of the producers of cow milk were not adequate to Instruction No. 51 (IN51), which provides health conditions for obtaining the milk using warm water for washing. The study aimed to evaluate the process of hygiene materials in milking farm through solar panels made from recyclable materials (plastic bottles and milk cartons). To conduct the study, scenarios were established before and after the deployment of the solar heating of water used in the cleaning process. In the first stage, the producer must perform the routine work without any intervention, and collected a sample of the product. For the second stage (after implementation of the heater), the producer must follow the guidelines of the IN51 washes of materials relating to milking, to then collect another sample of the product. The study was designed with the testing of counts of colony forming units per milliliter of milk (CFU/ml) in the samples. Laboratory results sought to conclude that the method is effective in preventing the contamination of milk, indicating the use of the heater in such farms. (author)

  7. Solar energy as fuel to move the world; La energia solar como combustible para mover al mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Arturo; Gamboa, Sergio [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Among the technologies that can be used to take properly advantage of the Sun, we have the development of various solar devices, ranging from the solar collectors, equipment that convert the solar radiation into heat, until the solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of these devices in various countries of the world, has allowed us to evaluate the technical feasibility of the technologies associated with the development and use of Renewable Energies to solve the global energy problems, and, in this way, achieve the long-awaited energy independence to which aspire all the nations of the planet. [Spanish] Entre las tecnologias que se pueden utilizar para aprovechar de forma adecuada al Sol, tenemos el desarrollo de diversos dispositivos solares, los cuales van desde los captadores solares, equipos que convierten la radiacion solar en calor, hasta las celdas solares, que convierten la luz del Sol en electricidad. El desarrollo e implementacion de estos dispositivos en diversos paises del mundo, han permitido evaluar la factibilidad tecnica de las tecnologias asociadas al aprovechamiento y uso de las Energias Renovables para resolver los problemas energeticos globales, y, de esta forma, conseguir la tan ansiada independencia energetica a la que aspiran todas las naciones del planeta.

  8. Há risco de êmbolos durante a infusão com o uso de aquecedores com linhas de aquecimento de sangue e líquidos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Erkin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os aquecedores de sangue e de líquidos que aquecem em linha são amplamente usados por causa do baixo custo, do uso prático e porque não dependem de equipamentos. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a formação de bolhas em dois aquecedores tipo linha com duas formas de aquecimento diferentes. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Dois grupos foram designados às marcas de aquecedores de sangue e líquidos: S-line e Astoflo®. Com o uso de 10 conjuntos de soro para cada grupo (n = 20, 1.000 mL de solução NaCl a 9% foram infundidos a 350 mL.hora-1 durante uma hora na sala de operação. As seguintes temperaturas foram mensuradas: das partes proximal, intermediária e distal das linhas; do ambiente de ensaio; do líquido usado e do líquido ao atingir a cânula após o aquecimento. O tempo para a formação visível de bolhas foi registrado. Os achados foram estatisticamente comparados com o uso do teste-U de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação às temperaturas proximal, intermediária e distal das partes das linhas; do ambiente do estudo; do líquido usado e do líquido ao atingir a cânula (p > 0,05. Bolhas foram observadas nos dois aquecedores e o tempo para a formação de bolhas foi semelhante nos dois grupos de estudo (p = 0,143. CONCLUSÕES: No cenário experimental, criamos condições semelhantes ao nosso ambiente clínico. Ambos os tipos de aquecedores forneceram níveis de aquecimento semelhantes e formaram bolhas visíveis. Considerando que uma pequena quantidade de êmbolos pode ser fatal em bebês e crianças, a formação de bolhas deve ser seriamente considerada em caso de êmbolos e estudos adicionais devem ser feitos para determinar a quantidade, as razões e os conteúdos da formação de bolhas.

  9. Control system for solar tracking based on artificial vision; Sistema de control para seguimiento solar basado en vision artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco Ramirez, Jesus Horacio; Anaya Perez, Maria Elena; Benitez Baltazar, Victor Hugo [Universidad de onora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: jpacheco@industrial.uson.mx; meanaya@industrial.uson.mx; vbenitez@industrial.uson.mx

    2010-11-15

    This work shows how artificial vision feedback can be applied to control systems. The control is applied to a solar panel in order to track the sun position. The algorithms to calculate the position of the sun and the image processing are developed in LabView. The responses obtained from the control show that it is possible to use vision for a control scheme in closed loop. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra la manera en la cual un sistema de control puede ser retroalimentado mediante vision artificial. El control es aplicado en un panel solar para realizar el seguimiento del sol a lo largo del dia. Los algoritmos para calcular la posicion del sol y para el tratamiento de la imagen fueron desarrollados en LabView. Las respuestas obtenidas del control muestran que es posible utilizar vision para un esquema de control en lazo cerrado.

  10. RADIACIÓN SOLAR: FACTOR CLAVE PARA EL DISEÑO DE SISTEMAS FOTOVOLTAICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sepúlveda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La radiación solar es un parámetro fundamental para el dimensionamiento de sistemas fotovoltaicos. Esta radiación varía geográficamente debido a condiciones climatológicas. Por este motivo, se vuelve relevante contar con un sistema que permita monitorizar la radiación solar de un sitio para poder diseñar óptimamente un sistema fotovoltaico. En este artículo se presenta una introducción a la radiación solar, un breve análisis del espectro solar y de la respuesta espectral de un piranómetro para medir la radiación del Sol. Se presenta además un sistema propuesto basado en un piranómetro, microcontroladores, módulos de radio-frecuencia y un computador para medir la radiación solar de la ciudad de Cúcuta. Los datos obtenidos se podrán utilizar para la validación y escogencia de modelos de radiación solar. Se describe al final el estado actual de esta investigación.

  11. Solar drying: An appropriate technology for the north Argentina; Secado solar: Una tecnologia apropiada para el norte argentino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, Hugo D; Vergara, Liliana; Spotorno, Ruben; Benitez, Francisco; De Pedro, Jorge; Cervino, Veronica; Monzon, Sergio [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Chaco (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    The results concerning to solar drying of nutritious products for rehearsed a low cost solar dryer, adapted to the area, composed by a plane solar collector of 2 m{sup 2} and a drying camera with capacity for, approximately, 5 kg of product. The objectives of the work were: a) to develop a low cost solar dry, capable to dehydrate products for human alimentary use; b) to transfer the developed technology to low resources rural communities through the INCUPO (Institute of Popular Culture) and to small producers through the INTA (National Institute of Agricultural Technology) and c) to diffuse the practice of the solar drying among small producers. The diffusion and transfer of the developed technology to small rural producers, contribute to improve their quality of life when facilitating them additional revenues for productive diversification, besides the contribution to the sustainable use of the forest like source of non conventional nutritious resources contributing to the task of cultural rescue faced by organizations like the INCUPO. [Spanish] Se exponen los resultados concernientes al secado solar de productos alimenticios para consumo humano. Se diseno, construyo y ensayo un secador solar de bajo costo, adaptado a la zona, compuesto por un colector solar plano de 2m{sup 2} y una camara de secado con capacidad para, aproximadamente, 5 kg de producto fresco. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: a) desarrollar un secadero solar de bajo costo, apto para deshidratar productos para uso alimentario humano; b) transferir la tecnologia desarrollada a comunidades rurales de bajos recursos a traves del INCUPO (Instituto de Cultura Popular) y a pequenos productores a traves del INTA (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria) y c) difundir la practica del secado solar entre productores frutihorticolas. La difusion y transferencia de la tecnologia desarrollada a pequenos productores rurales, contribuye a mejorar su calidad de vida al posibilitarles ingresos adicionales

  12. Solar follower of two axes for a furnace solar; Seguidor solar de dos ejes para un horno solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeda, G.; Castaneda, A.; Vega, J. T.; Pineda, J.; Contreras, R.

    2008-07-01

    We present the design and manufacture of a two-axis sun tracking system, which controls a heliostats of a solar furnace for clay brick firing. The system works with motors controlled through a PC. The algorithm for the sun tracking system was developed in a visual programming language; it calculates the primary and secondary tracking angles of the heliostats; the PC, using codified data by a serial communication interface is interconnected with the sun tracking system through a microprocessor. The micro controller is programmed to control the step driver engines. (Author)

  13. Influência do resfriamento e do aquecimento local na flexibilidade dos músculos isquiotibiais Influence of local cooling and warming on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles

    OpenAIRE

    JS Brasileiro; AF Faria; LL Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O propósito deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos do resfriamento e do aquecimento sobre a flexibilidade dos músculos isquiotibiais, observando os efeitos agudos e crônicos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta voluntários foram aleatoriamente incluídos em um dos quatro grupos (n=10): 1) grupo controle; 2) grupo alongamento (técnica sustentar-relaxar) para os músculos isquiotibiais, por duas semanas consecutivas; 3) grupo alongamento precedido da aplicação de crioterapia (25 minutos) na região posterio...

  14. Utilização de sistemas de aquecimento por ar e por água quente em estufas localizadas em zonas mediterrânicas Utilisation of air and pipe heating systems in Mediterranean greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Afonso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos principais objectivos da produção em estufa é a obtenção de plantas, em quantidade e qualidade, que de outro modo não seria possível devido às condições adversas do meio exterior. No entanto, de modo a obter no interior da estufa as condições de temperatura e humidade adequadas é normalmente necessário recorrer a técnicas de condicionamento ambiental, como sejam, a ventilação e o aquecimento. Neste trabalho pretendeu-se estudar a influência de diferentes sistemas de aquecimento, por ar quente e por água quente, nas condições de ambiência no interior de uma estufa localizada numa zona Mediterrânica continental. Além disso, pretendeuse também comparar o efeito destes sistemas de aquecimento na ocorrência de condensação. Este é um aspecto de grande importância já que a condensação pode ser um factor favorável à proliferação de determinadas doenças criptogâmicas, responsáveis por avultadas perdas de produção. O trabalho experimental foi realizado numa estufa localizada em Madrid na Escola Técnica Superior de Engenheiros Agrónomos. A estufa era multitúnel tendo o tecto a forma elipsoidal. A área da estufa era 132 m ² e o material de cobertura metacrilato com 3 mm de espessura. O sistema de ventilação consistia em aberturas contínuas laterais e zenitais. Esta estufa estava equipada com dois sistemas de aquecimento, termoventiladores (ar quente e solo radiante (água quente. Foram recolhidos dados relativos à temperatura e humidade relativa do ar no interior e no exterior, bem como da ocorrência de condensação na parte interna da cobertura da estufa. Todos os dados foram registrados com intervalos de 5 minutos, durante vários dias. Verificou-se que a humidade relativa e os períodos em que ocorreu condensação são bastante menores quando se utilizou o aquecimento por ar quente. Ambos os sistemas foram comparados relativamente ao consumo energético. Para as mesmas condições clim

  15. Desenvolvimento de um sistema de controle de baixo custo para rastreador solar

    OpenAIRE

    MONTEIRO, Flávio Áureo Moura

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento, princípio de funcionamento e a avaliação experimental de sistema de controle de um rastreador solar. Um gerador fotovoltaico (FV) tem o máximo aproveitamento quando a normal da sua superfície aponta para o Sol. A função de um rastreador solar é fazer com que isso aconteça com precisão adequada para o gerador FV. O sistema de controle desenvolvido promove o rastreio do Sol ao longo do dia, com retorno ao fim do dia promovido por um banc...

  16. Solar air heaters for industrial drying; Aquecedor solar de ar para secagem industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Everaldo Mendes [Governo do Estado da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Secretaria de Planejamento e Gestao

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to encourage the use of solar energy in industrial drying of fruits, with the producers poles, at the same time, promote the rational use of energy for heat, or replacing the hydroelectric and oil derivatives for this purpose. This study is presented in the following chapters: availability of solar energy; details of constructive solar heated air; drying fruit; market. (author)

  17. Temperatura y humedad relativas en un secador solar de plantas para la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Chaverri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las características de un secador solar pasivo, tipo invernadero, que se utiliza para el secado de plantas para la salud en la zona norte de Costa Rica. Se analiza el régimen de temperaturas en función de la radiación solar global recibida durante el proceso de secado. También se analiza el comportamiento de la humedad relativa interna comparada con la humedad relativa ambiente y su relación con las características físicas del secador. El secador presenta características que le permiten mantener un régimen de secado para las plantas.

  18. Construimos un calentador de agua solar para trabajar la sostenibilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero Gómez, Mª Begoña

    2012-01-01

    Estamos inmersos en plena Década de la Educación para la Sostenibilidad. Si queremos impulsar actitudes orientadas al cuidado del medioambiente y su sostenibilidad es necesario trabajar desde los centros de enseñanza e introducir a nuestro alumnado en los problemas medioambientales y sus posibles soluciones. Por ello, en nuestro centro, hemos pensado que una forma de acercarles esta problemática sería planificando actividades que, estando relacionadas con la vida cotidiana, les pe...

  19. Sistema de energía solar fotovoltaica aislado para vivienda unifamiliar aislada

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente Trabajo Fin de Grado es diseñar un sistema de energía solar fotovoltaica para una vivienda unifamiliar aislada de modo que sea autosuficiente energéticamente mediante un sistema fotovoltaico. Un sistema fotovoltaico completo, con gran capacidad de acumulación, puede garantizar un suministro fiable hasta varios días con ausencia de sol, y con una inversión mucho inferior al coste de hacer llegar la red eléctrica al emplazamiento. Para conseguir un sum...

  20. Desenvolvimento de heliostato para geração heliotermica em torres solares

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestre, Alysson Domingos

    2016-01-01

    Com o aumento das perspectivas mundiais a respeito das energias renováveis e a utilização da energia solar térmica concentrada, com o objetivo de aumentar o fluxo de radiação solar incidente em sistemas térmicos tem se mostrado uma solução viável para geração de energia elétrica. Os dispositivos heliostatos tem a capacidade de rastrear o sol e refletir a radiação em um ponto fixo pré – estabelecido, normalmente conhecido como torre solar localizando se ao meio de um campo de dispositivos heli...

  1. Seguidor solar adaptativo basado en un controlador lógico programable para paneles fotovoltaicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso de la Cruz Casaño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Desarrollar un sistema de seguimiento solar adaptativo para paneles solares fotovoltaicos que no necesitan una configuración inicial. Métodos: Se utilizó el método estructuralista, en el cual se observa la realidad, se construye modelos y se analiza la estructura. Se utilizaron bloques de programación del controlador lógico programable (PLC y de modelos de mecanismos para construir el modelo del seguidor solar; además se aplicó teorías de ingeniería de control como la estabilidad de sistemas dinámicos y control adaptativo. La prueba de estabilidad y el funcionamiento correcto se analiza utilizando todo el sistema en conjunto, luego, se validan estos análisis con las simulaciones y experimentaciones. Resultados: Se presentan resultados de simulación y experimentación, en los cuales se hace evidente que el controlador adaptativo mantiene el error de control de seguimiento muy bajo a pesar de las condiciones nubladas. En las simulaciones y experimentaciones no se requirió una configuración inicial; este hecho es uno de los requisitos que se busca alcanzar en los objetivos. La ventaja de la adaptación es que el seguidor solar seguirá la trayectoria del sol aun cuando este se encuentre oculto por las nubes. Conclusiones: El aporte fue brindar un diseño novedoso de un seguidor solar cronológico adaptativo. El algoritmo de control adaptativo evita la configuración inicial del seguidor solar cronológico.

  2. Development of a solar tracker for photovoltaic applications; Desenvolvimento de um rastreador solar para aplicacoes fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Daniel Rizzo; Lacerda Filho, Adilio Flauzino de; Resende, Ricardo C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: daniel.carvalho@ufv.br; Possi, Maurilio A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao; Ferreira, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia

    2012-11-01

    In this work are presented the design, construction and relevant results related to the production of electricity using a photovoltaic panel attached to the solar tracking mechanism. The objective was to develop a tracking device with high accuracy, reliable, low cost, high efficiency and easy operation, aiming at the possibility of residential, agricultural and industrial use of solar photovoltaic technologies with high efficiency of conversion. Was evaluated the performance of the tracker, comparing it to a fixed system and based on results analyzed, was observed a significant increase in energy production of photovoltaic panel attached to the tracking system, in relation to the fixed system the slope of the local latitude. Its performance was satisfactory, electromechanical structure requires no maintenance during the trial even when exposed to various weather conditions. The system showed great potential for application, usability and effectivity. (author)

  3. Solar Water disinfection for human consumption; Desinfeccao Solar de Agua para consumo humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, A.; Vilar, V.; Boaventura, R.

    2008-07-01

    In this work a pilot plant with 0.59 m{sup 2} of solar collectors has been used for studying the disinfection by solar photo catalysis of waters contaminated with Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecal or humic acids. the results obtained showed a higher resistance of Enterococcus to the photo catalytic treatment ([TiO{sub 2}] =50 mg/L) compared with E. coli, being necessary a higher amount of UV energy for killing them, using an initial bacteria concentration of 1x10{sup 5} CFU/mL. For the treatment of water contaminated with humic acids was applied 20 kJ UV/L to reduce the TOC concentration from 6.9 mg/L to 1 mg/L. (Author)

  4. Novel solar air Heater for high temperatures; Novedoso Calentador solar de aire para altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, E. A.; Duran, M. D.; Lentz, A. E.

    2008-07-01

    A novel solar air heater that allows to reach temperatures of the order of 100 degree centigrade with thermal efficiencies superior to 50% due to a solar concentrator and the reduction of thermal losses from the air when circulating between the absorber and mirrors of section of circular arc, well isolated of the outside surrounding. The receiver consists of a concentrator with wedges of plastic transparency that make the function of lenses. The light refracted by the wedges enters to a series of concentrators PC type truncated optimally so that the space among them allows the positioning of the absorber, who are covered metallic segments with selective film. Its excellent performance makes ideals applications as Sauna bath, the drying at high temperature, and systems for conditioning of air. (Author)

  5. Solar drying of jack fruit almonds Secagem solar de amêndoas de jaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre J. de M Queiroz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dryers heated by solar energy have been constructed and used in drying whole and half jack fruit almonds. The samples were dried during the day in direct sun and in the conventional solar dryer prepared for this purpose. Another piece of equipment was built for reception and accumulation of sun energy in a body of water, which was used as a heat source for night drying. The drying with the sun energy was compared with artificial drying. The jack fruit almonds were dried whole, half, with pellicle and without it. The storage of solar energy in water was technically viable for use in night drying. The drying by combining solar dryers in the day and night periods were completed in approximately 35 hours, and were equivalent to artificial drying between 40ºC and 70ºC. Almond cut in half and the pellicle removed reduced the drying time.Secadores com aquecimento por energia solar foram construídos e utilizados em secagens de amêndoas de jaca inteiras e em metades. As secagens no período diurno foram realizadas por exposição direta ao sol e em secador solar convencional, elaborado para este fim. Construiu-se também um equipamento para captação e acumulação de energia solar em uma massa de água, a qual foi utilizada como fonte de calor para realização de secagens no período noturno. As secagens com o uso de energia solar foram comparadas com secagens artificiais. As amêndoas de jaca foram secadas inteiras, em metades, com e sem película. O armazenamento da energia solar em corpo de água mostrou-se viável do ponto de vista técnico para utilização em secagens noturnas. As secagens combinando secadores por energia solar nos períodos diurno e noturno foram concluídas em tempos aproximados de 35 horas e equivaleram a secagens artificiais entre 40 ºC e 70 ºC. O corte das amêndoas e a retirada das películas reduziram o tempo de secagem.

  6. Estudio para el uso de la tecnología solar fotovoltaica

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Urbano, Janett; Trujillo González, Faiver Humberto; Velásquez Perilla, Pablo Elías; Castellanos Contreras, José Ulises

    2011-01-01

    La tecnología solar se basa en el principio físico de convertir ese tipo de energía, absorbida por un material altamente conductor, en corriente eléctrica. Los materiales utilizados son semiconductores en gran variedad de estructuras; lo esencial es lograr una máxima captación de energía con un mínimo costo. Este trabajo da a conocer los aspectos iniciales del proyecto: “Factibilidad para el diseño de un sistema de captación, almacenamiento, distribución y uso de energía fotovoltaica en Bogot...

  7. Solar thermal plant of air tube for solar air conditioning; Planta Solar Termica de tubos de vacio para aire acondicionado solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J. C.; Lopez, J.; Coronas, A.

    2004-07-01

    The present implementation of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies driven by thermal solar energy is very limited although there is a great market demand for them for environmental reasons and security of energy supply. In this paper it is presented a detailed technical description of the solar plant installed at the technological Innovation Centre CREVER, and an example of a complete energy analysis of this plant working under the required conditions to be used for solar air conditioning applications. Also it is included a review of solar air conditioning systems state of the art. (Author)

  8. Propuesta de un banco de colectores solares para climatizar una piscina y molino de bombeo para el espejo de agua de un hotel.

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Luis Sanchez Avila; Juan Israel Veliz Alonso; Julio Esnard Long; Leovel Ismael Aguiar Bolaños

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza una propuesta de un banco de colectores solares para la obtención de agua caliente en la climatización de una piscina y otra de un molino de viento de extracción de agua salada a partir de energía eólica para el Hotel Sandals de Varadero. La revisión bibliográfica evidencia resultados acerca del comportamiento de la capacidad instalada para el calentamiento y extracción de agua a partir de energía renova...

  9. Influência do aquecimento sobre diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Influence of heating under different titration methods of residual SO2 on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Patrícia Brito de Araújo Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O metabissulfito de sódio é o conservante mais aplicado na carcinicultura, com uso amparado em legislações vigentes no país, todavia, seu resíduo, dióxido de enxofre (SO2, em concentrações altas, pode provocar reações adversas à saúde. Este estudo foidesenvolvido com a finalidade de observar a influência do aquecimento sob diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei. Os camarões foram submetidos a nove concentrações de metabissulfito de sódio e avaliados com diferentesmétodos de detecção de SO2. O método da titulação Adolfo Lutz adaptado apresentou grande sensibilidade para detecção de SO2 residual. O método da titulação iodométrica com aquecimento possibilitou a detecção de maiores níveis de SO2, quando comparado aométodo sem o aquecimento. O aquecimento interferiu negativamente no método da fita reativa. Conclui-se que o aquecimento influenciou positivamente a titulação iodométrica, não ocorrendo o mesmo com a fita reativa.Sodium metabisulfite is the most applied preservative in shrimp culture, with its use supported by current legislation; however, its residue, sulfur dioxide (SO2, in high concentrations can provoke adverse health reactions. This study evaluated the influence of heating under different methods of residual SO2 titration in Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimps were treated with nine concentrations of sodium metabisulfite and evaluated by different methods of SO2 titration. The adapted Adolfo Lutz titration method presented the highest sensitivity for the detection of SO2. The method of iodometric titration with heating made possible the detention ofhigher levels of SO2, when compared to the same method without heating. The heating influenced negatively on the reactive ribbon method. It is concluded that the heating influenced positively on the iodometric titration, as opposed to the reactive ribbon.

  10. CONTROVÉRSIAS SOBRE O AQUECIMENTO GLOBAL: CIRCULAÇÃO DE VOZES E DE SENTIDOS PRODUZIDOS EM SALA DE AULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo D' Carlos Barbosa

    Full Text Available A utilização de problemas sociocientíficos controversos nos currículos CTS demanda compreensão do posicionamento dos sujeitos, convidados na contempo- raneidade a vivenciar uma nova relação com a ciência. Neste artigo analisamos um episódio de aula de Química no ensino médio. Com base na teoria da enunciação de Bakhtin, diferentes vozes foram trazidas para debate, momento em que focalizamos as interações discursivas sobre o efeito estufa e aquecimento global. Inicialmente os estudantes revelaram não ter consciência da natureza controversa do tema, além de criarem expectativas quanto a um posicionamento único e verdadeiro da ciência. Diferentes ritmos de apropriação da palavra do outro, acentos afetivos e ideológicos foram observados durante a tomada de consciência sobre a controvérsia.

  11. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  12. Narrativa sensacionalista e ficção especulativa sobre o aquecimento global: Catarse, alerta, realidade e ficção em "O Dia Depois de Amanhã"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Zoccoli Carneiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Tomando como objeto de análise o filme O Dia Depois de Amanhã (EUA, 2004, este artigo tem como objetivo discutir como uma abordagem sensacionalista sobre questões ambientais, como o aquecimento global, pode propor uma mistura entre realidade - embasada em fatos científicos – e ficção, atraindo o espectador por meio de suas sensações. Para isto, trabalhamos sobre o conceito de sensacionalismo e suas origens, além do potencial atrativo do ficcional e da fantasia.

  13. Aplicación del Software SOLEEC para Diseñar Colectores Solares de Canal Parabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Enciso Contreras; Juan Gabriel Barbosa Saldaña; Claudia del C. Gutiérrez Torres; Pedro Quinto Diez; José A. Jiménez Bernal

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se muestran las aplicaciones del programa SOLEEC el cual proporciona las características geométricas de diseño para Concentradores Solares de Canal Parabólico (PTC) basados en el diámetro del tubo absorbedor. Se puede elegir entre diferentes materiales que se utilizan en la construcción de este tipo de concentradores y realizar combinaciones entre ellos. La evaluación térmica se basa en la irradiación solar para un lugar específico utilizando el modelo ideal de Hottel o...

  14. Optimización de los sistemas térmicos solares para viviendas unifamiliares aisladas. Estudio de la instalación solar térmica de la casa solar de la ETSAV y propuesta de mejoras

    OpenAIRE

    Pereda Lebaniegos, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Este Trabajo Fin de Grado en primer lugar pretende analizar y estudiar de manera general las instalaciones solares térmicas para obtener agua caliente sanitaria. Posteriormente se centra en los sistemas de viviendas unifamiliares aisladas, tomando como ejemplo la Casa Solar de la ETSAV. La Casa Solar, también llamada Urcomante, tiene la peculiaridad de ser una vivienda eficiente, funcionando principalmente con energía solar. Esto permite conseguir un gran ahorro energético, ya que apenas s...

  15. Solar system design to heating water for a biodigester; Diseno de un sistema solar de calentamiento de agua para un biodigestor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Castro, Lucia Monica; Quinto Diez, Pedro [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: moni-80-lgc@hotmail.com; pqd510@hotmail.com; Tovar Galvez, Luis Raul [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones de Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: ltovarg@ipn.mx

    2010-11-15

    In this paper a Solar System of Heating Water (SSHW) to provide energy to a biodigester which produces biogas located in the Interdisciplinary Center of Investigation of Studies About Environment and Development (CIIEMAD) is assessed. This evaluation is made by means of the f Method considerating the extraterrestrial radiation, the earth radiation in the zone and the necessary energy to maintain at 55 degrees Celsius the mixture inside the biodigester. The data were introduced in the SOLAR program to calculate both the harnessing area m{sup 2} and the storage capacity in L/m{sup 2}. To guarantee the good performance of the SSHW, a control and monitoring system for the temperature of the mix inside the biodigester is proposed. It also controls the input and output temperature to the solar collectors, as well as the cost analysis which shows the savings of fuel of the SSHW with a conventional system to heating water. [Spanish] En este articulo se evalua un sistema solar de calentamiento de agua (SSCA) para proveer energia a un biodigestor que forma parte del sistema de generacion de biogas (SGB) ubicado en el Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones de Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo (CIIEMAD). Dicha evaluacion se realiza por medio del Metodo f de diseno que considera datos de radiacion terrestre, radiacion extraterrestre sobre la zona y la energia necesaria para mantener la temperatura de la mezcla dentro del biodigestor a 55 grados centigrados. Los datos fueron introducidos en el programa SOLAR para el calculo del area de captacion en m{sup 2} y la capacidad de almacenamiento en L/m{sup 2}. Para garantizar el buen funcionamiento del SSCA se propone un sistema de control y monitoreo de la temperatura de la mezcla dentro del biodigestor. Tambien se controla la temperatura de entrada y salida a los colectores solares, asi como el analisis de costos que muestra el ahorro de combustible del SSCA con un sistema convencional de calentamiento de agua.

  16. Riego por goteo con energía solar para el tomate en Cavaco, Benguela, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaclides Rogério Mossande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La seguridad alimenticia depende del mejoramiento del riego de los pequeños agricultores que cultivan la mitad del área agrícola mundial; sin embargo, es necesario el perfeccionamiento de la e¿ciencia del manejo del agua mediante el riego por goteo que se adapta a los sistemas fotovoltaicos (FV en pequeñas super¿cies. Considerándose la disponibilidad de radiación solar y la carencia de fuentes convencionales de energía eléctrica en la República de Angola, se justi¿ca el diseño de un sistema de riego solar fotovoltaico por goteo para la producción de tomate en el valle de Cavaco, Angola en un área experimental de 0,23 ha, donde la estimación de la radiación solar sobre un plano horizontal y la inclinación del panel FV se realizó con los modelos de Hottel y SOLENER. El sistema de riego FV se diseñó para la máxima demanda hídrica del cultivo, mediante los métodos de sistemas autónomos y fotorriego. Los resultados indican que la utilización de un gotero de 4 L•s-1 permite 2.49 horas de riego en cada subunidad. Los modelos matemáticos estimaron valores de radiación global entre 6 448,32 y 8 320,81 W•m-2•día-1 sobre super¿cie horizontal y entre 6 775 y 8 710 W•m-2•day-1 sobre la super¿cie del panel inclinada a 15º. El sistema FV consta de un arreglo de 6 paneles fotovoltaicos que generan una potencia pico de 1814,39 Wp, su¿ciente para garantizar el funcionamiento de la motobomba seleccionada.

  17. Disponibilidade energética para a cultura da cana-de-açúcar nos tabuleiros costeiros do estado da Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro V. de Azevedo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com a cultivar de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. RB92579, no período de 2010 a 2011 em Capim, PB, tendo como objetivo a análise dos componentes dos balanços de radiação e energia. Monitoraram-se as variáveis: radiação solar incidente e refletida; saldo de radiação; radiação atmosférica incidente à superfície, radiação efetiva emitida e o albedo da superfície vegetada. O balanço de energia, fundamentado na razão de Bowen, foi utilizado na determinação dos fluxos de calor latente e sensível para o ar e o solo. Para as fases de crescimento máximo e maturação observou-se que: a não houve mudanças significativas no comportamento dos componentes do balanço de radiação; b o albedo variou de 0,17 a 0,27 com média de 0,23; c as regressões lineares entre o saldo de radiação e o saldo de radiação de ondas curtas apresentaram elevados níveis de correlação; d o coeficiente térmico diminuiu e o coeficiente de transformação em ondas longas aumentou com o aumento da cobertura vegetal; e o saldo de radiação diário e os fluxos de calor latente e sensível aumentaram do período chuvoso para o período seco e f 82% do saldo de radiação foram utilizados como calor latente, 16% como calor sensível para aquecimento do ar e 2% como calor sensível para aquecimento do solo.

  18. CONSUMO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA: UMA ANÁLISE DE FONTE ALTERNATIVA DE COLETOR SOLAR DE BAIXO CUSTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Alves de Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento do consumo de energia elétrica e tarifas, a procura por geração de energias alternativas vem crescendo gradativamente, principalmente que sejam de baixo custo, assim possibilitando uma maior inclusão social beneficiando também as residências de baixa renda. Com o espírito de inovação a pesquisa buscou ideias simples que possam contribuir para a sociedade buscando alternativas sustentáveis e de baixo custo para a economia de energia elétrica Esse artigo teve como objetivo desenvolver um Coletor Solar de baixo custo. A metodologia utilizada foi quantitativa descritiva de caráter exploratório. Os procedimentos adotados foram uma pesquisa bibliográfica e desenvolvimento de um protótipo como procedimento experimental para coleta de dados. Dados os resultados nota-se que os testes realizados com o coletor solar de baixo custo, obteve um resultado com a temperatura da água para o banho de 37,1°C superior ao do chuveiro elétrico de 35,5°C. Com esse resultado o coletor solar se mostra, eficiente no quesito temperatura de banho e uma alternativa eficiente para a geração de energia térmica para aquecimento da água, além de reduzir a energia elétrica consumida em uma residência ao substituir o chuveiro tradicional que tem mais de 5000W , que é considerado um vilão para o consumo de energia elétrica.

  19. Influência do aquecimento sobre diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3437 Influence of heating under different titration methods of residual SO2 on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3437

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Oliveira Galvez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O metabissulfito de sódio é o conservante mais aplicado na carcinicultura, com uso amparado em legislações vigentes no país, todavia, seu resíduo, dióxido de enxofre (SO2, em concentrações altas, pode provocar reações adversas à saúde. Este estudo teve como finalidade observar a influência do aquecimento sob diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei. Os camarões foram submetidos a nove concentrações de metabissulfito de sódio e avaliados diferentes métodos de detecção de SO2. O método da titulação Adolfo Lutz adaptado apresentou grande sensibilidade para detecção de SO2 residual. O método da titulação iodométrica com aquecimento possibilitou a detecção de maiores níveis de SO2, quando comparado ao método sem o aquecimento. O aquecimento interferiu negativamente no método da fita reativa. Conclui-se que o aquecimento influenciou positivamente a titulação iodométrica, não ocorrendo o mesmo com a fita reativa.Sodium metabisulfite is the most applied preservative in shrimp culture, with its use supported by current legislation; however, its residue, sulfur dioxide (SO2, in high concentrations can provoke adverse health reactions. This study evaluated the influence of heating under different methods of residual SO2 titration in em>Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimps were treated with nine concentrations of sodium metabisulfite and evaluated by different methods of SO2 titration. The adapted Adolfo Lutz titration method presented the highest sensitivity for the detection of SO2. The method of iodometric titration with heating made possible the detention of higher levels of SO2, when compared to the same method without heating. The heating influenced negatively on the reactive ribbon method. It is concluded that the heating influenced positively on the iodometric titration, as opposed to the reactive ribbon.

  20. Estudio mediante simulación numérica de chimeneas solares para ventilación, refrigeración y calefacción

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Se explica el funcionamiento de las chimeneas solares, así como los modos de transferencia de calor presentes. En base a datos experimentales se crea un modelo computacional válido para predecir el funcionamiento de las chimeneas solares. Empleando datos solares de Madrid, se analiza el desempeño de las chimeneas solares para ventilación, refrigeración y calefacción. De cara al dimensionado, se analiza la influencia de distintos parámetros geométricos: altura, ancho del canal y tamaño de las ...

  1. Hybrid system: Heat pump-solar air dryer for grains; Sistema hibrido: bomba de calor - calentador solar de aire para el secado de productos agricolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Gomez, Willfredo [Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Tijuana (Mexico); Ortega Herrera, Jose Angel [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Design, building, operation and evaluation energy wise of a hybrid experimental type, with heat pump, that uses no chloride, does not destroy the ozone layer. It is solar air dryer for grains. In this research we dry rice. It has tree systems: 1.- A mechanical compression heat pump, 2.- An air solar heater, and 3.- An agriculture products dryer. The drying capacity is 20 pounds of grain /day, with a median daily solar radiation. The costs is approximately U.S. $ 6 000.00. The heat pump used 22 refrigerant first, and now works with refrigerant SUVA 9000. This refrigerant will be available this year in the I.S., it is one of the ecological class that substitutes the chlorofluorocarbonates. [Spanish] Se disena, construye, opera, y evalua energeticamente, un sistema hibrido tipo experimental, con bomba de calor que utiliza refrigerante que no contiene cloro, y no destruye la capa de ozono y un calentador solar de aire, para secar granos. En este trabajo secamos arroz. Se compone de tres sistemas: 1.- Bomba de calor por compresion mecanica, 2.- Calentador solar de aire, 3.- Secador de productos agricolas. La capacidad de secado es de 10 Kilos de granos/dia promedio. Tiene un costo aproximado de $ 60 000. La bomba de calor utiliza refrigerante 22 en una primera generacion, y actualmente opera con un refrigerante SUVA 9000, en una segunda generacion, este refrigerante se comercializara en este ano, en la Union Americana, pertenece a la familia de los llamados refrigerantes ecologicos, sustitutos de los clorofluorocarbonados.

  2. Energy saving plan: use of solar energy in the university of Valencia (Spain); Uso de la energia solar en la universidad de Valencia (Espana) para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Gomez Amo, J.L.; Tena, F.; Martinez Lozano, J.A.; Utrillas, M.P. [Grupo de Radiacion Solar, Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

    2005-07-15

    The University of Valencia financed a pilot project that would study the installation's feasibility of a generating station with photovoltaic energy, solar type, in order to replace or complement conventional sources of energy. This paper presents some of the preliminary results of the study's application in an University building, along with the analysis of the initial situation and the proposals for the handling of reactive energy and the outer and inner lighting as solutions for energy saving. This experimental project entitled Study of the Energy Saving Strategies and the Viability of Installing Solar Energy equipment in the Buildings of the University of Valencia throws preliminary data specifying the amount of investment necessary to obtain real annual benefits, as well as the recovery time of the investment and the beneficial ecological impact in quantitative terms of a measurable CO{sub 2} reduction. [Spanish] La Universidad de Valencia financio un proyecto piloto que estudiaria la factibilidad de instalacion de una estacion generadora de energia fotovoltaica de tipo solar para sustituir o complementar fuentes convencionales de energia. Este trabajo presenta algunos de los resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del estudio en un edificio de la Universidad junto con el analisis de la situacion inicial y las propuestas del manejo de energia reactiva, de iluminacion exterior e interior como soluciones para el ahorro de energia. Este proyecto experimental titulado Estudio de las estrategias del ahorro de la energia y de la viabilidad de instalar energia solar en los edificios de la Universidad de Valencia arroja datos preliminares que especifican el monto de la inversion necesaria para obtener beneficios anuales reales, asi como el tiempo de recuperacion de la inversion y el impacto ecologico benefico en terminos cuantitativos de una reduccion cuantificable de CO{sub 2}.

  3. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V. [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F.; Sanchez, A. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  4. Development of applications in Internet for the calculation of solar control devices; Desarrollo de una aplicacion en Internet para el calculo de dispositivos de control solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez V, Jesus B; Robles G, Saul; Villa M, Hector A; Cabanillas L, Rafael E [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work the development of an interactive software, visible over the World Wide Web, is presented to support the basic calculation required to control the solar gain inside buildings and houses. The site has two main parts: one part describes in a very required parameters to design devices for the control of the illumination inside the buildings, like overhangs and wingwalls for shading. The other part has the routines and procedures to calculate the sun position for any date and position over the earth, and the horizontal and vertical protection angles. The part to implement the calculations has been developed as a Java applet which can run on any platform and let the users, in an interactive way, to get the results. This software makes possible that any Internet user can run the application from his/her own computer without having to compile of use sophisticated procedures as it happens with traditional languages. With this web site it is intended to cover the necessity of having simple and reliable means for architects and civil engineers to support the use of solar energy and the saving of energy in bioclimatic design of buildings. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un sitio interactivo visible en el World Wide Web (WWW) que pretende servir de apoyo para los calculos basicos de control de asoleamiento en viviendas y edificios. El sitio esta conformado por dos partes principales: una parte cubre el aspecto informativo, donde en forma sencilla y clara, se explican los conceptos y parametros necesarios para disenar los dispositivos de control, alerones y parteluces. La otra parte contiene los procedimientos y las rutinas de calculo para la determinacion de la posicion solar para cualquier fecha del ano desde cualquier punto sobre la tierra, asi como los angulos de sombreado vertical y horizontal. Para la realizacion de los calculos se ha construido un applet de Java, el cual puede ejecutarse desde cualquier plataforma de computacion y

  5. Energía Solar para calefacción de un invernadero en la producción de pepino.

    OpenAIRE

    García Toro, Cintya Cristina

    2016-01-01

    La producción en invernadero es sin duda una forma de aprovechar la radiación solar para aumentar la temperatura ambiente para el cultivo en desarrollo, sin embargo las condiciones climáticas de algunas regiones no son las adecuadas para los cultivos, es por eso que deben ser calentados en las noches y días fríos para establecer condiciones óptimas de crecimiento. El uso de calentadores solares en la producción de cultivos ha sido documentado en diversas partes del mundo mostra...

  6. Termocal, software para el cálculo de calentadores solares para su empleo en instalaciones agrícolas (Uso de varios métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Álvarez Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se expone el manual del usuario, para desarrollar el trabajo con el software "TERMOCAL". Este programa dentro de sus variadas opciones realiza las operaciones fundamentales de calcular la demanda térmica solar de un local por varias vías, partiendo de distintos factores que influyen en dichos cálculos y calcula los valores de las dimensiones de los colectores y almacenes (depósitos de agua de energía, de dichos sistemas tecnológicos. Se ejecuta sobre cualquier sistema operativo, no requiere del montaje de ningún paquete informático para su funcionamiento, se ejecuta en cualquier tipo de computadora y con el empleo mínimo de su memoria, presenta un ambiente de trabajo ilustrativo y funcional, la entrada de la información inicial es en bloque.

  7. Solar radiation non-concentrated for the photovoltaic degradation of the pesticide; Aplicacion de la radiacion solar no concentrada para la degradacion fotocatalitica de plaguicidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Alejandra; Gomez, Isela; Leal, Ma.Teresa; Gelover, Silvia; Bandala, Erick R [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A study on the degradation of the pesticide Aldrin in the presence of titanium dioxide as a catalyst using non-concentrated solar light was carried out. The results show that the pesticide destruction follows a two phases kinetics, a fast one in the first four hours after the beginning of the solar light exposure, and a slow phase at longer periods of exposition. The final degradation rate is similar for any of the conditions tested in this study. Under the tested work conditions, the reduction on the concentration was always between 87 and 92%. The Aldrin degradation generated an increase on chloride ions concentration and a decrement of the pH of the solution. [Spanish] Se realizo el estudio de la degradacion del plaguicida Aldrin en presencia de dioxido de titanio utilizando luz solar no concentrada. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la cinetica de desaparicion del plaguicida tiene dos fases, una rapida en las primeras 4 horas de exposicion a la luz solar y una mas lenta a tiempos mayores. El porcentaje final de degradacion es similar para todas las condiciones utilizadas en este estudio. Bajo las condiciones de trabajo probadas se observo una reduccion del nivel del plaguicida entre 87 y 92%. El seguimiento de la degradacion del plaguicida mostro un incremento en.

  8. Thermodynamic methodology for the design of solar dryers operated with flat solar collectors; Metodologia termodinamica para el diseno de secadores operados con calentadores solares planos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Reyes, Ernestina; Navarrete Gonzalez, Jose L; Ibarra Salazar, Beatriz A; Picon Nunez, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanjuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this paper a thermal performance analysis of solar drying process at operating varying conditions is presented. It is described semi-empirical models to thermal characterization of an experimental device. A simulator of thermal performance for operating varying conditions was developed as a part of the procedure of thermal design of solar dryers. On the other hand, it is described a simplified method to design solar collectors based on the determination of minimum entropy generation during the thermal conversion of the solar device by using the thermal analysis procedure established and the method derived of the second law of the Thermodynamics are finally presented. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis termico del comportamiento del sistema -colector solar camara de secado-. Se describen los modelos semi-empiricos con los que se caracterizo termicamente un secador solar experimental del tipo indirecto. Se presenta tambien un procedimiento de diseno de equipo de secado que toma en cuenta las condiciones variables de operacion que presentan los dispositivos solares. Por otro lado se describe un procedimiento simplificado de diseno, basado en un analisis derivado de la segunda ley de la Termodinamica. Esta metodologia se fundamenta en la minima generacion de entropia durante la conversion termica de la energia solar, utilizando colectores solares planos. Finalmente se presentan los resultados del diseno preliminar de equipo de secado utilizando los dos procedimientos mencionados.

  9. Os impactos do crescimento econômico sobre o aquecimento terrestre: a contribuição dos países em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cavalieri de Lima Santin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é estimar as emissões de dióxido de carbono, CO2, para o ano de 2012, provenientes das atividades econômicas em alguns países em desenvolvimento, a saber: África do Sul, Argentina, Brasil, China, Índia e México. Inicialmente, são apresentadas as principais causas do aquecimento terrestre e como a utilização de combustíveis fósseis amplia o efeito estufa. Em seguida, são estimadas as emissões de CO2 para três cenários alternativos utilizando-se da Identidade de Kaya. Nos três cenários foram considerados que o aumento populacional e o crescimento da economia seguiriam as taxas médias do período 2000-05. Tentou-se avaliar os efeitos da redução dos índices de intensidade energética e de CO2, mantida a mesma taxa de crescimento econômico e populacional. Neste sentido, nem mesmo no cenário no qual é previsto um maior uso de energias renováveis e de tecnologias voltadas à proteção do meio ambiente, foi possível reduzir os níveis de emissões de CO2 em todos os países.Abstract The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the emissions of carbon dioxide in 2012 as consequence of economic activities in developing countries (South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, China, India and Mexico. To achieve this purpose, we appraise the causes of global warm and the main uses of fossil fuels and how these factors affect the world economy. Then we estimate the CO2 emissions in three alternatives scenarios, using Kaya identity. In the three scenarios was 25consider the economic growth and increase in population equal to period 2000-05. In each scenario, we try to evaluated the effects of reduce the index of energy intensity and CO2. As result, even in the scenario where we simulate major changes in renewable energy and the use of appropriate technologies, it was not feasible to reduce the level of CO2 emission in all the countries.

  10. Tropical agriculture and global warming: impacts and mitigation options Agricultura tropical e aquecimento global: impactos e opções de mitigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo P. Cerri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The intensive land use invariably has several negative effects on the environment and crop production if conservative practices are not adopted. Reduction in soil organic matter (SOM quantity means gas emission (mainly CO2, CH4, N2O to the atmosphere and increased global warming. Soil sustainability is also affected, since remaining SOM quality changes. Alterations can be verified, for example, by soil desegregation and changes in structure. The consequences are erosion, reduction in nutrient availability for the plants and lower water retention capacity. These and other factors reflect negatively on crop productivity and sustainability of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Conversely, adoption of "best management practices", such as conservation tillage, can partly reverse the process - they are aimed at increasing the input of organic matter to the soil and/or decreasing the rates at which soil organic matter decomposes.O uso intensivo da terra invariavelmente causa efeitos negativos ao ambiente e produção agrícola se práticas conservativas não forem adotadas. Redução na quantidade de matéria orgânica do solo significa emissão de gases (principalmente CO2, CH4, N2O para a atmosfera e aumento do aquecimento global. A sustentabilidade do solo é também afetada, uma vez que a qualidade da matéria orgânica remanescente muda. Alterações podem ser verificadas, por exemplo, pela desagregação do solo e mudança na sua estrutura. As consequências são erosão, redução na disponibilidade de nutrientes para as plantas e baixa capacidade de retenção de água no solo. Estes e outros fatores refletem negativamente na produtivade das culturas e sustentabilidade do sistema solo-planta-atmosfera. Ao contrário, a adoção de boas práticas de manejo, tal como o sistema plantio direto, pode parcialmente reverter o processo, uma vez que objetiva o aumento das entradas de material orgânico no solo e/ou diminuição das taxas de decomposi

  11. Solar disinfection of water for low income communities; Desinfeccao solar de agua para comunidades de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Lorna Falcao

    2010-03-15

    The use of solar energy for water disinfection, and is accessible to disadvantaged communities because of its low cost, has the advantage of using disposable materials such as bottles of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We present a study that used two methods of disinfection: the methodology proposed by the project Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS), which consisted of water disinfection by solar radiation and temperature and the methodology which the temperature of the water for disinfection. In both, we seek to eliminate microorganisms that cause serious diseases such as dysentery, typhoid, cholera, etc. Water samples were collected in the community of Bass, where the population has low income and the incidence of waterborne diseases is high. The experiments were divided into two stages. In step 1 we studied the feasibility of disinfection and in step 2 the feasibility of the pilot plant to obtain adequate levels of disinfection temperatures desired. The results showed the efficiency of the disinfection process, reaching an average of 80 to 100% death of microorganisms, but regrowth was observed in some samples. Finally on the good results of stage 1, is designed and built and tested in an experimental pilot plant, which has shown to be feasible to promote water disinfection through the use of solar energy. The water after treatment is in accordance with the limits established by Brazilian legislation for clean water, maintaining a positive performance for the disinfection and acceptable levels of bacterial regrowth. (author)

  12. Analysis of a hydrogen-solar system for the Brazil; Analise de um sistema hidrogenio-solar para o Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Mendes, Nathan; Lima, Lutero C. de [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Veziroglu, T.N. [Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In this article it is proposed the study of technical aspects and costs of the implantation of a system of solar hydrogen utilization in Brazil. Forecasts are made of the total photovoltaic cell, water demand for the production of electrolytic hydrogen, investments, benefits and comparative price between fossil fuel and hydrogen. (author)

  13. Sistema de secagem solar para frutos tropicais e modelagem da secagem de banana em um secador de coluna estática

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Antonio Raimundo da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi projetado, construído e testado um secador elétrico-solar composto por um coletor solar, uma câmara de secagem, um exaustor eólico e um ventilador para promover a convecção forçada do ar quente. Também foram realizados experimentos de secagem de banana em um secador de coluna estática, para modelar a secagem e obter parâmetros que podem ser usados, como uma primeira aproximação, na modelagem de um secador elétrico-solar, dependendo da simil...

  14. Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation Aquecimento Global na Amazônia: impactos e Mitigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Martin Fearnside

    2009-01-01

    climate change, Brazil must assume the leadership in fighting global warming.O aquecimento global tem impactos potencialmente catastróficos na Amazônia, e, ao mesmo tempo, a manutenção da floresta amazônica oferece uma das opções mais valiosas e baratas para mitigar as mudanças climáticas. Nós sabemos que o fenômeno de El Niño, causado por uma oscilação da temperatura da superfície da água no Pacífico, tem impactos sérios na Amazônia, causando secas e incêndios florestais, como aconteceram em 1997-1998. Oscilações de temperatura no Atlântico também provocam secas severas, como em 2005. Nós também sabemos que árvores amazônicas morrem, tanto do fogo como do estresse hídrico sob condições quentes e secas. Além disso, a água reciclada pela floresta fornece chuva que mantém as condições climáticas apropriadas para floresta tropical, especialmente durante a estação seca. O que nós precisamos saber com urgência, por meio de pesquisa intensificada, inclui como representar melhor o El Niño e as oscilações no Atlântico, nos modelos climáticos, como representar as retroalimentações bióticas nos modelos usados para tomada de decisão sobre o efeito estufa, e um estreitamento da gama das estimativas da sensitividade climática (para reduzir a incerteza sobre a probabilidade de impactos muito severos. Assuntos que precisam ser negociados incluem a definição de mudança de clima "perigosa", com os correspondentes níveis máximos das concentrações de gases de estufa na atmosfera. Mitigação do efeito estufa tem que incluir a manutenção da floresta amazônica, o que traz benefícios para o combate ao efeito estufa por meio de dois papéis separados: diminuir o fluxo de emissões de carbono que acontece em cada ano devido ao ritmo rápido do desmatamento, e evitar a emissão do estoque de carbono na floresta restante que pode ser liberada de várias maneiras, inclusive por causa da própria mudança climática. Barreiras impedindo a

  15. Evaluation of a integral systems greenhouse - solar dryer for small growers; Evaluacion de un sistema integral invernadero - secadero solar para pequenos productores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Victor O; Iriarte, Adolfo A [INENCO, Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Catamarca (Argentina); Carabajal, Dante; Sabadzija, Gabriela; Tomalino, Luis [E.E.A. INTA, Catamarca, Catamarca (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    sistema productivo, y en el verano se le acondiciona para cumplir las funciones de secadero solar. En la epoca invernal los cultivos evaluados fueron zapallito (Cucurbita maxima L), melon (Cucumis melo) y pepinillo (Cucumis sativus), determinandose ciclos de cultivo, periodo de cosecha y rendimiento en kg m{sup 2} para cada especie. La evaluacion del comportamiento como secador se realizo utilizando pimiento para pimenton (Capsicum annum). En este caso se analiza comportamiento termico del diseno, sistema de calefaccion auxiliar, comportamiento del producto durante el secado y calidad final del mismo. Se obtuvo un producto final de muy buena calidad tanto en color, sabor, aroma, con una clasificacion de calidad extra segun el Codigo Alimentario Argentino y la Norma ISO 7541. El tiempo de secado disminuyo notablemente respecto al secado a cielo abierto. La evaluacion economica se realizo para las campanas 1995, 1996, 1997, efectuandose posteriormente una evaluacion financiera de la inversion para un periodo de cinco anos obteniendose un VAN positivo y un TIR superior al costo de la mejor alternativa de uso del dinero. El sistema integrado es una alternativa valida en el marco de una produccion sustentable productiva para pequenos productores.

  16. VALIDACIÓN Y CONFIABILIDAD DE UN SISTEMA AUTOMÁTICO BASADO EN COMPUTADORA PARA LA MONITORIZACIÓN DE LA IRRADIACIÓN SOLAR EN IQUITOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio describe el desarrollo de un sistema automático basado en computadora para la monitorización de la irradiación solar. El objetivo principal fue complementar con esta monitorización un sistema integral para la vigilancia de la calidad del aire en la ciudad de Iquitos. Para lo cual se sistematizó un software elaborado para la adquisición, análisis y presentación de datos de modo numérico y gráfico, un módulo de amplificación y filtro RC para el tratamiento de las señales eléctricas y un solarímetro blanco y negro para registrar el fenómeno físico de la irradiación solar. La metodología consistió en elaborar cada parte del sistema, evaluar por separado cada componente, así como el sistema, validar y determinar su confiabilidad.  Realizamos el procedimiento habitual para la medición de la irradiación solar, el cual, se llevó a cabo en las instalaciones del Instituto de Investigación de la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana.

  17. Method to allow the estimation of heat transfer coefficients in solar stills; Metodo para determinar coeficientes locales de transferencia de calor en destiladores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Cerda, Eduardo; Porta Gandara, Miguel A [CIBNOR, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Fernandez Zayas, Jose Luis [UNAM Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work reports an experimental method that allows to estimate the heat transfer coefficients in the neighborhood of walls or flat plates subject to convective transport phenomena. This method can be applied to a great variety of thermal systems since it is based on the knowledge of the border condition for the temperature at the surface of the plate, and the temperature profile that characterize the dimensionless coefficient of heat transfer in the fluid, according to its definition given by the Nusselt number. The approach of this work are the foundations of the method and the system that has been developed to apply it, that incorporates automatic acquisition equipment for continuos monitoring of the information and elements to control the parameters of interest. In addition, the experimental cavities on which the method will be evaluated are discussed, considering two different scales, as well as experiments in cavities filled with air, and with a mixture of air and steam water, as is the case for solar distillation. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un metodo que permite determinar de manera experimental coeficientes de transferencia de calor por conveccion. Este metodo puede ser aplicado a una gran variedad de sistemas termicos ya que se fundamenta en el conocimiento de la condicion de frontera para la temperatura en la superficie de la placa, y del perfil de temperaturas que caracteriza el coeficiente adimensional de transferencia de calor en el fluido, de acuerdo a la definicion de este, dada por el numero de Nusselt. El trabajo que aqui se reporta esta enfocado a la fundamentacion del metodo y al equipamiento que se ha desarrollado para instrumentarlo, que incorpora equipos automaticos de adquisicion continua de informacion y elementos de control para los parametros de interes. Se presentan ademas, las cavidades experimentales sobre las que sera evaluado el metodo, que considera dos escalas diferentes, asi como experimentos en cavidades llenas de aire

  18. Construcción y Evaluación de un pasteurizador solar-prototipo para leche de vaca.

    OpenAIRE

    Capilla Moreno, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    En la actualidad existe la preocupación por llevar a cabo acciones que reduzcan la emisión de contaminantes al medio ambiente, debido a que dichas emisiones contribuyen al calentamiento gradual del planeta y la utilización prototipos solares contribuyen al cuidado del planeta por su consumo de energía renovable, ya que la utilización de sistemas que utilicen energía renovable para cualquier proceso es un paso más a la conservación ambiental. El objetivo de este trabajo fue el construir un pas...

  19. Analysis of efficiency of a solar dryer tunnel type of mango pulp; Analisis de la eficiencia de un secador solar tipo tunel para pulpa de mango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagoyan Serrano, Jose [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A new method to assess the performance of a solar dryer is presented. It describes energy efficiency indicators to improve a commercial dryer design. First, a preliminary dryer design procedure is described step by step. Then, two different modes of a tunnel dryer are investigated: Batch and semi-continue operations. The results of the analysis show that, the thermal efficiency is not sufficient to rate de dryer performance. It is necessary to include the productivity of the drying process and the quality of the dried fruit. The drying process and productivity tend to go hand-in-hand but in opposite directions. That is to say, raising the thermal efficiency reduce the process productivity and conversely. The analysis also suggests that an agreement between the efficiency, productivity and the quality must be specified in the drier design. [Spanish] Se presenta un procedimiento nuevo para evaluar la operacion de un secador solar, con el cual se precisan indicadores de la eficiencia que pueden ser utiles para mejorar el diseno del equipo. Se empieza por describir los pasos de un procedimiento de diseno preliminar de un sistema de secado. Despues, se analizan cualitativamente dos secadores: uno que opera por lotes y el otro de modo semicontinuo. Los resultados del analisis muestran que, la eficiencia termica del equipo no es un criterio suficiente para evaluar su operacion; tambien se requiere tomar encuenta la productividad del proceso de secado y la calidad del producto final. Se concluye que la eficiencia termica y la productividad del proceso son conceptos encontrados. Es decir, la eficiencia termica del equipo no es un criterio suficiente para evaluar su operacion; tambien se requiere tomar en cuenta la productividad del proceso de secado y la calidad del producto final. Se concluye que la eficiencia termica y la productividad del proceso son conceptos encontrados. Es decir, la eficiencia termica solo se puede aumentar a costa de la productividad y viceversa

  20. Use of refraction to increase the efficiency of solar panels; Uso de la refraccion para el incremento de la eficiencia en paneles solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Patino, J [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesusmp23@ugto.mx; Hernandez Figueroa, M. A; Lozano Garcia, J.M; Ireta Moreno, F; Rubio Maya, C [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mails: mahf@ugto.mx; jm.lozano@ugto.mx; fireta@ugto.mx; rmaya@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    abriendo nuevas oportunidades para investigar de manera mas profunda las caracteristicas termicas y de humedad de los paneles solares en funcion de su eficiencia y de los materiales que intervienen en el diseno del mismo.

  1. Procedimiento para el diseño de un sistema de calentamiento solar-mixto de aire que utiliza agua como fluido de trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Francisco Boada E.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe un sistema solar-mixto de calefacción de aire que incorpora colectores planos calentadores del agua, un tanque acumulador de calor y un dispositivo para el intercambio de calor agua-aire. Se presentan los ensayos que determinaron la disposición óptima del equipo para el intercambio de calor con flujo de agua por termosifón y el comportamiento térmico para diferentes flujos de aire, así como los ensayos para conocer el comportamiento del sistema de calentamiento solar de agua. Finalmente, el diseño se efectúa mediante un programa de computador adaptado para tal fin.

  2. Notes for a procedure of certification of thermal solar facilities; Apuntes para un procedimiento de certificacion de instalaciones solares termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, J. I.; Garcia, D.

    2008-07-01

    A procedure to evaluate the quality of solar thermal installations is proposed, following some analogy to the Calificacion Energetica de Viviendas (C.E.V.) method. The steps required to develop the method are established, analysing with special detail the stage of design-based qualification. The proposed procedures of energy saving qualification, architectural qualification, and economical qualification, are justified. Moreover, the report suggests a list of previous data that must be provided and periodically updated by the Administration to guarantee both the objectivity and the transparency of the qualification procedure. The exposure of the method is complemented with numerical and graphical application to several case studies. (Author)

  3. Web application for information and solar monitorized facilities management; Aplicacion WEB para la gestion de informacion e instalaciones solares monitorizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, G.; Jurado, F. M.

    2004-07-01

    The Society for Energy Development of Andalusian has developed a computer tool based on Internet. This tool consists of a centralized system for the acquisition, storage and processing of data obtained from monitorized solar systems. This computer tool allows the user to obtain several reports, which are prepared automatically and show both technical and economical information. For instance, this tool could be used by the companies aimed to the Thermal Energy sale business. This paper shows both the characteristics of this computer tool and the results obtained from its different utilities. (Author)

  4. Heat and mass transfer during the warming of a bottle of beer = Transferência de calor e massa durante o aquecimento de uma garrafa de cerveja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Vinicius Barbosa Monteiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The warming of a bottle of beer during a Friday evening happy hour directly involves transport phenomena, such as mass transfer due to condensation of air humidity on the bottle surface and heat transfer from the ambient to the bottle, which occurs by free convection and water condensation. Both processes happen simultaneously and are directly associated with the heat and mass transfer coefficients involved, which are affected by the ambient humidity and temperature. Several runs were made in several ambient conditions by exposing a cold bottle of beer to varied temperature and humidity and measuring the temperature of beer and the mass of water condensed on the bottle surface over time. From these measures, a theoretical and experimental methodology was developed and applied for the evaluation of the heat and mass transfer coefficients that govern this process. Both the relative humidity and ambient temperature exert a significant influence on the convective heat transfer coefficient. However, the mass transfer coefficient is affected only by the temperature.O aquecimento de uma garrafa de cerveja num “happy-hour” de sexta a tarde envolve diretamente os fenômenos de transferência de massa, devido à condensação da umidade do ar na superfície da garrafa, e de transferência de calor do meio para a garrafa, que ocorre por convecção natural e por condensação de vapor de água. Ambos os processos ocorrem simultaneamente e estão diretamente associados aos coeficientes de transferência de calor e massa envolvidos na dinâmica destes fenômenos e sofrem influência direta da umidade e temperatura ambientes. Neste contexto, efetuaram-se ensaios em diversas condições de temperatura e umidade ambientes, expondo-se uma garrafa de cerveja gelada ao ambiente e medindo-se a temperatura da cerveja e a massa de água condensada ao longo do tempo. A partir destas medidas, desenvolveu-se uma metodologia teórico-experimental que proporcionou a

  5. ParaSol - A Novel Deployable Approach for Very Large Ultra-lightweight Solar Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High power solar arrays with capabilities of >100kW are needed for projected NASA missions. Photovoltaic arrays using deployable membranes with thin cells have...

  6. Filmes calcogenetos para células solares: crescimento e propriedades

    OpenAIRE

    Salomé, Pedro Manuel Parracho

    2011-01-01

    Thin film solar cells have in recent years gained market quota against traditional silicon photovoltaic panels. These developments were in a large part due to CdTe solar panels on whose development started earlier than their competitors. Panels based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), despite being more efficient in a laboratory and industrial scale than the CdTe ones, still need a growth technology cheaper and easier to apply in industry. Although usually presented as a good candidate...

  7. Impact of global warming on beef cattle production cost in Brazil Impacto do aquecimento global no custo de produção de carne bovina no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilza de Alencar Nääs

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is affecting agribusiness in its economic aspects. Therefore, the prediction of the evolution of Brazilian beef cattle production cost was made using the IPCC forecast scenario for global warming. The methodology consisted of two steps: (i the development of a fuzzy model that estimated the grazing land capacity (RP decrease risk as a function of the changes in the average total rain index, air temperature and increase in extension of the dry season; and (ii the design of an algorithm for predicting the decrease in production as function of the RPfuzzy model, that results in the impact in beef cattle productivity, and consequent increase in production costs. Historical environmental data from important producing counties in the Cerrado were organized and a set of fuzzy Gaussian functions were developed, and three possible settings (optimistic, medium and pessimistic were considered. The decrease in beef cattle productivity was estimated using the losses in production due to the increase in air temperature and vulnerability of pasture capacity. The boundary settings for the total increase of production cost scenario used the number of animals per area of grazing land, the adoption of grain supplement and its future scenario; and the result output function pointed to a threshold within a variation from an increase in production cost of 80% (optimistic to 160% (pessimistic. Under the optimistic scenario the total cost of Brazilian beef cattle production in the Cerrado became near to US$ 2.88 kg-1, while in the pessimistic scenario this cost reached US$ 4.16 kg-1, challenging the international competitiveness of this economic segment.O aquecimento global afeta o agronegócio em seus aspectos econômicos. Foi feita previsão daevolução do custo de produção de carne bovina brasileira usando a predição de aquecimento global do IPCC. A metodologia consistiu de duas etapas: (i o desenvolvimento de modelo fuzzy que estimou o risco de

  8. Iluminación con Energía Solar Fotovoltaica para Autoservicios en Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Giovani Santamaría

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un estudio técnico y económico sobre el uso de energía fotovoltaica para iluminación en dos (2 autoservicios en la ciudad de Bogotá. Se analizan diferentes aspectos a tener en cuenta, como la radiación solar mínima sobre el área considerada y los consumos en iluminación con energía convencional. Se estima que, al realizar el cambio de iluminación de bombillos fluorescentes a bombillos LED y establecer como fuente primaria las baterías previamente alimentadas con energía fotovoltaica, se reduce el consumo de energía eléctrica de manera considerable en iluminación. Con esta hipótesis, se plantean tres opciones de sistemas fotovoltaicos autónomos para cada uno de los autoservicios con todos los elementos necesarios para el mejor funcionamiento, el estudio económico de cada opción y un estimativo del ahorro energético.

  9. Estudio de la variación solar quieta para el observatorio geomagnético de Fúquene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladino Parra Rosa Angélica

    2001-08-01

    ="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;">El estudio realizado comprende el cálculo y análisis de la variación solar quieta (Sq, para el Observatorio Geomagnético de Fuquene a partir de las tres (3 componentes del campo magnético terrestre (CMT: declinación (D, componente horizontal (H y componente vertical (2; de los cinco (5 días internacionalmente quietos de cada mes. El período considerado esta entre octubre de 1953 y diciembre de 1994.

    La metodología desarrollada se basa en el análisis individual de cada día quieta mediante la aplicación de una correcci6n por variación no cíclica (CVNC y su reducción a un valor medio cero, realizando el respectivo análisis armónico hasta el grado 4. Posteriormente se aplicó la corrección por achatamiento y se reagrupó la información en tres niveles de actividad solar: alta, media y baja (en función del número de manchas solares; para cada una de ellas se promediaron los armónicos por mes calendario, permitiendo un análisis de la modulación estacional fundamentada en el criterio de promediación de resultados de los meses (solsticio de verano: mayo - junio - julio - agosto; equinoccio: marzo - abril - septiembre - octubre; solsticio de invierno: noviembre - diciembre - enero - febrero. Como validación, se realizaron comparaciones con el modelo de Wallace Campbell, estableciéndose la diferencia de este modelo teórico con la modelación solar para la misma selección de días. A partir de las comparaciones realizadas entre el modelo te6rico y el observado se obtuvo el máximo y mínimo valor de Sq. Los resultados obtenidos son de utilidad para el mejoramiento de los modelos globales de variaciones regulares, variación solar quieta (Sq y modelo del campo geomagnético internacional de referencia (lGRF. Adicionalmente facilita la determinación de modelos de propagación ionosférica y

  10. Aquecimento global: efeitos no crescimento, no desenvolvimento e na produtividade de batata Global warming: effects on growth, development, and yield of potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Dutra Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A concentração atmosférica dos gases do efeito estufa, principalmente o CO2, tem aumentado nas últimas décadas devido às atividades antrópicas. A concentração de CO2 aumentou de aproximadamente 280 partes por milhão por volume (ppmv no período pré-industrial para a atual concentração de 380 ppmv. Há registros que, durante o século XX, houve um aumento da temperatura média da superfície global de 0,6±(0,2°C, e projeções indicam um provável aumento de 1,1 a 6,4°C na temperatura média global até o final do século XXI, dependendo da região do planeta. O aumento da concentração de CO2 e da temperatura afeta diretamente processos fisiológicos, como fotossíntese e respiração das plantas, o que poderá alterar o desempenho das culturas, incluindo a batata. O objetivo desta revisão foi reunir informações da literatura sobre os possíveis efeitos do aumento na concentração de CO2 e da temperatura do ar no crescimento, no desenvolvimento e na produtividade da cultura de batata. O aumento do CO2, seguido de aumento na temperatura do ar, de maneira geral, resultará em menor crescimento, redução na duração do ciclo de desenvolvimento, menor produtividade e aumento da incidência de doenças da batata. Como estratégia para minimizar os efeitos de um possível aquecimento global sobre essa cultura, sugere-se que sejam desenvolvidas cultivares tolerantes a altas temperaturas, adaptadas as épocas de plantio em cada local, alteradas as práticas de manejo da cultura e até expandidas as áreas de cultivo para regiões mais frias.The concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases, mainly the CO2, has increased in the last decades due to anthropogenic activities. The atmospheric CO2 concentration has increased from about 280 parts per million per volume (ppmv in the pre-industrial period to the currently 380ppmv concentration. There are reports that during the XX century global average temperature increased 0.6±(0.2

  11. Aire Acondicionado Solar, para Conjunto de Viviendas en Mexicali, México Solar Air Conditioning for a Housing Compound in Mexicali, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Luna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es dimensionar y evaluar un sistema de enfriamiento por absorción LiBr-H2O asistido con energía solar y gas natural, para climatizar un conjunto de viviendas en Mexicali, Baja California, México. El análisis de comportamiento horario, diario y mensual en el periodo con mayor demanda de enfriamiento se realiza con el programa TRNSYS 16 y se busca la menor área de captación y la mayor fracción solar. Esto se traduce en el mínimo costo de operación e inversión inicial. Se encontró que el sistema genera condiciones del espacio entre confortablemente caliente y confortablemente frío, según la norma ISO 7730 (2005. Esto se logra a partir de 287 m²detubos evacuados, que aportan el 90% de la energía requerida. El sistema es técnicamente factible, ya que cubre la demanda de enfriamiento durante el periodo de verano y requiere un área de colección similar a la disponible en el conjunto de viviendas.The objective of the present work is to dimension and evaluate an absorption LiBr-H2O cooling system assisted by solar energy and natural gas for air conditioning of a group of housings in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. The analysis of the hourly, daily and monthly operating performance in the period with more cooling demand is carried out by mean of TRNSYS 16, and it is seeking the least collection area and the highest solar fraction; that which is translated in the minimum operation cost and initial investment. It was found that the system generates conditions of the space between comfortably warm and comfortably cold, according to ISO 7730 (2005, with 287 m² of evacuated tubes which contribute 90% of the required energy. The system is technically feasible, since it covers the cooling demand during the summer period and it requires a similar collecting area to the available one in the housing compounds.

  12. Suscetibilidade do ambiente a ocorrências de queimadas sob condições climáticas atuais e de futuro aquecimento global Environmental susceptibility for the occurance of vegetacion burning under present day and future clobal warming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anailton Sales Mélo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As queimadas, a nível global, são a segunda maior fonte de emissões de gases de efeito estufa. Um passo importante para a redução dos impactos das queimadas é por meio de investigação da suscetibilidade, que um determinado ambiente possui para a queima ou mesmo para o alastramento do fogo (risco de fogo. Diante da necessidade de se conhecer possíveis implicações das mudanças na circulação atmosférica em um futuro próximo, pretende-se neste trabalho investigar a suscetibilidade do ambiente à ocorrência de queimadas, baseado no índice de risco de queimadas, a saber: o Índice de Haines (IH. Para tanto, dados de modelagem numérica do modelo ECHAM5/MPI-OM, e dados das reanálises do NCEP são empregados para os cálculos do IH em dois períodos: atual (1980-2000 e projeções climáticas para o final do século (2080-2100. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que o modelo de risco de fogo reproduz bem as áreas com maior incidência de queimadas sob condições atuais, e que sob condições de aquecimento global detectou-se um aumento na área de risco em especial para a região Amazônica.Vegetation burning is the second source of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. An important step to reduce the climate impact of these emissions is to investigate the atmospheric susceptibility of a region for fire development (fire risk. This study aims to investigate the environmental susceptibility to fire development, based on the burning risk index: the Haines Index (HI. The study is carried out with data from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model and the NCEP reanalysis data, to calculate the HI during two periods: present day (1980-2000 and climate projections for the end of the 21st century (2080-2100. Based upon the results, we concluded that the Haines index could reproduce properly the areas with the highest fire incidence under present conditions. Moreover, it has been found an enlargement in the fire risk area under global

  13. Dimensões psicológicas do aquecimento global conforme a visão de adolescentes brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Chrystianne Lucio Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidências científicas sugerem o envolvimento das ações humanas nas mudanças climáticas globais (MCGs - seja como intensificadoras, mitigadoras ou adaptadoras diante dos seus efeitos - situação que evidencia a relevância de se investigar os aspectos psicológicos envolvidos no tema. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a visão de adolescentes sobre o aquecimento global (AG, que é uma parte importante das MCGs. Participaram 323 estudantes do Ensino Fundamental e Médio, sendo 202 garotas e 121 rapazes, com idades entre 12 e 19 anos, e média de 15 anos, que responderam a um questionário, contendo uma pergunta aberta sobre AG. Evidenciou-se que o conhecimento do assunto é superficial; os estudantes o percebem como um problema ambiental genérico, e o confundem com outros problemas, como a poluição. A cadeia interdependente de fenômenos relacionados às MCGs, como os gases do efeito estufa, foi mencionada por raríssimos participantes, assim como as implicações locais do problema.

  14. Estudio preliminar de tres modelos de destiladores solares para producir sal y agua potable (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S. Nandwani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed three solar stills of areas 0.5-1.0 m2 to produce salt and potable water, using local technology and local materials. We have studied the thermal efficiency of these stills as a function of solar intensity, covers, geometrical configuration, quantity of water, salt concentration and artificial cooling of the cover. Some of the important results are: still with glass cover destill more water than still with plastic cover, thermal efficiency vary between 10-30%, amount of water which can be evaporated and condense is 2-4 l/day/m2, exist 25-60% of loss of water in the still and finally artificial cooling of the cover can be accelerate the process of condensation, etc. Finally we have mentioned the chemical analysis of destilled and normal tap water.

  15. Influencia de los materiales cerámicos en colecto - res solares de placa plana para precalentamiento de agua en procesos agroindustriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Alonso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de materiales cerámicos en colectores para uso de energía solar térmica se ha incrementado últimamente. Se determinaron las diferencias presentadas entre diferentes cerámicas fabricadas a 3626 y 5222 psi instaladas en dos colectores de área efectiva de 0,36 m 2. El objetivo este tipo de colectores es lograr eficiencia energética para empresas agroindustriales que usan agua a temperatura cercana a su punto de ebullición a presión atmosférica. El colector está constituido por una matriz de cerámica que cumple la función de absorber la energía solar y un contenedor de acero inoxidable aislado donde el agua es almacenada. Los experimentos fueron a nivel de laboratorio a 400, 500, y 750 W/m 2 en un simulador de radiación solar. Un completo análisis desde la perspectiva va de la segunda y la primera ley de la termodinámica fue hecho para calcular la eficiencia del colector solar. Los resultados mostraron que la eficiencia global del colector solar de matriz cerámica fue de 59 % a 400 W/m 2 con cerámica compactada a 5222 psi.

  16. Irreversibility analysis of non isothermal flat plate solar collectors for air heating with a dimensionless model; Analisis de las irreversibilidades en colectores solares de placas planas no isotermicos para calentamiento de aire utilizando un modelo adimensional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracamonte-Baran, Johane Hans; Baritto-Loreto, Miguel Leonardo [Universidad Central de Venezuela (Venezuela)]. E-mails: johanehb@gmail.com; johane.bracamonte@ucv.ve; miguel.baritto@ucv.ve

    2013-04-15

    The dimensionless model developed and validated by Baritto and Bracamonte (2012) for the thermal behavior of flat plate solar collector without glass cover is improved by adding the entropy balance equation in a dimensionless form. The model is solved for a wide range of aspect ratios and mass flow numbers. A parametric study is developed and the distribution of internal irreversibilities along the collector is analyzed. The influence of the design parameters on the entropy generation by fluid friction and heat transfer is analyzed and it is found that for certain combinations of these parameters optimal thermodynamic operation can be achieved. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo, el modelo adimensional desarrollado y validado por Baritto y Bracamonte (2012) para describir el comportamiento termico de colectores solares de placas planas sin cubierta transparente, se complementa con la ecuacion adimensional de balance de entropia para un elemento diferencial de colector solar. El modelo se resuelve para un amplio rango de valores de relaciones de aspecto y numero de flujo de masa. A partir de los resultados del modelo se desarrolla un analisis detallado de la influencia de estos parametros sobre la distribucion de irreversibilidades internas a lo largo del colector. Adicionalmente se estudia la influencia de estos parametros sobre los numeros de generacion de entropia por friccion viscosa, por transferencia de calor y total. Se encuentra que existen combinaciones de los parametros antes mencionados, para los cuales, la operacion del colector es termodinamicamente optima para numeros de flujo de masa elevados.

  17. Study of a hybrid solar-electric oven to the curing composite materials used in aeronautics; Estudio de un horno hibrido solar-electrico para el curado de materiales compuestos utilizados en aeronautica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Roman, M. A.; Pineda Pinon, J.; Sanchez Sanchez, A. [CICATA - Unidad Queretaro, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: mhernandezr0900@ipn.mx

    2010-11-15

    The study covers the curing of advanced composites in a hybrid solar electric oven. The furnace uses electricity from the grid power and solar energy provided by the heliostat concentrator system. The materials used in the experiments will be composite materials such as prepreg. The prepreg are fiberglass and carbon fiber. The resin used in the pre-impregnate will be epoxy resin. The work temperatures inside the furnace will be maximum 300 degrees Celsius. The obtained results will be useful to characterize the use of the solar energy and the characterize of the curing chamber. [Spanish] Se presenta el alcance para el estudio, el cual abarca el curado de materiales compuestos avanzados dentro de un horno hibrido solar electrico. El horno utilizara energia electrica suministrada por la red y energia solar suministrada por el sistema heliostato concentrador. Los materiales utilizados en los experimentos seran materiales compuestos tipo prepreg. Los prepreg seran de fibra de vidrio y de fibra de carbono. La resina utilizada en el preimpregando sera resina epoxica. Las temperaturas de trabajo dentro del horno seran como maximo de 300 grados centigrados. Los resultados obtenidos serviran para caracterizar el uso y aprovechamiento de la energia solar y la caracterizacion de la camara de curado.

  18. “DESARROLLO DE MATERIALES PARA CELDAS SOLARES BASADAS EN KESTERITAS”

    OpenAIRE

    ARIAS ORTIZ, JULIO OMAR

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN En este trabajo se estudiaron y depositaron sobre sustratos de vidrio películas delgadas de los materiales usados en celdas solares basadas en Kesterita: Mo, Cu2ZnSnS4 y CdS. Las películas delgadas de Mo fueron depositadas variando la presión parcial de argón usando la técnica de RF-sputtering. Las películas fueron analizadas morfológicamente por microscopía electrónica de barrido y eléctricamente por el método de cuatro puntas. La resistencia de las películas aument...

  19. Influência do resfriamento e do aquecimento local na flexibilidade dos músculos isquiotibiais Influence of local cooling and warming on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Brasileiro

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O propósito deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos do resfriamento e do aquecimento sobre a flexibilidade dos músculos isquiotibiais, observando os efeitos agudos e crônicos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta voluntários foram aleatoriamente incluídos em um dos quatro grupos (n=10: 1 grupo controle; 2 grupo alongamento (técnica sustentar-relaxar para os músculos isquiotibiais, por duas semanas consecutivas; 3 grupo alongamento precedido da aplicação de crioterapia (25 minutos na região posterior da coxa e 4 grupo alongamento precedido de aquecimento com diatermia por ondas curtas (25 minutos. A avaliação da flexibilidade muscular foi realizada através de uma prancha acoplada a um sistema de goniometria, especialmente preparada para avaliar o ângulo extensor do joelho. RESULTADOS: Os três grupos experimentais aumentaram significativamente a ADM em relação ao grupo controle. Os ganhos médios diários, considerados efeitos agudos, mostraram diferenças significativas em favor do grupo submetido ao resfriamento, quando comparado aos demais (aumento de 2,6 ± 0,9°, 4,3 ± 1,5° e 2,4 ± 0,7° para os grupos 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente, p= 0,008. Em relação aos efeitos crônicos, não foi observada diferença significativa entre os três grupos experimentais, embora todos diferiram do controle (aumento de 1,5 ± 0,5°, 11,1 ± 6,1°, 14,4 ± 5,4° e 14,4 ± 6,2°, para os grupos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Sessões de alongamento, aplicadas diariamente, aumentaram significativamente a flexibilidade dos músculos isquiotibiais. Os efeitos agudos foram maiores no grupo submetido ao resfriamento, quando comparado aos grupos somente alongado ou aquecido. Os efeitos crônicos não foram influenciados pelo aquecimento nem pelo resfriamento.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the acute and chronic effects of cooling and warming on hamstring muscle flexibility. METHOD: Forty volunteers were randomly included in one of

  20. Hourly model to estimate solar global radiation for all months of the year for Botucatu, Sao Paulo State; Modelos horarios para estimativa da radiacao solar global para todos os meses do ano para Botucatu-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laperuta Filho, Jayme; Lunardi, Dalva M. Cury [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this work was establish and daily models for estimate of solar global radiation for the months of the year, in Botucatu-SP 22 deg C 52`S,48 deg C 26`W Grw). The obtention of these models showed be viable high degree of reliability considering that they are specific for hours and months that originated them. The coefficients a and b presented monthly and hourly variations, taking into account that b showed higher relative variability than a. In all months studied, the linear adjustment was not appropriate before 7 a.m and after 5 p.m. (author) 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. ECOEFICIENCIA DE LA PROPUESTA DE GENERAR ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA EN EL FUNDO DE LA UCSM IRRIGACION MAJES PARA SU AUTOABASTECIMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    DESCRIPCION DEL FUNDO CONSUMO DE ENERGÍA ELECTRICA EN EL FUNDO PROPUESTA DEL SISTEMA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICO DIMENSIONAMIENTO DEL SISTEMA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICO INVERSION REQUERIDA METODOLOGIA EMISIONES DE GASES - ENERGIA PROVENIENTE DE LA RED EMISIONES DE GASES - ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA AISLADA EMISIONES DE GASES - ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA CON INTERCONEXION A LA RED ANALISIS DE ECOEFICIENCIA EVALUACION DE LA ECOEFICIENCIA - RESULTADOS

  2. Sofware de control de un trazador de características en Matlab para la caracterización de células solares

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho Santana, Clever Junio

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se desarrollará un sofware de control en Matlab de un trazador de caracteristicas I-V para la caracterización de células solares tipo IBC. Asi mismo el proyecto se completará con medidas experimentales utilizando dicho instrumento junto con otros aparatos de caracterización (medidas de EQE y respuesta espectral). [ANGLÈS] This project involves the design and implementation of a Matlab software to control a tracer of features for characterizing solar cells to replace the old...

  3. Obtención de electricidad y agua potable mediante energía solar para un centro de salud mozambiqueño

    OpenAIRE

    Antona Díaz, Ana María

    2009-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en cubrir las necesidades de energía eléctrica y agua potable del centro de salud de Minehuene (Mozambique), mediante energía solar fotovoltaica y térmica. La cobertura de la demanda de electricidad del centro se realiza mediante un sistema de energía fotovoltaico. Para la obtención de agua potable se evalúan diferentes alternativas: pasteurización del agua de lluvia mediante paneles solares térmicos, purificación de esta agua mediante lámparas ultravioletas u obtenci...

  4. Diseño de una fuente conmutada y galvanómetro digital para calibración de respuesta angular de sensores de radiación solar

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Díaz Spencer; Leonardo Fernández Castillo; Juan Antuña Sánchez; Jorge Rosas Santana; Albert Rodríguez Vega; Frank García Parrado; Iralmy Platero Morejón

    2015-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar el factor de corrección por altura del sol, en los piranómetros - albedómetros empleados en las estaciones actinométricas de Cuba para las mediciones de irradiancia solar, se ha instalado en el Grupo de Óptica Atmosférica de Camagüey un Sistema de Calibración de Respuesta Angular para sensores de radiación solar. Las mediciones realizadas en estas estaciones tributan proveen datos al Servicio de Diagnóstico de Radiación Solar para Cuba. La instalación de este sis...

  5. Sistema de telemetría con conectividad bluetooth para un dispositivo móvil con sistema oprativo Symbian en una instalación solar fotovoltaica

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    En el presente proyecto vamos a diseñar y construir un sistema de telemetría que nos permita visualizar en un teléfono móvil determinados parámetros de interés de una instalación solar fotovoltaica compuesta por un panel solar y una batería. Los parámetros que estamos interesados en medir son la tensión del panel y la corriente de carga de la batería. Para llevar a cabo nuestro propósito vamos a desarrollar una placa de medidas y un programa aplicación para el teléfono móvil. La placa de medi...

  6. Design under uncertainty of a centralized Solar System for the ACS production; Diseno bajo incertidumbre de un sistema solar centralizado para la produccion de ACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Munoz, F.; Cejudo Lopez, J. M.; Carrillo Andres, A.

    2008-07-01

    Solar installations are usually sized by using simulation programs that calculate the annual solar fraction for a given design. While theoretically well founded, these programs require exact values for all the input factors. However, much of these factors are actually uncertain, so they can not be defined by a single value. In order to work out this contradiction, we propose the use of stochastic simulation methods. A centralized solar hot water system is analysed. The uncertainties in the problem are identified, estimated and propagated through a dynamic deterministic model. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed so as to figure out which uncertain factors have the largest effect on the solar fraction. (Author)

  7. Analysis of passive systems as a tool for energy saving in buildings: solar control; Analisis de sistemas pasivos como herramienta para el ahorro de energia en edificaciones: Control solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravia, Maricela; Morillon Galvez, David [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A bioclimatic study of El Salvador is presented, with the purpose of using window eaves as elements of passive solar control and to determine the optimal angles of orientation, in order to diminish the thermal gains by direct solar radiation and to manage to get close to the comfort conditions. The former with the intention of integrating measures that help to obtain energy efficiency and comfortable buildings, for the conditions of warm humid climate, characteristic of a Central American country like El Salvador. Besides offering a document of consultation among the professionals dedicated to the design and as base of bioclimatic considerations that must have the construction regulations. As a conclusion the optimal angles of eaves for each orientation are presented and a quantitative estimation of the savings that would imply not to consume electrical energy in cooling systems using these elements as a protection to the direct solar radiation. [Spanish] Se presenta un estudio del bioclima de El Salvador, con el fin de utilizar aleros de ventana como elementos de control solar pasivo y determinar los angulos optimos por orientacion, para disminuir las ganancias termicas por radiacion solar directa y lograr acercar a las condiciones de confort. Lo anterior con el objeto de integrar medidas que coadyuven a lograr edificios energeticamente eficientes y confortables, para las condiciones de clima calido humedo, caracteristico de un pais centroamericano como El Salvador. Ademas de brindar un documento de consulta entre los profesionales dedicados al dise y como base de consideraciones bioclimaticas que debe tener el reglamento de construcciones. Como conclusion se presentan los angulos optimos de alero por cada orientacion y una estimacion cuantitativa del ahorro que implicaria el no consumir energia electrica en sistemas de enfriamiento utilizando estos elementos como una proteccion a la radiacion solar directa.

  8. Métodos para estimar radiação solar na região noroeste de Minas Gerais Methods for estimating solar radiation in the northwest region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney José da Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A radiação solar é um dos elementos responsáveis pela manutenção da vida no planeta. Apesar da sua importância, o registro da radiação solar não é feito na maioria das estações meteorológicas convencionais, uma vez que nem todas dispõem de equipamentos para medi-la, tendo que recorrer a métodos de estimação empíricos. Com o intuito de testar e calibrar equações para estimar a radiação solar, foram coletados dados de quatro estações meteorológicas pertencentes ao Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET para representar a região climática noroeste de Minas Gerais, no período de 2008 a 2010. Com base nesses dados, foram testados e calibrados nove modelos para estimar a radiação solar global. Todos os modelos utilizam temperatura máxima e mínima do ar como preditores e dois deles utilizam também a precipitação pluviométrica. Os modelos mais precisos foram de De Jong e Stewart, Bristow e Campbell, Donatelli e Campbell e o modelo dois de Hunt, com raiz quadrada do quadrado médio do erro em torno de 3,1MJ m-2 d-1 e coeficiente de determinação em torno de 62%. No entanto, todos esses modelos apresentaram tendência de superestimação para valores de radiação inferiores à média e subestimação para valores superiores. Portanto, há necessidade de propor novos modelos que minimizem essa tendência.Solar radiation is a component responsible for maintaining the life on the planet. Despite its importance, solar radiation is not recorded in most conventional meteorological station since not all have equipments to measure it, and then, it is usual to use empirical solar radiation estimation methods. In order to test and calibrate models for estimating solar radiation data were collected from four meteorological stations belonging to the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET to represent the climatic region northwest of Minas Gerais for the period from 2008 to 2010. Based on these data, nine models to estimate

  9. Comparison of Regression and Neural Networks Models to Estimate Solar Radiation Comparación de Regresión y Modelos de Redes Neuronales para Estimar la Radiación Solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bocco

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The incident solar radiation on soil is an important variable used in agricultural applications; it is also relevant in hydrology, meteorology and soil physics, among others. To estimate this variable, empirical models have been developed using several parameters and, recently, prognostic and prediction models based on artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks. The aim of this work was to develop linear models and neural networks, multilayer perceptron, to estimate daily global solar radiation and compare their efficiency in its application to a region of the Province of Salta, Argentina. Relative sunshine duration, maximum and minimum temperature, rainfall, binary rainfall and extraterrestrial solar radiation data for the period 1996-2002, were used. All data were supplied by Experimental Station Salta, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA, Argentina. For both, neural networks models and linear regressions, three alternative combinations of meteorological parameters were considered. Good results with both prediction methods were obtained, with root mean square error (RMSE values between 1.99 and 1.66 MJ m-2 d-1 for linear regressions and neural networks, and coefficients of correlation (r² between 0.88 and 0.92, respectively. Even though neural networks and linear regression models can be used to predict the daily global solar radiation appropriately, neural networks produced better estimates.La radiación solar incidente en el suelo es una variable importante usada en aplicaciones agronómicas, además es relevante en hidrología, meteorología y física del suelo, entre otros. Para estimarla se han desarrollado modelos empíricos que utilizan distintos parámetros meteorológicos y, recientemente, modelos de pronóstico y predicción basados en técnicas de inteligencia artificial tales como redes neuronales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar modelos lineales y de redes neuronales, del tipo perceptr

  10. A hybrid solar/diesel water heating system: in medicine area in a hospital in Mexico city; Sistema hibrido de energia solar y diesel para calentamiento de agua: caso en el area de medicina fisica en un hospital en la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolasco Mejia, Miguel; Wolpert Kuri, Jorge [UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A hybrid solar/diesel water heating system for therapy in a hospital in Mexico is described in this paper. The use of solar energy in hospitals and clinics, represent an environmentally friendly alternative to the burning of fossil fuels. Analysis is made regarding the feasibility of integrating both solar energy and conventional energy (fuel oil) as back up, to satisfy the hot water demand for hydrotherapy in a hospital. Results from simulation show that solar energy is a cheap means to provide up to 60% of the hot water demand. The solar assisted system proposed uses flat plate solar collectors integrated with an existing hot water tank, where water is heated with vapor from a diesel ran boiler. This represents significant savings on the solar system cost. [Spanish] La utilizacion de la energia solar en hospitales y clinicas, representa una posibilidad para obtener ahorros importantes de energia para satisfacer la demanda de agua caliente. En el presente estudio se analiza la demanda de agua caliente para uso en medicina fisica (hidroterapia), en un hospital ubicado en la Cd. De Mexico y la factibilidad de usar la energia solar, empleando como apoyo el sistema tradicional de combustible fosil (diesel). Mediante un analisis termico se determina el calor necesario para satisfacer la demanda de agua caliente. El analisis economico muestra los costos del sistema solar, los ahorros que se tendran y el periodo de recuperacion de la inversion. Los resultados muestran que la utilizacion de la energia solar es factible debido a la disminucion tanto del consumo de combustible, como de las emisiones atmosfericas. Se propone la instalacion de un sistema solar con colectores planos y el aprovechamiento de uno de los dos tanques de agua caliente existentes, donde se efectua la trasferencia de calor al agua por medio de vapor, lo cual disminuye el costo del sistema solar. La aportacion solar puede ser mayor del 60%, el complemento sera aportado por el sistema tradicional con

  11. Effects of number and position of meta and para carboxyphenyl groups of zinc porphyrins in dye-sensitized solar cells: structure-performance relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambre, Ram B; Mane, Sandeep B; Chang, Gao-Fong; Hung, Chen-Hsiung

    2015-01-28

    Porphyrin sensitizers containing meta- and para-carboxyphenyl groups in their meso positions have been synthesized and investigated for their performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The superior performance of para-derivative compared to meta-derivative porphyrins was revealed by optical spectroscopy, electrochemical property measurements, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and stability performance. Absorption spectra of para-carboxyphenyl-substituted porphyrins on TiO2 show a broader Soret band compared to meta-carboxyphenyl-substituted porphyrins. ATR-FTIR spectra of the studied porphyrins on TiO2 were applied to investigate the number and mode of carboxyl groups attached to TiO2. The VOC, JSC, and IPCE values of para-series porphyrins were distinctly superior to those of meta-series porphyrins. The Nyquist plots of the studied porphyrins show that charge injection in para-series porphyrins is superior to that in meta-series porphyrins. The orthogonally positioned para derivatives have more efficient charge injection and charge transfer over charge recombination, whereas the efficiencies of flat-oriented meta derivatives are retarded by rapid charge recombination. Photovoltaic measurements of the studied meta- and para-carboxyphenyl-functionalized porphyrins show that the number and position of carboxyphenyl groups play a crucial role in the performance of the DSSC. Our results indicate that para-carboxyphenyl derivatives outperform meta-carboxyphenyl derivatives to give better device performance. This study will serve as a guideline for the design and development of organic, porphyrin, and ruthenium dyes in DSSCs.

  12. Orintsol. Surfaces with assorted inclination: software to calculate the solar radiation; Orientsol. Superficies con distinta inclinacion Software para el calculo de la radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rus, C.; Almonacid, F.; Hontoria, L.; Perez, P. J.; Munoz, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The Universidad de Jaen, conscious of the importance of using energy sources respectful with the environment, offers in its Technical Industry Engineer degree, in the specialties of: Mechanics, Electricity and Industrial electronics the optional subjects Solar electricity and Photovoltaic Facilities. With these matters is intended that the students acquire the capability of design, calculate, analyze their different applications. A fundamental aspect in solar facilities is how to know the incident radiation in the plant which we want to analyze or the size. Orintsol software tool, with a didactic aim, facilitates so teaching as learning about solar radiation received on inclined surfaces. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Thermochemical cycles based on metal oxides for solar hydrogen production; Ciclos termoquimicos basados en oxidos metalicos para produccion de hidrogeno solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Saavedra, R.; Quejido Cabezas, J.

    2012-11-01

    The growing demand for energy requires the development and optimization of alternative energy sources. One of the options currently being investigated is solar hydrogen production with thermochemical cycles. This process involves the use of concentrated solar radiation as an energy source to dissociate water through a series of endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions, for the purpose of obtaining hydrogen on a sustainable basis. Of all the thermochemical cycles that have been evaluated, the most suitable ones for implementation with solar energy are those based on metal oxides. (Author) 20 refs.

  14. Avaliação energética e de desempenho de frangos com aquecimento automático a gás e a lenha Energetic evaluation and performance of broilers with automatic heating using gas and wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro R. Funck

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa foram analisados aquecimento automático infravermelho a gás e aquecimento automático a lenha, com três linhagens de frango, criados no período de 01/05/2005 a 16/06/2005, em aviários de 1200 m² e abatidos com 45 dias de idade. Avaliaram-se o consumo e o custo energético de cada sistema e os seguintes índices zootécnicos: peso médio, mortalidade, conversão alimentar e consumo de ração. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em um modelo fatorial 2 x 3, constituído de dois sistemas de aquecimento e das três linhagens de frangos machos formando seis tratamentos com seis repetições, perfazendo o total de trinta e seis aviários com 13.300 aves cada um. Utilizou-se, para a análise estatística, o programa SISVAR 4.6 e se realizaram as comparações entre as médias através do teste de Tukey. Os resultados obtidos foram os seguintes: o consumo energético de lenha de 173,21 GJ por lote e o custo de R$ 3,23 e, para o do gás, foi de 20,26 GJ por lote e o custo de R$ 53,76. Em relação ao desempenho zootécnico, não houve diferença significativa entre os dois sistemas analisados, mas entre as linhagens ocorreu diferença significativa, com a linhagem Cobb apresentando 6,62%, maior peso médio e 1,04% maior mortalidade, quando comparada com aves da linhagem Ross 1.In this research automatic infra-red gas heating and wood-burning were analyzed, with three lineages of broilers raised from May 1, 2005 to June 16, 2005 in 1200 m² poultry houses, and slaughtered at the age of 45 days. The energetic consumptions and costs were evaluated for each system, as well as the following zootechnical indexes: mean weight, mortality, feed conversion and consumption. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 3 model, made up by two heating systems, three lineages of male broilers and six treatments and six replications, totaling thirty six poultry houses with 13,300 birds each. For the

  15. Uso da zootecnia de precisão na avaliação do comportamento de leitões lactentes submetidos a diferentes sistemas de aquecimento Use of animal precision production in the behavior evaluation of lactation piglets submitted to different heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran José Oliveira da Silva

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, avaliar o comportamento de leitões em diferentes sistemas de aquecimento, por meio de análise de imagem e identificação eletrônica, na sala da maternidade, com 80 animais entre o nascimento e o desmame. Os tratamentos adotados para avaliação da eficiência dos diferentes sistemas de aquecimento foram: piso térmico, lâmpada incandescente, resistência elétrica e lâmpada de infravermelho. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e 18 blocos, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey. A avaliação física dos ambientes foi realizada por intermédio da temperatura de bulbo seco (Ts, temperatura de bulbo úmido (Tu e temperatura de globo negro (Tg, registradas por cabos termopares tipo T armazenados em uma plataforma automática de dados, em intervalo horário. Índice de temperatura de globo e umidade (ITGU, carga térmica radiante (CTR e entalpia (H foram calculados usando as variáveis ambientais registradas. Os dados ambientais foram registrados em ambiente externo, na sala da maternidade e no interior de cada abrigo escamoteador, durante 18 dias. Ganho de peso diário (GPD e mortalidade também foram registrados. A avaliação comportamental foi realizada utilizando a análise de imagem, identificação eletrônica. Para o período de inverno, o uso de lâmpada incandescente e resistência elétrica foi mais adequado sob o ponto de vista térmico, durante a primeira e segunda semanas, entretanto, considerando-se o reflexo do aquecimento no comportamento dos leitões na terceira semana, o piso térmico foi o que proporcionou melhor condição de conforto aos animais.The objective of this research was to evaluate the behavior of piglets at different heating systems using the image analysis and electronic identification devices. This research was developed in the farrowing house, with 80 piglets from birth to weaning. The treatments were the different heating systems

  16. Development of tool for optimization in the measurement of solar radiation; Desarrollo de herramientas para la optimizacion en la medicion de la radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaro, J.; Quiroga, D.; Fasulo, A.; Lema, A.

    2004-07-01

    One of the most important requirements to make a project of rational use of solar energy is the precise knowledge of the temporal-spatial distribution of the solar resource on the terrestrial surface. For that reason, the Solar Energy Group at the National University of Rio Cuarto in Argentina, is measuring and recording data of global and direct solar radiation. Many possibilities of different kinds of errors there exist in this process, but the most significant problem is the lack of data. Then, it would be necessary to have a methodology that indicates what to do in this situation, and for that reason, this work performs an study about the data processing of the obtained measurements to infer values to be incorporated to the series in situations where the data are lost. To incorporate lost data, the Time Series Analysis based in spatial state models were used. (Author)

  17. Radiação solar estimada com base na temperatura do ar para três regiões de Minas Gerais Estimation of solar radiation by air temperature models for three regions of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A radiação solar incidente (Rs é uma variável importante em estudos agrícolas, particularmente para a estimativa da evapotranspiração e em modelos para produtividade. Entretanto, sua medição não é, em geral, realizada em estações meteorológicas convencionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar nove modelos empíricos de estimativa de Rs, a partir da temperatura, para as regiões Metropolitana, Vale do Rio Doce e Zona da Mata em Minas Gerais. Dados de Rs diários foram obtidos por estações meteorológicas automáticas instaladas nessas regiões e pertencentes ao Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET. Para todos os modelos foram gerados coeficientes locais de calibração. O desempenho de cada método foi avaliado através dos seguintes indicadores: coeficiente de determinação (R², raiz quadrada do quadrado médio do erro (RQME, erro médio (EM e teste t. A pequena diferença entre os modelos avaliados indica que qualquer um desses modelos é passível de utilização mas, dado à simplicidade, desempenho e significância, o modelo de Hargreaves, calibrado e com dois coeficientes, é o mais aplicável para estimar a radiação solar incidente.The incident solar radiation (Rs is an important variable in agricultural studies, particularly for the estimation of evapotranspiration and yield models. However, its measurement is not commonly performed in conventional meteorological stations. The aim of this study was to evaluate nine empirical models to estimate Rs from the temperature for the Metropolitan, Vale do Rio Doce and Zona da Mata areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The models used were Hargreaves, Annandale, Chen, Bristow & Campbell, Donatelli & Campbell and Hunt. Data used were obtained by Rs daily automatic weather stations installed in these regions and belonging to Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET. For all models local calibration coefficients were derived. The performance of each method was evaluated

  18. Desinfecção de efluentes com tratamento terciário utilizando energia solar (SODIS: avaliação do uso do dispositivo para concentração dos raios solares Disinfection of effluent of wastewater treated using solar energy (SODIS: evaluation of a solar concentrator device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A energia solar, além de ser uma fonte natural disponível, é perfeitamente aplicável para desinfecção de águas em regiões menos favorecidas em infra-estrutura e recursos financeiros, uma vez que não há necessidade da dosagem de produtos químicos e não há custo já que materiais comerciais descartados podem ser reutilizados. O presente trabalho utilizou garrafas PET transparentes com a metade pintada de preto, sendo consideradas como variáveis do processo de desinfecção por ação da luz solar: tempos de exposição 1, 2, 4 e 6 horas e o uso de um concentrador de raios solares. Os parâmetros de controle do processo de desinfecção foram turbidez, cor aparente, temperatura, coliformes totais e E. coli, sendo os três últimos parâmetros avaliados antes e após o processo. Para a avaliação de reativação bacteriana a água foi armazenada em moringas de mesa por 24 horas, simulando uma situação comum nas residências rurais brasileiras. Os resultados mostraram que o uso do concentrador solar permite reduzir o tempo de exposição ao sol de 6 para 4 horas, sem prejuízo da eficiência do SODIS. Sendo utilizado o concentrador solar com tempo de exposição de 6 horas tem-se, além do processo de desinfecção, o processo de pasteurização solar (SOPAS, permitindo assim a utilização deste para potabilização da água. Também foi observado que a presença de nuvens reduz a incidência de radiação solar e, portanto, a eficiência do SODIS. Esta última ocorre mesmo com a água atingindo temperatura mais elevada durante a desinfecção.Besides being an available natural resource, the solar energy is very applicable in places with few recourses and low money resources, because there aren't either the need of chemical products neither a huge cost (commercial materials can be reused. To make this job we re-used PET bottles half painted black with the variables: 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours of heat exposion and we also used a

  19. Dimensionado de la instalación de energía solar térmica para producción de agua caliente sanitaria de un módulo de la prisión Puerto III

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Villarejo, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    El siguiente proyecto es un dimensionado de los componentes de un sistema solar activo de baja temperatura para la obtención de agua caliente sanitaria (ACS) para el Centro Penitenciario de Puerto III, ubicado en la carretera A-2078, 7Km, CP 11.500, municipio del Puerto de Santa María (provincia de Cádiz). El objeto del proyecto incluye todo el dimensionado teórico del sistema de energía solar térmica necesario para el edificio, desde los cálculos de necesidades, hasta, por ...

  20. Disinfection of effluent of wastewater treated using solar energy (SODIS): evaluation of a solar concentrator device; Desinfeccao de efluentes com tratamento terciario utilizando energia solar (SODIS): avaliacao do uso do dispositivo para concentracao dos raios solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp; Silva, Marcelo Jacomini Moreira da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Saneamento e Ambiente]. E-mail: pater@agr.unicamp.br

    2005-01-15

    Besides being an available natural resource, the solar energy is very applicable in places with few recourses and low money resources, because there aren't either the need of chemical products neither a huge cost (commercial materials can be reused). To make this job we re-used PET bottles half painted black with the variables: 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours of heat exposition and we also used a concentrator of rays of sunshine. The affluent control parameters were turbidity, apparent color, temperature, total coliforms and E. coli. These last three were evaluated before and after the disinfection process (effluent parameters). To assess the bacteria reactivation we kept the water in bottles for 24 hours, pretending a very common situation in Brazilian rural houses. We conclude that the use of the concentrator of rays of sunshine can reduce the heat exposition from 6 to 4 hours, without harm the SODIS efficiency. Using the concentrator of rays of sunshine for 6 hours we can obtain, besides SODIS, the process of solar pasteurization (SOPAS), which stops the re-growth of bacteria with a 70 deg C water temperature. We also observed that when the sky is cloudy the incidence of solar radiation and, therefore, the SODIS efficiency decrease, even if the water temperature is higher during the disinfection. Although, this factor doesn't mean a significant influence statistically. (author)

  1. Sistema mecatrônico para a avaliação comparativa da eficiência térmica de coletores solares térmicos planos

    OpenAIRE

    Achy, Acbal Rucas Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma plataforma experimental, de baixo custo, para o teste comparativo de coletores solares térmicos. A validação da plataforma de teste foi feita caracterizando seis colares solares térmicos, sendo quatro coletores solares fabricados a partir de resíduos industriais e duas placas solares comerciais. A bancada experimental é constituída por um sistema mecânico, um sistema hidráulico, circuitos eletrônicos de condicionamento de sinais de sensores de temperatura, ...

  2. Radiação solar global estimada a partir da insolação para Macapá (AP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Pereira Belúcio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo aplicar a análise de regressão para estimar a radiação solar global em função da insolação na cidade de Macapá (AP, sendo esta abordagem uma alternativa às estações meteorológicas sem registros de radiação solar global. Utilizou-se dados diários para os doze meses do ano, no período 2006-2012, de radiação solar global observadas na Plataforma de Coleta de Dados (PCD do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE (0,04°N; 51,08°W; 16,0 m e de insolação provenientes da estação convencional do Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET (0,05°S; 51,12°W; 14,5 m. A estimativa da radiação solar global a partir da insolação foi realizada utilizando-se as equações de regressão linear simples e o modelo de Angström-Prescott. Os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson (r mensais analisados revelaram-se satisfatórios (0,76; 0,82, e os maiores valores mensais dos coeficientes angulares "b" da equação Angström-Prescott foram observados entre os meses chuvosos (verão (b = 0,45; 0,44, o que indicou que a radiação solar global difusa é maior nesse período do ano, do que nos meses menos chuvosos, provavelmente devido à nebulosidade e aerossóis presentes na atmosfera. Portanto, como é alta a relação entre os elementos meteorológicos estudados, pode-se utilizar os dados de radiação global estimados a partir dos registros de insolação para Macapá (AP.

  3. Instalaciones de ICT, energia solar para ACS, de electricidad y licencia de actividad del parking en un edificio plurifamiliar de 25 viviendas

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Lancharro, Carlos; García Quesada, Francisco J.

    2010-01-01

    El objeto del presente proyecto es diseñar, partiendo del proyecto de arquitectura las instalaciones de un edificio plurifamiliar de 25 viviendas formado por 2 bloques, uno con 13 viviendas y otro con 12 viviendas así como la actividad de parking en planta sótano común a ambos bloques, situado Sant Feliu de Llobregat (Barcelona). El proyecto se compone de Memoria, planos, presupuesto. Habrá una memoria por cada una de las instalaciones de Telecomunicaciones, energía solar para ...

  4. Radiative transfer model for estimation of global solar radiation; Modelo de transferencia radiativa para la estimacion de la radiacion solar global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettazzi, A.; Sabon, C. S.; Souto, G. J. A.

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the efficiency of a radiative transfer model in estimating the annual solar global radiation has been evaluated, over different locations at Galicia, Spain, in clear sky periods. Due to its quantitative significance, special attention has been focused on the analysis of the influence of visibility over the global radiation. By comparison of both estimated and measured global solar radiation along year 2002, a typical annual visibility series was obtained over every location. These visibility values has been analysed in order to identify patterns and typical values, in order to be used to estimate the global solar radiation along a different year. Validation was done over the year 2003, obtaining an annual estimation less than 10 % different to the measured value. (Author)

  5. Identificação de quartzos incolores para joalheria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Soares Lameiras

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Quartzos incolores são irradiados e aquecidos para adquirirem cores esverdeadas, amareladas e amarronzadas para confecção de jóias. Somente uma pequena fração dos quartzos naturais incolores pode desenvolver cores por esse processo. A sua identificação é feita através de testes de irradiação e aquecimento em amostras representativas, que são enviadas para irradiadores para depois serem aquecidas. Trata-se de um procedimento demorado, que não atende a necessidade do mercado de pedras semipreciosas. Um novo teste é apresentado, que dispensa irradiação e aquecimento, para identificação de amostras com potencial para desenvolver cores, cujos resultados podem ser obtidos em apenas alguns minutos. Ele pode ser realizado no campo com um espectrofotômetro infravermelho portátil.Colorless quartz are irradiated and heat-treated to become greenish, yellowish, and brownish for the jewelry industry. Only a small fraction of natural, colorless quartz can develop colors through this process. The identification of this quartz is made through irradiation and heat-treatment tests on representative samples. The samples are sent to irradiators and then heat-treated. These tests are not fast enough for the needs of the semiprecious dealers. A new test is presented, that avoids irradiation and heat-treatment. It can identify samples with potential to develop colors in a few minutes. If a portable infrared spectrophotometer is available, it can be performed in field.

  6. A flat solar collector built from galvanized steel plate, working by thermosyphonic flow, optimized for Mexican conditions; Un colector solar plano construido de lamina de acero galvanizada, operando por flujo termosifonico, optimizado para las condiciones mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin de Jesus, A; Olivares Ramirez, J.M.; Ramos Lopez, G.A.; Pless, R.C. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: amarroquind@utsjr.edu.mx

    2009-07-15

    Design, construction, and testing of the thermal performance of a flat solar collector for domestic water heating are described. The absorbing plate is built from readily available materials: two sheets of galvanized steel, one of the channelled types, the other one flat, which are joined by electric welding. The absorber is connected to a 198-L thermotank, insulated with polyurethane foam. In terms of receiving surface, the prototype tested here has an area of 1.35 m{sup 2}, about 20% smaller than comparable copper-tube-based collectors offered in the market. Temperature measurements conducted over a 30-day period gave values which were a few degrees lower than the theoretically calculated water temperatures. Momentary thermal efficiency values between 35% and 77% were observed. The water temperature achieved the tank at the end of the day averages 65 degrees Celsius in winter weather conditions in the central Mexican highland. This design of solar water heater is well suited to Mexican conditions, as it makes use of the high local intensity of the solar radiation, and as the channel shape of the ducts minimizes bursting during the rare occurrences of freezing temperatures in the region; it also has the advantage of being manufacturable at low cost from simple materials. [Spanish] Se describe el diseno, construccion y pruebas del desempeno termico de un colector solar plano para calentamiento de agua para uso domestico. La placa absorbedora se construyo de materiales facilmente asequibles: dos placas de acero galvanizado, una del tipo acanalado y la otra plana, unidas mediante soldadura de acero electrico. La placa absorbedora esta conectada a un termotanque con capacidad de 198 L, aislado con espuma de poliuretano. La superficie receptora de este prototipo es de 1.35 m{sup 2}, aproximadamente 20% mas pequena comparado con los colectores, basados en tubos de cobre, ofertados en el mercado. Mediciones de temperatura por un periodo de 30 dias, arrojaron valores

  7. EVALUACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS PARA CLIMATIZACIÓN DE ESTANQUES CON ENERGÍA SOLAR PARA CULTIVO DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp, LOCALIZADOS EN LA ZONA FRÍA DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES FOR AIR CONDITIONING OF PONDS WITH SOLAR ENERGY FOR CULTIVATION OF RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp, LOCATED IN THE COLD AREA OF THE CAUCA VALLEY, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Borja Gallardo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación fue desarrollada para que la tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp, especie de pez mÁs producida en Colombia, pueda ser explotada en lugares donde las condiciones óptimas para su normal desarrollo no son las adecuadas, como son las regiones altas con temperaturas por debajo de los 24 °C, aplicando metodologías relacionadas con el aprovechamiento de la energía solar. Las técnicas evaluadas fueron: climatización por medio de colectores solares, climatización por medio de manta térmica, climatización por medio de mangueras térmicas y climatización por medio de resistencias eléctricas. Se analizaron factores como funcionalidad, mantenimiento, limitaciones organizativas, espaciales, y costos.The research was developed so that the red tilapia (Oreochromis sp, fish species that more taken place in Colombia can be exploited in regions where the good conditions for its normal development are not the appropriate ones as in the high regions with temperatures below the 24 °C, applying methodologies related with the use of the solar energy. The evaluated methodologies were: air conditioning by means of solar collectors, air conditioning by means of thermal blanket, air conditioning by means of thermal hoses and air conditioning by means of electric resistances. Factors like functionality, maintenance, organizational and space limitations, and costs were analized.

  8. Electric power generation using photovoltaic solar cells for low income rural population; Geracao de energia eletrica com celula solar fotovoltaica para populacao rural de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldi, Andre Fava; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de; Mesquita, Rafael Pimenta [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    With the growing electric energy use demand and almost not expansion of the energy mesh (basically composed by hydroelectric plants) existing in the country, several others methods of alternative energy generation may be necessary. Beyond that, the usually employed energy is becoming much more costly, rarer and politically more impracticable like burn fuels as oil and coal. The use of renewable approaches of energy, that are 'infinite' energies (as the wind and the light of the sun, for example), can become an excellent alternative. In this new energy group, the solar energy transformed by the use of photo voltage cells is becoming very important. The 'clear' solar radiation tends to be a more intelligent and practical option, and the future technology of energy storage will be able to solve the problem of the regions that have less sunny days. Its main advantages on the other alternative sources of energy are the trustworthiness and the previsibility. Its biggest disadvantage consists on the fact that technical limitations can not allow a solar energy generator to distribute electricity for a city. It is interesting to notice that with the development of projects as this in alternative energy, isolated areas that does not access electricity distribution network (as some far regions), it has become the most viable option of generation of electric energy. Another point is that even with the distribution network it has to be checked if it is possible to use this electricity consulting the company credential that work at those localities of consumption. Moreover, many regions of the country already installed the solar energy system for water heating, confirming that, the existing structure allows the installation of a a solar cells generation energy system without many problems. In this project, we introduce a method for electric energy generation by solar cells for rural population of low gains. This option uses low cost materials but with a good

  9. Photovoltaic energy: environmental and economic analysis of axis solar trackers for photovoltaic installations; Energia fotovoltaica: analise economica ambiental de seguidores solares para instalacoes fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Andrea Galvao; Bertolon, Expedito; Pacca, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EACH/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades. Curso de Gestao Ambiental

    2008-07-01

    In this work we present an economic assessment photovoltaic systems using single axis and dual axis solar trackers. The analysis was carried out for the city of Sao Paulo and the results show that in comparison with fixed installations, the single axis system and the dual axis system produce respectively 19.6% and 24.7% more power. The power output of the dual axis system is 4.3% greater than the power output of the single axis system. Considering an annual discount rate of 12% and the equipment cost, the cost of the surplus energy due to the use of the single axis and the dual axis trackers was R$0.25/kWh and R$0.18/kWh. Because the average cost of electricity produced by photovoltaic modules is R$3/kWh, we recommend the installation of solar trackers. (author)

  10. Preliminary degradation test of toxic compounds dissolved in water using concentrated solar light. Tecnologia solar de concentracion para eliminacion mediante fotocatalisis de residuos industriales toxicos disueltos en agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco galvez, J.; Malato Rogriguez, S.

    1992-01-01

    The production and emission of hazardous chemicals wastes is a problem that is becoming more and more important in the industrialized world. Most of these wastes are toxic organic compounds appearing in low concentration in the water. solar photocatalytic water detoxification using interaction between ultraviolet light and TiO[sub 2] catalyst has therefore a strong potential in the industrial destruction of toxic organics in water. (Author)

  11. Diseño de una fuente conmutada y galvanómetro digital para calibración de respuesta angular de sensores de radiación solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Díaz Spencer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar el factor de corrección por altura del sol, en los piranómetros - albedómetros empleados en las estaciones actinométricas de Cuba para las mediciones de irradiancia solar, se ha instalado en el Grupo de Óptica Atmosférica de Camagüey un Sistema de Calibración de Respuesta Angular para sensores de radiación solar. Las mediciones realizadas en estas estaciones tributan proveen datos al Servicio de Diagnóstico de Radiación Solar para Cuba. La instalación de este sistema, único de en su tipo en el país, ha sido posible a través de un proyecto de colaboración con el Grupo de Óptica Atmosférica de la Universidad de Valladolid. Para el empleo de este sistema ha sido necesario diseñar y construir tanto, la fuente conmutada de alimentación para la lámpara halógena empleada para las calibraciones, y un galvanómetro digital para registrar los datos generados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es por tanto el diseño, construcción y puesta a punto de funcionamiento de ambos dispositivos. En el caso de la fuente conmutada se estudiaron fuentes con similares prestaciones existentes en el mercado, a partir de la cuales se procedió al diseño electrónico y simulación de los circuitos correspondientes. Finalmente, tanto la fuente conmutada como el galvanómetro digital fueron construidos y actualmente se encuentran en fase de validación. Este último instrumento será replicado para sustituir a sus similares analógicos en el Servicio de Diagnóstico de Radiación Solar para Cuba.

  12. Telescopio prototipo complementario de HASTA para observaciones de la cromósfera y fotósfera solares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francile, C.; Luoni, M. L.; López, C. E.; Castro, J. I.; Costa, A.

    2016-08-01

    We report the design of a prototype refractor telescope oriented to complement the functionality of the H-Alpha Solar Telescope for Argentine (HASTA). It will allow to make photospheric observations in white light and chromospheric ones in the most intense lines, such as Ca ii K. This new instrument will observe the full solar disk or into regions of interest with a maximum pixel spatial-resolution of 0.57, and will allow the study of the sunspots, the faculae, the evolution of active regions and sporadically the most energetic flares in white light by utilizing high speed image acquisition cadences and exposure times of 1--5 ms.

  13. Considerations of regulatory normative of solar collectors installations for ACS; Consideraciones sobre normtivas reguladoras de instalaciones de colectores solares para ACS y diversa problematica analizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M. A.; Martinez, A.; Turegano, J. A.; Velasco, M. C.

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays in an imminent publication, the new Codigo Tecnico de la Edificacion (Documento HE 4), introduces a section on solar installations. There are some other documents developing regulations that must be accomplish with in this field. Concerning the different texts, and about the installation elements (storage volume, safety systems as overheating control and membrane deposits, climate data or predicted consumptions), there are different solutions, including some quite unreasonable, too expensive or contradictory with the normative spirit. The paper review some of this in order to show the causes of these problems and provide some recommendations. (Author)

  14. Uso de cubiertas plásticas para solarización de estiércol bovino Use of plastic covers for solarization cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirilo Vázquez Vázquez

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con la finalidad de evaluar cubiertas plásticas, para emplearlas en la solarización de estiércol bovino, como un método activo que pueda lograr la inactivación de patógenos, para obtener un residuo orgánico e inocuo. En los meses de junio y julio de 2004, se compararon tratamientos de pilas de estiércol cubiertas con plástico transparente sin albedo de 100 µm de grosor, una con cubierta sencilla, otra con cubierta doble y un testigo sin cubrir. Se tomaron muestras del estiércol solarizado y sin solarizar, para realizar la siembra en medios de cultivo de papa-dextrosa-agar, para detectar hongos coprofilos así como para detectar Escherichia coli y Salmonella spp. Los resultados mostraron mayor homogeneidad de temperatura en la pila con doble cubierta en el plano vertical, con 62 ºC a 30 cm de profundidad y 60 ºC a 90 cm, la cubierta sencilla alcanzó una temperatura de 61.5 ºC en el estrato superior y 58 ºC a 90 cm de profundidad, el testigo mostró mayor heterogeneidad con valores de 58 ºC a 30 cm y 47 °C a 90 cm con una variación de 11 ºC. Los resultados de los análisis previos a la solarización mostraron presencia de la bacteria Escherichia coli y Salmonella spp., en muestreos posteriores sólo en el testigo se encontró a estos patógenos.The present work was carried out with the purpose of evaluating plastic covers, to use them in solarization of bovine manure, as an active method that can achieve pathogens deactivation, to obtain an organic and innocuous residual. In months of June and July of 2004, were compared stack treatments of manure covered with transparent plastic without albedo of 100 µm thickness, one with single cover, another with double cover and without cover a control one. Samples of solarized manure and without solarization were taken, to carry out sowing in culture media of potato-dextrose-agar, to detect coprophilous fungi as well as to detect Escherichia coli and

  15. Comparação de produtos de radiação solar incidente à superfície para a América do Sul Product comparison of solar radiation incident surface for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Iracema Chipponelli Pinto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Para algumas aplicações meteorológicas, o conhecimento da radiação solar incidente à superfície (Sin é muito importante. Métodos convencionais de medida deste fluxo são pontuais e, portanto, representativos de pequenas áreas. Por outro lado, os satélites meteorológicos possibilitam uma cobertura regular de todo o globo terrestre, proporcionando estimativas de fluxos radiativos sobre grandes áreas com resolução espacial do sensor (apenas alguns quilômetros. Além disso, produtos de reanálise fornecem estimativas alternativas de Sin, que precisam ser adequadamente validadas. Este trabalho compara quatro bancos de dados de radiação solar incidente para a América do Sul: três produtos provenientes de reanálise (NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40 e Eta/CPTEC e o produto gerado pelo algoritmo GL1.2, que produz estimativas da Sin a partir do conjunto de imagens do satélite GOES. Os resultados mostram que os campos de radiação solar incidente dos produtos de reanálise do NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40 e as estimativas do satélite GOES apresentam valores médios mensais bem próximos para todos os biomas e bacias estudados. Já a reanálise do Eta/CPTEC apresentou valores bem mais elevados para à radiação sobre a América do Sul, tanto para a média anual como nas médias mensais analisadas.For some meteorological applications, knowledge of incoming solar radiation at surface level (Sin is very important. Conventional measurements of this flux by individual sensors are representative of small areas only. On the other hand, meteorological satellites allow a regular cover of the entire globe, providing estimates of radiative fluxes over wide areas, within the spatial resolution of the sensor (a few km. In addition, reanalysis products provide alternative Sin estimates that must be adequately validated. This work compares four long-term Sin databases for South America: three reanalysis products (NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40 e Eta/CPTEC and the database produced by

  16. Study on the viability for the implantation of a hydrogen-solar-aeolian system for the state of Ceara, Brazil; Estudo de viabilidade para implantacao de um sistema a hidrogenio-solar-eolico para o estado do Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, A.D.; Sacramento, E.M. do; Lima, L.C. de [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The state of the Ceara imports most of its consumed energy, configuring itself as a region eminently energy importer. However, the manufacture of its wind power Atlas demonstrated a high potential for the generation of electric energy originated from this renewable source. It is known, also, through studies, that this state possesses high potential for the exploitation of solar energy also for the generation of electric energy. A clean option to obtain hydrogen is the utilization of such renewable sources. This work presents results of the application of a model of solar-wind hydrogen energy for the Ceara state and variables such as population, gross intern product, energetic demand, energy imports, fossil fuel and hydrogen prices, income from hydrogen sale, and others parameters. The hydrogen will be produced from the sea water desalinisation, using solar and wind energies. The produced hydrogen eventually will be introduced in Ceara State through three scenarios which are one of, fast introduction, other of slow introduction and other of no introduction of hydrogen. (author)

  17. Appropriate technology for sustainable family agriculture in the semi-arid: solar water pumping for located irrigation; Tecnologia apropriada para a agricultura familiar sustentavel do semi-arido brasileiro: bombeamento solar de agua para irrigacao localizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Heitor Scalambrini [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (NAPER/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio a Projetos de Energias Renovaveis], Email: naper@ufpe.br

    2006-07-01

    Water and energy are the physic factor, which are most influential on the life conditions in the semi-arid rural environment as a whole and in the agriculture production systems in particular. Water is a resource, which - even though not rare - is found in limited quantities and not always is available on the ground surface, meaning that it should be retrieved through either proper wells or deep holes excavated into ground. Therefore, its use should be optimized. In the rural environment to turn water into an available resource in a sufficient amount in order to improve the population life conditions is still a challenge. In the rural semi-arid regions the electric energy distribution is small compared to the other regions of the country. Nevertheless the geographic position of the Brazilian Northeast - close to the equator - adds to this region high levels of insolation - something close to 3,000 hours of sunshine per year - turning this energy resource into a very abundant one. It is known that the use of solar energy, among the use of other resources, has increased the most worldwide in the last decade. The use of photovoltaic cells has increased around 17% per year in the 90's. In the last years several applications, which had the sun as their electric energy resource, were implemented in the rural areas of many countries. The Brazilian Northeast region was the preferred target of programs and projects aiming at the dissemination of the photovoltaic solar technology. Water pumping is one among the most noble applications of the photovoltaic solar technology. There are many pumping systems configurations for either deep or shallow wells, which use either superficial, immerse or floating motor-pumps, which in turn can be driven by either continuum or alternate current. In this work the usage of water pumped with solar energy from Amazon wells (also called 'cacimboes') for small family-based areas of localized irrigation (less than 1 ha), whose main

  18. Solar thermal generator of low cost for multiple uses; Generador termico solar de bajo costo para usos multiples de interes social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravia, L. R.; Cadena, C.; Iriarte, A.

    2004-07-01

    The authors have built communal solar cookers to be used in school dining-rooms in the Argentinian rural regions with 40 up to 100 students.. A usual version uses two concentrators with a 2m2 area each and a cylindrical absorber where a boiler is placed to produce water vapor or aluminum bars that are heated up to 300 C to be used in ovens. The field tests have shown that the system is efficient and some changes have been suggested to improve the boiler and bar exchanges. A new design is proposed using a smaller focal distance. The proposal is studied in the present paper. The system can be used for multiple purposes such as small sweet factories or milk treatment. (Author)

  19. Methodology to optimize the cost of deployment of a wind-solar hybrid system; Metodologia para otimizar o custo da implantacao de um sistema hibrido eolico-solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Jose Wilson Lage [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Norte (UERN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: wilson@ufrnet.br; Rocha, Brismark Goes da [Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte (UERN), Patu, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica], e-mail: brismarkrocha@uern.br

    2008-07-01

    Purposes the application of a methodology to optimize the implantation cost of an wind-solar hybrid system, to potencies between 2.250 W and 3.750 W. The developed mathematical model was obtained through the Multiple Linear Regression technique, on the basis of the previous knowledge of variables: necessary capacity of storage, total daily energy demand, wind power, module power and module number. These variables are gotten by means of sizing. Parametric statistical: T-student tests had been used to detect the significant difference in the average of total cost to being considered the diameter of the wind. Parametric statistical T-student tests had been used to detect the significant difference in the average of total cost to being considered the diameter of the wind, F-Snedecor in the variance analysis to test if the coefficients of the considered model are significantly different of zero and test not-parametric statistical by Friedman, to verify if there is difference in the total cost, by being considered the photovoltaic module powers. In decision of hypothesis tests was considered a 5%-significant level. The configurations module powers showed significant differences in total cost of investment by considering an electrical motor of 3 HP. The configurations module powers showed significant differences in total cost of investment by considering an electrical motor of 5 HP only to wind speed of 4 m/s and 6 m/s in wind of 3 m, 4 m and 5 m of diameter. There was not significant difference in costs to diameters of winds of 3 m and 4 m. A computational program was developed to assist the study of several configurations that optimizes the implantation cost of an wind-solar through considered mathematical model. (author)

  20. Compuestos orgánicos como fotocatalizadores solares para la eliminación de contaminantes en medios acuosos: aplicaciones y estudios fotofísicos.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Juanes Jordá, Lucas

    2008-01-01

    Como consecuencia de los problemas derivados de la escasez de agua, se está despertando un gran interés en el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para la depuración de aguas. Una de estas novedosas técnicas es la fotocatálisis que puede emplear la radiación solar como fuente de energía. Con intención de ampliar las posibilidades en la aplicación de la fotocatálisis se va ha estudiar la posibilidad de emplear sensibilizadores orgánicos como fotocatalizadores: el catión 2,4,6-trifeniltiopirilio y ...

  1. Optimal geometry and dimensions for the receiver of a parabolic solar concentrator with an angle of 90 degrees; Determiancion de la geometria y dimensiones optimas de un receptor para un concentrador solar paraboloidal con angulo de apertura de 90 grados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Claudio A; Arancibia, Camilo [Centro de Investigacion en Energia UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez, Nestor [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The optimal geometry and dimensions for the receiver of a parabolic solar concentrator based on microwave communication antenna are obtained. First, the experiments for the determination of the angular error of the concentrator and the dimensions of its focal region are described. Results are also presented for the ray tracing study, from which the optimal characteristics of the receiver are obtained according to the experimental results. As the aluminum antenna has a rim angle of 90 Celsius degrees, it is necessary to use a cavity receiver to allow external as well as internal absorption of radiative flux. Cylindrical, conical and spherical geometric were considered, as well as combinations of them. The best results are achieved using a conical cavity. Its dimensions are calculated to maximize the radiative transfer efficiency from the aperture of the concentrator to the receiver. [Spanish] Se determinan la geometria y dimensiones optimas del receptor de un concentrador solar parabolico obtenido a partir de una antena de telecomunicaciones para microondas. Primeramente se describen los experimentos realizados para obtener el valor del error angular asociado al concentrador y de las dimensiones de su region focal. Tambien se presentan los resultados del estudio optico de trazado de rayos, que permitio determinar teoricamente las caracteristicas del receptor, de acuerdo a los resultados de los experimentos. Debido a que la antena de aluminio tiene un angulo de borde de 90 grados Celcius, es necesario usar un receptor tipo cavidad que permita la captacion de energia tanto interna como externa. Se consideraron geometrias cilindrica, conica, esferica y combinaciones entre ellas, resultando ser la conica la que da los mejores resultados. Las dimensiones del receptor fueron determinadas maximizando la eficiencia del transporte de radiacion de la apertura del concentrador al receptor.

  2. Composting as a source of thermal energy for water heating in aquaculture; Compostagem como fonte termica de energia para aquecimento de agua na agricultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de; Neitzke, Guilherme; Hermes, Cesar Ademar [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/CCET), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica], Emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, guilherme_neitzke@yahoo.com.br, cahermes@ibestvip.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the work is to use the composting as thermal energy source in the maintenance of aquatic organisms. The area of Toledo has annual medium temperature of the air of 20,5 deg C and average in the hottest quarter of 27 deg C and in the more cold of 16,5 deg C. The used experimental material consisted of boxes of water, pipes of aluminum, hay of grassy, manure of birds and swine, aquarium compressors, hoses and pipes, porous stones, fish lingers and thermometer. The temperatures of the air, the composition and the water without heating were monitored. The medium temperatures obtained were of 20,9 and 31,1 deg C, for the air and the composition, respectively. The averages of temperature of the water with heating and without heating were of 22,0 deg C and 20,0 deg C. The weight difference among the fish lingers was of 24,0 %. It is ended that the composting can be a thermal source of energy in the aquaculture. (author)

  3. Energy savings in heating systems for nursery pigs; Uso racional de energia eletrica em sistema de aquecimento para creches de leitoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbi, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Moura, Daniella Jorge de; Oliveira, Rafael Augustus de; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br, daniella.moura@feagri.unicamp.br, augustus@feagri.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    Energy saving procedures in pig industry are important to bring sustainability to this economic activity. Energy savings can contribute to the economic and environmental feasibility of the livestock and improve animal welfare conditions. This research work aimed to perform a comparison among three heating technologies for nursery pigs related to the energy saving aspects. Three heating systems were studied: TR - suspended electrical resistors, TP - heated floor and TA - convection heating. The heated floor system was considered better than other under the aspect of electrical energy use. (author)

  4. Updraft biomass gasification reactor evaluation of fuel; Reator de gaseificacao de biomassa em fluxo contra corrente para aquecimento de ar de secagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ivanildo da S. dos; Silva, Jadir N. da; Martins, Marcio A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: ivanildomt@gmail.com, jadir@ufv.br, aredes@ufv.br

    2010-07-01

    Searching for a clean hot air from biomass for on farm applications, a gasification/combustion system was designed, built and evaluated. The system consisted of a countercurrent gasifier, coupled with a combustion chamber that burns the producer gas, and eucalyptus firewood was used as a fuel. Willing to reduce heat losses from the unit as well as to prevent thermal hazardous the unit was totally covered with brick's wall. Initial unit thermal efficiency was of about 56% and it reaches up to 71% at recharge. It was concluded that this system attended the proposed objectives, producing clean hot air that can be used for drying purposes as well as ambient space heating. (author)

  5. AQUECIMENTO GLOBAL E UM ESTUDO DA PRODUTIVIDADE POTENCIAL DA CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR PARA A REGIÃO DE SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefeson Bezerra de Melo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugar sugar cane (Saccharum spp. has revealed as a new energy alternative, mainly as one of the possible substitutes of oil through the combustible alcohol, and São Paulo State is distinguished as being the producing greater of sugar cane, and thus studies are necessary for estimate your productivity, and for this a model was used to predict potential productivity through IPCC datas scenarios, in this study was used the scenario A2 for Barretos city in São Paulo state in the period of 2000 the 2099. In a general way the changes climatic had caused a beneficial effect for the sugar cane, reflecting in a bigger production of dry mass in stalks.

  6. Electrical energy use in different heating systems for weaned piglets; Utilizacao de energia eletrica em diferentes sistemas de aquecimento para leitoes desmamados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbi, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CESNORS/UFSM), Palmeiras das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte-RS. Dept. de Zootecnia], E-mail: jusarubbi@hotmail.com; Rossi, Luiz A.; Moura, Daniella J. de; Oliveira, Rafael A. de; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: rossi@agr.unicamp.br, daniella.moura@agr.unicamp.br, augustus@agr.unicamp.br, eduardo.david@agr.unicamp.br

    2010-11-15

    Heating piglets in nursery and farrowing may be improved to save energy, without affecting the animals' welfare. The objective of this research was to compare the electrical energy use and thermal environment promoted by three heating technologies for piglets in nursery. The heating technologies studied were: suspended electrical resistors, heated floor and convection heating. Electrical energy consumption (kWh), maximum power demand requirements (kW), specific consumption (kWh/kg of produced live body weight), efficiency of heating system (deg C /m{sup 3} air) and dry-bulb temperature (deg C) and temperature-humidity index were evaluated. The heated floor system was better under the aspect of electrical energy use. The electrical resistance heating system was the best regarding to the animals' thermal comfort needs. (author)

  7. Estimativa da radiação solar global a partir dos dados de insolação, para Santa Maria - RS Estimation of global radiation from insolation data for Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Adeli Buriol

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados os coeficientes a e b da equação de Angströn-Prescott para a estimativa da radiação solar global para Santa Maria, RS. Utilizaram-se os dados diários da intensidade de fluxo de radiação solar global e de insolação (brilho solar registrados na Estação Meteorológica pertencente ao 8° Distrito de Meteorologia, localizada no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, período 2002-2008. Os dados foram copiados no banco de dados do 8° Distrito de Meteorologia - 8° DISME, em Porto Alegre, e calculados os valores diários de radiação solar global no topo da atmosfera e de insolação máxima possível, considerando a latitude local. Com esses dados, foram determinadas as equações mensais e estacionais de regressão para a estimativa da radiação solar global em função da insolação. Constatou-se que existe alta correlação entre os dados de radiação solar global com aqueles de insolação, sendo, assim, possível estimar a radiação solar global em função da insolação.Coefficients a and b of the Angströn - Prescott equation to estimate global solar radiation for Santa Maria, RS were determined. Daily data of global solar radiation and sunshine, were obtained from the Meteorological Station which belongs to the 8th District of Meteorology, located on the campus of the Federal University of Santa Maria - UFSM, period from 2002 to 2008. The mentioned data were copied from the database of the 8th District of Meteorology - 8th DISME in Porto Alegre. Top of atmosphere radiation and possible maximum sunshine were calculated considering local latitude. With such elements, monthly regression equations were determined for the estimation of solar radiation as a function of insolation. We found a high correlation between insolation and global solar radiation and it's possible to estimate the solar radiation depending on the measured insolation.

  8. Thickness calculation software of the thermal insulation in facilities using thermal solar energy; Software para el calculo de espesores del aislante termico en instalaciones de aprovechamiento de energia solar termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portillo Jimenez, Canek [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico)]. E-mail: cnk@uas.uasnet.mx

    2010-11-15

    It is presented a software application for calculating the thickness of the thermal insulation used in various facilities where there are thermal systems using solar energy. The software facilitates the calculation of the thermal cover thickness over components such as pipes (flat or round), storage and other devices that require thermal protection, installed in outdoors or indoors. The software was programmed in Visual Basic by following the technical specifications of the current regulations in the field. Application examples are performed, obtaining certain results that are discussed briefly. [Spanish] Se presenta un software de aplicacion para el calculo de los espesores de los aislantes termicos, utilizados en diferentes instalaciones donde existen sistemas de aprovechamiento termico de energia solar. El software facilita el calculo del grosor del recubrimiento termico en componentes tales como: tuberias (planas o circulares), depositos acumuladores y otros aparatos que necesiten proteccion termica, instalados en exteriores o en interiores. El software fue programado en Visual Basic siguiendo las especificaciones tecnicas de la normatividad vigente en la materia. Se realizan ejemplos de aplicacion, donde se obtienen ciertos resultados de los cuales se hace una breve discusion.

  9. Potencial solar de parques de estacionamento para carregamento de veículos elétricos

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Raquel Vaz Pato

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado integrado em Engenharia da Energia e do Ambiente, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2015. A eletricidade solar fotovoltaica é vista no futuro como uma das formas centrais de energia, dado ser limpa, o recurso ser abundante e o seu preço estar a baixar. A par disso, o veículo elétrico é considerado a forma mais promissora de descarbonização do setor dos transportes. O acoplamento destas duas tecnologias é, portanto, pertinente e pode se...

  10. Interference of heating on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae essential oil Interferência do aquecimento sobre a atividade antimicrobiana e composição química do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2008-06-01

    (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica e Serratia marcencens mostrando amplos halos de inibição do crescimento microbiano (30a42mm. O aquecimento do óleo essencial de O. vulgare não mostrou interferência (p < 0.05 sobre sua propriedade antimicrobiana, sendo observado o desenvolvimento de halos de inibição do crescimento microbiano com diâmetros similares ou aproximados quando ensaiadas a alíquota do óleo essencial mantido em temperatura ambiente e as alíquotas submetidas a diferentes temperaturas de aquecimento. Os valores de CIM encontrados para o óleo essencial de O. vulgare oscilaram entre 10 a 40 µL.mL-1 (20 µL.mL-1 para a maioria das amostras, entretanto nenhuma diferença significativa (p < 0.05 foi notada para os valores de CIM encontrados para as alíquotas do óleo essencial exposto a diferentes temperaturas. Ademais, o aquecimento não interferiu significativamente (p < 0.05 sobre a composição química do óleo essencial. A análise da composição do óleo essencial mostrou a presença de monoterpenos, compostos terpênicos e sesquiterpenos, de modo que carvacrol (68,06 a 70,27% e p-cimeno (12,85 a 154,81% foram os compostos encontrados em maiores concentrações no óleo essencial. Estes resultados mostram a estabilidade térmica do óleo essencial de O. vulgare e suporta seu possível uso concomitante com altas temperaturas em sistemas de conservação de alimentos.

  11. Comportamento de três hortaliças de fruto submetidas ao aquecimento intermitente durante a frigoconservação Behavior of three vegetable fruits submitted to intermittent warming during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. KLUGE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Efeitos do aquecimento intermitente foram estudados em berinjelas, pimentões e quiabos refrigerados. Berinjelas `Piracicaba F-100' foram continuamente refrigeradas por 21 dias ou aquecidas a cada 3, 4, 5 ou 6 dias. Pimentões `Maiata' foram continuamente refrigerados por 28 dias ou aquecidos a cada 5, 6, 7 ou 8 dias. Quiabos `Santa Cruz-47' foram continuamente refrigerados por 8 dias, ou aquecidos aos 2, 3, 4 ou 5 dias. O armazenamento foi realizado à 5ºC e 90-95% UR. O aquecimento foi realizado por 24 horas à 24-25ºC e 70-75% UR (condições ambientais. O aquecimento intermitente reduziu os sintomas de injúrias pelo frio, mas provocou elevadas perdas de massa em muitos tratamentos, causando murchamento e reduzindo a comerciabilidade dos frutos após a refrigeração, principalmente em quiabos e pimentões.Effects of intermittent warming were evaluated for cold stored eggplant, pepper and okra fruits. Eggplant fruits cv. Piracicaba F-100 were continuously cold stored for 21 days or submitted to warming each 3, 4, 5 or 6 days. Pepper fruits cv. Maiata were continuously cold stored for 28 days or submitted to warming each 5, 6, 7 or 8 days. Okra pods cv. Santa Cruz-47 were continuously cold stored for 8 days or submitted to warming after 2, 3, 4 or 5 days. The cold storage temperature was 5ºC and 90-95% RH. The warming temperature was 24-25ºC and 70-75% RH (room temperature, for 24 hs. The intermittent warming reduced chilling injury in fruits, however, caused high mass loss and shriveling in most treatments. This reduced fruit marketability, mainly in okra and pepper fruits.

  12. Proteção solar para crianças: estudo preliminar sobre conhecimentos e atitudes dos pais = Sun protection for children: preliminary study on the knowledge and attitudes of parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Luana Rosa da

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudo objetivou analisar os conhecimentos e atitudes dos pais quanto as práticas de proteção solar para crianças em Araxá-MG. Materiais e Métodos: Foi uma pesquisa de campo de caráter quanti-qualitativa e exploratória, realizada por meio de entrevista, no mês de agosto de 2010, com pais ou responsáveis por alunos da quarta série do ensino fundamental. Foi realizada uma estrevista semi-estruturada abrangendo medidas de fotoproteção, conhecimento dos perigos da exposição solar e também aspectos sociais como renda familiar e escolaridade. Resultados: O período do dia de maior exposição foi entre 10 e 16 horas com 65,5%. Quanto ao tempo de exposição solar diário, notou-se que de três a quatro horas por dia foi o tempo mais relatado (33,3%. Quanto ao uso frequente de outras formas de proteção solar como: chapéu, boné, camisetas apropriadas, óculos, 66,7% afirmaram não fazer uso. Quando abordados em relação ao uso de protetor solar, 50% dos participantes relataram que as crianças não fazem o uso de protetor solar nem quando expostas a sol intenso. Conclusão: Os hábitos, cuidados e práticas de exposição solar dos pais para com seus filhos não estão adequados e o conhecimento acerca do assunto câncer da pele é dito por eles insuficiente, embora tenham noções dos perigos da exposição solar exagerada

  13. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. Second Part: Technologies for the advantage of the solar energy (Annexe 6-II in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Segunda Parte: Tecnologias para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar (Anexo 6-II en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Usually one distinguishes two main types of systems of advantage of the solar energy: the photovoltaic and the photo thermal ones. The first ones are those based on the photovoltaic effect, which allows the direct conversion of the energy of the solar radiation in electrical energy. The second ones transform the solar energy into heat, which can be used in a large variety of processes. By the degree of development of both technologies it is advisable to present them in different sections. Also, there is a great variety of technologies of photo thermal systems that we have classified as technologies for the termosolar generation of electrical power, whose temperatures of operation are high, technologies the solar heating at low temperatures and technologies for industrial heat process. [Spanish] Se suele distinguir dos tipos principales de sistemas de aprovechamiento de la energia solar: los fotovoltaicos y los fototermicos. Los primeros son aquellos basados en el efecto fotovoltaico, que permite la conversion directa de la energia de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Los segundos transforman la energia solar en calor, el cual puede ser utilizado en una gran variedad de procesos. Por el grado de desarrollo de ambas tecnologias es conveniente presentarlas en secciones diferentes. Asi mismo, existe una gran variedad de tecnologias de sistemas fototermicos que hemos clasificado en tecnologias para la generacion termosolar de potencia electrica, cuyas temperaturas de operacion son altas, tecnologias para el calentamiento solar a bajas temperaturas y tecnologias para calor de proceso industrial.

  14. Uma análise do efeito do aquecimento global na produção de batata no Brasil An analysis of the potato production in Brazil upon global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Lopes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Face às prováveis mudanças climáticas afetando as áreas agricultáveis do planeta, foi feita uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os efeitos do aumento da temperatura no metabolismo da planta de batata, enfatizando suas consequências no desenvolvimento vegetativo e na produtividade da cultura. Embora a ênfase maior desse artigo se prenda ao efeito do clima na redução de alimentos, alerta-se ainda para o risco de erosão genética pelo desaparecimento de espécies silvestres, de grande importância para programas de melhoramento genético. A partir dessas informações e de dados climáticos das regiões produtoras publicados em literatura nacional, foi realizada uma análise prospectiva da produção de batata no Brasil. Para tal, tomou-se como base o aumento da temperatura de até 5ºC até o final deste século e uma faixa ótima de produtividade da batata de 10ºC a 25ºC, conforme indicado em literatura especializada. Foram selecionados seis municípios representando as regiões geográficas onde se cultiva a batata: São Joaquim-SC; Guarapuava-PR; Cristalina-GO; Mucugê-BA; Vargem Grande do Sul-SP e Araxá-MG. Para municípios com prevalência de temperaturas mais baixas, como São Joaquim, o aumento de temperatura preconizado não deverá restringir a produção, porém serão necessárias adequações de épocas de plantio. Por outro lado, a situação é preocupante em regiões e épocas de cultivo sujeitas a temperaturas altas, como Mucugê e Cristalina, onde o cultivo deverá se restringir a poucos meses do ano, contrastando com o plantio contínuo, durante o ano todo, ora sendo realizado. O intuito deste artigo é alertar, e não alarmar, a cadeia produtiva de batata no sentido de se preparar para os ajustes fitotécnicos visando a preservar a bataticultura nacional face a um eventual aquecimento global. Considerações sobre o melhoramento genético para atenuar, pelo menos em parte, esta situação é discutida.The future of

  15. Sistema de elementos de protección solar para la vivienda colectiva de interés social en el clima cálido-húmedo de Santo Domingo

    OpenAIRE

    Restituyo Pérez, Rosalía

    2015-01-01

    En climas cálidos-húmedos como es el caso de la República Dominicana, las envolventes deben reducir la influencia de la radiación solar y por lo tanto, deben recibir atención especial. La protección solar de los cierres exteriores de los edificios es un requisito esencial para la eficiencia energética en casi todos los climas. Evitar la entrada del sol en los espacios interiores es deseable en los meses de verano en los climas templados e incluso fríos, pero en los climas cálidos resulta impr...

  16. Solar desalination System of Sea Water for Efficient Irrigation of a Crop Module; Sistema de desalacion solar de agua de mar para riego eficiente en un modulo de cultivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta Gandara, Miguel Angel; Rubio Cerda, Eduardo; Fernandez Zayas, Jose Luis [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noreste (Mexico)

    2002-06-01

    The lack of vegetables in the diet of people living by the seaside in Mexican California results in important health problems. It is not easy to produce vegetable due to the lack of potable water. In order to solve this problem, this paper introduces a household agricultural production system utilizing seawater, which is distilled by means of a shallow solar still. The still has a free surface of 10 m{sup 2} and can yield an average daily quantity of 5/m{sup 2} daily. Distilled water is employed to grow vegetable (basically radishes, pumpkins and tomatoes) in an experimental plot of land where a highly efficient irrigation is pursued. Hence, it is possible to obtain biomass production of about 1 kg of fresh product for every 19 to 200 liters of distilled water, depending on the crop, in also variable crop cycles, between 30 and 150 days of duration. This paper ends with an economic evaluation and the assessment of water use. In comparison with the irrigation district of the valley of Santo Domingo, B. C. S., where extreme lack of water is felt, water is used in the latter in a proportion of between 180 and 500 times more than the strictly indispensable per unit product. [Spanish] La carencia de verduras en la dieta de los habitantes del litoral californiano produce graves problemas de salud, pero no es facil producir hortaliza, dada la carencia de agua potable. Con el fin de subsanar esta deficiencia, se presenta un sistema para producir alimentos a escala unifamiliar, usando agua de mar destilada mediante un destilador solar somero de 10 m{sup 2} de superficie, capaz de arrojar una produccion promedio de 5 l/m{sup 2} cada dia. El agua destilada se utiliza para producir hortalizas (primordialmente rabanos, calabazas y tomates) en una parcela experimental de alta eficiencia de empleo del agua, que permite obtener producto fresco del orden de 1 kg de rabanos por cada 10 litros de agua destilada en 30 dias, o 1 kg de tomate por cada 200 litros de agua en 150 dias

  17. Diseño y Construcción de un sistema de Ozonificación para purificación de agua alimentado con Energía Solar.

    OpenAIRE

    Sànchez Vega, Guadalupe Omar

    2016-01-01

    En el trabajo que a continuación se presenta se realizó el diseño y construcción de un sistema de purificación de agua por medio del proceso de ozonificación que opera totalmente con energía solar. Para su dimensionamiento se tomaron en cuenta gran cantidad de variables (como la presión del gas de alimentación, voltaje, frecuencia, por destacar algunas) para obtener una mayor cantidad de ozono con bajos consumos energéticos, los cuales son capaces de ser abastecidos con una pila de 12 V y 17 ...

  18. Analysis of solar radiation and other variables for the evaluation of locations of thermo solar power stations; Analisis de radiacion solar y otras vairables para la evaluacion de emplazamientos de centrales termosolares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, I.; Miranda, M. T.; Rojas, S.; Bolinaga, B.; Tierra, C.; Pico, J. del

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of various measuring weather stations located in future CCP thermal plants, showing the different systems they are equipped with, among others, pyrheliometer, pyrano meter, anemometers, thermo-hygrometer and data transmission system. Some results of solar radiation and other climate variables obtained in these stations are presented and analyzed in relation to existing data in the area, taking into account different external parameters that can influence the direct radiation obtained and, therefore, the future operation of the thermal plant. (Author)

  19. MODELAGEM DA IRRADIAÇÃO SOLAR GLOBAL MÉDIA HORÁRIA MENSAL (Hgh PARA QUATRO LOCALIDADES DE ALAGOAS/BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Manoel Dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sete modelos empíricos (M1 a M7 baseados na temperatura do ar, foram ajustados e avaliados para estimar a irradiação solar global média horária mensal (Hgh em quatro localidades do Estado de Alagoas, Brasil. Os dados foram medidos em estações solarimetricas automáticas situadas em Arapiraca (9°47’54,8”S e 37°36’23,4”W, Palmeira dos Índios (9°24’19,9”S e 36°39’22,7”W, Maceió (10°01’29,1”S e 36°16’29,1”W e Coruripe (9°28’29,1”S e 35°49’43,6”W, entre 2007 e 2009. Para indicar o desempenho dos modelos utilizaram-se os indicativos estatísticos: desvio das médias (MBE, raiz quadrada do desvio quadrático médio (RMSE, “d” de Willmott e teste-t. Os coeficientes ajustados (β1 e β2 dos modelos foram dependentes da região e dos efeitos climáticos locais. Os coeficientes β2 dos M1, M2 e M3 foram significativos a 5%, enquanto que, o coeficiente β1 de M4 e M5 resultaram em comportamentos semelhantes. Os coeficientes β1 e β2 de M6 e M7 apresentaram elevadas oscilações. Com RMSE médio de 0,29 ± 0,15 MJ m-2h-1, o melhor ajuste para região de Arapiraca foi com M7. O melhor ajuste para as condições climáticas nas regiões de Palmeira dos Índios, Maceió e Coruripe foi com M4. Estes resultados mostram a eficiência dos modelos empíricos em prever Hgh. Palavras-chave: Modelos empíricos, Bristow e Campbell, Hargreaves e Samani, condições climáticas. MODELLING OF MONTHLY HOURLY GLOBAL SOLAR IRRADIATION (Hgh TO FOUR SITES IN ALAGOAS/BRAZIL ABSTRACT In this paper was used seven empirical models (M1 to M7 based on temperature of air and they were fitted and validated to estimating the monthly hourly of global solar irradiation (Hgh in four sites in Alagoas State, Brazil. The data were measured in automatic solarimetric stations situated in Arapiraca (9°47’54.8”S and 37°36’23.4”W, Palmeira dos Índios (9°24’19.9”S and 36°39’22.7”W, Maceió (10°01’29.1”S and 36°16’29

  20. Degradation test of toxic compounds dissolved in water using concentrated solar light. Desarrollo de la tecnologia solar de concentracion para la eliminacion de residuos industriales toxicos disueltos en agua mediante fotocatalisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Galvez, J.; Malato Rodriguez, S.

    1993-01-01

    A solar photocatalytic system is being developed at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria to destroy organic contaminants in water. Test with common water contaminants were conducted at the Solar Detoxification loop with real sun light and large quantities of water flowing through glass tubes were the solar UV light is concentrated. Experiments at this scale provide verification of laboratory studies and allow the design and operation of real preindustrial detoxification systems. (Author)

  1. Influence of storage and heating on mother´s milk microbiota Influência do armazenamento e aquecimento na microbiota do leite materno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Gardenas Borrell

    2009-03-01

    , Stapholococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus; microbian rates, even when higher than the ones stablished, did not influence the clinical status of the NB; the breast milk collected, transported and stored under the conditions presented in this study can be safely used up to 24 hours after being stored in a refrigerator at 4°C.RACIONAL: Existe consenso que os recém-natos são particularmente propensos a desenvolverem infecções gastrointestinais devido a múltiplos fatores dentre eles a hipóxia. Há facilidade de colonização anormal e destruição de bactérias com absorção de toxinas. OBJETIVO: Identificar micro-organismos no leite materno depois de estocado em refrigerador a 4°C e também depois do aquecimento, e pesquisar se os sinais laboratoriais encontrados teem alguma correlação clínica. MÉTODOS: As amostras coletadas contemplaram as três fases do leite materno. Em 16 casos, colostro foi obtido como amarelado até a segunda semana do nascimento. Em 14 casos o tipo transicional, entre colostro e leite maduro, ocorreu de sete e 15 dias depois do nascimento. Em 14 casos o leite maduro foi obtido também entre sete e 15 dias. Os diversos tipos foram subdivididos de acordo com o período de conservação e de aquecimento. RESULTADOS: Os micro-organismos que não cresceram foram: Salmonella sp, Molds/leavens e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Foram observados coliformes totais e fecais. Não ocorreu crescimento bacteriano significativo. Cresceram mesófilos aeróbicos, Staphilococcus aureus e Bacillus cereus. Embora com esses crescimentos, não houve repercussão clínica nos recém-nascidos. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições propostas neste estudo, não houve crescimento significativo de coliformes fecais, Salmonella sp, Molds/leavens e Pseudomonas aeruginosa; os micro-organismos que cresceram mantiveram-se acima no nível de detecção (mesófilos aeróbicos, coliformes totais, Stapholococcus aureus e Bacillus cereus. As taxas de micro-organismos mesmo sendo mais altas que as

  2. Avaliação de modelo matemático para estimar a radiação solar incidente sobre superfícies com diferentes exposições e declividades Evaluation of a model used for estimating income solar radiation in surfaces with different expositions and declivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. P. Turco

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar modelo matemático para estimar a radiação solar global diária sobre superfícies com diferentes exposições e declividades, no período de março de 2002 a março de 2003. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em uma estrutura denominada "Bacia Hidrográfica Experimental" do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal - SP. Nessa estrutura, foram utilizadas superfícies caracterizadas como H, 10N, 10S, 20N, 20S, 10E, 10W, 20E e 20W. O sensor utilizado para medir a radiação solar global incidente nas superfícies estudadas foi um piranômetro da marca Kipp & Zonnen, modelo CM3. Para calcular a radiação solar incidente nas superfícies estudadas, foi utilizado o modelo de Kondratyev. As análises dos resultados foram feitas para o período diário, utilizando-se de análise de regressão e considerando o modelo linear (y = ax + b, na qual a variável dependente foi a radiação global medida (K¯M e a radiação global calculada (K¯C foi a variável independente. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que o modelo apresentou bons resultados para estimar a radiação nas superfícies H, 10N, 10S, 10E, 10W, 20E e 20W. Utilizando-se de dados de dias com céu límpido, foram obtidos os seguintes resultados: no inverno, o modelo foi preciso para estimar a radiação solar na superfície 20N, e apresentou resultados aceitáveis para estimar a radiação solar na superfície 20S.This research evaluated a model used for estimating income solar radiation in surfaces with different expositions and declivities. The research was developed in one structure denominated "Experimental Hidrografic Basin" of the Rural Engineering Department - UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Brazil. In this structure was utilized surfaces characterized as H, 10N, 10S, 20N, 20S, 10E, 10W, 20E and 20W. The sensor used for obtaining income solar radiation in surfaces was a Kipp & Zonnen Piranometer model CM3. The methodology

  3. Influência do pré-aquecimento do sistema adesivo e do cimento resinoso na resistência ao cisalhamento de pinos de fibra de vidro à dentina radicular

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Machado de LIMA

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Odontologia, Florianópolis, 2009 O objetivo deste estudo in vitro foi analisar a influência do pré-aquecimento do sistema de cimentação na resistência de união ao cisalhamento por extrusão de pinos de fibra de vidro à dentina intra-radicular. Trinta caninos superiores e inferiores humanos foram selecionados. Após a remoção da coroa, todos os dentes foram tratados endod...

  4. Avaliação de métodos para quebra da dormência e para a desinfestação de sementes de canafístula (Peltophorum dubium (Sprengel Taubert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Luciana Magda de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo testar a eficiência de diferentes tratamentos para quebra da dormência e desinfestação de sementes de canafístula na realização do teste de germinação. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial com três lotes × cinco tratamentos para quebra da dormência × quatro tratamentos de desinfestação das sementes. As sementes utilizadas foram coletadas nos municípios de Lavras-MG, em 1986 e 1998, e em Lins-SP, em 1998. Os tratamentos para quebra da dormência foram constituídos por escarificação manual com lixa, água quente (a- fervura das sementes por 3 minutos com imersão por 24 horas, fora do aquecimento; e b - imersão das sementes em água quente por 24 horas, fora do aquecimento e ácido sulfúrico (imersão por 15, 17, 20 e 30 minutos. Para desinfestação das sementes foram testados os tratamentos, utilizando Polyfluanide (0,2% por 30 minutos, Benomyl (0,02% por 1 minuto e hipoclorito de sódio (2% por 3 minutos. Foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 25 sementes em cada tratamento. O teste de germinação foi instalado sobre areia, na temperatura de 25 ºC, sob luz branca constante. As contagens de germinação (plântulas normais foram realizadas diariamente. O tratamento de imersão das sementes de canafístula em água quente (95 ºC e posterior permanência na mesma água por mais 24 horas, fora do aquecimento, é eficiente na promoção da germinação, sendo prático e dispensando o uso de tratamentos de desinfestação.

  5. Construction of a pilot plant of 500 KW it solar gasification of coke of oil. Synpet project; Construccion de una planta piloto de 500 kW para la gasificacion solar de coke de petroleo. Proyecto Synpet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal; Denk, T.; Valverde, A.; Steinfeld, A.; Zacarias, L.; Jesus, J. C. de; Romero, M.

    2008-07-01

    Solar thermochemistry is a novel and very promising route for the production of valuable fuels and chemicals, in which solar energy is collected and concentrated in order to supply the high temperature process heat necessary to drive highly endothermic chemical reactions. Some high temperature endothermic reactions for converting solar energy to chemical fuels have been investigated; the steam-gasification of petroleum derivatives and residues using concentrated solar radiation has been proposed more recently as a viable alternative to solar hydrogen production. This paper reviews this study which is being carried out within collaboration between Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich/Switzerland, and the CIEMAT in Spain to study the feasibility of thermochemical falsification form petroleum coke. (Author)

  6. Development and evaluation of neural network models to estimate daily solar radiation at Córdoba, Argentina Desenvolvimento e avaliação de modelos de redes neurais para estimação da irradiação solar diária em Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bocco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop neural network models of backpropagation type to estimate solar radiation based on extraterrestrial radiation data, daily temperature range, precipitation, cloudiness and relative sunshine duration. Data from Córdoba, Argentina, were used for development and validation. The behaviour and adjustment between values observed and estimates obtained by neural networks for different combinations of input were assessed. These estimations showed root mean square error between 3.15 and 3.88 MJ m-2 d-1 . The latter corresponds to the model that calculates radiation using only precipitation and daily temperature range. In all models, results show good adjustment to seasonal solar radiation. These results allow inferring the adequate performance and pertinence of this methodology to estimate complex phenomena, such as solar radiation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver modelos de redes neuronais, do tipo retropropagação, para a estimação da irradiação solar, a partir de dados de irradiação solar extraterrestre, amplitude térmica, precipitação, nebulosidade e razão de insolação. O treinamento e a validação foram realizados com dados correspondentes a Córdoba, Argentina. O comportamento e ajuste entre os valores observados e os estimados pelas redes foram avaliados para diferentes combinações das variáveis de entrada, que apresentaram valores do erro quadrático médio entre 3,15 e 3,88 MJ m-2 d-1 . Este último valor corresponde ao modelo que calcula a irradiação somente utilizando precipitação e amplitude térmica diária. Os resultados exibem em todos os modelos um ajuste apropriado ao comportamento sazonal da irradiação solar e permitem concluir a pertinência e o adequado desempenho desse método para estimar fenômenos complexos como a irradiação solar.

  7. Simulação de um sistema de refrigeração por absorção com energia solar térmica para locais isolados

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Ronaldo Bueno de

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o estudo de um sistema de refrigeração por absorção assistido por energia solar térmica com intuito de ser empregado no arrefecimento de uma pousada de ecoturismo localizada em um local remoto, desprovida de conexão à rede elétrica. Para o estudo do sistema proposto foi utilizado o software de simulações TRNSYS, onde em uma etapa inicial do trabalho foi realizada a comparação dos resultados do software com os resultados dos modelos matemáticos dos componentes do sistem...

  8. Diseño de sistemas de energía solar fotovoltaica para usuarios residenciales en Chía, Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Katherine Rodríguez Manrique

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este documento presentamos un análisis técnico y económico para el uso residencial de sistemas fotovoltaicos interconectados a la red eléctrica (BIPVS por sus siglas en inglés para usuarios estrato 6 en el municipio de Chía, Cundinamarca. Los estudios fueron realizados para tres tipos de vivienda de una constructora para cubrir el 100 %, 70 % y 40 % de los perfiles de carga de las viviendas. Los resultados indican que, gracias a las nuevas políticas gubernamentales (Ley 1715 de 2014 para incentivar tecnologías de generación no convencional, la recuperación de la inversión inicial del proyecto con las condiciones actuales puede llevarse a cabo en alrededor de 7 años y medio para el 100 % de la demanda residencial analizada.

  9. Choice and the cost and benefit analysis of one solar system of renewable energy for the Tepozan Park; Seleccion y analisis costo-beneficio de un sistema de energia renovable para el parque Tepozan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez P, J. Manuel A; Sheinbaum P, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This article is about the choice process and the cost and benefit analysis of one solar photovoltaic system for the Tepozan Park, which is a space of ecoturism and ecological education, it is at the Tlalpan District in Mexico, D.F. According to this objective, we start with an introduction related to general conditions in the Park and we talk about the energy requirement. Next, the method for the better option choice is shown, this is based on decision analysis of Kepner and Tregoe. The choice option is evaluated according to the main financial tools of the Cost and Benefit Analysis private evaluation. This shows the decision analysis including issued about ecology. Finally, we add a point for the result synthesis, so we can have a complete approach in order to choice a renewable energy. As conclusion is shown the most important costs and benefits, thinking on future decisions about operation and maintenance of the system. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el proceso de seleccion y analisis Costo-Beneficio de un sistema de energia solar fotovoltaica para las instalaciones del Parque Tepozan, un espacio de ecoturismo y educacion ambiental, ubicado en la delegacion Tlalpan de Mexico, D.F. Para ello, se da una introduccion de las condiciones generales del parque y de los requerimientos de energia. Posteriormente se presenta un apartado del metodo para la seleccion de la alternativa mas adecuada, sustentado en un analisis de decisiones. La alternativa seleccionada, se somete a una evaluacion de los principales criterios de la evaluacion privada derivada del Analisis Costo Beneficio, con lo que se ilustra el proceso de toma de decision, incluyendo los factores de impacto ambiental. Finalmente, se incorpora un apartado de sintesis de resultados, para aportar un panorama completo en cuanto a la operacion y mantenimiento del sistema dentro del parque.

  10. Diseño de sistemas de energía solar fotovoltaica para usuarios residenciales en Chía, Cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Katherine Rodríguez Manrique; Ángela Inés Cadena Monroy; Andrés Julián Aristizábal Cardona

    2015-01-01

    En este documento presentamos un análisis técnico y económico para el uso residencial de sistemas fotovoltaicos interconectados a la red eléctrica (BIPVS por sus siglas en inglés) para usuarios estrato 6 en el municipio de Chía, Cundinamarca. Los estudios fueron realizados para tres tipos de vivienda de una constructora para cubrir el 100 %, 70 % y 40 % de los perfiles de carga de las viviendas. Los resultados indican que, gracias a las nuevas políticas gubernamentales (Ley 1715 de ...

  11. Fluid heating system (SAF®: effects on clinical and biochemistry parameters in dogs submitted to inhalatory anesthesia Sistema de aquecimento de fluidos (SAF®: efeitos sobre parâmetros clínicos e bioquímica sérica em cadelas sob anestesia inalatória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Bueno Atayde

    2009-04-01

    ímicas significativas, mas houve efeito de grupo sobre as variáveis PAM, uréia, ALT, ALP e tempo de hipnose. CONCLUSÃO: O uso isolado do Sistema de Aquecimento de Fluidos (SAF® não foi suficiente para evitar o estabelecimento da hipotermia em cadelas submetidas a anestesia geral inalatória, ou promover alterações clínicas e bioquímicas significativas.

  12. Aquecimento de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em preparações culinárias não afeta a capacidade antioxidante e o teor de fenóis totais Heating of red wine and grape juice in food preparations does not affect their antioxidant capacity and total phenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Schütz Cardoso Teófilo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade antioxidante e a concentração dos compostos fenólicos de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em preparações culinárias, quando submetidos ao processo de fervura. Métodos: A avaliação ocorreu após diferentes períodos de aquecimento (100°C em dois sistemas: i panela de alumínio e chama de fogão e ii balão de vidro e manta térmica. Amostras comerciais de vinho tinto (n=4 e suco de uva integral (n=4 foram submetidas à fervura por 10, 20 e 60 minutos. Antes e após cada período de fervura, a capacidade antioxidante total foi avaliada pela medida do potencial redutor férrico, e o teor de fenóis totais foi quantificado pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau. As diferenças foram comparadas pela análise de variância para medidas repetidas (pObjective: This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity and concentration of phenolic compounds in red wine and grape juice used in culinary preparations subjected to boiling. Methods: The assessments were done after different boiling times (100°C using two systems: i aluminum pot and stove flame and ii volumetric flask and heating mantle. Samples of red wine (n=4 and grape juice (n=4 were subjected to boiling for 10, 20 and 60 minutes. Before and after each boiling period, the total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the total phenol content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Differences were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA (p<0.05. Results: The different boiling times did not cause significant changes in the total antioxidant capacity or total phenol content of the beverages, regardless of boiling method. Conclusion: The results show that the antioxidant properties of red wine and grape juice did not change significantly after boiling for 60 minutes.

  13. Current status of the second generation of parabolic trough solar concentrator for heat generation process designed at the IIE; Estado actual de la segunda generacion del concentrador solar de canal parabolico para generacion de calor de proceso disenado en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos; Ramirez Benitez, Juan Rafael; Beltran Adan, Jose [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: cramos@iie.org.mx; rramirez@iie.org.mx; jose.beltran@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The transformation industry normally uses thermal energy within its process, it obtains this energy burning fossils fuel, a new option is to use new technologies like the thermal solar technology like the parabolic trough, this is a long parabolic mirror used to reflect the sunlight and focused on an absorber tube with a heat-conducting fluid inside. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) developed a prototype of parabolic trough that is operating in different industries, in this article are showing some improvements to the design, giving like result the second generation of the prototype of parabolic trough of the IIE. [Spanish] La industria de la transformacion normalmente utiliza energia termica dentro de su proceso, los medios convencionales para obtener esta energia es el quemar combustibles fosiles, una opcion que aplica nuevas tecnologias es el uso de la tecnologia termosolar a concentracion que le permitira a la industria utilizar el sol como fuente de energia primaria. El uso de esta tecnologia permitira a las empresas generar calor de proceso sin contaminar el ambiente, lo que dara como resultado empresas competitivas y autosuficientes. Para alcanzar temperaturas utiles a estas aplicaciones se requiere concentrar la energia solar en un area mas pequena, siendo la tecnologia mas extendida la de canal parabolico, el principio de operacion de esta tecnologia es la de concentrar la radiacion solar en el eje receptor preparado con una pintura especial para una mejor absorcion del calor y una cubierta de vidrio para evitar perdidas termicas, dentro del tubo circula un fluido caloportador el cual lleva el calor util hacia el proceso. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) desarrollo un prototipo de canal parabolico, actualmente estan operando en diferentes industrias, resultado de estas aplicaciones se llevo a cabo una evaluacion del prototipo, se detectaron algunos puntos de mejoras al diseno, los cuales se exponen en este articulo, dando

  14. Analysis and experimental study of rotatory Amaranth dryer prototype based on solar thermal energy; Analisis y estudio experimental de una secadora rotativa para granos de amaranto con aprovechamiento termico de la energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lema, A. I.; Adoro, J. A.; Fasulo, A. J.; Lara, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    The performance of a rotary Amaranth dryer prototype based on solar thermal energy is analysed in this work. Many experiments were made on this prototype in order to analyse the Amaranth seed behaviour under different drying conditions. By means of mass and energy balances, models were developed, which allow to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the rotary dryer. The thermal energy used in the drying process is provided by an air solar collector made of polyethylene and wood. The solar collector design is optimised in order to satisfy the heating requirements of the dryer, running simulations with a computational model previously developed. (Author)

  15. Hydro Solar 21- A building energetic demand providing system based on renewable energies and hydrogen; Hydro Solar 21- Energias renovables e hidrogeno para el abastecimiento energetico de un edificio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renilla Collado, R.; Ortega Izquierdo, M.

    2008-07-01

    Hydro Solar 21 is an energy innovation Project carried out in Burgos City to develop an energy production system based on renewable energies to satisfy light and air condition requirements of a restored building. Nocturnal light demand is satisfied with hydrogen consumption in fuel cells. This hydrogen is produced with an energy renewable system made up of two wind turbine generators and a photovoltaic system. The air conditioning demand is satisfied with an adsorption solar system which produces cold water using thermal solar energy. (Author) 8 refs.

  16. TRANSOL- Tool of energetical calculation for solar thermal system based in dynamic simulations of real models; Transol- Herramienta de calculo energetico para sistemas solares termicos basada en simulaciones dinamicas de modelos reales simplicados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salom, J.; Schweiger, H.; Gonzalez, D.; Gurruchaga, J.; Grau, J.

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, the implementation, in different cities of Spain, of Municipal Solar Ordinances, as well as the stimulus of the aids and subsidies from the different administrations, has caused a growing proliferation of the thermal solar systems. This expansion and diversification has not gone accompanied by a regulation and a more exhaustive methodology of calculation neither by new calculation tools that would permit to evaluate the behavior of this diversity of thermal systems. It is proposed a new tool, TRANSOL, a software of accessible calculation for the designer, any its technical qualification would be, based on dynamic simulations of simplified real models of the solar systems of greater currently applications. (Author)

  17. Diseño y desarrollo de un sistema automático para la síntesis de películas delgadas de ZnO utilizadas para la fabricación de celdas solares por el método de evaporación reactiva

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Botero, Asdrubal Antonio

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se contribuyó con la síntesis y optimización de las propiedades ópticas, eléctricas, morfológicas y estructurales de películas delgadas del compuesto Óxido de Zinc (ZnO) crecidas por el método de evaporación reactiva, para uso en celdas solares inorgánicas, celdas solares orgánicas con estructura invertida y celdas híbridas basadas en compuestos metal-orgánicos con estructura tipo perovskita. Se hizo énfasis en la obtención de condiciones que permitan crecer secuencialmen...

  18. Prospective of the photovoltaic solar technology for electricity generation (Annexe 7 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva de la tecnologia solar fotovoltaica para la generacion de electricidad (Anexo 7 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano Diaz, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The first experience where it was found the relationship between the light of the sun and its conversion to electricity was reported by the French physicist Edmund Bequerel in 1839, nevertheless the development of the modern photovoltaic cell, as it is known now, occurred until the middle of the last century in the Bell labs of the United States, that in year 1955 presented the first patent of photovoltaic silicon cells. The main elements of a photovoltaic system are: the photovoltaic cells, (some times referred to as solar cells), interconnected and encapsulated to form one photovoltaic module, the structure of assembly for the module or modules, the inversor (essential for systems connected to the network and for systems outside the network that require provision of alternating current), storage battery and a load controller (required solely for systems outside the network). [Spanish] La primera experiencia donde se encontro la relacion entre la luz del sol y su conversion a electricidad la reporto el fisico Frances Edmund Bequerel en 1839, sin embargo el desarrollo de la celda fotovoltaica moderna tal y como se conoce ahora, se dio hasta mediados del siglo pasado en los laboratorios Bell en los Estados Unidos, quienes en 1955 presentaron la primera patente de celdas fotovoltaicas de silicio. Los elementos principales de un sistema fotovoltaico son: las celdas fotovoltaicas, (algunas veces referidas como celdas solares), interconectadas y encapsuladas para formar un modulo fotovoltaico, la estructura de montaje para el modulo o modulos, el inversor (esencial para sistemas conectados a red y necesario para sistemas fuera de red que requieren suministro de corriente alterna), bateria de almacenamiento y un controlador de carga (requerido unicamente para sistemas fuera de red).

  19. Numerical simulation of the performance and economical study of three cookers: solar, hybrid (solar and natural gas) and a LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) cooker for one typical year in Fortaleza-Brazil; Simulacao numerica da performance e estudo da viabilidade economica de tres tipos de fogoes: solar, hibrido (solar e gas natural) e a GLP (Gas Liquefeito do Petroleo) para um ano em Fortaleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria Eugenia Vieira da; Santana, Lana Ludmila Pinheiro [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar e Gas Natural (LESGN); Schwarzer, Klemens [Universidade de Ciencias Aplicadas de Aachen (Germany). Solar Institute Juelich; Miller, Francisco Mateus [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Baratelli Junior, Fernando [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Gas e Energia

    2004-07-01

    Alternative energy sources can represent viable economical solutions for the energy supply problems and also minimize damages to the environment. This research paper presents an economical and technical study of three different types of cookers: a solar cooker, a hybrid cooker and a conventional LPG cooker, through simulation for one typical year in Fortaleza. The solar cooker used in the experiments is composed of two pots, an oven, a tank of storage and 2m{sup 2} of solar collector area. The hybrid cooker has the same structure of the solar one with an additional natural gas burner, and the LPG stove can be easily found in the market. To find the value of the necessary energy to make food in a solar cooker, the amount of solar radiation was measured, as well as the sensible and latent efficiencies of the used stove. In the hybrid, it was considered that the natural gas is used only in the periods of the day when the amount of solar energy is not enough to heat the system up to the desired temperature. The results show an economical and technical comparison of the three different types of cookers. (author)

  20. Aperfeiçoamento da produção de partículas de óxido de zinco para aplicação em células solares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. R. Maia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O óxido de zinco (ZnO nanoestruturado contém características físico-químicas de elevada importância para utilização em células solares. A padronização e regularidade das dimensões das partículas nanométricas é de difícil obtenção; fatores como natureza do ânion do sal precursor, temperatura de reação e quantidade de água podem interferir no tamanho das partículas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a influência das variáveis do processo de síntese das nanopartículas de ZnO, visando a aplicabilidade em células solares. Foi aplicado delineamento fatorial incompleto Box-Behnken (33, de acordo com o método de coprecipitação, para as três variáveis: concentração de Zn(NO32 (mol.L-1, temperatura do meio reacional (°C e tempo de reação (h. Para caracterização das partículas foram feitas medidas de espalhamento de luz, análise por difração de raios X, caracterização por espectroscopia Raman, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, aplicação do ZnO em célula solar com polímero (poli-3-hexiltiofeno - P3HT e medidas de fotocronoamperometria. A otimização resultou em uma concentração de Zn(NO32 igual a 0,05 mol.L-1, tempo de reação de 20 h e temperatura de 80 ºC, onde o menor valor para o tamanho de partícula de ZnO mostrado pelo modelo foi de 367 nm. As nanopartículas apresentaram cristalito com dimensões de 20 nm, cristalinidade de 82,4% e fase hexagonal do tipo wurtzita. As imagens de MEV mostraram três tipos diferentes de estruturas devido à variação de concentração do Zn(NO32. A amostra de ZnO370nm + P3HT + FTO apresentou valor de densidade de corrente (j de 3,86 mA.cm-2.

  1. Smart Grid y la energía solar fotovoltaica para la generación distribuida: unarevisión en el contexto energético mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Humberto Berrío

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La Red Inteligente, considerada la siguiente generación de la red eléctrica tradicional, tiene entre sus objetivos la integración de fuentes de energía renovables. Por su parte, la demanda energética actual obliga a buscar nuevas formas de generación de energía, entre las cuales las fuentes de energía renovable están teniendo gran acogida, ya que son formas alter - nativas de generación de energía diferentes a las fuentes convencionales y no contaminan el medio ambiente. De hecho, este estudio aborda el tema de las energías renovables, y hace especial énfasis en los sistemas fotovoltaicos, que son una tecnología promisoria para generar energía eléctrica a partir de la energía solar. Además se muestra el contexto actual y los escenarios futuros de la utilización de la energía solar en el mundo, tanto en la parte técnica como en el campo económico, regulatorio y social. Las políticas de Estado y las reducciones en los costos de las tecnologías determinarán qué tanto demorará la migración a las redes inteligentes. Los resultados de esta investigación muestran no solo la necesidad de un marco regulatorio en cuanto a generación distribuida a partir de energías renovables, sino cómo la energía solar fotovoltaica, potenciada dentro de las redes inteligentes, está siendo considerada una alternativa eficiente y económica para la generación de energía, utilizada cada vez más a nivel mundial.

  2. History of Portuguese section of ISES; A historia de asociead protuguesa de energia solar contribuicao da seccao portuguesa para a Historia da ISES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, J. F.; Carvalho, M. J.

    2004-07-01

    An overview is presented of the most relevant activities of SPES, the Portuguese section of ISES, during the last two decades. It has been a very intensive solar energy promotion activity, which used up to now almost all available tools, including realization and participation in Congresses, conferences, seminars and workshops, publication of a periodic magazine, newsletters, press releases, books, brochures, posters and other dissemination papers, participation in national and international projects for dissemination of solar energy applications, creation and maintenance of a web site, celebration of the SUNDAY and so on. Unfortunately this important set of activities has no direct correspondence with the Portuguese market for solar collectors, which did not grow accordingly. Reasons for this discrepancy, proposed measures to overcome it and perspectives for our section are also presented in this paper. (Author)

  3. Evaluación de la energía térmica solar para generación de electricidad mediante un sistema Stirling en Huancayo

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Cámac Núñez; Jacinto Arroyo Aliaga; Luis Astuhuaman Artica

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo fue determinar de qué manera influye la radiación solar en la generación de energía eléctrica en la ciudad de Huancayo, usando un sistema de generación eléctrica basado en un motor Stirling. Se describe las características de la energía solar en estas coordenadas del centro del Perú y las características de conversión de radiación solar en energía eléctrica. La investigación tuvo un diseño experimental, se implementó un sistema de generación eléctrica basado en el diseño de un col...

  4. Determination of the best operation point of a solar pumping systems user to water a crop; Determinacion del punto optimo de funcionamiento dinamico en equipos de bombeo solar utilizados para riegos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadros, E.; Silos, I.; Marcos, A.; Lopez-Rodriguez, F.

    2004-07-01

    In this article it is estimated the best operation point of a solar pumping system used to water a crop. This point depends on 1) the climate characteristic of the zone, 2) the watering demands of the crop and, 3) the characteristic of the solar pumping system, like flow-area-height-frequency of the inversor-variator. In this work are analyzed and commented the results obtained from the group of pressure/height curves of a 1 HP pump powered by a 1.100 W photovoltaic system according to the frequency of the inversor /variator, during the summer time. (Author)

  5. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    This work analyses results obtained in a solar physics course for high school students promoted at the Dietrich Schiel Observatory of the University of São Paulo (USP). The course was elaborated by the authors with the intention of investigating student's concepts about the Sun, teaching topics of modern physics related to the Sun and providing students with knowledge about our star as well. The methodology of data gathering consisted of audio and video records of classes and of semi-structured interviews, and analysis of answers to written questionnaires. The results showed that most high school students conceived the Sun as made of fire, while sunspots were thought to be holes in the Sun. Even though some students did know that a spectrum is formed using a prism or diffraction grating, most of them ignored the nature of the observed spectral lines. Through the course, this topic was developed by means of a practical approach with solar and lamp spectra observations. The results obtained in the course point to the importance of science centers as partners in formal education. In this specific case, the Solar Room at the Dietrich Schiel Observatory is as a favorable environment for teaching modern physics in high school. Este artículo analiza los resultados obtenidos en un curso sobre la física solar, auspiciado por el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel de la USP para estudiantes de las escuelas secundarias. El curso fue diseñado por los autores con la intención de investigar las concepciones sobre el sol, enseñar temas relacionados con la física moderna del Sol y conocimientos generales sobre el astro rey. La metodología utilizada para la recolección de datos consistió en grabar, en audio y video, las clases, las entrevistas semi-estructuradas y las respuestas a los cuestionarios escritos. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de los participantes conciben el Sol como constituido por fuego y las manchas solares en la superficie solar como agujeros. Aunque

  6. Diseño e implementación de un sistema de adquisición de datos para medir potencia solar local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Alexander Jiménez Herrera

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo versa sobre la medición de las componentes directa, difusa y global de la radiación solar, a través de piranómetros, con el debido acondicionamiento de las señales y digitalización de las mismas en el microprocesador HCS12. El almacenamiento de los datos se efectúa mediante memorias I2C, logrando una capacidad de captura de 13 días aproximadamente, almacenando tres datos por minuto durante el "día Solar". Además de contar, con una interfaz de visualización y comunicación serial constituida por un PC, un LCD y un teclado, con el cual permite modificar los parámetros del sistema. / The present work deals with the measurement of the direct, global and diffuse components of the solar radiation, through pyranometers, with the signs adaptation right and the digitalization of them in the microprocessor HCS12. The data storage is effected through memories I2C, achieving a capture capacity of 13 days approximately, storing 3 data by minute during the "solar day". Besides, it counts with a visualization and serial communication interface constituted by a PC, a LCD and a keyboard with which it allows modifying the system parameters.

  7. Comportamento de variáveis climáticas em sistemas de ventilação mínima para produção de pintos de corte Behavior of environmental variables on minimum ventilation systems for the production of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Menegali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante o processo de criação de frangos de corte a fase inicial ou fase de aquecimento se caracteriza por ser este o período mais delicado devido à imaturidade fisiológica das aves. Desta forma, os fatores ambientais se destacam por inferir, de forma direta, no crescimento, no desempenho zootécnico e na mantança da vida desses animais. Objetivou-se, com base nessas considerações estudar, com este trabalho, o efeito de três diferentes sistemas de ventilação mínima (por pressão positiva, negativa e natural sobre as variáveis ambientais (temperatura do ar, umidade relativa e velocidade do ar de galpões de frangos de corte, durante a fase de aquecimento. De acordo com os resultados verificou-se que o sistema de aquecimento utilizado não foi satisfatório para manter a temperatura do ar e a umidade relativa dentro de padrões considerados adequados, expondo as aves, assim, a períodos de estresse térmico por frio. Em contrapartida, não ocorreram influências negativas em relação às taxas de ventilação aplicadas para os dois sistemas de ventilação positiva e negativa. A velocidade do ar também se manteve em níveis considerados não estressores para as aves, no período de aquecimento.During the creation process of poultry, the initial or heating phase, is characterized as the most delicate period due to physiological immaturity of the birds. Thus, environmental factors stand out to infer, directly, in the growth, on the performance and maintenance of life of these animals. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to study the effect of three different systems of minimum ventilation (positive pressure, negative and natural on environmental variables (air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity of broiler sheds during the heating phase. According to results obtained, it was verified that the heating system used was inadequate to maintain the air temperature and relative humidity within the standards

  8. Analysis of the feasibility of solar heating systems composite for packaging recyclable for use in rural low income; Analise da viabilidade economica de sistemas de aquecedores solares compostos por embalagens reciclaveis para utilizacao em comunidades rurais de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida; Maiochi, Tamara; Pereira, Danilo F.; Magalhaes, Marcelo M. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil)], email: gabrielfilho@tupa.unesp.br; Cremasco, Camila P. [Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioestatistica

    2011-07-01

    Solar heaters are an appropriate technology for tropical and sub tropical to warm bath water through the energy in sunlight. The development of conventional solar heaters is in the market and its acceptance is still low due to high cost. However, low-cost solar heaters have been developed in recent years to meet a consumer demand that currently do not have access to this technology, especially low-income rural communities. The aim of this study was to analyze the economic feasibility of solar water heaters built with recyclable materials (plastic bottles and milk cartons) through the consequent reduction of sales of electricity. For development work, a heater was built with recyclable materials in accordance with the manuals provided by the Department of the Environment of Parana (SEMA) and found time to use electric showers by families of rural properties in order to determine the costs and billing of electricity. By spending on materials, we concluded that the system was feasible, with amortization over 13 months in fixed installments of R$ 23.79. (author)

  9. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. Estudo do crescimento de nanofitas de céria dopada com gadolínio por sistema de aquecimento por micro-ondas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Gonçalves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O óxido de cério (céria tem atraído atenção devido às suas importantes aplicações, como em células a combustível de óxido sólido, catalisadores de gases de exaustão de automóveis, catalisadores para a obtenção de hidrogênio, bloqueadores de raios ultravioleta, biomateriais, entre outros. Controlar os métodos de síntese da céria é de grande importância para explicar ou prever essas propriedades. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o crescimento de nanofitas de óxido de cério em um sistema hidrotérmico assistido por micro-ondas, no qual 8 min foram obtidas nanofitas com comprimentos próximos a 330 nm, em 130 ºC e pressão de 3 atm. Os resultados colaboram para pesquisas em reformadores para obtenção de etanol e/ou anodos de células combustíveis de óxido sólido.

  14. Síntese e caracterização de filmes de óxidos metálicos nanoparticulados para aplicação em células solares sensibilizadas por corante (DSCs)

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Leonardo Ferreira de

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram preparados filmes finos e compactos de óxidos nanoparticulados de TiO2, Nb2O5 e WO3 para a aplicação como camada de contato/bloqueio em células solares sensibilizadas por corante (DSCs). Os filmes foram produzidos pela deposição de 30 bicamadas de TiO2(ác)/TiO2(bás), TiO2(ác/Nb2O5(bás) e TiO2(ác)/WO3(bás) utilizando a técnica de automontagem (Layer-by-Layer ou LbL), a partir dos sóis nanoparticulados de TiO2 (pH = 2 e 10), Nb2O5 (pH = 10) e WO3 (pH = 10) sintetizados pelo...

  15. Conformado macroscópico de óxidos metálicos para su aplicación en reactores solares de producción de hidrógeno

    OpenAIRE

    García Benito, Inés

    2011-01-01

    Proyecto Fin de Carrera leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2010/2011. Directores del Proyecto: Juan Ángel Botas Echevarría y Raúl Molina Gil Colaborador: Carolina Herradón Hernández Esta memoria, recoge la labor realizada durante el Proyecto Fin de Carrera titulado ¿Conformado macroscópico de óxidos metálicos para su aplicación en reactores solares de producción de hidrógeno¿ que se engloba dentro de una de las líneas de investigación desarrollada por el Grupo...

  16. Diseño y Evaluación de Experimentos para el Aprovechamiento de la Energía Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarte Berrio, Jorge Guillermo

    1980-01-01

    La presente tesis consta de cuatro capítulos, relativos al aprovechamiento de la energía solar. En la Introducción, partiendo de la premisa de que el petróleo está en vías de extinción se muestra como alternativa de solución el uso de la energía solar. En el segundo capítulo, se diseñan y evalúan trece experimentos diversos, relacionados con la energía proporcionada por el sol. Los primeros experimentos son relativos al movimiento aparente del sol. Después se determina la in...

  17. CÉLULAS SOLARES SENSIBILIZADAS POR CORANTES NATURAIS: UM EXPERIMENTO INTRODUTÓRIO SOBRE ENERGIA RENOVÁVEL PARA ALUNOS DE GRADUAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela G. Sonai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An interesting practical experiment about the preparation of dye–sensitized solar cells (DSSC using natural dyes were carried out by the undergraduate students in the chemistry course at UNICAMP . Natural dyes were extracted from blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L., jabuticabas (Myrciaria cauliflora, raw and cooked beets (Beta vulgaris L., and annattos (Bixa orellana L., which were used to sensitize TiO2 films that composed the photoanode in the DSSC. A polymer electrolyte containing an iodide/triiodide redox couple was used in lieu of the use of liquid solutions to prevent any leakage in the devices. A maximum solar-to-electric energy conversion of 0.26 ± 0.02% was obtained for the solar cell prepared with annatto extracts. This experiment was an effective way to illustrate to the undergraduate students how to apply some of the chemical concepts that they learned during their chemistry course to produce electric energy from a clean and renewable energy source. Teachers could also exploit the basics of the electronic transitions in inorganic and organic compounds (e.g., metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ϖ-ϖ* transitions, thermodynamics (e.g., Gibbs free energy, acid–base reactions in the oxide solid surface and electrolyte, and band theory (i.e., the importance of the Fermi level energy.

  18. Decosol Project : development of solar plate collectors of high efficiency and low cost for medium temperature application; Proyecto Decosol: Desarrollo de colectores solares planos de alta eficiencia ybajo coste para aplicaciones a mediana temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadafalch, J.; Oliva, A.; Lavandeira, J. C.; Maestre, F.; Martinez, J. C.; Martin, J. R.; Hermo, R.

    2004-07-01

    Work that is currently being carried out by the authors in the framework of the project DECOSOL (Development of high efficiency and low cost flat plate collectors for medium temperature applications) is described in this paper. The goal of DECOSOL is to consolidate the results of previous R AND D projects conducted by the authors on the development of stagnation proof transparently insulated flat plate solar collectors prototypes, in order to end up with commercial products. (Author)

  19. A hydrogen-solar energy model for the Brazil: energy demand forecasting and economical aspects; Um modelo a hidrogenio-solar para o Brasil: projecoes de demanda de energia e aspectos economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel N.M. de [Univesidade Estadual de Campins (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia; Lima, Lutero C. de; Mendes, Nathan [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1994-07-01

    This study proposes the introduction of hydrogen-solar renewable and clean fuel for replacing the present fossil fuels. The hydrogen can be produced by electric energy from using photovoltaic cells. The Brazil can be considered a suitable country for this system due to the high insulation in various areas of the country. Forecast for total energy demand, fossil energy, hydrogen prices and total cost of the project is performed by using mathematical modelling.

  20. Solar drying system for tropical fruits and a model for drying bananas in a static column dryer; Sistema de secagem solar para frutos tropicais e modelagem da secagem de banana em um secador de coluna estatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Antonio Raimundo da Silva

    2008-01-15

    An electric solar dryer consisting of a solar collector, a drying chamber, an exhaust fan and a fan to promote forced hot air convection were projected, built and tested . Banana drying experiments were also carried out in a static column dryer to model the drying and to obtain parameters that can be used as a first approximation in the modeling of an electric solar dryer, depending on the similarity of the experimental conditions between the two drying systems. From the banana drying experiments conducted in the static column dryer, we obtained food weight data as a function of aqueous concentration and temperature. Simplified mathematical models of the banana drying were made, based on Fick's and Fourier's second equations, which were tested with the experimental data. We determined and/or modeled parameters such as banana moisture content, density, thin layer drying curves, equilibrium moisture content, molecular diffusivity of the water in banana D{sub AB}, extemal mass transfer coefficient k{sub M}, specific heat C{sub p}, thermal conductivity k, latent heat of water evaporation in the food L{sub food}, time to heat food, and minimum energy and power required to heat the food and evaporate the water. When we considered the shrinkage of radius R of a banana, the calculated values of D{sub AB} and k{sub M} generally better represent the phenomenon of water diffusion in a solid. The latent heat of water evaporation in the food L{sub food} calculated by modeling is higher than the latent heat of pure water evaporation L{sub water}. The values calculated for D{sub AB} and K{sub M} that best represent the drying were obtained with the analytical model of the present paper. These values had good agreement with those assessed with a numeric model described in the literature, in which convective boundary condition and food shrinkage are considered. Using parameters such as C{sub p}, D{sub AB}, k, k{sub M} and L{sub food}, one can elaborate the preliminary

  1. Métodos para avaliação das emissões de gases do efeito estufa no sistema solo-atmosfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Falberni de Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A escolha do método para avaliar as emissões de gases do efeito estufa (GEE é uma etapa importante para o conhecimento e/ou desenvolvimento de práticas agrícolas com potencial de mitigação do aquecimento global. A presente revisão tem por objetivo apresentar vantagens e limitações de métodos utilizados para quantificação dos fluxos de dióxido de carbono (CO2, metano (CH4 e óxido nitroso (N2O no sistema solo-atmosfera. O balanço dos estoques de C orgânico no solo em sistemas conservacionistas de manejo permite avaliar o influxo líquido anual de C-CO2 atmosférico no solo em comparação a sistemas de manejo convencional. Maior sensibilidade na determinação direta das emissões de CO2 in situ pode ser obtida pelo uso de câmaras sobre o solo. Nesse caso, podem ser determinadas taxas diárias com o método da captura do CO2 em solução alcalina e quantificação por titulação, e taxas horárias com o uso de analisadores automáticos de infravermelho ou cromatógrafos a gás. Pelo uso de cromatografia, é possível também a avaliação das emissões de N2O e CH4 os quais apresentam, respectivamente, potencial de aquecimento global 296 e 23 vezes superior ao do CO2. A análise dos três GEE é necessária quando se objetiva avaliar o potencial de um dado sistema de manejo na mitigação do aquecimento global, o qual pode ser expresso em C equivalente.

  2. Sistemas ópticos para concentración, captación y guiado de radiación solar

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Como objetivo general de esta tesis se propone el estudio de sistemas ópticos no formadores de imagen -óptica anidólica- para la concentración, captación o guiado de radiación. Este objetivo se aborda desde perspectivas tanto teóricas como précticas. Desde el punto de vista teórico se proponen métodos de diseño basados en la teoría de campo para el cálculo de sistemas concentradores y/o captadores de luz en tres dimensiones (3D). Como premisa de partida se propone el uso del análisis ve...

  3. La Cocina Solar, su Conceptualización, Diseño y Construcción a Bajo Costo para la Zona Rural del Valle de Toluca

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Omar Fernando

    2013-01-01

    La población mundial crece de manera acelerada, actualmente somos más de 7 mil millones de seres humanos poblando el planeta. Este crecimiento poblacional demanda recursos materiales y energéticos de manera exponencial. Indicadores tales como la huella ecológica por ejemplo, permiten tener un parámetro de comparación acerca del impacto que nuestro ritmo actual de consumo de recursos representa para el planeta. Por ejemplo, si las condiciones ...

  4. Polycrystalline materials by chemical-bath-deposition for their application in thin film solar cells; Materiales policristalino depositados por bano quimico alternativos al sulfuro de cadmio para su aplicacion en celulas solares de lamina delgada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayon Cabeza, M. R. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In the last years, chemical-bath-deposition (CBD) has been proven to be an excellent method for preparing sulphide and selenide-based thin film semiconductors. due to their optoelectronic properties, some of those materials can be used in thin film solar cells either as absorbers or as buffer-window-layers. In this way, the chemical-bath-deposition seems to be the best method for preparing the cadmium sulphide-buffer layer which is present in the thin film solar cells based on chalcopyrite absorbers (CIS or CIGS) because the highest efficiencies (about 19%) have been achieved for devices using buffer layer. Nowadays there has been considerable interest in replacing this compound, said toxic, by other CBD-semiconductors with similar or even better properties than the cadmium sulphide and, if possible, less health hazardous and more environmental friendly. Among all the alternative materials that have been studied, both the indium and the zinc hydroxisulphide have produced the best performance devices leading to efficiencies higher than 14%. Despite the good results obtained using those materials, only a few studies have been found in relation to the chemical bath process, the growth mechanism and the structural, optoelectronic and morphological properties of the thin films. Therefore the aim of this work is to prepare CBD-indium, indium-zinc and indium-cadmium hydroxisulphide thin films in order to study dependence of the film properties on the deposition conditions and to prove the suitability of those films for being used as alternative buffer layers in thin film solar cells. (Author)

  5. System for electric power generation with photovoltaic solar modules for charging the batteries of an electric wheelchair; Sistema de geracao de energia eletrica com modulos solares fotovoltaicos para o carregamento de baterias de uma cadeira de rodas eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Rafael Pimenta; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratinguta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: pimentamesquita@gmail.com, teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy is all kind of energy produced from a natural source that not diminish because its utilization is 'renewable'. More and more renewable energy resources are used, because they offer multiple advantages such as the energy output facility in small scale and because they are entirely compatible with the environment. The renewable energy used in this project is the photovoltaic solar energy, obtained by the direct conversion of the solar energy in electric energy through the use of solar cells, that can be of several kinds, being the most common of silicon. The main advantage of photovoltaic system is the generation of clean electric energy, or either, generates energy without emitting pollutant and without destroying the environment, moreover is an inexhaustible source of energy. The main disadvantage is, nowadays, the high cost and its low efficiency, so to continue developing it is necessary establish capable mechanisms to make it possible. The search of these mechanisms of incentive becomes-itself a lot important, because the renewable energy and not conventional do not produce a financial return to the investor properly said, but brings lots of benefits to the community, the society and to the environment. This project has the purpose of create an electric energy generation system through solar photovoltaic modules to carry batteries of a motorized wheelchair. An electric wheelchair is moved by electric motors of direct current that are feed by batteries, permitting a medium autonomy of 10 km by load. The batteries are recharged by a battery supplier. This operation should be carried out daily in a space of 6 to 8 hours. According to the Demographic Census realized in 2000 carried out by the IBGE, Brazil has around 1.416.060 physical deficient, which 861.196 are men and 554.864 are women. From a request of a user of electric wheelchair the idea of this project was shown up. The user complained that he stayed a long time carrying his seat

  6. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  7. DISEÑO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN TEÓRICA DE MATERIALES FOTOACTIVOS EFICIENTES BASADOS EN DERIVADOS DE NAFTOPIRROL Y DE NAFTOTIOFENO PARA CELDAS SOLARES ORGÁNICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J. Cuadro

    Full Text Available In this research we have designed electron donors D-π-A type containing two different π fragments to obtain naphthopyrrole (D-NPR-A and naphthotiophene (D-NTP-A derivatives, proposed for the use in organic bulk hetero-junction (BHJ solar cells (OSCs. These derivatives were characterized by DFT and TD-DFT calculations. For all the electron donors the anchorage fragment was 2-methylenemalononitrile, while the chromophore fragment was spanned between diphenylamine, triphenylamine, thiophene. Properties affecting open-circuit photovoltage (VOC and short-circuit photocurrent (JSC from D-π-A type derivatives, such as geometric structure, frontier-molecular orbital energies, exciton driving force energy, natural bond orbital analysis, absorption spectra and light harvesting efficiency. Energy from HOMO and LUMO orbitals was discussed. Theoretical calculations from TD-DFT within Coulumb attenuation method CAM-B3LYP were able to predict excited state properties. The electron donors D-π-A type exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency above 10%, being the naphthopyrrole derivatives (D-NPR-A along with the [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM the complexes with higher photoelectric properties, these complexes are proposed as photoactive materials in the construction of organic bulk hetero-junction solar cells.

  8. Solares... qué lugares tan gratos para conversar. Apuntes sobre la rehabilitación relacional en el barrio de las Adelfas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Casadevante, José Luis; Ramos, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    La palabra ilusión tiene distintas acepciones, por un lado encontramos su vinculación con la esperanza de que algo se haga realidad, y por otro, la vemos como una mera representación sin realidad detrás, como un holograma. Aprender a poner en juego tanto los anhelos, deseos y esperanzas, como las distintas representaciones que constituyen lo que llamamos realidad, es el saber necesario para arriesgarse a practicar el ilusionismo.El ilusionismo trata de hacernos creer que algo imposible está s...

  9. Producción de hidrógeno on-site para automoción a partir de energía solar fotovoltaica

    OpenAIRE

    MARGAIX PIQUER, VICENTE

    2016-01-01

    Estudiar la viabilidad de suministrar hidrógeno en la red actual de gasolineras, en la primera fase de introducción del vehículo con pila de combustible alimentada con este gas. Demostrar que se puede producir hidrógeno en las actuales gasolineras, “in situ”, a un precio lo suficientemente competitivo. Desarrollar un proyecto de instalación de una pequeña central fotovoltaica con seguimiento a dos ejes, adaptable a cualquier gasolinera, que genere la suficiente electricidad para alimentar un...

  10. Índice de reflectancia solar de revestimientos verticales: potencial para la mitigación de la isla de calor urbana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La condición artificial del medio urbano modifica el consumo de energía y el confort térmico. El incremento de las temperaturas de una ciudad en relación a las áreas periféricas conduce a la formación de una Isla de Calor Urbana. Es por ello, que trabajar sobre las propiedades termofísicas de los materiales (techos, pavimentos y fachadas) es una estrategia de mitigación viable para disminuir las temperaturas de una ciudad. El objetivo principal de éste trabajo es estudiar la capacidad de 80 r...

  11. Utilization of solar electric fence for containment of caprine in familiar production of the Pernambuco semi-arid region; Utilizacao de cerca eletrica solar para confinamento de caprinos na producao familiar do semi-arido pernambucano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Heitor Scalambrini; Costa Neto, Guilherme [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Apoio a Projetos de Energias Renovaveis], Email: naper@ufpe.br; Araujo, Kassia; Silva, Gerson Flavio da; Raquel, Karine [ONG NAPER SOLAR, Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Projetos], Email: nsolar@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The Center for Studies and Projects - Naper Solar is an NGO, which works for the dissemination of use of alternative energies resources in the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast in collaboration with the Federal University of Pernambuco. It has implemented caprine raising systems in the back lands of Pajeu in the State of Pernambuco making use of electrified fences energized by solar energy.This project was executed in a joint effort with the City Halls of Afogados da Ingazeira e Sao Jose do Egito and the NGOs Diaconia and the Northeast Woman House and has benefited 20 families of farmers from 9 rural communities. It is funded by a Technical Cooperation Program established between the National Fund for the Environment - Ministry for the Environment and the Netherlands Government. The implemented system, in opposition to the traditional extensive production system, allow for a more animal sanitary control - minimizing the risks of contamination; a more controlled and balanced feeding system - taking into account the weight gaining factor together with pasture management, leading the a guarantee of food supply for the animals. Other advantages of this system include the reduction of fence cost and less deforesting. Electrical fences used in the contention of caprine are built with only 4 straight wires, fixed with isolators on wood posts spaced 10 m from each other, while the conventional fences use 9 barbed-wire lines fixed with clamps on posts spaced 1 m from each other. Therefore, the use of electrical fences instead of the conventional one represent a cost reduction, which can go as high as 40 % of the total cost. Besides that the electrical fences have low maintenance cost, easier and faster installation and relocation. The fenced areas vary from 0.5 ha to 4 ha for the raising of 5 to 50 animals. In the electrification of a fence one needs one photovoltaic module, one electrifier, a battery, isolators (passage and corner), electric ground rods and a thunderbolt

  12. Development of new strategies based on solar photocatalysis for water regeneration in an agro-food industry; Desarrollo de nuevas estrategias basadas en fotocatalisis solar para la regeneracion de aguas de una industria agro-alimentaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Tototzintie, M.

    2015-07-01

    Continuous discharge of effluents coming from the agro-food industry could significantly increase contamination of water resources (both surface water and groundwater). This is mainly due to the presence of many xenobiotic compounds used for increased productivity or for pre- and post- harvest preservation of the fruits and vegetables used in the industry. In 2013, the European Unión Council Directive 2013/39/UE proposed identifying the main causes of water pollution in order to treat contaminant discharge at the source in a sustainable way and without harming the environment. In this context, conventional biological process do not always provide satisfactory results, especially for industrial wastewater treatment, since many of the organic substances are toxic or resistant to biological treatment. Today, biological processes combined with photoassisted advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have shown a great potential for treating different kinds of industrial wastewaters. The AOPs have been widely proposed as a highly efficient alternative for tertiary treatments in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants due to their versatility and ability to remove recalcitrant pollutants. AOPs are characterized by the production of hydroxyl radicals (OH) able to oxidize and mineralize almost any organic molecule, yielding CO2 and inorganic ions. The attention of researchers has been focused on AOPs that can be driven by solar radiation to avoid the high operating costs of UV lamps. Heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 has been suggested for the elimination of several types of contaminants in water due to its beneficial characteristics, including physical and chemical stability, low cost and toxicity, and excellent optical properties. However, as TiO2 is used as slurry in water, it must be removed before water disposal. Recuperating the photocatalyst is a complex process and as a result of this, research in different immobilization techniques in various types of

  13. Obtainment of TiO{sub 2} powders solar cells photo electrodes dye sensitized; Obtencao de pos de TiO{sub 2} para fotoeletrodos de celulas solares sensibilizados por corante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbeck, Guilherme; Folgueras, Marilena V., E-mail: guilhermeforbeck@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (PGCE/UDESC), SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Chinelatto, Adilson L. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Programa de Mestrado em Engenharia e Ciencia dos Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Titanium dioxide in its polymorphic anatase phase, presents interesting properties for solar cells photo electrodes dye sensitized such as the forbidden energy band, high refractive index and high constant dielectric. In this study, powders of nanometric titanium dioxide were produced with predominantly the anatase phase and high surface area. We used the sol-gel method, and titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor, which was hydrolyzed in nitric acid solution. The obtained powder was heated to 450 ° C, varying the time for each lot (0, 20 or 120 minutes). The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and surface area analysis. For all lots nanosized crystallites predominated. It was observed that in the batch with 120min heating an increase rutile content. The TiO{sub 2} with 20min heating showed high surface area, greater than that of TiO{sub 2} as taken reference.

  14. Application for solar thermal facilities evaluation in Asturias (A.V.I.S.T.A); Aplicacion para valoracion de instalaciones solares termica en Asturias (A.V.I.S.T.A.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, J. L.; Aguilera, J. C.; Garcia, D.

    2004-07-01

    The Fundacion Asturiana de la Energia, with the grant of the Consejeria de Industria y Empleo del Principado de Asturias, has recently promoted a software tool to evaluate domestic hot water installations that use solar energy in Asturias. The application is based on numerical simulation methods, thus it provides a knowledge on the influence of several performance parameters, which is interesting not only for tasks of designing but also from the viewpoint of installation controlling. It essentially consists of one utility for preliminary designing, where most parameters are prefixed, and another one for analysing, where the parameters can be modified either to optimize designs or to study existing installations. Complementary utilities are provided for shadow analysing by means of stereographic projection, as well as for preliminary studies of economic feasibility. (Author)

  15. Methodology Einstein for energy audit and design of solar heat systems in industrial processes; Metodologia Einstein para auditoria energetica y diseno de sistemas de calor solar en procesos industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweiger, H.; Vannoni, C.; Danov, S.; Facci, E.

    2008-07-01

    Estimates show that 57% of the total industrial heat demand in EU countries is required at low (up to 100 degree centigrade) and medium temperature (up to 400 degree centigrade). An important part of this thermal energy demand can be covered by solar thermal energy. In the framework of the European project EINSTEIN (Expert-system for an Intelligent Supply of Thermal Energy in Industry), an expert system is being developed, where process optimisation, heat recovery, intelligent cold supply and renewable energy are integrated into a holistic energy audit methodology with the objective of reducing energy consumption in the industrial sector. EINSTEIN is being developed as a free and open source software project. (Author)

  16. Sinergia da radiação ionizante e do aquecimento na vida de prateleira da uva ?Itália?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domarco Rachel Elisabeth

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de uva cv. Itália, aquecida e irradiada com diferentes doses de radiação ionizante, foi estudado através de análises químicas (teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e pH e análise sensorial (aparência e firmeza. Para o experimento, foram utilizados aproximadamente 500g de uva por amostra e 4 repetições por tratamento. Uma parte foi aquecida por imersão em água (50°C por 5 minutos, antes da irradiação, outra parte foi irradiada à temperatura ambiente (22-25°C. Para a irradiação, utilizou-se uma fonte de Cobalto-60, tipo Gammabeam-650, a uma taxa de dose de 1,89 kGy/h. As doses utilizadas foram, 0 (controle, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 kGy. Após a irradiação as amostras foram acondicionadas em caixas de papelão e armazenadas sob temperatura de refrigeração (6°C - 8°C. As análises químicas e sensorial foram realizadas após 60 dias de armazenamento. Observou-se um aumento na acidez titulável e no pH, em função das doses de radiação. O teor de sólidos solúveis e a relação sólidos solúveis/acidez titulável foram maiores nas amostras aquecidas. O tratamento térmico e a radiação gama, isolados ou combinados, não promoveram o aumento de vida de prateleira de uva Itália.

  17. Diseño multiobjetivo de un sistema híbrido eólico-solar con baterías para zonas no interconectadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Castillo Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar and wind power are the two major natural sources of intermittent power in the world. The combination of these sources has proved to be a suitable combination to maximize system reliability. A chronological methodology based on Hongxing and Diaf techniques for optimal sizing of a Photovoltaic Wind Hybrid System (HPWS (using batteries for energy storage is presented. Accordingly, the purpose of this work is to help to promote the hybrid power system concept through a fully theoretical point of view. The model can be used to optimize the system configuration, minimizing Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP and Annualized Cost of the System (ACS. The proposed methodology was used to design an isolated HPWS that meets the energy demand of 49 users at Ishiruwo settlement (located in the municipality of Uribia, State of La Guajira - Colombia. Results show that there is an inversely proportional behavior between the two objectives under evaluation. Likewise, the chosen solution with low cost and high reliability suggests that it is better to use a fully Photovoltaic System (PV, since wind-turbine cost is very high. Finally, it is clear that the cost of isolated systems has begun to gain importance due to its competitiveness when compared to other types of generation such as diesel, although more than 50% of its value lies in batteries and other components.

  18. Analysis of sodium experimental circuits pre-heating for the development of nuclear reactors; Analise do pre-aquecimento de circuitos experimentais a sodio para desenvolvimento de reatores nuclares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, Ione Walmir

    1995-09-01

    To satisfy the experimental requirements of sodium loops for nuclear reactors development, a preheating system, consisting of tubular haters, is analyzed. The tubular heaters are usually comprised of a nickel-chromium wire centered in a metal sheath and insulated by magnesium oxide. Practical and simplified methods for the preheating parameters calculations and for the heaters elements determination and section are presented. A thermal method to evaluate the sodium mass in a tank is presented, using the preheating system, when the tank geometry or the sodium level are unknown. The materials employed and the installation procedures of the preheating system are indicated. It is described a procedure, step, to make the connection between the electrical resistance and the conductor wire, to assure the heat dissipation and the air-tight of the heater element. Several suggestions are presented to clarify some doubts, to define correction factors, to develop technology, and to give continuity to the present work. (author). 37 refs., 22 figs.

  19. Using of gas for water heating at buildings - study on technical and economical viability; Utilizacao de gas para aquecimento de agua em instalacoes prediais - estudo de viabilidade tecnica e economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossa, Alberto Jose [MDJ Assessoria e Engenharia Consultiva, Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: afossa@mdj.com.br; Chaguri, Jose Jorge [Caltherm Sistemas de Aquecimento, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jchaguri@caltherm.com.br; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mail: edsantos@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The recent discovery of significant Brazilian's natural gas reserves has been opened a discussion concerning public procedures in order to incentive development of gas industry thru delivery of this energetic to the end consumer. Concerning this figure, a significant quantity of uses has been questioned related economical viability. This paper comes to analyze the possibility to change electrical energy for natural gas on heating water systems used on residential installations. Concerns about economical impact of alternative adopted on locals where public regulations are been established to incentive natural gas end uses. (author)

  20. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  1. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  2. Soja integral processada de diferentes formas para uso em dietas para suínos em crescimento e terminação Whole soybean processed with different forms for use in diets of growing-finishing swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques Ludke

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o tipo de processamento de soja integral a ser usada na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação. Foram utilizados 60 suínos, machos castrados e fêmeas, com peso médio inicial de 25,0 kg e idade média de 70 dias, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos, cada um com 12 repetições, seis para cada sexo. A unidade experimental foi constituída de um animal alojado em baia individual. As dietas experimentais foram isonutritivas e formuladas à base de milho e farelo de soja, com 8% de soja, de acordo com cada tipo de processamento da soja. Foram avaliadas cinco dietas: soja 1 - dieta com 8% de soja desativada em reator por aquecimento a vapor e sob pressão; soja 2 - dieta com 8% de soja desativada com aquecimento por perdas dielétricas, após umidificação dos grãos e passagem por câmara com microondas; soja 3 - similar à soja 1, porém, com soja desativada em reator de outra marca; soja 4 - dieta com soja extrusada a seco, de modo que os grãos eram direcionados para um canhão com helicóides e cones dispostos para provocar aquecimento por atrito e pressão; e soja 5 - dieta com soja extrusada a seco com prensagem para retirada de parte do óleo. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, as características de carcaça e a rentabilidade econômica do processamento. A soja extrusada a seco com prensagem para retirada do óleo foi a que proporcionou melhor resultado e foi mais economicamente viável, uma vez que não influenciou o desempenho dos animais.An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the type of whole soybean processing to be used in the feeding of growing-finishing swine. Sixty pigs, gilts and barrows, with initial average weight of 24.96 kg and age of 70 days, were distributed to a complete randomized block design, with five treatments, each one with 12 replicates, and six per each sex. The experimental unit was

  3. Uma nova metodologia para dimensionamento de sistemas híbridos de energia (solar-eólica utilizando ferramentas de simulação e otimização - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v27i1.1506

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Camargo Nogueira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma nova metodologia para dimensionamento de sistemas híbridos de energia (solar-eólica com armazenamento em banco de baterias, utilizando ferramentas de simulação e otimização. O modelo desenvolvido é útil para a energização de áreas rurais isoladas e resulta num sistema com custo mínimo e alta confiabilidade, baseado no conceito de perda de fornecimento de energia à carga (LPSP aplicado para horas consecutivas. Alguns cenários são calculados e comparados, utilizando-se diferentes períodos de horas consecutivas e diferentes valores de LPSP. Os resultados apresentam um dimensionamento completo do sistema e uma avaliação de custos ao longo de vários anos

  4. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  5. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES pH DO MEIO DE AQUECIMENTO NA RESISTÊNCIA TÉRMICA DE Neosartorya fischeri ISOLADO DO PROCESSO PRODUTIVO DE NÉCTAR DE MAÇÃ INFLUENCE OF DISTINCT PH VALUES IN THE THERMAL RESISTANCE OF NEOSARTORYA FISCHERI ISOLATED FROM APPLE NECTAR PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. M. SALOMÃ?O

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    A resistência térmica de ascósporos de N. fischeri, isolados do concentrado de maçã, foi verificada utilizando-se tubos TDT (Thermal Death Time selados, e suco de maçã, a diferentes pHs, como meio de aquecimento. As curvas obtidas a 80, 85 e 90°C mostraram um “ombro” inicial evidenciando comportamento de morte não logarítmica. Assim, o cálculo dos parâmetros cinéticos foi realizado através da linearização das mesmas. Os valores de “1/k” obtidos em pH 2,5 foram 81,3; 16,0 e 0,9 minutos para 80, 85 e 90°C, respectivamente; em pH 3,5 foram de 153,8; 22,0 e 1,0 minutos e em pH 4,5 foram de 312,5; 38,6 e 2,2 minutos, para as mesmas respectivas temperaturas. O valor de Z* (equivalente a Z foi 5,0°C a pH 2,5 e o mesmo valor (4,6°C foi encontrado em pH 3,5 e 4,5. Os valores de esterilização F(95°C nos pHs 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 foram respectivamente 44,6; 36,8, e 77,0 segundos, considerando-se a redução da população inicial em 6 ciclos logarítmicos. Como o tratamento térmico comercial normalmente aplicado ao suco de maçã é de 95°C/30s, pode-se concluir que este não será suficientemente seguro para atingir a probabilidade de sobrevivência de 1 ascósporo a cada 105 embalagens, o que seria esperado.

    The heat resistance of N. fischeri ascospores isolated from apple concentrate was verified using closed TDT (Thermal Death Time tubes, and apple juice as heating medium (at different pHs. The curves at 80, 85 and 90°C showed an initial “shoulder” due to non logarithmic death behavior. Then, the kinetic parameters calculation was performed by linearization .The 1/k values obtained at pH 2.5 were 81.3, 16 and 0.9 minutes at 80, 85 and 90°C, respectively; at pH 3.5 were

  6. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  7. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  8. Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  9. Umidificação e aquecimento do gás inalado durante ventilação artificial com baixo fluxo e fluxo mínimo de gases frescos Humidificación y calentamiento del gas inhalado durante ventilación artificial con bajo flujo y flujo mínimo de gases frescos Inhaled gases humidification and heating during artificial ventilation with low flow and minimal fresh gases flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susane Bruder Silveira Gorayb

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Em pacientes sob intubação traqueal ou traqueostomia, a umidificação e o aquecimento do gás inalado são necessários para a prevenção de lesões no sistema respiratório, conseqüentes ao contato do gás frio e seco com as vias aéreas. O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do sistema respiratório circular com absorvedor de dióxido de carbono do aparelho de anestesia Cícero da Dräger, quanto à capacidade de aquecimento e umidificação dos gases inalados, utilizando-se fluxo baixo (1 L.min-1 ou mínimo (0,5 L.min-1 de gases frescos. MÉTODO: O estudo aleatório foi realizado em 24 pacientes, estado físico ASA I, com idades entre 18 e 65 anos, submetidos à anestesia geral, utilizando-se a Estação de Trabalho Cícero da Dräger (Alemanha, para realização de cirurgias abdominais, os quais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo de Baixo Fluxo (BF, no qual foi administrado 0,5 L.min-1 de oxigênio e 0,5 L.min-1 de óxido nitroso e fluxo mínimo (FM, administrando-se somente oxigênio a 0,5 L.min-1. Os atributos estudados foram temperatura, umidade relativa e absoluta da sala de operação e do gás no sistema inspiratório. RESULTADOS: Os valores da temperatura, umidade relativa e umidade absoluta no sistema inspiratório na saída do aparelho de anestesia e junto ao tubo traqueal não apresentaram diferença significante entre os grupos, mas aumentaram ao longo do tempo nos dois grupos (BF e FM, havendo influência da temperatura da sala de operação sobre a temperatura do gás inalado, nos dois grupos estudados. Níveis de umidade e temperatura próximos dos ideais foram alcançados, nos dois grupos, a partir de 90 minutos. CONCLUSÕES: Não há diferença significante da umidade e temperatura do gás inalado utilizando-se baixo fluxo e fluxo mínimo de gases frescos.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: En pacientes bajo intubación traqueal o traqueostomia, la humidificación y

  10. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  11. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  13. Solar urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

  14. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  15. Solar flair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, John S

    2003-02-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams.

  16. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  17. A residential solar roofing program for Brazil: guidelines for public policies envisaging the use of photovoltaic generation connected to the power line; Um programa residencial de telhados solares para o Brasil: diretrizes de politicas publicas para a insercao da geracao fotovoltaica conectada a rede eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamoni, Isabel Tourinho

    2009-07-01

    Although Brazil has great potential for photovoltaics (PV), and is particularly privileged by high solar radiation levels, the role of this renewable energy source (RES) at the Brazilian market is still very small, and the current legislation of the electric sector has no incentives for grid-connected PV systems. The high costs and the paradigm that this RES is feasible for grid-connection only for developed countries are the fundamental arguments placed to justify the lack of consideration of PV energy in Brazil. The main aim of this thesis is to develop a guideline to create a reliable legislation and regulation framework for the Brazilian electrical sector towards the implementation of a widespread grid-connected PV roofs program, and to show a grid parity analysis between conventional generation and PV generation. It also demonstrates the benefits of grid-connected PV systems and it presents the bottlenecks that limit the widespread adoption of PV energy at the Brazilian electrical sector mix. The proposed mechanism to be applied in Brazil is based on the German program (Feed-in Law) and it is analyzed under different scenarios. With this study, it is possible to make an economic viability analysis of grid-connected PV in Brazil, to identify the most suitable PV roof program size for the beginning of the program, and the consequent impacts on tariffs, through the dilution of these costs for the residential energy consumer. The grid-parity analysis shows that from 2015 and 2020 it will be possible to reach grid parity for PV in some regions in Brazil. It is possible that this parity happens even before that time, according to the interest rates applied in Brazil. In this context, it is crucial to create an incentive program to promote PV energy in Brazil, even if current prices are not competitive with conventional generation prices, so that the necessary experience to develop a large scale mechanism could happen with the maximum benefits and in an orderly way

  18. Utilización de la minicomputadora raspberry pi para la adquisición y evaluación de datos de niveles de radiación solar

    OpenAIRE

    Carpio Inga, Ever Jair; Puero Candela, Boris Wladimir; Valdivieso Armendariz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Este documento presenta la construcción de un prototipo electrónico que adquiere los niveles de radiación solar, armado con ayuda de una celda solar BPW34, un microcontrolador PIC 16F88, el minicomputador Raspberry Pi y la interacción del software Php-MySql, Raspbian, Apache, Wiring PI y Rrdtool. La captura análoga que adquiere la celda solar es convertida en digital por medio del PIC16F88 y enviada a una base de datos de la memoria en la Raspberry PI, estos datos son procesados y mostrado...

  19. Solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer-Larsen, P.; Krebs, F.C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Plaza, D.M. (Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (Spain))

    2010-11-15

    Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. In a sustainable future with an ever-increasing demand for energy, we will need to use this resource better. Solar energy technologies either convert sunlight directly into heat and electrical energy or use it to power chemical conversions which create 'solar fuels' or synthetic compounds. Solar heating technologies have developed steadily for many years and solar heating and cooling is one of the world's commonest renewable energy technologies. This chapter, however, focuses on technologies for electricity production and touches more briefly on the prospects for solar fuels. The section on Danish perspectives also discusses solar thermal heating in district heating plants. In recent decades, two technologies for converting solar energy into electrical energy have dominated: photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP). Today's silicon and thin-film PV technologies are advancing steadily, with new materials and technologies constantly being developed, and there are clear roadmaps for lowering production costs. In the discussion below we assess the maturation potential of currently emerging PV technologies within the next 40 years. Concentrating solar power is already a proven technology, and below we evaluate its potential to become a substantial part of the energy mix by 2050. Solar fuels cover a range of technologies. The chapter is to a great extent based on two recent roadmaps from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Many reports, predictions, scenarios and roadmaps for solar energy deployment exist. The IEA predictions for the penetration of solar energy in the future energy system are low relative to many of the other studies. The IEA roadmaps, however, cover most aspects of the future deployment of the technologies and reference older work. (Author)

  20. Assessment of the impact of soil heating on soil cations using the degree-hours method Evaluación del impacto del calentamiento del suelo en los cationes del suelo utilizando el método de los grados-hora Avaliação do impacto do aquecimento térmico nos catiões do solo recorrendo ao método dos graus-hora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Barros

    2012-11-01

    forma mais evidente o processo de redução da CTC do que apenas os valores máximos de temperatura alcançados. Considerando a soma de catiões extraíveis em comparação com o tratamento térmico, o valor da soma aumenta gradualmente com a temperatura ou graus-hora com uma tendência a estabilizar para os valores mais elevados. A concentração dos diferentes catiões extraíveis aumentou progressivamente com a intensidade do aquecimento e relativamente aos DH, podendo ser ajustada por uma função do tipo y=a+bxc com um alto grau de confiança. A partir dos resultados pode concluir-se que a medição do calor fornecido ao solo pode ser um parâmetro apropriado para interpretação das alterações edáficas produzidas, nomeadamente quando estas ocorrem de forma contínua.

  1. Revestimentos para barreira térmica: evolução e perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Camello Limar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Há mais de quatro décadas, os revestimentos para barreira térmica, ou simplesmente TBC, vêm sendo decisivos para o desempenho de turbinas a gás no segmento aeronáutico e aeroespacial e, mais recentemente, também no desempenho de turbinas de geração de energia e motores diesel. Sua importância se sobrepõe aos desenvolvimentos conseguidos na área de materiais com o advento da solidificação unidirecional e a obtenção de monocristais. Durante todo este período, diversas pesquisas ao redor do mundo buscam compreender melhor os processos que ocorrem na interação dos próprios componentes metal-cerâmicos do sistema, tanto no seu processamento, como na operação dos componentes em serviço, sujeitos a distintas solicitações mecânicas e térmicas durante os ciclos de aquecimento e resfriamento dos componentes revestidos. Mais ainda, pesquisas buscam incessantemente melhorias de desempenho dos revestimentos que permitam atender as crescentes solicitações de aumento de temperatura de trabalho e resistência à agressão de agentes externos próprios do ambiente operacional de tais equipamentos. Este artigo mostra a importância dos revestimentos TBC, sua evolução recente, suas características principais, os diversos temas e objetos de investigação e os inúmeros desafios que ainda se apresentam, demandando mais pesquisa e abrindo opções de extrema relevância científica e tecnológica para investigação.

  2. Solar Photovoltaic

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  3. Solar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  4. Estudo, utilizando a mecânica quântica, das propriedades dielétricas e do efeito da blindagem dinâmica na taxa de aquecimento de plasmas macroscópicos

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Adameck de França

    2006-01-01

    Do ponto de vista da Mecânica-Quântica foram investigados as propriedades dielétricas e o comportamento das oscilações coletivas (plasmons), para plasmas macroscópicos submetidos à ação de campos de radiação eletromagnética. Para plasmas não magnetizados, encontraram-se modulações nas propriedades dielétricas e freqüências de plasmons em regime de ondas evanescentes. Nesse regime, o amortecimento de Landau sofre modulações que conduzem a instabilidades. Para plasmas magnetizados, foram encont...

  5. Measuring and estimating solar direct normal Irradiance using LIDAR, solar station and satellite data in qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Bachour, Dunia Antoine; Fernández Sánchez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    La medición precisa de la Irradiancia Directa Normal (DNI) es esencial para el diseño e implementación de proyectos CSP (energía solar concentrada). Qatar cuenta con abundante radiación solar; por lo tanto, el aprovechamiento de la misma es de gran interés en esta región, en particular para sistemas de concentración solar. Antes de embarcarse en dichos proyectos, se debe contar con datos de irradiancia directa normal confiables y de buena calidad. Actualmente, los mapas existentes de radiació...

  6. Measuring and estimating solar direct normal Irradiance using LIDAR, solar station and satellite data in qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Bachour, Dunia Antoine

    2015-01-01

    La medición precisa de la Irradiancia Directa Normal (DNI) es esencial para el diseño e implementación de proyectos CSP (energía solar concentrada). Qatar cuenta con abundante radiación solar; por lo tanto, el aprovechamiento de la misma es de gran interés en esta región, en particular para sistemas de concentración solar. Antes de embarcarse en dichos proyectos, se debe contar con datos de irradiancia directa normal confiables y de buena calidad. Actualmente, los mapas existen...

  7. Photovoltaic solar energy at CEMIG - Electric Power Company of Minas Gerais state, Brazil - a technology viable for the rural pre-electrification in the state of Minas Gerais; Energia solar fotovoltaica na CEMIG - uma tecnologia viavel para a pre-eletrificacao rural em Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, A.S.A.C.; Carvalho, F.W.; Franca, E.; Tome, J.L.; Villefort, M.H.; Rezende, M.; Araujo, L.A.; Rosa, J.G.F.; Burgoa, J.A. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, (Brazil)]. E-mail: asacd@cemig.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the development of using the photovoltaic solar energy by CEMIG - Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais, from the evaluation phase of photovoltaic energy technology to the large scale use of the photovoltaic systems in the 'Solar Light Program - Rural Pre-electrification with Voltaic Systems'. The paper also discusses the sustainability model of the photovoltaic technology.

  8. Solar Sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  9. Development of an interactive tool for the promotion in the use of solar water heaters in the city of Mexico; Desarrollo de una herramienta interactiva para el fomento en el uso de calentadores solares de agua en la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Salgado, L. Y.; Ruiz-Esparza-Gonzalez, H.; Rojas-Morin, A.

    2008-07-01

    Mexico's geographical situation grants it a privileged condition for daily solar energy collection rates. Massive installation of domestic solar collectors for heating water could make considerable savings in fossil fuel consumption and simultaneously would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In Order to promote the use of solar energy and to raise awareness of environmental ills, we have developed a new interactive tool called HIFUCSA for technical and economical analysis of domestic solar collectors. The main idea of this tool is to help Mexican families who live in Mexico City (or its metropolitan area) to decision making process about purchase a solar collector. The tools has been through to support them, showing the economic and environmental benefits in an illustrative form. (Author)

  10. A new methodology for sizing hybrid photovoltaic-wind energy system using simulation and optimization tools = Uma nova metodologia para dimensionamento de sistemas híbridos de energia (solar-eólica utilizando ferramentas de simulação e otimização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nelson Melegari de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology for sizing an autonomousphotovoltaic-wind hybrid energy system with battery storage, using simulation and optimization tools. The developed model is useful for energizing remote rural areas and produces a system with minimum cost and high reliability, based on the concept of Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP applied for consecutive hours. Some scenarios arecalculated and compared, using different numbers of consecutive hours and different LPSP values. As a result, a complete sizing of the system and a long-term cost evaluation are presented.Este trabalho apresenta uma nova metodologia para dimensionamento de sistemas híbridos de energia (solar-eólica com armazenamento em banco de baterias, utilizando ferramentas de simulação e otimização. O modelo desenvolvido é útil para a energização de áreas ruraisisoladas e resulta num sistema com custo mínimo e alta confiabilidade, baseado no conceito de perda de fornecimento de energia à carga (LPSP aplicado para horas consecutivas. Alguns cenários são calculados e comparados, utilizando-se diferentes períodos de horas consecutivas e diferentes valores de LPSP. Os resultados apresentam um dimensionamento completo do sistema e uma avaliação de custos ao longo de vários anos.

  11. Preparation of thin films, with base to precursor materials of type Cu-In-Se elaborated by electrodeposition for the solar cells elaboration; Preparacion de peliculas delgadas, con base a materiales precursores del tipo Cu-In-Se, elaboradas por electrodeposito para la elaboracion de celdas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.M. [Centro de Investigaciones en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Av. Xochicalco s/n. 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-11-01

    Thin films of chalcogenide compounds are promising because they have excellent optoelectronic characteristics to be applied in solar cells. In particular, CuInSe{sub 2} and Cd Te thin films have shown high solar to electrical conversion efficiency. However, this efficiency is limited by the method of preparation, in this case, physical vapor deposition techniques are used. In order to increase the area of deposition t is necessary to use chemical methods, for example, electrodeposition technique. In this paper, the preparation of Cu-In-Se precursors thin films by electrochemical method is reported. These precursors were used to build solar cells with 7.9 % of efficiency. (Author)

  12. Células solares de banda intermedia

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Vega, Antonio; Antolín Fernández, Elisa; García-Linares Fontes, Pablo; Ramiro Gonzalez, Iñigo; López Estrada, Esther; Artacho Huertas, Irene; Hernández Martín, Estela; Mellor Null, Alexander Virgil; Mendes, Manuel J.; Fuertes Marrón, David; Tobías Galicia, Ignacio; Tablero Crespo, César; Cristobal López, Ana Belén; Luque López, Antonio; Mártil de la Plaza, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Las células solares de banda intermedia se inventaron en España. Constituyen una propuesta para aumentar la eficiencia de las células solares por encima del límite de Shockley y Queisser para células de un solo gap. El número de ideas para llevarlas a la práctica (desde la utilización de puntos cuánticos a la implantación selectiva de impurezas) se ha ido expandiendo a medida que nuestra comprensión ha ido aumentando. En este artículo repasamos el concepto de célula solar de banda intermedia ...

  13. Aproveitamento de maçãs impróprias para consumo humano para produção de bioetanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Martello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesmo sendo uma preferência nacional, uma grande porcentagem de maçã é descartada diariamente por diversos fatores, como avanço na podridão e aspectos não aceitável para comércio. Como essa fruta apresenta uma concentração significativa de açúcar, podeser utilizada na produção de produtos fermentativos, como o vinagre e em especial o etanol. No Brasil, grande atenção vem sendo dadaà produção de bioetanol como energia renovável, não apenas aliviando a dependência de petróleo como colaborando para atenuar osefeitos do aquecimento global, dessa forma, este projeto baseia-se em uma avaliação inicial da produção de bioetanol a partir de maçãsimpróprias para consumo humano que são descartadas no comércio de Xanxerê – SC. As porcentagens de bioetanol produzido pelasmaçãs descartadas apresentaram valores equivalentes aos encontrados dentro da literatura, entre 4,2 e 9,2%. Baseando-se nestesresultados, as maçãs impróprias para consumo são ótimas matérias-prima para a produção de biocombustível – bioetanol, desde que avaliadas seu nível de podridão anteriormente ao processo.Abstract In spite of a national preference, a bigpercentage of apple is discarded daily by many factors, such asrot and some aspects not acceptable for market. As this fruit presents a significant concentration of sugar, it can be utilizedin the production of fermented products, like vinegar andespecially ethanol. In Brazil, much attention has been given tothe production of bioethanol as renewable energy, not onlyrelieving dependence on oil as working to mitigate the effectsof global warming, by the way, this project is based on aninitial assessment of bioethanol production from improperapples for human consumption that are discarded in the marketof Xanxerê – SC. The percentages of bioetanol produced bythe apples discarded presented equivalent values to them foundinside the literature, between 4.2 and 9.2%. Based on theseresults

  14. Estratégias para minimizar os efeitos de um ambiente térmico adverso para frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O calor limita a produção de frangos de corte. Este trabalho avaliou as interações entre o termocondicionamento precoce (TCP e o uso do equilíbrio eletrolítico (EE sobre o desempenho e as características da carcaça das aves. Assim, o balanço eletrolítico (BE = Na + K - Cl foi ajustado em 350mEq/kg, e a relação eletrolítica (K+Cl/Na em 3:1, pelo programa PPFR. O experimento foi realizado no setor de Zootecnia da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba/Unesp. Alojaram-se 240 pintos machos de um dia de idade, linhagem Cobb-500(r, em bateria metálica com 24 divisões e aquecimento elétrico automático. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2x2, totalizando quatro tratamentos com seis repetições e 10 aves por parcela experimental. O TCP ocorreu no quinto dia de idade, por 24 horas, a 36,5°C, em metade do lote. Posteriormente, as aves foram transferidas para um galpão climatizado e alojadas em boxes, da mesma forma que a outra parcela que não passou pelo TCP. Avaliaram-se os efeitos do estresse calórico crônico (seis horas a 32°C aplicado do 35º ao 39º dia de idade. Foram monitoradas a temperatura e a umidade do ar, bem como a temperatura de globo negro. Alimentação e água foram fornecidas ad libitum. Calcularam-se os dados de desempenho zootécnico e a taxa de mortalidade das aves. Submeteram-se os resultados à análise de variância e à comparação de médias pelo teste de Tukey. Não houve interação entre o TCP e o EE sobre o desempenho e as características da carcaça das aves. As estratégias, TCP e EE, mostraram-se ineficazes para amenizar os efeitos do estresse calórico crônico em frangos de corte.

  15. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  16. Solar Nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jim

    1980-01-01

    The design team for the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has pushed the state of the energy art to its current limits for the initial phase, with provisions for foreseeable and even speculative future applications. (Author/MLF)

  17. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  18. para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Eloy García de la Figal Costales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base del análisis de la aplicación del plan de estudio «C Perfeccionado» (cuarta versión de Mecanización Agropecuaria, desde 1999 se determina como objetivo el diseño del plan de estudio de la nueva carrera de Ingeniería Agrícola para Cuba, mediante la precisión del encargo social en las nuevas condiciones, la preparación profesional existente en el ámbito mundial y nacional y las tendencias mundiales en el desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica, empleando la metodología del diseño curricular por objetivos. Se determinaron: el objeto de estudio y de la profesión; principales problemas a resolver; campos de acción; modo de actuación; esferas de actuación y el Modelo del Profesional, siendo su objetivo más general: explotar los sistemas de ingeniería agrícola para los procesos tecnológicos y biotecnológicos de la producción agropecuaria sostenible. El plan posee como currículo básico el 79,62 % y el 40,04 % de práctica laboral e investigativa, ambos respecto al total de horas de 5 594.

  19. Apollo 2: Solar energy meets the new global challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, R. B [Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Humanity faces imminent and serious global oil shortages. It is urgent that the solar energy community respond aggressively to fulfill its central role in the transition from a transitory fossil-fuel economy to a sustainable solar future. The intention here is to explain and quantify the oil shortfall, to validate the renewable option, and to calculate the rate at which the capacity of the renewable energy industry must accelerate to counteract the predictable oil deficit. [Spanish] La humanidad se enfrenta a una seria e inminente escasez mundial de petroleo. Es urgente que la comunidad de energia solar responda agresivamente para satisfacer su rol central en la transicion de una economia transitoria de combustibles fosiles a un futuro solar sustentable. La intencion aqui es la de explicar y cuantificar el deficit de petroleo para validar esta opcion renovable y para calcular la velocidad a la que la industria de la energia renovable debe acelerar para contrarrestar el predecible deficit del petroleo.

  20. Solar energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayigh, A.A.M. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The scope and advantages of solar energy are dealt with. The nature of the sun, the solar radiation spectrum, the estimation of total, direct, and diffuse radiation, and the heat transfer fundamentals for solar energy application are explained. The fundamentals, fabrication, and uses of various water and air heaters are outlined. Optics and concentrating collectors are dealt with, as well as solar furnaces. The various applications of solar energy are discussed, namely, solar pond, solar distillation, photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, solar refrigeration, solar hydrogen production, space applications, and solar measuring equipment. The cost of solar appliances is discussed. (MHR)

  1. Actividad Solar Desde EL Espacio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se describen los principales descubrimientos realizados por los arti+iciales con instrumentos dedicados a la observaci6n del Sol, durante los dos ultimos ciclos de su acti vi dad. La observaci6n el espacio ha permitido cubrir todas las zonas del espectro no observables desde tierra1 desde el ultravioleta hasta la radiaci6n gamma. Se hace referencia, en particular, a los resultados producidos por los dos grandes observatorios: el Skylab y el SMM. Este ultimo incluy6 un conjunto de instrumentos especialmente coordinados para observar en detalle las fulguraciones solares. Es un resumen para astr6nomos no especializados en la fisica solar, en el que se muestra que la gran riqueza del material observacional acumulado ha resuelto problemas preexistentes y, al mismo tiempo, ha abierto numerosos interrogantes a los que se buscar respuesta con la instrumentaci6n en desarrollo. Finalmente, se mencionan las caracteristicas de los proyectados para la pr6xima decada. : The main discoveries performed by artificial satellites instrumented for the observation of the Sun, during the last two cycles of its activity, are described. The space observations allowed of almost all the spectral regions which are not observable from the ground, from the ultraviolet to the gamma radiation. In particular, we ref er' to the two large solar space observatories: the Skylab and the SMM. The last one included a set 0+ coordinated instruments to observe in detail the solar flares. This is a summary for astronomers not dedicated to solar physics, where we show that the of observational material have solv# d many of the preexistent problems but, at the ame time, it opened many new questions to which the improved instrumentation will try to answer. , the characteristics of the satellites planned the next decade are mentioned. Key : SUN-ACTIVITY - SUN-CORONA - SUN-X-RAYS

  2. Solarização do solo para o controle de Pythium e plantas daninhas em cultura de crisântemo Soil solarization for Pithium and weed control in chrysanthemum crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A solarização, durante dois meses, de um solo naturalmente infestado com Pythium, promoveu o controle do patógeno, de modo semelhante à aplicação de metalaxyl + mancozeb, na cultura de crisântemo. A incidência média de plantas mortas foi de 2,3% nas parcelas solarizadas; 1,0% no solo solarizado que recebeu metade da dose dos fungicidas; 9,0% com a aplicação da dose completa dos fungicidas (1 g de metalaxyl + 4,8 g de mancozeb/m² e 38,9%, na testemunha não tratada. A solarização também promoveu o controle de plantas daninhas, avaliado através do peso da matéria seca das plantas emergentes aos 21 dias após o transplante das mudas, semelhantemente ao herbicida oxidiazon.Two months solarization of a soil naturally infested with Pythium sp. promoted a level of control similar to what was obtained with the application of methalaxyl + mancozeb for the chrysanthemum crop. The average rate of dead plants was 9.0% with the application of fungicides (1 g of methalaxyl + 4.8 g of mancozeb/ m²; 2.3% in solarized plots; 1.0% in solarized plots which received half the dosages of the fungicides and 38.9% in control plots. Similar control of weeds was obtained in solarized plots and plots treated with the herbicide oxidiazon.

  3. Solar Features - Solar Flares - SIDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) is any of several radio propagation anomalies due to ionospheric changes resulting from solar or geophysical events.

  4. Solar Features - Solar Flares - Patrol

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The H-alpha Flare Patrol identifies time periods each day when the sun is being continuously monitored by select ground-based solar observatories.

  5. Construção de um aquecedor solar de água sustentável na Amazônia: usando a metodologia PBL para interação entre cursos de engenharia e escola de ensino médio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mota Milhomem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Em todo o país está sendo amplamente difundida a utilização de fontes de energia renováveis, um dos exemplos claros disso é a energia solar, o que exige conhecimentos das mais variadas áreas da ciência para o aperfeiçoamento dessa nova área de pesquisa. Dessa forma, com o intuito de incentivar aos alunos do ensino médio em se empenhar no estudo das ciências e no desenvolvimento de pesquisas, o Programa de Extensão Laboratório de Engenhocas, da Universidade Federal do Pará Campus de Tucuruí, aprovou projetos no CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico e aplicou em escolas estaduais de ensino médio do município a metodologia PBL (Project Based Learning, visando ensinar o aluno a aprender, ser proativo e despertar o interesse na área das ciências aplicadas. Dentro das atividades desenvolvidas o aluno busca resolver problemas da sociedade através da metodologia. Uma delas foi à construção e implantação de um Aquecedor Solar de Baixo Custo em uma residência unifamiliar de Tucuruí onde foi possível analisar sua viabilidade e eficiência energética.

  6. Modelagem do potencial eólico do Nordeste do Brasil sob condições atuais e de aquecimento global: uma interface entre modelos numéricos computacionais de microescala e mesoescala

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Bruno Lopes de

    2010-01-01

    As fontes de energias renováveis ou limpas, tais como, a eólica, apresenta-se como uma opção para a redução do uso de energia a base de combustíveis fósseis. O Brasil, e em especial o território do nordeste brasileiro, é privilegiado no potencial eólico já que a sua localização abrange a área dos ventos Alísios.. Portanto o presente trabalho consiste em desenvolver uma metodologia para avaliar o potencial eólico do nordeste brasileiro, e avaliar os impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre a ...

  7. para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Densidades de siembra, arreglos espaciales y fertilización en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes cv Diamantes-10 para palmito. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Los Diamantes (Guápiles, Costa Rica, el 3 de octubre del 2003, cuyo objetivo fue la evaluación del efecto de diferentes densidades de siembra (3.333, 5.000 y 6.666 plantas/ha, arreglos espaciales, y diversos métodos de fertilización (química, orgánica, sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de pejibaye para producción de palmito. Se consideraron las variables diámetro y altura del tallo primario y el número de hojas y rebrotes como indicadores de producción. El período de evolución abarcó sólo los primeros 25 meses de crecimiento en el campo. El número de hojas, la altura y el diámetro del tallo no mostraron diferencias de respuesta relevantes. Sólo el número de rebrotes disminuyó al aumentar la densidad de la población, cuando se midió a los 15 meses de edad. El efecto de la fertilización se hizo evidente después de la primera cosecha, realizada a los 20 meses, debido al aumento de la competencia entre plantas, ahora más desarrolladas. Fue entonces cuando la fertilización química indujo la producción de un mayor número y vigor de los rebrotes. Sin embargo, las prácticas evaluadas 25 meses después de la siembra, no habían infl uido hasta ese momento en el número de palmitos cosechados, ni tampoco había afectado las características físicas de los sectores foliar y caulinar del palmito.

  8. Solar Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  9. Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about Photovoltaic (PV) cells and its stresses in various directions by calculating the power generated using solar cells under different conditions to improve its efficiency. Our research studies found that using multi-junction cells with larger substrates can increase the efficiency to some extent which in practice is limited to 43 percent. The experiment was conducted using ten solar cells each with an area of 20.9〖cm〗 ^2, where each cell gives 0.5 V and 0.4 A and a 1.25 Ω r...

  10. Solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J.R.

    1978-11-17

    The paper is concerned with (1) the thermodynamic and kinetic limits for the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy as it is received on the earth's surface, and (2) the evaluation of a number of possible photochemical reactions with particular emphasis on the production of solar hydrogen from water. Procedures for generating hydrogen fuel are considered. Topics examined include the general requirements for a fuel-generation reaction, the photochemical reaction, limits on the conversion of light energy to chemical energy, an estimate of chemical storage efficiency, and the water decomposition reaction.

  11. Analysis of Methodologies for Identifying Exclusion Zones for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP); Analisis de Metodologias de Identificacion de Zonas de Exclusion para Estudios de Potencial de Energia Electrica Termosolar (CSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, P.; Ramirez, L.; Navarro, A. A.; Polo, J.; Zarza, E.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is the proposal of a valid and unique methodology to any territory of the potential for solar power generation, reducing subjectivity and enabling comparison of results from the examination of several existing methodologies for CSP, particularly those developed by the Institute for diversification and saving of Energy (IDAE), Greenpeace, National renewable energy laboratory (NREL) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Subsequently, we apply and compare the results obtained with those already installed CSP plants, giving an idea of the suitability of each methodology to locate plants in areas considered suitable. (Author)

  12. Nuevos procedimientos de análisis de los datos corriente-tensión de iluminación y de oscuridad para la caracterización de células solares

    OpenAIRE

    Haouari-Merbah, Mama

    2011-01-01

    El trabajo de la tesis está dedicado al desarrollo de nuevos procedimientos de caracterización de células y generadores solares. Se procede a ajustar datos experimentales a curvas calculadas con el fin de extraer los parámetros que mejor representen el comportamiento del dispositivo de acuerdo con el modelo preestablecido, determinar sus errores estándar y medir la bondad del ajuste. En el Capítulo 1 se introduce el tema de los ajustes paramétricos de características de corriente-tensión de c...

  13. Para Leer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sanz Cañibano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jorge L. Tizón, Ramón Ciurana, M del Carmen Fernández (Comps. Libro de casos. Promoción de la salud mental desde la atención primaria. (Adela Sanz Cañibano Grupo de Expertos en Competencia Intercultural. Instrumento para la valoración de la Competencia Intercultural en la Atención en salud mental. Hacia la equidad en salud. (María Goretti Morón Nozaleda Mariano Hernández Monsalve y Pilar Nieto Degregori (Coords.. Psicoterapia y Rehabilitación de pacientes con psicosis. (Francisco Chicharro Lezcano André du Laurens. De las enfermedades melancólicas. Jourdain Guibelet. Del humor melancólico. (Iñaki Markez Julio José? Segarra Valls. Léxico psico(patológico en la obra de Carlos Castilla del Pino. (Eudoxia Gay Pamos Giorgio Nardone y Alessandro Salvini. El diálogo estratégico. (Fernando Mansilla Izquierdo Michel Foucault. Leçons sur la volonté de savoir, suivi de Le savoir d'Edipe. (Mauricio Jalón Camilo Castelo Branco. La novela de un hombre rico. (Alicia Merisi Kenzaburo Oé. Cuadernos de Hiroshima. (Mauricio Jalón Pascal Quignard. Les solidarités mystérieuses. (Beatriz A. Rubín Documentos en la red (Juan Medrano

  14. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  15. Modelo híbrido de refrigeración solar por absorción

    OpenAIRE

    José Manuel Garibay-Cisneros; Sergio Llamas-Zamorano; José A. Martínez-Grave de Peralta; Luis Eduardo Alcaraz-Iñiguez

    2011-01-01

    Se muestra un modelo híbrido de refrigeración solar por absorción. Trata de un sistema que utiliza energía solar como gas metano, este último se emplea únicamente cuando no se tenga suficiente energía solar para operar el equipo de refrigeración, para el que se utiliza amoniaco como sustancia refrigerante.

  16. Telescopio Solar en Hα (HASTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Borda, R.; Francile, C.; Bagala, G.; Bauer, O.; Haerendel, G.; Rieger, E.; Rovira, M.

    El Telescopio Solar en Hα (Hα Solar Telescope for Argentina (-HASTA-) fue recientemente instalado en la Estación Astronómica de Altura Carlos Ulrrico Cesco (OAFA) en El Leoncito. Este instrumento estudiará la evolución de las fulguraciones solares desde tierra con alta resolución temporal y espacial. HASTA es un telescopio refractor de 110 mm con una distancia focal de 165 cm, un filtro Lyot sintonizable (±1Å) con un ancho de banda de 0.3 Å y una cámara CCD de alta resolución (1280×1024 pixels). Todo el conjunto es controlado en forma remota por una PC, la cual además adquiere datos del Sistema de Posicionamiento Global (GPS) y de la estación meteorológica. Diseñado para detectar fulguraciones, el instrumento trabaja en dos modos (patrullaje y fulguración) con una resolución espacial de 1.5 arcseg por pixel y una resolución temporal de 2 seg. HASTA comenzó a operar en Mayo de 1998 y, junto con otros tres instrumentos solares, que se están instalando o se instalaron, harán de El Leoncito un polo de observación solar importante en el Hemisferio Sur.

  17. Solar radiation pumped solid state of lasers for Solar Power Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ruiyi [New Jersey (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The Laser Solar Power Satellites (L-SPS) is the most promising way to overcome global energy and environmental and economical problems. The purpose was to use the favorable combination of solar radiation, modern lasers and the extremely promising phenomenon Optical Phase Conjugation (OPC). Direct conversion of solar energy to energy of a high-power laser beam has the advantage of high efficiency and precise energy transportation. In this paper, direct solar radiation pumping of the laser is compared with the pumping using the intermediate stage of the conversion of the solar radiation in electrical energy. Possible solid-state lasers that can be used in L-SPS are also discussed (including optical system and cooling system). [Spanish] Los Satelites de Energia Solar Laser (L-SPS) son la forma mas prometedora para contrarrestar los problemas globales de energia, ambientales y problemas economicos. El proposito fue el de usar la combinacion favorable de radiacion solar, laseres modernos y el fenomeno extremadamente prometedor de conjugacion de fase optica (OPC). La conversion directa de energia solar a energia de un rayo laser de alta potencia tiene la ventaja de la alta eficiencia y precision de la transportacion de la energia. En este documento la radiacion solar directa impulsada por el laser se compara con la impulsion usando el estado intermedio de conversion de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Tambien se analizan los posibles laseres de estado solido que pueden usarse en L-SPS (incluyendo el sistema optico y el sistema de enfriamiento).

  18. Design and construction of models of solar thermal facilities in the ''Centro integrado de FP superior de energias renovables de Imarcoain''(Navarra); Maquetas de instalaciones solares termicas para la formacion profesional de grado superior en el centro integrado de formacion profesional superior de energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M. A.; Orus, L. M.; Yerro, C.; Aguado, H.; Cambra, T.; Oroz, J.

    2004-07-01

    This article shows how we have approached the solar energy installations in the ''Centro integrado de FP superior de energias renovables de Imarcoain''(Navarra) with the design and construction of models which allow us to teach in this type of installations at different levels. (Author)

  19. Development of a controller based on Fuzzy theory to better use the energy of a hybrid system power generation solar-photovoltaic and wind; Desenvolvimento de um controlador baseado na teoria Fuzzy para melhor aproveitamento da energia de um sistema hibrido de geracao de energia solar-fotovoltaico e eolico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneppele, Fernando de Lima [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental], E-mail: fernando@itapeva.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto de Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil). Campus Experimental

    2010-07-01

    The work developed a methodology fuzzy and simulated its use in control of a hybrid system of electric power generation, using solar-photovoltaic and wind energy. Using this control system, we get the point of maximum energy generation and transfer all the energy generated from alternative sources, solar-photovoltaic and wind energy to charge and / or batteries. The model uses three input variables, which are: wind (wind speed), sun (solar radiation) and batteries (charge the battery bank). With these variables, the fuzzy system will play, according to the rules to be described, what is the source of power supply system, which will have priority and how the batteries are loaded. For the simulations regarding the use of fuzzy theory to control, we used the scientific computing environment MATLAB. In this environment have been analyzed and simulated all mathematical modeling, rules and other variables described in the fuzzy system. This model can be applied to implement a control system of hybrid power generation, providing the best use of renewable energy, solar and wind, so that we can extract the maximum possible energy of these alternative sources without compromising the environment. (author)

  20. Sistema Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas

    2004-01-01

    Lección sobre el Sistema Solar. Curso de Astronomía Básica, segunda edición, impartido por los miembros de la Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas. Casa de la Ciencia, sábados, del 24 de septiembre al 22 de octubre de 2011

  1. Solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Homer, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Thrill young astronomers with a journey through our Solar System. Find out all about the Inner and Outer Planets, the Moon, Stars, Constellations, Asteroids, Meteors and Comets. Using simplified language and vocabulary, concepts such as planetary orbits, the asteroid belt, the lunar cycle and phases of the moon, and shooting stars are all explored.

  2. Solar Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonelli

    2013-01-01

    relevant indications on the fundamental interactions among particles. After reviewing the striking results of the last two decades, which were determinant to solve the long standing solar neutrino puzzle and refine the Standard Solar Model, we focus our attention on the more recent results in this field and on the experiments presently running or planned for the near future. The main focus at the moment is to improve the knowledge of the mass and mixing pattern and especially to study in detail the lowest energy part of the spectrum, which represents most of the solar neutrino spectrum but is still a partially unexplored realm. We discuss this research project and the way in which present and future experiments could contribute to make the theoretical framework more complete and stable, understanding the origin of some “anomalies” that seem to emerge from the data and contributing to answer some present questions, like the exact mechanism of the vacuum to matter transition and the solution of the so-called solar metallicity problem.

  3. Desinfestação de substratos para produção de mudas, utilizando vapor de água Disinfesting substrate for transplants production employing hot water steam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco C. Silva

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento sanitário de substratos é uma operação importante no processo de produção de mudas e no cultivo de plantas em vasos ou outros contentores. Tradicionalmente tem-se utilizado o gás brometo de metila como agente desinfetante. Entretanto, a produção deste gás deverá ser abolida até o ano 2010, forçando-se a busca de novas opções. Desenvolveu-se na Embrapa Hortaliças um equipamento que utiliza o vapor de água à baixa pressão, produzido por uma caldeira industrial, com capacidade para evaporar 30 L/h de água, para aquecer o substrato contido em uma caixa metálica cilíndrica com capacidade de 2000 L. O vapor é aplicado no fundo da caixa que contém uma camada de brita coberta com uma tela metálica de malha de 2 mm, que favorece a distribuição uniforme do vapor por toda a massa de substrato. O tempo de aquecimento é de aproximadamente 3 horas e o calor armazenado durante este período mantém a massa de substrato aquecida a temperaturas pasteurizantes, por até 4 horas após a aplicação do vapor. Para testar a eficácia do sistema avaliou-se a sobrevivência dos patógenos Ralstonia solanacearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e Rhizoctonia solani. Aplicou-se vapor por uma hora, não considerando o período de aquecimento, e coletaram-se as amostras após uma, duas, três ou quatro horas o início da aplicação de vapor. O tratamento por uma hora, em adição ao período de aquecimento, resultou na eliminação dos patógenos.The disinfestation of substrate is an important process for transplanting production and for plant cultivation in pots or boxes. Traditionally, metyl bromide gas has been employed to eliminate microorganisms. However the production of bromide gas in Brazil will be interrupted by the year 2010 and it is necessary to search for new options. We have devised an equipment that utilizes hot steam water at low pressure produced into a boiler machine with the capacity of evaporating

  4. Tratamento térmico para controle da lanosidade em pêssegos 'Dourado-2' refrigerados Heat treatment to alleviation of woolliness of cold stored 'Dourado-2' peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Clemente Vitti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de tratamentos térmicos na incidência de lanosidade em pêssegos 'Dourado-2' armazenados a 0ºC e na fisiologia e bioquímica dos frutos. Foram realizados condicionamentos térmicos antes da refrigeração, por meio da exposição dos frutos a 50ºC por 2 horas ou a 20ºC por 48 horas e do aquecimento intermitente durante o armazenamento refrigerado; os frutos foram submetidos a 25ºC durante 24 horas, a cada cinco dias de armazenamento a 0ºC, ou durante 48 horas, a cada dez dias de armazenamento a 0ºC. Frutos continuamente armazenados a 0ºC serviram de controle. Após 30 dias de armazenamento mais três dias de comercialização simulada, foram determinados os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre a incidência de lanosidade, podridões, teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez, teor de ácido ascórbico, coloração, firmeza da polpa, taxa respiratória, produção de etileno, atividade das enzimas poligalacturonase e pectinametilesterase. O aquecimento intermitente com ciclos de cinco ou dez dias e o condicionamento a 20ºC durante 48 horas foram mais eficazes para reduzir a incidência de lanosidade, mas acelerou a perda de firmeza dos frutos. A produção de etileno foi maior nos frutos submetidos a aquecimento intermitente. Os tratamentos térmicos provocaram poucas alterações no teor de sólidos solúveis, acidez, ácido ascórbico, coloração e incidência de podridões.The work was carried out with the objective to verify the effect of heat treatments on the incidence of woolliness in 'Dourado-2' peaches stored at 0ºC. Heat treatments were applied as conditioning temperature (50ºC during 2 hours or 20ºC during 48 hours before cold storage. In intermittent warming, fruit treatments were warmed each five days at 25ºC during 24 hours or each ten days during 48 hours. Control fruit were continuously stored at 0ºC. The variables evaluated after 30 days at 0ºC (plus three days at room temperature

  5. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  6. Using digital models for evaluation of effective solar radiance. Development of methodology and practice application; Empleo de modelos digitales del terreno para la evaluacion de la radiacionsolar effectiva. Desarrollo de una metodologia y aplicacion practica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izco, E.; De Blas, M.; Torres, J. L.; Garcia, R.

    2004-07-01

    In this communication it has been described the use of advanced tools for determining the effective solar radiance, and its possible passive and active, thermic or photovoltaic, development, in various areas of buildings or urban zones. According to cartographic information of a Digital Elevation Model , and in ECOTEC v5.20 software. An hourly treatment of illuminated and shaded zones has been carried out for several days of the year. In a case study it has been proven that the software ECOTEC v5.20 can work with the Digital Elevation Model of Public University of Navarra, and it has been analyzed illuminated and shaded zones visual and quantitatively for two days of the year, summer and winter solstices . (Author)

  7. Towards cost reduction in concentrating solar power: innovative design for an efficient fresnel based solar field

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Camara, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Energía termosolar (de concentración) es uno de los nombres que hacen referencia en español al término inglés “concentrating solar power”. Se trata de una tecnología basada en la captura de la potencia térmica de la radiación solar, de forma que permita alcanzar temperaturas capaces de alimentar un ciclo termodinámico convencional (o avanzado); el futuro de esta tecnología depende principalmente de su capacidad para concentrar la radiación solar de manera eficiente y económica. La presente te...

  8. Project of air conditioning system by absorption of water-lithium bromide using solar energy and simulation of its operation under several conditions; Projeto de sistema para condicionamento de ar por absorcao de agua-brometo de litio utilizando energia solar e simulacao de sua operacao sob condicoes diversas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbravati, Alan; Figueiredo, Jose Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: alan@fem.unicamp.br; jrfigue@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This article presents computational models for water - lithium bromide absorption air conditioning systems, verifying the use of solar energy as source of heat for the cycle. Four different models were elaborated for the cycle, changing the configurations and hypotheses. In each model two algorithms were elaborated: the first one accomplished the calculations of the heat and mass flows and a estimative of the areas heat transfer, a project of a system, and another which, based on the answers of the first, simulate the behavior of this system when the conditions of initial project are changed, keeping constant the constructive parameters. As in the project a numeric procedure has been used for solution of non lineal systems based on the algorithm of Newton-Raphson. The main alteration among the models went to substitution of the expansion device and evaporator, and, in the fourth model, was increased a procedure for calculation of the solar collector performance. (author)

  9. Fisica solare

    CERN Document Server

    Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2008-01-01

    Il volume è un'introduzione alla Fisica Solare che si propone lo scopo di illustrare alla persona che intende avvicinarsi a questa disciplina (studenti, dottori di ricerca, ricercatori) i meccanismi fisici che stanno alla base della complessa fenomenologia osservata sulla stella a noi più vicina. Il volume non ha la pretesa di essere esauriente (basta pensare che la fisica solare spazia su un gran numero di discipline, quali la Fisica Nucleare, la Termodinamica, L'Elettrodinamica, la Fisica Atomica e Molecolare, la Spettoscopia in tutte le bande dello spettro elettromagnetico, la Magnetoidrodinamica, la Fisica del Plasma, lo sviluppo di nuova strumentazione, l'Ottica, ecc.). Piuttosto, sono stati scelti un numero di argomenti di rilevanza fondamentale nello studio presente del Sole (soprattutto nei riguardi delle osservazioni da terra con grandi telescopi) e su tali argomenti si è cercato di dare una panoramica generale, inclusiva dell'evoluzione storica, senza scendere in soverchi dettagli. Siccome la Fis...

  10. Solar club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar club

    2013-01-01

    SOLAR CLUB Le  CERN-Solar-Club souhaite une  très bonne année 2013 à tous les Cernois et Cernoises, et remercie encore une fois  tous ceux et celles qui, fin octobre, par leur vote, nous ont permis de finir dans les 5 premiers du concours "Conforama Solidaire" et ainsi financer nôtre projet "énergie solaire et eau potable pour Kilela Balanda" en République Démocratique du Congo (voir : http://www.confo.ch/solidarite/?lang=fr). Nous vous annoncons également notre Assemblée Générale Annuelle jeudi 21 février à 18 h 00 Salle C, 1er étage, Bât. 61 Vous êtes les bienvenus si vous souhaitez en savoir un peu plus sur les énergies renouvelables.

  11. Development and evaluation of neural network models to estimate daily solar radiation at Córdoba, Argentina Desenvolvimento e avaliação de modelos de redes neurais para estimação da irradiação solar diária em Córdoba, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Bocco; Gustavo Ovando; Silvina Sayago

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop neural network models of backpropagation type to estimate solar radiation based on extraterrestrial radiation data, daily temperature range, precipitation, cloudiness and relative sunshine duration. Data from Córdoba, Argentina, were used for development and validation. The behaviour and adjustment between values observed and estimates obtained by neural networks for different combinations of input were assessed. These estimations showed root mean squ...

  12. Energia Solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Dias de Borba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este projeto trata da implantação de células fotovoltaicas na forma de postes independentes na área externa da escola Oswaldo Cruz em Sinop- MT, mais especificamente no estacionamento do local, e também a implantação de placas solares nas guaritas e nos estacionamentos cobertos, tornando-os semi-sustentáveis.

  13. Solar Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the creation of chameleons deep inside the sun and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetised surface of the sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft X-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarisations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft X-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft X-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling the chameleons emitted by the sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST pipes, which could be within the reach...

  14. Nanostructured Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue “Nanostructured Solar Cells”, published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  15. Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Sail Propulsion investment area has been one of the three highest priorities within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project. In the fall of 2003, the NASA Headquarters' Science Mission Directorate provided funding and direction to mature the technology as far as possible through ground research and development from TRL 3 to 6 in three years. A group of experts from government, industry, and academia convened in Huntsville, Alabama to define technology gaps between what was needed for science missions to the inner solar system and the current state of the art in ultra1ightweight materials and gossamer structure design. This activity set the roadmap for development. The centerpiece of the development would be the ground demonstration of scalable solar sail systems including masts, sails, deployment mechanisms, and attitude control hardware and software. In addition, new materials would be subjected to anticipated space environments to quantify effects and assure mission life. Also, because solar sails are huge structures, and it is not feasible to validate the technology by ground test at full scale, a multi-discipline effort was established to develop highly reliable analytical models to serve as mission assurance evidence in future flight program decision-making. Two separate contractor teams were chosen to develop the SSP System Ground Demonstrator (SGD). After a three month conceptual mission/system design phase, the teams developed a ten meter diameter pathfinder set of hardware and subjected it to thermal vacuum tests to compare analytically predicted structural behavior with measured characteristics. This process developed manufacturing and handling techniques and refined the basic design. In 2005, both contractor teams delivered 20 meter, four quadrant sail systems to the largest thermal vacuum chamber in the world in Plum Brook, Ohio, and repeated the tests. Also demonstrated was the deployment and articulation of attitude control

  16. Solar neutrinos and the solar composition problem

    CERN Document Server

    Pena-Garay, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Standard solar models (SSM) are facing nowadays a new puzzle: the solar composition problem. New determinations of solar metal abundances lead SSM calculations to conflict with helioseismological measurements, showing discrepancies that extend from the convection zone to the solar core and can not be easily assigned to deficiencies in the modelling of the solar convection zone. We present updated solar neutrino fluxes and uncertainties for two SSM with high (old) and low (new) solar metallicity determinations. The uncertainties in iron and carbon abundances are the largest contribution to the uncertainties of the solar neutrino fluxes. The uncertainty on the ^14N+p -> ^15O+g rate is the largest of the non-composition uncertainties to the CNO neutrino fluxes. We propose an independent method to help identify which SSM is the correct one. Present neutrino data can not distinguish the solar neutrino predictions of both models but ongoing measurements can help to solve the puzzle.

  17. Regional Analysis of Aids and Prices for Small-scale Grid-connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in Spain; Analisis Regional de Precios y Ayudas para Sistemas fotovoltaicos de Pequena Escala Conectados a Red Electrica en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M.; Ramirez, L.; Mora, L.; Sidrach de Cardona, M.

    2002-07-01

    Electricity production from small solar photovoltaic systems in Spain obtains a premium pnce of 0,36 Euros/kWh over the electricity market price or a fix price of 0.40 Euros/kWh. The development of these small systems, in Spain clearly demonstrates that the established prime is not sufficient in the majority of locations. On the other hand, the prime revision set up by the RD 2818/98. considering the profitability of the renewable installations, demand a regional analysis of small PV systems profitability necessary in Spain. The accomplished results permit to conclude that the amount of the current prime is by itself insufficient to make profitable the small grid-connected PV systems in anywhere of the national geography. To guarantee the profitability of these systems is should be necessary to place the fix price at around 0,93 Euros/k Wh. However, if the duplication of the current price obtained by these installations was considered, this could ensure the profitability of these small systems in at least the 77% of the land. (Author) 12 refs.

  18. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  19. Modelo de innovación y optimización de la energía solar en España. La aplicación de las tecnologías disponibles para el aprovechamiento de recursos, comercialización y beneficios de la energía solar

    OpenAIRE

    González Peña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral leída en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid en 2014. Directora de la Tesis: Dra. Carmen de Pablos Heredero En esta Tesis Doctoral se pretende analizar los límites, tanto a medio como a largo plazo, de la competitividad económica de la energía solar en España, estudiando el nivel de evolución que presuntamente debería tener esta forma de producción de energía, hasta conseguir llegar a ser competitiva con las energías fósiles, y otras fuentes emergentes en desarrollo. ...

  20. Preliminary analysis for implementation of a hybrid solar-wind system with storage of electrical energy generated through electrolytic hydrogen and fuel cells; Analise preliminar para implementacao de um sistema hibrido solar-eolico com armazenamento da energia eletrica gerada atraves de hidrogenio eletrolitico e celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Furlan, Andre Luis; Lopes, Davi Gabriel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: danielg@fem.unicamp.br; Silva, Ennio Peres; Apolinario, Fernando Resende [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Lab. de Hidrogenio; Silva, Maria Eugenia Vieira da; Rocha, Paulo Alexandre Costa [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica e de Producao; Codeceira Neto, Alcides [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to relevance of the study and applicability of hybrid electric power generation from solar photovoltaic and wind power in Brazil, the present paper aims to introduce briefly the importance of technical and economic comparison of two electrical energy storage technologies (batteries versus H2 + fuel cell) and also to indicate the previous difficulties related to this possible application. In this context, it was intended a partnership between State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, the Federal University of Ceara - UFC and Hydro Electric Company of the Sao Francisco - CHESF in the meaning of makes viable an implementation. (author)

  1. Solar greenhouses in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polich, M.

    1981-12-01

    After a discussion of solar greenhouse phenomena and the potential for heat collection and food production, design recommendations are provided for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces and for attached food producing solar greenhouses. Also, design of a single solar structure to maximize heat collection and food production is considered. A method of predicting the performance for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces is given in which the solar savings fraction is calculated. (LEW)

  2. Solar Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  3. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  4. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  5. Condições ergonômicas dos trabalhadores em galpões de frangos de corte durante a fase de aquecimento Ergonomic conditions of workers in poultry houses during the heating phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara da C. S. Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A adoção das práticas de bem-estar durante o processo de criação animal tem ganhado maiores espaços devido à comprovada melhora na produção. Hoje, a condição de bem-estar pode ser estendida também para o humano que, tendo boas condições de trabalho acaba, assim, por refletir em um manejo de sucesso dos animais. Buscando atender a essa nova tendência do mercado objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar as condições ergonômicas e a salubridade do ambiente de galpões de frangos de corte equipados com três diferentes sistemas de ventilação mínima (positiva, negativa e natural no que se refere à saúde do trabalhador. Com base nos efeitos dos sistemas de ventilação mínima avaliou-se carga física de trabalho, qualidade do ar, ambiente térmico, nível de ruído e iluminação, além da análise postural e biomecânica. De posse dos dados analisados verificou-se que o galpão equipado com sistema de ventilação positiva possuía um ambiente de maior salubridade para o trabalhador. Independente do sistema de ventilação utilizado, atividades como abastecimento manual do comedouro, limpeza de bebedouros e revolvimento da cama, podem oferecer riscos de lesão corporal em virtude da forma como são executados.The adoption of the practices of well-being in animal husbandry has gained increased space due to proven improvement in production. Today, the condition of well being, may be extended to the human beings, that having good working conditions may reflect in a successful management of animals. Seeking to meet this new market trend, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ergonomic conditions of the environment and health in broiler sheds, equipped with three different minimal ventilation systems (positive, negative and natural regarding workers' health. Associated with the effects of minimum ventilation systems evaluated the physical load of work, air quality, thermal environment, noise level and lighting besides postural

  6. Solar Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar Club

    2010-01-01

    Le CERN Solar-Club vous invite à la présentation de sa participation dans : The Cyprus Institute Solar Car Challenge du 18 au 20 juin à Chypre . en réponse à l’invitation dudit institut, dans le cadre de la demande de Chypre pour joindre le CERN . Le Club y participera avec son vénérable Photon rénové , et la Dyane E-Solaire d’un de ses membres, rénové aussi . Après la présentation, le forum est ouvert pour toutes vos questions et propositions diverses, également dans d’autres domaines des énergies renouvelables . C’est aussi l’occasion pour joindre le Club ! Où, et Quand ? Le Mercredi 7 Avril à 19 h 00, au 6ème étage du Bât. Principal, (60-6-015) à la suite de l’AG des membres du Club , à 18h00 dans...

  7. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  8. Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  9. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  10. Solar models and solar neutrino oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    We provide a summary of the current knowledge, theoretical and experimental, of solar neutrino fluxes and of the masses and mixing angles that characterize solar neutrino oscillations. We also summarize the principal reasons for doing new solar neutrino experiments and what we think may be learned from the future measurements.

  11. Control solar e iluminación natural en la Arquitectura Dispositivos de control solar fijos en clima semicálido-subhúmedo

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En regiones cercanas a los trópicos, la protección solar de la envolvente y el aprovechamiento de la iluminación natural, son criterios potenciales para el diseño pasivo en la arquitectura, sin embargo lograr un sistema de control solar óptimo que no comprometa los niveles de iluminación natural del local, pero que responda a los requerimientos de ganancias solares y protección solar se convierte en un reto. En está investigación se analizan distintos sistemas de control solar fijos ext...

  12. Plastic solar collector: feature and applications; Colector solar de plastico: Caracteristicas y aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistoni, Silvia; Iriarte, Adolfo [Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Catamarca (Argentina); Saravia, Luis [Universidad Nacional de Salta, Salta (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    The Argentinean northwest (NOA) is an exceptional zone to use solar energy, because of its climate and its solar radiation levels. The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of low temperature solar heating system by mean of a plastic collector. The system proposed includes: a) Solar collectors built with plastic bags, welded in such a way that water, introduced at the top, falls by gravity through a zigzag long path. Each collector is fed by drip feed irrigations. b) Hot water storage and c) Water pump, hydraulic circuit and electronic controls. Two ways of use are proposed: as a water solar heating and as a system to heat greenhouses. In this second case, if during the day the air temperature inside the greenhouse is higher than the water storage temperature, the water will be heated in the bags. During the night the bags work as heat exchanger. When the temperature inside the greenhouse needs to be maintained at a constant value, the heating system is combined with a gas water heating. The equipment is described, performances are compared for both uses and the global heat exchange coefficient is calculated. The system's behavior inside a greenhouse is analyzed in two different situations. The utilization of plastic solar collectors has demonstrate to be a valid alternative for low temperature solar energy uses, specially in heating agricultural spaces. [Spanish] La region del Noreste Argentino (NOA), por su clima y muy en particular por los niveles de radiacion solar que posee, es una zona excepcional para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el uso de la energia solar a baja temperatura mediante un colector de plastico. El sistema propuesto incluye: a) Colector solar construido con una bolsa de plastico soldada en forma tal, que el agua que se introduce por la parte superior cae por la gravedad siguiendo un camino en zigzag. Cada colector se alimenta mediante goteros de riego autocompensados. b) Almacenamiento

  13. Nuevos métodos de investigación para estudiar el funcionamiento de casas solares: El trabajo con modelos a escala para comprobar la eficiencia energética, los conceptos estructurales y los procesos de montaje/desmontaje

    OpenAIRE

    Lauret Aguirregabiria, Benito; Cerezo Miguel, Jesús; Giménez Molina, Carmen; Ovando Vacarezza, Graciela

    2008-01-01

    Uno de los principales inconvenientes en la investigación en tecnología arquitectónica es su elevado coste, directamente relacionado con el tamaño de los edificios. Incluso el de una pequeña casa supone un importante condicionante. Este inconveniente también se da en la aviación y la navegación. En cambio en el sector del automóvil su menor tamaño hace no solo sea que sea más fácil la construcción de prototipos sino su experimentación y su transporte a diferentes lugares para su ensayo y exhi...

  14. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    The first observations of the photoelectric effect date back to the early 19th century from work by Alexandre Edmond Becquerel, Heinrich Hertz, Wilhelm Hallwachs and J J Thomson. The theory behind the phenomena was clarified in a seminal paper by Einstein in 1905 and became an archetypical feature of the wave-particle description of light. A different manifestation of quantised electron excitation, whereby electrons are not emitted but excited into the valence band of the material, is what we call the photoconductive effect. As well as providing an extension to theories in fundamental physics, the phenomenon has spawned a field with enormous ramifications in the energy industry through the development of solar cells. Among advances in photovoltaic technology has been the development of organic photovoltaic technology. These devices have many benefits over their inorganic counterparts, such as light-weight, flexible material properties, as well as versatile materials' synthesis and low-cost large-scale production—all highly advantageous for manufacturing. The first organic photovoltaic systems were reported over 50 years ago [1], but the potential of the field has escalated in recent years in terms of efficiency, largely through band offsetting. Since then, great progress has been made in studies for optimising the efficiency of organic solar cells, such as the work by researchers in Germany and the Netherlands, where investigations were made into the percentage composition and annealing effects on composites of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) [2]. Hybrid devices that aim to exploit the advantages of both inorganic and organic constituents have also proven promising. One example of this is the work reported by researchers in Tunisia and France on a systematic study for optimising the composition morphology of TiO2 nanoparticles in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), which also led to insights

  15. Modeling for sustainable use of biofuels, eolic and solar energy within the scope of the local Brazilian Integrated Planning of Energy Resources: case study of this plan in Aracatuba region, SP, Brazil; Modelagem para o aproveitamento sustentavel dos biocombustiveis, energia eolica e solar dentro do PIR (Planejamento Integrado de Recursos Energeticos) local: estudo de caso do PIR da regiao de Aracatuba, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Jonathas Luiz de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    It is evaluated the wind power, solar energy resources and biofuels available in Aracatuba through integrated resources planning methodology. which seeks to systematize and qualify the impacts associated with the use of energy by integrating supply and demand and seeking the lowest full-cost recital characteristics of each energy resource in environmental, social, political and technical-economic dimensions . Working with the demand forecast for trend, sustainable energy scenarios, optimistic and sustainable-prime as a PIN for the integration of energy resources over time, and considering the vigilant of Energy-environmental parameters, fetching mapping meeting local demand and export of energy. Thus conclude that the energy resources considered may meet the requirements of demand in all scenarios, but with the possibility of exhaustion in certain scenarios with planning horizon larger than 30 years. (author)

  16. Solar pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Shallow pools of liquid to collect low-temperature solar generated thermal energy are described. Narrow elongated trenches, grouped together over a wide area, are lined with a heat-absorbing black liner. The heat-absorbing liquid is kept separate from the thermal energy removing fluid by means such as clear polyethylene material. The covering for the pond may be a fluid or solid. If the covering is a fluid, fire fighting foam, continuously generated, or siloons are used to keep the surface covering clean and insulated. If the thermal energy removing fluid is a gas, a fluid insulation layer contained in a flat polyethlene tubing is used to cover the pond. The side of the tube directed towards the sun is treated to block out ultraviolet radiation and trap in infrared radiation.

  17. Solar workshops financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Ten one-day workshops were held across the United States. Information in this workbook is compiled in conjunction with those workshops. The following discussions are included: solar as a fuel (history); why alternative fuels are being sought today; the need for conservation; advantages of solar energy; the potential of solar energy; why solar energy is not more widely used; a definition of solar; how solar can help meet energy demands; Federal policies and programs; what solar technologies exist today that can be effectively utilized (thermal applications, fuels from biomass, solar electric). Additional information is presented in three attachments: Energy-Conserving Methods; Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy; and DOE Secretary's Annual Report to Congress-Solar Section. (MCW)

  18. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  19. Development of Solar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Axel D.; Wolfschmidt, Gudrun; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Originally based on a workshop on “Development of Solar Research”, held in Freiburg/Breisgau, this book contains articles on megalithic structures, the Nebra sky-disk, ancient sun cults, the observation of sunspots, the photography of the sun during eclipses, eclipse maps and expeditions, solar telescopes, solar physics during the Nazi era, archives of solar observations, scientific ballooning for solar research, site-testing on the Canary Islands, as well as on international cooperation.

  20. Solar collector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  1. Herramienta para hacer cuestionarios para Moodle

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Garcia, jesus

    2010-01-01

    Herramienta de creación de cuestionarios remotos de cuestiones SQL para Moodle. Permite también, el Aprendizaje colaborativo, para que los estudiantes puedan hacer cuestionarios de forma conjunta y desarrollar habilidades de trabajo en equipo. / Tool for Moodle to create remote quiz with SQL question. It also allows collaborative learning, so students can do together remote quiz and develop teamwork and social skills.

  2. Solar tracking mechanism in two axes; Mecanismo de seguimiento solar en dos ejes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Benitez, Juan Rafael; Ramos Berumen, Carlos; Beltran Adan, Jose; Lagunas Mendoza, Javier [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jlagunas@iie.org.mx; rramirez@iie.org.mx; cramos@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been interested in the Parabolic Dish technology for electricity generation in Mexico, then through its Non Conventional Energy Department has dedicated special tasks concerning to the knowledge and development of such technology. The structural component, reflective surface support and the tracking system which allows concentrate the solar energy into the receiver have been designed and manufactured. For the mechanical device and control of the solar tracking have been projected a set with servomotors, an electronic control as well as an interface for the equipment configuration and follow-up. In order for getting the following of the apparent movement of the sun, information on the sun paths through the year was analyzed and in consequence elevation and azimuth angles were determined. Using that approaches, for fixing the sun position sensors are not used and then only the control algorithm and the electronic device developed at the IIE were implemented. In this paper the sun tracking system and the electronic control device are presented. [Spanish] La tecnologia de plato parabolico para la generacion de electricidad en Mexico, ha sido de gran interes para el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, por lo que a traves de la Gerencia de Energias No Convencionales se ha avocado a la tarea de conocer y desarrollar esta tecnologia. Se ha disenado y fabricado la parte estructural, la base de la superficie reflejante y el sistema de seguimiento que permite concentrar la energia solar en el receptor. Para el mecanismo y control del seguidor solar se ha propuesto un mecanismo que utiliza servomotores, un control electronico asi como una interfaz para configurar el equipo y monitorear sus variables. Para lograr el seguimiento del movimiento aparente del sol se analizo la informacion en literatura de las trayectorias del sol a lo largo del ano, logrando asi determinar los angulos de altitud y azimut para acotar el

  3. Analysis of economic viability in a hybrid solar-wind system in the generation of electrical energy to an Maroon isolated community of Jalapao - TO, Brazil; Analise da viabilidade economica em um sistema hibrido solar-eolico na geracao de energia eletrica para uma comunidade isolada e quilombola do Jalapao - TO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Weder Ferreira dos; Zukowski Junior, Joel Carlos; Nobrega, Silvestre Lopes da; Marcon, Rogerio Olavo [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Centro Universitario Luterano

    2008-07-01

    With the increasing of energetic demand in several production sectors, the search for renewable energy sources which do not cause negative environmental impacts has become more and more relevant. Amongst all the important factors to decide for installing isolated generation systems as renewable sources or diesel and taking the distribution network to isolated communities, it should be considered the economic viability of those benefits. This study aimed to analyse the hybrid solar-aeolian system installed in an isolated community, in Jalapao/TO. Three scenarios were analyzed: first of them, getting the capital back with MRI = 6% per year; second one, getting the capital back with MRI = 0; and third, without getting the investment back. In all the three cases, O and M costs were considered. The proceeds were calculated from the production at the community workshop, in which the electricity was available. The results indicated that this technology is economically viable if the generated energy is used for production process. It also demonstrated that the third scenario is more interesting for the community, since the contribution per family is only 8% of its incomes. (author)

  4. KINEMATICS AND VELOCITY ELLIPSOID OF THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD WHITE DWARFS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Con el objeto de determinar la distribuci ́on de velocidades de las enanas blancas en el entorno solar utilizamos las componentes de la velocidad espacial. Utilizamos dos muestras, las m ́as cercanas que 20 y 25 pc. Ade m ́as, calculamos el movimiento solar y las dispersiones de velocidades para c uatro sub-muestras, a saber, DA, no-DA, enanas blancas calientes, y fr ́ıas. La com paraci ́on de nuestros resultados para las muestras de 20 y 25 pc da como resultado un a buena concordan- cia, mie...

  5. Solar Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar Club

    2012-01-01

      Le  CERN Solar Club tiendra son Assemblée Générale le Mercredi  4 avril, à 18h00 dans la salle C, bat.61, 1e étage de 18h00  à  19h30. Grande table ronde avec  présentations de projets concernant toute forme d’Energie  Renouvelable par des membres du club,  et… par  VOUS, nos invités. Au programme : - L’E-push : petite remorque électrique, qui pousse vôtre vélo par Robert Becker. - Le Stockage Saisonnier Sous-Lacustre d’Energie Solaire (S3LES) par  William van Sprolant. - Compte-Rendu de plusieurs conférences récentes concernant les E.R. par Jacques Dupin. - VOS  Projets ou Sujets (contactez : paul.gelissen@orange.fr). - Partie «administrative» avec rapport d’activités, rapport fina...

  6. Solar Design Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  7. Predictability of Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Peter; Balasubramaniam, K. S.

    2009-05-01

    Solar flares are significant drivers of space weather. With the availability of high cadence solar chromospheric and photospheric data from the USAF's Optical Solar PAtrol Network (OSPAN; photosphere and chromosphere imaging) Telescope and the Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG; photosphere magnetic imaging), at the National Solar Observatory, we have gained insights into potential uses of the data for solar flare prediction. We apply the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to parameterize the flaring system and extract consistent observables at solar chromospheric and photospheric layers that indicate a viable recognition of flaring activity. Rather than limiting ourselves to a few known indicators of solar activity, PCA helps us to characterize the entire system using several tens of variables for each observed layer. The components of the Eigen vectors derived from PCA help us recognize and quantify innate characteristics of solar flares and compare them. We will present an analysis of these results to explore the viability of PCA to assist in predicting solar flares.

  8. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  9. Prospective of the solar thermal technologies through concentration for the generation of electrical energy (Annexe 4 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva de las tecnologias termosolares a concentracion para la generacion de potencia electrica (Anexo 4 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this document are presented the technical-economical the present state of the technologies with electricity generation purposes at worldwide level and the technological prospective for the next years. At present it is estimated that in most of the power scenarios at worldwide level the situation will continue with a strong dependency in fossil fuels. The future dynamics of the energy procurement will depend on diverse factors such as energy efficiency, the international norms and regulations derived of the environmental impact and prices of the primary energy sources. The countries of the first world are developing new technologies of compatible character with the environment, with self-consumption intentions and with the vision of establishing new markets of export towards developing countries. In this context, several countries have established R y D programs for the generation of electricity through solar systems using the thermodynamic conversion. [Spanish] En este documento se presenta el estado actual tecnico-economico de las tecnologias con propositos de generacion de electricidad a nivel mundial y la prospectiva tecnologica para los proximos anos. En la actualidad se estima que en la mayoria de los escenarios energeticos a nivel mundial la situacion continuara con una fuerte dependencia de los combustibles fosiles. La dinamica futura del suministro de energia dependera de diversos factores como la eficiencia energetica, las normas y regulaciones derivadas del impacto ambiental y los precios internacionales de los energeticos. Los paises del primer mundo estan desarrollando nuevas tecnologias de caracter compatible con el medio ambiente, con propositos de autoconsumo y con la vision de establecer nuevos mercados de exportacion hacia paises en desarrollo. En este contexto, varios paises han establecido programas de Investigacion y Desarrollo para la generacion de electricidad a traves de sistemas solares utilizando la conversion termodinamica.

  10. The normalization in the use of solar heaters; La normalizacion en el uso de calentadores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky F, I.; Terrones B, A.; Garcia H, C.R. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the different criteria in the establishment of the standard for the converter devices and solar systems for water heating for domestic, commercial and services use, as well as the criteria needed for the standard required for the installation of the equipment and systems. Together with the former, it discusses the establishment of the criteria for the creation of: training programs, of a regulatory commission for the implementation, follow up and penalties derived of the application of the norm, a legal frame, to regulate the legal relationship among the manufacturers and service providers with the consumers, as well as a permanent program for the diffusion of the characteristics, energy saving and the environmental impact derived of the utilization of solar energy. Additionally, a description is made of the first experimental results obtained in a test bench, where the norm ASHRAE 93-77 was applied. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se presentan los diferentes criterios tanto para el establecimiento de la normatividad de los dispositivos conversores y sistemas solares para el calentamiento de agua para uso domestico, comercial y de servicios, asi como los necesarios para la normatividad requerida en la instalacion de los equipos y sistemas. Aunado a lo anterior se analiza el establecimiento de criterios para la creacion de: programas de capacitacion de una comision reguladora de la implantacion, seguimiento y sanciones derivadas de la aplicacion de la norma, un marco legal, regulador de la relacion juridica entre los fabricantes y prestadores de servicios y los consumidores, asi como un programa permanente de difusion sobre las caracteristicas, ahorro de energia e impacto ambiental derivado del uso de la energia solar. Adicionalmente se describen los primeros resultados experimentales obtenidos en un banco de pruebas, en donde se aplico la normas ASHRAE 93-77.

  11. Generation solar case study : solar summer camp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presented a case study of the use of solar power at camp Tanamakoon in Ontario's Algonquin Park. It discussed camp facilities which include solar powered composting toilets and solar heated showers. Composting, recycling, and use of environmentally friendly products were also discussed. The camp also has a grid interactive solar electric system and a solar water heating system. The solar electric system provides backup power to critical loads such as safety lights and an emergency fridge and is also connected to the existing grid electricity system. Any excess energy from the solar system can be used by other kitchen appliances or, any other load anywhere in the camp. The main user of the solar heated water is a large automatic dishwasher which has as a built-in boost heater for those days when the solar heated water is insufficiently hot to sanitize dishes. It was concluded that while camp utility bills have been reduced by this investment in renewable energy technology, the primary objectives of the project were the protection of Tanamakoon's pristine Algonquin environment and the attraction and retention of clients for the camp by enhancing the camping experience. fig.

  12. California solar data manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, P.; Grether, D.; Martin, M.; Wahlig, M.

    1978-01-01

    Factors that determined the data contents of the manual are presented. Estimates of errors in the data are provided, and the impact of these errors on solar design is discussed. The state is divided into 15 solar zones of roughly similar solar radiation conditions, which are illustrated along with page references to the most relevant solar and climate data. A guide to the data tables and graphs is provided, which are displayed under solar, climate, and sky charts. A guide is given to simplified design methods to predict performance and cost of solar heating and cooling systems. (MHR)

  13. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  14. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  15. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  16. Solar prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Aulanier, Guillaume; Török, Tibor

    2009-03-01

    Solar filaments (or prominences) are magnetic structures in the corona. They can be represented by twisted flux ropes in a bipolar magnetic environment. In such models, the dipped field lines of the flux rope carry the filament material and parasitic polarities in the filament channel are responsible for the existence of the lateral feet of prominences. Very simple laws do exist for the chirality of filaments, the so-called “filament chirality rules”: commonly dextral/sinistral filaments corresponding to left- (resp. right) hand magnetic twists are in the North/South hemisphere. Combining these rules with 3D weakly twisted flux tube models, the sign of the magnetic helicity in several filaments were identified. These rules were also applied to the 180° disambiguation of the direction of the photospheric transverse magnetic field around filaments using THEMIS vector magnetograph data (López Ariste et al. 2006). Consequently, an unprecedented evidence of horizontal magnetic support in filament feet has been observed, as predicted by former magnetostatic and recent MHD models. The second part of this review concerns the role of emerging flux in the vicinity of filament channels. It has been suggested that magnetic reconnection between the emerging flux and the pre-existing coronal field can trigger filament eruptions and CMEs. For a particular event, observed with Hinode/XRT, we observe signatures of such a reconnection, but no eruption of the filament. We present a 3D numerical simulation of emerging flux in the vicinity of a flux rope which was performed to reproduce this event and we briefly discuss, based on the simulation results, why the filament did not erupt.

  17. A new reconstruction of total solar irradiance since 1832

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquero, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Caceres (Spain); Gallego, M.C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Trigo, R.M. [Centro de Geofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Engenharias, Lisboa (Portugal); Sanchez-Bajo, F [Escuela de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Cancillo, M.L.; Garcia, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Variations of solar irradiance (total and spectral) are quantities purported to have an influence on climate. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the total solar irradiance from 1832 to the present. The contributions of active regions and the quiet sun are modelled separately using the method developed by Solanki and Fligge (1999). The areas of sunspots observed since 1832 are used to compute the contribution of active regions to the irradiance changes. [Spanish] Diferentes autores han propuesto que las variaciones de la irradiancia solar total y espectral son magnitudes que pueden influir en el clima. El objetivo de este articulo es reconstruir la irradiancia solar total desde 1832 hasta el presente. Las contribuciones de las regiones activas y del 'sol quieto' se modelan separadamente usando el metodo de Solanki y Fligge (1999). El area de las manchas solares desde 1832 es utilizada para calcular la contribucion de las regiones activas a los cambios en la irradiancia.

  18. The solar house of CRESESB: seven years of success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, Marco Antonio; Souza, Hamilton Moss de, E-mail: marcoag@cepel.br

    2005-07-01

    The solar house is located in the facilities of CEPEL - Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (Electric Power Research Centre) at Fundao Island, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is powered by a stand-alone PV system and is operated by CRESESB - Centro de Referencia para Energia Solar e Eolica Sergio de Salvo Brito (Reference Centre for Solar and Wind Energy Sergio de Salvo Brito) as a demonstration centre. The solar house was built in 1997, and during seven years of operation it received about 9.000 visitors (up to middle 2004). The present paper shares some aspects of the experience gained with the solar house, including technical details of the systems installed, the experience in operation and maintenance, and the divulgation and training of personnel so far obtained. (author)

  19. Clay-brick firing in a high-temperature solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeda-Munoz, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: gvilledam@ipn.mx; Castaneda-Miranda, A. [Computation & amp; Mechatronic Studies Division, Universidad Politecnica de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: acastaneda@upq.edu.mx; Pless, R.C. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: rpless@ipn.mx; Vega-Duran, J.T. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico); Pineda-Pinon, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: jpinedap@ipn.mx

    2011-10-15

    The firing process for clay-brick production in traditional kilns generates atmospheric pollution when industrial and domestic scrap is used as fuel. An alternative is presented here, using the solar energy for clay-brick firing. We are developing a system for clay-brick firing to reach temperatures between 900 degrees Celsius and 1050 degrees Celsius; these temperatures are sufficiently high to fire bricks or similar ceramic products. The present paper describes the design and characterization of the components of a solar furnace for clay-brick firing with inner chamber dimensions of 0.48 * 0.61 * 0.64 m. To convey the sunlight to the firing chamber, a heliostat with nine 1 * 1 m mirrors is used to send the rays of the sun to an off-axis parabolic concentrator that focuses the light on the entrance of the firing chamber. The heliostat has a solar-tracking system which makes primary and secondary adjustments to assure that the reflected solar radiation always arrives at the concentrator. The firing chamber contains a prismatic cavity that absorbs the solar radiation to generate the heat which is needed for baking the bricks inside the firing chamber. [Spanish] El proceso de coccion para la produccion de tabiques de arcilla en hornos tradicionales genera contaminacion atmosferica cuando los desechos industriales y domesticos se usan como combustibles. Aqui se presenta una alternativa, utilizando la energia solar para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla. Estamos desarrollando un sistema para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla para alcanzar temperaturas entre 900 grados centigradosy 1050 grados centigrados; estas temperaturas son suficientemente altas para cocer tabiques o productos ceramicos similares. El presente articulo describe el diseno y caracterizacion de los componentes de un horno solar para la coccion de tabiques de arcilla con una camara con dimensiones internas de 0.48 * 0.61 *× 0.64 m. Para dirigir los rayos solares a la camara de coccion, un heliostato

  20. Water-to-water heat pump operating with biogas for heating and cooling on dairy farms in order to rationalize the use of electric energy; Bomba de calor agua-agua acionada a biogas para aquecimento e resfriamento em fazendas leiteiras visando a racionalizacao no uso da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Rodrigo Aparecido; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Pacco, Honorato Ccali [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Construcoes Rurais], e-mail: jordan@agr.unicamp.br, e-mail: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br, e-mail: honorato.pacco@agr.unicamp.br; Baldassin Junior, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: baldassin@fem.unicamp.br; Neves Filho, Lincoln de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], e-mail: neves-lin@fea.unicamp.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail: jlucas@fcav.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    This work presents some preliminary results for the development of a water-to-water heat pump used dairy farms for simultaneous milk cooling and water heating. The general idea in this project is to eliminate the electric heater and use the heating effect, usually wasted, in existing refrigeration systems. In this project it was also studied the use of the dairy cows for biogas production. The generated biogas is to be used to fuel an Otto engine which will power in substitution of the electric energy. Usually, dairy farms, electric energy is intensely used in the generation of thermal energy for milk cooling to extend its shelf life, and water heating used in the pasteurization, cleaning and equipment disinfection and working rooms. The direct use of electric energy results in high energy costs representing a major concern nowadays in Brazil. Therefore, it is expected with this work, to develop an equipment that con-tributes to the most efficient use of the energy and also, to look for a more efficient use of energy in dairy farms, increasing its self-sufficiency, with the production and use of the biogas to meet all thermal energy requirements. The results here obtained show an economic viability for use of the proposed equipment. (author)

  1. Avaliacão de programas de aquecimento para espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomizacão eletrotérmica em filamento de tungstênio Evaluation of heating programs for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a tungsten coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro V. Oliveira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A tungsten coil atomizer was used to investigate the effect of heating programs with constant or variable drying temperatures on the atomization of Al, Cd, Cr and Pb. The variation of the surface temperature in the tungsten coil furnace can occur during each heating step due to the design of the power supply, that may apply constant voltages during a programmed time. For volatile elements (Cd, losses in sensitivity were observed when the program with a variable temperature was used. On the other hand, these effects are negligible for less volatile elements (Al and Cr and any tested program, in different acidic media, could be used without appreciable changes in sensitivities. The results allow the establishment of proper heating programs for elements with different thermochemical behavior in the tungsten coil atomizer.

  2. PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS (REVIEW ARTICLE)

    OpenAIRE

    Benli, Deniz Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    A solar cell is a device that converts sunlight into electricity. There are different types of solar cells but this report mainly focuses on a type of new generation solar cell that has the name organo-metal halide perovskite, shortly perovskite solar cells. In this respect, the efficiency of power conversion is taken into account to replace the dominancy of traditional and second generation solar cell fields by perovskite solar cells. Perovskite solar cell is a type of solar cell including a...

  3. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um controlador eletrônico para equipamentos de aplicação de insumos Development and evaluation of electronic control system in equipments for application of fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio K. Umezu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se o desenvolvimento e avaliação de um sistema de controle para compensar a variação na rotação de acionamento dos dosadores de fertilizantes sólidos de um equipamento para formulação, dosagem e aplicação de fertilizantes sólidos no sulco, a taxas variáveis, em função da alteração da temperatura do óleo hidráulico. Desenvolveram-se controladores do tipo PID, para assegurar a manutenção precisa das rotações desejadas nos motores hidráulicos de acionamento dos dosadores de fertilizante. O equipamento foi testado em laboratório, utilizando-se sinais de testes padronizados, onde foi avaliado o seu comportamento em função do aquecimento do óleo hidráulico. Os testes realizados mostraram que o sistema de controle de rotação implementado foi adequado, mantendo inalterado o comportamento do sistema hidráulico, mesmo na ocorrência de variação da temperatura do óleo hidráulico.The objective of this research was the development and evaluation of a control system used to compensate variation on angular speed of dosers in an equipment for formulation, dosing and application of solid fertilizers in the furrow, at variable rates, by monitoring the hydraulic oil temperature changes. PID controllers were designed to guarantee the desired angular speed of the hydraulic motors dosing shaft. The equipment was tested in laboratory using standard signal tests procedure, being able to analyze the machine behavior as a function of the hydraulic oil temperature variations. The accomplished tests showed that the implemented control system was suitable and exhibited a steady behavior even during hydraulic oil temperature changes.

  4. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  5. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  6. Solar Dynamics Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A searchable database of all Solar Dynamics Observatory data including EUV, magnetograms, visible light and X-ray. SDO: The Solar Dynamics Observatory is the first...

  7. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  8. Solar-Collector Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr

    1984-01-01

    Water-cooled Kendall radiometer measures output of solar energy concentrators. Unit measures irradiance up to 30,000 solar constants with 1 percent accuracy and responds to wavelengths from ultraviolet to far infrared.

  9. Future Solar Neutrino Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray research, University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu, Japan, 506-1205 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakahata@suketto.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2005-08-15

    The value of future solar neutrino experiments is discussed from particle physics and astrophysics points of view based on current understanding of solar neutrino oscillations. R and D statuses of future experiments are also discussed.

  10. Solar energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to solar energy engineering, covering topics such as radiation, absorption, its practical applications in space and hot water heating, and solar geometrical and geographical forms.

  11. Solar Wind Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Topics of discussion were: solar corona, MHD waves and turbulence, acceleration of the solar wind, stellar coronae and winds, long term variations, energetic particles, plasma distribution functions and waves, spatial dependences, and minor ions.

  12. Aeronet Solar Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...

  13. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  14. Solar Indices - Plage Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  15. Solar radiation models - review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamil Ahmad, G.N. Tiwari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the design and study of solar energy, information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential. Solar radiation data are required by solar engineers, architects, agriculturists and hydrologists for many applications such as solar heating, cooking, drying and interior illumination of buildings. For this purpose, in the past, several empirical correlations have been developed in order to estimate the solar radiation around the world. The main objective of this study is to review the global solar radiation models available in the literature. There are several formulae which relate global radiation to other climatic parameters such as sunshine hours, relative humidity and maximum temperature. The most commonly used parameter for estimating global solar radiation is sunshine duration. Sunshine duration can be easily and reliably measured and data are widely available.

  16. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  17. Solar mobile power supply

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Libian

    2014-01-01

    The solar mobile power supply is a comprehensive energy saving and environment protective product. Besides, it consists of solar panels, storage battery and controller as well as other important components. Based on the traditional solar charging circuit, this solar power supply combines the 5V USB interface and 12V adjustable circuit as well as the 220V inverter and power adapter to greatly improve the function of the power system.

  18. Durable solar mirror films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Mark B.; Henderson, Andrew J.; Hebrink, Timothy J.; Katare, Rajesh K.; Jing, Naiyong; North, Diane; Peterson, Eric M.

    2017-02-14

    The present disclosure generally relates to durable solar mirror films, methods of making durable solar mirror films, and constructions including durable solar mirror films. In one embodiment, the present disclosure relates to a solar mirror film comprising: a multilayer optical film layer including having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion of less than about 30 ppm per percent relative humidity; and a reflective layer having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion.

  19. Beijing Tsinghua Solar Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing Tsinghua Solar Ltd. is backed by Tsinghua University, one of the most prestigious universities in China. Tsinghua Solar invented "graded Al-N/Al selective coating," which is the key technology of all-glass evacuated solar collector tubes. The company owns the independent intellectual property rights over the key technology of all-glass vacuum solar water heaters. The registered capital of the company is 153.5 mil-

  20. Solar Neutrino Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Acker, A; Acker, Andy; Pakvasa, Sandip

    1994-01-01

    We re-examine the neutrino decay solution to the solar neutrino problem in light of the new data from Gallex II and Kamiokande III. We compare the experimental data with the solar models of Bahcall and Pinsonneault and Turck-Chieze and find that neutrino decay is ruled out as a solution to the solar neutrino problem at better than the 98\\% c.l. even when solar model uncertainties are taken into account.

  1. Pointing a solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    As far as pointing is concerned, a solar telescope is merely an ordinary astronomical telescope but with enhancements for observing solar and coronal features. The paper discusses the additional coordinate systems that need to be supported, shows how to generate the required solar ephemerides (both orbital and physical), and sets out a suitable application programming interface for the telescope control system to use when making solar observations.

  2. Solar geometry tool applied to systems and bio-climatic architecture; Herramienta de geometria solar aplicada a sistemas y arquitectura bio-climatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbano, Antonio; Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Aguilar, Jaime; Asomoza Rene [CIMVESTAV-IPN, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The present article shows the annual solar path, by means of graphic Cartesian, as well as the use of these, taken as base the astronomical, geographical antecedents and of the place. These graphs indicate the hours of sun along the day, month and year for the latitude of 19 Celsius degrees north, as well as the values of radiation solar schedule for the most important declines happened annually (equinoxes, solstices and the intermediate months). These graphs facilitate the user's good location to evaluate inherent obstacles of the environment and to determine in the place, the shades on the solar equipment or immovable (mountains, tree, buildings, windows, terraces, domes, et cetera), the hours of sun or the radiation for the wanted bio-climatic calculation. The present work is a tool of place engineering for the architects, designers, manufactures, planners, installers, energy auditors among other that require the use of the solar energy for anyone of its multiple applications. [Spanish] El presente articulo, muestra las trayectorias solares anules, mediante graficas cartesianas, asi como la utilizacion de estas, tomando como base los antecedentes astronomicos, geograficos y del lugar. Estas graficas indican las horas del sol a lo largo del dia, mes y ano para la latitud de 19 grados Celsius norte, asi como los valores de radiacion solar horaria para las declinaciones mas importantes ocurridas anualmente (equinoccios, solsticios y los meses intermedios). Estas graficas facilitan la ubicacion optima del usuario para evaluar obstaculos inherentes del entorno y determinar en el sitio, las sombras sobre los equipos solares o inmuebles (montanas, arboles, edificios, ventanas, terrazas, domos, etc.), las horas de sol o bien la radiacion para el calculo bio-climatico deseado. El presente trabajo es una herramienta de Ingenieria de sitio para los Arquitectos, Disenadores, Constructores, Proyectistas, Instaladores, Auditores Energeticos entre otros, que requieran el

  3. Normas para vivienda

    OpenAIRE

    Coupé, Françoise

    1990-01-01

    El Seminario Taller Normas para Vivienda, analiza los efectos de las normas vigentes en el país, sobre el desarrollo urbano, la vivienda y la calidad de vida, para participar en la discusión del Estatuto Metropolitano de Usos del Suelo, Urbanismo y Construcción. Se presenta en este Boletín algunos resultados del trabajo realizado.

  4. Solar tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  5. Solar energy directories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, F.

    1984-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 275 directories relating to solar energy and renewable energy resources. The references include the newsletters and in-house publications of small firms and groups, plans and designs for solar housing, catalogs, and directories of agencies and organizations involved in solar energy. The references are listed in alphabetical order.

  6. Experimenting with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

  7. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  8. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  9. Inexpensive Photovoltaic Solar Radiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissner, Fritz

    1981-01-01

    Describes a low-cost instrument using a solar cell as a sensor to measure both instantaneous and integrated value of solar flux. Constructing and calibrating such an instrument constitutes an undergraduate experimental project, affording students an opportunity to examine a variety of aspects associated with solar energy measurements. (Author/SK)

  10. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  11. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  12. Control predictivo basado en modelo de un campo de colectores solares tipo acurex

    OpenAIRE

    Flor Unda, Omar Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo, presenta los resultados del control de un sistema de colectores solares tipo ACUREX, aplicando control predictivo basado en modelo como una técnica que aporta criterios para su estudio y mejoramiento. Se ha empleado el simulador creado para entorno Simulink, trabajo de (Camacho, et al., 1997).

  13. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  14. Colector solar de placa plana desarrollado en la Universidad Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mesa Claros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente articulo describe el análisis teórico que .se aplica al colector solar de placa plana desarrollado por el Grupo de Ingeniería Solar de la Universidad Nacional. Esta investigación se lleva a cabo para diseñar y estudiar el comportamiento de un dispositivo que transformar. El presente articulo describe el análisis teórico que .se aplica al colector solar de placa plana desarrollado por el Grupo de Ingeniería Solar de la Universidad Nacional. Esta investigación se lleva a cabo para diseñar y estudiar el comportamiento de un dispositivo que transformara la energía solar en energía térmica para una necesidad especifica (el calentamiento de agua, en condiciones meteorológicas y geográficas propias de la ciudad de Bogotá.  

  15. Solar Cycle #24 and the Solar Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth; Pesnell, W. Dean

    2007-01-01

    We focus on two solar aspects related to flight dynamics. These are the solar dynamo and long-term solar activity predictions. The nature of the solar dynamo is central to solar activity predictions, and these predictions are important for orbital planning of satellites in low earth orbit (LEO). The reason is that the solar ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiances inflate the upper atmospheric layers of the Earth, forming the thermosphere and exosphere through which these satellites orbit. Concerning the dynamo, we discuss some recent novel approaches towards its understanding. For solar predictions we concentrate on a solar precursor method, in which the Sun's polar field plays a major role in forecasting the next cycle s activity based upon the Babcock-Leighton dynamo. With a current low value for the Sun s polar field, this method predicts that solar cycle #24 will be one of the lowest in recent times, with smoothed F10.7 radio flux values peaking near 130 plus or minus 30 (2 sigma), in the 2013 timeframe. One may have to consider solar activity as far back as the early 20th century to find a cycle of comparable magnitude. Concomitant effects of low solar activity upon satellites in LEO will need to be considered, such as enhancements in orbital debris. Support for our prediction of a low solar cycle #24 is borne out by the lack of new cycle sunspots at least through the first half of 2007. Usually at the present epoch in the solar cycle (approx. 7+ years after the last solar maximum), for a normal size following cycle, new cycle sunspots would be seen. The lack of their appearance at this time is only consistent with a low cycle #24. Polar field observations of a weak magnitude are consistent with unusual structures seen in the Sun s corona. Polar coronal holes are the hallmarks of the Sun's open field structures. At present, it appears that the polar coronal holes are relatively weak, and there have been many equatorial coronal holes

  16. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  17. A solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, Yu.V.; Dabagyan, T.N.; Gagiyan, L.A.; Kharapetyan, G.S.; Vartanyan, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This invention is designed for solar energy collectors in the form of heat pipes. A solar power plant is proposed that contains a solar concentrator in the form of at least one heat pipe with evaporation and condensation sections, the first of which is constructed to absorb solar emission and the second located in a heat exchanger equipped with inlet and outlet pipes. In order to simplify the design, the solar power plant is equipped with an additional heat exchanger connected through a connector to the inlet and outlet pipes, while the evaporation section holds an additional section in the lower half, within the auxiliary heat exchanger. During operation as a solar energy collector, the evaporation region absorbs the solar energy and converts it to heat, which is then carried by the heat transfer medium to the heating tube.

  18. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  19. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  20. KINEMATICS AND VELOCITY ELLIPSOID OF THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD WHITE DWARFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Elsanhoury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de determinar la distribuci ́on de velocidades de las enanas blancas en el entorno solar utilizamos las componentes de la velocidad espacial. Utilizamos dos muestras, las m ́as cercanas que 20 y 25 pc. Ade m ́as, calculamos el movimiento solar y las dispersiones de velocidades para c uatro sub-muestras, a saber, DA, no-DA, enanas blancas calientes, y fr ́ıas. La com paraci ́on de nuestros resultados para las muestras de 20 y 25 pc da como resultado un a buena concordan- cia, mientras que los resultados de las comparaciones entre las otras sub-muestras no concuerdan. Se discute la dependencia de las dispersione s de velocidades y el movimiento solar de la composici ́on qu ́ımica y la temperatu ra efectiva

  1. RADIATION MODEL FOR PREDICTING TEMPERATURE EVOLUTION IN SOLAR COOKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARID CHEJNE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un modelo matemático que describe y simula el comportamiento térmico de una estufa solar fue desarrollado en base en la analogía de resistencias aléctricas. El modelo matemático incluye los tres diferentes mecanismos de transferencia de calor entre las diferentes superfi cies de la cocina solar y su entorno. El modelo matemático se utilizó para predecir la generación de entropía y de su efi ciencia; tambien, fue utilizado para evaluar los parametros de diseño de una estufa solar tipo caja. Los datos experimentales y teóricos fueron comparados satisfactoriamente.

  2. Solar engineering of thermal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duffie, John A

    2013-01-01

    The updated fourth edition of the ""bible"" of solar energy theory and applications Over several editions, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes has become a classic solar engineering text and reference. This revised Fourth Edition offers current coverage of solar energy theory, systems design, and applications in different market sectors along with an emphasis on solar system design and analysis using simulations to help readers translate theory into practice. An important resource for students of solar engineering, solar energy, and alternative energy as well

  3. NADBA : núcleo de aprendizaje para el decrecimeinto de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Carniello del Vecchio, Verónica

    2011-01-01

    El ejercicio trata del recupero de una nave industrial y de una parte del tejido construido contiguo a la Rambla del Raval para su reconversión a Núcleo de Aprendizaje para el Decrecimiento de Barcelona (NADBA): un centro cívico poli-funcional integrado en el funcionamiento ecológico de la ciudad. El carácter industrial de los espacios de taller se une a la “estética verde” para poder incorporar las técnicas de aprovechamiento del calor solar, la construcción con madera estructural para la re...

  4. Aviso para las viudas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Sales

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available San Pablo instruye todos los prelados en la persona de su Timoteo, diciendo: «Honra las viudas que son verdaderamente viudas». Para ser, pues, verdaderamente viuda, son necesarias estas cosas

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norhafana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of a solar water heating system as well as to evaluate the performance of the solar collector in terms of useful heat of the multilayered absorber using the multidirectional ability of a solar simulator at several values of solar radiation. It is operated at three variables of solar radiation of 400 W/m2, 550 W/m2 and 700 W/m2 and using three different positions of angles at 0º, 45º and 90º. The results show that the multilayer absorber in the solar collector is only able to best adapt at 45° of solar simulator with different values of radiation intensity. At this angle the maximum values of useful heat and temperature difference are achieved. KEYWORDS: solar water heating system; solar collector; multilayered absorber; solar simulator; solar radiation 

  6. National Community Solar Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupert, Bart [Clean Energy Collective, Louisville, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  7. Solar Cycle 24 and the Solar Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Schatten, K.

    2007-01-01

    We will discuss the polar field precursor method for solar activity prediction, which predicts cycle 24 will be significantly lower than recent activity cycles, and some new ideas rejuvenating Babcock's shallow surface dynamo. The polar field precursor method is based on Babcock and Leighton's dynamo models wherein the polar field at solar minimum plays a major role in generating the next cycle's toroidal field and sunspots. Thus, by examining the polar fields of the Sun near solar minimum, a forecast for the next cycle's activity is obtained. With the current low value for the Sun's polar fields, this method predicts solar cycle 24 will be one of the lowest in recent times, with smoothed F10.7 radio flux values peaking near 135 plus or minus 35 (2 sigma), in the 2012-2013 timeframe (equivalent to smoothed Rz near 80 plus or minus 35 [2 sigma]). One may have to consider solar activity as far back as the early 20th century to find a cycle of comparable magnitude. We discuss unusual behavior in the Sun's polar fields that support this prediction. Normally, the solar precursor method is consistent with the geomagnetic precursor method, wherein geomagnetic variations are thought to be a good measure of the Sun's polar field strength. Because of the unusual polar field, the Earth does not appear to be currently bathed in the Sun's extended polar field (the interplanetary field), hence negating the primal cause behind the geomagnetic precursor technique. We also discuss how percolation may support Babcock's original shallow solar dynamo. In this process ephemeral regions from the solar magnetic carpet, guided by shallow surface fields, may collect to form pores and sunspots.

  8. Estrategias para negociaciones exitosas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Parra V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de negociación son herramientas para disminuir conflictos o para intercambiar bienes y servicios. Una negociación exitosa crea relaciones de solidaridad y propicia reciprocidad, cooperación y confianza para quienes tendrán relaciones permanentes de negociación con beneficios para ambas partes. Una estrategia de negociación exitosa requiere manejar el desarrollo del ambiente social del grupo de personas, con la finalidad de tener presente las fronteras que no pueden irrumpirse. Otro aspecto importante, es el lenguaje corporal utilizado por las personas y las tácticas que se practican. El manejo de esta información permite diseñar diferentes modelos de negociaciones para cada caso específico. Este documento propone la utilización de la herramienta MONACO, diseñada por los autores, que es un software útil para encontrar los mejores tácticas posibles dentro de una negociación; basándose en el lenguaje corporal que muestra el negociante oponente durante cada oferta monetaria. El uso de este software da al negociador la oportunidad de manejar las negociaciones con mayor control, el negociador que usa el software puede elegir una estrategia de acuerdo a las relaciones que espera mantener con el negociador oponente.

  9. Proyecto de licencia de actividades con sus correspondientes instalaciones (contra incendios, baja tensión y solar fotovoltaica), y estudio de la gestión de residuos y seguridad en la instalación de las máquinas, para una nave industrial destinada a exposición, venta y reparación de automóviles

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Ceña, Javier

    2009-01-01

    En el presente proyecto de final de carrera se pretende reflejar todo el proceso, la normativa y las condiciones que hay que cumplir para poner en marcha la actividad de exposición, venta y reparación de automóviles en una nave industrial situada en Caldes de Montbui (Barcelona). Para ello se realiza el procedimiento necesario y se detallan todos los trámites para obtener la licencia municipal para la actividad, cumpliendo con la normativa y el proceso específico en este cas...

  10. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Cuesta-Santianes, M. J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  11. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  12. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  13. Climate Fundamentals for Solar Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The design of any solar heating system is influenced heavily by climate; in this bulletin, information on climate as related to solar heating is as related to solar heating is provided. Topics discussed include: (1) solar radiation; (2) degree days; (3) climate and calculations which make use of solar radiation and degree days; and (4)…

  14. Análisis de las instalaciones de energías renovables para una vivienda unifamiliar

    OpenAIRE

    Estévez Aceituno, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    El objeto de este PFC es definir un estudio de aislamiento térmico y las instalaciones de energía solar térmica para ACS, calidad del aire interior, suministro de agua, evacuación de aguas y climatización, para una vivienda unifamiliar. Se requiere incorporar una caldera de biomasa para calefacción por suelo radiante, una estación de depuración de aguas grises para reutilización (no potable) y un depósito enterrado, de recogida de aguas pluviales, para riego. Escuela de Arquitectura e Inge...

  15. The Solar Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Hathaway, David H

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev-Ohl (even-odd) Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  16. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  17. The Solar Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H

    The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev-Ohl (even-odd) Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  18. Solar Neutrino Data, Solar Model Uncertainties and Neutrino Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, L M; White, M; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Gates, Evalyn; White, Martin

    1993-01-01

    We incorporate all existing solar neutrino flux measurements and take solar model flux uncertainties into account in deriving global fits to parameter space for the MSW and vacuum solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

  19. Solar Neutrino Data, Solar Model Uncertainties and Neutrino Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    We incorporate all existing solar neutrino flux measurements and take solar model flux uncertainties into account in deriving global fits to parameter space for the MSW and vacuum solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

  20. Solar Asset Management Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, Aaron [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Zviagin, George [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Ra Power Management (RPM) has developed a cloud based software platform that manages the financial and operational functions of third party financed solar projects throughout their lifecycle. RPM’s software streamlines and automates the sales, financing, and management of a portfolio of solar assets. The software helps solar developers automate the most difficult aspects of asset management, leading to increased transparency, efficiency, and reduction in human error. More importantly, our platform will help developers save money by improving their operating margins.

  1. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  2. Horizontally mounted solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy is collected by using a vertical deflector assembly, a stationary reflector and a horizontally mounted solar collector. The deflector assembly contains a plurality of vanes which change the direction of the solar energy to the vertical, while constantly keeping the same side of the deflector facing the sun. The vertical rays are then reflected off the stationary reflector and are then absorbed by the collector.

  3. THE THERMOELECTRIC SOLAR PANELS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ahiska; Nykyruy, L. I.; Omer, G.; G. D. Mateik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, load characteristics of thermoelectric and photovoltaic solar panels are investigated and compared with each other with experiments. Thermoelectric solar panels converts the heat generated by sun directly to electricity; while, photovoltaic solar pales converts photonic energy from sun to electricity. In both types, maximum power can be obtained when the load resistance is equal to internal resistance. According to experimental results, power generated from unit surface with th...

  4. Solar Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to develop a laboratory prototype of a solar tracking system, which is able to enhance the performance of the photovoltaic modules in a solar energy system. The operating principle of the device is to keep the photovoltaic modules constantly aligned with the sunbeams, which maximises the exposure of solar panel to the Sun’s radiation. As a result, more output power can be produced by the solar panel. The work of the project included hardware design and implemen...

  5. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  6. Solar neutrino experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The present status of experimental solar neutrino research is reviewed. Updated results from the Homestake, Kamiokande, GALLEX and SAGE detectors all show a deficit when compared to recent standard solar model calculations. Two of these detectors, GALLEX and SAGE, have recently been checked with artificial {sup 51}Cr neutrino sources. It is shown that astrophysical scenarios to solve the solar neutrino problems are not favoured by the data. There is hope that the results of forthcoming solar neutrino experiments can provide the answers to the open questions. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 36 refs.

  7. CERN... Solar Style

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Inventor William van Sprolant presenting the Solar Club's latest invention, the solar fountain. The CERN Solar Club is giving new meaning to the phrase 'fun in the sun' with their most recently developed contraption, the Solar Fountain. The Fountain was presented to the public just outside of Restaurant 1 on Wednesday October, 17th and uses solar energy to run a water pump at its base to propel a golden plastic ball up into the air. As lovely as the fountain is, the funny thing about it is that the height of the water jet and the ball are an artistic method of measuring the amount of solar power being captured by the photovoltaique panel (no batteries included). The day it was presented started out cloudy, but as the afternoon wore on, the weather brightened and the fountain jumped to life. William van Sprolant, the Solar Fountain's inventor, had great fun with the fountain in front of a group of visiting children swiveling the solar panel in multiple directions. 'Everyone who installs solar panels worrie...

  8. Solar Cooker Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    The challenges which solar cooking technology is facing right now is discussed. Based on a field study in Madras and Gujarat, it is asserted that there is an important incompatibility between the technology and the every day real-life conditions of the "users" of solar cooker. An evaluation report...... on a solar cooker technology in Burkina Faso supports the findings of the study. It is concluded that the users and other important actors have to be incorporated in the technological development process of solar cookers in the future....

  9. Rectenna solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Moddel, Garret

    2013-01-01

    Rectenna Solar Cells discusses antenna-coupled diode solar cells, an emerging technology that has the potential to provide ultra-high efficiency, low-cost solar energy conversion. This book will provide an overview of solar rectennas, and provide thorough descriptions of the two main components: the diode, and the optical antenna. The editors discuss the science, design, modeling, and manufacturing of the antennas coupled with the diodes. The book will provide concepts to understanding the challenges, fabrication technologies, and materials required to develop rectenna structures. Written by e

  10. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  11. Solar Cycle Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, William Dean

    2012-01-01

    Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions; just like weather predictions are needed to plan the launch. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting many types of science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Predictions of drag on LEO spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less propellant can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory as you consume the reduced propellant load more rapidly. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms that endanger all assets in space. Solar cycle predictions also anticipate the shortwave emissions that cause degradation of solar panels. Testing solar dynamo theories by quantitative predictions of what will happen in 5-20 years is the next arena for solar cycle predictions. A summary and analysis of 75 predictions of the amplitude of the upcoming Solar Cycle 24 is presented. The current state of solar cycle predictions and some anticipations how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future will be discussed.

  12. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  13. Harnessing solar heat

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineered by man to harness solar heat in a controlled manner now include a diverse range of technologies each serving distinctive needs in particular climate contexts. This text covers the breadth of solar energy technologies for the conversion of solar energy to provide heat, either as the directly-used output or as an intermediary to other uses such as power generation or cooling. It is a wholly updated, extended and revised version of “Solar Energy Thermal Technology” first published in 1992. The text draws on the own author’s research and that of numerous colleagues and

  14. Solar shading how to integrate solar shading in sustainable buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Dolmans, Dick; Dutoo, Gonzague; Hall, Anders; Seppänen, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Solar Shading Guidebook gives a solid background on the physics of solar radiation and its behaviour in window with solar shading systems. Major focus of the Guidebook is on the effect of solar shading in the use of energy for cooling, heating and lighting. The book gives also practical guidance for selection, installation and operation of solar shading as well as future trends in integration of HVAC-systems with solar control.

  15. A novel solar hot plate for cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A; Osorio Jaramillo, Fidel A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UAEMex, Toluca, Edo. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Mexico and other developing countries, the use of firewood as combustible for cooking has contributed to deforestation and desertification of large zones. This is due to the lack of alternative combustibles for the poor inhabitants of the countryside and remote areas. In this paper, a new solar hot plate, intended for contributing to solve this problem, is presented. It can be used for cooking not only a great variety of prehispanic and traditional meals, like tortillas, fried meat and vegetables, but also hot cakes, bacon, eggs, steaks and fries. The hot plate solar cooker, called Tolocatzin, consists of a horizontal metallic plate, which is heated from both of its top and bottom surfaces by concentrated sun light from multicompound concentrator based on nonimaging optics, and built with nine ordinary plane glass-silvered, and two curved aluminum mirrors, so it can be manufactured easily in a small factory or at home. For an acceptance angle of 15 Celsius degrees, which allows the concentration of sun light without sun-tracking for about one hour, it can reach temperatures up to 240 Celsius degrees in a few minutes. This temperature is high enough for cooking almost all fried or grilled meals. The design was optimized using ray-trace procedures. The operational experience with early prototypes has shown that the Tolocatzin solar hot plate does an excellent cooking job and could really be massively used in sunny countries. [Spanish] En Mexico y otros paises en desarrollo, el uso de la madera como combustible para cocinar ha contribuido a la deforestacion y desertificacion de grandes zonas. Esto es debido a la falta de combustibles alternativos por parte de los habitantes pobres del campo y de areas remotas. En este articulo se presenta una nueva placa solar que tiene el proposito de contribuir a resolver este problema. Puede ser usada para cocinar no solamente una gran variedad de comidas prehispanicas y tradicionales, como tortillas, carne frita y verduras sino

  16. Utilização de planejamento fatorial para a determinação da capacidade antioxidante e doseamento de flavonoides totais em Verbena minutiflora Briq. ex Moldenke (gervai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. PELOI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Verbena minutiflora Briq. ex Moldenke (gervai tem seu uso medicinal relatado popularmente para tratamento de doenças hepáticas, diarreia e outros problemas de saúde. Entretanto, pouco se conhece a respeito de seus componentes químicos e estudos que comprovem suas propriedades medicinais são escassos. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a composição química dos extratos aquosos e etanólicos de flores de V. minutiflora e otimizar processos de obtenção de extratos com maiores capacidades antioxidantes e maiores concentrações de flavonoides. O método de extração foi desenhado por planejamento fatorial, onde as variáveis para a determinação da capacidade antioxidante foram: pH, extração líquida, método e tempo de extração. Para a determinação de flavonoides totais as variáveis avaliadas por planejamento fatorial foram: concentração de hexametilenotetramina, tipo de ácido, volume de ácido e tempo de aquecimento. Os resultados das análises químicas dos extratos mostraram: aminogrupos, taninos e ácidos fixos (extrato aquoso aminogrupos, flavonoides, triterpenos, esteroides, alcaloides e cumarinas (extrado hidroetanólico. Os resultados dos planejamentos fatoriais mostraram que o melhor método de extração para a capacidade antioxidante foi o que usou vórtex, por 35 min, com água:etanol 50:50, com pH1, obtendo 0,1899± 5,8.10-3 mmol expressos em ácido ascórbico g-1 nos extratos de V. minutiflora. Enquanto, para as dosagens de flavonoides totais as variáveis significantes foram: tipo de ácido e volume de ácido. A melhor extração obtida foi: 6,748. 10-2± 2,085 10-3% expressos em quercetina. Os resultados mostraram que o planejamento fatorial é uma importante ferramenta para a otimização de extração de componentes químicos em produtos naturais.

  17. Modelagem de um condicionador de ar de alta precisão para uso em processamento agrícola Modeling of a high precision air conditioner for use in agricultural processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Fortes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se neste trabalho, estudo detalhado sobre a modelagem de um condicionador de ar com controle acurado de temperatura e umidade relativa. Desenvolveu-se um programa de computador que permite predizer o comportamento do sistema sob diferentes condições psicrométricas e de vazão do ar de entrada. O modelo global físico-matemático inclui equações de balanço de massa e de energia para três diferentes volumes de controle que compõem o condicionador. Modelaram-se os processos de mistura, evaporação (ou condensação simultânea de uma superfície d'água e de uma gota e o aquecimento de corrente de ar, separadamente. Propõem-se expressões semi-empíricas simples para os coeficientes de transferência de calor e massa inerentes ao processo de evaporação sobre uma superfície d'água e um modelo simplificado para o sistema de spray. Construiu-se um condicionador de ar no qual foram feitos testes experimentais para o ajuste das constantes que aparecem nas expressões para os coeficientes de transferência. Os dados obtidos validaram o modelo global, com precisão aceitável para projetos de engenharia.In this work, a detailed procedure for the analysis of an accurately controlled air conditioner is presented. A computer program, that allows predicting the behavior of the system under different psychrometric conditions and different input air mass flow rates, was developed. The global physical-mathematical model includes mass and energy conservation equations for three different control volumes that compose the conditioner. Thus, the processes of mixture of air, simultaneous evaporation (or condensation from a water surface and from a drop, and the air-stream heating are modeled separately. Simple semi-empiric expressions for heat and mass coefficients inherent to the evaporation process on a water surface are proposed as well a simplified model for the spray system. Experimental tests made on an air-conditioner allowed to obtain

  18. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  19. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  20. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the “solar neutrino problem”. Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consis...

  1. Tiempo para un cambio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  2. Instalaciones para hotel rural

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Riera, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    El presente proyecto cuenta con la información necesaria para el desarrollo de las instalaciones de un hotel rural. Dichas instalaciones son; la eléctrica, la de agua caliente sanitaria, las telecomunicaciones y la climatización. En el apartado de la instalación eléctrica, se han calculado todos los cables necesarios para el correcto funcionamiento del hotel, partiendo de las potencias demandadas en cada punto de consumo. Se ha calculado la línea general de alimentación, acomet...

  3. Instrucciones para autores

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrucciones para autoresNota preliminar: ¡Es de suma importancia que antesde enviar cualquier documento a la Revista GeologíaColombiana, lea y cumpla cuidadosamente cada uno delos subíndices de las Normas para autores!A partir del Volumen 35 (2010) recibimos artículosprincipalmente a través del sistema digital enhttp://www.revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/geocol/index.Si quiere enviar un artículo, por favor regístrese comoAutor en el menú INGRESAR (aquí pueden registrarsetambién evaluadores u...

  4. Instalación solar fotovoltaica aislada

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es la creación e implementación de una instalación solar fotovoltaica aislada, con una autonomía de 5 días y un índice de ocupación del 100% durante todos los meses del año. Se prevé el consumo de una potencia diaria (Ed) de 7732W, para abastecer las necesidades primarias y energéticas de las 38 familias que conforman el poblado indígena EL PROGRESO, ubicado en el trapecio amazónico colombiano. De cara a futuras ampliaciones del sistema,...

  5. Future: Solar energy. Zukunft: Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first chapter, 'Solar energy - more than just Utopia' deals with the following: Alternatives to nuclear energy problems of energy supply, solar energy use, commencement of the solar age in space, solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany, solar collectors, wind power, energy from hydrogen. The second chapter 'Solar energy - its contribution to future energy supply' discusses prospects for the future (interviews with scientists and engineers). The third and last chapter gives practical hints (solar energy use: self-construction of solar plants). (HWJ).

  6. Solar ponds: a selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)

  7. Solar energy in Czechoslovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Eva

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of my tour to Czechoslovakia was to participate the Third International Conference Applied Optics in Solar Energy, which was held in Prague, Octoher 2-6, 1989, and then visit some scientific institutes and solar collector plants as guest of the Czechoslovakian Academy of Science. This was made possihle hy an exchange researcher grant from the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences.

  8. The lower solar atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    This "rapporteur" report discusses the solar photosphere and low chromosphere in the context of chemical composition studies. The highly dynamical nature of the photosphere does not seem to jeopardize precise determination of solar abundances in classical fashion. It is still an open question how th

  9. Solar array deployment mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calassa, Mark C.; Kackley, Russell

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a Solar Array Deployment Mechanism (SADM) used to deploy a rigid solar array panel on a commercial spacecraft. The application required a deployment mechanism design that was not only lightweight, but also could be produced and installed at the lowest possible cost. This paper covers design, test, and analysis of a mechanism that meets these requirements.

  10. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  11. Future Solar Neutrino Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida-city, 506-1205 (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki@suketto.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of the future solar neutrino experiments is briefly reviewed. The future experimental programs which aim to measure the low energy solar neutrinos are described. We do not cover all the projects. Experiments using noble gases are promising for the pp-neutrino measurements.

  12. Solar Electricity for Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  13. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  14. Solar Energy: Home Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  15. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  16. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.-S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still remain

  17. Solar '77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, G

    1978-06-01

    This manual was designed to give everyone a basic understanding of necessary conservation and system features for an efficient, cost effective, and comfortable solar tempered dwelling. Primary emphasis was given to energy efficient design features and construction in new and existing dwellings. A solar glossary is included. (MHR)

  18. Solar Irradiance Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Sami K

    2012-01-01

    The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

  19. Solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    The focus in the present Ph.D. thesis is on the active use of solar energy for domestic hot water and space heating in so-called solar combi systems. Most efforts have been put into detailed investigations on the design of solar combi systems and on devices used for building up thermal...... the thermal behaviour of different components, and the theoretical investigations are used to study the influence of the thermal behaviour on the yearly thermal performance of solar combi systems. The experimental investigations imply detailed temperature measurements and flow visualization with the Particle...... Image Velocimetry measurement method. The theoretical investigations are based on the transient simulation program TrnSys and Computational Fluid Dynamics. The Ph.D. thesis demonstrates the influence on the thermal performance of solar combi systems of a number of different parameters...

  20. A Little Solar Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    Experiences from use of solar cookers in India and many other places are different. But the story which is based on a field study in Gujarat state of India shows that during last twenty years there has been a tendency that many families do not continue to use their solar cookers. The study shows...... that the tendency is related with the lack of compatibility of this new technology (solar cooker) with the everyday real-life conditions of the families. In principle the findings are supported by an evaluation report on a solar cooker project in Burkina Faso. The conclusion is that the user should be involved...... in the solar cooker technological development process....

  1. Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, A.; Hernandez-Cervantes, L.; Gonzalez-Ponce, A.; Hill, F.; Blanco-Cano, X.

    2007-12-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) concept contains software tools for searching, manipulating, and analyzing data from archives of solar data at many different observatories around the world (Hill 2000). The VSO not only provides fast and reliable access to the existing solar data, but also represents a powerful and unique machinery to perform numerical simulations for the evolution of a variety of different phenomena associated with solar activity. Two Mexican Universities, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and the Universidad de Sonora, are working together to create the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) that will be part of a wider National effort. In this work we present a general description of the MVSO project, as well as the advances obtained in the development of Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) to Remotely Perform Numerical Simulation of the Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejection in the Interplanetary Medium.

  2. Solar wind travel time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    A useful rule of thumb in solar terrestrial studies is that the solar wind travels 4 Earth radii (RE) per minute. Long-term studies of solar wind velocity [e.g., Luhmann et al., 1993; 1994] show that the median velocity is about 420 km/s, corresponding to 3.96 RE min-1. The quartiles are about 370 km/s and 495 km/s, corresponding to 3.48 Re min-1 and 4.66 Re min-1 respectively. This number helps estimate the delays expected when observing a discontinuity at a solar wind monitor; one example is ISEE-3 when it was at the forward libration point (about 60 min). It is also helpful for estimating how much time passes before the dayside magnetosphere is compressed as denser solar wind flows by (about 2.5 min).

  3. Metodologia de baixo custo para levantamento de diagramas CCT em soldagem Low-cost methodology for obtaining CCT welding diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louriel Oliveira Vilarinho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A união de materiais metálicos é freqüentemente associada a problemas metalúrgicos, associados ao material em uso e que, cuja solução, demanda estudos dedicados e demorados. Especificamente, podem ocorrer modificações metalúrgicas na ZAC (zona afetada pelo calor, levando a alterações microestruturais. Contudo esta é uma região de difícil estudo devido a sua pequena dimensão. Assim, a fim de superar esta limitação com relação ao estudo da ZAC, existem na literatura proposições de máquinas de simulação de ZAC, que fazem uso do efeito Joule para o aquecimento de determinados corpos de prova, que se resfriam por condução e convecção, de forma a simular o ciclo térmico em uma ZAC obtida por soldagem real. Tais simuladores comerciais estão disponíveis, mas a um custo muito alto. Assim, o desenvolvimento de um simulador físico de baixo custo é de grande importância. Em artigos anteriores, a proposição e construção deste simulador, que está baseado na modificação de um equipamento de soldagem a ponto por resistência, foram avaliadas como uso de corpos de prova cilíndricos de geometria fixa. Embora, a fonte consiga suprir a energia necessária para se atingir o ciclo térmico de aquecimento (alta temperatura e baixo tempo, não foi possível atingir um ciclo térmico de resfriamento próximo ao da realidade. Assim, para suprir tal limitação, simulações foram executadas em elementos para determinar a geometria ótima em função do tempo de resfriamento (ciclo térmico desejado. Todos os dados das simulações foram compilados na forma de uma modelo de regressão para se executar tal otimização da geometria. A partir desta metodologia foi possível construir diferentes diagramas CCT aplicados obtidos com os rápidos ciclos térmicos presentes na soldagem. Tais diagramas são apresentados e comparados com os poucos encontrados na literatura, com boa concordância.The joining of metals is often associated to

  4. Solar heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, J A; Beckman, W A

    1976-01-16

    We have adequate theory and engineering capability to design, install, and use equipment for solar space and water heating. Energy can be delivered at costs that are competitive now with such high-cost energy sources as much fuel-generated, electrical resistance heating. The technology of heating is being improved through collector developments, improved materials, and studies of new ways to carry out the heating processes. Solar cooling is still in the experimental stage. Relatively few experiments have yielded information on solar operation of absorption coolers, on use of night sky radiation in locations with clear skies, on the combination of a solar-operated Rankine engine and a compression cooler, and on open cycle, humidification-dehumidification systems. Many more possibilities for exploration exist. Solar cooling may benefit from collector developments that permit energy delivery at higher temperatures and thus solar operation of additional kinds of cycles. Improved solar cooling capability can open up new applications of solar energy, particularly for larger buildings, and can result in markets for retrofitting existing buildings. Solar energy for buildings can, in the next decade, make a significant contribution to the national energy economy and to the pocketbooks of many individual users. very large-aggregate enterprises in manufacture, sale, and installation of solar energy equipment can result, which can involve a spectrum of large and small businesses. In our view, the technology is here or will soon be at hand; thus the basic decisions as to whether the United States uses this resource will be political in nature.

  5. Aprendizaje cooperativo para ELE

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Presentación sucinta para docentes de español como lengua extranjera del conjunto de propuestas metodológicas conocidas bajo la denominación aprendizaje cooperativo : origen, fundamentación, principales principios psicopedagógicos y algunas propuestas prácticas.

  6. Radial Velocities with PARAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.

  7. Líneas metálicas en protuberancias solares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenborg, G.; Rovira, M. G.; Mauas, P.

    Para determinar cual de los modelos existentes de protuberancias solares explica mejor las observaciones, es necesario, no solo ajustar los perfiles de las líneas de hidrógeno, sino también utilizar perfiles de distintos metales. En este trabajo, utilizamos un código desarrollado especialmente para calcular el equilibrio estadístico de cualquier especie atómica, aplicándolo al cálculo de los perfiles de las líneas del Ca II, el Mg II y el He, para determinar cómo se comportan ante variaciones en los parámetros de los modelos de protuberancia (ancho, presión y temperatura centrales y número de hebras), y comparamos con las observaciones existentes para determinar que modelo las ajusta mejor.

  8. EL SOL COMO ALTERNATIVA PARA PRODUCIR ENERGÍA ELÉCTRICA: PROPUESTA PARQUE INFANTIL PARA LA CIUDAD DE CÚCUTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Yohana Sánchez-Mojica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La problemática del consumo descontrolado de energía eléctrica en el mundo y su constante crecimiento, es el escenario para el desarrollo de esta investigación que busca adelantar una propuesta para crear un parque infantil por parte de estudiantes de la Institución educativa Carlos Ramírez Paris, que funcione con energía solar como estrategia de sensibilización a la comunidad en general sobre el uso de energías limpias en la ciudad y en Colombia. Los estudiantes plantean la idea desde el programa ondas en una investigación que responde a una necesidad inmediata que los motiva como lo es un parque de diversiones público, sin embargo, es una alternativa para pensar en proyectos macro de desarrollo para la ciudad. Con esta propuesta se pretende diseñar una maqueta de un parque infantil a pequeña escala donde los estudiantes plasmen su iniciativa y se muestre la aplicación de la energía solar para el funcionamiento de algunos atractivos; una de los principales objetivos del proyecto es responder a la curiosidad de los estudiantes por saber cómo es el funcionamiento de este tipo de energía haciendo uso de los paneles solares.

  9. Water disinfection with solar radiation; Desinfeccion del agua con radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Alejandra; Cortes, Juana E; Rodriguez, Miriam; Mundo, Alfredo; Vazquez, Sandra [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Estrada, Claudio A [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Water disinfection by exposure to solar radiation is a low cost and easy application option to rural communities. The treatment of water can be done using plastic bags or plastic bottles of two litters setting on a reflective material. The efficient of the plastic bottles is lower than the one plastic bags, but the plastic bottles have a much better control of the treated water avoiding its recontamination. In order to increase the efficiency of disinfection using plastic bottles, two solar concentrators, using flat mirrors, were designed and built. Effluent water from a treatment plant of residual waters was used for the testing. Several comparison were carried out taking into account the position of the concentrators, the transparency of the bottles and the bags. The results show that using the concentrator that adjust its position to the sun every hour, a 100% disinfection is obtained in 4 hours of direct exposure to the sun rays in a sunny day. The period of time can be reduced up to 2 hours, if instead using transparent bottles, the bottles are black painted at their bottom half. With these results, the basis to design a cheap concentrator of easy construction to be used in rural communities have been settle. [Spanish] La desinfeccion del agua por exposicion a la luz solar fotodesinfeccion es una opcion de bajo costo y facil aplicacion para las comunidades rurales. El tratamiento puede llevarse a cabo utilizando bolsas o botellas de plastico transparente de dos litros de capacidad colocadas sobre un material reflejante. Las botellas son menos eficientes que las bolsas, pero permiten un mejor control del agua tratada evitando su recontaminacion. Para aumentar la eficiencia de la desinfeccion utilizando las botellas, se disenaron y construyeron dos concentradores solares de espejos planos que permitieron disminuir el tiempo de exposicion requerido cuando se utilizan estas. Para las pruebas de desinfeccion se utilizo agua del efluente de una planta de tratamiento

  10. Non-linear absorption for concentrated solar energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O. A; Del Rio, J.A; Huelsz, G [Centro de Investigacion de Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to determine the maximum solar energy that can be transported using SiO{sub 2} optical fibers, analysis of non-linear absorption is required. In this work, we model the interaction between solar radiation and the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber core to determine the dependence of the absorption of the radioactive intensity. Using Maxwell's equations we obtain the relation between the refractive index and the electric susceptibility up to second order in terms of the electric field intensity. This is not enough to obtain an explicit expression for the non-linear absorption. Thus, to obtain the non-linear optical response, we develop a microscopic model of an harmonic driven oscillators with damp ing, based on the Drude-Lorentz theory. We solve this model using experimental information for the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber, and we determine the frequency-dependence of the non-linear absorption and the non-linear extinction of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers. Our results estimate that the average value over the solar spectrum for the non-linear extinction coefficient for SiO{sub 2} is k{sub 2}=10{sup -}29m{sup 2}V{sup -}2. With this result we conclude that the non-linear part of the absorption coefficient of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers during the transport of concentrated solar energy achieved by a circular concentrator is negligible, and therefore the use of optical fibers for solar applications is an actual option. [Spanish] Con el objeto de determinar la maxima energia solar que puede transportarse usando fibras opticas de SiO{sub 2} se requiere el analisis de absorcion no linear. En este trabajo modelamos la interaccion entre la radiacion solar y el nucleo de la fibra optica de SiO{sub 2} para determinar la dependencia de la absorcion de la intensidad radioactiva. Mediante el uso de las ecuaciones de Maxwell obtenemos la relacion entre el indice de refraccion y la susceptibilidad electrica hasta el segundo orden en terminos de intensidad del campo electrico. Esto no es

  11. Delft's solar car wins Solar Challenge 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    There were remarkable scenes in Adelaide, Australia,on the afternoon of Wednesday 22 October 2003 when a swathe of orange spilled through the city. Barely visible at the heart of this burst of colour was the Nuna II, a futuristic vehicle which had just won the Solar Challenge 2003, a four-day journe

  12. CHOOSING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnikov A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Promising is the direction and, above all, in matters of energy saving and energy efficiency of Autonomous systems of power supply, the use of renewable sources-newable energy as a major source of energy for consumers in remote areas. Here priority is given to solar energy. Since solar radiation can be change place not only in heat and electrical. The article contains three main structural schematics of electricity supply with solar power plants. The features of their work are disclosed, as well as an algorithm for calculating solar energy systems, the sequence of which is to define the required parameters, the daily energy consumption by consumers of electric power, the calculation capacity of the battery, the choice of the inverter and determining the area of solar batteries. The article reveals the conditions that affect the calculation of the PV system. It is shown that the greatest efficiency, including economic and reliability we have at combined (hybrid Autonomous system, which was carried out with both solar power and wind power and gas stations. The important matters of improving the reliability of solar systems are the introduction to the design of a new element of the base, and first and foremost, Autonomous inventors performed on a single-phase transformer with a rotating magnetic field

  13. Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Péter

    Energetic particles recorded in the Earth environment and in interplanetary space have a multitude of origins, i.e. acceleration and propagation histories. At early days practically all sufficiently energetic particles were considered to have come either from solar flares or from interstellar space. Later on, co-rotating interplanetary shocks, the termination shock of the supersonic solar wind, planetary bow shocks and magnetospheres, and also coronal mass ejections (CME) were recognized as energetic particle sources. It was also recognized that less energetic (suprathermal) particles of solar origin and pick-up ions have also a vital role in giving rise to energetic particles in interplanetary disturbances. The meaning of the term "solar energetic particles" (SEP) is now somewhat vague, but essentially it refers to particles produced in disturbances fairly directly related to solar processes. Variation of intensity fluctuations with energy and with the phase of the solar cycle will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to extremes of time variation, i.e. to very quiet periods and to large events. While quiet-time fluxes are expected to shed light on some basic coronal processes, large events dominate the fluctuation characteristics of cumulated fluence, and the change of that fluctuation with energy and with the phase of the solar cycle may also provide important clues. Mainly ISEE-3 and long-term IMP-8 data will be invoked. Energetic and suprathermal particles that may never escape into interplanetary space may play an important part in heating the corona of the sun.

  14. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. First Part: Evaluation of the Solar Resource in Mexico (Annexe 6-I in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Primera Parte: Evaluacion del Recurso Solar en Mexico (Anexo 6-I en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The application of the solar energy requires an evaluation of the solar resource. It is understood by evaluation the determination of the amount of solar energy available to be used in an application; from the point of view of the present applications it is advisable to distinguish two: the direct solar radiation and the diffuse solar radiation, that conform what it is known as the global solar radiation, or hemispheric. All the solar collectors have capacity to use the direct radiation, their capacity to use diffuse radiation depends on the concentration factor of the radiation that characterizes them. Another distinction that can be done is the measurement of different parts from the spectrum. It is not simple to predict the value of the solar radiation in a site or given moment, this has implications in the design of solar facilities, which are constructed to operate during a large number of years. [Spanish] La aplicacion de la energia solar requiere una evaluacion del recurso solar. Se entiende por evaluacion a la determinacion de la cantidad de energia solar disponible para ser utilizada en una aplicacion; desde el punto de vista de las aplicaciones actuales conviene distinguir dos: la radiacion solar directa y la radiacion solar difusa, que conforman lo que se conoce como la radiacion solar global, o hemisferica. Todos los colectores solares tienen capacidad de utilizar la radiacion directa, su capacidad de usar radiacion difusa depende del factor de concentracion de la radiacion que los caracteriza. Otra distincion que se puede hacer es la medicion de diferentes partes del espectro. No es sencillo predecir el valor de la radiacion solar en un sitio o momento dado, esto tiene implicaciones en el diseno de instalaciones solares, las cuales se construyen para operar durante un numero grande de anos.

  15. Analysis of Flat-Plate Solar Array and Solar Lantern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A very detailed theortical analysis of a solar array has been carried out based on established values of solar radiation data to predict the performance of solar lamp . The analysis is based on established theory about flat-plate collectors. Top heat loss coefficient (Ut, Bottom heat loss coefficient (Ub, Overall heat loss coefficient (Ul, Useful energy (Qu, efficiency (hp of the flat-plate solar array and efficiency (hl of the solar lantern has been calculated.

  16. Relativistic implications of solar astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2011-01-01

    The modern methods of measurement of the solar diameter and oblateness are reviewed. Either ground-based or balloon-borne and satellite measurements are considered. The importance of solar astrometry for General Relativity is emphasized, particularly attention is given to the solar oblateness problem, as well as the studies of solar astrophysics to the whole world of physics from nucleosynthesis to neutrinos.

  17. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2010-03-16

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  18. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  19. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Matthias; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope.

  20. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Sternwarte; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope. (orig.)

  1. Solar flares. [plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with explosions in a magnetized solar plasma, known as flares, whose effects are seen throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma-rays through the visible and to the radio band. The diverse phenomena associated with flares are discussed, along with the physical mechanisms that have been advanced to explain them. The impact of solar flare research on the development of plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics is noted. The rapid development of solar flare research during the past 20 years, owing to the availability of high-resolution images, detailed magnetic field measurements, and improved spectral data, is illustrated.

  2. Infrared Solar Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Penn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The infrared solar spectrum contains a wealth of physical data about our Sun, and is explored using modern detectors and technology with new ground-based solar telescopes. The scientific motivation behind exploring these wavelengths is presented, along with a brief look at the rich history of observations here. Several avenues of solar physics research exploiting and benefiting from observations at infrared wavelengths from roughly 1000 nm to 12 400 nm are discussed, and the instrument and detector technology driving this research is briefly summarized. Finally, goals for future work at infrared wavelengths are presented in conjunction with ground and space-based observations.

  3. Physics of solar energy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Julian

    2011-01-01

    The definitive guide to the science of solar energy You hold in your hands the first, and only, truly comprehensive guide to the most abundant and most promising source of alternative energy-solar power. In recent years, all major countries in the world have been calling for an energy revolution. The renewable energy industry will drive a vigorous expansion of the global economy and create more ""green"" jobs. The use of fossil fuels to power our way of living is moving toward an inevitable end, with sources of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being fiercely depleted. Solar energy

  4. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  5. Exploring the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system is one of humanity's greatest scientific achievements. The last fifty years in particular have seen huge steps forward in our understanding of the planets, the sun, and other objects in the solar system. Whilst planetary science is now a mature discipline - involving geoscientists, astronomers, physicists, and others - many profound mysteries remain, and there is indeed still the tantalizing possibility that we may find evidence of life on another planet in our system.Drawing upon the latest results from the second golden age of Solar System exploration, aut

  6. Comparative study of series of solar radiation; Estudio comparativo de series de radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaro, Agustin; Cesari, Daniela; Lema, Alba; Galimberti, Pablo; Barral, Jorge [Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    la energia solar se debera contar con la mas adecuada informacion sobre los niveles de radiacion. Siendo esta fuente de energia dependiente de las fluctuaciones atmosfericas y meteorologicas, es que se requiere contar con la mas certera informacion respecto a la cantidad y variabilidad de la energia solar disponible. Un camino es el tratamiento estadistico de los datos ya disponibles, tanto de radiacion solar como de horas de sol. Este enfoque genera mucha expectativa por la mayor cantidad de informacion respecto a las horas de sol existente. Esta mayor informacion de horas de sol se debe a que las mediciones se realizan con instrumentos llamados heliografos con un nivel de complejidad y costo mucho menor que los instrumentos de medicion de radiacion. Entre los heliografos el mas utilizado es el de Campbell - Stokes, y es el que se a instalado en la mayoria de las estaciones meteorologicas de Argentina y el Mundo, por lo que la informacion de horas de sol es la que mas abunda. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo encontrar una interrelacion entre las series medidas de horas de sol e irradiacion. El estudio se realiza utilizando modelos de series temporales y el modelo de Angstrom-Page. Se realiza ademas un estudio de la generacion de secuencias de radiacion utilizando el concepto de las Cadenas de Markov. Se analizan las series para Rio cuarto determinandose la funcion de transferencia entre ambas series, y se obtienen los valores de radiacion solar global para localidades de la misma region. Se encuentran los coeficientes de la Ecuacion de Anstrom-Page para Rio Cuarto. Se encuentra los valores medios mensuales por estos dos metodos y se comparan resultados.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  8. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  9. Avaliação do desempenho de um aquecedor para aves adaptado para utilizar biogás como combustível Birds heater adaptation and performance using biogas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M. B. Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se ensaio para avaliar a adaptação (diâmetro do injetor e o desempenho (consumo e eficiência de aquecimento de um aquecedor tipo campânula, adaptado para queimar biogás. Foi testado um aquecedor comum que, queimando gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP, opera à baixa pressão (28 cm.c.a., com capacidade calorífica de 5.024 kJ h-1 e recomendado para 500 aves. O aquecedor foi avaliado com o combustível original (GLP, sem qualquer modificação no injetor de gás, e após adaptação para o funcionamento a biogás. Na adaptação, foi mantida a mesma grelha do queimador principal, aumentando-se a perfuração do injetor para permitir o funcionamento e a avaliação. Foram avaliados cinco injetores com perfurações de 1,0053; 1,5080; 1,5708; 1,7672 e 1,980 mm². Também se variaram as pressões do biogás na entrada do aquecedor de 10; 12; 15; 17 e 20 cm de coluna d'água (cm.c.a.. Os resultados indicaram que as expressões de cálculo teórico e parâmetros propostos na bibliografia podem ser utilizados com segurança na adaptação de aquecedores do tipo campânula utilizados em aviários; que a adaptação é de simples execução, indicando a viabilidade da utilização dos aquecedores já existentes em granjas e no mercado, e que as temperaturas do ar foram semelhantes às obtidas com o combustível original (GLP.It was carried out a trial to evaluate the adaptation (injector diameter and performance (biogas consumption and heating efficiency of a heating adapted to burn biogas. It was tried a common heater, burning liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, operating with low gas pressure (28 cm water column, with calorific capacity of 5024 kJ/h and recommended for 500 birds. The heater was evaluated with the original fuel (LPG without any modification in the gas injector and after adapting to biogas burning. Five injectors were evaluated with drillings of 1,0053; 1,5080; 1,5708; 1,7672 and 1,980 mm2. It also was varied the biogas

  10. Implementação de um sistema de controle analógico com movimento em dois eixos aplicado em painéis solares

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    A geração de energia elétrica utilizando sistemas fotovoltaicos solares é uma tendência para melhorar e eficiência energética. Seguindo esta tendência, este trabalho mostra o projeto de um sistema eletrônico analógico para posicionamento de painéis solares em dois eixos. O sistema proposto é apto para operar por uma lógica de controle por modulação da largura de pulso (PWM) para inversores em ponte completa, acoplados a dois motores, que mantém o sistema fotovoltaico posicionado perpendicular...

  11. Solution-Processed Transition Metal Oxides for Organic Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Teran Escobar, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Las celdas solares orgánicas se han convertido en una promesa para la producción de energía a bajo costo, y su potencial se refleja en los enormes esfuerzos para mejorar su eficiencia. En los últimos 30 años, esta tecnología ha crecido enormemente, con prototipos de laboratorio mostrando eficiencia mayor que 10 % . El continuo desarrollo de polímeros semiconductores, materiales de amortiguamiento, y el conocimiento profundo sobre el intercambio electrónico en las interfaces, han sido las prin...

  12. Instrucciones para autores y autoras

    OpenAIRE

    Casa de la Mujer, Revista

    2015-01-01

    Le recomendamos leer este documento a profundidad para queconozca las políticas y normas para postular a consideración su escrito.Estas instrucciones se organizan en tres apartados: I. Datos básicos,II. Políticas y III. Lineamientos para presentar el escrito; para la citacióny referenciación con APA se ofrece el documento titulado Guía dereferenciación y citación con APA.

  13. Consejos para pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Eulalia Lucio-Villegas Menéndez; Laura López González; M. Isabel Gutiérrez Pérez; Natalia Aresté Lluch; M. Luisa Morató Agustí; Santiago Pérez Cachafeiro

    2014-01-01

    En el cuidado de las heridas es tan importante saber qué hacer como saber qué no hacer. Lo primero es valorar la gravedad de la lesión y saber si es necesario acudir a un centro sanitario o no. Si la herida es simple, lo más recomendable es hacer una buena limpieza con suero o agua tras lavado de manos, realizando la desinfección de esta con el antiséptico más adecuado. Los antisépticos no deben usarse para la limpieza de las heridas (usar suero fisiológico o agua del grifo) ni para la cur...

  14. Aplicaciones web para celulares

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Diego Germán de la

    2007-01-01

    Las tecnologías inalámbricas -y en particular la telefonía celular- han tenido mucho auge y desarrollo en estos últimos años. El teléfono celular hoy día no es solo una herramienta indispensable para la gente de negocios, sino también un elemento primordial para la comunicación entre las personas. El rápido desarrollo tecnológico, la reducción de costos y el incremento de las expectativas de la gente, han provocado una invasión de teléfonos celulares en toda la sociedad, a nivel de llegar a r...

  15. Libertad para volar

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Olalla

    2008-01-01

    La formación, el empleo y la arquitectura sin barreras son aspectos esenciales para la integración del colectivo de personas con discapacidad. Sin embargo, la independencia y la normalización son un grado más en la lucha por la igualdad de trato y es ahí donde entran en juego factores como el ocio y el tiempo libre.

  16. Universidades accesibles para todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Stupp Kupiec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende hacer conciencia sobrelos factores que inciden en la construcción colectiva deuniversidades dispuestas a innovar y transformar suideología, sus políticas, el currículum, los servicios estu-diantiles, la infraestructura física y administrativa y lasestrategias de comunicación e información, bajo el para-digma de la accesibilidad en el entorno. Se hace referen-cia al marco legal internacional y nacional que orientalas acciones que deben planificarse e implementarse enlas instituciones de Educación Superior.En la construcción de universidades accesibles para to-dos se requiere de un cambio en la concepción curricu-lar. Se analizan conceptos como la flexibilidad en la for-mación y el acceso a los planes de estudio para respondera las necesidades educativas de todos los estudiantes. Para promover estas transformaciones se proponen prin-cipios y prácticas tales como la interdisciplinareidad y lainclusión del tema de la discapacidad en todas las carre-ras. Además, se presentan ejemplos de aplicación en dife-rentes áreas del perfil profesional, en la formación deldocente universitario y en actividades de proyección so-cial, vida estudiantil e investigación. En el ámbito estu-diantil, se describen algunos servicios y procesos que sehan desarrollado en la Universidad de Costa Rica

  17. Educando para la ignorancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Durán

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Más que describir una situación particular, los autores buscan con este escrito motivar al estudiante para que asuma posiciones críticas; así como dar un campanazo de alerta a los profesores, en relación a los conocimientos que transmiten a sus alumnos y la forma en que lo hacen; todo con el ánimo de generar verdaderos espacios de reflexión en la universidad.

  18. Analysis and adaptation of a mathematical model for the prediction of solar radiation; Analisis y adaptacion de un modelo matematico de prediccion de radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, Lorenzo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    There is an abundant, reliable, free, source of energy whose use can be planned and besides, practicably inexhaustible: the solar energy. In Mexico it constitutes an important resource, because of its geographical position; for this reason it is fundamental to know it well, either by means of measurements conducted for several years or by mathematical models. These last ones predict with meteorological variables, the values of the solar radiation with acceptable precision. At the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) a model is studied for the prediction of the solar radiation to be adapted to the local conditions of Mexico. It is used in simulation studies of the solar plants functioning and other solar systems. [Espanol] Existe una fuente de energia abundante, confiable, gratuita, cuyo uso puede planearse y, ademas, es practicamente inagotable: la solar. En Mexico constituye un recurso importante, por la posicion geografica del pais; por eso es fundamental conocerlo bien, ya mediante mediciones realizadas durante algunos anos, ya mediante modelos matematicos. Estos ultimos predicen, con datos de variables meteorologicas, los valores de la radiacion solar con precision aceptable. En el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) se estudia un modelo de prediccion de radiacion solar para adaptarlo a las condiciones locales de Mexico. Se usa en estudios de simulacion del funcionamiento de plantas helioelectricas y otros sistemas solares.

  19. INICIATIVAS PARA EL CAMBIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alfonso Defrancisco-Larrañaga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El planeta no atraviesa por su mejor momento en materia de conservación y renovación de sus recursos naturales. Claramente en los últimos tiempos los recursos hídricos han venido haciéndose cada vez menores; el hombre ha notado con preocupación y vivido en carne propia este fenómeno, que de no ser tratado a tiempo, podría atentar contra la existencia misma. Esto lo ha alentado a buscar métodos que sirvan como solución para contrarrestar éste mal y crear conciencia entre sus iguales, para así poder garantizar su permanencia y la de su entorno durante muchas generaciones. En países desarrollados del continente europeo y en algunos lugares de América del norte, el uso de sistemas de reutilización y tratamiento de aguas grises y aprovechamiento de las aguas lluvias se ha convertido en una constante y nos están dando las pautas para poder seguir el ejemplo y así de esta manera poder aportar a la causa ambiental y a su vez crear un ahorro en nuestros gastos mensuales de consumo.

  20. The Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    1970-01-01

    Instructions for observing the Solar Eclipse on Saturday, March 7, 1970, which will be total along a strip about 85 miles wide along the Atlantic Seaboard. Safety precautions and how to construct a pinhole camera to observe eclipse. (BR)