WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquatic species program

  1. FY 1987 Aquatic Species Program: Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A.; Sprague, S.

    1987-09-01

    The goal of the Department of Energy/Solar Energy Research Institute Aquatic Species Program is to develop the technology base to produce liquid fuels from microalagae at prices competitive with conventional alternatives. Microalgae are unusual plants that can accumulate large quantities of oil and can thrive in high-salinity water, which currently has no competing uses. The algal oils, in turn, are readily converted into gasoline and diesel fuels. The best site for successful microalgae production was determined to be the US desert Southwest, with potential applications to other warm areas. Aggressive research is needed, but the improvements required are attainable. The four prime research areas in the development of this technology are growth and production, engineering design, harvesting, and conversion. Algae are selected for three criteria: tolerance to environmental fluctuations, high growth rates, and high lipid production. From 1982 to 1986, the program collected more than 3000 strains of microalgae that are more than twice as tolerant to temperature and salinity fluctuation than the initial strains. Productivity has been increased by a factor of two in outdoor culture systems since 1982, and lipid content has also been increased from 20% of body weight in 1982 to greater than 66% of body weight in 1987. Research programs are ongoing in lipid biochemistry and genetic engineering so that ultimately strains can be modified and improved to combine their best characteristics. An outdoor test facility is being built in Roswell, New Mexico.

  2. SERI Aquatic Species Program: 1983 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    During 1983 research was carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. Biological research was aimed at screening for promising species of microalgae, macroalgae, and emergent plants that could be cultivated for energy products. Promising species were studied further to improve yields.

  3. Aquatic Species Program review: proceedings of principal investigators meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of the Aquatic Species Program is to improve the productivity, conversion to fuels, and cost efficiency of aquatic plant culture technologies. The emphasis of the program is on developing a mass culture technology for cultivating oil-yielding microalgae in the American southwest. A technical and economic analysis indicated that such a concept would be feasible if (1) lipid yields from microalgae are improved, (2) there is sufficient saline water for large-scale development, and (3) microalgal lipids can be economically converted to conventional fuels. It was determined that fuels from microalgal lipids presented better options than converting the microalgal biomass to either alcohols or methane. All lipids can potentially be catalytically converted to gasoline, or the fatty acids can be converted to substitute diesel fuels. The Southwest has the necessary low, flat, underutilized lands, and carbon dioxide is available from either natural deposits or flue gas from industrial plants. The amount of saline water available will probably determine how much fuel can be produced from aquatic species, and this question should be answered during 1985. The largest constraint of this technology is the economical production of an oil-rich microalgal feedstock. The agenda for the review was divided into four sections: species selection and characterization, applied physiological studies, outdoor mass cultivation, and systems design and analysis. Papers from these presentations are included in these proceedings. Program advances were reported in the areas of species collection and selection, modulated light physiology, mass culture yields, harvesting of microalgae, mass culture facility design and analysis, and assessments on fuel options from microalgae. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  4. Aquatic Species Program Review: Proceedings of the March 1983 Principal Investigators Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the utilization of plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas. Processes are being developed through this program to make use of such aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  5. Proceedings of the Subcontractors' Review Meeting: Aquatic Species Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the utilization of plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas. Processes are being developed through this program to make use of such aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  6. Abstracts of Presentation: Aquatic Species Program Annual Review Meeting, Golden, Colorado, 24-25 September 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    The goal of the aquatic species program is to produce gasoline and diesel fuels from microalgae grown in saline waters of the desert southwest. Microalgae are known to accumulate lipids in large quantities and can thrive in high salinity water which currently has no other use.

  7. Aquatic species program review. Proceedings of the April 1984 principal investigators meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of the Aquatic Species program is to improve the productivity, conversion to fuels, and cost efficiency of aquatic plant species for energy. The emphasis of the program is on developing oil-yielding microalgae which will grow in the saline waters of the desert in the American Southwest. To meet this objective, research is carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. The principal objectives of the biological task are (1) to conduct a comprehensive and complete screening activity that will result in the selection of the best microalgae strains for production of fuels; (2) to establish a gene pool so that species can be improved through agronomic means; and (3) to develop techniques that will result in enhancing the yields of the desired fuel product. Engineering research is concerned with integrating biological concepts with engineering principals to develop the most cost-effective microalgal culture technology. Work is concentrated on developing culture management strategies and required subsystems such as harvesting technologies. Analysis supports the technology development through cost goal determination, resource assessment, and technology evaluation. The program also supports the development of macroalgae culture for methane gas or alcohols. This volume contains progress reports presented by the Aquatic Species Program subcontractors and SERI researchers at the SERI Biomass Program Review held in Boulder, Colorado, April 4, 1984. These reports present and discuss research advances achieved by the program participants during the preceding year. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each report for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  8. Proceedings of the SERI Biomass Program Principal Investigators' Review Meeting: Aquatic Species Program Reports; 23-25 June 1982, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) is concerned with how plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas is utilized. Processes are being developed in this program to make use of those aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as on their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  9. Fish species of greatest conservation need in wadeable Iowa streams: current status and effectiveness of Aquatic Gap Program distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Anthony R.; Pierce, Clay; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation of fish species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) requires an understanding of species–habitat relationships and distributional trends. Thus, modeling the distribution of fish species across large spatial scales may be a valuable tool for conservation planning. Our goals were to evaluate the status of 10 fish SGCN in wadeable Iowa streams and to test the effectiveness of Iowa Aquatic Gap Analysis Project (IAGAP) species distribution models. We sampled fish assemblages from 86 wadeable stream segments in the Mississippi River drainage of Iowa during 2009 and 2010 to provide contemporary, independent fish species presence–absence data. The frequencies of occurrence in stream segments where species were historically documented varied from 0.0% for redfin shiner Lythrurus umbratilis to 100.0% for American brook lampreyLampetra appendix, with a mean of 53.0%, suggesting that the status of Iowa fish SGCN is highly variable. Cohen's kappa values and other model performance measures were calculated by comparing field-collected presence–absence data with IAGAP model–predicted presences and absences for 12 fish SGCN. Kappa values varied from 0.00 to 0.50, with a mean of 0.15. The models only predicted the occurrences of banded darterEtheostoma zonale, southern redbelly dace Phoxinus erythrogaster, and longnose daceRhinichthys cataractae more accurately than would be expected by chance. Overall, the accuracy of the twelve models was low, with a mean correct classification rate of 58.3%. Poor model performance probably reflects the difficulties associated with modeling the distribution of rare species and the inability of the large-scale habitat variables used in IAGAP models to explain the variation in fish species occurrences. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the confidence in species distribution model predictions with an independent data set and the need for long-term monitoring to better understand the

  10. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database Marine Fishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NAS) information resource is an established central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of...

  11. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  12. 76 FR 60863 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... include: Commercial harvest of aquatic invasive species, State Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plans...-Chair, Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, Acting Assistant Director--Fisheries and Habitat... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  13. Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1989--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M.; Sprague, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project. The four articles included are summaries of individual research projects and are entered into the EDB as such. The goal of the Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology base for large-scale production of oil-rich microalgae. The project is also developing methods to convert the microalgal lipids into liquid fuels needed for industry and transportation. Researchers in the Aquatics Species Project focus on the use of microalgae as a feedstock for producing renewable, high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. It is important for the United States to develop alternative renewable oil sources because 42% of the current energy market in the United States is for liquid fuels, and 38% of these fuels are imported. In 1979, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated the Aquatic Species Project as part of the overall effort in biofuels. The project began to focus exclusively on fuels from microalgae in 1982. Estimates show that the technology being developed by the project can provide as much as 7% of the total current energy demand. The program`s basic premise is that microalgae, which have been called the most productive biochemical factories in the world, can produce up to 30 times more oil per unit of growth area than land plants. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management ...

  15. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major ``greenhouse`` gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  16. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Sprague, S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse'' gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  17. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae: Annual report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Aquatic Species Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a lipid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 33 figs.

  18. 77 FR 61019 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... aquatic invasive species. The agenda and other related meeting information are on the ANS Task Force Web... Species Task Force, Assistant Director--Fisheries and Habitat Conservation. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P ...: 134] Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

  19. Aquatic Plant Management Program current status and seasonal workplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, E.R.; Bates, A.L.; Webb, D.H.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the TVA Aquatic Plant Management Program is to support in an environmentally and economically responsible manner, the balanced multiple uses of the water resource of the Tennessee Valley. This is accomplished by following an integrated approach to prevent introduction and spread of noxious species, documenting occurrence and spread of existing species, and suppressing or eliminating problems in designated high use areas. It is not the TVA objective, nor is it biologically feasible and prudent to eliminate all aquatic vegetation. Aerial photography, helicopter reconnaissance, and field surveys are used to assess distributions and abundance of various aquatic macrophytes. Water level fluctuations are supplemented by herbicide applications to control undesirable vegetation. Investigations are conducted to evaluate water level fluctuation schemes, as well as biological, mechanical, and alternative chemical control techniques which offer potential for more environmentally compatible and cost-effective management operations.

  20. Aquatic beetle species and their distributions in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ling; JIA Feng-long; Tursun Dilbar; ZHENG Zhe-min

    2009-01-01

    The species of aquatic beetles and their distributions in lotic and lentic habitats were investigated during July to August of 2005 and 2006 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. A total of 66 species belonging to 7 beetle families (Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Helophoridae, Noteridae, Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae) are recorded, of which 16 are new records of aquatic beetles for China.

  1. 78 FR 60306 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... meeting of the Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force. The ANS Task Force's purpose is to develop and... Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on Wednesday, November 6, through Thursday, November...

  2. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Allelopathy "Bioassay . Growth inhibition. Aquatic macrophytes. Biocontrol Lena minor 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...Bibliography of Aquatic Plant Allelopathy ........ Al 2 ALLELOPATHIC AQUATIC PLANTS FOR AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT; A FEASIBILITY STUDY Introduction Background 1...nutrients, water, and other biotic effects could have overriding effects that appear as competition or allelopathy . These biotic factors must be

  3. 75 FR 61175 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Species (ANS) Task Force. The meeting is open to the public. The meeting topics are identified in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. DATES: The ANS Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on...

  4. Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis-An Assessment of the Biodiversity and Conservation Status of Native Aquatic Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, S. Alex; Kula, Stephanie P.; Simonson, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the GAP Analysis Program is to keep common species common by identifying those species and habitats that are not yet adequately represented in the existing matrix of conservation lands. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is sponsored by the Biological Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Ohio Aquatic GAP (OH-GAP) is a pilot project that is applying the GAP concept to aquatic-specifically, riverine-data. The mission of GAP is to provide regional assessments of the conservation status of native animal species and to facilitate the application of this information to land-management activities. OH-GAP accomplished this through * mapping aquatic habitat types, * mapping the predicted distributions of fish, crayfish, and bivalves, * documenting the presence of aquatic species in areas managed for conservation, * providing GAP results to the public, planners, managers, policy makers, and researchers, and * building cooperation with multiple organizations to apply GAP results to state and regional management activities. Gap analysis is a coarse-scale assessment of aquatic biodiversity and conservation; the goal is to identify gaps in the conservation of native aquatic species. It is not a substitute for biological field studies and monitoring programs. Gap analysis was conducted for the continuously flowing streams in Ohio. Lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and the Lake Erie islands were not included in this analysis. The streams in Ohio are in the Lake Erie and Ohio River watersheds and pass through six of the level III ecoregions defined by Omernik: the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains, Huron/Erie Lake Plain, Erie Drift Plains, Interior Plateau, and the Western Allegheny Plateau. To characterize the aquatic habitats available to Ohio fish, crayfish, and bivalves, a classification system needed to be developed and mapped. The process of classification includes delineation of areas of relative

  5. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Meyin A Ebong

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding" and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs, which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  6. Mechanisms of aquatic species invasions across the SALCC - an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    The USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NAS; nas.er.usgs.gov) is a comprehensive tool for demonstrating where and when nonindigenous species have been sighted across the U.S. Information in the database is used for state-level invasive species management plans, to focus monitoring efforts, for public education, predictive modeling, and for avoiding unintentional introductions during inter-basin water transfers.

  7. Induced pluripotent stem cell technology and aquatic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Alexis M; Spyropoulos, Demetri D

    2014-06-01

    Aquatic animal species are the overall leaders in the scientific investigation of tough but important global health issues, including environmental toxicants and climate change. Historically, aquatic animal species also stand at the forefront of experimental biology, embryology and stem cell research. Over the past decade, intensive and high-powered investigations principally involving mouse and human cells have brought the generation and study of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to a level that facilitates widespread use in a spectrum of species. A review of key features of these investigations is presented here as a primer for the use of iPSC technology to enhance ongoing aquatic animal species studies. iPSC and other cutting edge technologies create the potential to study individuals from "the wild" closer to the level of investigation applied to sophisticated inbred mouse models. A wide variety of surveys and hypothesis-driven investigations can be envisioned using this new capability, including comparisons of organism-specific development and exposure response and the testing of fundamental dogmas established using inbred mice. However, with these new capabilities, also come new criteria for rigorous baseline assessments and testing. Both the methods for inducing pluripotency and the source material can negatively impact iPSC quality and bourgeoning applications. Therefore, more rigorous strategies not required for inbred mouse models will have to be implemented to approach global health issues using individuals from "the wild" for aquatic animal species.

  8. 75 FR 53273 - Federal Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Risk Analysis Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... aquatic nuisance species, which shall be administered through the National Sea Grant College Program and... comments and make revisions, as appropriate, to the Protocol before going final. You may submit a...

  9. Alabama's many endangered aquatic species are unprotected

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on the vulnerability of watercress darter and other fish species in Alabama after a significant fish kill in Roebuck Spring pond in 2008.

  10. Biodiesel from aquatic species. Project report: FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M.; Sprague, S.; Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Zeiler, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    Researchers in the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project focus on the use of microalgae as a feedstock for producing renewable, high-energy liquid fuels. The program`s basic premise is that microalgae, which have been called the most productive biochemical factories in the world, can produce up to 30 times more oil per unit of growth area than land plants. It is estimated that 150 to 400 barrels of oil per acre per year (0.06 to 0.16 million liters/hectar) could be produced with microalgal oil technology. Initial commercialization of this technology is envisioned for the desert Southwest because this area provides high solar radiation and offers flat land that has few competing uses (hence low land costs). Similarly, there are large saline aquifers with few competing uses in the region. This water source could provide a suitable, low-cost medium for the growth of many microalgae. The primary area of research during FY 1993 was the effort to genetically improve microalgae in order to control the timing and magnitude of lipid accumulation. Increased lipid content will have a direct effect on fuel price, and the control of lipid content is a major project goal. The paper describes progress on the following: culture collection; molecular biology of lipid biosynthesis; microalgal transformation; and environmental, safety, and health and quality assurance.

  11. 75 FR 15457 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. DATES: The ANS Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Wednesday, May 5... place at the Holiday Inn Hotel & Convention Center by the Bay, 88 Spring Street, Portland, ME...

  12. Modelling bioaccumulation of oil constituents in aquatic species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, de L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Schipper, A.M.; Veltman, K.; Laender, de F.; Viaene, K.P.J.; Klok, C.; Hendriks, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil poses a risk to marine ecosystems due to its toxicity and tendency to accumulate in biota. The present study evaluated the applicability of the OMEGA model for estimating oil accumulation in aquatic species by comparing model predictions of kinetic rates (absorption and elimination) and bi

  13. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species, which often differ functionally from the components of the recipient community, generates ecological impacts that propagate along the food web. This review aims to determine how consistent the impacts of aquatic invasions are across taxa and habitats. To that end, we present a global meta-analysis from 151 publications (733 cases), covering a wide range of invaders (primary producers, filter collectors, omnivores and predators), resident aquatic community components (macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) and habitats (rivers, lakes and estuaries). Our synthesis suggests a strong negative influence of invasive species on the abundance of aquatic communities, particularly macrophytes, zooplankton and fish. In contrast, there was no general evidence for a decrease in species diversity in invaded habitats, suggesting a time lag between rapid abundance changes and local extinctions. Invaded habitats showed increased water turbidity, nitrogen and organic matter concentration, which are related to the capacity of invaders to transform habitats and increase eutrophication. The expansion of invasive macrophytes caused the largest decrease in fish abundance, the filtering activity of filter collectors depleted planktonic communities, omnivores (including both facultative and obligate herbivores) were responsible for the greatest decline in macrophyte abundance, and benthic invertebrates were most negatively affected by the introduction of new predators. These impacts were relatively consistent across habitats and experimental approaches. Based on our results, we propose a framework of positive and negative links between invasive species at four trophic positions and the five different components of recipient communities. This framework incorporates both direct biotic interactions (predation, competition, grazing) and indirect changes to the water physicochemical conditions mediated by invaders (habitat

  14. Arsenic and mercury in native aquatic bryophytes: differences among species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Santiago; Villares, Rubén; López, Jesús; Carballeira, Alejo

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the capacities of five species of aquatic bryophytes to accumulate As and Hg from their natural habitats in rivers in Galicia (NW Spain). The distributions of the concentrations of both elements in all species were skewed to the right, with a higher incidence of extreme values in the As data, which may indicate a greater degree of contamination by this metalloid. There were no significant differences in the accumulation of either of the elements between the different species studied, which justifies their combined use as biomonitors of As and Hg, at least in the study area.

  15. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  16. Time Aquatic Resources Modeling and Analysis Program (STARMAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Colorado State University has received funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for its Space-Time Aquatic Resources Modeling and Analysis Program...

  17. Designing Aquatic Exercise Programs--Three Guiding Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sue W.; Landis, Larry M.

    1989-01-01

    Three guiding principles provide the planner of aquatic exercise programs with a model that helps to ensure an effective program: principles of resource availability and allocation; the principle of fit, which involves matching instructor leadership style with program objectives; and the principle of attitude and perception modification. (IAH)

  18. Development of biometric and environmental DNA standardized protocols for early detection and population assessment of aquatic invasive species for Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal seeks to develop standard data collection techniques to support inventory and monitoring programs for aquatic invasive species (AIS) within National...

  19. Effects of fishing technique on assessing species composition in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESF Medeiros

    Full Text Available In most ecological field research, appropriate sampling is critical for the understanding of processes underlying fish populations and communities, and is even more important in heterogeneous environments such as the aquatic systems of the semi-arid region of Brazil. This study intends to make a contribution to the development of sampling programs and gear selection in aquatic systems of semi-arid Brazil by evaluating the effects of different fishing techniques on the assessment of richness and composition of the fish fauna in selected aquatic environments. Six sites were selected to represent typical artificial (reservoirs and natural (intermittent streams environments and four different types of sampling gear were applied to each site during four occasions. The present study shows that when selecting sampling techniques to be used in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil, one must consider the objectives of the study, e.g. ecological or taxonomic, in order to decide on inclusion of rare species in the sampling population. Also, the effect of the sampling gear on natural abundances of fish must be considered given that some sampling techniques are highly detrimental to fish population numbers.

  20. Modelling bioaccumulation of oil constituents in aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hoop, Lisette; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Schipper, Aafke M; Veltman, Karin; De Laender, Frederik; Viaene, Karel P J; Klok, Chris; Hendriks, A Jan

    2013-11-15

    Crude oil poses a risk to marine ecosystems due to its toxicity and tendency to accumulate in biota. The present study evaluated the applicability of the OMEGA model for estimating oil accumulation in aquatic species by comparing model predictions of kinetic rates (absorption and elimination) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) with measured values. The model was a better predictor than the means of the measurements for absorption and elimination rate constants, but did not outperform the mean measured BCF. Model estimates and measurements differed less than one order of magnitude for 91%, 80% and 61% of the absorption and elimination rates and BCFs of all oil constituents, respectively. Of the "potentially modifying" factors: exposure duration, biotransformation, molecular mass, and water temperature, the last two tended to influence the performance of the model. Inclusion of more explanatory variables in the bioaccumulation model, like the molecular mass, is expected to improve model performance.

  1. Emergent aquatics: stand establishment, management, and species screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.C.; Andrews, N.J.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Penko, M.; Read, P.E.; Zimmerman, E.S.

    1982-11-01

    Several emergent aquatic species have been identified as potential biomass crops, including Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus spp. (rush), Sparganium spp. (bur reed), and Phragmites (reed). This report discusses first year results from studies of stand establishment and management, Typha nutrient requirements, wetland species yield comparisons, and Typha micropropagation. In a comparison of the relative effectiveness of seed, seedlings, and rhizomes for stand establishment, rhizomes appeared to be more consistent and productive under a wire variety of conditions. Both rhizomes and seedling established plots grew successfully on excavated peatland sites. First season results from a multiyear fertilizer rate experiment indicate that fertilizer treatment resulted in significantly increased tissue nutrient concentrations which should carry over into subsequent growing seasons. Shoot density and belowground dry weight were also significantly increased by phosphorus + potassium and potassium applications, respectively. First season yields of selected wetland species from managed paddies generally were comparable to yields reported from natural stands. Several particularly productive clones of Typha spp. have been identified. A method of establishing Typha in tissue culture is described.

  2. State of Washington Aquatic Plant Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    the east coast until 1954 when it began rapid growth and expansion ( Stevenson and Confer, 1978). It became a serious problem in Chesapeake Bay and...milfoil infestation and indicates that there is some flexibility in waterfowl feeding habits. Stevenson and Confer (1978), in an analysis of species...and a comparative absence of humus , detritus, and plankton. Besides the lack of suitable substrate, vascular plants have a complexity of organization

  3. 78 FR 29378 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force; Public Teleconference/Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force; Public Teleconference/ Webinar AGENCY..., announce a public teleconference/webinar of the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force (ANS Task Force). The... disseminate related information. DATES: Teleconference/webinar: Monday June 17, 2013, from 1 p.m. to 4...

  4. On the well posedness and further regularity of a diffusive three species aquatic model

    KAUST Repository

    Parshad, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    We consider Upadhay\\'s three species aquatic food chain model, with the inclusion of spatial spread. This is a well established food chain model for the interaction of three given aquatic species. It exhibits rich dynamical behavior, including chaos. We prove the existence of a global weak solution to the diffusive system, followed by existence of local mild and strong solution.

  5. Capabilities of Seven Species of Aquatic Macrophytes for Phytoremediation of Pentachlorophenol Contaminated Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangyuan; Guo, Weijie; Li, Qingyun; Li, Huan; Zhao, Weihua; Cao, Xiaohuan

    2017-01-01

    Sediments are regarded as the ultimate sink of pentachlorophenol(PCP) in aquatic environment, and capabilities of seven species of aquatic macrophytes for remediating PCP contaminated sediment were investigated. Seven species of aquatic macrophytes could significantly accelerate the degradation of PCP in sediments. Among all, canna indica L., Acorus calamus L. and Iris tectorum Maxim. can be used as efficient alternative plants for remediation of PCP contaminated sediment, which attained 98%, 92% and 88% of PCP removal in sediments, respectively. PCP was detected only in root tissues and the uptake was closely related to the root lipid contents of seven plants. The presence of seven aquatic macrophytes significantly increased microbial populations and the activities of dehydrogenase compared with control sediments, indicating that rhizosphere microorganism played important role in the remediation process. In conclusion, seven species of aquatic macrophytes may act as promising tools for the PCP phytoremediation in aquatic environment, especially Canna indica L., Acorus calamus L. and Iris tectorum Maxim.

  6. The Efficacy of an Aquatic Program on Physical Fitness and Aquatic Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…

  7. Planning aquatic ecosystem restoration monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, R.M.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Evaluation of Environmental Investments Research Program (EEIRP). The EEIRP is sponsored by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The objectives of this work are to (1) identify relevant approaches and features for environmental investment measures to be applied throughout the project life; (2) develop methods to access the effectiveness of the approach or feature for providing the intended environmental output; (3) develop and provide guidance for formulating environmental projects; and (4) provide guidance for formulating and identifying relevant cost components of alternate restoration plans.

  8. Integrated monitoring and information systems for managing aquatic invasive species in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Olden, Julian D.; Smith, Scott S.; Graham, Jim; Burkett, Virginia; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Piorkowski, Robert J.; Mcphedran, John

    2008-01-01

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climatic drivers and sea-level rise will affect populations of existing native and non-native aquatic species and the vulnerability of aquatic environments to new invasions. Monitoring surveys provide the foundation for assessing the combined effects of climate change and invasions by providing baseline biotic and environmental conditions, although the utility of a survey depends on whether the results are quantitative or qualitative, and other design considerations. The results from a variety of monitoring programs in the United States are available in integrated biological information systems, although many include only non-native species, not native species. Besides including natives, we suggest these systems could be improved through the development of standardized methods that capture habitat and physiological requirements and link regional and national biological databases into distributed Web portals that allow drawing information from multiple sources. Combining the outputs from these biological information systems with environmental data would allow the development of ecological-niche models that predict the potential distribution or abundance of native and non-native species on the basis of current environmental conditions. Environmental projections from climate models can be used in these niche models to project changes in species distributions or abundances under altered climatic conditions and to identify potential high-risk invaders. There are, however, a number of challenges, such as uncertainties associated with projections from climate and niche models and difficulty in integrating data with different temporal and spatial granularity. Even with these uncertainties, integration of biological and environmental information systems, niche models, and climate projections would improve management of aquatic ecosystems under the dual threats of biotic invasions and climate change

  9. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Alligatorweed Survey of Ten Southern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    alligatorweed in South America for candidate biocon - trol agents, with funding provided largely by the Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP), CE...Alabama, and Georgia. Control was reported to be unsat- P’ isfactory in Tennessee and the TVA, and no control of alligatorweed by biocon - _ trol insects...to the reduced water levels. None of the biocon - trol agents were collected from any of the sites; however, a native webworm species was found to be

  10. Can ozone be used to control the spread of freshwater Aquatic Invasive Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buley, Riley P.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Tix, John A.; Suski, Cory D.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of aquatic invasive species to non-native habitats can cause negative ecological effects and also billions of dollars in economic damage to governments and private industries. Once aquatic invasive species are introduced, eradication may be difficult without adversely affecting native species and habitats, urging resource managers to find preventative methods to protect non-invaded areas. The use of ozone (O3) as a non-physical barrier has shown promise as it is lethal to a wide range of aquatic taxa, requires a short contact time, and is relatively environmentally safe in aquatic systems when compared to other chemicals. However, before O3 can be considered as an approach to prevent the spread of aquatic invasive species, its effects on non-target organisms and already established aquatic invasive species must be fully evaluated. A review of the current literature was conducted to summarize data regarding the effects of O3 on aquatic taxa including fish, macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, phytoplankton, microbes, and pathogens. In addition, we assessed the practicality of ozone applications to control the movement of aquatic invasive species, and identified data gaps concerning the use of O3 as a non-physical barrier in field applications.

  11. Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Jarvis, E.; Dunahay, T.; Roessler, P.; Zeiler, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The primary goal of the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of a diesel fuel substitute (biodiesel), thereby reducing the need for imported petroleum. Microalgae are of interest as a feedstock because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels such as biodiesel. Microalgae can be grown in arid and semi-arid regions with poor soil quality, and saline water from aquifers or the ocean can be used for growing microalgae. Biodiesel is an extremely attractive candidate to fulfill the need for a diesel fuel substitute. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than petroleum diesel; it is virtually free of sulfur, and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulates during combustion are significantly reduced in comparison to emissions from petroleum diesel. Biodiesel provides essentially the same energy content and power output as petroleum-based diesel fuel.

  12. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports B Appendix B to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. B Appendix B to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports 1. Location and...

  13. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part 273—Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority Section 104 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, approved...

  14. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics.

  15. Phenotypic plasticity of selected species of aquatic insects

    OpenAIRE

    Dudová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of the single genotype to pruduce multiple phenotypes in response to evironmental conditions. There are many factors affecting phenotypic plasticity. The aim of this thesis is to summarize the current knowledge of phenotypic plasticity of aquatic insects with emphasis on the role of temperature and food availability. The review is complemented by a laboratory experiments designed to investigate the effect of temperature and food availability on growth and ...

  16. Nitrogen and protein contents in some aquatic plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Bytniewska

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen and protein contents in higher aquatic plants deriving from a natural habitat were determined. The following plants were examined: Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid., Elodea canadensis Rich., Riccia fluitans L. Total nitrogen and nitrogen of respective fractions were determined by the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen compounds were fractionated according to Thimann et al. Protein was extracted after Fletcher and Osborne and fractionated after Osborne. It was found, that total protein conten...

  17. Fishes and other aquatic species in the Byzantine literature. Classification, terminology and scientific names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CHRONE-VAKALOPOULOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishes and other aquatic species were substantial food in the every day life of Byzantine people. The predomination of Christianity contributed to the increased consumption of fishes and other seafood compared to the meat of land animals and chicken. More than a hundred ten names of fishes and about thirty names of other aquatic organisms are found in the sources of the Byzantine literature. Most frequent references are found in the medical texts of the Byzantine doctors, where, fishes are classified in categories depending on their physiology and origin, because, according to the writers, these are determining factors for the evaluation of the nutritional value of each species.The purpose of this study is to present the terminology of the fishes and the various aquatic species that are found in the Byzantine sources and to identify, in parallel, each species with its current scientific name.  

  18. Nitrogen and protein contents in some aquatic plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bytniewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and protein contents in higher aquatic plants deriving from a natural habitat were determined. The following plants were examined: Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleid., Elodea canadensis Rich., Riccia fluitans L. Total nitrogen and nitrogen of respective fractions were determined by the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen compounds were fractionated according to Thimann et al. Protein was extracted after Fletcher and Osborne and fractionated after Osborne. It was found, that total protein content in the plants under examination constitutes 18 to 25%o of dry matter. Albumins and glutelins are the most abundant protein fractions.

  19. Aquatic toxicity structure-activity relationships for the zwitterionic surfactant alkyl dimethyl amine oxide to several aquatic species and a resulting species sensitivity distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Scott E; Brill, Jessica L; Rawlings, Jane M; McDonough, Kathleen M; Zoller, Ann C; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R

    2016-12-01

    Amine oxide (AO) is a cationically charged surfactant at environmental pH and has previously been assessed in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) High Production Volume (HPV) chemicals program. Typical of cationic chemicals, AO is highly aquatically toxic. In this study we vastly improve the knowledge of AO toxicity by developing acute Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) for an alga (Desmodesmus subspicatus), an invertebrate (Daphnia magna) and a fish (Danio rerio) using the appropriate array of OECD Test Guidelines. A chronic toxicity QSAR was also determined for the most sensitive taxon, Desmodesmus. Pure AO spanning the chain lengths of C8 to C16 were tested individually with trace analytical confirmation of exposures in all tests. The QSARs were all of high quality (R(2) 0.92-0.98) with slopes ranging from -0.338 to -0.484. QSARs were then used to normalize toxicity outcomes for a larger, previously published data set used in HPV, European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals), and peer reviewed publications. Two additional species, Lemna gibba (macrophyte) and Ankistrodesmus falcatus (alga) were studied in exposures to dodecyl (C12) AO to provide sufficient taxonomic diversity to conduct a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) analysis. The SSD 5th percentile hazardous concentration (HC5) to C12 AO was found to be 0.052mg/L which is similar to an existing AO 28-d, 3-community periphyton community bioassay normalized to C12 AO (No-observed-effect-concentration or NOEC=0.152mg/L). The statistical properties of the SSD was probed suggesting that new studies of additional taxa would be required that were at least 10-fold more sensitive than the most sensitive taxon to move the HC5 lower by a factor of 3. The overall AO hazard assessment suggests a large margin of safety relative to published environmental exposure data.

  20. Sediment composition mediates the invasibility of aquatic ecosystems by a non-native Poaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vitor Botter Fasoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To test the invasibility of aquatic ecosystems by an exotic species, we used the invasive macrophyte Urochloa arrecta, which has invaded many Neotropical waterbodies and has reduced biodiversity in these habitats. The extensive growth of this macrophyte can be related to its affinity for mud-rich sediments, which occur primarily in secondary river channels and lentic habitats.MethodsTo test this hypothesis, we cultivated U. arrecta in trays with different percentages of mud and we measured the sprout length and biomass of the plants after 75 days.ResultsOur results showed a positive and significant relationship between sediment mud percentage and nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. Both plant length and biomass increased significantly and continuously with increasing mud content, indicating that the growth of this species is not limited even at the highest levels of mud, which is shown to be toxic for other species of macrophytes. Thus, it is probable that sand-rich sites, such as river shores, are less vulnerable to invasion by this species than relatively mud-rich sites, such as lakes.ConclusionsThis finding indicates that relatively mud-rich ecosystems should be prioritised in monitoring programs to prevent invasion by this species. In addition, the slow development of this species in sandy sediments opens a potential window for its management, at least on small spatial scales. However, despite the reduced growth of U. arrecta in sand-rich sediments, this grass is able to grow in several types of sediments, which explains its spread in a variety of habitats in Neotropical freshwater ecosystems.

  1. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Effects of Water Chemistry on Submersed Aquatic Plants: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    plants exhibiting C4 photosynthesis, C is conserved by refixing photorespired CO2. These terres- trial adaptations have counterparts in the aquatic...such as low photorespiration rates and low CO2 compensation points. The advantages of this photosynthetic pathway include conservation of... photorespired C and efficient C assimilation under the high dissolved oxygen and low free CO2 concentrations common in dense submersed aquatic plant populations

  2. Assessment of in silico methods to estimate aquatic species sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard species. In many cases, QSAR models are used to estimate toxici...

  3. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively.

  4. Conservation planning for imperiled aquatic species in an urbanizing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Freeman, Mary C.; Fowler, Laurie A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Peterson, James T.

    2010-01-01

    As the global area devoted to urban uses grows, an increasing number of freshwater species will face imperilment due to urbanization effects. Management of these impacts on both private and public lands is necessary to ensure species persistence. Such management entails several hallenges: (1) development of a management policy appropriate to the stressors; (2) linking stressor levels to species population attributes; (3) forecasting the effects of alternative management policy decisions on the species, and (4) using adaptive management to adjust the policy in the future. We illustrate how these challenges were addressed under the Etowah Habitat Conservation Plan (Etowah HCP), a management plan for three federally protected fish species in Georgia, USA. The plan involved the creation of a management policy to address the impacts of the greatest stressor, stormwater runoff, as well as other stressors. Models were constructed to link population indices of the three species with a key indicator of stormwater runoff, effective impervious area (EIA). Then, models were applied to projected levels of EIA under full watershed buildout to fine-tune the parameters of the management policy. Forecasting indicated that the most sensitive species, the Etowah darter, was likely to decline by 84% in the absence of the Etowah HCP, but only 23% if the Etowah HCP were implemented. Although there was substantial uncertainty in model predictions, an adaptive management plan was established to incorporate new data and to adjust management policies as necessary.

  5. Adaptive management of large aquatic ecosystem recovery programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Ronald; St Clair, Tom; Burns, Rebecca; Anderson, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive management (AM) is being employed in a number of programs in the United States to guide actions to restore aquatic ecosystems because these programs are both expensive and are faced with significant uncertainties. Many of these uncertainties are associated with prioritizing when, where, and what kind of actions are needed to meet the objectives of enhancing ecosystem services and recovering threatened and endangered species. We interviewed nine large-scale aquatic ecosystem restoration programs across the United States to document the lessons learned from implementing AM. In addition, we recorded information on ecological drivers (e.g., endangered fish species) for the program, and inferred how these drivers reflected more generic ecosystem services. Ecosystem services (e.g., genetic diversity, cultural heritage), albeit not explicit drivers, were either important to the recovery or enhancement of the drivers, or were additional benefits associated with actions to recover or enhance the program drivers. Implementing programs using AM lessons learned has apparently helped achieve better results regarding enhancing ecosystem services and restoring target species populations. The interviews yielded several recommendations. The science and AM program must be integrated into how the overall restoration program operates in order to gain understanding and support, and effectively inform management decision-making. Governance and decision-making varied based on its particular circumstances. Open communication within and among agency and stakeholder groups and extensive vetting lead up to decisions. It was important to have an internal agency staff member to implement the AM plan, and a clear designation of roles and responsibilities, and long-term commitment of other involved parties. The most important management questions and information needs must be identified up front. It was imperative to clearly identify, link and continually reinforce the essential

  6. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Feasibility of Relating Phenology and Carbohydrate Partitioning to Improve Aquatic Plant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    the submersed species, coontail (Ceratophyliuw demerswm), elodea (EZodea ccznadensi), and egeria (Egeria densa), were higher in winter, with a deple...Best, E. P. H. 1977. Seasonal changes in mineral and organic compounds of Ceratophylluwn demerswn and Elodea canadensis. Aquatic Botany 3:337-348. Best...E. P. H., and J. H. A. Dassen. 1987. A seasonal study of growth char- acteristics and the levels of carbohydrates and proteins in Elodea nuttallii

  7. Status of Aquatic Non-indigenous Species in the St. Louis River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a study to develop recommendations for aquatic non-indigenous species (NIS) monitoring in Great Lakes areas at risk of invasion, we conducted comprehensive, multi-gear sampling in the lower St. Louis River in 2005-2007. This effort represents the most spatially and ta...

  8. Status of Aquatic Non-indigenous Species in the Duluth-Superior Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a study to develop recommendations for aquatic non-indigenous species (NIS) monitoring in Great Lakes areas at risk of invasion, we conducted comprehensive, multi-gear sampling in the Duluth, MN-Superior, WI harbor and lower St. Louis River in 2005-2007. This effort r...

  9. Mechanisms of aquatic species invasions across the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Amy J.; Stith, Bradley M.; Engel, Victor C.

    2016-12-15

    Invasive species are a global issue, and the southeastern United States is not immune to the problems they present. Therefore, various analyses using modeling and exploratory statistics were performed on the U.S. Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) Database with the primary objective of determining the most appropriate use of presence-only data as related to invasive species in the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (SALCC) region. A hierarchical model approach showed that a relatively small amount of high-quality data from planned surveys can be used to leverage the information in presence-only observations, having a broad spatial coverage and high biases of observer detection and in site selection. Because a variety of sampling protocols can be used in planned surveys, this approach to the analysis of presence-only data is widely applicable. An important part of the management of natural landscapes is the preservation of designated protected areas. When the hydrologic connection was considered in this analysis, the number of potential invaders that could spread to each protected area within the SALCC region was greatly increased, with a mean exceeding 30 species and the maximum reaching 57 species. Nearly all protected areas are hydrologically connected to at least 20 nonindigenous aquatic species. To examine possible factors which may contribute to nonindigenous aquatic species richness in the SALCC region, a set of exploratory statistics was employed. The best statistical model that included a combination of three anthropogenic variables (densities of housing, roads, and reservoirs) and two environmental variables (elevation range and longitude) explained approximately 62 percent of the variation in introduced species richness. Highest nonindigenous aquatic species richness occurred in the more upland, mountainous regions, where elevation range favored reservoirs and attracted urban centers. Lastly, patterns seen in a diffusion

  10. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: The Habitat Value of Aquatic Macrophytes for Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    feed on abunaant organisms provided that they are palatable. Notable predators occur among the orders Coleoptera (beetles), Odonata (damselflies and...Westfall, M. J., Jr. 1984. " Odonata ," An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, 2d ed., R. W. Merritt and K. W. Cummins, eds., Kendall

  11. Impact of Data Availability on Site Assessment and Predictive Behavior of Aquatic Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    melanstomus) Current distribution: In and around the Great Lakes and Illinois River. Round gobies are benthic fish that co-evolved with the zebra ... Fish . Aquat. Aci. 55:1759-1765. Ricciardi, A., F. G. Whoriskey, and J. B. Rasmussen. 1997. The role of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in...range expansion of some species. One of the few species for which extensive environmental tolerance data have been collected is the zebra mussel

  12. Aquatic pollution-induced immunotoxicity in wildlife species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, R W; Hodson, P V; Faisal, M; Ross, P S; Grasman, K A; Zelikoff, J

    1997-05-01

    The potential for chemicals to adversely affect human immunologic health has traditionally been evaluated in rodents, under laboratory conditions. These laboratory studies have generated valuable hazard identification and immunotoxicologic mechanism data; however, genetically diverse populations exposed in the wild may better reflect both human exposure conditions and may provide insight into potential immunotoxic effects in humans. In addition, comparative studies of species occupying reference and impacted sites provide important information on the effects of environmental pollution on the immunologic health of wildlife populations. In this symposium overview, Peter Hodson describes physiological changes in fish collected above or below the outflows of paper mills discharging effluent from the bleaching process (BKME). Effects attributable to BKME were identified, as were physiological changes attributable to other environmental factors. In this context, he discussed the problems of identifying true cause and effect relationships in field studies. Mohamed Faisal described changes in immune function of fish collected from areas with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbon contamination. His studies identified a contaminant-related decreases in the ability of anterior kidney leukocytes to bind to and kill tumor cell line targets, as well as changes in lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens. Altered proliferative responses of fish from the contaminated site were partially reversed by maintaining fish in water from the reference site. Peter Ross described studies in which harbor seals were fed herring obtained from relatively clean (Atlantic Ocean) and contaminated (Baltic Sea) waters. Decreased natural killer cell activity and lymphoproliferative responses to T and B cell mitogens, as well as depressed antibody and delayed hypersensitivity responses to injected antigens, were identified in seals fed contaminated herring. In laboratory studies, it was

  13. Interactions of gold nanoparticles with freshwater aquatic macrophytes are size and species dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J Brad; White, Sarah A; Klaine, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    The partitioning of 4- and 18-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to aquatic macrophytes was investigated in vivo with exposure suspension in well water. Three morphologically distinct aquatic macrophytes were studied. Myriophyllum simulans Orch. and Egeria densa Planch. are submerged aquatic vascular plants, whereas Azolla caroliniana Willd. is a free-floating aquatic fern. Because aquatic plants absorb the majority of their nutrients from the water column, it is logical to hypothesize that they may absorb nanomaterials in suspension, potentially facilitating trophic transfer. Each plant was exposed to two different-sized gold nanospheres at a nominal concentration of 250 µg/L AuNPs for 24 h. Macrophytes were harvested at six time points (1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h), dried, and then analyzed for gold concentration via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Concentrations were normalized to whole-plant dry tissue mass. The present study shows that absorption of AuNPs through root uptake was size and species dependent. Electron microscopy revealed that 4- and 18-nm AuNPs adsorbed to the roots of each species. Root tissue was sectioned, and transmission electron microscopy indicated that 4-nm and 18-nm AuNPs were absorbed by A. caroliniana, whereas only 4-nm AuNPs were absorbed by M. simulans. Egeria densa did not absorb AuNPs of either size. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed in tissue by using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Absorption of AuNPs by plants may be a function of the salinity tolerance of each species.

  14. The effects of aquatic and traditional exercise programs on persons with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, F B; Milam, S; Manske, R C; Deere, R

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to detect if increases in functional levels for patients with osteoarthritis show differences between an aquatic exercise program and a land-based exercise program. Forty-six subjects between the ages of 45 and 70 years participated in 1 of 2 exercise groups. Pre- and posttest measurements included knee range of motion (ROM), thigh girth, subjective pain scale, and time for a 1-mile walk. Both exercise groups showed a significant (p aquatic exercise group and the land-based exercise group pertaining to knee ROM, thigh girth, and time for a 1-mile walk. Subjective pain levels were significantly less in the aquatic group when compared with the land-based group. This study concludes that both aquatic and land-based exercise programs are beneficial to patients with osteoarthritis.

  15. Forty years of experiments on aquatic invasive species: are study biases limiting our understanding of impacts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Thomsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasions by non-native species are a threat to biodiversity because invaders can impact native populations, communities and entire ecosystems. To manage this threat, it is necessary to have a strong mechanistic understanding of how non-native species affect local species and communities. We reviewed 259 published papers (1972–2012 that described field experiments quantifying the impact of aquatic non-native species, to examine whether various types of study biases are limiting this understanding. Our review revealed that invasion impacts had been experimentally quantified for 101 aquatic non-native species, in all major freshwater and marine habitats, on all continents except Antarctica and for most higher taxonomic groupings. Over one-quarter (26% of studies included tests for impacts on local biodiversity. However, despite this extensive research effort, certain taxa, habitats and regions remain poorly studied. For example, of the over one hundred species examined in previous studies, only one was a marine fish and only six were herbivores. Furthermore, over half (53% the studies were from the USA and two-thirds (66% were from experiments conducted in temperate latitudes. By contrast, only 3% of studies were from Africa and <2% from high latitudes. We also found that one-fifth (20% of studies were conducted in estuaries, but only 1% from coral reefs. Finally, we note that the standard procedure of pooling or not reporting non-significant treatments and responses is likely to limit future synthetic advancement by biasing meta-analysis and severely limiting our ability to identify non-native species with none or negligible ecological impacts. In conclusion, a future focus on poorly-studied taxa, habitats and regions, and enhanced reporting of results, should improve our understanding and management of impacts associated with aquatic non-native species.

  16. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Aquatic Plant Identification and Herbicide Use Guide. Volume 2. Aquatic Plants and Susceptibility to Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    bristle - a stiff hair or hairlike growth internode - stem region between calyx - the usually green, outer whorl nodes of the perianth, composed of...herbicide with species-specific trans- location properties. " Primary action is by blockage of photosynthesis (electron transport pathways ), but rapid action

  17. Biodegradation of pesticides using fungi species found in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, B R; Penetra, A; Cardoso, V V; Benoliel, M J; Barreto Crespo, M T; Samson, R A; Pereira, V J

    2015-08-01

    Relatively limited attention has been given to the presence of fungi in the aquatic environment compared to their occurrence in other matrices. Taking advantage and recognizing the biodegradable capabilities of fungi is important, since these organisms may produce many potent enzymes capable of degrading toxic pollutants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential ability of some species of filamentous fungi that occur in the aquatic environment to degrade pesticides in untreated surface water. Several laboratory-scale experiments were performed using the natural microbial population present in the aquatic environment as well as spiked fungi isolates that were found to occur in different water matrices, to test the ability of fungi to degrade several pesticides of current concern (atrazine, diuron, isoproturon and chlorfenvinphos). The results obtained in this study showed that, when spiked in sterile natural water, fungi were able to degrade chlorfenvinphos to levels below detection and unable to degrade atrazine, diuron and isoproturon. Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus and Trichoderma harzianum were found to be able to resist and degrade chlorfenvinphos. These fungi are therefore expected to play an important role in the degradation of this and other pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  18. Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) and black acara (Cichlasoma bimaculatum) from tropical America. A large predator of the same family, the...plant management. IMPLICATION FOR CORPS CIVIL WORKS: Recent analyses by Rockwell (2003) and Lovell and Stone (2005) emphasize the shortage of...of the Army (2004)). In 2003, the Corps Civil Works program reported about $5 million in aquatic plant control costs (USACE 2004). Over 77 percent of

  19. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. C Appendix C to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control...

  20. Lability of heavy metal species in aquatic humic substances characterized by ion exchange with cellulose phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, J C; Toscano, I A; Burba, P

    1997-01-01

    Labile metal species in aquatic humic substances (HSs) were characterized by ion exchange on cellulose phosphate (CellPhos) by applying an optimized batch procedure. The HSs investigated were pre-extracted from humic-rich waters by ultrafiltration and a resin XAD 8 procedure. The HS-metal species studied were formed by complexation with Cd(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) as a function of time and the ratio ions to HSs. The kinetics and reaction order of this exchange process were studied. At the beginning ( Pb > Mn > Ni > Cd. The required metal determinations were carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry.

  1. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide A. Odeyemi; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole...

  2. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide A. Odeyemi; Asmat Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole...

  3. Elucidating the diversity of aquatic microdochium and trichoderma species and their activity against the fish pathogen Saprolegnia diclina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruijn, De Irene

    2016-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security

  4. Aquatic insects dealing with dehydration: do desiccation resistance traits differ in species with contrasting habitat preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pallarés

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Desiccation resistance shapes the distribution of terrestrial insects at multiple spatial scales. However, responses to drying stress have been poorly studied in aquatic groups, despite their potential role in constraining their distribution and diversification, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Methods We examined desiccation resistance in adults of four congeneric water beetle species (Enochrus, family Hydrophilidae with contrasting habitat specificity (lentic vs. lotic systems and different salinity optima from fresh- to hypersaline waters. We measured survival, recovery capacity and key traits related to desiccation resistance (fresh mass, % water content, % cuticle content and water loss rate under controlled exposure to desiccation, and explored their variability within and between species. Results Meso- and hypersaline species were more resistant to desiccation than freshwater and hyposaline ones, showing significantly lower water loss rates and higher water content. No clear patterns in desiccation resistance traits were observed between lotic and lentic species. Intraspecifically, water loss rate was positively related to specimens’ initial % water content, but not to fresh mass or % cuticle content, suggesting that the dynamic mechanism controlling water loss is mainly regulated by the amount of body water available. Discussion Our results support previous hypotheses suggesting that the evolution of desiccation resistance is associated with the colonization of saline habitats by aquatic beetles. The interespecific patterns observed in Enochrus also suggest that freshwater species may be more vulnerable than saline ones to drought intensification expected under climate change in semi-arid regions such as the Mediterranean Basin.

  5. Critical considerations for the application of environmental DNA methods to detect aquatic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Turner, Cameron R.; Deiner, Kristy; Klymus, Katy E.; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Murphy, Melanie A.; Spear, Stephen F.; McKee, Anna; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Cornman, Robert S.; Laramie, Matthew B.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Lance, Richard F.; Pilliod, David S.; Strickler, Katherine M.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fremier, Alexander K.; Takahara, Teruhiko; Herder, Jelger E.; Taberlet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Species detection using environmental DNA (eDNA) has tremendous potential for contributing to the understanding of the ecology and conservation of aquatic species. Detecting species using eDNA methods, rather than directly sampling the organisms, can reduce impacts on sensitive species and increase the power of field surveys for rare and elusive species. The sensitivity of eDNA methods, however, requires a heightened awareness and attention to quality assurance and quality control protocols. Additionally, the interpretation of eDNA data demands careful consideration of multiple factors. As eDNA methods have grown in application, diverse approaches have been implemented to address these issues. With interest in eDNA continuing to expand, supportive guidelines for undertaking eDNA studies are greatly needed.Environmental DNA researchers from around the world have collaborated to produce this set of guidelines and considerations for implementing eDNA methods to detect aquatic macroorganisms.Critical considerations for study design include preventing contamination in the field and the laboratory, choosing appropriate sample analysis methods, validating assays, testing for sample inhibition and following minimum reporting guidelines. Critical considerations for inference include temporal and spatial processes, limits of correlation of eDNA with abundance, uncertainty of positive and negative results, and potential sources of allochthonous DNA.We present a synthesis of knowledge at this stage for application of this new and powerful detection method.

  6. Determination of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance profiles of some bacteria isolated from aquatic amphibian and reptile species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacioglu, Nurcihan; Tosunoglu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals (Lissotriton vulgaris, Pelophylax ridibundus, Emys orbicularis, Mauremys rivulata, and Natrix natrix) in Turkey (Kavak Delta). A total of 153 bacteria have been successfully isolated from cloaca and oral samples of the aquatic amphibians and reptilians which were found, namely, Aeromonas sp. (n = 29), Plesiomonas sp. (n = 7), Vibrio sp. (n = 12), Citrobacter sp. (n = 12), Enterobacter sp. (n = 11), Escherichia sp. (n = 22), Klebsiella sp. (n = 22), Edwardsiella sp. (n = 6), Hafnia sp. (n = 1), Proteus sp. (n = 19), Providencia sp. (n = 8), and Pseudomonas sp. (n = 4). In terms of antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 12 antibiotics and 4 metals. There was a high incidence of resistance to cefoxitin (46.40 %), ampicillin (44.44 %), erythromycin (35.29 %), and a low incidence of resistance to gentamicin (6.53 %), kanamycin (8.49 %), chloramphenicol (9.15 %), and cefotaxime (10.45 %). The multiple antibiotic resistance index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised amphibians and reptiles have been exposed to tested antibiotics, with results ranging from 0 to 0.58. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from100 to >3,200 μg/mL. According to these results, a significant occurrence of bacteria in the internal organs of reptiles and amphibians, with a high incidence of resistance against antibiotics and heavy metals, may risk aquatic animals and the public health. These data appoint the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environment protection programs for amphibian and reptile species.

  7. Assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.; George, W.; Preslan, J. [and others

    1996-05-02

    This project discusses the following studies: identification and quantitation of heavy metals and petroleum products present in Bayou Trepagnier relative to control sites; assessment of the uptake and bioaccumulation of metals and organic contaminants of interest in aquatic species; establishment and use of polarographic methods for use in metal speciation studies to identify specific chemical forms present in sediments, waters and organism; and evaluation of contaminants on reproductive function of aquatic species as potential biomarkers of exposure. 14 refs.

  8. Advancing capability for bioassessment using DNA metabarcoding: Application to aquatic invasive species monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing biological communities by their constituent species is fundamental to biological monitoring and ecological condition assessment. Finding and identifying rare species is a long-standing challenge for monitoring programs. Nevertheless, conducting surveys that can des...

  9. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests.

  10. Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Aquatic Animals: From Single Species to Community-Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Saeed Shafiei; Neo, Yik Yaw; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise underwater is on the rise and may affect aquatic animals of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Many recent studies concern some sort of impact assessment of a single species. Few studies addressed the noise impact on species interactions underwater, whereas there are some studies that address community-level impact but only on land in air. Key processes such as predator-prey or competitor interactions may be affected by the masking of auditory cues, noise-related disturbance, or attentional interference. Noise-associated changes in these interactions can cause shifts in species abundance and modify communities, leading to fundamental ecosystem changes. To gain further insight into the mechanism and generality of earlier findings, we investigated the impact on both a predator and a prey species in captivity, zebrafish (Danio rerio) preying on waterfleas (Daphnia magna).

  11. Analytical fractionation of aquatic humic substances and their metal species by means of multistage ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aster, B; Burba, P; Broekaert, J A

    1996-03-01

    The molecular-size fractionation of aquatic humic substances (HS) and their metal species by means of a novel sequential-stage ultrafiltration (UF) device equipped with five appropriate ultramembranes (1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 kD) is described. First of all, the concentration dynamics of macromolecules, particulary HS, during five-stage UF and its subsequent washing step has been modelled. Based on these results, the fractionation of aquatic HS (from ground and bog water) by means of multistage UF has been optimized for an analytical scale (10 ml sample, 1 mg/ml HS, 10 ml washing solution, pH 6.0). The molecular size-distribution of selected aquatic HS (BOC 1/2 from the "DFG-Versuchsfeld Bocholt", VM 5 from "Venner Moor", Germany) studied by five-stage UF exhibited strong systematic influences of the procedure used for their isolation. The molecular-size distribution of HS obtained by on-line UF and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed a satisfactory agreement in the range 1-50 kD. Moreover, when interrupting multistage UF for > 48 h a slow transformation in the HS samples has been found as gradually additional HS fractions of complexation time. Metal determinations as carried out by flame AAS, showed that considerable metal fractions in HS especially are present in molecules > 50 kD, which seemed to be rather acid-inert. With complexation times of 10 kD) has been found.

  12. Predicting aquatic toxicities of chemical pesticides in multiple test species using nonlinear QSTR modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we established nonlinear quantitative-structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) models for predicting the toxicities of chemical pesticides in multiple aquatic test species following the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. The decision tree forest (DTF) and decision tree boost (DTB) based QSTR models were constructed using a pesticides toxicity dataset in Selenastrum capricornutum and a set of six descriptors. Other six toxicity data sets were used for external validation of the constructed QSTRs. Global QSTR models were also constructed using the combined dataset of all the seven species. The diversity in chemical structures and nonlinearity in the data were evaluated. Model validation was performed deriving several statistical coefficients for the test data and the prediction and generalization abilities of the QSTRs were evaluated. Both the QSTR models identified WPSA1 (weighted charged partial positive surface area) as the most influential descriptor. The DTF and DTB QSTRs performed relatively better than the single decision tree (SDT) and support vector machines (SVM) models used as a benchmark here and yielded R(2) of 0.886 and 0.964 between the measured and predicted toxicity values in the complete dataset (S. capricornutum). The QSTR models applied to six other aquatic species toxicity data yielded R(2) of >0.92 (DTF) and >0.97 (DTB), respectively. The prediction accuracies of the global models were comparable with those of the S. capricornutum models. The results suggest for the appropriateness of the developed QSTR models to reliably predict the aquatic toxicity of chemicals and can be used for regulatory purpose.

  13. Insecticide species sensitivity distributions: importance of test species selection and relevance to aquatic ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Blake, N.; Brock, T.C.M.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Single-species acute toxicity data and (micro)mesocosm data were collated for 16 insecticides. These data were used to investigate the importance of test-species selection in constructing species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and the ability of estimated hazardous concentrations (HCs) to protect

  14. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database with a focus on the introduced fishes of the lower Tennessee and Cumberland drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam L.; Cannister, Matthew; Johansen, Rebecca; Estes, L. Dwayne; Hamilton, Steven W.; Barrass, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database (http://nas.er.usgs.gov) functions as a national repository and clearinghouse for occurrence data for introduced species within the United States. Included is locality information on over 1,100 species of vertebrates, invertebrates, and vascular plants introduced as early as 1850. Taxa include foreign (exotic) species and species native to North America that have been transported outside of their natural range. Locality data are obtained from published and unpublished literature, state, federal and local monitoring programs, museum accessions, on-line databases, websites, professional communications and on-line reporting forms. The NAS web site provides immediate access to new occurrence records through a real-time interface with the NAS database. Visitors to the web site are presented with a set of pre-defined queries that generate lists of species according to state or hydrologic basin of interest. Fact sheets, distribution maps, and information on new occurrences are updated as new records and information become available. The NAS database allows resource managers to learn of new introductions reported in their region or nearby regions, improving response time. Conversely, managers are encouraged to report their observations of new occurrences to the NAS database so information can be disseminated to other managers, researchers, and the public. In May 2004, the NAS database incorporated an Alert System to notify registered users of new introductions as part of a national early detection/rapid response system. Users can register to receive alerts based on geographic or taxonomic criteria. The NAS database was used to identify 23 fish species introduced into the lower Tennessee and Cumberland drainages. Most of these are sport fish stocked to support fisheries, but the list also includes accidental and illegal introductions such as Asian Carps, clupeids, various species popular in the aquarium trade, and Atlantic

  15. Occurrence and diversity of clinically important Vibrio species in the aquatic environments of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamari eKokashvili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the more than 70 different Vibrio species inhabiting marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems, 12 are recognized as human pathogens. The warm subtropical climate of the Black Sea coastal area and inland regions of Georgia likely provides a favorable environment for various Vibrio species. From 2006 to 2009, the abundance, ecology, and diversity of clinically important Vibrio species were studied in different locations in Georgia and across seasons. Over a 33-month period, 1,595 presumptive Vibrio isolates were collected from the Black Sea (n=657 and freshwater lakes around Tbilisi (n=938. Screening of a subset of 440 concentrated and enriched water samples by PCR-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS detected the presence of DNA from eight clinically important Vibrio species: V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi, V. metschnikovii, and V. cincinnatiensis. Almost ninety percent of PCR/ESI-MS samples positive for Vibrio species were collected from June through November. Three important human pathogenic Vibrio species (V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus were detected in 62.8%, 37.8%, and 21.4% of samples testing positive for vibrios, respectively. The results of these activities suggest that natural reservoirs for human-pathogenic Vibrios exist in Georgian aquatic environments. Water temperature at all sampling sites was positively correlated with the abundance of clinically important Vibrio spp. (except V. metschnikovii and salinity was correlated with species composition at particular Black Sea sites as well as inland reservoirs.

  16. Interaction of species traits and environmental disturbance predicts invasion success of aquatic microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Mächler

    Full Text Available Factors such as increased mobility of humans, global trade and climate change are affecting the range of many species, and cause large-scale translocations of species beyond their native range. Many introduced species have a strong negative influence on the new local environment and lead to high economic costs. There is a strong interest to understand why some species are successful in invading new environments and others not. Most of our understanding and generalizations thereof, however, are based on studies of plants and animals, and little is known on invasion processes of microorganisms. We conducted a microcosm experiment to understand factors promoting the success of biological invasions of aquatic microorganisms. In a controlled lab experiment, protist and rotifer species originally isolated in North America invaded into a natural, field-collected community of microorganisms of European origin. To identify the importance of environmental disturbances on invasion success, we either repeatedly disturbed the local patches, or kept them as undisturbed controls. We measured both short-term establishment and long-term invasion success, and correlated it with species-specific life-history traits. We found that environmental disturbances significantly affected invasion success. Depending on the invading species' identity, disturbances were either promoting or decreasing invasion success. The interaction between habitat disturbance and species identity was especially pronounced for long-term invasion success. Growth rate was the most important trait promoting invasion success, especially when the species invaded into a disturbed local community. We conclude that neither species traits nor environmental factors alone conclusively predict invasion success, but an integration of both of them is necessary.

  17. Temperature-size responses match latitudinal-size clines in arthropods, revealing critical differences between aquatic and terrestrial species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, C.R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, D.

    2015-01-01

    of these gradients to date, and find that their direction and magnitude co-vary among 12 arthropod orders (r2 = 0.72). Body size in aquatic species generally reduces with both warming and decreasing latitude, whereas terrestrial species have much reduced and even opposite gradients. These patterns support...... the prediction that oxygen limitation is a major controlling factor in water, but not in air. Furthermore, voltinism explains much of the variation in T-S and L-S patterns in terrestrial but not aquatic species. While body size decreases with warming and with decreasing latitude in multivoltine terrestrial...

  18. Effects of Outreach on the Prevention of Aquatic Invasive Species Spread among Organism-in-Trade Hobbyists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekamp, Erin; Mayer, Jessica E.; Charlebois, Patrice; Hitzroth, Greg

    2016-11-01

    Releases of aquatic organisms-in-trade by aquarists, water gardeners, and outdoor pond owners have been identified as aquatic invasive species vectors within the Laurentian Great Lakes region. The trademarked U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Habitattitude campaign was developed in 2004 to encourage self-regulation by these groups, but little is known about its effects. We surveyed organisms-in-trade hobbyists in the eight Great Lakes states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, USA) to assess their recognition of the Habitattitude campaign and their compliance with the campaign's recommended behaviors for organism purchase and disposal. Awareness of the Habitattitude campaign was low, but hobbyists that identified as both water gardeners and aquarium hobbyists were more aware of the campaign than individuals who participated in one of those hobbies. Engaged hobbyists (high aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) were significantly more likely than passive hobbyists (low aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) to make decisions about disposal of live organisms with the intention of preventing aquatic invasive species spread, were more likely to contact other hobbyists for disposal and handling advice, and were less likely to contact professionals, such as retailers. On the basis of our results, we suggest that compliance with recommended behaviors may be increased by fostering hobbyist networks; creating materials that both explain tangible, negative environmental impacts and list specific prevention behaviors; and disseminating these materials through trusted information sources and venues.

  19. POST-EXERCISE LACTATE PRODUCTION AND METABOLISM IN THREE SPECIES OF AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh

    1994-01-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial crustaceans are dependent on both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism for energy production during exercise. Anaerobic energy production is marked by an accumulation of lactate in both muscle tissue and haemolymph, but the metabolic fate of lactate is not clear. Lactate recycling via gluconeogenesis and the potential role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in supplying bicarbonate for the carboxylation of pyruvate were investigated in three species of decapod crustaceans: Callinectes sapidus (aquatic), Cardisoma guanhumi (semi-terrestrial) and Gecarcinus lateralis (terrestrial). CA activity was found in mitochondria and cytoplasmic fractions of gill, hepatopancreas and muscle of all three species. Significant activities of key enzymes of gluconeogenesis (e.g. pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and fructose bisphosphatase), however, could not be detected. Exercise to exhaustion produced a species-specific pattern of accumulation and clearance of lactate in tissue and haemolymph, indicating a differential degree of reliance on anaerobic energy production. Treatment with acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, did not significantly alter the pattern of lactate dynamics in animals given repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise interspersed with periods of recovery. Injection of [U-14C]lactate resulted in the appearance of label in both muscle glycogen and excreted carbon dioxide, suggesting multiple metabolic fates for lactate. Lactate turnover rates for G. lateralis were similar to those reported for fish. In these animals, gluconeogenesis possibly proceeds via the reversal of pyruvate kinase, or via the typical Cori cycle but so slowly that the uncatalysed supply of bicarbonate is sufficient to keep pace with the low activities of pyruvate carboxylase and the subsequent low rates of pyruvate carboxylation.

  20. Aquatic Exercise Programs for Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go?

    OpenAIRE

    Gorter, J W; Currie, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic exercise programs may be a beneficial form of therapy for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP), particularly for those with significant movement limitations where land-based physical activity is difficult. The most recently published systematic review (2005) on aquatic interventions in children with CP found supportive but insufficient evidence on its effectiveness. The aim of this paper is to review recently published literature since 2005 with a focus on aquatic exercis...

  1. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghahramanzadeh, R.; Esselink, G.; Kodde, L.P.; Duistermaat, H.; Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Marashi, S.H.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to preven

  2. Analytical fractionation of aquatic humic substances and their metal species by means of multistage ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aster, B. [Institute for Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Postfach 10 1352, D-44139 Dortmund (Germany); Burba, P. [Institute for Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Postfach 10 1352, D-44139 Dortmund (Germany); Broekaert, J.A.C. [University of Dortmund, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    The molecular-size fractionation of aquatic humic substances (HS) and their metal species by means of a novel sequential-stage ultrafiltration (UF) device equipped with five appropriate ultramembranes (1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 kD) is described. First of all, the concentration dynamics of macromolecules, particulary HS, during five-stage UF and its subsequent washing step has been modelled. Based on these results, the fractionation of aquatic HS (from ground and bog water) by means of multistage UF has been optimized for an analytical scale (10 ml sample, 1 mg/ml HS, 10 ml washing solution, pH 6.0). The molecular size-distribution of selected aquatic HS (BOC 1/2 from the ``DFG-Versuchsfeld Bocholt``, VM 5 from ``Venner Moor``, Germany) studied by five-stage UF exhibited strong systematic influences of the procedure used for their isolation. The molecular-size distribution of HS obtained by on-line UF and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed a satisfactory agreement in the range 1-50 kD. Moreover, when interrupting multistage UF for > 48 h a slow transformation in the HS samples has been found as gradually additional HS fractions of < 1 kD have been formed. Besides unloaded HS molecules, the molecular-size distribution of freshly formed metal species of HS (1.0 mg metal/g HS of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), each) has been characterized by multistage UF as a function of pH-value, degree of loading and complexation time. Metal determinations as carried out by flame AAS, showed that considerable metal fractions in HS especially are present in molecules > 50 kD, which seemed to be rather acid-inert. With complexation times of < 2 days a transient shift of the molecular size distribution of both HS and their metal species (e.g., Al(III), Fe(III)) to higher values (> 10 kD) has been found. (orig.). With 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  4. Effects of an aquatic program on gross motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS CHRYSAGIS; ANGELIKI DOUKA; MICHAIL NIKOPOULOS; FOTEINI APOSTOLOPOULOU; DIMITRA KOUTSOUKI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 10-week aquatic program on the gross motor function, on the range of motion and on spasticity of childrenwith cerebral palsy (CP. Six students served as subjects for the experimental group and another 6 were assigned to the control group. The aquatic program was taking place twice a week and consisted of a warm up, the main training session and a cool down phase. Measuring instruments were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM (dimensions D and E, a goniometer and the modified Ashworth Scale. Pre-test and Post-test were executed before and after the intervention program. Significant interaction effect was found with respect to: the active shoulder flexion (p=.052, the active shoulder abduction (p=.052, the passive hip abduction (p=.001 and the passive knee extension (p=.045. Interaction effect was found for spasticity of the hip adductors (p=.002 and knee flexors (p=.049. Results of the present study indicated that an aquatic program might have a positive effect in gross motor function as well as in range of motion and spasticity in students with spastic cerebral palsy.

  5. Comparative Aquatic Toxicity of Gold Nanoparticles and Ionic Gold Using a Species Sensitivity Distribution Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryn L. Botha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (nAu are used in drug delivery systems allowing for targeted cellular distribution. The effects of increased use and release of nanoparticles into the environment are not well known. A species sensitivity distribution (SSD allows for the ecotoxicological hazard assessment of a chemical based on single species toxicity tests. Aquatic toxicity needs to be related to particle characterization in order to understand the effects. The behaviour of nAu in the medium changed as the concentration increased. The toxic potential of ionic gold and nAu was expressed as a hazardous concentration where 5% of species will be harmed (HC5. The HC5 for nAu was much higher (42.78 mg/L compared to the ionic gold (2.44 mg/L. The differences between the hazard potentials of nAu and ionic gold were attributed to the nAu not releasing any Au ions into solution during the exposures and following an aggregation theory response. Exposures to ionic gold on the other hand followed a clear dose dependent response based on the concentration of the ionic metal. Although SSDs present an indication of the relative hazard potential of nanoparticles, the true worth can only be achieved once other nanoparticle characteristics and their behavior in the environment are also considered.

  6. Approach to determine the diversity of Legionella species by nested PCR-DGGE in aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Hsin-Chi; Tao, Chi-Wei; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Yi-Jia; Kao, Po-Min; Huang, Tung-Yi; Hsu, Bing-Mu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we describe a nested PCR-DGGE strategy to detect Legionella communities from river water samples. The nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene was amplified using bacterial primer in the first step. After, the amplicons were employed as DNA templates in the second PCR using Legionella specific primer. The third round of gene amplification was conducted to gain PCR fragments apposite for DGGE analysis. Then the total numbers of amplified genes were observed in DGGE bands of products gained with primers specific for the diversity of Legionella species. The DGGE patterns are thus potential for a high-throughput preliminary determination of aquatic environmental Legionella species before sequencing. Comparative DNA sequence analysis of excised DGGE unique band patterns showed the identity of the Legionella community members, including a reference profile with two pathogenic species of Legionella strains. In addition, only members of Legionella pneumophila and uncultured Legionella sp. were detected. Development of three step nested PCR-DGGE tactic is seen as a useful method for studying the diversity of Legionella community. The method is rapid and provided sequence information for phylogenetic analysis. PMID:28166249

  7. Diversity of Aquatic Pseudomonas Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogenic Oomycete Saprolegnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiying; Rzeszutek, Elzbieta; van der Voort, Menno; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Thoen, Even; Skaar, Ida; Bulone, Vincent; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Raaijmakers, Jos M; de Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of several chemical control measures, new sustainable methods are needed to mitigate Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Here, PhyloChip-based community analyses showed that the Pseudomonadales, particularly Pseudomonas species, represent one of the largest bacterial orders associated with salmon eggs from a commercial hatchery. Among the Pseudomonas species isolated from salmon eggs, significantly more biosurfactant producers were retrieved from healthy salmon eggs than from Saprolegnia-infected eggs. Subsequent in vivo activity bioassays showed that Pseudomonas isolate H6 significantly reduced salmon egg mortality caused by Saprolegnia diclina. Live colony mass spectrometry showed that strain H6 produces a viscosin-like lipopeptide surfactant. This biosurfactant inhibited growth of Saprolegnia in vitro, but no significant protection of salmon eggs against Saprolegniosis was observed. These results indicate that live inocula of aquatic Pseudomonas strains, instead of their bioactive compound, can provide new (micro)biological and sustainable means to mitigate oomycete diseases in aquaculture.

  8. Utilizing next generation sequencing to characterize microsatellite loci in a tropical aquatic plant species Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata (Araceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosazlina, Rusly; Jacobsen, Niels; Ørgaard, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata (2n = 34) is an aquatic plant species distributed from the southern part of Peninsular Thailand through the Malay Peninsula. It propagates both sexually and asexually via stolons. The current study is aimed at developing nuclear microsatellite markers...

  9. Monitoring of the aquatic environment by species accumulator of pollutants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review on the biomonitoring of aquatic environments by animal and plant species accumulators of toxic pollutants ("scavengers". This monitoring is based on the relationship between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment, and not on alterations produced by pollution on the biota. The latter is the basis of other types of biomonitoring, such as those based on the biotic and diversity indices and saprobic scale. The various aspects of monitoring by pollutant accumulators are illustrated; for example, the uptake and loss of pollutants, the "critical organs" and "tissues", the detoxification mechanisms and the most common factors (C.F., BAF, BSAF for establishing a connection between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment. Several examples of this monitoring on heavy metals, radioisotopes and organic micropollutants are reported. The advantages of this monitoring, the characteristics of the species to be used as bioaccumulators and some practical suggestions are listed. A close collaboration between the scientific teams working on the biomonitoring based on accumulator organisms and on the chemical monitoring is recommended from the scientific and economic point of view.

  10. Anti-biogram and resistogram profiling of Aeromonas species isolated from Malaysian aquatic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibiotics and heavy metals resistance profile of Aeromonas species isolated from Kuala Gula and Kuala Sepetang, Perak. Methods: Isolated Aeromonas species were subjected to 12 antibiotics: penicillin G 10 units, tetracycline 30 µg, novobiocin 5 µg, nitrofurantoin 100 µg, ampicillin 10 µg, chloramphenicol 10 µg, fluconazole 25 µg, gentamicin 10 µg, streptomycin 10 µg and 25 µg, kanamycin 30 µg, and vancomycin 30 µg and 5 heavy metals: MnSO4.H2O, Cr(NO3.9H2O, CuSO4, Pb(NO32, HgCl2. Results: Results from this study revealed that isolates from the two sources-displayed varied resistance. Isolates from Kuala Sepetang showed 91%, 66%, 61%, and 52% resistance to vancomycin, Novobiocin, streptomycin and gentamycin while Kuala Gula isolates showed 76%, 93%, 28% and 14% respectively. High rate of resistance was shown to be against lead (Pb, Chromium (Cr, copper (Cu and Manganese (Mn with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 2 560 µg/mL to >5 120 µg/mL. Low resistance to mercury was observed among isolates from Kuala Gula. Conclusions: This study showed that there was widespread of both heavy metals and antibiotics resistance among Aeromonas isolates from the two marine sources with isolates from Kuala Sepetang showing more resistance thereby posing danger to both aquatic animals and human health.

  11. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide A. Odeyemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13, bivalve (n = 10, sea cucumber (n = 16 and sea water (n = 14 and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg, Kanamycin (30 μg, Oxytetracycline (30 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg, Nalixidic acid (30 μg, Trimethoprim (1.25 μg, Novobiocin (5 μg, Penicilin (10 μg and Chloramphenicol (10 μg was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%, Kanamycin (5.7%, Gentamicin (5.7% and Oxytetracycline (24.5%. Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  12. Anti-biogram and resistogram profiling of Aeromonas species isolated from Malaysian aquatic sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi; Asmat Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibiotics and heavy metals resistance profile of Aeromonas species isolated from Kuala Gula and Kuala Sepetang, Perak. Methods: Isolated Aeromonas species were subjected to 12 antibiotics: penicillin G 10 units, tetracycline 30 µg, novobiocin 5 µg, nitrofurantoin 100 µg, ampicillin 10 µg, chloramphenicol 10 µg, fluconazole 25 µg, gentamicin 10 µg, streptomycin 10 µg and 25 µg, kanamycin 30 µg, and vancomycin 30 µg and 5 heavy metals: MnSO4.H2O, Cr(NO3).9H2O, CuSO4, Pb(NO3)2, HgCl2. Results: Results from this study revealed that isolates from the two sources-displayed varied resistance. Isolates from Kuala Sepetang showed 91%, 66%, 61%, and 52% resistance to vancomycin, Novobiocin, streptomycin and gentamycin while Kuala Gula isolates showed 76%, 93%, 28% and 14% respectively. High rate of resistance was shown to be against lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and Manganese (Mn) with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 2 560 µg/mL to>5120 µg/mL. Low resistance to mercury was observed among isolates from Kuala Gula. Conclusions: This study showed that there was widespread of both heavy metals and antibiotics resistance among Aeromonas isolates from the two marine sources with isolates from Kuala Sepetang showing more resistance thereby posing danger to both aquatic animals and human health.

  13. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Olumide A; Ahmad, Asmat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics - Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg), Nalixidic acid (30 μg), Trimethoprim (1.25 μg), Novobiocin (5 μg), Penicilin (10 μg) and Chloramphenicol (10 μg) was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%), Kanamycin (5.7%), Gentamicin (5.7%) and Oxytetracycline (24.5%). Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  14. Results of the Aquatic Monitoring Program in streams at the Rocky Flats Site : Golden, Colorado 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aquatic monitoring program was initiated in the summer 200 I at the Rocky Flats EnvironmentalTechnology Site (Rocky Flats) in Golden, Colorado, and was conducted...

  15. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  16. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.

  17. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varó, I., E-mail: inma@iats.csic.es [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Redón, S. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Garcia-Roger, E.M. [Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Amat, F.; Guinot, D. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain); Serrano, R. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA), Avda. Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, Castellón 12071 (Spain); Navarro, J.C. [Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón 12595 Spain (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Artemia species display an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos. • A. franciscana survived better and its fecundity was less affected by chlorpyrifos. • The higher fecundity of A. franciscana is a selective advantage in colonization processes. • Higher survival and biological fitness in A. franciscana indicate out-competitive advantages. - Abstract: The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5 μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological

  18. Vegetation development following stream/river restoration: more natural fluvial dynamics and morphology, return of aquatic and riparian plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    After centuries of human interventions in stream/river dynamics and morphology aimed at optimizing landscapes for agricultural and industrial purposes, new insights have inspired water managers to try and combine stream and river ecosystem functions with the conservation of biodiversity. Around the world, aquatic and riparian species have declined strongly due to pollution, destruction and fragmentation of their habitat, so that biodiversity conservation initiatives primarily focus on habitat restoration. In the past decades many stream and river restoration projects have been carried out and often hydrological dynamics and morphology have been restored to a more natural state. However, the successful restoration of aquatic and riparian habitats very often failed to result in restoration of their biodiversity. This lack of success from a biodiversity conservation perspective is usually attributed to 'dispersal limitation', meaning that the habitat may be restored, but species fail to reach the site and re-colonize it. Especially re-colonization by aquatic and riparian plant species is important, as such species function as ecosystem engineers: their presence alters fluvial dynamics and morphology, generates additional habitat heterogeneity and provides habitat and food for animal species. Following minor disturbances, re-colonization is often possible through locally remaining populations, by seeds in the seed bank or by surviving plant fragments. However, following major disturbances, colonization and establishment from other source populations are necessary. This usually occurs through dispersal of seeds (and in more aquatic species also by dispersal of vegetative fragments) into the restored wetland area. As dispersal occurs predominantly over short distances and source populations of aquatic and riparian species may be lacking in the surroundings, dispersal may be a limiting factor in the development of aquatic and riparian vegetation at a restored site. But

  19. Aquatic macrophytes of Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil: survey of species and ecological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei Magela Thomaz

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of the aquatic macrophytes of the Itaipu Reservoir, we identified 62 taxa in 25 families and 42 genera. The highest number taxa was observed for the emergent macrophytes (40 taxa. Reduced fluctuation in water level, increased light penetration, and sediment enrichment by nutrients and organic matter following the formation of the reservoir favored the appearance of a species-rich community of submerged macrophytes (23% of the taxa identified. The aquatic macrophytes were found mainly near the mouths of the main tributaries of the reservoir, in shallow area of depth less than 2 meters. In addition to the shallow depth, the greater nutrient input from the tributaries and relative protection from wind explained this distribution. Among the species found, Egeria najas merits mention for its occurrence in all localities sampled, with biomass values varying between 98 and 186 gDW/m². Some potential nuisance species such as Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia auriculata, and Pistia stratiotes also deserve attention, since they were also observed to be covering large areas of Itaipu Reservoir.Em um levantamento de macrófitas aquáticas realizado no reservatório de Itaipu foram identificados 62 táxons pertencentes a 25 famílias e 42 gêneros. O maior número de táxons foi representado pelas macrófitas emergentes (40 táxons. O surgimento de uma rica comunidade de espécies submersas (23% dos táxons identificados parece ter sido favorecido pelas alterações decorrentes da formação dor reservatório, tais como redução da flutuação dos níveis de água, aumento da penetração de luz e enriquecimento do sedimento em nutrientes e matéria orgânica. As macrófitas aquáticas foram registradas principalmente próximo à foz dos tributários do reservatório, em áreas rasas (profundidade inferior a 2 metros. Além da reduzida profundidade, o maior aporte de nutrientes associado à proteção do vento explicam essa distribuição. Entre

  20. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A.; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from 9.45 to 21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species—the `iconization' of species in two of the three surveys—had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be 10 to 25 per species or 10 to 20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk.

  1. Aquatic molluscs in high mountain lakes of the Eastern Alps (Austria): Species-environment relationships and specific colonization behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STURM Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mountain lakes represent essential stages for aquatic species on their way colonizing habitats of more elevated regions.Despite extensive biological and chemical study,only little has been reported about the species number and density of freshwater molluscs in these waters.The article presented here elucidates the dispersal of aquatic gastropods and bivalves in 12 mountain lakes that are commonly situated in the Eastern Alps,Austria.Molluscs were recorded at 120 sample points,where a total of 13 species (8 gastropods and 5 bivalves) could be determined.Species distribution data as well as results from contemporarily conducted physico-chemical factor recording were subject to weighted average analysis.In addition,a global marginality coefficient indicating the particularity of a habitat inhabited by a focal species as well as a global tolerance coefficient expressing the width of a niche occupied by this species were computed.Species-environment relationships exhibited that species number and specific density decrease with increasing geographic altitude,declining water temperature,and decreasing amount of submerged vegetation.Whilst waters of the montane altitude level are partly charcterized by high number of mollusc species (>10),lakes of the subalpine altitude level commonly bear 1 or 2 species with <<1 ind./m2.As proposed by the results of statistics,9 of the 13 mollusc species are characterized by a pronounced behaviour as specialists with respect to most environmental factors.The four remaining species,Pisidium casertanum,Galba truncatula,Radix labiata,and Radix balthica,act as generalists which increases their pioneering role in the long-term occupation of the Central-alpine region.

  2. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Effects of Water Chemistry on Aquatic Plants. Growth and Photosynthesis of Myriophyllum spicatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    A D-A±69 98 AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RESEARCH PRGRAM EFFECTS OF N*TER 1 I CHEMISTRY ON AQUA .(U) ARMY ENGINEER NATERNAYS I EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG...photosynthesis should be clearly resolved. Objective and Scope 6. The objective of this report is to evaluate the effects of major cation and inorganic...carbon levels on the growth and photosynthesis of M. spicaturn. A secondary objective is to evaluate the relationship between growth and

  3. Exploring new Routes for Identifying Phosphorus Species in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems with 31P NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergren, Johan; Persson, Per; Sundman, Annelie; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Giesler, Reiner; Schleucher, Jürgen; Gröbner, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    develop a new method to retrieve and characterize P components in water. By utilizing passive sampling with ion-exchange resin and subsequent analysis with solid state 31P MAS NMR we could identify various P-species extracted from the aquatic systems. By using this approach we can also study the dynamics of the absorption process at the resin as a function of P-species and temperature. This even enabled us to extract the fraction of bound versus free P as a function of temperature for different model P-components (manuscript in preparation). REFERENCES: Gilbert N. Nature 461 716-718 (2009) Vincent AG. et al., Biogeochemistry, 10.1007/s10533-011-9612-0 (2011). Vestergren J et al., Environ. Sci. Technol, 46, 3950-3956, (2012). Vincent AG et al., Plant Soil, 367, 149-162, (2013). Laudon H., et al., Water Resour. Res., 49, 7154-7158, (2013).

  4. Multiple origins of pyrethroid insecticide resistance across the species complex of a nontarget aquatic crustacean, Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Donald P; Poynton, Helen C; Wellborn, Gary A; Lydy, Michael J; Blalock, Bonnie J; Sepulveda, Maria S; Colbourne, John K

    2013-10-08

    Use of pesticides can have substantial nonlethal impacts on nontarget species, including driving evolutionary change, often with unknown consequences for species, ecosystems, and society. Hyalella azteca, a species complex of North American freshwater amphipods, is widely used for toxicity testing of water and sediment and has frequently shown toxicity due to pyrethroid pesticides. We demonstrate that 10 populations, 3 from laboratory cultures and 7 from California water bodies, differed by at least 550-fold in sensitivity to pyrethroids. The populations sorted into four phylogenetic groups consistent with species-level divergence. By sequencing the primary pyrethroid target site, the voltage-gated sodium channel, we show that point mutations and their spread in natural populations were responsible for differences in pyrethroid sensitivity. At least one population had both mutant and WT alleles, suggesting ongoing evolution of resistance. Although nonresistant H. azteca were susceptible to the typical neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids, gene expression analysis suggests the mode of action in resistant H. azteca was not neurotoxicity but was oxidative stress sustained only at considerably higher pyrethroid concentrations. The finding that a nontarget aquatic species has acquired resistance to pesticides used only on terrestrial pests is troubling evidence of the impact of chronic pesticide transport from land-based applications into aquatic systems. Our findings have far-reaching implications for continued uncritical use of H. azteca as a principal species for monitoring and environmental policy decisions.

  5. Aquatic Exercise Programs for Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Gorter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic exercise programs may be a beneficial form of therapy for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP, particularly for those with significant movement limitations where land-based physical activity is difficult. The most recently published systematic review (2005 on aquatic interventions in children with CP found supportive but insufficient evidence on its effectiveness. The aim of this paper is to review recently published literature since 2005 with a focus on aquatic exercise for children with CP. In total, six new studies were published with a main focus on aerobic aquatic interventions in higher functioning children and adolescents with CP. Swimming is one of the most frequently reported physical activities in children and adolescents with CP. Therefore, information on its safety and benefits is highly needed, for those with more severe CP in particular. Research design issues are discussed to help guide future research and practice.

  6. Aquatic exercise programs for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: what do we know and where do we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, J W; Currie, S J

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic exercise programs may be a beneficial form of therapy for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP), particularly for those with significant movement limitations where land-based physical activity is difficult. The most recently published systematic review (2005) on aquatic interventions in children with CP found supportive but insufficient evidence on its effectiveness. The aim of this paper is to review recently published literature since 2005 with a focus on aquatic exercise for children with CP. In total, six new studies were published with a main focus on aerobic aquatic interventions in higher functioning children and adolescents with CP. Swimming is one of the most frequently reported physical activities in children and adolescents with CP. Therefore, information on its safety and benefits is highly needed, for those with more severe CP in particular. Research design issues are discussed to help guide future research and practice.

  7. Flow regime in a restored wetland determines trophic links and species composition in the aquatic macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Ortegón, E., E-mail: quique.gonzalezortegon@andaluciajunta.es [School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge LL59 5AB (United Kingdom); IFAPA Centro El Toruño, Camino Tiro de Pichón s/n, 11500 El Puerto de Santa María (Spain); Walton, M.E.M.; Moghaddam, B. [School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge LL59 5AB (United Kingdom); Vilas, C.; Prieto, A. [IFAPA Centro El Toruño, Camino Tiro de Pichón s/n, 11500 El Puerto de Santa María (Spain); Kennedy, H.A. [School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge LL59 5AB (United Kingdom); Pedro Cañavate, J. [IFAPA Centro El Toruño, Camino Tiro de Pichón s/n, 11500 El Puerto de Santa María (Spain); Le Vay, L. [School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge LL59 5AB (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    In a restored wetland (South of Spain), where different flow regimes control water exchange with the adjacent Guadalquivir estuary, the native Palaemon varians coexists with an exotic counterpart species Palaemon macrodactylus. This controlled m/acrocosm offers an excellent opportunity to investigate how the effects of water management, through different flow regimes, and the presence of a non-native species affect the aquatic community and the trophic niche (by gut contents and C-N isotopic composition) of the native shrimp Palaemon varians. We found that increased water exchange rate (5% day{sup −1} in mixed ponds vs. 0.1% day{sup −1} in extensive ponds) modified the aquatic community of this wetland; while extensive ponds are dominated by isopods and amphipods with low presence of P. macrodactylus, mixed ponds presented high biomass of mysids, corixids, copepods and both shrimp species. An estuarine origin of nutrients and primary production might explain seasonal and spatial differences found among ponds of this wetland. A combined analysis of gut contents and isotopic composition of the native and the exotic species showed that: (1) native P. varians is mainly omnivorous (2) while the non-native P. macrodactylus is more zooplanktivorous and (3) a dietary overlap occurred when both species coexist at mixed ponds where a higher water exchange and high abundance of mysids and copepods diversifies the native species' diet. Thus differences in the trophic ecology of both species are clearly explained by water management. This experimental study is a valuable tool for integrated management between river basin and wetlands since it allows quantification of wetland community changes in response to the flow regime. - Highlights: • Flow regimen is a major determinant of physicochemical habitat of a wetland. • Water exchanges wetland-estuary modify its aquatic community and trophic links. • Omnivory and physiological tolerance key in the resistance of a

  8. Development of biometric and environmental DNA standardized protocols for early detection and population assessment of aquatic invasive species for Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee NWR.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our project proposed to integrate standard fisheries data collection techniques to support inventory and monitoring programs for fish communities, including aquatic...

  9. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G. [McNeese State Univ., Lake Charles, LA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Science

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  10. Effects of an aquatic therapy program on vital capacity, quality of life and physical activity index in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoş Adrian Maniu; Emese Agnes Maniu; Ileana Benga

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to track the aspects and results of applying an aquatic therapy intervention program adapted and integrated in the treatment of neuromotor reeducation of children with cerebral palsy on gross motor function, spasticity and range of motion. Material and methods: The aquatic therapy program had a duration of 6 months, 2 weekly sessions. The average duration of a session was 45 minutes. The water temperature was 36°C. Besides the aquatic therapy sessions the chi...

  11. 50 CFR 679.26 - Prohibited Species Donation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited Species Donation Program. 679... ALASKA Management Measures § 679.26 Prohibited Species Donation Program. (a) Authorized species. The PSD... SPECIES DONATION PROGRAM - NOT FOR SALE - PERISHABLE PRODUCT - KEEP FROZEN”. (3) A processor retaining...

  12. Total mercury and mercury species in birds and fish in an aquatic ecosystem in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houserova, Pavlina [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuban, Vlastimil [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: kuban@mendelu.cz; Kracmar, Stanislav [Department of Animal Nutrition, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Sitko, Jilji [Commenius Museum, Moravian Ornithological Station, Horni nam. 1, Prerov CZ-751 52 (Czech Republic)

    2007-01-15

    Total mercury and mercury species (methylmercury-MeHg, inorganic mercury - Hg{sup 2+}) were determined in the aquatic ecosystem Zahlinice (Czech Republic). Four tissues (muscle, intestines, liver and kidney) of three bird species - cormorant, great crested grebe and Eurasian buzzard, muscle tissues of common carp, grass carp, northern pike, goldfish, common tench, perch and rudd, aquatic plants (reed mace and common reed), sediments and water were analysed. Relative contents of MeHg (of total Hg) were in the range from 71% to 94% and from 15% up to 62% in the muscle and intestines and in liver, respectively, for all birds. Statistically significant differences were found between contents of MeHg in liver tissues of young and adult cormorant populations (F {sub 4.6} = 56.71, P < 10{sup -5}). Relative contents of MeHg in muscle tissues of fishes were in the range from 65.1% to 87.9% of total Hg. - The distribution of the mercury species among the organs of the individual birds is discussed.

  13. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  14. Effects of Water Exercise Swimming Program on Aquatic Skills and Social Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 10 week water exercise swimming program (WESP) on the aquatic skills and social behaviors of 16 boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first 10 week phase (phase I), eight children (group A) received the WESP while eight children (group B) did not. A second 10 week phase…

  15. Incidence and Management Costs of Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species at Projects Operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    the occurrence of ANS impacts (Yes or No) from freshwater algae, large aquatic plants, fish , zebra mussels, Asiatic clams, water fleas, crayfish...investment in research and development, especially for nuisance aquatic plants, fresh- water clams, and certain invasive fish species. Even so, aggregate...water hyacinths, hydrilla, common reed, sea lamprey, and the zebra mussel are especially notorious for their costly impacts on freshwater services

  16. Low frequency vibrations induce malformations in two aquatic species in a frequency-, waveform-, and direction-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Vandenberg

    Full Text Available Environmental toxicants such as industrial wastes, air particulates from machinery and transportation vehicles, and pesticide run-offs, as well as many chemicals, have been widely studied for their effects on human and wildlife populations. Yet other potentially harmful environmental pollutants such as electromagnetic pulses, noise and vibrations have remained incompletely understood. Because developing embryos undergo complex morphological changes that can be affected detrimentally by alterations in physical forces, they may be particularly susceptible to exposure to these types of pollutants. We investigated the effects of low frequency vibrations on early embryonic development of two aquatic species, Xenopus laevis (frogs and Danio rerio (zebrafish, specifically focusing on the effects of varying frequencies, waveforms, and applied direction. We observed treatment-specific effects on the incidence of neural tube defects, left-right patterning defects and abnormal tail morphogenesis in Xenopus tadpoles. Additionally, we found that low frequency vibrations altered left-right patterning and tail morphogenesis, but did not induce neural tube defects, in zebrafish. The results of this study support the conclusion that low frequency vibrations are toxic to aquatic vertebrates, with detrimental effects observed in two important model species with very different embryonic architectures.

  17. Effects of water exercise swimming program on aquatic skills and social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 10 week water exercise swimming program (WESP) on the aquatic skills and social behaviors of 16 boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first 10 week phase (phase I), eight children (group A) received the WESP while eight children (group B) did not. A second 10 week phase (phase II) immediately followed, with the treatments reversed. Both groups continued their regular treatment/ activity throughout the study. Improvements were seen in aquatic skills for both groups subsequent to the WESP. Following phase I, significant social improvements were seen in group A. Following phase II, social improvements were seen for group B, whereas group A merely maintained the improvements they attained through the implementation of the WESP during phase I. Results indicate that the WESP improved aquatic skills in the participants, and holds potential for social improvements.

  18. Nutritional composition of aquatic species in Laotian rice field ecosystems : possible impact of reduced biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhasan, Mulia

    2008-01-01

    The population density of Laos PDR has increased from 15 persons per square km in 1985 to 19 persons in 1995 and to 24 persons in 2005. This has threatened food security, which in Laos PDR is generally synonymous with rice availability. Rice production in Laos rose by 70 percent from 1990 to 2004. Evidence from Vietnam, Malaysia and Central Thailand has shown that the rise of rice production steadily decreases the population of aquatic animals in rice field ecosystems, as a result of higher a...

  19. Relevance of risk predictions derived from a chronic species sensitivity distribution with cadmium to aquatic populations and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Criteria to protect aquatic life are intended to protect diverse ecosystems, but in practice are usually developed from compilations of single-species toxicity tests using standard test organisms that were tested in laboratory environments. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) developed from these compilations are extrapolated to set aquatic ecosystem criteria. The protectiveness of the approach was critically reviewed with a chronic SSD for cadmium comprising 27 species within 21 genera. Within the data set, one genus had lower cadmium effects concentrations than the SSD fifth percentile-based criterion, so in theory this genus, the amphipod Hyalella, could be lost or at least allowed some level of harm by this criteria approach. However, population matrix modeling projected only slightly increased extinction risks for a temperate Hyalella population under scenarios similar to the SSD fifth percentile criterion. The criterion value was further compared to cadmium effects concentrations in ecosystem experiments and field studies. Generally, few adverse effects were inferred from ecosystem experiments at concentrations less than the SSD fifth percentile criterion. Exceptions were behavioral impairments in simplified food web studies. No adverse effects were apparent in field studies under conditions that seldom exceeded the criterion. At concentrations greater than the SSD fifth percentile, the magnitudes of adverse effects in the field studies were roughly proportional to the laboratory-based fraction of species with adverse effects in the SSD. Overall, the modeling and field validation comparisons of the chronic criterion values generally supported the relevance and protectiveness of the SSD fifth percentile approach with cadmium. ?? 2009 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. A comparative study of the effects of trunk exercise program in aquatic and land-based therapy on gait in hemiplegic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program on gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 28 hemiplegic stroke patients (20 males, 8 females). The subjects performed a trunk exercise program for a total of four weeks. [Results] Walking speed and cycle, stance phase and stride length of the affected side, and the symmetry index of the stance phase significantly improved after the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program may help improve gait performance ability after stroke.

  1. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-26

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability.

  2. Seasonal trends in growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and metals in six species of emergent aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrends, L.L.; Bailey, E.; Bulls, M.J.; Coonrod, H.S.; Sikora, F.J.

    1996-05-01

    Growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and trace metals were monitored for six species of aquatic macrophytes during June, August and November, 1993. Plant species were cultivated in two polyculture treatments, each replicated three times. Polyculture I consisted of Scirpus acutus (hardstem bullrush), Phragmites communes (common reed), and Phalaris arundinacea (canary grass). Polyculture H consisted of Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus atrovirens (green bullrush), and Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass). Each of the six cells (6 x 9 x 0.6 m), was operated as a gravel-substrate, subsurface-flow wetlands in a continuous recirculating mode. At six week intervals, macro, micro and trace elements were dissolved and added to the sump of the recirculating system. On each of three sampling dates, replicate shoot and root samples were collected, segregated by species and tissue type (roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves), and prepared for gravimetric biomass estimates and chemical analysis. Tissue specific concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, were determined on each date for each species and tissue type. Results will be discussed with respect to species specific growth rates, biomass accumulation, and seasonal uptake and translocation of plant nutrients.

  3. Control of sperm concentration is necessary for standardization of sperm cryopreservation in aquatic species: evidence from sperm agglutination in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang; Tiersch, Terrence R

    2007-02-01

    A lack of standardization in sperm cryopreservation of aquatic organisms is one of the main reasons for inconsistency observed among various studies. In particular, there have been few attempts to standardize sperm concentration during procedural optimization. This study was intended to call attention to sperm concentration standardization through research of sperm agglutination in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Sperm agglutination after thawing is a relatively frequent phenomenon observed for various aquatic species, especially when sub-optimal cryopreservation protocols are used; however, no systematic attempts have been made to explain this phenomenon. The present study evaluated various factors affecting sperm agglutination of thawed samples from diploid and tetraploid Pacific oysters, and is the first detailed report addressing the sperm agglutination phenomenon of thawed samples from any aquatic organism. Agglutination of oyster sperm was classified into six levels with a scale ranging from 0 (homogenous suspension) to 5 (well-developed "noodles"). It was found that agglutination in thawed samples was mainly due to the lack of sufficient cryoprotectant for a specific sperm concentration. Interestingly, high levels of agglutination did not necessarily lead to low fertilization. On the contrary, some sperm cells appeared to gain protection from the formation of peripheral agglutination within 0.5-ml French straws. The exact mechanism of sperm agglutination remains unclear. However, morphological examination of cross sections of the noodles (agglutination level 5) indicated at least two forms of agglutination (formed with and without cryoprotectant) which could be used as a tool to understand the cryopreservation process within the micro-environment of the straw. Furthermore, the fact that the level of sperm agglutination was directly determined by sperm concentration, in addition to the type of cryoprotectant, cryoprotectant concentration, and cooling and

  4. Diel flight behaviour and dispersal patterns of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera species with special emphasis on the importance of seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabai, Zoltán; Kálmán, Zoltán; Szivák, Ildikó; Boda, Pál

    2012-09-01

    Dispersal flight is the most important and almost the only way for primary aquatic insects to find new water habitats. During a 30-week-long project, we monitored the flight dispersal behaviour of aquatic beetles and bugs with using highly and horizontally polarizing agricultural black plastic sheets laid onto the ground. Based on the flight data of more than 45,000 individuals and 92 species, we explored and described eight different diel flight activity patterns. We found that seven of eight dispersal patterns are consistent with the previous knowledge, while three conspicuous mass dispersal periods can be identified as in the mid morning and/or around noon and/or at nightfall. As an exception, we found a `daytime' pattern occurred exclusively in spring, in which mass dispersal can be seen from mid morning to late afternoon. In contrast to previous studies, we emphasize here that the seasonality has to be considered in evaluation of the diurnal flight activity. According to the seasons, a `three code sign' was proposed to indicate the diel dispersal flight behaviour of a species for a year. Most of the species utilize different diel activity patterns in different seasons. In spring, the daytime pattern was the preferred type, but in summer and autumn, the evening types were the most popular patterns. We stated that the seasonal change of air temperature has a crucial role in that a pattern could be manifested in a given season or not and brings a need to change the diel dispersal pattern among seasons.

  5. Bacterial infections from aquatic species: potential for and prevention of contact zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenen, O L M; Evans, J J; Berthe, F

    2013-08-01

    As aquaculture production and the consumption of aquaculture products increase, the possibility of contracting zoonotic infections from either handling or ingesting these products also increases. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Mycobacterium marinum, Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio vulnificus and V. damsela. These pathogens, which are all indigenous to the aquatic environment, have also been associated with disease outbreaks in food fish. Outbreaks are often related to management factors, such as the quality and quantity of nutrients in the water and high stocking density, which can increase bacterial loads on the external surface of the fish. As a result, diseased fish are more likely to transmit infection to humans. This review provides an account of human cases of zoonoses throughout the world from the principal zoonotic pathogens of fish and shellfish.

  6. A numerical taxonomic study of species of Vibrio isolated from the aquatic environment and birds in Kent, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P A; Lee, J V; Bryant, T N

    1983-10-01

    A numerical taxonomic study has been carried out to confirm the identity of strains of the family Vibrionaceae isolated during an ecological study. A total of 237 strains were studied including 148 from the aquatic environment, 6 from estuarine birds, 1 from sheep faeces, and 61 control cultures. Duplicates of 21 of the strains were randomly selected and included to estimate test and operator error. Taxonomic resemblance was estimated on the basis of 148 characters using Euclidean distance. The taxonomic position of some strains was reevaluated using the pattern different coefficient. Strains were clustered by three methods, all of which gave similar results. The estimated average probability of test error was 1.5%. Strains previously identified as Vibrio anguillarum fell into four distinct phenons corresponding to V. anguillarum biovar I, 'V. anguillarum biovar II', V. diazotrophicus, and strains pathogenic to oyster larvae. The latter group characteristically degraded xanthine and probably represents a new species. The phenon corresponding to V. cholerae included the type strain, strains of human origin, and strains isolated in the United Kingdom from birds and the aquatic environment. Some strains of V. cholerae were luminous. Other phenons were identified as V. metschnikovii, V. fluvialis, and Aeromonas spp.

  7. Nuclear microscopy as a tool in TiO2 nanoparticles bioaccumulation studies in aquatic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Teresa; Moita, Liliana; Silva, Luís; Mendonça, Elsa; Picado, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Engineered Titanium nanoparticles are used for a wide range of applications from coatings, sunscreen cosmetic additives to solar cells or water treatment agents. Inevitably environmental exposure can be expected and data on the ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticles are still scarce. The potential effects of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on two model organisms, the water flea, Daphnia magna and the duckweed Lemna minor, were examined in semichronic toxicity tests. Daphnia and Lemna were exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (average particle size value of 28 ± 11 nm (n = 42); concentration range, 1.4-25 mg/L) by dietary route and growth in medium containing the nanoparticles of TiO2, respectively. Both morphology and microdistribution of Ti in the individuals were examined by nuclear microscopy techniques. A significant amount of TiO2 was found accumulated in Daphnia exposed to nanoparticles. Nuclear microscopy imaging revealed that Ti was localized only in the digestive tract of the Daphnia, which displayed difficulty in eliminating the nanoparticles from their body. Daphnia showed higher mortality when exposed to higher concentrations of TiO2 (>10 mg/L). The exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles above 25 mg/L caused morphological alterations in Lemna. The roots became stiff and fronds colorless. The Ti mapping of cross-sections of roots and fronds showed that Ti was mainly deposited in the epidermis of the fronds and roots, with minor internalization. In summary, exposure of aquatic organisms to TiO2 nanoparticles may alter the physiology of these organisms at individual and population levels, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Design and analysis of aquatic monitoring programs at nuclear power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Kannberg, L.D.; Gore, K.L.; Arnold, E.M.; Watson, D.G.

    1977-11-01

    This report addresses some of the problems of designing, conducting, and analyzing aquatic environmental monitoring programs for impact assessment of nuclear power plants. The concepts discussed are applicable to monitoring the effects of chemical, radioactive, or thermal effluents. The concept of control and treatment station pairs is the fundamental basis for the experimental method proposed. This concept is based on the hypothesis that the relationship between the two stations forming the pair can be estimated from the preoperational period and that this relationship holds during the operational period. Any changes observed in this relationship during the operational period are assumed to be the result of the power plant impacts. Thus, it is important that station pairs are selected so it can be assumed that they respond to natural environmental changes in a manner that maintains that relationship. The major problem in establishing the station pairs will be the location of the control station. The universal heterogeneity in the environment will prevent the establishment of identical station pairs. The requirement that the control station remain unaffected by the operation of the power plant dictates a spacial separation with its associated differences in habitat. Thus, selection of the control station will be based upon balancing the following two criteria: (1) far enough away from the plant site to be beyond the plant influence, and (2) close enough to the treatment station that the biological communities will respond to natural environmental changes consistently in the same manner.

  9. The adaptational strategies of the hindlimb muscles in the Tenrecidae species including the aquatic web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hideki; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Rakotondraparany, Felix; Sasaki, Motoki; Hasegawa, Masami

    2006-07-01

    The hindlimb muscles in four species of Tenrecidae (Oryzoryctinae: Talazac long-tailed tenrec and web-footed tenrec, Tenrecinae: lesser hedgehog tenrec, and streaked tenrec), were examined macroscopically. The weight ratios of the muscles to the body in the oryzoryctinid species are larger than those in Tenrecinae, since the Oryzoryctinae species have an obviously smaller body from the evolutionary point of view. It can be primarily pointed out that the adaptation of the body size is different between the two subfamilies, and secondarily, that functional adaptation to locomotion is complete within each subfamily. The weight data and the morphological findings demonstrate that the web-footed tenrec possesses an extraordinary large M. semimembranosus in comparison to the Talazac long-tailed tenrec in their weight ratios. This muscle may act as a strong flexor motor in the knee joint during the aquatic locomotion of the web-footed tenrec. Since the other muscles of the web-footed tenrec are similar to those of the Talazac long-tailed tenrec regards weight ratio data, we think that the web-footed tenrec may have derived from a terrestrial ancestor such as the long-tailed tenrecs. In Tenrecinae the streaked tenrec is equipped with larger Mm. adductores, M. semimembranosus and M. triceps surae than the lesser hedgehog tenrec. This species is adapted to fossorial life derived from non-specialized ancestors within the evolutionary lines of the spiny tenrecs.

  10. Membrane filtration studies of aquatic humic substances and their metal species: a concise overview. Part 2. Evaluation of conditional stability constants by using ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifant'eva, T I; Shkinev, V M; Spivakov, B Y; Burba, P

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of conditional stability constants of aquatic humic substance (HS) metal complexes is overviewed with special emphasis on the application of ultrafiltration methods. Fundamentals and limitations of stability functions in the case of macromolecular and polydisperse metal-HS species in aquatic environments are critically discussed. The review summarizes the advantages and application of ultrafiltration for metal-HS complexation studies, discusses the comparibility and reliability of stability constants. The potential of ultrafiltration procedures for characterizing the lability of metal-HS species is also stressed.

  11. Program GICC - AQUABIO. Possible consequences of the climatic change on the aquatic and river french biocenoses. Final report; Programme GICC - AQUABIO. Consequences potentielles du changement climatique sur les biocenoses aquatiques et riveraines francaises. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pont, D. [Lyon-1 Univ., CNRS UMR 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Fluviaux, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2003-11-15

    The consequences of the climatic change can modify the ecosystems. The aim of this research program is to analyze the impacts of the climatic change on the propagation of the exotic species in France in aquatic and river environment, the population of macro invertebrates and fishes in the french rivers and the socio economic challenges. The methodology is based on the simulation from the exploitation of great data bases and the combination of many approaches at different scales. (A.L.B.)

  12. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of acridone derivatives to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae and non-target aquatic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, Annadurai; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-01-01

    A serious Mosquito borne yellow fever is one of the grave diseases which affect the major population. Since there is no specific treatment for yellow fever, there is a necessity to develop an effective agent. The series of acridinone analogues 3 to 5 were synthesized with help of non-conventional microwave heating and confirmed by respective spectral characterization. 5c and 3b showed highest activity to kill 90% of larvae against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Also the active products were treated to check the mortality of non-target aquatic species. Through the reports of the larvicidal bioassay, compounds 3b against C. quinquefasciatus whereas 5c against A. aegypti were found to be more active. By keeping this as a platform, further extension of the work can be done to find out a valuable drug for controlling disease vectors.

  13. Effects of invasive species on plant communities: an example using submersed aquatic plants at the regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submerged aquatic plants have a key role in maintaining functioning aquatic ecosystems through their effects in the hydrological regime, sedimentation, nutrient cycling and habitats of associated fauna. Modifications of aquatic plant communities, as for example through the introduction of invasive s...

  14. Experimental Effects of Lime Application on Aquatic Macrophytes: 4. Growth Response of Three Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    James PURPOSE: This investigation examined the growth response of three macrophyte species ( Elodea canadensis, Stuckenia pectinata, and Vallisnaria...different macrophyte species. These hypotheses were tested using experimental mesocosms. METHODS: Elodea canadensis, Stuckenia pectinata, and...Snel, P. E. Zanstra, and R. J. Helder. 1982. The mechanism of bicarbonate assimilation by the polar leaves of Potamogeton and Elodea . CO2 concentrations

  15. How did this snail get here? Several dispersal vectors inferred for an aquatic invasive species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.; Huig, N.; Van der Velde, G.; Van Alen, T.; Wagemaker, C.A.M.; Sherman, C.D.H.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Figuerola, J.

    2013-01-01

    How species reach and persist in isolated habitats remains an open question in many cases, especially for rapidly spreading invasive species. This is particularly true for temporary freshwater ponds, which can be remote and may dry out annually, but may still harbour high biodiversity. Persistence i

  16. Invaders in hot water: a simple decontamination method to prevent the accidental spread of aquatic invasive non-native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lucy G; Dunn, Alison M; Rosewarne, Paula J; Stebbing, Paul D

    Watersports equipment can act as a vector for the introduction and spread of invasive non native species (INNS) in freshwater environments. To support advice given to recreational water users under the UK Government's Check Clean Dry biosecurity campaign and ensure its effectiveness at killing a range of aquatic INNS, we conducted a survival experiment on seven INNS which pose a high risk to UK freshwaters. The efficacy of exposure to hot water (45 °C, 15 min) was tested as a method by which waters users could 'clean' their equipment and was compared to drying and a control group (no treatment). Hot water had caused 99 % mortality across all species 1 h after treatment and was more effective than drying at all time points (1 h: χ(2) = 117.24, p water or drying, 6/7 of these species survived for 16 days, highlighting the importance of good biosecurity practice to reduce the risk of accidental spread. In an additional experiment the minimum lethal temperature and exposure time in hot water to cause 100 % mortality in American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), was determined to be 5 min at 40 °C. Hot water provides a simple, rapid and effective method to clean equipment. We recommend that it is advocated in future biosecurity awareness campaigns.

  17. Elucidating the Diversity of Aquatic Microdochium and Trichoderma Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia diclina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, Jos M; de Bruijn, Irene

    2016-01-21

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security. Due to the prohibition of several chemical control agents, novel sustainable measures are required to control Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Previously, fungal community analysis by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) revealed that the Ascomycota, specifically the genus Microdochium, was an abundant fungal phylum associated with salmon eggs from a commercial fish farm. Here, phylogenetic analyses showed that most fungal isolates obtained from salmon eggs were closely related to Microdochium lycopodinum/Microdochium phragmitis and Trichoderma viride species. Phylogenetic and quantitative PCR analyses showed both a quantitative and qualitative difference in Trichoderma population between diseased and healthy salmon eggs, which was not the case for the Microdochium population. In vitro antagonistic activity of the fungi against Saprolegnia diclina was isolate-dependent; for most Trichoderma isolates, the typical mycoparasitic coiling around and/or formation of papilla-like structures on S. diclina hyphae were observed. These results suggest that among the fungal community associated with salmon eggs, Trichoderma species may play a role in Saprolegnia suppression in aquaculture.

  18. Anti-biogram and resistogram profiling of Aeromonas species isolated from Malaysian aquatic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi; Asmat Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibiotics and heavy metals resistance profile of Aeromonas species isolated from Kuala Gula and Kuala Sepetang, Perak. Methods: Isolated Aeromonas species were subjected to 12 antibiotics: penicillin G 10 units, tetracycline 30 µg, novobiocin 5 µg, nitrofurantoin 100 µg, ampicillin 10 µg, chloramphenicol 10 µg, fluconazole 25 µg, gentamicin 10 µg, streptomycin 10 µg and 25 µg, kanamycin 30 µg, and vancomycin 30 µg and 5 heavy metals: MnSO4.H2O, Cr(NO...

  19. The potential risk assessment for different arsenic species in the aquatic environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Du; Dongbin Wei; Zhuowei Tan; Aiwu Lin; Yuguo Du

    2015-01-01

    The different toxicity characteristics of arsenic species result in discrepant ecological risk.The predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) 43.65,250.18,and 2.00 × 103 μg/L were calculated for As(Ⅲ),As(Ⅴ),and dimethylarsinic acid in aqueous phase,respectively.With these PNECs,the ecological risk from arsenic species in Pearl River Delta in China and Kwabrafo stream in Ghana was evaluated.It was found that the risk from As(Ⅲ) and As(Ⅴ)in the samples from Pearl River Delta was low,while much high in Kwabrafo stream.This study implies that ecological risk of arsenic should be evaluated basing on its species.

  20. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  1. Developing strategies for aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a webinar round-table discussion of invasive species and ballast water research, Dr. Trebitz will be giving a short overview of the research that she and co-PIs Jack Kelly, Joel Hoffman, and Greg Peterson are conducting in this area. Key findings from the 2005-2007 sam...

  2. Aquatic tardigrades in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, U.S.A., with the description of a new species of Thulinius (Tardigrada, Isohypsibiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolani, Roberto; Bartels, Paul J; Guidetti, Roberto; Cesari, Michele; Nelson, Diane R

    2014-02-05

    As part of the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.dlia.org), an extensive survey of tardigrades has been conducted in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) in Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A., by Bartels and Nelson. Freshwater tardigrades include three species in the aquatic genus Thulinius (Eutardigrada, Isohypsibiidae). A new species, Thulinius romanoi, described from stream sediment, is distinguished from all other congeners by having a sculptured cuticle. In addition, the presence of Thulinius augusti (Murray, 1907) was verified by combined morphological and molecular analysis, and nine specimens of a third species, Thulinius cf. saltursus, were also found. Thulinius augusti is a new record for the United States. Thulinius saltursus (Schuster, Toftner & Grigarick, 1978) was previously recorded in California and Ohio, but our specimens vary slightly in morphology. The list of tardigrades from streams in the GSMNP was updated to a total of 44 species, 22 of which were predominantly or exclusively aquatic.

  3. RNA Editing in Chloroplasts of Spirodela polyrhiza, an Aquatic Monocotelydonous Species

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing is the post-transcriptional conversion from C to U before translation, providing a unique feature in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we used a robust and efficient method based on RNA-seq from non-ribosomal total RNA to simultaneously measure chloroplast-gene expression and RNA editing efficiency in the Greater Duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza, a species that provides a new reference for the phylogenetic studies of monocotyledonous plants. We identified 66 editing sites at t...

  4. Differential endozoochory of aquatic invertebrates by two duck species in shallow lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Luis; Castillo-Escrivà, Andreu; Barrera, Luis; Gómez, Eulalia; Gil-Delgado, José Antonio; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Armengol, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Animal vectors are essential for the movement of invertebrate resting eggs between water bodies. However, differences in habitat preferences and feeding behaviour between bird species may result in variations in the dispersal of invertebrates via these birds, even if the different bird species live in the same lake. To test such effects, faecal samples from Anas platyrhynchos (collected in autumn and spring) and Tadorna tadorna (collected in spring) were cultured in water at 20° C and 12 L: 12 D conditions in order to quantify the resting eggs which could be internally transported by these birds. One half of each faecal sample was initially cultured at a conductivity of 0.6 mS cm-1 and the other half at 6 mS cm-1. 1054 invertebrates hatched from a total of 60 faecal samples, including cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, rotifers and ciliates, with a wide variability among faeces. Autumn yielded a low proportion of samples with hatchlings (12.5%) compared to spring (90%). Significant differences were observed between birds, but not between conductivity treatments. Thus, our results imply different hatching dynamics affected by disperser and season, but most species transported as resting eggs by birds seem to have a wide tolerance to hatch under variable salinity conditions. These differences may largery influence the metacommunity dynamics of lake networks, and could be a key factor to consider in wetland conservation planning.

  5. Aeromonas rivipollensis sp. nov., a novel species isolated from aquatic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Elisabet; Balcázar, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Two gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile and rod-shaped bacteria, strains P2G1(T) and P1A11, were isolated from the Ter River in Ripoll, Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both strains are closely related to each other and that their closest relatives were Aeromonas media ATCC 33907(T) (99.4%) and Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966(T) (99.3%). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of gyrA, gyrB, rpoD, recA, and dnaJ genes suggested that these two strains represent a novel species that clustered with A. media ATCC 33907(T). This was further supported by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis between P2G1(T) and A. media LMG 9073(T). Phenotypic features also allowed their differentiation from closely related species. These two strains should, therefore, be considered to represent a novel species within the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas rivipollensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  6. [Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aquatic species from the Pearl River Estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Cai-hong; Luo, Xiao-jun; Yu, Mei; Meng, Xiang-zhou; Mai, Bi-xian; Zeng, Eddy

    2006-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in biota samples collected from the Pearl River Estuary. The concentrations of sigma10 PBDEs (BDE28, 47, 66, 100, 99, 85, 154, 153, 138, 183) in fish species (including Platycephalus indicus, Pseudosiaena crocea , Pampus argenteus, Cynoglossus robustus, and Harpodon nehereus), shrimps (including Metapenaeus ensis and Metapenaeus affinis) and Squilla oratoria were from 37.8 ng x g(-1) to 407.1 ng x g(-1) (normalized to lipid), from 49.0 ng x g(-1) to 239.1 ng x g(-1) and from 142 ng x g(-1) to 444.5 ng x g(-1), respectively. BDE47 was the dominant congener in all biota samples, with a contribution to sigma10 PBDEs ranging from 53.7% to 66.9%. Differences in concentrations of PBDEs and PBDE patterns in different species may be related to the different feeding habit, living environment and uptaking or elimination rate. High ratios of concentrations of PBDEs in liver /muscle in fish species indicated that PBDEs tended to accumulate more in liver than in muscle.

  7. Bioaccumulation dynamics and exposure routes of Cd and Cu among species of aquatic mayflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, D.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of periphyton is a potentially important route of metal exposure to benthic invertebrate grazers. The present study examined the bioaccumulation kinetics of dissolved and dietary Cd and Cu in five species of mayflies (class Insecta). Artificial stream water and benthic diatoms were separately labeled with enriched stable metal isotopes to determine physiological rate constants used by a biokinetic bioaccumulation model. The model was employed to simulate the effects of metal partitioning between water and food, expressed as the bioconcentration factor (BCF), as well as ingestion rate (IR) and metal assimilation efficiency of food (AE), on the relative importance of water and food to metal bioaccumulation. For all test species, the contribution of dietary uptake of Cd and Cu increased with BCF. For a given BCF, the contribution of food to the body burden increased with kuf, the metal uptake rate constant from food that combined variation in IR and AE. To explore the relative importance of water and diet exposure routes under field conditions, we used estimated site-specific aqueous free-ion concentrations to model Cd and Cu accumulation from aqueous exposure, exclusively. The predicted concentrations accounted for less than 5% of the observed concentrations, implying that most bioaccumulated metal was acquired from food. At least for the taxa considered in this study, we conclude that consumption of metal-contaminated periphyton can result in elevated metal body burdens and potentially increase the risk of metal toxicity. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  8. Effects of an aquatic fitness program on the muscular strength and endurance of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlsen, G M; Grigsby, S A; Winant, D M

    1984-05-01

    This study quantified the effects of an aquatic exercise program on muscular strength, endurance, work, and power of patients with multiple sclerosis. Ten individuals with a mean age of 40 years participated in a 10-week aquatic exercise program. Two types of isokinetic dynamometers were used to assess the muscular variables studied. A Cybex II dynamometer was used to measure peak torque, work, and fatigue in the knee flexor and extensor muscles and a biokinetic swim bench was used to measure muscular force, work, fatigue, and power in the upper extremities. Five velocity settings were selected for each of three testing trials (pretrial, midtrial, and posttrial). For the lower extremities, analysis of variance indicated a significant improvement of peak torque for knee extensor muscles from the pretrial to midtrial (p less than .05). Peak torque values from pretrial to midtrial for knee flexors and from midtrial to posttrial for both the knee extensor and flexor muscles indicated a nonsignificant difference at each velocity studied. Fatigue and work values in the lower extremities improved significantly between the pretrial and posttrial (p less than .05). For the upper extremities, an analysis of variance indicated a significant increase in all force measurements from pretrial to posttrial (p less than .05). Power and total work values also improved significantly (p less than .05). No significant difference in fatigue measurements for the upper extremities was found. The results of this investigation indicated that an aquatic exercise program may induce positive changes in muscular strength, fatigue, work, and power in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  9. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB are i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability of natural or human origin, and ii) to evaluate the related consequences at different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). At mid-term life, the AquaDEB collaboration has already yielded interesting results by quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species (e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) with a single mathematical framework. It has also allowed to federate scientists with different backgrounds, e.g. mathematics, microbiology, ecology, chemistry, and working in different fields, e.g. aquaculture, fisheries, ecology, agronomy, ecotoxicology, climate change. For the two coming years, the focus of the AquaDEB collaboration will be in priority: (i) to compare energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and to identify the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; and to compare dynamic (DEB) versus static (SEB) energy models to study the physiological performance of aquatic species; (ii) to consider different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) to scale up the models for a few species from

  10. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Review of Senescence as an Important Factor Determining the Relationship Among Aquatic Plants, Their Epiphytes, and Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    R. V. 1980. "Degradative Enzyme Production by Salt-Marsh Fungi," Botanica Marina, Vol 23, pp 133-139. Gessner, R. V., and Kohlmayer, J. 1976...1983. "Observations on the Association of Thraustochytrid Marine Fungi with Decaying Seaweed," Botanica Marina, Vol 26, pp 345-351. Misaghi, I. J...Fungus Buergenerula spartinae," Botanica Marina, Vol 23, pp 645-650. Trudeau, P. N. 1982. "Nuisance Aquatic Plants and Aquatic Plant Management

  11. Impact of environmentally based chemical hardness on uranium speciation and toxicity in six aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Richard R; Thompson, Patsy A; Serben, Kerrie C; Eickhoff, Curtis V

    2015-03-01

    Treated effluent discharge from uranium (U) mines and mills elevates the concentrations of U, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfate (SO4 (2-) ) above natural levels in receiving waters. Many investigations on the effect of hardness on U toxicity have been experiments on the combined effects of changes in hardness, pH, and alkalinity, which do not represent water chemistry downstream of U mines and mills. Therefore, more toxicity studies with water chemistry encountered downstream of U mines and mills are necessary to support predictive assessments of impacts of U discharge to the environment. Acute and chronic U toxicity laboratory bioassays were realized with 6 freshwater species in waters of low alkalinity, circumneutral pH, and a range of chemical hardness as found in field samples collected downstream of U mines and mills. In laboratory-tested waters, speciation calculations suggested that free uranyl ion concentrations remained constant despite increasing chemical hardness. When hardness increased while pH remained circumneutral and alkalinity low, U toxicity decreased only to Hyalella azteca and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Also, Ca and Mg did not compete with U for the same uptake sites. The present study confirms that the majority of studies concluding that hardness affected U toxicity were in fact studies in which alkalinity and pH were the stronger influence. The results thus confirm that studies predicting impacts of U downstream of mines and mills should not consider chemical hardness. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:562-574. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  12. Oxidation of diclofenac with chlorine dioxide in aquatic environments: influences of different nitrogenous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingling; Liu, Haijin; Liu, Guoguang; Xie, Youhai; Ni, Tianjun

    2015-06-01

    The oxidation of diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and emerging water pollutant, with chlorine dioxide was investigated under simulated water disinfection conditions. The reaction kinetics as functions of the initial concentrations of DCF, different nitrogenous species, and different pE values were experimentally determined. The results demonstrated that DCF reacted rapidly with ClO2, where more than 75 % of DCF (≤3.00 μM) was removed by 18.94 μM ClO2 within 60 s. All of the reactions followed pseudo first-order kinetics with respect to DCF, and the rate constant, k obs, exhibited a significant decrease from 4.21 × 10(-2) to 8.09 × 10(-3) s(-1), as the initial DCF concentration was increased from 1.00 to 5.00 μM. Furthermore, the degradation kinetics of DCF was clearly dependent on nitrogen-containing ion concentrations in the reaction solution. Ammonium and nitrite ions inhibited the DCF degradation by ClO2, whereas nitrate ion clearly initiated its promotion. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of NO2 (-) was more robust than that of NH4 (+). When the values of pE were gradually increased, the transformation of NH4 (+) to NO2 (-), and subsequently to NO3 (-), would occur, the rate constants were initially decreased, and then increased. When NH4 (+) and NO2 (-) coexisted, the inhibitory effect on the DCF degradation was less than the sum of the partial inhibitory effect. However, when NO2 (-) and NO3 (-) coexisted, the actual inhibition rate was greater than the theoretical estimate. These results indicated that the interaction of NH4 (+) and NO2 (-) was antagonistic, while the coexistence of NO2 (-) and NO3 (-) was observed to have a synergistic effect in aqueous environments.

  13. Chemical species of metallic elements in the aquatic environment of an ex-mining catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Akib, Shatirah; Balkhair, Khaled S; Abu Bakar, Nor Kartini

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical speciation of dissolved and particulate elements (lead, zinc, copper, chromium, arsenic, and tin) in the mining wastewater of a former tin-mining catchment. The speciation patterns of dissolved elements were estimated by an adsorptive stripping voltammeter (ASV), while particulate elements were analyzed by using a newly developed sequential-extraction leaching procedure. The procedure has been operationally defined among five host fractions, namely exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, organic bound, and residual fractions. A total of six elements (lead, zinc, copper, chromium, arsenic, and tin) were analyzed in thirty samples at ten locations (P1-P10), with three samples taken from each of the ten locations, to get the average value from the former tin-mining catchment. The results showed that the heavy metal pollutions in locations P4 and P8 were more severe than in other sampling sites, especially tin and lead pollution. In the water samples from locations P4 and P8, both the total contents and the most dangerous non-residual fractions of tin and lead were extremely high. More than 90% of the total concentrations of arsenic and chromium existed in the residual fraction. Concentrations of copper and zinc mainly occurred in the residual fraction (more than 60%), while lead and tin presented mostly in the non-residual fractions in surface water. For all of the six dissolved elements, the less-labile species formed the predominant fraction in their speciation patterns. The speciation patterns of particulate elements showed that most of the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium, and arsenic were found in the reducible fraction; whereas lead and tin were mainly associated with the organic fraction.

  14. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Ramji K; Deem, Sharon L; Holliday, Dawn K; Jandegian, Caitlin M; Kassotis, Christopher D; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2015-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.

  15. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Ramji K.; Deem, Sharon L.; Holliday, Dawn K.; Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Kassotis, Christopher D.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.

  16. EFFECT OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT PH ON THE LEVEL OF ECTOPARASITE INFESTATION, PROTEIN AND LYSOZYME CONTENT IN SOME CYPRINID SPECIES (CYPRINIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kurovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of рН values of the aquatic environment on the level of ectoparasite infestation, protein and lysozyme content in organs and serum of some cyprinid species in experimental conditions. Methodology. The objects of the study were yearlings of Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus gibelio and Pseudorasbora parva caught in ponds of fish farm “Nyvka” (Kiev region in spring. Fish were kept in experimental conditions at neutral pH water (6.8-7.2 and a temperature of 17-18оC. To study the changes in the level of fish parasite infestation at different pH values, we used carp yearlings, as an object, the most infected with parasites. Fish were placed in aquariums with water pH of 5.0-5.5 (slightly acidic environment and 8.5-9.0 (slightly alkaline environment for 5 days. Thereafter, the ectoparasites were counted on fish body surface and gills. The protein content in serum and tissue extracts of organs (liver, kidney, spleen of Carassius auratus gibelio and Pseudorasbora parva infected and uninfected ectoparasites, after holding them in slightly acidic or slightly alkaline environment for 8 days, was determined by Lowry’s method, while lysozyme content was determined by a diffusion method on agar. Findings. A comparative assessment of the number of ectoparasites (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp. on fish body surface and gills, the content of protein and lysozyme in serum and organs at different pH values of aquatic environment has been presented. It was demonstrated that the number of ectoparasites on fish body surface and gills was significantly reduced when keeping the fish in both slightly acidic and slightly alkaline environments. In infected Carassius auratus gibelio, a reduction in the protein and lysozyme content in liver, kidney and serum was observed only in the neutral pH environment compared to uninfected individuals. In the slightly acidic or slightly alkaline

  17. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the...

  18. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5′-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  19. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  20. Compiled data on the vascular aquatic plant program, 1975 - 1977. [for sewage lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of a single cell, facultative sewage lagoon was significantly improved with the introduction of vascular aquatic plants. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was the dominant plant from April to November; duckweed (Lemna spp.) and (Spirodela spp.) flourished from December to March. This 2 ha lagoon received approximately 475 cu m/day of untreated sewage and has a variable COD sub 5 loading rate of 22-30 kg/ha/day. During the first 14 months of operation with aquatic plants, the average influent BOD sub 5 was reduced by 95% from 110 mg/l to an average of 5 mg/l in the effluent. The average influent suspended solids were reduced by 90% from 97 mg/l to 10 mg/l in the effluent. Significant reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus were effected. The monthly kjeldahl nitrogen for influent and effluent averaged 12.0 and 3.4 mg/l, respectively, a reduction of 72%. The total phosphorus was reduced on an average of 56% from 3.7 mg/l influent to 1.6 mg/l effluent.

  1. The Effect of Peer- and Sibling-Assisted Aquatic Program on Interaction Behaviors and Aquatic Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Peers/Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Hua; Pan, Chien-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of peer- and sibling-assisted learning on interaction behaviors and aquatic skills in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Outcome measures were also examined in their typically developing (TD) peers/siblings. Twenty-one children with ASD and 21 TD children were assigned in three groups:…

  2. Can Recent Global Changes Explain the Dramatic Range Contraction of an Endangered Semi-Aquatic Mammal Species in the French Pyrenees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, Anaïs; Laffaille, Pascal; Biffi, Marjorie; Blanc, Frédéric; Maire, Anthony; Némoz, Mélanie; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are the main tool to predict global change impacts on species ranges. Climate change alone is frequently considered, but in freshwater ecosystems, hydrology is a key driver of the ecology of aquatic species. At large scale, hydrology is however rarely accounted for, owing to the lack of detailed stream flow data. In this study, we developed an integrated modelling approach to simulate stream flow using the hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Simulated stream flow was subsequently included as an input variable in SDMs along with topographic, hydrographic, climatic and land-cover descriptors. SDMs were applied to two temporally-distinct surveys of the distribution of the endangered Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) in the French Pyrenees: a historical one conducted from 1985 to 1992 and a current one carried out between 2011 and 2013. The model calibrated on historical data was also forecasted onto the current period to assess its ability to describe the distributional change of the Pyrenean desman that has been modelled in the recent years. First, we found that hydrological and climatic variables were the ones influencing the most the distribution of this species for both periods, emphasizing the importance of taking into account hydrology when SDMs are applied to aquatic species. Secondly, our results highlighted a strong range contraction of the Pyrenean desman in the French Pyrenees over the last 25 years. Given that this range contraction was under-estimated when the historical model was forecasted onto current conditions, this finding suggests that other drivers may be interacting with climate, hydrology and land-use changes. Our results imply major concerns for the conservation of this endemic semi-aquatic mammal since changes in climate and hydrology are expected to become more intense in the future. PMID:27467269

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (21st), Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Held in Mobile, Alabama on 17-21 November 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    electrophoresis in 10-percent polyacrylamide gel slabs. The agglutinin in the crude and purified form is tested for activity in fungal spore and hyphae...decomposers of dead organic matter in aquatic ecosystems. Many species are known to produce enzymes capable of degrading cellolose, pectin, starch , etc

  4. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Effects of Organic Amendments to Sediment on Freshwater Macrophyte Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    The growth of three submersed macrophyte species (Myriophyllum spicatum, Hyjdri11a verticillata, and Elodea canadensis) and three partially emergent... Elodea canadensis Rich. in Michx; and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Caspary. Nomenclature follows Godfrey and Wooten (1979, 1981). The first two species

  5. Swim Free. A 10 Day Program of Aquatic Exercises Adapted from Life in the Waterworld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Lorraine; Sanborn, Laura

    The completely waterproof book contains instructions for an alternative form of swimming exercises based on the movements of 19 water creatures. The exercises can be used by groups or individuals to enhance training programs, to serve as part of a structured synchronized swimming program, or to supplement recreational activities. The book provides…

  6. Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (20th) Held at Atlanta, Georgia on 18-21 November 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    terms of allelopathy and competitive plants. What I would like to see is some more comments on approaches by using beneficial species. The spikerush...potential allelopathy ? Ed Theriot: We were talking yesterday about new directions in our biological program: allelopathy and revegetation. The...that have the potential for infestation with problem species. We do not intend to concentrate mainly on allelopathy , although that will be one aspect

  7. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris, semiaquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens and terrestrial (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna eBarjau Perez-Milicua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens can hold their breath for about 30 sec. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia and reduced blood supply (ischemia to tissues. Production of adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa, are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal (n=11, semiaquatic (neotropical river otter (n=4 and terrestrial (domestic pig (n=11. Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX, inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP, adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP, adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP, ATP, guanosine 5’-diphosphate (GDP, guanosine 5’-triphosphate (GTP, and xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise, aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  8. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  9. Empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning a regional aquatic long-term monitoring program using causal modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Miller, Scott; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Archer, Erik; Roper, Brett B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual models are an integral facet of long-term monitoring programs. Proposed linkages between drivers, stressors, and ecological indicators are identified within the conceptual model of most mandated programs. We empirically evaluate a conceptual model developed for a regional aquatic and riparian monitoring program using causal models (i.e., Bayesian path analysis). We assess whether data gathered for regional status and trend estimation can also provide insights on why a stream may deviate from reference conditions. We target the hypothesized causal pathways for how anthropogenic drivers of road density, percent grazing, and percent forest within a catchment affect instream biological condition. We found instream temperature and fine sediments in arid sites and only fine sediments in mesic sites accounted for a significant portion of the maximum possible variation explainable in biological condition among managed sites. However, the biological significance of the direct effects of anthropogenic drivers on instream temperature and fine sediments were minimal or not detected. Consequently, there was weak to no biological support for causal pathways related to anthropogenic drivers’ impact on biological condition. With weak biological and statistical effect sizes, ignoring environmental contextual variables and covariates that explain natural heterogeneity would have resulted in no evidence of human impacts on biological integrity in some instances. For programs targeting the effects of anthropogenic activities, it is imperative to identify both land use practices and mechanisms that have led to degraded conditions (i.e., moving beyond simple status and trend estimation). Our empirical evaluation of the conceptual model underpinning the long-term monitoring program provided an opportunity for learning and, consequently, we discuss survey design elements that require modification to achieve question driven monitoring, a necessary step in the practice of

  10. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

  11. Mapping freshwater deltaic wetlands and aquatic habitats at multiple scales with high-resolution multispectral WorldView-2 imagery and Indicator Species Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, C.; Liu, H.; Anenkhonov, O.; Autrey, B.; Chepinoga, V.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing technology has long been used in wetland inventory and monitoring though derived wetland maps were limited in applicability and often unsatisfactory largely due to the relatively coarse spatial resolution of conventional satellite imagery. The advent of high-resolution multispectral satellite systems presents new and exciting capabilities in mapping wetland systems with unprecedented accuracy and spatial detail. This research explores and evaluates the use of high-resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) multispectral imagery in identifying and classifying freshwater deltaic wetland vegetation and aquatic habitats in the Selenga River Delta, a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance that drains into Lake Baikal, Russia - a United Nations World Heritage site. A hybrid approach was designed and applied for WV2 image classification consisting of initial unsupervised classification, training data acquisition and analysis, indicator species analysis, and final supervised classification. A hierarchical scheme was defined and adopted for classifying aquatic habitats and wetland vegetation at genus and community levels at a fine scale, while at a coarser scale representing wetland systems as broad substrate and vegetation classes for regional comparisons under various existing wetland classification systems. Rigorous radiometric correction of WV2 images and orthorectification based on GPS-derived ground control points and an ASTER global digital elevation model resulted in 2- to 3-m positional accuracy. We achieved overall classification accuracy of 86.5% for 22 classes of wetland and aquatic habitats at the finest scale and >91% accuracy for broad vegetation and aquatic classes at more generalized scales. At the finest scale, the addition of four new WV2 spectral bands contributed to a classification accuracy increase of 3.5%. The coastal band of WV2 was found to increase the separation between different open water and aquatic habitats, while yellow, red-edge, and

  12. Open, Sharable, and Extensible Data Management for the Korea National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Program: A RESTful API-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilan Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Implemented by a national law, the National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program (NAEMP has been assessing the ecological health status of surface waters, focusing on streams and rivers, in Korea since 2007. The program involves ecological monitoring of multiple aquatic biota such as benthic diatoms, macroinvertebrates, fish, and plants as well as water quality and habitat parameters. Taking advantage of the national scale of long-term aquatic ecological monitoring and the standardization of protocols and methods, the datasets in NAEMP provide many opportunities for various advanced comparative and synthetic studies, policy-making, and ecological management. In order to realize these potentials and opportunities, we have developed a RESTful API-based data management system called OSAEM (the Open, Sharable and Extensible Data Management System for Aquatic Ecological Monitoring, which is designed to be open, sharable, and extensible. In this paper, we introduce the RESTful API-based data management approach, present the RESTful API for the OSAEM system, and discuss its applicability. An OSAEM prototype system is currently available on a commercial cloud service (Amazon EC2 but the system remains under active development.

  13. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  14. 76 FR 7546 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Prohibited Species Donation (PSD) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ...; Prohibited Species Donation (PSD) Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... currently approved information collection. A prohibited species donation (PSD) program for Pacific salmon.... Vessels and processing plants participating in the donation program voluntarily retain and process...

  15. Functional autonomy, bone mineral density (BMD) and serum osteocalcin levels in older female participants of an aquatic exercise program (AAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernambuco, Carlos Soares; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Di Masi, Fabrizio; Monteiro, Paola Karynne Pinheiro; Dantas, Estelio H M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an AAG on BMD, osteocalcin and functional autonomy in older women. The sample consisted of eighty-two post-menopausal women with low BMD, randomly divided into two groups: the Aquatic Aerobics Group [AAG; n=42; age: 66.8±4.2years], submitted to two weekly sessions over eight months, and the Control Group (GC; n=42; age: 66.9±3.2years), which did not participate in regular exercise. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DXA] of the lumbar and femur, and serum osteocalcin was measured using electrochemiluminescence. A functional autonomy assessment protocol (GDLAM, 2004) was also applied. Statistical analyses used were repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. The results showed a significant improvement in tests following the GDLAM protocol: 10 meters walk (10mw) -p=0.003; rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP) - Δ%=0.78, paquatic aerobic exercise program can improve functional autonomy and osteocalcin levels, although training did not improve lumbar and total femur BMD in the older women.

  16. The effects of aquatic walking and jogging program on physical function and fall efficacy in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Sung, Eunsook

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 12-week aqua walking and jogging program on muscle function, ankle range of motion (ROM), balance and fell efficacy in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) patients. Six patients (2 males, 4 females) with DLSS participated in aquatic exercise program 3 times per week with each session of 60 min (warming-up, aqua walking, aqua jogging and cool down) at 1 m 20 cm-1 m 30 cm deep pool. Janda's muscle function test, ankle ROM, Berg balance scale (BBS) and fall efficacy scale (FES) were analyzed before and after the training intervention. We found significant increases in balance, muscle function, ankle ROM and fall efficacy after training intervention. In conclusion, aquatic exercise seems to affect physical function and fall efficacy positively in elderly DLSS patients.

  17. Species-Recognition Program: A Computer-Assisted Approach to Recognizing Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kelsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Species recognition is a crucial component for many types of biological studies. To that end, broadly trained students must be able to accurately identify many different types of organisms. Courses that focus on learning the names of different species traditionally rely on preserved specimens viewed during class or laboratory time. Unfortunately, reliance on preserved specimens comes with many challenges in providing students with an optimal learning experience. The curriculum activity described here uses a modified PowerPoint file (species-recognition program—SRP as a means of helping students learn to recognize and identify fishes based on subtle visual cues. Our results indicate that students were better able to identify fish species when using the SRP as a learning approach than when using preserved specimens. We suggest that the SRP approach to species recognition is an effective, viable alternative or supplement to preserved specimens that can be easily implemented in any course that emphasizes species identification. Information and materials are provided to enable instructors to create their own species-recognition programs.

  18. Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in Huaihe River Watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing

    2015-01-01

    The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied.

  19. Nuclear microscopy as a tool in TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles bioaccumulation studies in aquatic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Teresa, E-mail: murmur@itn.pt [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa and Centro de Física Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Moita, Liliana; Silva, Luís; Mendonça, Elsa; Picado, Ana [LNEG, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P. Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Engineered Titanium nanoparticles are used for a wide range of applications from coatings, sunscreen cosmetic additives to solar cells or water treatment agents. Inevitably environmental exposure can be expected and data on the ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticles are still scarce. The potential effects of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) on two model organisms, the water flea, Daphnia magna and the duckweed Lemna minor, were examined in semichronic toxicity tests. Daphnia and Lemna were exposed to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (average particle size value of 28 ± 11 nm (n = 42); concentration range, 1.4–25 mg/L) by dietary route and growth in medium containing the nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2}, respectively. Both morphology and microdistribution of Ti in the individuals were examined by nuclear microscopy techniques. A significant amount of TiO{sub 2} was found accumulated in Daphnia exposed to nanoparticles. Nuclear microscopy imaging revealed that Ti was localized only in the digestive tract of the Daphnia, which displayed difficulty in eliminating the nanoparticles from their body. Daphnia showed higher mortality when exposed to higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2} (>10 mg/L). The exposure to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles above 25 mg/L caused morphological alterations in Lemna. The roots became stiff and fronds colorless. The Ti mapping of cross-sections of roots and fronds showed that Ti was mainly deposited in the epidermis of the fronds and roots, with minor internalization. In summary, exposure of aquatic organisms to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles may alter the physiology of these organisms at individual and population levels, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  1. Induction of sporulation and the influence of time, temperature, and inoculum size on growth in two species of aquatic fungi (Saprolegniales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.A.; Bradford, K.; Bland, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    Because the infective stage of most mycoses of aquatic organisms is the zoospore, we attempted to establish optimum conditions under which zoospores could be produced for use in antifungal testing. Optimum sporulation time, incubation time, inoculum size, and growth temperature were determined for each oftwo saprolegniaceous fungi, Achlya flagellata Coker and Saprolegnia hypogyna (Pringsheim) de Bary. Both species produced the largest number of zoospores after 18 hours (51.7 spores/ml for A. jlagellata and 848.0 spores/ml for S. hypogyna), and yielded maximum growth after 48 hours at 22 'C. The recommended test inoculum size for S. hypogyna (5,600 spores/ml was nearly three times that for A. flagellata (2,000 spores/ml),

  2. Research on Interrelationship between some Species of Freshwater Fish and Helmintic Larvae within Aquatic Ecosystems Polluted with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Urdeş

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of some larvae of cestodes and nematodes which live infreshwater fish (intermediate hosts, to exhibit an uptake of heavy metals.According to some scientifical papers treating this subject, only adult worms were able to absorb successfully heavymetals within their hosts. Furthermore, it is believed that only the adults would act as biofilters and consequently astrustworthy indicators of environmental pollution.This study, carried out on the Danube Delta area, comes to prove the ability of the larvae to absorb heavy metalswithin their hosts, even when the pollution level with respect to heavy metals is very low.Following the biochemical analyses of water, sediment, aquatic plants, larvae and fish tissues (liver and musclesamples, it resulted that the larvae were able to absorb important quantities within their hosts, so that only scarceamounts to be found in the muscle and liver. Both parasites were able to accumulate some heavy metals within theirhosts, although only one of them did it successfully.

  3. The influence of aquatic macrophytes on distribution and feeding habit of two Asplanchna species (A. priodonta and A. herrickii in shallow wetlands, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yun Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that the spatial distribution and diet composition of Asplanchna species might be affected by the presence of aquatic macrophytes in 33 wetlands in South Korea. We estimated the densities of Asplanchna and other rotifer and crustacean, together with environmental parameters, in both vegetated and open water zones, from May to June 2011. In the present study, two species of Asplanchna, A. priodonta and A. herrickii, were observed and significantly more abundant in open water zones lacking macrophytes. In particular, the density of A. priodonta was higher than that of A. herrickii, and the density of A. priodonta was strongly positively correlated with the area of open water. In addition, gut content analysis was used to determine their dietary preferences, with the finding that there was apparent differentiation in food source utilisation between the two Asplanchna species; A. priodonta consumed some protozoa, phytoplankton, and exclusively pelagic rotifer, while A. herrickii consumed primarily Euglena. In particular, Keratella and Polyarthra were most commonly consumed by A. priodonta in open water. Macrophytes represent a suitable habitat for epiphytic rotifer but not for pelagic rotifer; this characteristic drives pelagic rotifer such as Asplanchna towards open water and may be responsible for the significant negative correlation that we observed between macrophyte and Asplanchna densities.

  4. Pesticide residues in sediments and aquatic species in Lake Nokoué and Cotonou Lagoon in the Republic of Bénin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehouenou A Pazou, Elisabeth; Aléodjrodo, Patrick Edorh; Azehoun, Judicaël P; van Straalen, Nico M; van Hattum, Bert; Swart, Kees; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-01-01

    Lake Nokoué and Cotonou Lagoon are the most important and most productive continental freshwaters in Bénin, with an estimated fish production of over 2 tonnes per hectare in Lake Nokoué. Organochlorine pesticides are used in agriculture and to repel tsetse flies, malaria mosquitoes and other diseases raised. Sediment, fish, shrimp and oyster species were collected in Lake Nokoué and Cotonou Lagoon for pesticide residues analysis. The main pesticides identified in sediment were pp'-DDT and its metabolites pp-DDE and pp'-DDD, with residue levels between the detection limit and 24.4 μg/kg dry weight. Fish species commonly consumed such as Elops lacerta, Podamasys jubelini, Gobbienellus occidentalis, Ethmalosa fimbriata, Mugil cephalus and Hemichromis fasciatus were contaminated with residues of seven to nine pesticides, including pp-DDE, op'-DDD, pp'-DDD, op'-DDT, pp'-DDT, α-endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane. The levels ranged from detection limit to 289 ng/g lipid. The same pesticides were also detected in other aquatic species, such as shrimp and oysters. A summed risk assessment, comparing pesticide intake levels through fish consumption with tolerable daily intake levels proposed by the World Health Organization, showed in all cases a low risk for human health.

  5. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 5. Synthesis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    caused by filamentous blue-green algae such as Oscilla- toria lianetica, 0. angustissima, Lyngbya linmetica, and Spirulina layissima. The diatoms were...plankton population. In general, the species diversity decreased and total numbers of blue-green algae increased following the stocking of white amur...numbers and a decrease in diversity. The reduction in diversity of algae and numbers of macrophytes anti increase in numbers of zooplankton and

  6. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  7. The benefits of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program (HydrOS) for bone metabolism and bone mass of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Fronza, Fernanda Cerveira A O; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Zach, Patrícia Lins; Kunii, Ilda S; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Teixeira, Luzimar Raimundo; Kruel, Luis Fernando Martins; Castro, Marise Lazaretti

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the 24-week effects of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program on bone remodeling markers and bone mass of postmenopausal women. In this randomized, controlled trial we studied 108 women (58.8 ± 6.4 years), randomized into Aquatic Exercise Group (AEG), n = 64, performing 24 weeks of aquatic exercises, and Control Group (CG), n = 44, sedentary. They had their fasting morning blood sample collected for the measures of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Bone mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Participants of both groups received a daily supplementation of 500 mg of elementary calcium and 1,000 IU of vitamin D (cholecalciferol). Results showed an augment in bone formation marker (P1NP) only in the AEG (15.8 %; p = 0.001), and although both groups experienced significant enhancements in bone resorption marker (CTx), this increase was less considerable in the AEG (15 % in the AEG and 29 % in the CG). IPTH was increased by 19 % in the CG (p = 0.003) at the end. The femoral trochanter BMD presented a 1.2 % reduction in the CG (p = 0.009), whereas in the AEG no change was observed (p = 0.069). The proposed aquatic exercise program was efficient in attenuating bone resorption raise and enhancing bone formation, which prevented the participants in the AEG from reducing the femoral trochanter BMD, as happened in the CG.

  8. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John

    1989-03-01

    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  9. Biochemical composition of seven species of cyanobacteria isolated from different aquatic habitats of Western Ghats, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanth Rama Rajeshwari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the biochemical constituents of seven species of cyanobacteria namely, Calothrix fusca, Gloeocapsa livida, Lyngbya limnetica and Scytonema bohneri isolated from Panekal sulfur spring. The species namely, Oscillatoria acuminata from petrochemical refinery, O. calcuttensis from dairy effluent and O. foreaui from a sewage drain located in the Western Ghats of Southern India under laboratory culture conditions. The biochemical constituents were analyzed in terms of total carbohydrates, total protein, total free amino acid, total lipid, fatty acid and mineral contents. The analysis showed that maximum amount of total carbohydrate in S. bohneri (28.4% dry weight and minimum in O. foreaui (8.0% of dry weight. Maximum amount of total protein and total free amino acid were in O. foreaui (7% of dry weight. O. calcuttensis showed higher amount of total lipid (20% dry weight. A total of 12 types of fatty acids were detected among which lauric acid was in highest quantity in all the seven species. Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid was present in all the species ranging from 1.68 to 3.89%. O. foreaui showed highest quantities of copper, manganese, ferrous and zinc. Nickel was maximum in S. bohneri (11.05 µgmL-1. O. acuminata showed highest quantity of magnesium (21.050 mg g-1 and it was least in O. foreaui (12.812 mg g-1.

  10. Aquatic Remediation of Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia M.

    1985-01-01

    A 10-day aquatics program for learning disabled children with hand-eye coordination problems and low self-esteem is described. Activities for each session (including relaxation exercises) are listed. (CL)

  11. Species analysis of organotin compounds to investigate their pathway in the aquatic environment; Speziesanalytik von zinnorganischen Verbindungen zur Aufklaerung ihrer Biopfade in der aquatischen Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuballa, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis the sorption, transport and accumulation behaviour of organotin compounds in the aquatic environment was investigated in order to assess and evaluate the toxic potential. In situ derivatization with sodiumthetraethylborate and extraction with hexane were employed to isolate the tin species from the matrices. Separation and quantification were performed using on-line gas chromatorgraphy coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry. The main conclusion of this work is that organotin compounds show a characteristic bioaccumulation behaviour, which is influenced by the solubility of the species in combination with lipophily and sorption on particles, humic substances and biofilms. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden das Sorptions-, Transport- und Akkumulationsverhalten von Organozinnverbindungen in der aquatischen Umwelt untersucht mit dem Ziel einer Abschaetzung und Bewertung des oekologischen Schaedigungspotentials. Die Isolierung der Zinnspezies aus den Matrizes gelang mit der In-Situ-Derivatisierung mit Natriumtetraethylborat und Extraktion mit Hexan. Die Trennung und Quantifizierung erfolgte mittels Gaschromatographie on-line gekoppelt mit Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie. Die wichtigste Aussage dieser Arbeit ist, dass zinnorganische Verbindungen ein charakteristisches Bioakkumulationsverhalten aufweisen, das wesentlich von der Wasserloeslichkeit der Spezies in Verbindung mit der Lipophilie und der Bindung an Partikel, Huminstoffe und Biofilme beeinflusst wird. (orig.)

  12. Antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut micro flora of two aquatic leech species (Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica) in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimannan Sivachandran; Kasi Marimuthu; Manickam Ravichandran; Jesu Arockiaraj

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut associated microflora of two local aquatic leech species Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica.Methods:Four commercially available antibiotics (doxycycline, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin) were used in this study. A total of 13 isolated gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria manillensis and two gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria javanica were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Based on the susceptibility, it was observed that all the isolated bacteria were found to be susceptible to at least three of the antibiotics except Microbacterium resistens, Serratiamarcescens and Morganella morganii. This study also found that the bacterial species Bacillus fusiformis has displayed resistance against tetracycline and Tsukamurella inchonensis against chloramphenicol.Conclusions:Among all the antibiotics tested, ciprofloxacin was found to be the best bactericidal agent. The immersion of leeches in ciprofloxacin before the application to the patient may be beneficial to prevent invasive infection of the patient. Further study is needed to sterilize the live leech by immersion/oral mode of administration for the tested antibiotics.

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut micro flora of two aquatic leech species (Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimannan Sivachandran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility of body surface and gut associated microflora of two local aquatic leech species Hirudinaria manillensis and Hirudinaria javanica. Methods: Four commercially available antibiotics (doxycycline, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were used in this study. A total of 13 isolated gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria manillensis and two gut and two surface micro flora from Hirudinaria javanica were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility. Results: Based on the susceptibility, it was observed that all the isolated bacteria were found to be susceptible to at least three of the antibiotics except Microbacterium resistens, Serratia marcescens and Morganella morganii. This study also found that the bacterial species Bacillus fusiformis has displayed resistance against tetracycline and Tsukamurella inchonensis against chloramphenicol. Conclusions: Among all the antibiotics tested, ciprofloxacin was found to be the best bactericidal agent. The immersion of leeches in ciprofloxacin before the application to the patient may be beneficial to prevent invasive infection of the patient. Further study is needed to sterilize the live leech by immersion/oral mode of administration for the tested antibiotics.

  14. Physical Non-Contact Communication between Microscopic Aquatic Species: Novel Experimental Evidences for an Interspecies Information Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fels

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments on physical non-contact communication within same species gave rise to test for this type of communication also across the species border, which was the aim of the present study. It was found that autotrophic unicellular organisms (Euglena viridis, separated by cuvettes, affected the proliferation rate of heterotrophic unicellular organisms (Paramecium caudatum. Further, the heterotrophic unicellular organism affected also the proliferation rate of a multicellular heterotrophic organism (Rotatoria sp. and vice versa. In the case when populations (of Euglena viridis and Paramecium caudatum were shielded against electromagnetic fields in the optical spectrum from each other, no effects were measured. The results may support the notion that the organisation of ecosystems relies also on the exchange of electromagnetic fields from their constituting biosystems.

  15. Conceptual shifts in animal systematics as reflected in the taxonomic history of a common aquatic snail species (Lymnaea stagnalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Vinarski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymnaea stagnalis (L., 1758 is among the most widespread and well-studied species of freshwater Mollusca of the northern hemisphere. It is also notoriously known for its huge conchological variability. The history of scientific exploration of this species may be traced back to the end of the 16th century (Ulisse Aldrovandi in Renaissance Italy and, thus, L. stagnalis has been chosen as a proper model taxon to demonstrate how changes in theoretical foundations and methodology of animal taxonomy have been reflected in the practice of classification of a particular taxon, especially on the intraspecific level. In this paper, I depict the long story of recognition of L. stagnalis by naturalists and biologists since the 16th century up to the present day. It is shown that different taxonomic philosophies (essentialism, population thinking, tree thinking led to different views on the species’ internal structure and its systematic position itself. The problem of how to deal with intraspecific variability in the taxonomic arrangement of L. stagnalis has been a central problem that made systematists change their opinion following conceptual shifts in taxonomic theory.

  16. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States)], E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2008-03-15

    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced.

  17. Cross-species evaluation of molecular target sequence and structural conservation as a line of evidence for identification of susceptible taxa to inform derivation of aquatic life criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1985 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidelines for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria (ALC) require acute and chronic toxicity testing with a fixed list of taxa that cover aquatic organisms from vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. In considering Guideline revision...

  18. Jumping into the deep-end: results from a pilot impact evaluation of a community-based aquatic exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna L; Talevski, Jason; Morello, Renata T; Nolan, Genevieve A; De Silva, Renee D; Briggs, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    This multi-center quasi-experimental pilot study aimed to evaluate changes in pain, joint stiffness, physical function, and quality of life over 12 weeks in adults with musculoskeletal conditions attending 'Waves' aquatic exercise classes. A total of 109 adults (mean age, 65.2 years; range, 24-93 years) with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited across 18 Australian community aquatic centers. The intervention is a peer-led, 45 min, weekly aquatic exercise class including aerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance exercises (n = 67). The study also included a control group of people not participating in Waves or other formal exercise (n = 42). Outcomes were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and EuroQoL five dimensions survey (EQ-5D) at baseline and 12 weeks. Satisfaction with Waves classes was also measured at 12 weeks. Eighty two participants (43 Waves and 39 control) completed the study protocol and were included in the analysis. High levels of satisfaction with classes were reported by Waves participants. Over 90 % of participants reported Waves classes were enjoyable and would recommend classes to others. Waves participants demonstrated improvements in WOMAC and EQ-5D scores however between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. Peer-led aquatic exercise classes appear to improve pain, joint stiffness, physical function and quality of life for people with musculoskeletal conditions. The diverse study sample is likely to have limited the power to detect significant changes in outcomes. Larger studies with an adequate follow-up period are needed to confirm effects.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP species range data show a coarse representation of the total areal extent of a species or the geographic limits within which a species can be found (Morrison...

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP species range data show a coarse representation of the total areal extent of a species or the geographic limits within which a species can be found (Morrison and...

  1. An Eco-tank system containing microbes and different aquatic plant species for the bioremediation of N,N-dimethylformamide polluted river waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jibo; Chu, Shuyi; Tian, Guangming; Thring, Ronald W; Cui, Lingzhou

    2016-12-15

    An Eco-tank system of 10m was designed to simulate the natural river. It consisted of five tanks sequentially connected containing microbes, biofilm carriers and four species of floating aquatic plants. The purification performance of the system for N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) polluted river water was evaluated by operating in continuous mode. DMF was completely removed in Tanks 1 and 2 at influent DMF concentrations between 75.42 and 161.05mg L(-1). The NH4(+)-N concentration increased in Tank 1, followed by a gradual decrease in Tanks 2-5. Removal of NH4(+)-N was enhanced by aeration. The average effluent NH4(+)-N concentration of Tank 5 decreased to a minimum of 0.89mg L(-1), corresponding to a decrease of 84.8% when compared with that before aeration. TN concentration did not decrease significantly as expected after inoculation with denitrifying bacteria. The average effluent TN concentration of the system was determined to be 4.58mg L(-1), still unable to satisfy the Class V standard for surface water environmental quality. The results of this study demonstrated that the Eco-tank system is an efficient process in removing DMF, TOC, and NH4(+)-N from DMF polluted river water. However, if possible, alternative technologies should be adopted for controlling the effluent TN concentration.

  2. Effects of changing climate on aquatic habitat and connectivity for remnant populations of a wide-ranging frog species in an arid landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert S.; Robertson, Jeanne M; Murphy, Melanie; Funk, W. Chris

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian species persisting in isolated streams and wetlands in desert environments can be susceptible to low connectivity, genetic isolation, and climate changes. We evaluated the past (1900–1930), recent (1981–2010), and future (2071–2100) climate suitability of the arid Great Basin (USA) for the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) and assessed whether changes in surface water may affect connectivity for remaining populations. We developed a predictive model of current climate suitability and used it to predict the historic and future distribution of suitable climates. We then modeled changes in surface water availability at each time period. Finally, we quantified connectivity among existing populations on the basis of hydrology and correlated it with interpopulation genetic distance. We found that the area of the Great Basin with suitable climate conditions has declined by approximately 49% over the last century and will likely continue to decline under future climate scenarios. Climate conditions at currently occupied locations have been relatively stable over the last century, which may explain persistence at these sites. However, future climates at these currently occupied locations are predicted to become warmer throughout the year and drier during the frog's activity period (May – September). Fall and winter precipitation may increase, but as rain instead of snow. Earlier runoff and lower summer base flows may reduce connectivity between neighboring populations, which is already limited. Many of these changes could have negative effects on remaining populations over the next 50–80 years, but milder winters, longer growing seasons, and wetter falls might positively affect survival and dispersal. Collectively, however, seasonal shifts in temperature, precipitation, and stream flow patterns could reduce habitat suitability and connectivity for frogs and possibly other aquatic species inhabiting streams in this arid region.

  3. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  4. 76 FR 40336 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... species donation (PSD) program. Salmon and halibut are caught incidentally during directed fishing for... a salmon donation program and were approved by NMFS on July 10, 1996; a final rule implementing...

  5. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5′-...

  6. Improving aquatic warbler population assessments by accounting for imperfect detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs designed to assess changes in population size over time need to account for imperfect detection and provide estimates of precision around annual abundance estimates. Especially for species dependent on conservation management, robust monitoring is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of management. Many bird species of temperate grasslands depend on specific conservation management to maintain suitable breeding habitat. One such species is the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola, which breeds in open fen mires in Central Europe. Aquatic Warbler populations have so far been assessed using a complete survey that aims to enumerate all singing males over a large area. Because this approach provides no estimate of precision and does not account for observation error, detecting moderate population changes is challenging. From 2011 to 2013 we trialled a new line transect sampling monitoring design in the Biebrza valley, Poland, to estimate abundance of singing male Aquatic Warblers. We surveyed Aquatic Warblers repeatedly along 50 randomly placed 1-km transects, and used binomial mixture models to estimate abundances per transect. The repeated line transect sampling required 150 observer days, and thus less effort than the traditional 'full count' approach (175 observer days. Aquatic Warbler abundance was highest at intermediate water levels, and detection probability varied between years and was influenced by vegetation height. A power analysis indicated that our line transect sampling design had a power of 68% to detect a 20% population change over 10 years, whereas raw count data had a 9% power to detect the same trend. Thus, by accounting for imperfect detection we increased the power to detect population changes. We recommend to adopt the repeated line transect sampling approach for monitoring Aquatic Warblers in Poland and in other important breeding areas to monitor changes in population size and the effects of

  7. Improving aquatic warbler population assessments by accounting for imperfect detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Marczakiewicz, Piotr; Lachmann, Lars; Grzywaczewski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring programs designed to assess changes in population size over time need to account for imperfect detection and provide estimates of precision around annual abundance estimates. Especially for species dependent on conservation management, robust monitoring is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of management. Many bird species of temperate grasslands depend on specific conservation management to maintain suitable breeding habitat. One such species is the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola), which breeds in open fen mires in Central Europe. Aquatic Warbler populations have so far been assessed using a complete survey that aims to enumerate all singing males over a large area. Because this approach provides no estimate of precision and does not account for observation error, detecting moderate population changes is challenging. From 2011 to 2013 we trialled a new line transect sampling monitoring design in the Biebrza valley, Poland, to estimate abundance of singing male Aquatic Warblers. We surveyed Aquatic Warblers repeatedly along 50 randomly placed 1-km transects, and used binomial mixture models to estimate abundances per transect. The repeated line transect sampling required 150 observer days, and thus less effort than the traditional 'full count' approach (175 observer days). Aquatic Warbler abundance was highest at intermediate water levels, and detection probability varied between years and was influenced by vegetation height. A power analysis indicated that our line transect sampling design had a power of 68% to detect a 20% population change over 10 years, whereas raw count data had a 9% power to detect the same trend. Thus, by accounting for imperfect detection we increased the power to detect population changes. We recommend to adopt the repeated line transect sampling approach for monitoring Aquatic Warblers in Poland and in other important breeding areas to monitor changes in population size and the effects of habitat management.

  8. Similar stress responses are elicited by copper and ultraviolet radiation in the aquatic plant Lemna gibba: implication of reactive oxygen species as common signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, T Sudhakar; Akhtar, Tariq A; Lampi, Mark A; Tripuranthakam, Sridevi; Dixon, D George; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2003-12-01

    Metals and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are two environmental stressors that can cause damage to plants. These two types of stressors often impact simultaneously on plants and both are known to promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, little information is available on the potential parallel stress responses elicited by metals and UV radiation. Using the aquatic plant Lemna gibba, we found that copper and simulated solar radiation (SSR, a light source containing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV radiation) induced similar responses in the plants. Both copper and SSR caused ROS formation. The ROS levels were higher when copper was combined with SSR than when applied with PAR. Higher concentrations of copper plus PAR caused toxicity as monitored by diminished growth and chlorophyll content. This toxicity was more pronounced when copper was combined with SSR. Because the generation of ROS was also higher when copper was combined with SSR, we attributed this enhanced toxicity to elevated levels of ROS. In comparison to PAR-grown plants, SSR treated plants exhibited elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). These enzyme levels were further elevated under both PAR and SSR when copper was added at concentrations that generated ROS. Interestingly, copper treatment in the absence of SSR (i.e. copper plus PAR) induced synthesis of the same flavonoids as those observed in SSR without copper. Finally, addition of either dimethyl thiourea or GSH (two common ROS scavengers) lowered in vivo ROS production, alleviated toxicity and diminished induction of GR as well as accumulation of UV absorbing compounds. Thus, the potential of ROS being a common signal for acclimation to stress by both copper and UV can be considered.

  9. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin

    OpenAIRE

    VJ. Pott; Pott, A; LCP. Lima; SN. Moreira; AKM Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas) and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river fl...

  10. Epigenetic Programming:The Challenge to Species Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryo lshikawa; Tetsu Kinoshita

    2009-01-01

    In many organisms,the genomes of individual species are isolated by a range of reproductive barriers that act before or after fertilization.Successful mating between species results in the presence of different genomes within a cell (hybridization),which can lead to incompatibility in cellular events due to adverse genetic interactions.In addition to such genetic interactions,recent studies have shown that the epigenetic control of the genome,silencing of transposons,control of non-additive gene expression and genomic imprinting might also contribute to reproductive barriers in plant and animal species.These genetic and epigenetic mechanisms play a significant role in the prevention of gene flow between species.In this review,we focus on aspects of epigenetic control related to hybrid incompatibility during species hybridization,and also consider key mechanism(s) in the interaction between different genomes.

  11. 我国水生生物水质基准推导的物种选择%Species Selection for Deriving Water Quality Criteria for Protection of Aquatic Organisms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海磊; 吴丰昌; 李会仙; 冯承莲; 张瑞卿; 常红

    2012-01-01

    水生生物水质基准旨在保护水生生物不受水体中化学物质的有害影响,是水质基准体系的重要组成部分.不同区域水生态系统的生物区系不同,导致基准值也会存在差异.在综合研究美国、欧盟、加拿大、荷兰、澳大利亚和新西兰等国家和地区在推导水生生物水质基准的物种选择及其考虑因素的基础上,初步研究我国水生生物水质基准推导的物种选择原则.结果表明:推导我国水生生物水质基准需要选择来自8科的水生生物,分别为鲤科鱼类、硬骨鱼纲中的另一科、两栖动物纲的一科、浮游动物中节肢动物门和轮虫动物门各一科、底栖动物中节肢动物门和环节动物门各一科及一种最敏感的大型水生植物(或浮游植物),可全面代表我国水生态系统不同的营养级和生命形式.%As an important component of the water quality criteria system, the aquatic life criteria aim to protect aquatic biota from hazardous chemicals. The water quality values differ within ecosystems and in geographical regions. Based on overall analysis of the species selection for deriving aquatic life criteria in the United States, Europe, Canada, the Netherlands, Australia and New Zealand, the species selection required for deriving water quality criteria in China was discussed. The results showed that the aquatic organisms required for deriving the aquatic life criteria in China should come from eight different families; Cyprinidae, another family in Osteichthyes, a family in Amphibia, a family in Arthropoda and a family in Rotifera from zooplankton, a family in Arthropod a and a family in Annelida from Zoobenthos, and a macrophyte (or phytoplankton). These can comprehensively represent different trophic levels and life forms in the aquatic ecosystem.

  12. Pain in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Lynne U

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  13. Aquatic biomass as a source of fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, L.P.

    1983-09-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the development of technologies that produce and utilize plant biomass species which naturally inhabit wetlands or submerged areas. Processes being developed through this program take advantage of the rapid growth rates, high yields, and extraordinary chemical compositions inherently associated with aquatic species. Emphasis is placed on salt tolerant species for cultivation on poorly utilized, low-value lands, where conventional agriculture is not economic. Candidate species are identified from: (1) microalgae-unicellular plants that are natural factories for converting sunlight into high quality oils; (2) macroalgae-large, chemically unique plants that can be easily fermented to methane gas or alcohols; and (3) emergents-plants that grow rooted in waterways and bogs, but are partially exposed above water. Within the next five years, the conditions and resources necessary for sustained systems operations are to be defined, design parameters examined, and experimental facilities developed. Succeeding years are planned to focus on resolving major technical hurdles in systems operations, integration, and component performance. This paper updates the technical progress in this program, describes several aspects of evolving systems concepts, and attempts to provide some perspectives based on potential economics. 16 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Viruses isolated from affected shrimp were used for determine the susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand.A total of 163 samples of larval shrimp from hatcheries were screened. The results showed infection with TSV and IHHNV in 3.68 and 44.17%, respectively. As high as 7.32% TSV infection was detected in shrimp samples collected from the South Eastern coast, followed by the Eastern and Central regions with percentages of 5.56 and 4.53, respectively. Shrimp with the highest rate of IHHNV infection, 55.56% were collected from the Eastern region. A total of 192 samples of shrimp reared in grow-out ponds were also collected. The results showed shrimp were infected with TSV and IHHNV with percentages of 6.67 and 67.19, respectively. The highest prevalence of IHHNV (up to 90% was found in samples collected from the lower Southern region. The highest prevalence of TSV infection (11.29% was reported in shrimp from the Central region. A study of the susceptibility to TSV and IHHNV infection of some indigenous aquatic species of Thailand was also carried out. The results showed many aquatic species native to Thailand e.g. black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, speckled shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, dwarf prawn (Macrobrachium equideus, krill (Acetes sp., mantis lobster (Chloridopsis immaculatus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri and M. rosenbergii, mangrove crab (Sesarma sp. and mud crab (Scylla serrata were susceptible to viruses and

  15. Using solid (13)C NMR coupled with solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy to investigate molecular species and lability of organic carbon and phosphorus from aquatic plants in Tai Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shasha; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Fengchang; Meng, Wei; Wang, Hao; He, Zhongqi; Guo, Wenjing; Song, Fanhao; Giesy, John P

    2017-01-01

    Forms and labilities of plant-derived organic matters (OMs) including carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) were fundamental for understanding their release, degradation and environmental behaviour in lake ecosystems. Thus, solid (13)C and solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to characterize biomass of six aquatic plants in Tai Lake, China. The results showed that carbohydrates (61.2% of the total C) were predominant C functional group in the solid (13)C NMR spectra of plant biomass, which may indicate high lability and bioavailability of aquatic plants-derived organic matter in lakes. There was 72.6-103.7% of the total P in aquatic plant biomass extracted by NaOH-EDTA extracts. Solution (31)P NMR analysis of these NaOH-EDTA extracts further identified several molecular species of P including orthophosphate (50.1%), orthophosphate monoesters (46.8%), DNA (1.6%) and pyrophosphate (1.4%). Orthophosphate monoesters included β-glycerophosphate (17.7%), hydrolysis products of RNA (11.7%), α-glycerophosphate (9.2%) and other unknown monoesters (2.1%). Additionally, phytate, the major form of organic P in many lake sediments, was detected in floating plant water poppy. These inorganic P (e.g. orthophosphate and pyrophosphate) and organic P (e.g. diester and its degradation products) identified in plant biomass were all labile and bioavailable P, which would play an important role in recycling of P in lakes. These results increased knowledge of chemical composition and bioavailability of OMs derived from aquatic plants in lakes.

  16. 淡水水生生物对阿特拉津除草剂的敏感度%Species Sensitive Distribution for Aquatic Biota Exposed to Atrazine in Freshwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓宁; 徐冰冰; 李会仙; 吴丰昌

    2013-01-01

    针对水环境中普遍存在的农药污染问题,以阿特拉津除草剂作为研究对象,梳理、整合阿特拉津对水生生态系统中不同营养级水生生物的急、慢性毒性数据,构建了基于对数-逻辑斯蒂分布的水生生物物种敏感度分布模型,分析并对比了阿特拉津对不同类群和不同区系水生生物急慢性毒性敏感度差异.结果表明,水生动物和植物、无脊椎动物(包括甲壳类、昆虫类、软体动物和蠕虫类)和脊椎动物(包括鱼类和两栖类动物)对阿特拉津敏感度均存在显著差异.分析了阿特拉津对不同类群水生生物的HC5(5%危险浓度)值,其中对水生动物和植物的急性毒性HC5值分别为4 257.94和12.55 μg/L,慢性毒性的HC5值分别为2.47和1.95 μg/L;对水生脊椎动物和无脊椎动物的HC5值分别为7 490.31和l 611.76 μg/L;对甲壳类和鱼类的HC5值分别为1 201.16和6 639.90 μg/L.在保护95%的物种水平下,不同类群试验生物对阿特拉津的敏感度排序为水生植物>水生动物、水生无脊椎动物>水生脊椎动物、甲壳类动物>鱼类.从统计学角度分析,中国水生动物与北美水生动物对阿特拉津的敏感度差异不显著.但是,中美两国间相对特有水生动物物种对阿特拉津的敏感度存在一定的差异.%Pesticides have been paid attention during recent years because of their ubiquity and persistence in the environment and their important biological effects. In this study, the species sensitivity distribution model for atrazine, one widely used herbicide, was developed using a log-logistic distribution based on the acute and chronic toxicity data across various trophic levels. Furthermore, aquatic species sensitivities to atrazine were compared between different taxa and regions, and 5% hazardous concentration of the species ( HC5 ) of different taxa and regions were derived based on the species sensitivity distribution models. The results

  17. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Proceedings Annual Meeting (28th) Held in Baltimore, Maryland on November 15-18, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    entire system tion of submerged plant biomass by use of (HA/RDGPS/data linkage/GIS) will be tested. t in f asub mered J. Aquati Planta recording... Colombia , and root-feeding larvae of a second include biocontrol of terrestrial nuisance donaciine leaf beetle. plants and insect pests. In 1992, a...Trapajaponica Flerov. was the only Russia. It reached high densities at some sites species observed in Hokkaido and in the and probably transmitted a virus

  18. Copper and zinc, but not other priority toxic metals, pose risks to native aquatic species in a large urban lake in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyou; Wu, Fengchang; Chen, Lulu; Xu, Bingbing; Feng, Chenglian; Bai, Yingchen; Liao, Haiqing; Sun, Siyang; Giesy, John P; Guo, Wenjing

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, global production of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) rank in the top three compared to other metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As and Hg. However, due to the potential for exposure and toxicity to humans, more attention of environmental pollution was paid to other metals such as Cd and Hg. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to Cu and Zn. Even though internal concentrations of these required elements are homeostatically controlled, toxic effects can occur at the fish gill surface. In this work, concentrations in surface waters and toxic effects of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, As, Hg were determined and risk of various metals in Tai Lake, China were evaluated using both risk quotients and joint probability distributions. Two transition metals, Cu and Zn posed the greatest risks to aquatic organisms while measured concentrations of other metals were less than thresholds for adverse effects. Approximately 99.9% and 50.7% of the aquatic organisms were predicted to be affected by Cu and Zn in surface water of Tai Lake respectively. Our results highlight ecological risks of Cu and Zn in water of a typical, large, urban lake in Eastern China, which was ignored in the past.

  19. Resource Assessment for Microalgal/Emergent Aquatic Biomass Systems in the Arid Southwest: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, B. W.; Arthur, M. F.; Taft, L. G.; Wagner, C. K.; Lipinsky, E. S.; Litchfield, J. H.; McCandlish, C. D.; Clark, R.

    1982-12-23

    This research project has been designed to facilitate the eventual selection of biomass production systems using aquatic species (microalgal and emergent aquatic plant species (MEAP) which effectively exploit the potentially available resources of the Southwest.

  20. Bioaccumulation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Aquatic Species from the Typical E-Waste Burning Site%典型电子废物焚烧区水生生物多溴联苯醚累积特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨延梅; 陶义; 唐阵武; 何洁; 黄启飞

    2013-01-01

    对广东清远某电子废物焚烧区封闭水体中水生生物体PBDEs(多溴联苯醚)的累积特征进行了研究.结果表明,草虾、田螺、河蚌、鲫鱼、鲤鱼、黄鳝和乌鳢等水生生物体内w(Σ21PBDEs)(以脂肪质量计)为0.248 7 ~24.50 μg/g.该电子废物焚烧区水生生物PBDEs污染较严重,较我国其他地区开放性水体的水生生物体w(PBDEs)高出1~3个数量级.其中,底栖动物河蚌和田螺体内PBDEs累积最高,w(Σ21PBDEs)分别为11.38和4.968 μg/g.不同同系物在水生生物体内累积差异较大,BDE209是水生生物体PBDEs累积的主要组分,占49.83% ~91.48%,八溴代和九溴代BDE也发生了高累积.营养级是电子废物焚烧区水生生物PBDEs累积的最主要控制因素,但捕食和生活习性对生物体尤其是软体动物PBDEs累积也产生了较大影响.%Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers was investigated using aquatic species collected from a pond in an e-waste burning site in South China. The levels of PBDEs ranged from 0. 2487 to 24. 50 μg/g (lipid weight) in the bodies of aquatic organisms including shrimp, river snail, mussel, crucian, carp, monopterus and snakehead. In this study, the highest levels of PBDEs were investigated in mussel (Anodonta) and river snail ( Cipangopaludina cathayensis) , which were 11.38 and 4.968 μg/g, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the results showed that the PBDE levels of aquatic species were 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that reported in other regions of China. This indicated that heavy PBDE pollution occurred in this area. BDE209 was the most dominant congener (49. 83% -91. 48% ) of PBDEs in these investigated aquatic organisms. In addition, relatively higher levels of octa-BDE and nona-BDE were also detected in the aquatic species. Based on the results, trophic level is the main controlling factors for PBDE bioaccumulation. Meanwhile, the feeding and living habits also play important

  1. Weed risk assessment for aquatic plants: modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Doria R; Gantz, Crysta A; Jerde, Christopher L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Keller, Reuben P; Champion, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand's Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders), and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31-39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species.

  2. Weed risk assessment for aquatic plants: modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria R Gordon

    Full Text Available We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand's Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders, and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31-39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species.

  3. Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Scott, Karen C; Gerlach, Trevor; Sirois, Paul; Reuter, Mike; Crewz, David W; Hill, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. This study compared the dry matter (DM) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [CP], ether-extracted crude fat [EE], nonfiber carbohydrate [NFC], and ash), and the calculated digestible energy (DE) of sea grasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme) collected in spring, summer, and winter, and an alga (Chara sp.) with those of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia). Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (L) measured after ash-extraction were also compared. Results of statistical tests (C = 0.01) revealed DM content was higher in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce (P = 0.0001), but NDF and ADF were up to threefold greater, EE (P = 0.00001) and CP (P = 0.00001) were 2-9 times less, and NFC (P = 0.0001) was 2-6 times lower in sea grass than in lettuce, on a DM basis. Chara was lower in NDF, ADF, L, EE, CP, and NFC relative to lettuce on a DM basis. Ash content (DM basis) was higher (P = 0.0001), and DE was 2-6 times lower in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce. Sea grass rhizomes had lower L and higher ash contents (DM basis) than sea grass leaves. Based on the nutrient analyses, romaine lettuce and sea grasses are not equivalent forages, which suggests that the current diet of captive Florida manatees should be reassessed.

  4. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. Production Company (CPDN). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, giant kangaroo rat, Tipton kangaroo rat, and Hoover`s wooly-star. All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which declares that it is ``...the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.`` DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPRC is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during fiscal year 1993.

  5. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  6. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  7. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  8. SERI Biomass Program. FY 1983 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.; McIntosh, R.P.

    1984-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1983. The SERI Biomass Program consists of three elements: Aquatic Species, Anaerobic Digestion, and Photo/Biological Hydrogen. Each element has been indexed separately. 2 references, 44 figures, 22 tables.

  9. An evaluation of the relations between flow regime components, stream characteristics, species traits and meta-demographic rates of warmwater stream fishes: Implications for aquatic resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Shea, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Fishery biologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of considering the dynamic nature of streams when developing streamflow policies. Such approaches require information on how flow regimes influence the physical environment and how those factors, in turn, affect species-specific demographic rates. A more cost-effective alternative could be the use of dynamic occupancy models to predict how species are likely to respond to changes in flow. To appraise the efficacy of this approach, we evaluated relative support for hypothesized effects of seasonal streamflow components, stream channel characteristics, and fish species traits on local extinction, colonization, and recruitment (meta-demographic rates) of stream fishes. We used 4 years of seasonal fish collection data from 23 streams to fit multistate, multiseason occupancy models for 42 fish species in the lower Flint River Basin, Georgia. Modelling results suggested that meta-demographic rates were influenced by streamflows, particularly short-term (10-day) flows. Flow effects on meta-demographic rates also varied with stream size, channel morphology, and fish species traits. Small-bodied species with generalized life-history characteristics were more resilient to flow variability than large-bodied species with specialized life-history characteristics. Using this approach, we simplified the modelling framework, thereby facilitating the development of dynamic, spatially explicit evaluations of the ecological consequences of water resource development activities over broad geographic areas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Effects of an aquatic versus non-aquatic respiratory exercise program on the respiratory muscle strength in healthy aged persons Efeitos de um programa de cinesioterapia respiratória desenvolvido em dois meios diferentes - aquático e solo - na força muscular respiratória de idosos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Ritomy Ide

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging of the worldwide population is a concern of most governmental entities, spanning practically all areas of prevention and rehabilitation. Aging leads to physiological alterations that result in adverse social and financial effects. There is a trend to emphasize prevention, which is less expensive and socially more desirable than therapeutic intervention. PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a program of aquatic versus non-aquatic respiratory exercises on respiratory muscle strength in healthy aged persons. METHODS: The respiratory muscle strength was measured in 81 subjects between 60 and 65 years, 59 of which completed the program. Subjects were randomized into 3 groups. Gaquatic undertook a program of respiratory exercise in an aquatic environment. Gnon-aquatic undertook the same program in a non-aquatic environment. Gcontrol acted as the negative control. Programs were applied three times a week for 10 consecutive weeks. Subsequently, subjects were reevaluated, and results compared to each individual's pre-treatment own result and between the groups. The data were statistically analyzed using the paired t test and the Sign test. Comparisons between the groups were performed through parametric and nonparametric variance. A comparison of Gaquatic and Gnon-aquatic versus Gcontrol was performed using the Dunnett test. RESULTS: A significant improvement in the inspiratory muscle strength in the Gaquatic group compared to the Gcontrol, group was found, suggesting beneficial effects mediated by the aquatic exercise. The expiratory muscles did not show significant alterations. CONCLUSION: Aquatic respiratory exercise improves the inspiratory muscle strength of healthy aged persons. However, neither aquatic nor non-aquatic respiratory exercise influences the expiratory muscle strength.O envelhecimento da população mundial é uma preocupação para grande parte das entidades governamentais. Acarreta alterações fisiológicas em todo o organismo e

  11. Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) ateneo, new species (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) and other aquatic Polyphaga from a small habitat patch in a highly urbanized landscape of Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Seven species of Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae and Elmidae are recorded from temporary freshwater habitats at the Ateneo de Manila University Campus in the metropolitan area of Manila, Philippines. They were identified as Enochrus (Lumetus) fragiloides d'Orchymont, Helochares (Hydrobaticus) lepidus d'Orchymont, Helochares (Helochares) pallens (MacLeay), Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) scabra d'Orchymont, Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) palawanensis Freitag & Jäch (new record for Luzon Island), Stenelmis sp. A further hydraenid species was unknown to science and is newly described: Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) ateneo Freitag, sp. n. Aedeagus, gonocoxite, spermatheca, and female tergite X are illustrated by computer-based line drawings. Habitus images of all three Hydraena Kugelann species recorded and a checklist of the Philippine Hydraena are provided. The presence of these seven species in the Ateneo campus is briefly discussed in regard to the area's history. Measures to maintain and extend semi-natural islands of biodiversity in urban areas are suggested.

  12. Hydraena (Hydraenopsis ateneo, new species (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae and other aquatic Polyphaga from a small habitat patch in a highly urbanized landscape of Metro Manila, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Freitag

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae and Elmidae are recorded from temporary freshwater habitats at the Ateneo de Manila University Campus in the metropolitan area of Manila, Philippines. They were identified as Enochrus (Lumetus fragiloides d’Orchymont, Helochares (Hydrobaticus lepidus d’Orchymont, Helochares (Helochares pallens (MacLeay, Hydraena (Hydraenopsis scabra d’Orchymont, Hydraena (Hydraenopsis palawanensis Freitag & Jäch (new record for Luzon Island, Stenelmis sp. A further hydraenid species was unknown to science and is newly described: Hydraena (Hydraenopsis ateneo Freitag, sp. n. Aedeagus, gonocoxite, spermatheca, and female tergite X are illustrated by computer-based line drawings. Habitus images of all three Hydraena Kugelann species recorded and a checklist of the Philippine Hydraena are provided. The presence of these seven species in the Ateneo campus is briefly discussed in regard to the area’s history. Measures to maintain and extend semi-natural islands of biodiversity in urban areas are suggested.

  13. Identification of Pathogenic Vibrio Species by Multilocus PCR-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Its Application to Aquatic Environments of the Former Soviet Republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    9 different Vibrio species were detected, 114 (41%) samples were positive for V. cholerae , and 5 (0.8%) samples were positive for the cholera toxin A... Vibrio species were detected, 114 (41%) samples were positive for V. cholerae , and 5 (0.8%) samples were positive for the cholera toxin A gene (ctxA...members include Vibrio cholerae , the causative agent of cholera , and Vibrio para- haemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, which have been implicated in

  14. 77 FR 49601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic Invertebrate Species... endemic species of fish, plants, mollusks, and crustaceans, including the six endemic aquatic invertebrate... flowing by 1962 (Brune 1981, p. 358), eliminating all aquatic-dependent plants and animals (Scudday...

  15. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  16. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2009-01-01

      A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested...... delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic...... animals is quantitatively important in nitraterich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability...

  17. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, annual report FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are oil fields administered by the DOE in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Four federally endangered animal species and one federally threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The DOE/NPRC is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The primary objective of the Endangered Species and Cultural Resources Program is to provide NPRC with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the ESA, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress, results, and accomplishments of the program during fiscal year 1997 (FY97).

  18. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches; Marina Gulo Alcorinte; Lucas Henrique Sahm; Guilherme Rossi Gorni; Maria Lúcia Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Pau...

  19. An algorithm and program for finding sequence specific oligo-nucleotide probes for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautz Diethard

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of species or species groups with specific oligo-nucleotides as molecular signatures is becoming increasingly popular for bacterial samples. However, it shows also great promise for other small organisms that are taxonomically difficult to tract. Results We have devised here an algorithm that aims to find the optimal probes for any given set of sequences. The program requires only a crude alignment of these sequences as input and is optimized for performance to deal also with very large datasets. The algorithm is designed such that the position of mismatches in the probes influences the selection and makes provision of single nucleotide outloops. Program implementations are available for Linux and Windows.

  20. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Westgate

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  1. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Martin J; Scheele, Ben C; Ikin, Karen; Hoefer, Anke Maria; Beaty, R Matthew; Evans, Murray; Osborne, Will; Hunter, David; Rayner, Laura; Driscoll, Don A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization) had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  2. AMEG: the new SETAC advisory group on aquatic macrophyte ecotoxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Arts, G.; Davies, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ebke, P.; Hanson, M; Hommen, U.; Knauer, K; Loutseti, S.; Maltby, L.; Mohr, S.; Poovey, A.; Poulsen, V.

    2010-01-01

    \\ud Introduction and background\\ud \\ud Primary producers play critical structural and functional roles in aquatic ecosystems; therefore, it is imperative that the potential risks of toxicants to aquatic plants are adequately assessed in the risk assessment of chemicals. The standard required macrophyte test species is the floating (non-sediment-rooted) duckweed Lemna spp. This macrophyte species might not be representative of all floating, rooted, emergent, and submerged macrophyte species be...

  3. Using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Péry, T Alexandre R R; Mouthon, Jacques; Lafont, Michel; Roger, Marie-Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Férard, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    An original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. This method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. It has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large European lowland river. First, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of European lowland rivers were selected from a list of 479 taxa, considering 11 biological traits accounting for the main routes of exposure to a sediment-bound toxicant and eight ecological traits providing an adequate description of habitat characteristics used by the taxa. Second, their biological and ecological trait patterns were compared using coinertia analysis. This comparison allowed the clustering of taxa into groups of organisms that exhibited similar life-history characteristics, physiological and behavioral features, and similar habitat use. Groups exhibited various sizes (7-35 taxa), taxonomic compositions, and biological and ecological features. Main differences among group characteristics concerned morphology, substrate preferendum and habitat utilization, nutritional features, maximal size, and life-history strategy. Third, the best representatives of the mean biological and ecological characteristics of each group were included in the test battery. The final selection was composed of Chironomus riparius (Insecta: Diptera), Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae), Valvata piscinalis (Gastropoda: Valvatidae), and Sericostoma personatum (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). This approach permitted the biological and ecological variety of the battery to be maximized. Because biological and ecological traits of taxa determine species sensitivity, such maximization should permit the battery to better account

  4. SERI Biomass Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, P. W.; Corder, R. E.; Hill, A. M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M. Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  5. SEAWAT Version 4: A Computer Program for Simulation of Multi-Species Solute and Heat Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Thorne, Daniel T.; Dausman, Alyssa M.; Sukop, Michael C.; Guo, Weixing

    2008-01-01

    The SEAWAT program is a coupled version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS designed to simulate three-dimensional, variable-density, saturated ground-water flow. Flexible equations were added to the program to allow fluid density to be calculated as a function of one or more MT3DMS species. Fluid density may also be calculated as a function of fluid pressure. The effect of fluid viscosity variations on ground-water flow was included as an option. Fluid viscosity can be calculated as a function of one or more MT3DMS species, and the program includes additional functions for representing the dependence on temperature. Although MT3DMS and SEAWAT are not explicitly designed to simulate heat transport, temperature can be simulated as one of the species by entering appropriate transport coefficients. For example, the process of heat conduction is mathematically analogous to Fickian diffusion. Heat conduction can be represented in SEAWAT by assigning a thermal diffusivity for the temperature species (instead of a molecular diffusion coefficient for a solute species). Heat exchange with the solid matrix can be treated in a similar manner by using the mathematically equivalent process of solute sorption. By combining flexible equations for fluid density and viscosity with multi-species transport, SEAWAT Version 4 represents variable-density ground-water flow coupled with multi-species solute and heat transport. SEAWAT Version 4 is based on MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS and retains all of the functionality of SEAWAT-2000. SEAWAT Version 4 also supports new simulation options for coupling flow and transport, and for representing constant-head boundaries. In previous versions of SEAWAT, the flow equation was solved for every transport timestep, regardless of whether or not there was a large change in fluid density. A new option was implemented in SEAWAT Version 4 that allows users to control how often the flow field is updated. New options were also implemented for representing constant

  6. Sylphellapuccoon gen. n., sp. n. and two additional new species of aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculidae, Clitellata) from poorly-known lotic habitats in North Carolina (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Fend, Steven V; Lenat, David R

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Lumbriculidae were collected from floodplain seeps and small streams in southeastern North America. Some of these habitats are naturally acidic. Sylphellapuccoon gen. n., sp. n. has prosoporous male ducts in X-XI, and spermathecae in XII-XIII. Muscular, spherical atrial ampullae and acuminate penial sheaths distinguish this monotypic new genus from other lumbriculid genera having similar arrangements of reproductive organs. Cookidriluspocosinus sp. n. resembles its two subterranean, Palearctic congeners in the arrangement of reproductive organs, but is easily distinguished by the position of the spermathecal pores in front of the chaetae in X-XIII. Stylodriluscoreyi sp. n. differs from congeners having simple-pointed chaetae and elongate atria primarily by the structure of the male duct and the large clusters of prostate cells. Streams and wetlands of Southeastern USA have a remarkably high diversity of endemic lumbriculids, and these poorly-known invertebrates should be considered in conservation efforts.

  7. Sylphella puccoon gen. n., sp. n. and two additional new species of aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculidae, Clitellata from poorly-known lotic habitats in North Carolina (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Rodriguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Lumbriculidae were collected from floodplain seeps and small streams in southeastern North America. Some of these habitats are naturally acidic. Sylphella puccoon gen. n., sp. n. has prosoporous male ducts in X–XI, and spermathecae in XII–XIII. Muscular, spherical atrial ampullae and acuminate penial sheaths distinguish this monotypic new genus from other lumbriculid genera having similar arrangements of reproductive organs. Cookidrilus pocosinus sp. n. resembles its two subterranean, Palearctic congeners in the arrangement of reproductive organs, but is easily distinguished by the position of the spermathecal pores in front of the chaetae in X–XIII. Stylodrilus coreyi sp. n. differs from congeners having simple-pointed chaetae and elongate atria primarily by the structure of the male duct and the large clusters of prostate cells. Streams and wetlands of Southeastern USA have a remarkably high diversity of endemic lumbriculids, and these poorly-known invertebrates should be considered in conservation efforts.

  8. Using solid 13C NMR coupled with solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to investigate molecular species and lability of organic carbon and phosphorus from aquatic plants in Tai Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic plants are involved in the storage and release capacity for organic matter and nutrients. In this study, solid 13C and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the biomass samples of six aquatic plants. Solid 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed the domin...

  9. The neurotoxin BMAA in aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue and in many aquatic systems, it leads to the proliferation of toxic phytoplankton species. The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is one of the compounds that can be present in phytoplankton. BMAA has been suggested to play a role in the ne

  10. Spatially targeting Culex quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats on modified land cover for implementing an Integrated Vector Management (IVM program in three villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githure John

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous land cover modification is an important part of spatial epidemiology because it can help identify environmental factors and Culex mosquitoes associated with arbovirus transmission and thus guide control intervention. The aim of this study was to determine whether remotely sensed data could be used to identify rice-related Culex quinquefasciatus breeding habitats in three rice-villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. We examined whether a land use land cover (LULC classification based on two scenes, IKONOS at 4 m and Landsat Thematic Mapper at 30 m could be used to map different land uses and rice planted at different times (cohorts, and to infer which LULC change were correlated to high density Cx. quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats. We performed a maximum likelihood unsupervised classification in Erdas Imagine V8.7® and generated three land cover classifications, rice field, fallow and built environment. Differentially corrected global positioning systems (DGPS ground coordinates of Cx. quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats were overlaid onto the LULC maps generated in ArcInfo 9.1®. Grid cells were stratified by levels of irrigation (well-irrigated and poorly-irrigated and varied according to size of the paddy. Results Total LULC change between 1988–2005 was 42.1 % in Kangichiri, 52.8 % in Kiuria and and 50.6 % Rurumi. The most frequent LULC changes was rice field to fallow and fallow to rice field. The proportion of aquatic habitats positive for Culex larvae in LULC change sites was 77.5% in Kangichiri, 72.9% in Kiuria and 73.7% in Rurumi. Poorly – irrigated grid cells displayed 63.3% of aquatic habitats among all LULC change sites. Conclusion We demonstrate that optical remote sensing can identify rice cultivation LULC sites associated with high Culex oviposition. We argue that the regions of higher Culex abundance based on oviposition surveillance sites reflect underlying differences in abundance of larval

  11. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  12. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  13. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  14. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J. [Catawba College

    2011-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 was the

  15. Tradeoff between assessment and control of aquatic invasive species: A case study of sea lamprey management in the St. Marys River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason M.; Wilberg, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Allocating resources between the gathering of information to guide management actions and implementing those actions presents an inherent tradeoff. This tradeoff is evident for control of the Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the St. Marys River, connecting Lakes Huron and Superior and a major source of parasitic Sea Lampreys to Lake Huron and northern Lake Michigan. Larval Sea Lampreys in the St. Marys River are controlled through the application of Bayluscide, which is applied to areas of high larval density. Bayluscide applications are guided with an annual deepwater electrofishing survey to estimate larval Sea Lamprey density at relatively fine spatial scales. We took a resampling approach to describe the effect of sampling intensity on the success of the larval Sea Lamprey management program and explicitly incorporated the economic tradeoff between assessment and control efforts to maximize numbers of larvae killed in the St. Marys River. When no tradeoff between assessment and control was incorporated, increasing assessment always led to more larvae killed for the same treatment budget. When the tradeoff was incorporated, the sampling intensity that maximized the number of larvae killed depended on the overall budget available. Increased sampling intensities maximized effectiveness under medium to large budgets (US \\$0.4 to \\$2.0 million), and intermediate sampling intensities maximized effectiveness under low budgets. Sea Lamprey control actions based on assessment information outperformed those that were implemented with no assessment under all budget scenarios.

  16. ZOONOSIS OF AQUATICAL ORGANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Aquatic organisms play a very important role in human nutrition. They also pose a real threat for human health by causing various diseases. Parasites, bacteria and viruses may either directly or indirectly be carried from aquatic organisms to humans. Disease outbreaks are influenced by many factors among which decreased immune response and feeding habits and higyene are most important. More frequent occuence of foodborne diseases has a number of reasons, including international travel and tra...

  17. What's New: Acquatic Stabilization: Aquatic Rehabilitation Strategies for the Lumbar Spine and Risk Management for the Aquatic Therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschettti, Marilou

    Through dynamic aquatic stabilization techniques, patients will develop the ability to characterize sensory distractions and develop self-awareness and sensitivity to movement in the water, which will relate directly to improved motor function. Aquatic therapy is a systematic method of treatment, with programs developed by a licensed physical…

  18. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death in fungi: the benefits in filamentous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta eShlezinger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the early 1990's showed for the first time that Saccahromyces cerevisiae can undergo cell death with hallmarks of animal apoptosis. These findings came as a surprise, since suicide machinery was unexpected in unicellular organisms. Today, apoptosis in yeast is well documented. Apoptotic death of yeast cells has been described under various conditions and S. cerevisiae homologues of human apoptotic genes have been identified and characterized. These studies also revealed fundamental differences between yeast and animal apoptosis; in S. cerevisiae apoptosis is mainly associated with ageing and stress adaptation, unlike animal apoptosis, which is essential for proper development. Further, many apoptosis regulatory genes are either missing, or highly divergent in S. cerevisiae. Therefore, in this review we will use the term apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD instead of apoptosis. Despite these significant differences, S. cerevisiae has been instrumental in promoting the study of heterologous apoptotic proteins, particularly from human. Work in fungi other than S. cerevisiae revealed differences in the manifestation of PCD in single cell (yeasts and multi-cellular (filamentous species. Such differences may reflect the higher complexity level of filamentous species, and hence the involvement of PCD in a wider range of processes and life styles. It is also expected that differences might be found in the apoptosis apparatus of yeast and filamentous species. In this review we focus on aspects of PCD that are unique or can be better studied in filamentous species. We will highlight the similarities and differences of the PCD machinery between yeast and filamentous species and show the value of using S. cerevisiae along with filamentous species to study apoptosis.

  19. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VJ. Pott

    Full Text Available This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river flood, some primary data are presented for the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and associated Acurizal Preserve, analysing the floristic similarity among aquatic vegetation types. We comment on problems of conservation and observe that Panicum elephantipes Nees is one of the few natives to compete with the invasive Urochloa arrecta (Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz Morrone & Zuloaga.

  20. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, V J; Pott, A; Lima, L C P; Moreira, S N; Oliveira, A K M

    2011-04-01

    This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas) and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river flood, some primary data are presented for the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and associated Acurizal Preserve, analysing the floristic similarity among aquatic vegetation types. We comment on problems of conservation and observe that Panicum elephantipes Nees is one of the few natives to compete with the invasive Urochloa arrecta (Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz) Morrone & Zuloaga.

  1. Teaching citizen science skills online: Implications for invasive species training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, G.; Crall, A.; Laituri, M.; Graham, J.; Stohlgren, T.; Moore, J.C.; Kodrich, K.; Holfelder, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen science programs are emerging as an efficient way to increase data collection and help monitor invasive species. Effective invasive species monitoring requires rigid data quality assurances if expensive control efforts are to be guided by volunteer data. To achieve data quality, effective online training is needed to improve field skills and reach large numbers of remote sentinel volunteers critical to early detection and rapid response. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of online static and multimedia tutorials to teach citizen science volunteers (n = 54) how to identify invasive plants; establish monitoring plots; measure percent cover; and use Global Positioning System (GPS) units. Participants trained using static and multimedia tutorials provided less (p Group, LLC.

  2. Effect of aquatic and land-based exercise programs on the pain and motor function of weight lifters with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Babakhani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral Syndrome (PFPS is one of the most common knee joint problems among the athletes. The present study was aimed to compare the effect of aquatic and land-based exercise methods on the pain level and motor function of the weight lifters with patellofemoral syndrome. Methods: A total of twenty weight lifters with patellofemoral syndrome participated in this quasi-experimental study. They were randomly divided to two groups of aquatic exercise and land-based exercise. Visual Analog Scale (VAS and Kujala Scale were used before and after the exercise period to measure the pain and motor function, respectively. To compare the pre-test and post-test scores of the participating groups, dependent t-test was used and to compare the differences between groups, ANOVA was applied. Results: The results of post-test showed a significant difference in both groups in terms of pain level and motor function compared to pre-test after eight weeks of strength exercise. However, the comparison of data indicated no significant difference between groups with regard to pain level and motor function. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, exercise in water and on land can reduce the pain and improve the performance of the patients with patellofemoral syndrome.

  3. Teachers and Aquatic Education--A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    The Minnesota Sea Grant Education Sub-program provided funds to the University of Minnesota in 1980 to develop aquatic education materials (dealing with freshwater systems) for grades 5-9. The project resulted in the development and classroom testing of 13 instructional modules. A second grant (1982) funded workshops to introduce Minnesota…

  4. The Toxicity of Guanidine Nitrate to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    0.002 - Epoxide Cobalt 0.0065 ɘ.002 Lindane ɘ.01 Copper 0.0035 0.008 Alpha-BHC ɘ.01 Iron 0.1 0.1 Beta-BHC ɘ.02 Lead ɘ.002 - De 1ta- BC (0.02...other fish species, aquatic invertebrates (e.g. benthic invertebrates) and at least one algal or aquatic plant species. Addi- tional studies on the

  5. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Whittington, Richard J.; Caraguel, Charles G. B.

    2016-01-01

    studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines......-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.......Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons...

  6. Freshwater Wetland Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Implications for Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolaver, B. D.; Pierre, J. P.; Labay, B. J.; Ryberg, W. A.; Hibbits, T. J.; Prestridge, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes have caused widespread wetland loss and fragmentation. This trend has important implications for aquatic biota conservation, including the semi-aquatic Western Chicken Turtle (Deirochelys reticularia miaria). This species inhabits seasonally inundated, ephemeral water bodies and adjacent uplands in the southeastern U.S. However, wetland conversion to agriculture and urbanization is thought to cause the species' decline, particularly in Texas, which includes the westernmost part of its range. Because the species moves only a few kilometers between wetlands, it particularly sensitive to habitat loss and fragmentation. Thus, as part of the only state-funded species research program, this study provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) with scientific data to determine if the species warrants protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We use a species distribution model to map potentially suitable habitat for most of East Texas. We evaluate landscape-scale anthropogenic activities in this region which may be contributing to the species' decline. We identify areas of urbanization, agricultural expansion, forestry, and resulting wetland loss. We find that between 2001 and 2011 approximately 80 km2 of wetlands were lost in potentially suitable habitat, including the urbanizing Houston area. We use spatial geostatistics to quantify wetland habitat fragmentation. We also introduce the Habitat Alteration Index (HAI), which calculates total landscape alteration and mean probability of occurrence to identify high-quality habitat most at risk of recent anthropogenic alteration. Population surveys by biologists are targeting these areas and future management actions may focus on mitigating anthropogenic activities there. While this study focuses on D. r. miaria, this approach can evaluate wetland habitat of other aquatic organisms.

  7. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  8. Integrating Recent Land Cover Mapping Efforts to Update the National Gap Analysis Program's Species Habitat Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerrow, A. J.; Davidson, A.; Earnhardt, T. S.; Benson, A. L.

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, great progress has been made to develop national extent land cover mapping products to address natural resource issues. One of the core products of the GAP Program is range-wide species distribution models for nearly 2000 terrestrial vertebrate species in the U.S. We rely on deductive modeling of habitat affinities using these products to create models of habitat availability. That approach requires that we have a thematically rich and ecologically meaningful map legend to support the modeling effort. In this work, we tested the integration of the Multi-Resolution Landscape Characterization Consortium's National Land Cover Database 2011 and LANDFIRE's Disturbance Products to update the 2001 National GAP Vegetation Dataset to reflect 2011 conditions. The revised product can then be used to update the species models. We tested the update approach in three geographic areas (Northeast, Southeast, and Interior Northwest). We used the NLCD product to identify areas where the cover type mapped in 2011 was different from what was in the 2001 land cover map. We used Google Earth and ArcGIS base maps as reference imagery in order to label areas identified as "changed" to the appropriate class from our map legend. Areas mapped as urban or water in the 2011 NLCD map that were mapped differently in the 2001 GAP map were accepted without further validation and recoded to the corresponding GAP class. We used LANDFIRE's Disturbance products to identify changes that are the result of recent disturbance and to inform the reassignment of areas to their updated thematic label. We ran species habitat models for three species including Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) and the White-tailed Jack Rabbit (Lepus townsendii) and Brown Headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). For each of three vertebrate species we found important differences in the amount and location of suitable habitat between the 2001 and 2011 habitat maps. Specifically, Brown headed nuthatch habitat in

  9. Fetal programming alters reactive oxygen species production in sheep cardiac mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergen, Nicholas H; Koppenhafer, Stacia L; Spitz, Douglas R; Volk, Kenneth A; Patel, Sonali S; Roghair, Robert D; Lamb, Fred S; Segar, Jeffrey L; Scholz, Thomas D

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment is recognized as an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease later in life. Although oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism for the fetal programming phenotype, the role of mitochondrial O(2)(*-) (superoxide radical) production has not been explored. To determine whether mitochondrial ROS (reactive oxygen species) production is altered by in utero programming, pregnant ewes were given a 48-h dexamethasone (dexamethasone-exposed, 0.28 mg.kg(-1) of body weight.day(-1)) or saline (control) infusion at 27-28 days gestation (term=145 days). Intact left ventricular mitochondria and freeze-thaw mitochondrial membranes were studied from offspring at 4-months of age. AmplexRed was used to measure H(2)O(2) production. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase) and catalase were measured. Compared with controls, a significant increase in Complex I H(2)O(2) production was found in intact mitochondria from dexamethasone-exposed animals. The treatment differences in Complex I-driven H(2)O(2) production were not seen in mitochondrial membranes. Consistent changes in H(2)O(2) production from Complex III in programmed animals were not found. Despite the increase in H(2)O(2) production in intact mitochondria from programmed animals, dexamethasone exposure significantly increased mitochondrial catalase activity, whereas Mn-SOD and GPx activities were unchanged. The results of the present study point to an increase in the rate of release of H(2)O(2) from programmed mitochondria despite an increase in catalase activity. Greater mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release into the cell may play a role in the development of adult disease following exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment.

  10. Fish and Aquatic Habitat Survey: Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To address the need for baseline inventories of biota and abiotic features, the Columbia River Fisheries Program Office (CRFPO) conducted fish and aquatic habitat...

  11. Incentive structure of and private landowner participation in an endangered species conservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Haider, Wolfgang; Conner, J Richard; Ditton, Robert B

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, voluntary incentive programs that aid conservation of plant and wildlife species on private lands provide a structural solution to the problem of protecting endangered species by reducing costs and enhancing benefits to landowners. We explored the potential for incentives to encourage landowners to manage land cover for the benefit of endangered songbirds in central Texas (U.S.A.) by asking landowners to indicate their preferences for financial incentives, technical assistance, and regulatory assurances. We identified owners of potential songbird habitat and collected data in face-to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires. We used a latent-class stated-choice model to identify 3 classes of landowners whose choices varied on the basis of their attitudes and perceived social norms: (1) strong positive attitude, perceived social pressure to participate, and willing to participate with relatively few incentives, (2) weak positive attitude, perceived no social pressure to participate, and required strongest incentives, and (3) negative attitude, perceived social pressure not to enroll, and unwilling to participate regardless of incentive structure. Given this heterogeneity in preferences, conservation incentives may increase management of land cover to benefit endangered species on private lands to some degree; however, exclusive reliance on incentives may be insufficient. Promoting conservation on private lands may be enhanced by integrating incentives into an approach that incorporates other strategies for conservation, including social networks and collaborative processes that reinforce social norms.

  12. Aquatic indicator organisms as a tool to monitor discharges from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outola, Iisa; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka; Klemola, Seppo [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant units in Finland at two separate locations. The units started operation during 1977-1980. The surveillance of radioactive substances in the vicinities of the nuclear power plant is carried out under the permanent monitoring programs. Some 1000 samples are taken annually from the surroundings of the power plants to confirm that the discharges from the power plants are within permissible release limits and to monitor the dispersion of discharges in the environment. Aquatic indicator organisms (macro-algae, periphyton, mussels, crustacean, submerged aquatic plants) are included in the monitoring program. The indicator organisms are valuable monitoring objects both in normal and emergency situations because they accumulate effectively and often very rapidly radioactive substances from the medium. Six different species (Periphyton, Fucus vesiculosus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saduria entomon, Macoma Baltica/Mytilus edulis) are collected regularly. Number of sampling location for each species varies from 1 to 7. Some species are collected continuously, some 1-2 times in a year. In this study we have evaluated the monitoring results for the aquatic indicator organisms for the period of 2005-2010 concerning concentration of discharge nuclides. Our aim was to answer the following questions using the monitoring data from aquatic organisms: 1) Which radionuclides are released to the marine environment and how often do we detect them? 2) How far from the nuclear power plants discharge radionuclides are detected? 3) How concentration of discharge radionuclides has changed with time in aquatic organisms? The number of discharge nuclides detected in the aquatic indicator samples was 11. Most of them were only detected in few samples, but {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 110m}Ag were detected more frequently. Most of the observations above detection limits were made within the 5 km distance from the

  13. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  14. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  15. ZOONOSIS OF AQUATICAL ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Kurtović

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic organisms play a very important role in human nutrition. They also pose a real threat for human health by causing various diseases. Parasites, bacteria and viruses may either directly or indirectly be carried from aquatic organisms to humans. Disease outbreaks are influenced by many factors among which decreased immune response and feeding habits and higyene are most important. More frequent occuence of foodborne diseases has a number of reasons, including international travel and trade, microbial adaptation and changes in the food production system. Parasitic diseases occur most frequently as a result of human role in parasites life cycles. The prevalence is further increased by consuming raw fish and shellfish. The main feature of bacterial infections is facultative pathogenicity of most ethiological agents. In most cases disease occures as a result of decreased immunoreactivity. Several bacteria are, however, hightly pathogenic and capable of causing high morbidity and mortality in human. To date it has not been reported the case of human infection with viruses specific for aquatic organisms. Human infections are caused with human viruses and aquatic organisms play role only as vechicles. The greatest risk in that respect present shellfish. Fish and particularly shellfish are likely to cause food poisoning in humans. In most cases the cause are toxins of phithoplancton origins accumulating in shellfish and fish.

  16. Assessing Aquatic Ecological Risk of Aniline by Species Sensitivity Distributions%应用物种敏感性分布评估苯胺的水生生态风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡习邦; 曾东; 王俊能; 贺德春; 许振成

    2016-01-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) method was used to assess the ecological risk of aniline for freshwater organisms. The hazardous concentration for 5% of the species (HC5) was calculated, and the distinguished character of hazardous concentrations of aniline to different species was analyzed. The acute ecological risks of the aniline and the sensitivity of different freshwater species were assessed in the different surface water body in China, including environmental accident water. The results showed that different organisms have different tolerance range of aniline. That was in the order of Molluscas < Arthropod < Algae < Crustacean < Amphibia < Worms < Fishes < Ciliophora < Annelida. The wider tolerance range of aniline for organisms indicated that the increasing trend of ecological risk would slow down when the aniline’s concentration increased. The HC5 for all the species from low to high was in the order of Crustacean < Worms < Fishes < Molluscas < Arthropod < Algae < Amphibia < Ciliophora < Algae < Annelida < Arthropod < Molluscas < Amphibia. The lower HC5 is, the higher ecological risk of aniline for species is. Crustacean was the most sensitive specie among all the freshwater species with the HC5 of 2.29μg·L-1. Meanwhile, the HC5 for all of the freshwater species came up to 4.72μg·L-1. The value of Potential affected fraction (PAF) reflected the different damage degree in different pollution scenario. There was very low aquatic ecological riskby using SSD to assess the acute ecological risk assessment of aniline from several surface water body in China, which the PAF value was close to 0. It was obviously posed ecological damage to crustacean and worms during the aniline spilling accident in Shanxi Province.%应用物种敏感性分布(Species Sensitivity Distribution,SSD)方法构建了淡水生物对苯胺(Aniline)的敏感性分布曲线,计算了苯胺对不同生物的5%危害浓度(HC5),分析比较不同类别生物

  17. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  18. The involvement of metallothionein in the development of aquatic invertebrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan; Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-04-15

    The many documents on metallothioneins (MTs) in aquatic organisms focus especially on their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs, but there are a few papers that summarize the physiological role of MTs in aquatic organisms especially in their development. The multifaceted role of MTs include involvement in homeostasis, protection against heavy metals and oxidant damage, metabolic regulation, sequestration and/or redox control. MTs could be induced by heavy metals which are able to hinder gametogenesis, suppress embryogenesis, and hamper development. Here we pay more attention on the non-essential metal cadmium, which is the most studied heavy metal regarding MTs, and its effects on the development of aquatic invertebrates. In this paper, we have collected published information on MTs in aquatic organisms - mollusks, crustaceans, etc., and summarize its functions in aquatic invertebrates, especially those related to their development.

  19. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-31

    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals.

  20. Aquatic macrophyte community varies in urban reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Cristina Alves da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Investigate spatial and temporal variation in the aquatic macrophyte community in four urban reservoirs located in Curitiba metropolitan region, Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic macrophyte community differ among reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication. METHODS: The reservoirs selected ranged from oligotrophic/mesotrophic to eutrophic. Sampling occurred in October 2011, January 2012 and June 2012. Twelve aquatic macrophytes stands were sampled at each reservoir. Species were identified and the relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes was estimated. Differences among reservoirs and over sampling periods were analyzed: i through two‑way ANOVAs considering the stand extent (m and the stand biodiversity - species richness, evenness, Shannon-Wiener index and beta diversity (species variation along the aquatic macrophyte stand; and ii through PERMANOVA considering species composition. Indicator species that were characteristic for each reservoir were also identified. RESULTS: The aquatic macrophyte stand extent varied among reservoirs and over sampling periods. Species richness showed only temporal variation. On the other hand, evenness and Shannon-Wiener index varied only among reservoirs. The beta diversity of macrophyte stands did not vary among reservoirs or over time, meaning that species variability among aquatic macrophyte stands was independent of the stand extent and reservoir eutrophication. Community composition depended on the reservoir and sampling period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our initial expectation that reservoirs of different degrees of eutrophication have different aquatic macrophyte communities. As a consequence, each reservoir had particular indicator species. Therefore, monitoring and management efforts must be offered for each reservoir individually.

  1. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  2. Aquatic therapy: scientific foundations and clinical rehabilitation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Bruce E

    2009-09-01

    The aquatic environment has broad rehabilitative potential, extending from the treatment of acute injuries through health maintenance in the face of chronic diseases, yet it remains an underused modality. There is an extensive research base supporting aquatic therapy, both within the basic science literature and clinical literature. This article describes the many physiologic changes that occur during immersion as applied to a range of common rehabilitative issues and problems. Because of its wide margin of therapeutic safety and clinical adaptability, aquatic therapy is a very useful tool in the rehabilitative toolbox. Through a better understanding of the applied physiology, the practitioner may structure appropriate therapeutic programs for a diverse patient population.

  3. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Aquatic exercise and lower-extremity function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, M C; Nicholson, C; Binder, H; White, P H

    1991-06-01

    This pilot study investigates the effects of aquatic therapeutic exercise on lower-extremity range of motion, gait, balance, and functional mobility in children with juvenile arthritis. Eleven patients, aged 4-13, with lower-extremity joint involvement, diagnosed as functional class I-III, completed a 6-week program of aquatic exercise aimed at increasing lower-extremity range of motion and strength. Despite the small sample size and short duration of the study program, significant improvement was noted in external and internal hip rotation, bilaterally (p Aquatic exercises performed in a group setting can serve as an enjoyable and beneficial part of therapy for children with arthritis. Further investigation is recommended to determine fully the effects of aquatic therapeutic exercise on mobility and fitness in children with juvenile arthritis.

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (25th) Held in Orlando, Florida on 26-30 November 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Myriophyllum biologia 174:225-234. spicatum L. in Devil’s Lake, Wisconsin. Barko, J. W., D. Gunnison, and S. R. Carpenter. J. Freshwater Ecol. (in press...mechanisms of specificity at both the organis- pears to be the same in seedpods as it is in mic and molecular levels, stems and leaves. No detectable...lectin haptenic speci- WES research focused on mechanisms of ficity, our next objective was to evaluate the specificity at the molecular level

  5. Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Keniam River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdi, Z.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study on biodiversity of aquatic insects was carried out covering the area of Kuala Keniam to Kuala Perkai River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia. The macro invertebrate community was found in the different types of micro-habitat and various flowing speed levels in good quality of water of Keniam Rivers consisted mainly of aquatic insects. There are large numbers and wide species of aquatic insects in aquatic habitats make them of great ecological importance. There are three divided strata with total of nine sampling location were carried out within several varieties of microhabitats such as sandy, cobble, gravel, leaf and the pool area. The aquatic insects were collected and sampled by using a D-framed aquatic kick net. There was a wide variety of aquatic insects belonging to at least 8 orders in the study area. The orders of insect were Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Thysanura, Orthopthera, Hemiptera and Ephemeroptera. Throughout the study period, there is range from total of 140 to 604 individuals of aquatic insect trapped monthly and collected in Keniam River from September 2009 to December 2010. Some group of aquatic insects were found significant (χ2<0.05 different abundance between strata and sampling dates as well as habitat on the diversity of aquatic insects in Keniam River. The abundance and distribution of aquatic insects‟ species were varied and not constant from one month to another during the study period due to biotic and abiotic factors. Species diversity of aquatic insects varied in different strata of the Keniam River. This indicates the richness and diverse groups of aquatic insects in the study area. It adds to the fact that the undisturbed habitat quality is most suitable for insects to breed and multiply under the natural ecosystem with abundant food supply. Moving upstream from Kuala Perkai to lower stream to Kuala Keniam, one can observe various types of habitats for aquatic insects to live.

  6. Assessing landscape constraints on species abundance: does the neighborhood limit species response to local habitat conservation programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Jorgensen

    Full Text Available Landscapes in agricultural systems continue to undergo significant change, and the loss of biodiversity is an ever-increasing threat. Although habitat restoration is beneficial, management actions do not always result in the desired outcome. Managers must understand why management actions fail; yet, past studies have focused on assessing habitat attributes at a single spatial scale, and often fail to consider the importance of ecological mechanisms that act across spatial scales. We located survey sites across southern Nebraska, USA and conducted point counts to estimate Ring-necked Pheasant abundance, an economically important species to the region, while simultaneously quantifying landscape effects using a geographic information system. To identify suitable areas for allocating limited management resources, we assessed land cover relationships to our counts using a Bayesian binomial-Poisson hierarchical model to construct predictive Species Distribution Models of relative abundance. Our results indicated that landscape scale land cover variables severely constrained or, alternatively, facilitated the positive effects of local land management for Ring-necked Pheasants.

  7. Early Pleistocene aquatic resource use in the Turkana Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Will; Braun, David R; Harris, Jack W K; McCoy, Jack T; Richmond, Brian G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for the acquisition of nutritionally dense food resources by early Pleistocene hominins has implications for both hominin biology and behavior. Aquatic fauna may have comprised a source of highly nutritious resources to hominins in the Turkana Basin at ∼1.95 Ma. Here we employ multiple datasets to examine the issue of aquatic resource use in the early Pleistocene. This study focuses on four components of aquatic faunal assemblages (1) taxonomic diversity, (2) skeletal element proportion, (3) bone fragmentation and (4) bone surface modification. These components are used to identify associations between early Pleistocene aquatic remains and hominin behavior at the site of FwJj20 in the Koobi Fora Fm. (Kenya). We focus on two dominant aquatic species: catfish and turtles. Further we suggest that data on aquatic resource availability as well as ethnographic examples of aquatic resource use complement our observations on the archaeological remains from FwJj20. Aquatic food items provided hominins with a valuable nutritional alternative to an exclusively terrestrial resource base. We argue that specific advantages afforded by an aquatic alternative to terrestrial resources include (1) a probable reduction in required investment of energy relative to economic return in the form of nutritionally dense food items, (2) a decrease in the technological costs of resource acquisition, and (3) a reduced level of inter-specific competition associated with carcass access and an associated reduction of predation risk relative to terrestrial sources of food. The combined evidence from FwJj20 suggests that aquatic resources may have played a substantial role in early Pleistocene diets and these resources may have been overlooked in previous interpretations of hominin behavior.

  8. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. The Herpetofauna of Lake Conway: Species Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    biomass (3.3% and 7.3%, respectively). Four individual animal prey, including an oligochaete, a naiad of an odonate , a tricopteran, and a lepidoptera, also...grass shrimp, and odonate naiads (Godley 1980). Females probably mature in two years and produce from two to 34 young. Thamnophis sauritus (Peninsula

  9. Aquatic therapy for patients with rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, R L

    1990-11-01

    Aquatic therapy is justifiably a rapidly expanding, beneficial form of patient treatment. The goals established at the initial and subsequent evaluations usually are met as quickly and as sensibly as possible. Understanding the theory of water techniques is essential in implementing an aquatic therapy program. The success of the program, however, will always depend on the pleasure and benefits achieved by the patients. Remember, rheumatic patients most likely will need to modify their previous daily functioning. Patients need to be aware of the long-term ramifications of the disease process and understand how treatment and care may be altered during various stages of exacerbation and remission. Patient education is critical in ensuring individual responsibility for the changes that must be made when not supervised by a professional. Aquatic therapy is a step in molding a positive lifestyle change for the patient. The patient can be encouraged to be fitness oriented and, at the same time, exercise in a manner that is safe, effective, and biomechanically and physiologically sound. The environment, hopefully, also will be conductive to family and social interaction that ultimately encourages the compliance of long-term exercise programs.

  10. Algal Bloom in Aquatic Ecosystems-an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghorbani; S.A. Mirbagheri; A. H. Hasani; S. M. Monavari; J.Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Algae play an important role in all aquatic ecosystems by providing all living organisms of water bodies with preliminary nutrients and energy required. However, abnormal and excessive algal growth so-called algal bloom would be detrimental as much. Given the importance of algae in aquatic environment as well as their sensitivity to environmental changes, algal measurements are of key components of water quality monitoring programs. The algal blooms could include a variety of adverse impacts...

  11. SEAWAT: A Computer Program for Simulation of Variable-Density Groundwater Flow and Multi-Species Solute and Heat Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.

    2009-01-01

    SEAWAT is a MODFLOW-based computer program designed to simulate variable-density groundwater flow coupled with multi-species solute and heat transport. The program has been used for a wide variety of groundwater studies including saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers, aquifer storage and recovery in brackish limestone aquifers, and brine migration within continental aquifers. SEAWAT is relatively easy to apply because it uses the familiar MODFLOW structure. Thus, most commonly used pre- and post-processors can be used to create datasets and visualize results. SEAWAT is a public domain computer program distributed free of charge by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  12. Statistical Verification of Folk Medicinal Potentiality of Wild Dicot Aquatic Plants in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Al-Qura'n

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a floristic study of Jordan with its environs. The study was carried out during 2001-2003 and 287 aquatic dicot samples were collected and photographed in the field. After the identification of the specimens, the total wild aquatic dicot species have been determined as 87 species belonging to 59 genera and 33 plant families were presented in investigated Jordan sites. The endemism rate of the investigated area is 26.4% for the 23 species. The largest 3 families are Labiatae (9 aquatic species, Compositae (7 species and Salicaceae (7 species. The largest genera are Mentha (6 species, Polygonum (5 species and Salix (5 species. Similarities between the taxa and those of neighbouring regions performed were compared in this study. 63 aquatic dicot species (73.3% have therapeutic similarities with neighbouring countries, while the 24 remaining species (26.7% haven't such therapeutic similarity. Emerged species (living with close contact with water body were the most recorded, while amphibious, submerged and floating species were the least. The folk medicinal importance value of aquatic species recorded was identified according to Friedman et al. [1]. Twenty one species (24% have ROP values higher than 50 and therefore; have the highest popularity in folk medicinal potentiality. Twenty six species (29.9% have therapeutic effects informed by less than three informants and therefore; excluded from further consideration. Forty species (46.1% have ROP values less than 50 and therefore; considered nonpopular medicinal plants.

  13. Decomposition of aquatic plants in lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godshalk, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    This study was carried out to systematically determine the effects of temperature and oxygen concentration, two environmental parameters crucial to lake metabolism in general, on decomposition of five species of aquatic vascular plants of three growth forms in a Michigan lake. Samples of dried plant material were decomposed in flasks in the laboratory under three different oxygen regimes, aerobic-to-anaerobic, strict anaerobic, and aerated, each at 10/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C. In addition, in situ decomposition of the same species was monitored using the litter bag technique under four conditions.

  14. Aquatic Nuisance Sp[ecies Research Program. Ecological Impacts of Suckermouth Catfishes (Loricariidae) in North America: A Conceptual Model. Volume 14-1, March 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    discovery, depiction, and marketing of new forms. As a result, a system was established by the German aquarium magazine Die Aquarien und Terrarien...peninsular Malaysia including Singapore, Indonesia including Java and Sumatra (Page and Robins 2006), and Turkey (Özdilek 2007). The presumed...Gestring (KG) Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission + + + Missy Gibbs (MG) Stetson University + + Mike Gonzales (SARA) San Antonio River

  15. Dinâmica da composição e cobertura de espécies de macrófitas aquáticas e a escolha de indicadores de impacto ambiental em um rio com ecoturismo Composition and coverage dynamics of aquatic macrophytes species and the choose of environmental impact indicators in a river with ecotourism tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio dos Santos Junior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEstudos sobre ecologia de macrófitas aquáticas em ambiente natural no Brasil são relativamente escassos. Anualmente, um grande número de turistas é recebido para a prática da flutuação nas águas do rio Sucuri, Bonito, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (1 descrever a composição e a cobertura relativa das espécies de macrófitas aquáticas no Rio Sucuri, (2 investigar o padrão de desbaste das macrófitas aquáticas no decorrer do ano e (3 eleger espécies com potencial de serem indicadoras de impacto ambiental da atividade turística. Foi empregado o método do intercepto em linha modificado para amostrar a composição e cobertura relativa das espécies de macrófitas aquáticas. Foram identificadas dezessete espécies macrófitas aquáticas. Durante o estudo foram observadas variações na composição e cobertura relativa das espécies de macrófitas aquáticas. Gomphrena elegans Mart. foi a espécie dominante em termos de cobertura relativa. Duas espécies apresentaram as características consideradas importantes para a indicação de impactos da atividade turística, considerando os resultados de cobertura relativa, frequência e desbaste: Nymphaea gardneriana Planch. e Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell. Verdc. Assim, é sugerido que o monitoramento dos impactos do turismo sobre as macrófitas seja realizado na sua organização biológica populacional.AbstractEcologic studies around aquatic macrophytes in natural environment in Brazil are relatively scarce. Annually, many tourists have been received for floating practice on Sucuri river, in Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The aims of this research were: (1 describing the composition and the relative coverage of aquatic macrophytes in Sucuri river, (2 investigating the pattern of thinning of aquatic macrophytes during the year, and (3 electing species, such as indicators of environmental impact done by tourism. Intercept line method modified was

  16. Characterization factors for thermal pollution in freshwater aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Hanafiah, Marlia Mohd; Pfister, Stephan; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Pelletier, Gregory J; Koehler, Annette

    2010-12-15

    To date the impact of thermal emissions has not been addressed in life cycle assessment despite the narrow thermal tolerance of most aquatic species. A method to derive characterization factors for the impact of cooling water discharges on aquatic ecosystems was developed which uses space and time explicit integration of fate and effects of water temperature changes. The fate factor is calculated with a 1-dimensional steady-state model and reflects the residence time of heat emissions in the river. The effect factor specifies the loss of species diversity per unit of temperature increase and is based on a species sensitivity distribution of temperature tolerance intervals for various aquatic species. As an example, time explicit characterization factors were calculated for the cooling water discharge of a nuclear power plant in Switzerland, quantifying the impact on aquatic ecosystems of the rivers Aare and Rhine. The relative importance of the impact of these cooling water discharges was compared with other impacts in life cycle assessment. We found that thermal emissions are relevant for aquatic ecosystems compared to other stressors, such as chemicals and nutrients. For the case of nuclear electricity investigated, thermal emissions contribute between 3% and over 90% to Ecosystem Quality damage.

  17. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  18. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... management. Marineecosystems aims at understanding the mechanisms that govern the interaction between individuals,species and populations in an ecosystem enabling us to determine the stability and flexibility of theecosystem.Marine living resources looks at the sustainable utilization of fish and shellfish...... stocks.Ecosystem effects expands from the ecosystem approach to fisheries management to an integratedapproach where other human activities are taken into consideration. Fisheries management developsmethods, models and tools for predicting and evaluating the effects of management measures andregulations...

  19. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  20. Estudo comparativo da dieta, hábitos alimentares e morfologia trófica de duas espécies simpátricas, de peixes de pequeno porte, associados à macrófitas aquáticas = Comparative study about diet, feeding habits and trophic morphology of two sympatric species of small fishes in association with aquatic macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Segatti Hahn

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nesse estudo foram avaliados aspectos da dieta e morfologia trófica de duas espécies simpátricas, uma de Cheirodontinae e uma de Aphyocharacinae, associadas a macrofitas aquáticas, em nove lagoas isoladas da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil, no ano de 2001. A análise da dieta mostrou que Aphyocharax anisitsi consumiupredominantemente microcrustáceos e Serrapinnus notomelas predominantemente algas. A morfologia do trato alimentar, incluindo boca, dentes, rastros branquiais e estômago, apresentou, aparentemente, o mesmo padrão para as duas espécies. Entretanto, os dentes são mais robustos em S. notomelas. Houve interação significativa entre o comprimento padrão (F2,215 = 74,89; pIn this study we analyzed the diet and trophic morphology of two species, one of Cheirodontinae and one of Aphyocharacinae, associated with aquatic macrophytes in nine isolated lagoons of the Paraná river floodplain, Brazil, during 2001. Diet showed that Aphyocharax anisitsi feed mainly on microcrustaceans and Serrapinnus notomelas feed mainly on algae. Trophic morphology, including mouth, tooth, gill rakers and stomach showed apparently the same pattern for the two species. However, teeth are the biggest and the hardest in S. notomelas. Regarding intestine length there was significant interaction between standard length (F2.215 = 74.89; p<0.0001 and the species (F1.215 = 4.72; p<0.0001. Higher mean of intestine length was verified in S. notomelas and a smaller mean in A. anisitsi. Based on dates of diet and morphology, it is possible to conclude that there are trophic segregation between the two species. Thus, the co-existence of these species is possible in function ofthe wide food supply given by aquatic macrophytes.

  1. Wetland Reserve Program enhances site occupancy and species richness in assemblages of anuran amphibians in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    We measured amphibian habitat use to quantify the effectiveness of conservation practices implemented under the Wetland Reserve Program (WRP), an initiative of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service. From February to June 2007, we quantified calling male anurans in cultivated cropland, former cultivated cropland restored through the WRP, and mature bottomland hardwood forest. Sites were located in two watersheds within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Arkansas and Louisiana, USA. We estimated detection probability and site occupancy within each land use category using a Bayesian hierarchical model of community species occurrence, and derived an estimate of species richness at each site. Relative to sites in cultivated cropland, nine of 1 l species detected were significantly more likely to occur at WRP sites and six were more likely to occur at forested sites. Species richness estimates were also higher for WRP and forested sites, compared to those in cultivated cropland. Almost half (45 %) of the species responded positively to both WRP and forested sites, indicating that patches undergoing restoration may be important transitional habitats. Wetland Reserve Program conservation practices are successful in restoring suitable habitat and reducing the impact of cultivation-induced habitat loss on amphibians in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.

  2. Enhancing the effectiveness of biological control programs of invasive species through a more comprehensive pest management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Nowierski, Robert M; Vollmer, Jennifer L; Lane, Eric; Chilton, Earl; Burch, Patrick L; Cowan, Phil E; Zimmerman, Kenneth; Dionigi, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest economic and ecological threats to agriculture and natural areas in the US and the world. Among the available management tools, biological control provides one of the most economical and long-term effective strategies for managing widespread and damaging invasive species populations of nearly all taxa. However, integrating biological control programs in a more complete integrated pest management approach that utilizes increased information and communication, post-release monitoring, adaptive management practices, long-term stewardship strategies, and new and innovative ecological and genetic technologies can greatly improve the effectiveness of biological control. In addition, expanding partnerships among relevant national, regional, and local agencies, as well as academic scientists and land managers, offers far greater opportunities for long-term success in the suppression of established invasive species. In this paper we direct our recommendations to federal agencies that oversee, fund, conduct research, and develop classical biological control programs for invasive species. By incorporating these recommendations into adaptive management strategies, private and public land managers will have far greater opportunities for long-term success in suppression of established invasive species. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Using the Maxent program for species distribution modelling to assess invasion risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E.; Venette, R.C

    2015-01-01

    MAXENT is a software package used to relate known species occurrences to information describing the environment, such as climate, topography, anthropogenic features or soil data, and forecast the presence or absence of a species at unsampled locations. This particular method is one of the most popular species distribution modelling techniques because of its consistent strong predictive performance and its ease to implement. This chapter discusses the decisions and techniques needed to prepare a correlative climate matching model for the native range of an invasive alien species and use this model to predict the potential distribution of this species in a potentially invaded range (i.e. a novel environment) by using MAXENT for the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) as a case study. The chapter discusses and demonstrates the challenges that are associated with this approach and examines the inherent limitations that come with using MAXENT to forecast distributions of invasive alien species.

  4. SERI biomass program annual technical report: 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, P.W.; Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  5. Forestry practices and aquatic biodiversity: Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, fish communities are found in a diverse array of aquatic habitats ranging from the large coastal rivers of the temperate rainforests, to the fragmented and sometimes ephemeral streams of the xeric interior basins, and high-elevation streams and lakes in the mountainous areas (Rieman et al. 2003). Only high-elevation lakes and streams isolated above barriers to fish passage remained historically devoid of fish because they were never invaded following Pleistocene glaciation (Smith 1981). Despite this widespread distribution and once great population abundances, taxonomic diversity of fishes in these forested systems is naturally lower than in aquatic habitats in the eastern U.S. (Reeves, Bisson, and Dambacher 1998). Interactions among factors that influence species richness in aquatic systems (e.g., basin size, long-term stability of habitat, and barriers to colonization; Smith 1981) continue to influence the occurrence and persistence of fishes in these systems today. Consequently, the larger low-elevation rivers and estuaries support the greatest variety of fish species. In the high-elevation tributary streams, fish communities are less complex because these aquatic systems were less climatically and geologically stable, and fish populations were smaller and more prone to local extirpation. Furthermore, barriers to fish passage inhibited dispersal and colonization (Smith 1981). Streams in forested landscapes generally support salmon and trout, Oncorhynchus spp., whitefish Prosopium spp., sculpins Cottus spp., suckers Catostomus spp., and minnows (Cyprinidae), but in some of the colder streams, chars (e.g., Salvelinus confluentus and Salvelinus malma) and lampreys (Petromyzontidae)may also occur (Rieman et al. 2003).Although biodiversity defined in terms of fish species richness is low in the Pacific Northwest, intraspecific variability is high, and polytypic fish species are common in the diverse aquatic habitats of the region. For

  6. Efficacy of trap modifications for increasing capture rates of aquatic snakes in floating aquatic funnel traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing detection and capture probabilities of rare or elusive herpetofauna of conservation concern is important to inform the scientific basis for their management and recovery. The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is an example of a secretive, wary, and generally difficult-to-sample species about which little is known regarding its patterns of occurrence and demography. We therefore evaluated modifications to existing traps to increase the detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake to improve the precision with which occurrence, abundance, survival, and other demographic parameters are estimated. We found that adding a one-way valve constructed of cable ties to the small funnel opening of traps and adding hardware cloth extensions to the wide end of funnels increased capture rates of the Giant Gartersnake by 5.55 times (95% credible interval = 2.45–10.51) relative to unmodified traps. The effectiveness of these modifications was insensitive to the aquatic habitat type in which they were deployed. The snout-vent length of the smallest and largest captured snakes did not vary among trap modifications. These trap modifications are expected to increase detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake, and show promise for increasing the precision with which demographic parameters can be estimated for this species. We anticipate that the trap modifications found effective in this study will be applicable to a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles and amphibians and improve conservation efforts for these species.

  7. The Distribution of Submersed Aquatic Vegetation in the Fresh and Oligohaline Tidal Potomac River, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Nancy B.; Justiniano-Velez, Erika M.; Schenk, Edward R.; Baldizar, Julie M.; Hunter, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) is a critical component of the Potomac River ecosystem. Though SAV provides important habitat for fauna and stabilizes bottom sediment, very dense beds may restrict recreational and commercial navigation. Exotic species of SAV are managed by the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments Potomac Aquatic Plant Management Program (PAPMP). Selected beds of primarily exotic SAV species that limit navigation are harvested mechanically. The program began in 1986 when approximately 40 acres of plants were harvested from 18 sites (Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments 1987). Monitoring efforts are an effective means of quantifying the distribution and abundance of the exotic species, Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) and other SAV species. These annual surveys provide a basis for identifying large-scale changes and trends throughout the ecosystem and allow managers to evaluate the effectiveness of resource management policies based on a reliable scientific foundation (Rybicki and Landwehr, 2007). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored the distribution and composition of SAV beds in the fresh and oligohaline (salinity 0.5 to 5) tidal Potomac River since 1978 using transect sampling (1978 to 1981, 1985 to 1987, and 2002) and shoreline surveys (1983 to 2005). The Government of the District of Columbia has monitored the portion of the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers within Washington DC since 1998 (Rottman, 1999; Ryan, 2005, 2006). The species of SAV observed in beds in the tidal Potomac River are incorporated into the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) annual report on SAV distribution in Chesapeake Bay. The VIMS report and methods are available at http://www.vims.edu/bio/sav (Orth et al., 2006). Additional publications concerning SAV distribution in the Potomac River can be found at http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/proj.bib/sav/wethome.htm.

  8. Comparative sodium transport patterns provide clues for understanding salinity and metal responses in aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibener, S A; Richardi, V S; Buchwalter, D B

    2016-02-01

    The importance of insects in freshwater ecosystems has led to their extensive use in ecological monitoring programs. As freshwater systems are increasingly challenged by salinization and metal contamination, it is important to understand fundamental aspects of aquatic insect physiology (e.g., osmoregulatory processes) that contribute to insect responses to these stressors. Here we compared the uptake dynamics of Na as NaCl, NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 in the caddisfly Hydropsyche betteni across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) encompassing the vast majority of North American freshwater ecosystems. Sulfate as the major anion resulted in decreased Na uptake rates relative to the chloride and bicarbonate salts. A comparison of Na (as NaHCO3) turnover rates in the caddisfly Hydropsyche sparna and the mayfly Maccaffertium sp. revealed different patterns in the 2 species. Both species appeared to tightly regulate their whole body sodium concentrations (at ∼47±1.8 μmol/g wet wt) across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) over 7 days. However, at the highest Na concentration (15.22 mM), Na uptake rates in H. sparna (419.1 μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) appeared close to saturation while Na uptake rates in Maccaffertium sp. were considerably faster (715 g μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) and appeared to not be close to saturation. Na efflux studies in H. sparna revealed that loss rates are commensurate with uptake rates and are responsive to changes in water Na concentrations. A comparison of Na uptake rates (at 0.57 mM Na) across 9 species representing 4 major orders (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Diptera) demonstrated profound physiological differences across species after accounting for the influence of body weight. Faster Na uptake rates were associated with species described as being sensitive to salinization in field studies. The metals silver (Ag) and copper (Cu), known to be antagonistic to Na uptake in other aquatic taxa did not generally

  9. Invasive ornamental fish: a potential threat to aquatic biodiversity in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.M. Knight

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alien fish find their way into newer habitats and ecosystems opportunistically. Once in a new habitat, these species try to occupy empty niches and compete with native species. An alien species becomes invasive wherever it has a competetive advantage over native species. Ecology of aquatic invasive alien species is rather poorly understood as most attention has been on invertebrates as that which spread through ballast water. Invasive alien species of fish that have taken advantage of the aquarium trade are emerging as the most important threats to fragile aquatic habitats. Regulations to this trade are rather weak and there is a general lack of data on the ecological impact of alien fish species despite the fact that a third of the world’s worst aquatic invasive species are aquarium or ornamental species.

  10. Role of an Aquatic and Non Aquatic Environment on Trunk Muscle Activation

    OpenAIRE

    VandenBerg, Jeanne P.

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a widespread problem affecting a number of people. Traditionally treated by nonoperative approaches the recent development of water currents and treadmills imbedded into pools has spurred physical therapists and athletic trainers to incorporate the use of aquatic therapy into their rehabilitation programs. OBJECTIVE: Determine if select trunk muscle activity levels are different in water-based exercises compared to land-based exercises. METHODS: 11 healthy male particip...

  11. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  12. An unusual case of seed dispersal in an invasive aquatic; yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding reproductive mode of invasive plants can help managers plan more efficacious control. Invasive aquatics typically reproduce primarily through vegetative means. Yellow flag iris is an invasive plant species often growing as an emergent aquatic. There have been contradictory reports of i...

  13. Aquatic ecotoxicological indicators in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, David W.; Payet, Jerome; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    , implicitly as well as explicitly, to species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). This draws on recent insights for chemical mixtures and identifies the implications of different model choices. In spite of the many options, assumptions, and areas for further research, it is concluded that a single effect factor...... basis represents the best available practice for use in LCA at this time, ƒ´PAFms/ƒ´C = 0.5/HC50; where ƒ´PAFms is the change in the (Potentially Affected) Fraction (PAF) of species that experiences an Increase in exposure above a specified effect level, accounting for the presence of complex background...... mixtures (ms), ƒ´C is the change in cumulative exposure concentration of the chemical of interest, and HC50 is the median, chronic Hazardous Concentration for regional, multiple species systems. The resultant aquatic effect factors are risk-based and can be readily estimated for many chemicals using...

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Distribution Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP distribution models represent the areas where species are predicted to occur based on habitat associations. GAP distribution models are the spatial arrangement...

  15. Patterns of the aquatic macrophyte cover in Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir (GO-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M Bini

    Full Text Available The relationship between the aquatic macrophyte cover in upper segments of tributaries and this cover in these tributaries but near the reservoir's main body was tested. Sixteen taxa belonging to 12 families of aquatic macrophytes were recorded in Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir. The most frequent species were Eichhornia azurea (frequency of occurrence = 92%; n = 37 sites and E. crassipes (44%. Upper segments of the tributaries were the main areas colonized by these aquatic macrophytes. The positive relationship between the aquatic macrophyte cover between the upper and lower segments of tributaries indicates the importance of dispersion in the colonization of the arms and the reservoir's main body.

  16. Patterns of the aquatic macrophyte cover in Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir (GO-MG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, L M; Oliveira, L G; Souza, D C; Carvalho, P; Pinto, M P

    2005-02-01

    The relationship between the aquatic macrophyte cover in upper segments of tributaries and this cover in these tributaries but near the reservoir's main body was tested. Sixteen taxa belonging to 12 families of aquatic macrophytes were recorded in Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir. The most frequent species were Eichhornia azurea (frequency of occurrence=92%; n=37 sites) and E. crassipes (44%). Upper segments of the tributaries were the main areas colonized by these aquatic macrophytes. The positive relationship between the aquatic macrophyte cover between the upper and lower segments of tributaries indicates the importance of dispersion in the colonization of the arms and the reservoir's main body.

  17. Aquatic toxicity of the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michaela; Weiss, Klaus; Maletzki, Dirk; Schüssler, Walter; Schudoma, Dieter; Kopf, Willi; Kühnen, Ute

    2015-02-01

    The human macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin is widespread in surface waters. Our study shows that its major metabolite 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin is found in surface waters in comparable amounts. This metabolite is known to be pharmacologically active. Additionally, clarithromycin is partly metabolised to N-desmethyl-clarithromycin, which has no antimicrobial activity. For clarithromycin, some ecotoxicological studies on aquatic organisms have been published. However, many of them are not conform with the scientific principles as given in the "Technical guidance for deriving environmental quality standards" (TGD-EQS), because numerous studies were poorly documented and the methods did not contain analytical measurements confirming that the exposure concentrations were in the range of ± 20% of the nominal concentrations. Ecotoxicological effects of clarithromycin and its two metabolites on the zebrafish Danio rerio (embryo test), the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the aquatic monocotyledonous macrophyte Lemna minor, the freshwater green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus (Chlorophyta) and the cyanobacterium Anabaena flosaquae were investigated in compliance with the TGD-EQS. Environmental risk assessment was performed using ErC10 values of Anabaena, the species most sensitive to clarithromycin and 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin in our testing. Based oncomparable toxicity and similar concentrations of clarithromycin and its active metabolite 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin in surface waters, an additional multiplication factor of 2 to the assessment factor of 10 on the ErC10 of clarithromycin should be used. Consequently, a freshwater quality standard of 0.130 μg L(-1) is proposed for clarithromycin as the "lead substance". Taking this additional multiplication factor of 2 into account, single monitoring of clarithromycin may be sufficient, in order to reduce the number of substances listed for routine monitoring programs.

  18. The digital database of aquatic and semiaquatic vegetation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Dušanka Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the absence of a centralized national phytocoenological database of Serbia, over 16,000 relevés of all vegetation types have been gathered and stored in the database “Phytocoenosis of Serbia” as a result of the Project “Habitats of Serbia”. However, as the data on aquatic and semiaquatic vegetation comprise only 5% of the collected relevés, the aim of this paper is to expand on this, complete the database and present the data on these vegetation types in Serbia. The work included the expansion of the existing database with the addition of relevant sources, their digitalization, using Flora and Turboveg programs, and their subsequent georeferencing, using OziExplorer and DIVAGIS softwares. Consequently, the phytocoenological database on aquatic and semiaquatic vegetation in Serbia now stores 1,720 relevés from 243 phytocoenological tables, collected and published by 24 authors during the period of 70 years (1940-2010, with the majority of the relevés collected over the last decade (56.40%. Phragmito-Magno-Caricetea Klika in Klika et Novák 1941 (Syn: Phragmitetea communis R. Tx. et Prsg. 1942, Potametea Klika in Klika et Novák 1941 (Syn: Potametea R. Tx. et Preising 1942 and Lemnetea de Bolós et Masclans 1955 (Syn: Lemnetea minoris W. Koch et R. Tx. 1955 have proven to be the most represented classes, while Scirpo-Phragmitetum W. Koch 1926 (nomen ambiguum and Salvinio natantis-Spirodeletum polyrrhizae Slavnić 1956 are associations with the highest number of relevés in the database. Accordingly, the most common species (>500 relevés are Ceratophyllum demersum L. subsp. demersum, Lemna minor L. and Spirodela polyrhiza (L. Schleiden.

  19. The Wetland and Aquatic Research Center strategic science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-02-02

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wetland and Aquatic Research Center (WARC) has two primary locations (Gainesville, Florida, and Lafayette, Louisiana) and field stations throughout the southeastern United States and Caribbean. WARC’s roots are in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and National Park Service research units that were brought into the USGS as the Biological Research Division in 1996. Founded in 2015, WARC was created from the merger of two long-standing USGS biology science Centers—the Southeast Ecological Science Center and the National Wetlands Research Center—to bring together expertise in biology, ecology, landscape science, geospatial applications, and decision support in order to address issues nationally and internationally. WARC scientists apply their expertise to a variety of wetland and aquatic research and monitoring issues that require coordinated, integrated efforts to better understand natural environments. By increasing basic understanding of the biology of important species and broader ecological and physiological processes, this research provides information to policymakers and aids managers in their stewardship of natural resources and in regulatory functions.This strategic science plan (SSP) was developed to guide WARC research during the next 5–10 years in support of Department of the Interior (DOI) partnering bureaus such as the USFWS, the National Park Service, and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, as well as other Federal, State, and local natural resource management agencies. The SSP demonstrates the alignment of the WARC goals with the USGS mission areas, associated programs, and other DOI initiatives. The SSP is necessary for workforce planning and, as such, will be used as a guide for future needs for personnel. The SSP also will be instrumental in developing internal funding priorities and in promoting WARC’s capabilities to both external cooperators and other groups within the USGS.

  20. Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de [Solvay S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Boutonnet, J.C. [Elf Atochem, Levallois-Perret (France); Thompson, R.S. [Zeneca Ltd., Devon (United Kingdom). Brixham Environmental Lab.

    1999-05-01

    As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  1. Ecological risk assessment of hydropower dam construction on aquatic species in middle reaches of Lancang River, Southwest China based on ESHIPPO model%基于ESHIPPO模型的澜沧江中游大坝水生生物生态风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳; 彭明春; 董世魁; 刘世梁; 李晋鹏; 杨志峰

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish at 8 sampling sections in the Manwan Reservoir before and after the construction of Xiaowan Hydropower Dam. The modified ESHIPPO model was applied to study the changes of the featured aquatic species, including endangered species, endemic species, resource species, and native fish, aimed to make an ecological risk assessment of the dam construction on the aquatic species. The dam construction had definite ecological risk on the aquatic species, especially the endemic fish, in Lang-cang River, due to the changes of hydrological conditions. The endemic species including Bangia atropurpurea, Lemanea sinica, Prasiola sp. , Attheyella yunnanensis, and Neutrodiaptomus mariad-vigae were at high ecological risk, and thus, besides monitoring, protection measures were needed to be taken to lower the possibility of the species extinction. The widely distributed species of phytoplankton and zooplankton were at medium ecological risk, and protection measures besides monitoring should be prepared. Twelve kinds of native fish, including Barbodes huangchuchieni, Sinilabeo latkeps, Racoma lantsangensis, Racoma lissolabiatus, Paracobitis anguillioides, Schistura latifasci-ata, Botia nigrolineata, Vanmanenia striata, Homaloptera yunnanensis, Platytropius hngianlis, Glyptothorax zanaensis, and Pseudecheneis immaculate, were at high ecological risk, and protection measures needed to be developed to prevent the possibility of the species loss and extinction.%通过小湾大坝蓄水前后8个采样断面的浮游植物、浮游动物和鱼类的对比调查,筛选出适于ESHIPPO模型生态风险评价的广域属种、特有属种(稀有种、特有种、资源种和土著鱼),并对其进行生态风险分析.结果表明:大坝建设对永生物种产生一定程度的生态风险,尤其是对于澜沧江土著鱼类,水文形势改变增加了其生态风险;特有属种如浮游植物红毛藻、中华

  2. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, D.

    1985-01-01

    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  3. Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    detoxification and bioactivation. Hydrophobic pesticides that are expected to be highly stored in tissues would not be bioconcentrated if susceptible to biotic transformation by aquatic organisms to more rapidly metabolized to hydrophilic entities are generally less toxic. By analogy, pesticides that are metabolized to similar entities by aquatic species surely are les ecotoxicologically significant. One feature of fish and other aquatic species that makes them more relevant as targets of environmental studies and of regulation is that they may not only become contaminated by pesticides or other chemicals, but that they constitute and important part of the human diet. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the enzymes that are capable of metabolizing or otherwise assisting in the removal of xenobiotics from aquatic species. Many studies have been performed on the enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing xenobiotics. In addition to the use of conventional biochemical methods, such studies on enzymes are increasingly being conducted using immunochemical methods and amino acid or gene sequences analysis. Such studies have been performed in algae, in some aquatic macrophytes, and in bivalva, but less information is available for other aquatic species such as crustacea, annelids, aquatic insecta, and other species. Although their catabolizing activity is often lower than in mammals, oxidases, especially cytochrome P450 enzymes, play a central role in transforming pesticides in aquatic organisms. Primary metabolites, formed from such initial enzymatic action, are further conjugated with natural components such as carbohydrates, and this aids removal form the organisms. The pesticides that are susceptible to abiotic hydrolysis are generally also biotically degraded by various esterases to from hydrophilic conjugates. Reductive transformation is the main metabolic pathway for organochlorine pesticides, but less information on reductive enzymology processes is available. The

  4. [Development characteristics of aquatic plants in a constructed wetland for treating urban drinking water source at its initial operation stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ma, Xin-Tang; Zhou, Lan; Zhou, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2011-08-01

    The development characteristics and improvement measures of aquatic plants were studied in Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (SCW) at its initial operation stage. SCW was a large-scale wetland aiming to help relieve the source water pollution in Jiaxing City. A checklist of vascular plants in SCW was built, and species composition, life forms, biomass and association distributions were examined. Our objectives were to examine the diversity and community structure of aquatic plants in SCW at its initial operation stage, and to find out the possible hydrophyte improvement measures. The survey results showed that there were 49 vascular plant species belonging to 41 genera, 25 families in SCW, which greatly exceeded the artificially transplanted 13 species. The life forms of present aquatic plants in SCW were dominated by hygrophilous plants (20 species) and emerged plants (17 species), which accounted for 75.5% of the total number of aquatic plants. The aquatic plants transplanted artificially were dominated by emerged plants (accounted for 69.2%), while those naturally developed were predominated by hygrophilous plants (accounted for 47.2%). The horizontal distribution of aquatic plant community in SCW was mixed in the form of mosaics, which made up typical association complex. Except association Aeschynomene indica L., the dominant species of other associations were all those transplanted artificially. The naturally grown species scattered throughout the SCW and only occupied a small percentage. A marked difference was detected on the species and species richness of aquatic plants in different regions of SCW. Biomass of aquatic plant associations in SCW was 167.7 t. SCW has shown a trend of succession heading for quick increase of plant diversity at the primary operation stage. This trend provides a good material base for the future stable community of aquatic plants in SCW. According to the current status of aquatic plants, some suggestions were put forward on the

  5. Molecular Barcoding of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Implications for Biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivien, Régis; Wyler, Sofia; Lafont, Michel; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes are well recognized bioindicators of quality of sediments and water in watercourses and lakes. However, the difficult taxonomic determination based on morphological features compromises their more common use in eco-diagnostic analyses. To overcome this limitation, we investigated molecular barcodes as identification tool for broad range of taxa of aquatic oligochaetes. We report 185 COI and 52 ITS2 rDNA sequences for specimens collected in Switzerland and belonging to the families Naididae, Lumbriculidae, Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae. Phylogenetic analyses allowed distinguishing 41 lineages separated by more than 10 % divergence in COI sequences. The lineage distinction was confirmed by Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method and by ITS2 data. Our results showed that morphological identification underestimates the oligochaete diversity. Only 26 of the lineages could be assigned to morphospecies, of which seven were sequenced for the first time. Several cryptic species were detected within common morphospecies. Many juvenile specimens that could not be assigned morphologically have found their home after genetic analysis. Our study showed that COI barcodes performed very well as species identifiers in aquatic oligochaetes. Their easy amplification and good taxonomic resolution might help promoting aquatic oligochaetes as bioindicators for next generation environmental DNA biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25856230

  6. Aquatic Physical Therapy for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Susan; McIntyre, Auburn; Plummer, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is an intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that has not been investigated formally. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an aquatic therapy program to improve motor skills of children with DCD. Thirteen children (mean age 7…

  7. Relationships Between Fish and Aquatic Plants: A Plan of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    has been used to de- fine differences in plant distribution, abundance, and species composition (Forsberg 1959; Edwards and Moore 1975; Cassani and...McCreary. 1985. Effects of fish nests on pattern and zonation of submersed macrophytes in a softwater lake. Aquat. Bot. 22:21-32. Cassani , J. R., and W

  8. Classifying aquatic macrophytes as indicators of eutrophication in European lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, W.E.; Mjelde, M.; Dudley, B.; Hellsten, S.; Hanganu, J.; Kolada, A.; van den Berg, Marcel S.; Poikane, S.; Phillips, G.; Willby, N.; Ecke, F.

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes are one of the biological quality elements in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for which status assessments must be defined. We tested two methods to classify macrophyte species and their response to eutrophication pressure: one based on percentiles of occurrence along a phosp

  9. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Paulo, Brazil. In the review, we analyzed 10 articles, where we obtained data on 41 species. We also sampled 5 macrophyte genera, Egeria, Salvinia, Utricularia, Eleocharis, and Ceratophyllum, in August and December 2012 and in March and April 2013, in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas. We registered 21 Oligochaeta species associated to these macrophytes. With the data obtained in the review along with the inventory of the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas, we found a total of 41 species associated to aquatic macrophytes, with a higher richness of the Naididae family (93.33%, followed by Opistocystidae (4.44%, and Alluroididae (2.22%. Our study inventoried about 48% of the Oligochaeta diversity registered in continental ecosystems in Brazil, thus highlighting the significance of macrophytes as a resource for these invertebrates, mainly for the Naididae family.

  10. Marine invasions by non-sea snakes, with thoughts on terrestrial-aquatic-marine transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C

    2012-08-01

    Few species of snakes show extensive adaptations to aquatic environments and even fewer exploit the oceans. A survey of morphology, lifestyles, and habitats of 2552 alethenophidian snakes revealed 362 (14%) that use aquatic environments, are semi-aquatic, or aquatic; about 70 (2.7%) of these are sea snakes (Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae). The ancient and aquatic family Acrochordidae contains three extant species, all of which have populations inhabiting brackish or marine environments, as well as freshwater. The Homalopsidae have the most ecologically diverse representatives in coastal habitats. Other families containing species exploiting saline waters with populations in freshwater environments include: the Dipsadidae of the western hemisphere, the cosmopolitan Natricidae, the African Grayinae, and probably a few Colubridae. Species with aquatic and semi-aquatic lifestyles are compared with more terrestrial (fossorial, cryptozoic, and arboreal) species for morphological traits and life histories that are convergent with those found in sea snakes; this may provide clues to the evolution of marine snakes and increase our understanding of snake diversity.

  11. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  12. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    Many terrestrial plant canopies regulate spatial patterns in leaf density and leaf inclination to distribute light evenly between the photosynthetic tissue and to optimize light utilization efficiency. Sessile aquatic macrophytes, however, cannot maintain the same well-defined three......-dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  13. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  14. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  15. Hybrid striped bass National Breeding Program: Research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  16. [The criteria of identification of "critical" populations in aquatic radiochemoecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsytsugina, B G; Polikarpov, G G

    2006-01-01

    Data on chromosome mutagenesis levels in populations of aquatic organisms in the Black and the Aegean Seas, the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers, the 30-km zone of ChNPP are presented. The highest level of mutagenesis was observed in hydrobionts populations in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP. The obvious damaged effects of ionizing radiation were noted only in these populations. The comparison of the adaptation rate of aquatic crustaceans and worms populations with different reproduction modes was made. It is found that the studied species with sexual reproduction have higher rate of adaptation to the pollution in comparison with species with prevalent asexual reproduction. Hypothetic mechanisms of population adaptation are discussed. On the basis of species and populations characteristics, the criteria for the identification of "critical" populations (species) and an algoritm of ecological risk assessment for them are proposed.

  17. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to significantly alleviate difficulties associated with traditional monitoring approac...

  18. Cognitive and Emotional Evaluation of Two Educational Outdoor Programs Dealing with Non-Native Bird Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Michael; Buyer, Regine; Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    "Non-native organisms are a major threat to biodiversity". This statement is often made by biologists, but general conclusions cannot be drawn easily because of contradictory evidence. To introduce pupils aged 11-14 years to this topic, we employed an educational program dealing with non-native animals in Central Europe. The pupils took part in a…

  19. STUDY OF AQUATIC ANGIOSPERMIC PLANTS OF ANAND CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. PATEL1 AND N. K. PATEL2

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the taxonomic study of Aquatic Angiosperms growing throughout the Anand city. The plants are listed along with their brief taxonomic account of each species with current nomenclature, vernacular name, family and uses. The  collected plants are systematically observed during present work, During my study I observed various aquatic angiospermic plants such as   Ceratophyllum demersum, Colocasia esculenta, Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Nymphoides indicum, Ludwigia repens, Polygonum orientale, Typha elephantina, Lemna perpusilla, Spirodella polyrrhiza, Xanthium indicum, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Cynodon dactylon, Hydrilla verticillata were very common. Whereas Nymphaea nouchali, Polygonum barbatum, Scirpus articulatus were very rare in the study area.

  20. The impacts of an invasive species citizen science training program on participant attitudes, behavior, and science literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W; Jordan, Rebecca; Holfelder, Kirstin; Newman, Gregory J; Graham, Jim; Waller, Donald M

    2013-08-01

    Citizen science can make major contributions to informal science education by targeting participants' attitudes and knowledge about science while changing human behavior towards the environment. We examined how training associated with an invasive species citizen science program affected participants in these areas. We found no changes in science literacy or overall attitudes between tests administered just before and after a one-day training program, matching results from other studies. However, we found improvements in science literacy and knowledge using context-specific measures and in self-reported intention to engage in pro-environmental activities. While we noted modest change in knowledge and attitudes, we found comparison and interpretation of these data difficult in the absence of other studies using similar measures. We suggest that alternative survey instruments are needed and should be calibrated appropriately to the pre-existing attitudes, behavior, and levels of knowledge in these relatively sophisticated target groups.

  1. A quality control program within a clinical trial Consortium for PCR protocols to detect Plasmodium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve M; Mayor, Alfredo; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Kenguele, Hilaire M; Ouédraogo, Smaïla; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Mkali, Happy; Mwangoka, Grace; Valecha, Neena; Singh, Jai Prakash Narayan; Clark, Martha A; Verweij, Jaco J; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Macete, Eusebio; Menendez, Clara; Cisteró, Pau; Njie, Fanta; Affara, Muna; Otieno, Kephas; Kariuki, Simon; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Meshnick, Steven R

    2014-06-01

    Malaria parasite infections that are only detectable by molecular methods are highly prevalent and represent a potential transmission reservoir. The methods used to detect these infections are not standardized, and their operating characteristics are often unknown. We designed a proficiency panel of Plasmodium spp. in order to compare the accuracy of parasite detection of molecular protocols used by labs in a clinical trial consortium. Ten dried blood spots (DBSs) were assembled that contained P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale; DBSs contained either a single species or a species mixed with P. falciparum. DBS panels were tested in 9 participating laboratories in a masked fashion. Of 90 tests, 68 (75.6%) were correct; there were 20 false-negative results and 2 false positives. The detection rate was 77.8% (49/63) for P. falciparum, 91.7% (11/12) for P. vivax, 83.3% (10/12) for P. malariae, and 70% (7/10) for P. ovale. Most false-negative P. falciparum results were from samples with an estimated ≤ 5 parasites per μl of blood. Between labs, accuracy ranged from 100% to 50%. In one lab, the inability to detect species in mixed-species infections prompted a redesign and improvement of the assay. Most PCR-based protocols were able to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax at higher densities, but these assays may not reliably detect parasites in samples with low P. falciparum densities. Accordingly, formal quality assurance for PCR should be employed whenever this method is used for diagnosis or surveillance. Such efforts will be important if PCR is to be widely employed to assist malaria elimination efforts.

  2. The aquatic molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda and Bivalvia of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILIAN GEORGIEV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Till now 13 species of aquatic molluscs are known to inhabit the park area: 11 species of snails and 2 species of clams. Even included in the list the species of Grossuana and Radix balthica has to be studied anatomically for sure identification. Nine species are of conservation statute classified as "Least Concern" or "Vulnerable", and four does not have any statute. Three stygobiotic snail species are local endemics.

  3. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  4. Remote sensing of aquatic vegetation: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago S F; Costa, Maycira P F; Melack, John M; Novo, Evlyn M L M

    2008-05-01

    Aquatic vegetation is an important component of wetland and coastal ecosystems, playing a key role in the ecological functions of these environments. Surveys of macrophyte communities are commonly hindered by logistic problems, and remote sensing represents a powerful alternative, allowing comprehensive assessment and monitoring. Also, many vegetation characteristics can be estimated from reflectance measurements, such as species composition, vegetation structure, biomass, and plant physiological parameters. However, proper use of these methods requires an understanding of the physical processes behind the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and vegetation, and remote sensing of aquatic plants have some particular difficulties that have to be properly addressed in order to obtain successful results. The present paper reviews the theoretical background and possible applications of remote sensing techniques to the study of aquatic vegetation.

  5. BIOMONITORING USING AQUATIC VEGETATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides an overview of the state-of-the-science as related to the phytoassessment techniques used in environmental biomonitoring and the hazard assessment process for chemicals. The emphasis is on freshwater angiosperms and bryophytes. Algal species, which are prese...

  6. Invasive macrozoobenthic species: are they a threat to the aquatic communities of German water bodies?%大型底栖动物入侵种:它们是否对德国水生动物群落构成威胁?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melanie C. BECKMANN; 杨健; 徐跑

    2006-01-01

    在水体中发现大型底栖动物入侵种是一种世界范围普遍的现象.人类移动的同时将物品从一个大陆带到另一个大陆,这使许多水生动物物种能够突破自然的防线侵入到其他的区域和大陆.藉由人类现代的旅行方式,在不同区域间移动的物种数量显著增加,成功入侵种的数量也随之增多.成功入侵种需要具备一些特征,如可动性,小体型,适应性强和繁殖率高等,这些均有利于物种跨区域的入侵.当然,新生活环境也必须满足可适应的标准.对一个受人类活动破坏而丧失其原有物种的水环境来说,它对新物种入侵的抵抗力会很弱甚至缺乏.德国水体受人类活动的胁迫非常严重,许多自然水体受到的破坏已无法挽回,有些甚至已经完全成为了人工环境.这些水体由相互连接着的溪流河川网络组成,这很容易使新物种的入侵范围扩大.在外来物种的入侵面前,受人类活动胁迫和直接破坏的水体,比尚保持着天然环境状况的水体更加脆弱.%Macrozoobenthic invasion is a common phenomenon which appears throughout the world. Humans travel worldwide transporting materials from one continent to another. This enables many aquatic species to breach natural boundaries and invade environments in other regions and continents. With modern travel the number of species moving between different regions has increased considerably and so the number of successful aquatic invasions has increased. To be a successful invading species, there are some necessary traits. Mobility, small body size, adaptability and a high reproductive rate for example, would contribute to a successful cross-regional invasion. But the new host environment must fit some accommodating criteria. Environments that are depleted of their historical species due to human impact damage, may make little or no resistance to new organism invasions. German water bodies are under serious stress from human

  7. Endangered species and cultural resources program Naval petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In FY96, Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc. (EASI) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on federal properties. Population monitoring activities were conducted for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. Kit fox abundance and distribution was assessed by live-trapping over a 329-km{sup 2} area. Kit fox reproduction and mortality were assessed by radiocollaring and monitoring 22 adults and two pups. Reproductive success and litter size were determined through live-trapping and den observations. Rates and sources of kit fox mortality were assessed by recovering dead radiocollared kit foxes and conducting necropsies to determine cause of death. Abundance of coyotes and bobcats, which compete with kit foxes, was determined by conducting scent station surveys. Kit fox diet was assessed through analysis of fecal samples collected from live-trapped foxes. Abundance of potential prey for kit foxes was determined by conducting transect surveys for lagornorphs and live-trapping small mammals.

  8. Principles in sampling design, lessons, and recommendations from a multi-year, multi-port surveillance program in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly-introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay), and designed an ada...

  9. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  10. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  11. Aquatic plants for removal of mevinphos from the aquatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Fragrant waterlily (Nymphaea odorata, Ait.), joint-grass (Paspalum distichum L.), and rush (Juncus repens, Michx.) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of vascular aquatic plants in removing the insecticide mevinphos (dimethyl-1-carbomethoxy-1propen-2-yl phosphate) from waters contaminated with this chemical. The emersed aquatic plants fragrant waterlily and joint-grass removed 87 and 93 ppm of mevinphos from water test systems in less than 2 weeks without apparent damage to the plants; whereas rush, a submersed plant, removed less insecticide than the water-soil controls. Water-soil control still contained toxic levels of this insecticide, as demonstrated by fish bioassay studies, after 35 days.

  12. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A; Warg, Janet V; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen K; Crane, Mark St J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Olesen, Niels J; Gallardo Lagno, Alicia

    2016-02-25

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  13. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A.; Warg, Janet V; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen; St. J. Crane, Mark; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Olesen, Niels J; Lagno, Alicia Gallardo

    2016-01-01

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies—paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  14. Animal protein production modules in biological life support systems: Novel combined aquaculture techniques based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Schreibman, M. P.

    Based on the experiences made with the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) which was primarily deveoloped for long-term and multi-generation experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station highly effective fresh water recycling modules were elaborated utilizing a combination of ammonia oxidizing bacteria filters and higher plants. These exhibit a high effectivity to eliminate phosphate and anorganic nitrogen compounds and arc. in addidition. able to contribute to the oxygen supply of the aquatic animals. The C.E.B.A.S. filter system is able to keep a closed artificial aquatic ecosystem containing teleost fishes and water snails biologically stable for several month and to eliminate waste products deriving from degraded dead fishes without a decrease of the oxygen concentration down to less than 3.5 mg/l at 25 °C. More advanced C.E.B.A.S. filter systems, the BIOCURE filters, were also developed for utilization in semiintensive and intensive aquaculture systems for fishes. In fact such combined animal-plant aquaculture systems represent highly effective productions sites for human food if proper plant and fish species are selected The present papers elucidates ways to novel aquaculture systems in which herbivorous fishes are raised by feeding them with plant biomass produced in the BIOCURE filters and presents the scheme of a modification which utilizes a plant species suitable also for human nutrition. Special attention is paid to the benefits of closed aquaculture system modules which may be integrated into bioregenerative life support systems of a higher complexity for, e. g.. lunar or planetary bases including some psychologiccal aspects of the introduction of animal protein production into plant-based life support systems. Moreover, the basic reproductive biological problems of aquatic animal breeding under reduced gravity are explained leading to a disposition of essential research programs in this context.

  15. Monthly variations of Oomycetes (zoosporic fungi and aquatic Hypomycetes at Sohag (Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Khallil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-eight fungal species related to twenty-six genera of Perenosporales and Saprolegniales (32 species, 7 genera, 671 colonies and aquatic Hyphomycetes (26 species; 19 genera; 1038 colonies were recovered from the surface water (zoosporic fungi and submerged decaying leaves (aquatic Hyphomycetes samples collected monthly (10 samples each month during the period of experiment (18 months. The richest samples in either zoosporic fungi or aquatic Hyphomycetes were those of comparatively low or moderate temperature, high contents of organic matter and dissolved oxygen. The pH volue and the total soluble salts did not show any regular monthly variations and did not exhibit any considerable influence on fungal population. Achlya racemosa, Dictyuchus sterile (Saprolegniales and Alatospora acuminata, Trisclophorus monosporus (aquatic Hyphomycetes were the most prevalent species. Some fungal species showed their highest population in winter months whereas others in summer months. Moreover, some species were recovered throughout the year. One species of Saprolegniales (Isoachlya toruloides and three species of aquatic Hyphomycetes (Exophiala jeanselmei, Flabellospora Sp. and Varicosporium delicatum are new records to Egypt.

  16. Marine and other aquatic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandhyala Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. “Suit squeeze” due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  17. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. McLachlan

    2003-12-01

    to understanding how heavy metals move through wetlands environments. These data, coupled with plume characterization data, indicate that Bayou Trepagnier is a model system for understanding how wetlands populations of fish, amphibians, and plants respond to long-term hydrocarbon and metals contamination. The CBR has fifteen years of experience in developing model aquatic ecosystems for evaluating environmental problems relevant to DOE cleanup activities. Using biotechnology screens and biomarkers of exposure, this project supports other CBR research demonstrating that chemicals in the environment can signal/alter the development of species in aquatic ecosystems, and show detrimental impacts on community, population, and the ecosystem, including human health. CBR studies funded through this grant have resulted in private sector investments, international collaborations, development of new technologies, and substantial new knowledge concerning the effects of hazardous materials on human and ecosystem health. Through the CBR, Tulane and Xavier Universities partnered with DOE-EM to lay groundwork for an effective research agenda that has become part of the DOE long term stewardship science and technology program and institutional management of the DOE complex.

  18. The utilization of aquatic bushmeat from small cetaceans and manatees in South America and West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Cosentino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic bushmeat can be defined as the products derived from wild aquatic megafauna (e.g. marine mammals that are used for human consumption and non-food purposes, including traditional medicine. It is obtained through illegal or unregulated hunts as well as from stranded (dead or alive and bycaught animals. In most South American and West African countries aquatic mammals are or have been taken for bushmeat, including 33 small cetaceans and all three manatee species. Of these, two cetacean species are listed in the IUCN red list as near threatened, and one as vulnerable, as are all manatee species. Additionally, 22 cetacean species are listed as data deficient, hence some of these species may also be at risk. No reports (recent or otherwise were found for some countries, however caution is needed in concluding that aquatic bushmeat is not utilized in these nations. Moreover, although aquatic bushmeat is mostly obtained opportunistically and was likely originally taken only for local consumption, directed catches occur in most countries and may have reached unsustainable levels in some areas. For example, in Peru and Nigeria, thousands of small cetaceans are illegally hunted annually. Reliable, recent data and a better overall understanding of the drivers of aquatic bushmeat will be essential in the development of effective mitigation measures.

  19. Aquatic plant surface as a niche for methanotrophs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko eYoshida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential local CH4 sink in various plant parts as a boundary environment of CH4 emission and consumption. By comparing CH4 consumption activities in cultures inoculated with parts from 39 plant species, we observed significantly higher consumption of CH4 associated with aquatic plants than other emergent plant parts such as woody plant leaves, macrophytic marine algae, and sea grass. In situ activity of CH4 consumption by methanotrophs associated with different species of aquatic plants was in the range of 3.7 – 37 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 dry weight, which was ca 5.7-370 fold higher than epiphytic CH4 consumption in submerged parts of emergent plants. The qPCR-estimated copy numbers of the particulate methane monooxygenase-encoding gene pmoA were variable among the aquatic plants and ranged in the order of 105 to 107 copies⋅g-1 dry weight, which correlated with the observed CH4 consumption activities. Phylogenetic identification of methanotrophs on aquatic plants based on the pmoA sequence analysis revealed a predominance of diverse gammaproteobacterial type-I methanotrophs, including a phylotype of a possible plant-associated methanotroph with the closest identity (86-89% to Methylocaldum gracile.

  20. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Selected Life History Information of Animal Species on Lake Conway, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Name Scientific Name FishSpecies 1 Longnose gar Loplsosteus osseus 2 Florida gar Lepisosteus platjrhincus 3 Bowf in Aula calva 4 American eel Anguilla...where vegeta- tion is present. Characteris- tic of quiet water habitats; rare to streams with noticeable current. Tolerant of moderate turbidity, but

  1. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  2. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); M.F. van Bressem; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractInfections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper vir

  3. Assessment of pollution with aquatic bryophytes in Maritsa River (Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecheva, Gana; Yurukova, Lilyana; Ganeva, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Bryophyte species composition and 26 common physico-chemical and inorganic chemical parameters were assessed at 23 selected sites in the Maritsa River (BG) over a 4-year period. Principal components analyses (PCA) of both bryophytes and water variables distinguished different locations in the ecosystem. The data imply that the content of elements measured in bryophytes represents river contamination, while species compositional patterns reflect hydromorphology and general degradation. This study for the first time combined aquatic bryophyte occurrence, the bioaccumulation of 17 macro-and microelements in 17 species, and 26 water factors by principal components analysis (PCA) in an assessment of river pollution.

  4. Edible aquatic Coleoptera of the world with an emphasis on Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno José

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthropoentomophagy is an ancient culinary practice wherein terrestrial and aquatic insects are eaten by humans. Of these species of insects, terrestrial insects are far more commonly used in anthropoentomophagy than aquatic insects. In this study we found that there are 22 genera and 78 species of edible aquatic beetles in the world. The family Dytiscidae hosts nine genera, Gyrinidae one, Elmidae two, Histeridae one, Hydrophilidae six, Haliplidae two and Noteridae one. Of the recorded species, 45 correspond to the family Dytiscidae, 19 to Hydrophilidae, three to Gyrinidae, four to Elmidae, two to Histeridae, four to Haliplidae and one to Noteridae. These beetles are the most prized organisms of lentic watersThe family that has the highest number of edible food insect genera and species is Dytiscidae. Here, the global geographic distribution of species in these organisms is shown, and a discussion is presented of its importance as a renewable natural resource widely used for food in various countries.

  5. Edible aquatic Coleoptera of the world with an emphasis on Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José Manuel Pino; Camacho, Victor Hugo Martínez

    2009-04-20

    Anthropoentomophagy is an ancient culinary practice wherein terrestrial and aquatic insects are eaten by humans. Of these species of insects, terrestrial insects are far more commonly used in anthropoentomophagy than aquatic insects. In this study we found that there are 22 genera and 78 species of edible aquatic beetles in the world. The family Dytiscidae hosts nine genera, Gyrinidae one, Elmidae two, Histeridae one, Hydrophilidae six, Haliplidae two and Noteridae one. Of the recorded species, 45 correspond to the family Dytiscidae, 19 to Hydrophilidae, three to Gyrinidae, four to Elmidae, two to Histeridae, four to Haliplidae and one to Noteridae. These beetles are the most prized organisms of lentic waters. The family that has the highest number of edible food insect genera and species is Dytiscidae. Here, the global geographic distribution of species in these organisms is shown, and a discussion is presented of its importance as a renewable natural resource widely used for food in various countries.

  6. Altitudinal distribution limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Philip B.; Morabowen, Andrés; Andino, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    altitudinal patterns in population densities, (ii) transplants of the five taxa upstream of their natural altitudinal limit to test the short-term (14days) effect on survival, and (iii) in situ experiments of locomotory activity as a proxy for animal response to relatively small differences in temperature (5...... relatively small differences in temperature and oxygen may produce effects explaining ecological patterns, and depending on the taxon, either water temperature or oxygen saturation, without clear interacting effects, are important drivers of altitudinal limits.......1. Temperature and oxygen are recognised as the main drivers of altitudinal limits of species distributions. However, the two factors are linked, and both decrease with altitude, why their effects are difficult to disentangle. 2. This was experimentally addressed using aquatic macroinvertebrates...

  7. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  8. Herbivore regulation of plant abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin A; O'Hare, Matthew T; McDonald, Claire; Searle, Kate R; Daunt, Francis; Stillman, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Herbivory is a fundamental process that controls primary producer abundance and regulates energy and nutrient flows to higher trophic levels. Despite the recent proliferation of small-scale studies on herbivore effects on aquatic plants, there remains limited understanding of the factors that control consumer regulation of vascular plants in aquatic ecosystems. Our current knowledge of the regulation of primary producers has hindered efforts to understand the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and to manage such ecosystems effectively. We conducted a global meta-analysis of the outcomes of plant-herbivore interactions using a data set comprised of 326 values from 163 studies, in order to test two mechanistic hypotheses: first, that greater negative changes in plant abundance would be associated with higher herbivore biomass densities; second, that the magnitude of changes in plant abundance would vary with herbivore taxonomic identity. We found evidence that plant abundance declined with increased herbivore density, with plants eliminated at high densities. Significant between-taxa differences in impact were detected, with insects associated with smaller reductions in plant abundance than all other taxa. Similarly, birds caused smaller reductions in plant abundance than echinoderms, fish, or molluscs. Furthermore, larger reductions in plant abundance were detected for fish relative to crustaceans. We found a positive relationship between herbivore species richness and change in plant abundance, with the strongest reductions in plant abundance reported for low herbivore species richness, suggesting that greater herbivore diversity may protect against large reductions in plant abundance. Finally, we found that herbivore-plant nativeness was a key factor affecting the magnitude of herbivore impacts on plant abundance across a wide range of species assemblages. Assemblages comprised of invasive herbivores and native plant assemblages were associated with

  9. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  10. Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    priorities for future research directions in chemical management of submersed plants. The priorities we identified include: (A) improving methods for evaluating non-target impacts of herbicides with an emphasis on threatened and endangered species, or species of special concern; (B) improving herbicide performance in flowing-water environments, including irrigation canals; (C) screening and developing new herbicides to supplement fluridone for large-scale or whole-lake management approaches; (D) screening and developing new organic algaecides to supplement the use of copper-based compounds; (E) developing risk assessment tools to educate the public on the risks of invasive species and chemical management options; (F) increasing cooperative research with ecologists and fisheries scientists to evaluate the long-term impacts of invasive species introductions and herbicide programs on native plant assemblages, water quality, and fish populations; and (G) improving the integration of chemical control technology with other aquatic plant management disciplines. While circumstances may dictate setting new priorities or dropping current ones, the list we have generated represents our vision of the needs that will require the greatest focus over the next several years.

  11. Issues to consider in the derivation of water quality benchmarks for the protection of aquatic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    While water quality benchmarks for the protection of aquatic life have been in use in some jurisdictions for several decades (USA, Canada, several European countries), more and more countries are now setting up their own national water quality benchmark development programs. In doing so, they either adopt an existing method from another jurisdiction, update on an existing approach, or develop their own new derivation method. Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages, and many issues have to be addressed when setting up a water quality benchmark development program or when deriving a water quality benchmark. Each of these tasks requires a special expertise. They may seem simple, but are complex in their details. The intention of this paper was to provide some guidance for this process of water quality benchmark development on the program level, for the derivation methodology development, and in the actual benchmark derivation step, as well as to point out some issues (notably the inclusion of adapted populations and cryptic species and points to consider in the use of the species sensitivity distribution approach) and future opportunities (an international data repository and international collaboration in water quality benchmark development).

  12. Reproductive strategy, clonal structure and genetic diversity in populations of the aquatic macrophyte Sparganium emersum in river systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; de Jong, M.D.E.; Steegh, A.; Verbruggen, E.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Ouborg, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Many aquatic and riparian plant species are characterized by the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually. Yet, little is known about how spatial variation in sexual and asexual reproduction affects the genotypic diversity within populations of aquatic and riparian plants. We used six polymo

  13. Ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblížek, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Recognition of the environmental role of photoheterotrophic bacteria has been one of the main themes of aquatic microbiology over the last 15 years. Aside from cyanobacteria and proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are the third most numerous group of phototrophic prokaryotes in the ocean. This functional group represents a diverse assembly of species which taxonomically belong to various subgroups of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. AAP bacteria are facultative photoheterotrophs which use bacteriochlorophyll-containing reaction centers to harvest light energy. The light-derived energy increases their bacterial growth efficiency, which provides a competitive advantage over heterotrophic species. Thanks to their enzymatic machinery AAP bacteria are active, rapidly growing organisms which contribute significantly to the recycling of organic matter. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of the ecology of AAP bacteria in aquatic environments, implying their specific role in the microbial loop.

  14. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations` suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  15. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations' suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of [sup 60]Co, [sup 90]Sr, and [sup 137]Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  16. Diets of aquatic birds reflect changes in the Lake Huron ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Craig E.; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Idrissi, Abode; Arts, Michael T.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2009-01-01

    Human activities have affected the Lake Huron ecosystem, in part, through alterations in the structure and function of its food webs. Insights into the nature of food web change and its ecological ramifications can be obtained through the monitoring of high trophic level predators such as aquatic birds. Often, food web change involves alterations in the relative abundance of constituent species and/or the introduction of new species (exotic invaders). Diet composition of aquatic birds is influenced, in part, by relative prey availability and therefore is a sensitive measure of food web structure. Using bird diet data to make inferences regarding food web change requires consistent measures of diet composition through time. This can be accomplished by measuring stable chemical and/or biochemical “ecological tracers” in archived avian samples. Such tracers provide insights into pathways of energy and nutrient transfer. In this study, we examine the utility of two groups of naturally-occurring intrinsic tracers (stable isotopes and fatty acids) to provide such information in a predatory seabird, the herring gull (Larus argentatus). Retrospective stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis of archived herring gull eggs identified declines in gull trophic position and shifts in food sources in Lake Huron over the last 25 years and changes in gull diet composition were inferred from egg fatty acid patterns. These independent groups of ecological tracers provided corroborating evidence of dietary change in this high trophic level predator. Gull dietary shifts were related to declines in prey fish abundance which suggests large-scale alterations to the Lake Huron ecosystem. Dietary shifts in herring gulls may be contributing to reductions in resources available for egg formation. Further research is required to evaluate how changes in resource availability may affect population sustainability in herring gulls and other waterbird species. Long-term biological monitoring

  17. Ergosterol-to-Biomass Conversion Factors for Aquatic Hyphomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Mark O.; Chauvet, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen strains of aquatic hyphomycete species that are common on decaying leaves in running waters were grown in liquid culture and analyzed for total ergosterol contents. Media included an aqueous extract from senescent alder leaves, a malt extract broth, and a glucose-mineral salt solution. Concentrations of ergosterol in fungal mycelium ranged from 2.3 to 11.5 mg/g of dry mass. The overall average was 5.5 mg/g. Differences among both species and growth media were highly significant but followed no systematic pattern. Stationary-phase mycelium had ergosterol contents 10 to 12% lower or higher than mycelium harvested during the growth phase, but these differences were only significant for one of four species examined. Availability of plant sterols in the growth medium had no clear effect on ergosterol concentrations in two species tested. To convert ergosterol contents determined in field samples to biomass values of aquatic hyphomycetes, a general multiplicative factor of 182 is proposed. More accurate estimates would be obtained with species-specific factors. Using these in combination with estimates of the proportion of the dominant species in a naturally established community on leaves resulted in biomass estimates that were typically 20% lower than those obtained with the general conversion factor. Improvements of estimates with species-specific factors may be limited, however, by intraspecific variability in fungal ergosterol content. PMID:16348874

  18. Group aquatic aerobic exercise for children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M; O'Neil, Margaret E

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's diagnoses included autism spectrum disorder, myelomeningocele, cerebral palsy, or other developmental disability. More than half of the children ambulated independently without aids. Children swam laps and participated in relay races and games with a focus of maintaining a defined target heart rate zone. The strengthening component consisted of exercises using bar bells, aquatic noodles, and water resistance. The following outcomes were measured: half-mile walk/run, isometric muscle strength, timed floor to stand 3-meter test, and motor skills. Complaints of pain or injury were systematically collected. Significant improvements in the half-mile walk/run were observed, but not for secondary outcomes of strength or motor skills. The mean program attendance was 80%, and no injury was reported. Children with disabilities may improve their cardiorespiratory endurance after a group aquatic aerobic exercise program with a high adult:child ratio and specific goals to maintain training heart rates.

  19. 欧盟针对农药对水生生物的初级风险评价——标准物种不确定因子法%Primary Aquatic Risk Assessment of Pesticides in European Union: Uncertainty Factor Approach of Standard Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于彩虹; 胡琳娜; 胡东青; 王晓军; 姜辉; 林荣华

    2011-01-01

    建立适宜的农药环境风险评价体系,有利于评价农药对环境的影响,控制农药带来的环境污染.欧盟具有丰富的农药风险评价经验和完善的评价体系,论文针对欧盟的初级风险评价工作中水生生物风险评价的标准物种不确定因子法进行了综述,阐述了其评价原则与方法,总结了预测环境浓度(predicted environmental concentration,PEC)和法规允许浓度(regulatory acceptable concentration,RAC)的建立,分析了存在的问题并提出了发展方向,以期为中国农药风险评价提供技术支持.针对标准物种不确定因子法过于严格的情况,并考虑中国农药环境风险评价的现状,建议在熟悉掌握初级风险评价技术的基础上,逐步推动高级风险评价.%It is important to build up an appropriate risk assessment system to evaluate the side-effect of pesticides on the environment in order to control the pesticide pollution. The European Commission (EC) has built up scientific sys tems in aquatic risk assessment of pesticides. Focusing on the uncertainty factor approach using standard test species in aquatic risk assessment of pesticides, this paper summarized the principle and method of EC tier system and the re quirements to establish the levels of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) and regulatory acceptable concentra tion (RAC). Higher tier risk assessment was suggested for pesticides when the uncertainty factor approach using stand ard species was found to be excessively strict. And considering the current situation of China, it is necessary to master the primary risk assessment system first and then gradually carry out higher tier risk assessment.

  20. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  1. Diatoms and aquatic palynomorphs in surface sediments of the White Sea bays as indicators of sedimentation in marginal filters of rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Ye. I.; Novichkova, Ye. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Kravchishina, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Diatom algae, aquatic palynomorphs, and the grain-size of surface sediments from bays of the White Sea were investigated in a program dedicated to the study of marginal filters (MF) in the Severnaya Dvina, Onega, and Kem rivers. Three microalgal assemblages are established in surface sediments, which replace each other successively with distance from river mouths and are characterized by a gradual decrease in a share of freshwater species of diatoms and Chlorophyceae algae, significantly varying concentrations of marine diatoms and dinocysts due to changes in water salinity, grain-size composition of sediments, quantitative distribution of suspended particulate matter (SPM), and water productivity at different marginal filter stages.

  2. The Impact of Aquatic Exercise on Sleep Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriel, Kathryn N.; Kanupka, Jennifer Wood; DeLong, Kylee S.; Noel, Kelsie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participation in an aquatic exercise program improves sleep in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants included 8 children. An A-B-A withdrawal design was utilized. Each phase lasted for 4 weeks. The treatment included 60 min of aquatic exercise 2X/week. Phone calls to parents…

  3. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated.

  4. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... to distribute photons evenly between the photosynthetic tissues. As scattering and attenuation in the water column increase, the effect of thallus structure on production declines and thin transparent macrophytes are more efficient at utilizing light than thick opaque macrophytes. The results confirm...... combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...

  5. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota.

  6. Application of Multi-Species Microbial Bioassay to Assess the Effects of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment: Potential of a Luminous Microbial Array for Toxicity Risk Assessment (LumiMARA on Testing for Surface-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YounJung Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four different manufactured surface-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with coating of citrate, tannic acid, polyethylene glycol, and branched polyethylenimine were used in this study. The toxicity of surface-coated AgNPs was evaluated by a luminous microbial array for toxicity risk assessment (LumiMARA using multi-species of luminescent bacteria. The salt stability of four different AgNPs was measured by UV absorbance at 400 nm wavelength, and different surface-charged AgNPs in combination with bacteria were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Both branched polyethylenimine (BPEI-AgNPs and polyethylene glycol (PEG-AgNPs were shown to be stable with 2% NaCl (non-aggregation, whereas both citrate (Cit-AgNPs and tannic acid (Tan-AgNPs rapidly aggregated in 2% NaCl solution. The values of the 50% effective concentration (EC50 for BPEI-AgNPs in marine bacteria strains (1.57 to 5.19 mg/L were lower than those for the other surface-coated AgNPs (i.e., Cit-AgNPs, Tan-AgNPs, and PEG-AgNPs. It appears that the toxicity of AgNPs could be activated by the interaction of positively charged AgNPs with the negatively charged bacterial cell wall from the results of LumiMARA. LumiMARA for toxicity screening has advantageous compared to a single-species bioassay and is applicable for environmental samples as displaying ranges of assessment results.

  7. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment.

  8. Summary of information on aquatic biota and their habitats in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, through 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Bob; Henson, C.M.; Waite, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    Available information on aquatic biota of the Willamette Basin was reviewed and summarized to describe current and historical conditions as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Biological parameters emphasized include the status, distribution, and trends of aquatic biota, particularly algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish; the condition of aquatic and riparian habitat in which these biota reside; and the response of these biota to natural and human-associated impacts, including the level, type, and effect of contaminants.

  9. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, S; Chambers, D B; Lowe, L M; Bontoux, J G

    1999-09-01

    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media (water, sediments, and aquatic organisms) of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed (whole body) dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 microGy h(-1). These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations (about 400 microGy h(-1)), and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations (about 100 microGy h(-1)). As a result, chronic levels of radioactivity, artificial and natural, measured in aquatic media downstream of Marcoule are unlikely to result in adverse health impacts on the categories and species of aquatic organisms studied. Thus, based on the screening level analysis discussed in this paper, a more detailed evaluation of the dose rates does not appear to be warranted.

  10. Prosthogonimus ovatus (Rudolphi (Digenea, Prosthogonimidae em três espécies de aves aquáticas da Região Sul do Brasil Prosthogonimus ovatus (Digenea, Prosthogonimidae in three species of aquatic birds of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M. Monteiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies de aves, dois anatídeos, Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816 (marreca-caneleira e Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816 (marrecão e um phalacrocoracídeo, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789 (biguá foram coletados em vários locais na Província da Planície Costeira e no Lago Guaíba, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O número de aves examinadas de cada espécie de hospedeiro, assim como os valores de prevalência e intensidade média de infecção foram: 33 D. bicolor, 3%, 1 helminto/hospedeiro; 20 N. peposaca 15%, 4,3 helmintos/hospedeiro e 47 P. brasilianus 2,1%, 1 helminto/hospedeiro. O espécime coletado no biguá e um dos espécimes, entre aqueles, coletados nos marrecões estavam na cloaca. Os outros espécimes coletados nos marrecões e o único espécime coletado nas marrecas-caneleiras, respectivamente, estavam na bolsa de Fabricius. Este é o primeiro registro de P. ovatus em biguás e em marrecões. A distribuição geográfica conhecida de P. ovatus é estendida para o sul do Brasil e para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.Three species of birds, two anatids, Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816 (Fulvous Whistling Duck and Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816 (Rosy-billed Pochard, and one phalacrocoracid, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789 (Neotropical Cormorant were collected from several localities in the Coastal Plain Province and in Lago Guaíba, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The number of birds examined of each host species with the respective values of prevalence and mean intensity of infection of P. ovatus were: 33 D. bicolor, 3%, 1 helminth/host; 20 N. peposaca 15%, 4.3 helminths/host, and 47 P. brasilianus 2.1%, 1 helminth/host. The single specimen collected from the Neotropical cormorants and one of the specimens collected from the rosy-billed pochards, were in the cloaca. The remaining specimens from the rosy-billed pochards and the single specimen from the fulvous whistling ducks were in the bursa of Fabricius. This

  11. Role of diapause in dispersal and invasion success by aquatic invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta RICCARDI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of existing literature shows an important role of diapause in dispersal of aquatic invertebrates. There is evidence that among aquatic invertebrates, the role of diapause in dispersal can be important in crustaceans, specifically for species that produce resting eggs. Analysis of dispersal vectors of diapausing species revealed the increasing role of human-mediated vectors of species dispersal during last century (intentional and unintentional introductions, specifically associated with shipping in comparison with natural vectors (currents, wind, birds. Generally, the role of human-mediated vectors is most important for species dispersal across geographical barriers and into large aquatic ecosystems affected by shipping. Current human-mediated transport vectors increase rates of aquatic species introductions in many orders of magnitude in comparison with historical nature-driven species dispersal rates. Ability to develop diapausing resting stages facilitates species survival during movement across geographical barriers under extreme conditions, such as in ballast tanks of ships. Case studies for invasive species of Cladocera show that some invaders may possess adaptive life cycles, switching to the early prolonged gamogenetic reproduction, which facilitates their invasion success into novel ecosystems and further dispersal by both natural and human-mediated vectors.

  12. Faunistic study of the aquatic beetles (Coleoptera: Polyphaga of Markazi Province (Central Iran with new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaei R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we establish the presence of 24 aquatic beetle (Coleoptera: Polyphaga species belonging to 13 genera and five families in Markazi Province of Central Iran. Specimens were collected between 2001 and 2005. Eleven species and four genera are recorded from Iran for the first time. The ecological significance of the new records is briefly discussed. .

  13. Effects of Elimination of Alligator Weed on Certain Aquatic Plants and the Value of these Plants as Waterfowl Foods

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The effects of elimination of alligatorweed by granular silvex on the abundance of 12 species of aquatic plants were studied on the Santee National Wildlife Refuge,...

  14. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delannoy Christian MJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26, seals (n = 6, a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host

  15. Progress in study on endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs) in aquatic environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Nandong; WANG Hongbo; XU Xiaobai

    2005-01-01

    Background on the generation of the problems of endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs) in aquatic environment, characteristics of EDPs, adverse effects and their effect mechanism of EDPs on human and wildlife, the transportation and degradation pathways of EDPs in water and analysis methods of EDPs in water were reviewed. The importance of EDPs in water should be attached to adverse effects on wildlife and human health. It was advised to establish research programs on EDPs in aquatic environment especially in water supply source.

  16. Global meta-analysis of native and nonindigenous trophic traits in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Ella; García-Berthou, Emili; Srean, Pao; Rius, Marc

    2016-10-26

    Ecologists have recently devoted their attention to the study of species traits and their role in the establishment and spread of nonindigenous species (NIS). However, research efforts have mostly focused on studies of terrestrial taxa, with lesser attention being dedicated to aquatic species. Aquatic habitats comprise of interconnected waterways, as well as exclusive introduction vectors that allow unparalleled artificial transport of species and their propagules. Consequently, species traits that commonly facilitate biological invasions in terrestrial systems may not be as represented in aquatic environments. We provide a global meta-analysis of studies conducted in both marine and freshwater habitats. We selected studies that conducted experiments with native and NIS under common environmental conditions to allow detailed comparisons among species traits. In addition, we explored whether different factors such as species relatedness, functional feeding groups, latitude, climate, and experimental conditions could be linked to predictive traits. Our results show that species with traits that enhance consumption and growth have a substantially increased probability of establishing and spreading when entering novel ecosystems. Moreover, traits associated with predatory avoidance were more prevalent in NIS and therefore favour invasive species in aquatic habitats. When we analysed NIS interacting with taxonomically distinctive native taxa, we found that consumption and growth were particularly important traits. This suggests that particular attention should be paid to newly introduced species for which there are no close relatives in the local biota. Finally, we found a bias towards studies conducted in temperate regions, and thus, more studies in other climatic regions are needed. We conclude that studies aiming at predicting future range shifts should consider trophic traits of aquatic NIS as these traits are indicative of multiple interacting mechanisms involved

  17. Programmed cell death in barley aleurone cells is not directly stimulated by reactive oxygen species produced in response to gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Nozomi; Ishibashi, Yushi; Kai, Kyohei; Tomokiyo, Reisa; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2014-05-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is a secretory tissue that produces enzymes to hydrolyze the starchy endosperm during germination. We recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced in response to gibberellins (GA), promoted GAMyb expression, which induces α-amylase expression in barley aleurone cells. On the other hand, ROS levels increase during programmed cell death (PCD) in barley aleurone cells, and GAMyb is involved in PCD of these cells. In this study, we investigated whether the ROS produced in response to GA regulate PCD directly by using mutants of Slender1 (SLN1), a DELLA protein that negatively regulates GA signaling. The wild-type, the sln1c mutant (which exhibits gibberellin-type signaling even in the absence of GA), and the Sln1d mutant (which is gibberellin-insensitive with respect to α-amylase production) all produced ROS in response to GA, suggesting that ROS production in aleurone cells in response to GA is independent of GA signaling through this DELLA protein. Exogenous GA promoted PCD in the wild-type. PCD in sln1c was induced even without exogenous GA (and so without induction of ROS), whereas PCD in Sln1d was not induced in the presence of exogenous GA, even though the ROS content increased significantly in response to GA. These results suggest that PCD in barley aleurone cells is not directly stimulated by ROS produced in response to GA but is regulated by GA signaling through DELLA protein.

  18. The NEON Aquatic Network: Expanding the Availability of Biogeochemical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, J. M.; Bohall, C.; Fitzgerald, M.; Utz, R.; Parker, S. M.; Roehm, C. L.; Goodman, K. J.; McLaughlin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing unprecedented pressure from climate change and land-use practices. Invasive species, whether plant, animal, insect or microbe present additional threat to aquatic ecosystem services. There are significant scientific challenges to understanding how these forces will interact to affect aquatic ecosystems, as the flow of energy and materials in the environment is driven by multivariate and non-linear biogeochemical cycles. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect and provide observational data across multiple scales. Sites were selected to maximize representation of major North American ecosystems using a multivariate geographic clustering method that partitioned the continental US, AK, HI, and Puerto Rico into 20 eco-climatic domains. The NEON data collection systems and methods are designed to yield standardized, near real-time data subjected to rigorous quality controls prior to public dissemination through an online data portal. NEON will collect data for 30 years to facilitate spatial-temporal analysis of environmental responses and drivers of ecosystem change, ranging from local through continental scales. Here we present the NEON Aquatic Network, a multi-parameter network consisting of a combination of in situ sensor and observational data. This network will provide data to examine biogeochemical, biological, hydrologic and geomorphic metrics at 36 sites, which are a combination of small 1st/2nd order wadeable streams, large rivers and lakes. A typical NEON Aquatic site will host up to two in-stream sensor sets designed to collect near-continuous water quality data (e.g. pH/ORP, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CDOM) along with up to 8 shallow groundwater monitoring wells (level, temp., cond.), and a local meteorological station (e.g. 2D wind speed, PAR, barometric pressure, temperature, net radiation). These coupled sensor suites will be complemented by observational data (e.g. water

  19. Endangered Species. Management Improvements Could Enhance Recovery Program. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    Extinction of animal and plant species has become a serious problem that threatens to become more acute in coming years. The endangered species program was established to prevent further extinctions and ultimately recover species designated as threatened or endangered through the development and implementation of species recovery plans. Concerned…

  20. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  1. Suitability of Aquatic Plant Fibers for Handmade Papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordiah Bidin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns for future fiber supplies in pulp and paper industries has shifted interest in nonwood sources from agriculture residues and aquatic plants. Aquatic plants with short growth cycles, in abundance, and with low lignin are a potential fiber source. Five aquatic plant species, Cyperus digitatus, Cyperus halpan, Cyperus rotundus, Scirpus grossus, and Typha angustifolia, were examined for fiber dimensions and chemical composition (cellulose, lignin and compared with other nonwood plants. All aquatic plants possessed short (length, 0.71–0.83 mm and thin (diameter, 9.13–12.11 µm fibers, narrow lumen (diameter, 4.32–7.30 µm, and thin cell wall (thickness, 2.25–2.83 µm compared with most other nonwood plants. Slenderness ratio ranged from 73.77 to 89.34 with Typha angustifolia having the highest ratio. Except for Scirpus grossus, the flexibility coefficient ranged from 52.91 to 58.08. Scirpus grossus has low Runkel ratio, 0.84 ± 0.17. Fiber characteristics, short and thin fibers, Slenderness ratio >60, flexibility coefficient within 50–75, and Runkel ratio 34% is suitable for pulp and papermaking. Lignin content in aquatic plants in the present study ranged 9.54–20.04% and below the wood lignin content of <23–30% encountered in pulp and papermaking. Handmade paper sheets produced for paperboard, craft, and decorative purposes are with permissible tensile strength, breaking length, and low moisture content.

  2. A computer program for fast and easy typing of a partial endoglucanase gene sequence into genospecies and sequevars 1&2 of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, Michael J; Huang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is a species complex that contains race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB sequevars 1 and 2 that are quarantined or select agent pathogens. Recently, the R. solanacearum species complex strains have been reclassified into three genospecies: R. solanacearum, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii. An unidentified R. solanacearum strain is considered a select agent in the US until proven to be a non-race 3 biovar 2 (non-phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2). Currently, sequevars of R. solanacearum species complex strains can only be determined by phylogenetic analysis of a partial endoglucanase (egl) sequence of approximately 700-bp in length. Such analysis, however, requires expert knowledge to properly trim the sequence, to include the correct reference strains, and to interpret the results. By comparing GenBank egl sequences of representative R. solanacearum species-complex strains, we identified genospecies- and sequevar 1 and 2-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also designed primers to amplify a shorter, 526-bp, egl fragment from R. solanacearum species complex strains for easy sequencing of the amplicon, and to facilitate direct and specific amplification of egl from R. solanacearum-infected plant samples without the need of bacterial isolation. We wrote a computer program (Ralstonia solanacearum typing program) that analyzes a minimum 400-bp user-input egl sequence from a R. solanacearum strain for egl homology and SNP content to determine 1) whether it belongs to the R. solanacearum species complex, 2) if so, to which genospecies, and 3) whether it is of the sequevar type (sequevars 1 and 2) associated with the select agent/quarantined R. solanacearum strain. The program correctly typed all 371 tested egl sequences with known sequevars, obtained either from GenBank or through personal communication. Additionally, the program successfully typed 25 R. solanacearum strains in our

  3. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  4. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Fungal Communities in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic): Aquatic Fungi in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the diversity and distribution of fungi in 13 water samples collected from four aquatic environments (stream, pond, melting ice water, and estuary) in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Aquatic fungal communities in this region showed high diversity, with a total of 43,061 reads belonging to 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 200 belonged to Ascomycota, 196 to Chytridiomycota, 120 to Basidiomycota, 13 to Glomeromycota, and 10 to early diverging fungal lineages (traditional Zygomycota), whereas 102 belonged to unknown fungi. The major orders were Helotiales, Eurotiales, and Pleosporales in Ascomycota; Chytridiales and Rhizophydiales in Chytridiomycota; and Leucosporidiales and Sporidiobolales in Basidiomycota. The common fungal genera Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Epicoccum, Glaciozyma, Holtermanniella, Betamyces, and Phoma were identified. Interestingly, the four aquatic environments in this region harbored different aquatic fungal communities. Salinity, conductivity, and temperature were important factors in determining the aquatic fungal diversity and community composition. The results suggest the presence of diverse fungal communities and a considerable number of potentially novel fungal species in Arctic aquatic environments, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological and evolutionary responses of fungi to climate change in the Arctic ecosystem.

  5. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  6. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  7. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  8. Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung-Soon; Cho, Yun Sung; Guang, Xuanmin; Kang, Sung Gyun; Jeong, Jae-Yeon; Cha, Sun-Shin; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Lee, Jae-Hak; Yang, Eun Chan; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Wonduck; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sang-Jin; Choi, Dong Han; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Hak-Min; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Hyunmin; Shin, Young-Ah; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Awei; Li, Erli; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Haolong; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yu, Lili; Liu, Sha; Ahn, Kung; Cooper, Jesse; Park, Sin-Gi; Hong, Chang Pyo; Jin, Wook; Kim, Heui-Soo; Park, Chankyu; Lee, Kyooyeol; Chun, Sung; Morin, Phillip A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Lee, Hang; Kimura, Jumpei; Moon, Dae Yeon; Manica, Andrea; Edwards, Jeremy; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Sangsoo; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. Our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to body hair and sensory receptors were contracted. Our analysis also identified whale-specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration. Overall the whale-genome sequences exhibited distinct features that are associated with the physiological and morphological changes needed for life in an aquatic environment, marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and high salt levels.

  9. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  10. Relationship between osteology and aquatic locomotion in birds: determining modes of locomotion in extinct Ornithurae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinić-Frlog, S; Motani, R

    2010-02-01

    The evolutionary history of aquatic invasion in birds would be incomplete without incorporation of extinct species. We show that aquatic affinities in fossil birds can be inferred by multivariate analysis of skeletal features and locomotion of 245 species of extant birds. Regularized discriminant analyses revealed that measurements of appendicular skeletons successfully separated diving birds from surface swimmers and flyers, while also discriminating among different underwater modes of swimming. The high accuracy of this method allows detection of skeletal characteristics that are indicative of aquatic locomotion and inference of such locomotion in bird species with insufficient behavioural information. Statistical predictions based on the analyses confirm qualitative assessments for both foot-propelled (Hesperornithiformes) and wing-propelled (Copepteryx) underwater locomotion in fossil birds. This is the first quantitative inference of underwater modes of swimming in fossil birds, enabling future studies of locomotion in extinct birds and evolutionary transitions among locomotor modes in avian lineage.

  11. Comparison of four aquatic plant treatment systems for nutrient removal from eutrophied water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihua; Yang, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhengfang; Shan, Ying; Zheng, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient removal behaviors of four aquatic plant treatment systems (Oenanthe javanica, Iris pseudacorus L., Canna lily, and Potamogeton crispus) were systematically examined and compared. The kinetics of nutrient uptake were conducted with the standard depletion method. All four aquatic species exhibited a strong preference of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) over nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-)-N). Main pathways of nutrient removal in the aquatic plant treatment system were examined in details. It was estimated that direct assimilation by plants accounted for 28.2-34.5% of N reduction and 25.2-33.4% of P reduction while substrate absorption accounted for 7.2-25.5% of N reduction and 7.3-25.0% of P reduction. The activity of urease and phosphatase in the substrates could indicate the aquatic plant treatment system's capability for reducing TN and soluble P load.

  12. Aquatic insects as the main food resource of fish the community in a Neotropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Vidotto-Magnoni

    Full Text Available We evaluated the feeding of fish species of the Nova Avanhandava Reservoir, low Tietê River, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fishes were collected in two stretches of the reservoir: Santa Bárbara (14 samples and Bonito (two samples between September 2002 and March 2004, using gill and seining nets. The results of stomach contents analysis were expressed with the frequency of occurrence and gravimetric method, combined in the Alimentary Index (AI. The 20 species studied consumed 52 food items, grouped in 10 food categories: aquatic insects, terrestrial insects, crustaceans, fish, macroinvertebrates, microcrustaceans, algae, vegetal matter, detritus/sediment and scales. The aquatic insects (mainly Chironomidae, Odonata and Ephemeroptera were the most common food resources, consumed by 18 species. The diet composition of the community (species grouped indicated that the dominant food category in the diet of fishes was aquatic insects (AI = 77.6%, followed by crustaceans (AI = 7.1%. Four trophic guilds were identified according a cluster analysis (Pearson distance: insectivorous (10 species, omnivorous (4 species, detritivorous (3 species and piscivorous/carcinophagous (3 species. Despite the highest number of species, the insectivorous guild was responsible for more than 80% in captures in number and biomass (CPUEn and CPUEb. The low values of niche breadth presented by all species, along with the low values of diet overlap between species pairs indicate a high degree of food resources partitioning among species. The aquatic insects, despite being the main food resource of insectivorous fishes, also complemented the diet of other species, which demonstrate the importance of this food resource for the fish community, sustaining a high diversity, abundance and biomass of fishes.

  13. Morphological evolution from aquatic to terrestrial in the genus Oreolalax (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wei; Bin Wang; Ning Xu; Zizhong Li; Jianping Jiang

    2009-01-01

    A phylogeny of 17 species in the genus Oreolalax is reconstructed based on 21 morphological characters from adult specimens, skeleton specimens, tadpoles and eggs. Four species groups are recognized, of which the O. rugosus species group is the most primitive, the O. weigoldi species group is the second, the O. omeimontis species group is the third and the O. pingii species group is the most recently diversified. Based on the evolutional tendency of the morphological characters on the phylogenetic tree, it is proposed that the evolution of tympanum, tympanic annulus, columella, spoon-like cartilage and the web between toes reflect the habit changes from aquatic to terrestrial. Thus, Oreolalax is regarded as one important representative genus to study further the evolution of morphological characters from aquatic to terrestrial.

  14. Aquatic insect assemblages associated with subalpine stream segment types in relict glaciated headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Joshua S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Bolton, Susan M.; Weekes, Anne A.; Gara, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    1. Aquatic habitats and biotic assemblages in subalpine headwaters are sensitive to climate and human impacts. Understanding biotic responses to such perturbations and the contribution of high-elevation headwaters to riverine biodiversity requires the assessment of assemblage composition among habitat types. We compared aquatic insect assemblages among headwater stream segment types in relict glaciated subalpine basins in Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. 2. Aquatic insects were collected during summer and autumn in three headwater basins. In each basin, three different stream segment types were sampled: colluvial groundwater sources, alluvial lake inlets, and cascade-bedrock lake outlets. Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis revealed high β diversity in aquatic insect assemblages, and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that spatial and temporal patterns in assemblage composition differed among headwater stream segment types. Aquatic insect assemblages showed more fidelity to stream segment types than to individual basins, and the principal environmental variables associated with assemblage structure were temperature and substrate. 3. Indicator species analyses identified specific aquatic insects associated with each stream segment type. Several rare and potentially endemic aquatic insect taxa were present, including the recently described species, Lednia borealis (Baumann and Kondratieff). 4. Our results indicate that aquatic insect assemblages in relict glaciated subalpine headwaters were strongly differentiated among stream segment types. These results illustrate the contribution of headwaters to riverine biodiversity and emphasise the importance of these habitats for monitoring biotic responses to climate change. Monitoring biotic assemblages in high-elevation headwaters is needed to prevent the potential loss of unique and sensitive biota.

  15. The effects of aquatic exercise on body composition and nonspecific low back pain in elderly males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandoust, Khadijeh; Taheri, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aquatic exercises on nonspecific low back pain (LBP) in elderly males. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two elderly men aged 65 or older were recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: aquatic training (3 d/wk for 12 wk) or a control group. Body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (PBF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and trunk muscle mass were measured before and after training. [Results] The results suggested that all obesity variables including BMI, WHR, and PBF of the aquatic training group were decreased significantly, while the trunk muscle mass of the aquatic training group was increased significantly. Furthermore, low back pain was decreased in the subjects after the intervention. [Conclusion] The water-based program improved LBP and body composition in the elderly men. PMID:25729184

  16. Aquatic exercise in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Lidija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aquatic exercise is one of the most popular supplementary treatments for children with neuro-motor impairment, especially for cerebral palsy (CP. As water reduces gravity force which increases postural stability, a child with CP exercises more easily in water than on land. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine aquatic exercise effects on gross motor functioning, muscle tone and cardiorespiratory endurance in children with spastic CP. Methods. The study included 19 children of both sexes, aged 6 to 12 years, with spastic CP. They were included in a 12-week aquatic exercise program, twice a week. Measurements of GMFM (Gross Motor Function Measurement, spasticity (MAS – Modified Ashworth Scale, heart rate (HR and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max were carried out before and after treatment. The measurement results were compared before and after treatment. Results. GMFM mean value before therapy was 80.2% and statistically it was significantly lower in comparison to the same value after therapy, which was 86.2% (p<0.05. The level of spasticity was considerably decreased after therapy; the mean value before treatment was 3.21 according to MAS, and after treatment it was 1.95 (p<0.001. After treatment there was a statistically significant improvement of cardiorespiratory indurance, i.e., there was a significant decrease in the mean value of HR and a significant increase of VO2max (p<0.001. Conclusion. Aquatic exercise program can be useful in improving gross motor functioning, reducing spasticity and increasing cardiorespiratory endurance in children with spastic CP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175092

  17. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  18. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  19. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  20. Aquatic Therapy. Making Waves in Therapeutic Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation professionals often use aquatic therapy to improve physiological and psychological functioning, and they have reported improvements for people with many different types of disabilities. The paper discusses aquatic therapy methods, water as a therapeutic environment, professional training and development, and lifestyle…

  1. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  2. 77 FR 16256 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... minutes on the ANS Task Force Web site at: http://anstaskforce.gov/meetings.php . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... site at: http://anstaskforce.gov/meetings.php . Accessibility Information The meeting location...

  3. Impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asharani, P V; Serina, N G B; Nurmawati, M H; Wu, Y L; Gong, Z; Valiyaveettil, S

    2008-07-01

    To understand the environmental impacts of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the toxicity study was carried out with water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model system. Zebrafish embryos were treated with different concentrations of MWCNTs. Teratogenic effects were evaluated through changes in embryonic development after 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf), 48 hpf and 72 hpf. No observable effect concentration (NOEC) was at 40 microg/mL. Lowest effect concentration (LOEC) of MWCNTs which caused significant phenotypic defects in zebrafish embryo was 60 microg/mL. At concentration above 60 microg/mL, slimy mucus like coating was observed around the embryo. At high concentrations, MWCNTs was found to be involved in the apoptosis, delayed hatching and formation of abnormal spinal chords. Thus, the toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes is concentration dependent.

  4. Toxicity of benzotriazole and benzotriazole derivatives to three aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, D A; Cornell, J S; Dufresne, D L; Hernandez, M T

    2001-02-01

    Benzotriazole and its derivatives comprise an important class of corrosion inhibitors, typically used as trace additives in industrial chemical mixtures such as coolants, deicers, surface coatings, cutting fluids, and hydraulic fluids. Recent studies have shown that benzotriazole derivatives are a major component of aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs) responsible for toxicity to bacteria (Microtox). Our current research compared the toxicity of benzotriazole (BT), two methylbenzotriazole (MeBT) isomers, and butylbenzotriazole (BBT). Acute toxicity assays were used to model the response of three common test organisms: Microtox bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia). The response of all the three organisms varied over two orders of magnitude among all compounds. Vibrio fischeri was more sensitive than either C. dubia or P. promelas to all the test materials, while C. dubia was less sensitive than P. promelas. The response of test organisms to unmethylated benzotriazole and 4-methylbenzotriazole was similar, whereas 5-methylbenzotriazole was more toxic than either of these two compounds. BBT was the most toxic benzotriazole derivative tested, inducing acute toxicity at a concentration of < or = 3.3 mg/l to all organisms.

  5. Heavy metals determination in aquatic species for food purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Torsi, G. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2001-02-01

    New analytical procedures and sample mineralizations are proposed regarding the determination of arsenic, selenium, copper, lead, cadmium, zinc and mercury in matrices involved in food chain as mussel, clams and fishes. As regards As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn determinations. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3} acidic mixture is used for the digestion is performed using a concentrated supra pure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} mixture and the results are compared with those from other conventional methods (DPASV) are employed for determining simultaneously selenium, arsenic and copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, respectively, while mercury determination is carried out by the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) with reduction with SnCl{sub 2}. The voltammetric measurements were performed using a conventional three-electrode cell and the ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer (ph 9.3) as supporting electrolyte. For all the elements, in addition to the detection limits, precision and accuracy data are also reported: the former, expressed as relative standard deviation (S{sub r}), and the latter, expressed as relative error (e), are in all cases between 3 to 6%. [Italian] Viene proposta una nuova procedura analitica ed una nuova mineralizzazione del campione per la determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco e mercurio in matrici coinvolte nella catena alimentare come mitili e pesci. Per la determinazione di As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, le matrici sono state mineralizzate con una miscela acida H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}. Nel caso del Hg, la mineralizzazione del campione e' stata effettuata mediante una miscela H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} ed i risultati confrontati con quelli ottenuti impiegando altri metodi convenzionali. Per la simultanea determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco, sono state impiegate la voltammetria differenziale pulsata catodica (DPCSV) ed anodica (DPASV), mentre il mercurio e' stato determinato mediante spettroscopia di assorbimento atomico accoppiato alla tecnica dei vapori freddi (CV-ASS) mediante riduzione coN SnCl{sub 2}. Le misure voltammetriche venivano effettuate impiegando una convenzionale cella a tre elettrodi, usando tampone ammoniacale (pH 9.3) come elettrolita di supporto. Per tutti gli elementi, unitamente al limite di rivelabilita', vengono riportati i dati di precisione ed accuratezza: la prima, espressa come deviazione standard relativa (S{sub r}), e la seconda, espressa come errore relativo (e), sono risultate in tutti i casi dell'ordine del 3-6%.

  6. 76 FR 15334 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... minutes on the ANS Task Force Web site at: http://anstaskforce.gov/meetings.php . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... on the ANS Task Force Web site at: http://anstaskforce.gov/meetings.php . Dated: March 14,...

  7. Community-Based Progressive Aquatic Exercise for the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayle Maryanna Masslon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background We examined the feasibility and effectiveness of a community-based progressive aquatic exercise program for community dwelling older adults, with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis (OA. Objectives The purposes of this study were to 1, assess the effects of a progressive aquatic exercise program on the walking ability, stair climbing ability, quadriceps muscle strength, as well as self-reported symptoms, function, and quality of life in community dwelling adults with moderate to severe knee OA and; 2, assess the feasibility of a community-based aquatic program for community dwelling adults with knee OA. Methods Seventeen volunteers (12 women (x = 61.1 years and 5 men (x = 69.0 years participated in a progressive 8 - 10 week aquatic exercise program, consisting of 20 - 24, 1-hour sessions. Outcome measures, acquired twice before beginning the exercise protocol as well as after 4 and 8 weeks of exercise, included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS instrument, a 2 minute walk test (2MWT, a 10 step stair climb for time, and an isometric knee extension strength assessment. Results Significant improvements were detected in 2 MWT, 10 step stair climb, right quadriceps isometric force development, and the KOOS symptoms and stiffness subscale. Significant improvement was found on KOOS function subscales between baseline testing sessions and maintained at follow-up. Non-significant improvements were identified in left quadriceps isometric force development, KOOS pain, and KOOS quality of life. Conclusions These data suggest that a community-based, progressive aquatic exercise program is feasible and results in measurable improvements in function without worsening symptoms. Further study is warranted to investigate the impact of a longer program and the role of aquatic exercise in the long-term management of patients with knee OA.

  8. Cetacean brains: how aquatic are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori

    2007-06-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to a fully aquatic lifestyle represents one of the most dramatic transformations in mammalian evolutionary history. Two of the most salient features of modern cetaceans are their fully aquatic lifestyle and their large brains. This review article will offer an overview of comparative neuroanatomical research on aquatic mammals, including analyses of odontocete cetacean, sirenian, pinniped, and fossil archaeocete brains. In particular, the question of whether a relationship exists between being fully aquatic and having a large brain is addressed. It has been hypothesized that the large, well-developed cetacean brain is a direct product of adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. The current consensus is that the paleontological evidence on brain size evolution in cetaceans is not consistent with this hypothesis. Cetacean brain enlargement took place millions of years after adaptation to a fully aquatic existence. Neuroanatomical comparisons with sirenians and pinnipeds provide no evidence for the idea that the odontocete's large brain, high encephalization level, and extreme neocortical gyrification is an adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. Although echolocation has been suggested as a reason for the high encephalization level in odontocetes, it should be noted that not all aquatic mammals echolocate and echolocating terrestrial mammals (e.g., bats) are not particularly highly encephalized. Echolocation is not a requirement of a fully aquatic lifestyle and, thus, cannot be considered a sole effect of aquaticism on brain enlargement. These results indicate that the high encephalization level of odontocetes is likely related to their socially complex lifestyle patterns that transcend the influence of an aquatic environment.

  9. Do diatoms run downhill? Using biodiversity of terrestrial and aquatic diatoms to identify hydrological connectivity between aquatic zones in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, L.; Wetzel, C. E.; Martinez-Carreras, N.; Frentress, J.; Ector, L.; Hoffmann, L.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Diatoms are siliceous unicellular algae, and range in size between a few and more than 500 micrometers. Diatoms are spread worldwide, live in many aquatic habitats, have many life forms and their short generation time make them respond rapidly to environmental changes. Their taxonomic diversity represents a valuable tool to assess water quality as each taxon has specific responses to environmental factors. Recently, diatoms have been used as tracers to detect the onset/cessation of surface runoff through binary classification of terrestrial and aquatic species in the Attert basin in Luxembourg. In order to continue the validation of these first results, we have collected samples during rain events at different seasons of the year using automatic stream water samplers, grab samples of diatoms from various terrestrial and subaerial substrates (bryophytes, litter and leaves), as well as from aquatic habitats (epilithon, epipelon and drift samples). This new type of information will be used to constrain assumptions of the conventional tracer-based hydrograph separation technique (i.e. using geochemistry and stable isotopes). The first results concerning the diatom flora, based on 39 samples, revealed 152 species belonging to 38 genera. The most species-rich genera were Pinnularia (15.8% - 24 taxa), Eunotia (13.2% - 20 taxa), Gomphonema (8.6% - 13 taxa), Navicula (7.2% - 11 taxa) and Stauroneis (5.3% - 8 taxa). The flora are mainly composed of oligotrophic and/or acidophilic taxa (32.0%), ubiquitous (14.0%) or poorly known ecologically species (43.0%). The most important taxa found in drift samples were Fragilariforma virescens, Fragilaria capucina sensu lato, Planothidium lanceolatum, Eunotia minor, Achnanthidium kranzii, Karayevia oblongella and Eunotia incisa. In the riparian zone (n = 10), 102 species were observed, with Eunotia exigua var. tenella, Eunotia botuliformis and Pinnularia perirrorata being among the most frequent. Epilithic samples from the main channel

  10. Prevalence of Bartonella species DNA and antibodies in cats (Felis catus) submitted to a spay/neuter program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissiuma, Ana; Favacho, Alexsandra; Gershony, Liza; Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Gomes, Raphael; Mares-Guia, Angélica; Rozental, Tatiana; Barreira, Jairo; Lemos, Elba; Labarthe, Norma

    2011-02-01

    The prevalence of Bartonella species DNA and antibodies for Bartonella henselae were studied in 40 clinically healthy cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758) submitted to a spay/neuter program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Additionally, the prevalence of Bartonella species DNA was investigated in the fleas found parasitizing the subject cats. For this purpose, blood samples were obtained from all cats, and DNA extraction was performed on the blood, and blood clotted samples, as well as on pools of fleas obtained from them. Antibodies for B henselae were detected on serum samples. Bartonella species DNA was detected in 17 cats, whereas serum reactivity for B henselae was found in 19. A total of 20 cats were flea-infested and nine of these 20 had Bartonella species DNA in their blood. In four of the 20 flea-infested cats, Bartonella species DNA was detected in the fleas obtained from those cats, but only one of these four cats had Bartonella species DNA in its blood.

  11. Energetic extremes in aquatic locomotion by coral reef fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Fulton

    Full Text Available Underwater locomotion is challenging due to the high friction and resistance imposed on a body moving through water and energy lost in the wake during undulatory propulsion. While aquatic organisms have evolved streamlined shapes to overcome such resistance, underwater locomotion has long been considered a costly exercise. Recent evidence for a range of swimming vertebrates, however, has suggested that flapping paired appendages around a rigid body may be an extremely efficient means of aquatic locomotion. Using intermittent flow-through respirometry, we found exceptional energetic performance in the Bluelined wrasse Stethojulis bandanensis, which maintains tuna-like optimum cruising speeds (up to 1 metre s(-1 while using 40% less energy than expected for their body size. Displaying an exceptional aerobic scope (22-fold above resting, streamlined rigid-body posture, and wing-like fins that generate lift-based thrust, S. bandanensis literally flies underwater to efficiently maintain high optimum swimming speeds. Extreme energetic performance may be key to the colonization of highly variable environments, such as the wave-swept habitats where S. bandanensis and other wing-finned species tend to occur. Challenging preconceived notions of how best to power aquatic locomotion, biomimicry of such lift-based fin movements could yield dramatic reductions in the power needed to propel underwater vehicles at high speed.

  12. Downstream effects of a hydroelectric reservoir on aquatic plant assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernez, Ivan; Haury, Jacques; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2002-03-16

    Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d'Armor Department, western France) to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants" adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  13. Downstream Effects of a Hydroelectric Reservoir on Aquatic Plant Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bernez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d’Armor Department, western France to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants’ adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  14. Fungal endophytes of aquatic macrophytes: diverse host-generalists characterized by tissue preferences and geographic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Dustin C; Battista, Lorna J; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    Most studies of endophytic symbionts have focused on terrestrial plants, neglecting the ecologically and economically important plants present in aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated the diversity, composition, host and tissue affiliations, and geographic structure of fungal endophytes associated with common aquatic plants in lentic waters in northern Arizona, USA. Endophytes were isolated in culture from roots and photosynthetic tissues during two growing seasons. A total of 226 isolates representing 60 putative species was recovered from 9,600 plant tissue segments. Although isolation frequency was low, endophytes were phylogenetically diverse and species-rich. Comparisons among the most thoroughly sampled species and reservoirs revealed that isolation frequency and diversity did not differ significantly between collection periods, among species, among reservoirs, or as a function of depth. However, community structure differed significantly among reservoirs and tissue types. Phylogenetic analyses of a focal genus (Penicillium) corroborated estimates of species boundaries and informed community analyses, highlighting clade- and genotype-level affiliations of aquatic endophytes with both sediment- and waterborne fungi, and endophytes of proximate terrestrial plants. Together these analyses provide a first quantitative examination of endophytic associations in roots and foliage of aquatic plants and can be used to optimize survey strategies for efficiently capturing fungal biodiversity at local and regional scales.

  15. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo

    2014-08-01

    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

  16. Growth-form and spatiality driving the functional difference of native and alien aquatic plants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Balázs A; Vojtkó, Anna E; Mesterházy, Attila; Molnár V, Attila; Süveges, Kristóf; Végvári, Zsolt; Brusa, Guido; Cerabolini, Bruno E L

    2017-02-01

    Trait-based approaches are widely used in community ecology and invasion biology to unravel underlying mechanisms of vegetation dynamics. Although fundamental trade-offs between specific traits and invasibility are well described among terrestrial plants, little is known about their role and function in aquatic plant species. In this study, we examine the functional differences of aquatic alien and native plants stating that alien and native species differ in selected leaf traits. Our investigation is based on 60 taxa (21 alien and 39 native) collected from 22 freshwater units of Hungarian and Italian lowlands and highlands. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the effects of nativeness on four fundamental traits (leaf area, leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area, and leaf nitrogen content), while the influence of growth-form, altitude, and site were employed simultaneously. We found significantly higher values of leaf areas and significantly lower values of specific leaf areas for alien species if growth-form was included in the model as an additional predictor.We showed that the trait-based approach of autochthony can apply to aquatic environments similar to terrestrial ones, and leaf traits have relevance in explaining aquatic plant ecology whether traits are combined with growth-forms as a fixed factor. Our results confirm the importance of traits related to competitive ability in the process of aquatic plant invasions. Alien aquatic plants can be characterized as species producing soft leaves faster. We argue that the functional traits of alien aquatic plants are strongly growth-form dependent. Using the trait-based approach, we found reliable characteristics of aquatic plants related to species invasions, which might be used, for example, in conservation management.

  17. Herbivory and growth in terrestrial and aquatic populations of amphibious stream plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Jacobsen, Dean

    2002-01-01

    1. Many amphibious plant species grow in the transition between terrestrial and submerged vegetation in small lowland streams. We determined biomass development, leaf turnover rate and invertebrate herbivory during summer in terrestrial and aquatic populations of three amphibious species...... production (average 1.2-5.1%) than aquatic populations (2.9-17.3%), while the same plant dry mass was consumed per unit ground area. 3. Grazing loss increased linearly with leaf age apart from the youngest leaf stages. Grazing loss during the lifetime of leaves was therefore 2.4-3.1 times higher than mean...... apparent loss to standing leaves of all ages. The results imply that variation in density of grazers relative to plant production can account for differences in grazing impact between terrestrial and aquatic populations, and that fast leaf turnover keeps apparent grazing damage down. 4. We conclude...

  18. Next-generation monitoring of aquatic biodiversity using environmental DNA metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Alice; Taberlet, Pierre; Miaud, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Global biodiversity in freshwater and the oceans is declining at high rates. Reliable tools for assessing and monitoring aquatic biodiversity, especially for rare and secretive species, are important for efficient and timely management. Recent advances in DNA sequencing have provided a new tool...... for species detection from DNA present into the environment. In this study, we tested if an environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding approach, using water samples, can be used for addressing significant questions in ecology and conservation. Two key aquatic vertebrate groups were targeted: amphibians and bony...... the potential to become the next-generation tool for ecological studies and standardized biodiversity monitoring in a wide range of aquatic ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  19. Effectiveness of aquatic therapy in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized controlled open study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcik, Deniz; Yigit, Ilknur; Pusak, Hasan; Kavuncu, Vural

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aquatic exercises in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A total of 63 patients were included and allocated to two groups. Group I (n = 33) received an aquatic exercise program and Group II (n = 30) received a home-based exercise program for 60 min, 3x a week, over 5 weeks. Patients were evaluated for pain (visual analogue scale, VAS), number of tender points (NTP), Beck depression inventory (BDI), and functional capacity (fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, FIQ). All assessment parameters were measured at baseline, and at weeks 4, 12, and 24. There were statistically significant differences in FIQ and NTP in both groups at the end and during follow-up (P aquatic therapy group. A comparison of the two groups showed no statistically significant difference for FIQ, NTP, and BDI scores except VAS (P aquatic therapy and home-based exercise programs have beneficial effects on FIQ, BDI, and NTP. In pain management, only aquatic therapy seems to have long-term effects.

  20. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, Julian E; Hoffman, David J

    2002-04-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH(3)Se(minus sign) which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. L-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of L-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that L-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. L-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of L-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of L-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of L-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of L-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when L-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing

  1. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  2. Aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings—synthesis and guidelines for effectiveness monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hansen, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Restoration and maintenance of passage for aquatic organisms at road-stream crossings represents a major management priority, involving an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars (for example, U.S. Government Accounting Office, 2001). In recent years, passage at hundreds of crossings has been restored, primarily by replacing barrier road culverts with bridges or stream simulation culverts designed to pass all species and all life stages of aquatic life and simulate natural hydro-geomorphic processes (U.S. Forest Service, 2008). The current situation has motivated two general questions: 1. Are current design standards for stream simulation culverts adequately re-establishing passage for aquatic biota? and 2. How do we monitor and evaluate effectiveness of passage restoration? To address the latter question, a national workshop was held in March 2010, in Portland, Oregon. The workshop included experts on aquatic organism passage from across the nation (see table of participants, APPENDIX) who addressed four classes of methods for monitoring effectiveness of aquatic organism passage—individual movement, occupancy, demography, and genetics. This report has been written, in part, for field biologists who will be undertaking and evaluating the effectiveness of aquatic organism passage restoration projects at road-stream crossings. The report outlines basic methods for evaluating road-stream crossing passage impairment and restoration and discusses under what circumstances and conditions each method will be useful; what questions each method can potentially answer; how to design and implement an evaluation study; and points out the fundamental reality that most evaluation projects will require special funding and partnerships among researchers and resource managers. The report is organized into the following sections, which can be read independently: 1. Historical context: In this section, we provide a brief history of events leading up to the present situation

  3. Disability predictors in chronic low back pain after aquatic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Beato, Pedro Ángel; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Artero, Enrique G; Robles-Fuentes, Alejandro; Gatto-Cardia, María Claudia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    The physical and psychological factors associated with reduction of disability after aquatic exercise are not well understood. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women; age, 50.60 [9.69] yrs; body mass index, 27.21 [5.20] kg/m²) with chronic low back pain were prospectively recruited. The 8-wk aquatic therapy program was carried out in an indoor pool sized 25 × 6 m, with 140-cm water depth and 30°C (1°C) of water temperature, where patients exercised for 2-5 days a week. Each aquatic exercise session lasted 55-60 mins (10 mins of warm-up, 20-25 mins of aerobic exercise, 15-20 mins of resistance exercise, and 10 mins of cooldown). Demographic information, disability (Oswestry Disability Index), back pain (visual analog scale), quality-of-life (Short Form 36), abdominal muscular endurance (curl-up), handgrip strength, trunk flexion and hamstring length (sit and reach), resting heart rate, and body mass index were outcomes variables. Significant correlations between change in disability and visual analog scale (at rest, flexion, and extension), curl-up and handgrip (r ranged between -0.353 and 0.582, all Ps < 0.01) were found. Changes in pain and abdominal muscular endurance were significant predictors of change in disability after therapy.

  4. The study of aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics: a scientometrical view of the main trends and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, A A; Bini, L M; Thomaz, S M

    2008-11-01

    Aquatic macrophytes comprises a diverse group of organisms including angiosperms, ferns, mosses, liverworts and some macroalgae that occur in seasonally or permanently wet environments. Among other implications, aquatic macrophytes are highly productive and with an important structuring role on aquatic environments. Ecological studies involving aquatic plants substantially increased in the last years. However, a precise view of researches devoted to aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics is necessary to reach a reliable evaluation of the scientific production. In the current study, we performed a scientometrics analysis of the scientific production devoted to Neotropical macrophytes in an attempt to find the main trends and gaps of researches concerning this group. The publication devoted to macrophytes in Neotropics increased conspicuously in the last two decades. Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Chile were the most productive among Neotropical countries. Our analyses showed that the studies dealt mostly with the influences of aquatic macrophytes on organisms and abiotic features. Studies with a predictive approach or aiming to test ecological hypothesis are scarce. In addition, researches aiming to describe unknown species are still necessary. This is essential to support conservation efforts and to subsidize further investigations testing ecological hypotheses.

  5. [Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; De Haro, L

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  6. Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2009-02-01

    Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA.

  7. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n = 6X = 42, AABBDD breeding programs aim to reorganize genotypes to achieve better yields, environmental adaptation and food quality. The necessary interdisciplinarity for breeding purposes requires an accurate choice of the most appropriate cellular and/or molecular strategies available to be integrated with agronomic approaches in order to overcome the genetic limitation of each cultivated species, at each agroecosystem. Cytogenetics has given a great contribution to wheat genetic studies and breeding, due to viability of chromosomal variants because of homoeology among genomes in this allohexaploid species and the genus Triticum. The level of development of cytogenetic techniques achieved over the last 60 years has set wheat apart from other cereal crops in terms of possibilities to introduce genetic material from other species. Cytogenetic approaches have been extensively used in chromosomal mapping and/or resistance gene transference from tribe Triticeae-related species. Monosomic analysis, entire chromosomes engineered through single additions and/or substitutions, reciprocal translocation through radiation or manipulation of homoeologous pairing, as well as synthesis of new amphiploids to allow homologous recombination by chiasmata evolved considerably since the past decades. The association of tissue culture and molecular biology techniques provides bread wheat breeding programs with a powerful set of biotechnological tools. However, knowledge on genetic system components, cytotaxonomical relationships, cytogenetic structure and evolutionary history of wheat species cannot be neglected. This information indicates the appropriate strategy to avoid isolation mechanisms in interspecific or intergeneric crosses, according to the genome constitution of the species the desired gene is to be transferred from. The development of amphiploids as "bridge" species is one of the available procedures

  8. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-11-26

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  9. Assessing the Fauna of Aquatic Insects for Possible Use for Malaria Vector Control in Large River, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Shayeghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Insects with over 30,000 aquatic species are known as very successful arthropods in freshwater habitats. Some of them are applied as biological indicators for water quality control, as well as the main food supply for fishes and amphibians. The faunistic studies are the basic step in entomological researches; the current study was carried out emphasizing on the fauna of aquatic insects in Karaj River, northern Iran. A field study was carried out in six various sampling site of Karaj River during spring 2013. The aquatic insects were collected using several methods such as D-frame nets, dipping and direct search on river floor stones. Specimens were collected and preserved in Ethanol and identified by standard identification keys. Totally, 211 samples were collected belonging to three orders; Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera. Seven genuses (Perla, Isoperla, Hydropsyche, Cheumatopsyche, Baetis, Heptagenia and Maccafferium from five families (Perlidae, Perlodidae, Hydropsychidae, Batidae, Heptagenidae were identified. The most predominant order was Plecoptera followed by Trichoptera. Karaj River is a main and important river, which provides almost all of water of Karaj dam. So, identification of aquatic species which exist in this river is vital and further studies about systematic and ecological investigations should be performed. Also, monitoring of aquatic biota by trained health personnel can be a critical step to describe water quality in this river. Understanding the fauna of aquatic insects will provide a clue for possible biological control of medically important aquatic insects such as Anopheles as the malaria vectors.

  10. Assessing the Fauna of Aquatic Insects for Possible Use for Malaria Vector Control in Large River, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeghi, Mansoureh; Nejati, Jalil; Shirani-Bidabadi, Leila; Koosha, Mona; Badakhshan, Mehdi; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Arzamani, Kourosh; Choubdar, Nayyereh; Bagheri, Fatemeh; Saghafipour, Abedin; Veysi, Arshad; Karimian, Fateh; Akhavan, Amir Ahamd; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Insects with over 30,000 aquatic species are known as very successful arthropods in freshwater habitats. Some of them are applied as biological indicators for water quality control, as well as the main food supply for fishes and amphibians. The faunistic studies are the basic step in entomological researches; the current study was carried out emphasizing on the fauna of aquatic insects in Karaj River, northern Iran. A field study was carried out in six various sampling site of Karaj River during spring 2013. The aquatic insects were collected using several methods such as D-frame nets, dipping and direct search on river floor stones. Specimens were collected and preserved in Ethanol and identified by standard identification keys. Totally, 211 samples were collected belonging to three orders; Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera. Seven genuses (Perla, Isoperla, Hydropsyche, Cheumatopsyche, Baetis, Heptagenia and Maccafferium) from five families (Perlidae, Perlodidae, Hydropsychidae, Batidae, Heptagenidae) were identified. The most predominant order was Plecoptera followed by Trichoptera. Karaj River is a main and important river, which provides almost all of water of Karaj dam. So, identification of aquatic species which exist in this river is vital and further studies about systematic and ecological investigations should be performed. Also, monitoring of aquatic biota by trained health personnel can be a critical step to describe water quality in this river. Understanding the fauna of aquatic insects will provide a clue for possible biological control of medically important aquatic insects such as Anopheles as the malaria vectors.

  11. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  12. Aquatic carbon fluxes from the conterminous US and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, D. E.; Stackpoole, S. M.; Stets, E.; McDonald, C.; Clow, D. W.; Striegl, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, the First State of the Carbon Cycle Report estimated that rivers exported ~ 35 Tg-C yr-1 to coastal systems and reservoirs in the US served as sink of ~ 25 Tg-C yr-1 through sedimentation, each reported with 95% confidence that the estimate was within 100%. Significant progress has been made to constrain and improve these estimates by carefully considering how inland water ecosystems dynamically process, transport, and sequester carbon with attention given to the gaseous evasion of carbon across the air-water interface, a component that was not included in the 2007 estimates. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's LandCarbon program, we present the first integrated assessment of freshwater carbon cycling for the conterminous US and Alaska. We estimate that 147 (95% confidence interval of 101- 208) Tg-C yr-1 is exported downstream or emitted to the atmosphere and sedimentation stores 22 (95% confidence interval of 10-68) Tg-C yr-1 in lakes and reservoirs. We show that there is significant regional variation in aquatic carbon flux, but verify that emission across stream and river surfaces represents the dominant removal flux at 85 Tg-C yr-1, or 58% of the total aquatic carbon flux. These new estimates for aquatic carbon fluxes indicate that inland waters must be considered in the context of national scale carbon accounting. For the conterminous US, we compare our results to the output of Terrestrial Biosphere Models. Analysis suggests that within the current modelling framework, calculations of Net Ecosystem Production may be overestimated by as much as 27%. Reconciliation of mass-flux interactions between terrestrial and aquatic carbon sources and sinks will require significant additional field data collection and modelling capacity.

  13. Human Exploitation of Aquatic Landscapes. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures and in the formation of communal identities. The aim of this special themed issue of Internet Archaeology is to contribute to a better understanding of different forms of human interaction with aquatic landscapes.

  14. A Mixed Picture of AQUATIC PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aquatic products constitute an important part of China's international trade in agricultural products with the strongest competitiveness for export.The aquatic products industry of apparent competitive edge has maintained a considerable trade surplus despite the general trend of trade deficit among agricultural products in recent years.Nevertheless,the great changes taking place in the global economic and trade pattern in late years have given rise to the increasing uncertainties of the supply and demand as well as the price in the international aquatic products market.

  15. Mercury bioaccumulation along food webs in temperate aquatic ecosystems colonized by aquatic macrophytes in south western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentès, Sophie; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Guyoneaud, Rémy; Monperrus, Mathilde; André, Jean-Marc; Davail, Stéphane; Legeay, Alexia

    2013-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is considered as an important pollutant for aquatic systems as its organic form, methylmercury (MeHg), is easily bioaccumulated and bioamplified along food webs. In various ecosystems, aquatic periphyton associated with macrophyte was identified as an important place for Hg storage and methylation by microorganisms. Our study concerns temperate aquatic ecosystems (South Western France) colonized by invasive macrophytes and characterized by high mercury methylation potentials. This work establishes original data concerning Hg bioaccumulation in organisms (plants, crustaceans, molluscs and fish) from five contrasting ecosystems. For low trophic level species, total Hg (THg) concentrations were low (from 27±2ngTHgg(-1)dw in asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea to 418±114ngTHgg(-1)dw in crayfish Procambarus clarkii). THg concentrations in some carnivorous fish (high trophic level) were close to or exceeded the International Marketing Level (IML) with values ranging from 1049±220ngTHgg(-1)dw in pike perch muscle (Sander lucioperca) to 3910±1307ngTHgg(-1)dw in eel muscle (Anguilla Anguilla). Trophic levels for the individuals were also evaluated through stable isotope analysis, and linked to Hg concentrations of organisms. A significant Hg biomagnification (r(2)= 0.9) was observed in the Aureilhan lake, despite the absence of top predator fish. For this site, Ludwigia sp. periphyton, as an entry point of Hg into food webs, is a serious hypothesis which remains to be confirmed. This study provides a first investigation of Hg transfer in the ecosystems of south western France and allows the assessment of the risk associated with the presence of Hg in aquatic food webs.

  16. Management implications of the science: Chapter 7 in A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kent; Goodbred, Steven L.; Rosen, Michael R.; Miller, Jennell M.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Mead, particularly its Boulder Basin, is one of the most intensively monitored reservoirs in the United States. With its importance to societal needs and ecosystem benefits, interest in water quality and water resources of Lake Mead will remain high. A number of agencies have authorities and management interests in Lake Mead and maintain individual agency monitoring programs. These programs were enhanced on an interagency basis from 2004 to 2012 to facilitate intensive monitoring in all major basins of the lake. Recognition that increasing stressors and influences in individual basins can affect water quality throughout Lake Mead and gave rise to an even stronger effort towards the development of holistic and effective interagency approaches. In 2010, agency monitoring programs were used to develop a management plan for water-dependent resources at Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA). The Long-Term Limnological and Aquatic Resource Monitoring and Research Plan for Lakes Mead and Mohave (the Plan; National Park Service, 2010) documented key management questions to be addressed through monitoring and research, and identified interagency strategic objectives for water quality and water-dependent resources. Moreover, the Plan provides a framework for summarizing water quality and water resource information in five resource categories: water quality and limnology; fish and aquatic biota; sediments; birds; and riparian vegetation. The Plan also addresses three stressors to lake resources: contaminants, invasive species, and climate change. For each of these topics, the current (2012) state of knowledge is summarized for LMNRA (table 7-1), including key scientific questions and findings, management implications, and information needs. A more detailed discussion for each topic follows.

  17. GLOBAL CLIMATE AND LARGE-SCALE INFLUENCES ON AQUATIC ANIMAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last 3 decades have witnessed numerous large-scale mortality events of aquatic organisms in North America. Affected species range from ecologically-important sea urchins to commercially-valuable American lobsters and protected marine mammals. Short-term forensic investigation...

  18. Prerequisites for flying snails: external transport potential of aquatic snails by waterbirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.; Van der Velde, G.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread distributions of aquatic species often contrast with their limited ability to disperse by their own propulsion among wetlands isolated by land. Studies of the potential role of water birds as dispersal vectors have been focused mainly on internal transport (endozoochory). However, man

  19. Epidemiological approach to aquatic animal health management: opportunities and challenges for developing countries to increase aquatic production through aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2005-02-01

    Aquaculture appears to have strongest potential to meet the increasing demands for aquatic products in most regions of the world. The world population is on the increase, as is the demand for aquatic food products. Production from capture fisheries at a global level is levelling off. Potential contributions from aquaculture to local food security, livelihoods and nutrition can be highly significant, especially in many remote and resource-poor rural areas. One of the major constraints to aquaculture production is the losses due to diseases. Over the decades, the sector has faced significant problems with disease outbreaks and epidemics which caused significant economic losses. The use of sound epidemiological principles and logical and science-based approach to identify and manage risks comprise two of the most important components of an effective biosecurity program. The maintenance of effective biosecurity in aquaculture is becoming more and more essential. There will be more demand for aquatic animal epidemiologists as well as epidemiological tools/resources in the region. The use of epidemiology will significantly improve health management, risk analysis and disease control. Although there are clear limitations and complications in the use of epidemiology for controlling aquatic animal pathogens, some positive results have recently emerged from a series of studies and trials to control diseases affecting the small-scale shrimp farming sector in southern India. This paper summarises the results of one such study which emphasizes the significant benefit of close collaboration with farmers, both individually and as groups, and capacity and awareness building among them and the importance of understanding the risk factors and implementing better management practices.

  20. Estudo comparativo da dieta, hábitos alimentares e morfologia trófica de duas espécies simpátricas, de peixes de pequeno porte, associados à macrófitas aquáticas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.167 Comparative study about diet, feeding habits and trophic morphology of two sympatric species of small fishes in association with aquatic macrophytes- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.167

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdirene Esgarbossa Loureiro-Crippa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Nesse estudo foram avaliados aspectos da dieta e morfologia trófica de duas espécies simpátricas, uma de Cheirodontinae e uma de Aphyocharacinae, associadas a macrofitas aquáticas, em nove lagoas isoladas da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil, no ano de 2001. A análise da dieta mostrou que Aphyocharax anisitsi consumiu predominantemente microcrustáceos e Serrapinnus notomelas predominantemente algas. A morfologia do trato alimentar, incluindo boca, dentes, rastros branquiais e estômago, apresentou, aparentemente, o mesmo padrão para as duas espécies. Entretanto, os dentes são mais robustos em S. notomelas. Houve interação significativa entre o comprimento padrão (F2,215 = 74,89; p1,215 = 4,72; pS. notomelas e a menor para A. anisitsi, sendo essa diferença significativa. Os dados de dieta e morfologia, analisados conjuntamente, permitem inferir que há segregação trófica entre as duas espécies examinadas. E, ainda, que a co-existência dessas espécies é favorecida pelo amplo suprimento alimentar fornecido pelas macrófitas aquáticas.In this study we analyzed the diet and trophic morphology of two species, one of Cheirodontinae and one of Aphyocharacinae, associated with aquatic macrophytes in nine isolated lagoons of the Paraná river floodplain, Brazil, during 2001. Diet showed that Aphyocharax anisitsi feed mainly on microcrustaceans and Serrapinnus notomelas feed mainly on algae. Trophic morphology, including mouth, tooth, gill rakers and stomach showed apparently the same pattern for the two species. However, teeth are the biggest and the hardest in S. notomelas. Regarding intestine length there was significant interaction between standard length (F2.215 = 74.89; p1.215 = 4.72; pS. notomelas and a smaller mean in A. anisitsi. Based on dates of diet and morphology, it is possible to conclude that there are trophic segregation between the two species. Thus, the co-existence of these species is possible in

  1. Biomarkers in aquatic plants: selection and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Cedergreen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    is thereby well suited for repeated measures of effect and recovery (Abbaspoor and Streibig 2005; Abbaspoor et al. 2006; Cedergreen et al. 2004). Bi-phasic responses (over time and with dose) are probably major sources of variation in sensitivity for many biomarkers. Metabolic enzymes, stress proteins, ROS and their corresponding scavenging enzymes increase in a time-frame and at doses in which plant cell damage is still repairable. However, when toxicity progresses to the point of cell damage, the concentration/activity of the biomarker either stabilizes or decreases. Examples of this response pattern are given in Lei et al. (2006); Pflugmacher et al. (2000b); Teisseire et al. (1998); and Teisseire and Guy (2000). Gene expression is also a time-dependent phenomenon varying several fold within a few hour. Therefore, bi-phasic response patterns make timing and dose-range, within which the biomarkers can be used as measures of both exposure and effect, extremely important. As a result, most biomarkers are best suited for situations in which the time and dose dependence of the biomarker, in the investigated species, are established. Notwithstanding the previously mentioned limitations, all assessed biomarkers provide valuable information on the physiological effects of specific stressors, and are valuable tools in the search for understanding xenobiotic modes of action. However, the future use of aquatic plant biomarkers will probably be confined to laboratory studies designed to assess toxicant modes of action, until further knowledge is gained regarding the time, dose and growth-factor dependence of biomarkers, in different species. No single biomarker is viable in gaining a comprehensive understanding of xenobiotic stress. Only through the concomitant measurement of a suite of appropriate biomarkers will our diagnostic capacity be enhanced and the field of ecotoxicology, as it relates to aquatic plants, advanced.

  2. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: prospects for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n=200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1,217 μg L(-1). The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4,979 mg kg(-1)) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963mgkg(-1)), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg(-1)), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg(-1)), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg(-1)), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg(-1)). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg(-1)). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg(-1)) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production.

  3. VT Biodiversity Project - Aquatic Sites boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Exemplary aquatic sites in Vermont, both standing water and running water, are represented in this dataset. It is the result of an analysis by the...

  4. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) - Volusia County Seagrass

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Aquatic vegetation in Volusia County. DEP SEA_GRASSES This polygon GIS data set represents a compilation of statewide seagrass data from various source agencies and...

  5. Using AquaticHealth.net to Detect Emerging Trends in Aquatic Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Grossel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AquaticHealth.net is an open-source aquatic biosecurity intelligence application. By combining automated data collection and human analysis, AquaticHealth.net provides fast and accurate disease outbreak detection and forecasts, accompanied with nuanced explanations. The system has been online and open to the public since 1 January 2010, it has over 200 registered expert users around the world, and it typically publishes about seven daily reports and two weekly disease alerts. We document the major trends in aquatic animal health that the system has detected over these two years, and conclude with some forecasts for the future.

  6. Aquatic exercise in older Korean women with arthritis: identifying barriers to and facilitators of long-term adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Sook; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Kim, Mi Ja; Kim, Jong Im; Lee, Eun-Ok

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing long-term adherence to aquatic exercise in older women with arthritis. Participants (n = 72) completed an educational program on aquatic exercise and underwent follow up for 6 months. At follow-up, women who continued aquatic exercise (adherence group, n = 25) had significantly higher scores than women in the nonadherence group (n = 47) in exercise self-efficacy (p exercise (rho = 0.78). The findings provide insights for the development of strategies to promote long-term adherence to this type of aquatic exercise. Specifically, the findings encourage the fostering of exercise self-efficacy and social group cohesion during participation in educational programs to increase long-term exercise adherence.

  7. DIALOG: Fostering Early Career Development Across the Aquatic Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Susan Weiler, PhD

    2004-11-14

    A total of 447 dissertation abstracts were received for the DIALOG V Program, with 146 individuals applying for the DIALOG V Symposium; 47 were invited and 45 have accepted. This represents a significant increase compared to the DIALOG IV Program in which 221 abstracts were registered and 124 applied for the symposium. The importance of the dissertation registration service is indicated by the increasing number of individuals who take time to register their dissertation even when they are not interested in applying to the symposium. The number of visits to the webpage has also increased significantly over the years. This also reflects graduate interest in being part of the on-line Dissertation Registry and receiving the weekly electronic DIALOG Newsletter. See http://aslo.org/phd.html for details. The DIALOG symposium reaches approximately 40 new PI's at a pivotal point in their research careers. Based on their comments, the symposium changes the way participants think, communicate, and approach their research. The science community and the general population will benefit from the perspectives these new PI's bring back to their home institutions and share with their students and colleagues. This group should act as a catalyst to move the entire field in exciting new, interdisciplinary directions. To reach more graduates, plans are underway to establish the symposium on an annual basis. By facilitating the development of close collegial ties, symposium participants come away with a network of colleagues from around the globe with interests in aquatic science research and education. Past participants are collaborating on research proposals, and all have noted that participation has enabled them to develop a more interdisciplinary view of their field, influencing the way they interpret, communicate, and approacli their research. The dissertation registry provides a unique introduction to the work of this most recent generation of aquatic scientists. Each

  8. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  9. Experimental quantification of long distance dispersal potential of aquatic snails in the gut of migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H A van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available Many plant seeds and invertebrates can survive passage through the digestive system of birds, which may lead to long distance dispersal (endozoochory in case of prolonged retention by moving vectors. Endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds has nowadays been documented for many aquatic plant seeds, algae and dormant life stages of aquatic invertebrates. Anecdotal information indicates that endozoochory is also possible for fully functional, active aquatic organisms, a phenomenon that we here address experimentally using aquatic snails. We fed four species of aquatic snails to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, and monitored snail retrieval and survival over time. One of the snail species tested was found to survive passage through the digestive tract of mallards as fully functional adults. Hydrobia (Peringia ulvae survived up to five hours in the digestive tract. This suggests a maximum potential transport distance of up to 300 km may be possible if these snails are taken by flying birds, although the actual dispersal distance greatly depends on additional factors such as the behavior of the vectors. We put forward that more organisms that acquired traits for survival in stochastic environments such as wetlands, but not specifically adapted for endozoochory, may be sufficiently equipped to successfully pass a bird's digestive system. This may be explained by a digestive trade-off in birds, which maximize their net energy intake rate rather than digestive efficiency, since higher efficiency comes with the cost of prolonged retention times and hence reduces food intake. The resulting lower digestive efficiency allows species like aquatic snails, and potentially other fully functional organisms without obvious dispersal adaptations, to be transported internally. Adopting this view, endozoochorous dispersal may be more common than up to now thought.

  10. Aquatic environment, housing, and management in the eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: additional considerations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Timothy J; Matthews, Monte

    2012-05-01

    The eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recognizes the widespread use of aquatic and semiaquatic research animals by including, among other references, an entire section on aquatic animals in its chapter on environment, housing, and management. Recognizing the large number of aquatic and semiaquatic species used in research and the inherent diversity in animal needs, the Guide refers the reader to texts and journal reviews for specific recommendations and suggests consultations with persons experienced in caring for aquatic species. Here we present considerations that may add to the basic information presented in the Guide and offer some recommendations that may be useful for aquatic animal model caregivers and researchers.

  11. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  12. Les mammiferes aquatiques: lexique anglais-francais des mammiferes marins actuels ou recemment disparus, y compris les especes d'eau douce des groupes surtout marins (Aquatic Mammals: English-French Glossary of Livinq or Recently Extinct Marine Mammals, Including the Fresh Water Species of Prevalently Marine Groups).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrassoff, Vladimir N.

    1980-01-01

    Introduces a new glossary of aquatic mammals representing recent taxonomic revisions. Describes its design, which consists of the glossary proper, listing the scientific name of each entry followed by its English and French equivalents, and of two indexes, listing other common names for the same entries referred back to the scientific term. (MES)

  13. Contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into the Loch Katrine Wetland Complex, Park County, Wyoming and their bioconcentration in the aquatic bird food chain

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. However, the complex is sustained primarily by...

  14. A bumblefoot outbreak and fatal septicemia in captive aquatic birds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marques,Marcus Vinícius Romero; Resende,José Sérgio de; Donatti,Rogério Venâncio; Vilela,Daniel Ambrózio da Rocha; Ecco, Roselene; Martins,Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2009-01-01

    A bumblefoot outbreak with different prognosis according to host species was studied in captive aquatic avian species. Six wood ducks (Aix sponsa), three scarlet-ibis (Eudocimus ruber), two black-swans (Cygnus atratus), five white-faced ducks (Dendrocygna viduata) and two roseate spoonbills (Platalea ajaja) were kept in a common pen with abrasive pavement pond margin, predisposing to podal skin wear. Incoordination and mortality occurred in the two roseate spoonbils and one black swan. Coagul...

  15. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Dark Septate Endophyte Fungal Associations in South Indian Aquatic and Wetland Macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Seerangan; Muthukumar Thangavelu

    2014-01-01

    Investigations on the prevalence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) fungal symbioses are limited for plants growing in tropical aquatic and wetland habitats compared to those growing on terrestrial moist or dry habitats. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of AM and DSE symbiosis in 8 hydrophytes and 50 wetland plants from four sites in south India. Of the 58 plant species examined, we found AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in 21 and five species, respectively. We rep...

  16. Aquatic macrophytes as indicators of heavy metal pollution of water in DTD canal system

    OpenAIRE

    Pajević Slobodanka P.; Vučković Mirjana S.; Kevrešan Žarko S.; Matavulj Milan N.; Radulović Snežana B.; Radnović Dragan V.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to establish the presence or absence of chemical contamination of water and the littoral zone (banks) of Danube-Tisza-Danube (DTD) canal system. The investigation covered the canal section from Bezdan to Prigrevica. By analyzing the chemical composition of dominant aquatic species in four locations of the section, we defined the species with the highest capacity to accumulate nutrients and heavy metals. Concentrations of P and K as well as of a beneficial ele...

  17. BIOACCUMULATION AND AQUATIC SYSTEM SIMULATOR (BASS) USER'S MANUAL BETA TEST VERSION 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and borderline metals that complex wi...

  18. Matrix Population Model for Estimating Effects from Time-Varying Aquatic Exposures: Technical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pesticide Programs models daily aquatic pesticide exposure values for 30 years in its risk assessments. However, only a fraction of that information is typically used in these assessments. The population model employed herein is a deterministic, density-dependent pe...

  19. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, AQUATIC RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS, RUSSIAN PEAT BORER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...

  20. Case Comparison of Response To Aquatic Exercise: Acute versus Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobily, Kenneth E.; Mobily, Paula R.; Lessard, Kerry A.; Berkenpas, Molly S.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the effects of individualized aquatic exercise programs on people with knee impairments. An adolescent athlete with an acute injury demonstrated significant functional improvement. A 33-year-old with arthritis demonstrated only marginal progress. Comparison of cases relative to valid data collection methods and response to aquatic…