WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquatic plants invertebrates

  1. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

  2. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  3. Effects of sediment load on emergence of aquatic invertebrates and plants from wetland soil egg and seed banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, R.A.; Euliss, N.H., Jr.; Hubbard, D.E.; Duffy, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Intensive agricultural activities near prairie wetlands may result in excessive sediment loads, which may bury seed and invertebrate egg banks that are important for maintenance and cycling of biotic communities during wet/dry cycles. Sediment-load experiments indicated that burial depths of 0.5 cm caused a 91.7% reduction in total seedling emergence and a 99.7% reduction in total invertebrate emergence. These results suggest sediment entering wetlands from agricultural erosion may hamper successional changes throughout interannual climate cycles.

  4. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out. PMID:23001759

  5. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed. PMID:26282752

  6. Effects of pharmaceuticals on immune parameters of aquatic invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Matozzo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals are a large group of chemicals used either by humans for personal health or by agribusiness to enhance the growth and health of livestock. Pharmaceuticals are considered to be emerging environmental contaminants. Indeed, several studies have shown that these compounds continuously enter aquatic ecosystems. Both pharmaceutical consumption and erroneous discharge of unused or expired medications make notable contributions to the introduction of pharmaceuticals into the environment. Additionally, pharmaceuticals consumed by humans and livestock are not entirely absorbed by organisms and are excreted and passed into wastewater and surface water. Although most pharmaceuticals are designed for human consumption, they can affect non-target organisms that share certain homologous receptors with humans. This review intends to summarise the most recent information concerning the effects of some classes of pharmaceuticals on the immune parameters of aquatic invertebrates.

  7. Uptake and depuration of pharmaceuticals in aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake and depuration of a range of pharmaceuticals in the freshwater shrimp (Gammarus pulex) and the water boatman (Notonecta glauca) was studied. For one compound, studies were also done using the freshwater snail Planobarius corneus. In G. pulex, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 4.6 to 185,900 and increased in the order moclobemide < 5-fluoruracil < carbamazepine < diazepam < carvedilol < fluoxetine. In N. glauca BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 and increased in the order 5-fluorouracil < carbamazepine < moclobemide < diazepam < fluoxetine < carvedilol. For P. corneus, the BCF for carvedilol was 57.3. The differences in degree of uptake across the three organisms may be due to differences in mode of respiration, behaviour and the pH of the test system. BCFs of the pharmaceuticals for each organism were correlated to the pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficient of the pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: ► One of the first studies exploring the uptake of pharmaceuticals into aquatic invertebrates. ► Data presented on uptake, depuration rates and bioconcentration for a range of pharmaceuticals. ► Uptake is correlated with the pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficient. ► Findings can be used to better predict impacts of pharmaceuticals on the aquatic environment. - The factors affecting the degree of uptake of pharmaceuticals into aquatic invertebrates were studied. The results indicate that species traits such as respiration and behaviour of the organisms and pH-corrected liposome–water partition coefficients are important factors in determining pharmaceutical uptake.

  8. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  9. Aquatic invertebrate communities in tank bromeliads: how well do classic ecological patterns apply?

    OpenAIRE

    Jocque, Merlijn; Field, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) often occur in high densities in the Neotropics and represent a key freshwater habitat in montane forests, housing quite complex invertebrate communities. We tested the extent to which there are species richness–altitude, richness–environment, richness–size, richness–habitat complexity and richness–isolation relationships for the aquatic invertebrate communities from 157 bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. We found that invertebrate species richness an...

  10. Comparing effects of lake- and watershed-scale influences on communities of aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hanson

    Full Text Available Constraints on lake communities are complex and are usually studied by using limited combinations of variables derived from measurements within or adjacent to study waters. While informative, results often provide limited insight about magnitude of simultaneous influences operating at multiple scales, such as lake- vs. watershed-scale. To formulate comparisons of such contrasting influences, we explored factors controlling the abundance of predominant aquatic invertebrates in 75 shallow lakes in western Minnesota, USA. Using robust regression techniques, we modeled relative abundance of Amphipoda, small and large cladocera, Corixidae, aquatic Diptera, and an aggregate taxon that combined Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Odonata (ETO in response to lake- and watershed-scale characteristics. Predictor variables included fish and submerged plant abundance, linear distance to the nearest wetland or lake, watershed size, and proportion of the watershed in agricultural production. Among-lake variability in invertebrate abundance was more often explained by lake-scale predictors than by variables based on watershed characteristics. For example, we identified significant associations between fish presence and community type and abundance of small and large cladocera, Amphipoda, Diptera, and ETO. Abundance of Amphipoda, Diptera, and Corixidae were also positively correlated with submerged plant abundance. We observed no associations between lake-watershed variables and abundance of our invertebrate taxa. Broadly, our results seem to indicate preeminence of lake-level influences on aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes, but historical land-use legacies may mask important relationships.

  11. Colonisation of leaf litter by aquatic invertebrates in an Atlantic Forest stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, V C; Gonçalves, E A; Alves, R G

    2014-05-01

    Riparian vegetation along streams in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil contributes to the formation of a highly heterogeneous leaf litter in streambeds. To investigate the structure and composition of the aquatic invertebrate community during the process of leaf decomposition of two plant species present along the banks of the stream studied, 21 plastic mesh bags containing 2.5g (dry weight) of leaf matter from each species (Alchornea glandulosa (Vell) and Cabralea canjerana End. and Poeppig), for a total of 5.0g, were placed in the streambed. Three bags were removed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 96 days. The taxonomic density was negatively correlated with the remaining weight. The high density of collector organisms, such as Chironomidae, Oligochaeta and Amphipoda, on the last day of incubation, probably occurred due to the increased amount of fine organic matter in the more advanced decomposition stages. The highest α diversity (Shannon-Wiener) values were observed for the 3rd and 96th days of the experiment, while the β diversity values showed that these days presented the highest variation in the taxonomic composition, thus presenting a different faunistic composition. This study showed that the trophic structure and composition of aquatic invertebrates changes during the decomposition of leaf litter. The faunistic abundance and diversity observed in this study indicate that the entrance of material from plants growing along streams provides favorable conditions for the colonisation and establishment of invertebrates in lower-order streams, and thus points to the need to preserve riparian vegetation. PMID:25166310

  12. Relationships between aquatic invertebrates, water quality and vegetation in an Andean peatland system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oyague Passuni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands (known as bofedales in the Peruvian Andes provide important social and environmental services in the Peruvian Puna ecoregion, especially as sources of water and forage for domestic livestock. In biological terms, these peatlands are key habitats with their own community structure, dynamics and interactions; and they serve as biodiversity hotspots within the High Andes. In this article we assess the relationships between: (i physical structure, (ii water quality, (iii plant communities and (iv the assemblages of aquatic invertebrates (benthic macroinvertebrates in three peatlands located in Cuzco Region, southern Peru. The results suggest that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage is a good indicator of the trophic status of the small pools that are typically present in bofedales. Trophic status is, in turn, primarily related to spatial and seasonal water availability and the types of plant communities present in each peatland.

  13. Glutathione S-transferase in aquatic macro-invertebrates and its interaction with different organic micropollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierickx, P.J.

    1984-12-01

    In higher organisms, glutathione S-transferase (GST) plays a key role in the detoxification of a large number of xenobiotics. In the present work the presence of GST in aquatic macro-invertebrates and its possible significance as a detoxification mechanism of organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment is investigated. So far, GST has been found in 20 macro-invertebrates (in adults as well as in larvae) and in insects as well as in other animal groups. The GST activities were relatively high, ranging from 10 to 600% of the activity found in rat liver. The interaction of quinones, o-chloranil and chlorophenoxyalkyl acids with the GST activity, in extracts from three different macro-invertebrates, revealed an inhibition which was quite similar to that previously found for rat liver GST. In Tubifex tubifex extracts at least three different GST isoenzymes could be demonstrated. These partially purified isoenzymes were used for the kinetic analysis of GST inhibition by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyalkyl acid and 1,4-benzoquinone, using Lineweaver--Burk plots. The same kinetic patterns were observed as for rat liver GST. The results demonstrate that the interactions of the compounds investigated with aquatic macro-invertebrate and with rat liver GST are in very good agreement. It is concluded that macro-invertebrate GST can play a key role in the detoxification of organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment.

  14. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of t

  15. Shape shifting predicts ontogenetic changes in metabolic scaling in diverse aquatic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazier, Douglas S.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-01-01

    metabolic scaling that deviate from 3/4-power scaling predicted by general models. Here, we show that in diverse aquatic invertebrates, ontogenetic shifts in the scaling of routine metabolic rate from near isometry (bR = scaling exponent approx. 1) to negative allometry (bR < 1), or the reverse, are...

  16. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Effects of pharmaceuticals on immune parameters of aquatic invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    V. Matozzo

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are a large group of chemicals used either by humans for personal health or by agribusiness to enhance the growth and health of livestock. Pharmaceuticals are considered to be emerging environmental contaminants. Indeed, several studies have shown that these compounds continuously enter aquatic ecosystems. Both pharmaceutical consumption and erroneous discharge of unused or expired medications make notable contributions to the introduction of pharmaceuticals into the environme...

  18. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne;

    2008-01-01

    . Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...... Daphnia magna as the test organism. To date, the limited number of studies has indicated acute toxicity in the low mgl(-1) range and higher of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates, although some indications of chronic toxicity and behavioral changes have also been described at concentrations...

  19. Aquatic plant control research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Rinehart, B.N. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ghio, E.G. [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States). Hydro Generation Engineering

    1997-05-01

    The Northwest region of the United States contains extensive canal systems that transport water for hydropower generation. Nuisance plants, including algae, that grow in these systems reduce their hydraulic capacity through water displacement and increased surface friction. Most control methods are applied in an ad hoc fashion. The goal of this work is to develop cost-effective, environmentally sound, long-term management strategies to prevent and control nuisance algal growth. This paper reports on a multi-year study, performed in collaboration with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, to investigate algal growth in their canal systems, and to evaluate various control methodologies. Three types of controls, including mechanical, biological and chemical treatment, were selected for testing and evaluation. As part of this study, water quality data were collected and algal communities were sampled from numerous stations throughout the distribution system at regular intervals. This study resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of conditions leading to the development of nuisance algal growth, a better informed selection of treatment plans, and improved evaluation of the effectiveness for the control strategies selected for testing.

  20. Acute toxicity screening of Hanford Site waste grouts using aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. The current strategy for the disposal of the low-level radioactive portion of these wastes involves immobilization of the waste in the form of grout. Because the potential risk of animal and plant exposure to grouts is unknown, acute toxicity screening of grouts is needed. Grouts were prepared by mixing a surrogate nonradioactive liquid waste with a blend consisting of cement, fly ash, and clay. Aqueous extracts of the grout were then screened for acute toxicity using aquatic invertebrates as test organisms and a fluorogenic substrate as the toxic stress indicator. After a 1-hour exposure of juvenile daphnids (D, magna, D. pulex, and C. dubia) to the grout extracts followed by a 15-minute reaction with the fluorogenic substrate, the degree of in vivo enzymatic inhibition was measured by the number of resulting fluorescent daphnids. The EC50 values calculated by probit analysis were 2,877 mg/L, 2,983 mg/L, and 3,174 mg/L for D. pulex, D. magna, and C. dubia, respectively. The slight difference in the responses may be attributed to the subjective pass-fail scoring of the fluorescence criterion. The results indicated that the grout studied is nonhazardous and nondangerous

  1. Diversity and distribution of diapausing aquatic invertebrates in inland wetlands: An ecosystem conservation viewpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    exotic species. Recent large-scale ecological and genetic studies across several countries and continents indicate that population structure, regional endemism, and geographic speciation patterns are common in passively dispersed aquatic invertebrates contradicting previous predictions of homogeneous...... processes determining the biogeography of cosmopolitan species are needed. Further knowledge of these issues should provide invaluable information allowing development of appropriate conservation management policies for inland waters across entire ecosystems, landscapes, and geographic regions....

  2. The role of histones in the immune responses of aquatic invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Nikapitiya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Histones are primary components of eukaryotic chromatin and highly abundant in all animal cells. In addition to their important role in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation, histones contribute to innate immune responses. In several aquatic invertebrate species, as well as in many other invertebrate and vertebrate species, the transcripts for core histones are upregulated in response to immune challenge and exposure to environmental stressors. Histones show antimicrobial activity against bacteria and parasites in vitro and in vivo and have the ability to bind bacterial lipopolysaccharide and other pathogen-associated molecules. Several mechanisms regulating and facilitating the antimicrobial action of histones against pathogens have been described in vertebrate and some invertebrate species, including the production of Extracellular Traps (ETs and the accumulation of histones in lipid droplets that can be selectively released in response to immune stimuli. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of action of histones in immune responses in aquatic invertebrates and investigate the potential use of histones in the treatment of infectious diseases in aquaculture

  3. Aquatic plants clean wastewater lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Water weeds that grow profusely in warm tropical and subtropical regions have always been considered a nuisance; current research is focusing on methods to cull benefits from such aquatic proliferations. Weeds, especially the water hyacinth, are proving to be useful in the purification of wastewater lagoons. The plants extract inorganic and organic toxicants from the effluent. Hyacinths employed in experiments conducted in Puerto Rico are removed from the lagoons to prevent overcrowding. This harvest is sent through a digester to produce methane. (2 diagrams, 3 photos)

  4. Evaluation of Municipal Effluent Toxicity Using Higher Plants and Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Žaltauskaitė

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available   Toxicity of Kaunas municipal effluent was evaluated using bioassays with aquatic invertebrates and terrestrial higher plants. Toxicity tests were performed on samples of both untreated and mechanically and biologically treated wastewater. Wastewater toxicity was assessed using seed germination and short-term early seedling growth tests of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and acute microcrustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus (24 h assays. Undiluted untreated wastewater was severely toxic to T.platyurus and led to death of all exposed organisms. Twofold decrease in wastewater concentration in the solution (from 100 % to 50 % led to sharp transition between extremely toxic to medium toxic to tested organisms. In four and more times diluted wastewater only 10-20 % of the total exposed T. platyurus died. Measured endpoints in higher plants tests were: seed germination, root length, shoot height and total biomass. Raw sewage was slightly toxic (0.6 TU to the root growth of lettuce, but mechanically and biologically treated effluents exhibited no adverse effects or even started to stimulate the growth. The growth of shoots and total biomass were stimulated due to exposure to effluents. Stimulation effect was determined by sufficiently high concentrations of nutrients. 

  5. Neonicotinoid contamination of global surface waters and associated risk to aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christy A; Mineau, Pierre; Devries, James H; Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Liess, Matthias; Cavallaro, Michael C; Liber, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, broad-spectrum systemic insecticides, are the fastest growing class of insecticides worldwide and are now registered for use on hundreds of field crops in over 120 different countries. The environmental profile of this class of pesticides indicate that they are persistent, have high leaching and runoff potential, and are highly toxic to a wide range of invertebrates. Therefore, neonicotinoids represent a significant risk to surface waters and the diverse aquatic and terrestrial fauna that these ecosystems support. This review synthesizes the current state of knowledge on the reported concentrations of neonicotinoids in surface waters from 29 studies in 9 countries world-wide in tandem with published data on their acute and chronic toxicity to 49 species of aquatic insects and crustaceans spanning 12 invertebrate orders. Strong evidence exists that water-borne neonicotinoid exposures are frequent, long-term and at levels (geometric means=0.13μg/L (averages) and 0.63μg/L (maxima)) which commonly exceed several existing water quality guidelines. Imidacloprid is by far the most widely studied neonicotinoid (66% of the 214 toxicity tests reviewed) with differences in sensitivity among aquatic invertebrate species ranging several orders of magnitude; other neonicotinoids display analogous modes of action and similar toxicities, although comparative data are limited. Of the species evaluated, insects belonging to the orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera appear to be the most sensitive, while those of Crustacea (although not universally so) are less sensitive. In particular, the standard test species Daphnia magna appears to be very tolerant, with 24-96hour LC50 values exceeding 100,000μg/L (geometric mean>44,000μg/L), which is at least 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than the geometric mean of all other invertebrate species tested. Overall, neonicotinoids can exert adverse effects on survival, growth, emergence, mobility, and behavior of many

  6. Assessment of photoinduced toxicity of crude oil-contaminated sediments on aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental crude oil releases resulting in environmental contamination are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent occurrences. Investigations of impacts to aquatic ecosystems following crude oil spills have often uncovered alterations in invertebrate community diversity and species abundance. Crude oil is partially composed of aromatic hydrocarbons, including some phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To assess organism phototoxic response to PAHs present in crude oil, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted with porewater extracts from crude oil-contaminated sediments and reference sediments using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca. Test organisms were exposed to porewater samples under artificial near-ultraviolet (UV) radiation and normal laboratory white fluorescent lighting. Controls under both lighting exposures included: culture water controls, anthracene controls (representing a known phototoxic PAH), and solvent controls. Following acute exposure periods, C. dubia mortality under near-UV light in crude oil porewater was significantly different from corresponding mortality under fluorescent light. C. dubia experienced 100% mortality in crude oil sediment porewater under near-UV light, 0% mortality in reference sediment porewater under near-UV light, and 0% mortality across corresponding treatments under fluorescent light exposures. H. azteca mortality under near-UV light in crude oil porewater was also significantly different from corresponding treatments under fluorescent light. Laboratory results suggest that PAHs in crude oil-contaminated sediments in the aquatic environment have the potential to substantially adversely affect survival of UV-exposed aquatic invertebrates

  7. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  8. Aquatic invertebrates of the Ribnica and Lepenica Rivers: Composition of the community and water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigating the community of aquatic invertebrates in the Ribnica and Lepenica Rivers (Kolubara River drainage area are given in the present work. Forty-three taxa are recorded. In relation to other studied streams in Serbia, the investigated rivers are characterized by high diversity of macroinvertebrates. Cluster analysis indicates that the locality on the Lepenica stands apart from those on the Ribnica, which is a consequence of the difference of habitats found at them. Results of saprobiological analysis of the macrozoobenthos in the given rivers indicate that their waters belong to quality classes I and II.

  9. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of an Aquatic Plant: Duckweed (Lemna minor L.)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLÇİN, İlhami; *,; KİREÇCİ, Ekrem; AKKEMİK, Ebru; TOPAL, Fevzi; HİSAR, Olcay

    2010-01-01

    Duckweed (Lemna minor L. Lemnaceae) is a widespread, free-floating aquatic macrophyte, a source of food for waterfowl and a shelter for small aquatic invertebrates. It grows quickly and reproduces faster than other vascular plants. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant, antiradical, antimicrobial, and anticandidal activities of duckweed using different in vitro methodologies. For evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical activities, 2,2´-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-...

  10. Preliminary studies of quality assessment of aquatic environments from Cluj suburban areas, based on some invertebrates bioindicators and chemical indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Stan; Laurenţiu C. Stoian; A. Bianca Badea; Andrea Gagyi-Palffy

    2010-01-01

    Systematic categories of invertebrates bioindicators correlated with some chemical parameters,were an effective way to characterize the quality of lotic (Someş River) and lentic (Lake Gilău) aquatic environment from Cluj-Napoca area. Invertebrate fauna was represented by species belonging to the following dominant systematic categories: Nematoda, Annelida, Crustacea and Insecta. This paper containsalso some preliminary data on the bioindicators species belonging to Protozoa phylum. Dominant g...

  11. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  12. Microhistological characteristics of selected aquatic plants of Florida, with techniques for the study of manatee food habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, L.A.; Beck, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was initiated in 1978 to develop a technique of identifying and quantifying the digestive tract contents of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and to serve as a manual for the identification and analysis of ingesta collected from manatee carcasses salvaged in Florida. This report includes key microhistological characters found useful in identifying fragments of 83 plant species and three invertebrate groups. Many species of aquatic and wetland plants and invertebrates are available to manatees in Florida as potential foods.

  13. Effects of proposed physical ballast tank treatments on aquatic invertebrate resting eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikow, David F; Reid, David F; Blatchley, Ernest R; Jacobs, Gregory; Landrum, Peter F

    2007-04-01

    Adaptations in aquatic invertebrate resting eggs that confer protection from natural catastrophic events also could confer protection from treatments applied to ballast water for biological invasion vector management. To evaluate the potential efficacy of physical ballast water treatment methods, the present study examined the acute toxicity of heat (flash and holding methods), ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm), and deoxygenation (acute and chronic) on resting eggs of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia mendotae and the marine brine shrimp Artemia sp. Both D. mendotae and Artemia sp. were similarly sensitive to flash exposures of heat (100% mortality at 70 degrees C), but D. mendotae were much more sensitive to prolonged exposures. Exposure to 4,000 mJ/cm2 of UV radiation resulted in mortality rates of 59% in Artemia sp. and 91% in D. mendotae. Deoxygenation to an oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L was maximally toxic to both species. Deoxygenation suppressed hatching of D. mendotae resting eggs at oxygen concentrations of less than 5.5 mg/L and of Artemia sp. resting eggs at concentrations of less than 1 mg/L. Results suggest that UV radiation and deoxygenation are not viable treatment methods with respect to invertebrate resting eggs because of the impracticality of producing sufficient UV doses and the suppression of hatching at low oxygen concentrations. Results also suggest that the treatment temperatures required to kill resting eggs are much higher than those reported to be effective against other invertebrate life stages and species. The results, however, do not preclude the effectiveness of these treatments against other organisms or life stages. Nevertheless, if ballast tank treatment systems employing the tested methods are intended to include mitigation of viable resting eggs, then physical removal of large resting eggs and ephippia via filtration would be a necessary initial step. PMID:17447556

  14. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junchao; Wang, Thanh; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ(13)C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1). Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. PMID:23811358

  15. Aquatic Plants and Lake Ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jan; Květ, Jan

    Oxford : Blackwell Science Ltd, 2003 - (O´Sullivan, P.; Reynolds, C.), s. 309-340 ISBN 0-632-04797-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Aquatic macrophytes * green algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. A long-term assessment of pesticide mixture effects on aquatic invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbein, Simone; Lawler, Sharon P; Geist, Juergen; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    To understand the potential effects of pesticide mixtures on aquatic ecosystems, studies that incorporate increased ecological relevance are crucial. Using outdoor mesocosms, the authors examined long-term effects on aquatic invertebrate communities of tertiary mixtures of commonly used pesticides: 2 pyrethroids (permethrin, λ-cyhalothrin) and an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos). Application scenarios were based on environmentally relevant concentrations and stepwise increases of lethal concentrations from 10% (LC10) to 50% (LC50) based on laboratory tests on Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus; repeated applications were meant to generally reflect runoff events in a multiple-grower or homeowner watershed. Pyrethroids rapidly dissipated from the water column, whereas chlorpyrifos was detectable even 6 wk after application. Twelve of 15 macroinvertebrate and 10 of 16 zooplankton taxa responded to contaminant exposures. The most sensitive taxa were the snail Radix sp., the amphipod H. azteca, the water flea Daphnia magna, and copepods. Environmentally relevant concentrations had acute effects on D. magna and H. azteca (occurring 24 h after application), whereas lag times were more pronounced in Radix sp. snails and copepods, indicating chronic sublethal responses. Greatest effects on zooplankton communities were observed in environmentally relevant concentration treatments. The results indicate that insecticide mixtures continue to impact natural systems over multiple weeks, even when no longer detectable in water and bound to particles. Combinations of indirect and direct effects caused consequences across multiple trophic levels. PMID:26565581

  17. Modelling population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We modelled population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions. We used Leslie matrices to combine life-history characteristics (duration of life stages, survival and fecundity rates) and dose rate-response curves for hatching, survival and reproduction fitted on effect data from the FREDERICA database. Changes in net reproductive rate R0 (offspring per individual) and asymptotic population growth rate λ (dimensionless) were calculated over a range of dose rates in two marine polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata and Ophryotrocha diadema) and a freshwater gastropod (Physa heterostropha). Sensitivities in R0 and λ to changes in life-history traits were analysed in each species. Results showed that fecundity has the strongest influence on R0. A delay in age at first reproduction is most critical for λ independent of the species. Fast growing species were proportionally more sensitive to changes in individual endpoints than slow growing species. Reduction of 10% in population λ were predicted at dose rates of 6918, 5012 and 74,131 μGy·h−1 in N. arenaceodentata, O. diadema and P. heterostropha respectively, resulting from a combination of strong effects on several individual endpoints in each species. These observations made 10%-reduction in λ a poor criterion for population protection. The lowest significant changes in R0 and λ were respectively predicted at a same dose rate of 1412 μGy h−1 in N. arenaceodentata, at 760 and 716 μGy h−1 in O. diadema and at 12,767 and 13,759 μGy h−1 in P. heterostropha. These values resulted from a combination of slight but significant changes in several measured endpoints and were lower than effective dose rates calculated for the individual level in O. diadema and P. heterostropha. The relevance of the experimental dataset (external irradiation rather than contamination, exposure over one generation only, effects on survival and reproduction only

  18. Aquatic effect assessment for plant protection products

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, T.C.M.; Arts, G.H.P.; Hulscher, ten, T.E.M.; Jong, de, D.; Luttik, R.; Roex, E.; Smit, C.E.; Vliet, van, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this report new proposals for the aquatic effects assessment of plant protection products (pesticides) in the Netherlands are described for edge-of-field surface waters (drainage ditches) falling under the domain of the Plant Protection Product Regulation (pre-registration) and for water bodies falling under the domain of the Water Framework Directive (post-registration). These methods are developed on request of two Dutch ministries (Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovatio...

  19. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  20. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Finfish and Aquatic Invertebrates Used as Food to Control Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide outlines procedures and operations for the irradiation of raw, untreated, fresh (chilled), or frozen finfish and aquatic invertebrates, while ensuring that the irradiated product is safe and wholesome. 1.1.1 Aquatic invertebrates include molluscs, crustacea, echinoderms, etc. 1.1.1.1 Molluscs include bivalve shellfish, such as clams, mussels, and oysters; snails; and cephalopods, such as squid and octopus. 1.1.1.2 Crustacea include shellfish such as shrimp, lobster, crabs, prawns and crayfish. 1.1.1.3 Echinoderms include sea urchins and sea cucumbers. 1.2 This guide covers absorbed doses used to reduce the microbial and parasite populations in aquatic invertebrates and finfish. Such doses typically are below 10 kGy (1). 1.3 The use of reduced-oxygen packaging (vacuum or modified atmosphere, and including products packed in oil) with irradiated, raw product is not covered by this guide. The anaerobic environment created by reduced-oxygen packaging provides the potential for outgrowth o...

  1. Phytoremediation using eichhornia crassipes aquatic plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation is a cost effective approach for the Treatment of polluted soil and contaminated water. The effectiveness of one aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes was evaluated for its capability in removing copper from copper solution using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The aquatic plant was placed in solutions containing 2 mg/L, 4 mg/L an d 6 mg/L of copper, for a period of 18 days and the change in Cu concentration was measured. Results showed an increase of copper within the plants' root and shoot tissues and a decrease of copper concentration in the solution. It was found that roots tend to accumulate a higher amount of copper than shoots due to translocation process. The maximum growth of Eichhornia crassipes was in the 2 mg/L solution which shows that growth was affected by the presence of Cu in the water. The maximum removal of copper in the solutions containing Eichhornia crassipes was 87.5% from the 4 mg/L solution. Eichhornia crassipes accumulated upto 1265.0 mg/kg of Cu in its roots indicating that this aquatic plant species may be used as a hyper-accumulator for copper. (author)

  2. Aquatic invertebrate sampling at selected outfalls in Operable Unit 1082; Technical areas 9, 11, 16 and 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-09-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary aquatic sampling at outfalls within Operable Unit 1082 and nearby natural waterways. Eleven outfalls were sampled a total of eighteen times. Three natural waterways (upper Pajarito Canyon, Starmer`s Gulch, and Bulldog Spring) in the vicinity were sampled a total of six times. At most sites, EST recorded hydrological condition, physico-chemical parameters, wildlife uses, and vegetation. At each outfall with water and each natural waterway, EST collected an aquatic invertebrate sample which was analyzed by taxa composition, Wilhm`s biodiversity index, the community tolerance quotient (CTQ), and density. The physico-chemical parameters at most outfalls and natural waterways fell within the normal range of natural waters in the area. However, the outfalls are characterized by low biodiversity and severely stressed communities composed of a restricted number of taxa. The habitat at the other outfalls could probably support well-developed aquatic communities if sufficient water was available. At present, the hydrology at these outfalls is too slight and/or sporadic to support such a community in the foreseeable future. In contrast to the outfalls, the natural waterways of the area had greater densities of aquatic invertebrates, higher biodiversities, and lower CTQs.

  3. Petroleum coke and soft tailings sediment in constructed wetlands may contribute to the uptake of trace metals by algae and aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Leanne F; Ciborowski, Jan J H; MacKinnon, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    The fate of trace metals in pore water collected from wetland sediments and organisms exposed to petroleum coke were evaluated within in situ aquatic microcosms. Oil sands operators of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada produced 60 million tonnes of petroleum coke by 2008, containing elevated concentrations of sulphur and several trace metals commonly seen in oil sands materials. This material may be included in the construction of reclaimed wetlands. Microcosms were filled with a surface layer of petroleum coke over mine-waste sediments and embedded in a constructed wetland for three years to determine how these materials would affect the metal concentrations in the sediment pore water, colonizing wetland plants and benthic invertebrates. Petroleum coke treatments produced significantly elevated levels of Ni. We also found unexpectedly higher concentrations of metals in "consolidated tailings" waste materials, potentially due to the use of oil sands-produced gypsum, and higher background concentration of elements in the sediment used in the controls. A trend of higher concentrations of V, Ni, La, and Y was present in the tissues of the colonizing macrophytic alga Chara spp. Aeshnid dragonflies may also be accumulating V. These results indicate that the trace metals present in some oil sands waste materials could be taken up by aquatic macro-algae and some wetland invertebrates if these materials are included in reclaimed wetlands. PMID:22119033

  4. Endocrine Function in Aquatic Invertebrates and Evidence for Disruption by Environmental Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Pinder, L.C.V.; Pottinger, T.G.; Billinghurst, Z.; Depledge, M H

    1999-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objectives 1. This report addresses five primary objectives:- (i) to summarize the key elements of invertebrate endocrine systems; (ii) to assess whether existing test systems are adequate for the detection of endocrine disruption in invertebrates, what new tests might be required, which species of invertebrates are most appropriate for such tests, what end-points should be measured and whether the same organisms can be used for both laboratory and environme...

  5. Decomposition of aquatic plants in lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godshalk, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    This study was carried out to systematically determine the effects of temperature and oxygen concentration, two environmental parameters crucial to lake metabolism in general, on decomposition of five species of aquatic vascular plants of three growth forms in a Michigan lake. Samples of dried plant material were decomposed in flasks in the laboratory under three different oxygen regimes, aerobic-to-anaerobic, strict anaerobic, and aerated, each at 10/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C. In addition, in situ decomposition of the same species was monitored using the litter bag technique under four conditions.

  6. Herbivory and growth in terrestrial and aquatic populations of amphibious stream plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Jacobsen, Dean

    2002-01-01

    1. Many amphibious plant species grow in the transition between terrestrial and submerged vegetation in small lowland streams. We determined biomass development, leaf turnover rate and invertebrate herbivory during summer in terrestrial and aquatic populations of three amphibious species to...... evaluate advantages and disadvantages of aerial and submerged life. 2. Terrestrial populations had higher area shoot density, biomass and leaf production than aquatic populations, while leaf turnover rate and longevity were the same. Terrestrial populations experienced lower percentage grazing loss of leaf...... apparent loss to standing leaves of all ages. The results imply that variation in density of grazers relative to plant production can account for differences in grazing impact between terrestrial and aquatic populations, and that fast leaf turnover keeps apparent grazing damage down. 4. We conclude that...

  7. Preliminary studies of quality assessment of aquatic environments from Cluj suburban areas, based on some invertebrates bioindicators and chemical indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Stan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic categories of invertebrates bioindicators correlated with some chemical parameters,were an effective way to characterize the quality of lotic (Someş River and lentic (Lake Gilău aquatic environment from Cluj-Napoca area. Invertebrate fauna was represented by species belonging to the following dominant systematic categories: Nematoda, Annelida, Crustacea and Insecta. This paper containsalso some preliminary data on the bioindicators species belonging to Protozoa phylum. Dominant groups were crustaceans (the sampling points in Lake Gilău and annelids (Somes River and among species Gammarus pulex, Daphnia pulex, Tubifex tubifex. The fauna composition shows the β-α mesosaprobic character of the water, with an evolution from β mesosaprobity upstream the Cluj-Napoca city to polysaprobic downstream of the city. This aspect has been observed and analyzed according to chemical parameters (pH, TDS, ORP, EC, t and indices of saprobity (relative cleanliness, state of relative pollution, the deficit of species, saprobiological index.Systematic categories of invertebrates bioindicators correlated with some chemical parameters, were an effective way to characterize the quality of lotic (Someş River and lentic (Lake Gilău aquatic environment from Cluj-Napoca area. Invertebrate fauna was represented by species belonging to the following dominant systematic categories: Nematoda, Annelida, Crustacea and Insecta. This paper contains also some preliminary data on the bioindicators species belonging to Protozoa phylum. Dominant groups were crustaceans (the sampling points in Lake Gilău and annelids (Somes River and among species Gammarus pulex, Daphnia pulex, Tubifex tubifex. The fauna composition shows the β-α mesosaprobic character of the water, with an evolution from β mesosaprobity upstream the Cluj-Napoca city to polysaprobic downstream of the city. This aspect has been observed and analyzed according to chemical parameters (pH, TDS, ORP

  8. Population-level effects and recovery of aquatic invertebrates after multiple applications of an insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmen, G Peter; Preuss, Thomas G; Hamer, Mick; Galic, Nika; Strauss, Tido; van den Brink, Paul J; De Laender, Frederik; Bopp, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Standard risk assessment of plant protection products (PPP) combines "worst-case" exposure scenarios with effect thresholds using assessment (safety) factors to account for uncertainties. If needed, risks can be addressed applying more realistic conditions at higher tiers, which refine exposure and/or effect assessments using additional data. However, it is not possible to investigate the wide range of potential scenarios experimentally. In contrast, ecotoxicological mechanistic effect models do allow for addressing a multitude of scenarios. Furthermore, they may aid the interpretation of experiments such as mesocosm studies, allowing extrapolation to conditions not covered in experiments. Here, we explore how to use mechanistic effect models in the aquatic risk assessment of a model insecticide (Modelmethrin), applied several times per season but rapidly dissipating between applications. The case study focuses on potential effects on aquatic arthropods, the most sensitive group for this substance. The models provide information on the impact of a number of short exposure pulses on sensitive and/or vulnerable populations and, when impacted, assess recovery. The species to model were selected based on their sensitivity in laboratory and field (mesocosm) studies. The general unified threshold model for survival (GUTS) model, which describes the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of chemicals in individuals, was linked to 3 individual-based models (IBM), translating individual survival of sensitive organisms into population-level effects. The impact of pulsed insecticide exposures on populations were modeled using the spatially explicit IBM metapopulation model for assessing spatial and temporal effects of pesticides (MASTEP) for Gammarus pulex, the Chaoborus IBM for populations of Chaoborus crystallinus, and the "IdamP" model for populations of Daphnia magna. The different models were able to predict the potential effects of Modelmethrin applications to key arthropod

  9. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Aquatic invertebrate survey July 7-15, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this limited survey was to investigate the premise that invertebrate species diversity and abundance increase following a drawdown, controlled burn...

  10. A house of cards: Patterns of aquatic invertebrate diversity in agricultural ditches

    OpenAIRE

    Whatley, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of the interrelationships between different fractions of the ecosystem in North Holland’s intensively managed agricultural drainage ditches. It has been demonstrated that both submerged and emergent vegetation strongly influence invertebrate assemblages. Moreover, specific abiotic factors driving invertebrate diversity in these waters are associated with the inlet of mineral rich, river derived water and include concentrations of nutrients, bicarbonates and su...

  11. Low concentrations, potential ecological consequences: Synthetic estrogens alter life-history and demographic structures of aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contraceptive drugs are nowadays found in aquatic environments around the globe. Particularly, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) may act even at low concentrations, such as those recorded in natural ecosystems. We evaluated the physiological effects of EE2 on cyclopoids and calanoids, common copepods in both marine and freshwater communities. We used three EE2 concentrations and assessed its impact on activity of different physiological endpoints: Acetylcholinesterase (neurotransmission), Glutathione S-transferase (detoxifying system), and Caspase-3 (apoptosis). While EE2 exerts, distinctive effect on detoxifying and apoptotic systems, no effect on AChE was observed at environmental doses. Our results show that EE2 exposure affects differently copepod physiology endpoints, altering moulting process, adult recruitment in calanoids and calanoid to cyclopoid ratio. The ecological consequences of this underlying physiological process may affect since life history to population and community structures, and this represent a new aspects of this xenobiotic in natural systems. Highlights: •We evaluated physiological effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on copepods. •We measured the EE2 effect on neurotransmission, detoxifying system and apoptosis. •EE2 exert distinctive effect on detoxifying and apoptotic systems. •EE2 affects differently calanoids and cyclopoids moulting and adult recruitment. •Physiological impact in invertebrates' communities is a novel aspect of EE2 effects. -- Anthropogenic estrogens modify the physiological functioning of aquatic invertebrates

  12. Evaluating the feasibility of planting aquatic plants for habitat restoration in shallow Mississippi lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planting aquatic plants is a technique used to restore native aquatic plant communities in lakes lacking aquatic plants. However, the feasibility of using this restoration technique in Mississippi lakes has not been evaluated. We conducted two exclosure experiments to evaluate the success of planti...

  13. Antagonism of Some Aquatic Hyphomycetes against Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    S. C. SATI; P. Arya

    2010-01-01

    The antagonistic activity of five aquatic hyphomycetes, viz., Heliscus lugdunensis, Tetrachaetum elegans, Tetracladium breve, T. marchalianum, and T. nainitalense, against seven plant pathogenic fungi was studied using a dual culture technique. Inhibitory activity of tested aquatic hyphomycetes was determined by measuring the radial growth of plant pathogenic fungi on dual culture plates. Tetrachaetum elegans showed antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum falcatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Py...

  14. Impact of invertebrate herbivory in grasslands depends on plant species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Claudia; Unsicker, Sybille B; Kahmen, Ansgar; Wagner, Markus; Audorff, Volker; Auge, Harald; Prati, Daniel; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrate herbivores are ubiquitous in most terrestrial ecosystems and theory predicts that their impact on plant community biomass should depend on diversity and productivity of the associated plant communities. To elucidate general patterns in the relationship between invertebrate herbivory, plant diversity, and productivity we carried out a long-term herbivore exclusion experiment at multiple grassland sites in a mountainous landscape of central Germany. Over a period of ...

  15. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ13C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m−2⋅y−1. Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial

  16. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Junchao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Thanh, E-mail: bswang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Han, Shanlong [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ{sup 13}C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m{sup −2}⋅y{sup −1}. Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the

  17. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  18. Endocrine modulation and toxic effects of two commonly used UV screens on the aquatic invertebrates Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lumbriculus variegatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Claudia [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany)], E-mail: claudia.schmitt@ua.ac.be; Oetken, Matthias; Dittberner, Olaf; Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Joerg [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The two UV screens 3-benzylidene-camphor (3-BC) and 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene)-camphor (4-MBC) were tested regarding their toxicity and estrogenic activity. The Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and two sediment assays with the freshwater invertebrates Lumbriculus variegatus and Potamopyrgus antipodarum were performed. In the YES, both substances activated the human estrogen receptor {alpha} with EC{sub 50} values of 44.2 {mu}M for 3-BC and 44.3 {mu}M for 4-MBC, whereby 4-MBC attained only 8% of the maximal response of 17{beta}-estradiol. For P. antipodarum embryo production increased after exposure to both substances (EC{sub 50} of 4.60 {mu}M 4-MBC = 1.17 mg kg{sup -1} dw) while mortality increased at high concentrations. The reproduction of L. variegatus was decreased by 3-BC with an EC{sub 50} of 5.95 {mu}M (=1.43 mg kg{sup -1} dw) and also by 4-MBC, where no EC{sub 50} could be calculated. While reproduction decreased, the worms' weight increased after exposure to 3-BC with an EC{sub 50} of 26.9 {mu}M (= 6.46 mg kg{sup -1} dw), hence the total biomass remained unaffected. - UV screens can have a significant impact on reproduction and development of aquatic invertebrates.

  19. Public lakes, private lakeshore: modeling protection of native aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A; Fulton, David C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of native aquatic plants is an important proenvironmental behavior, because plant loss coupled with nutrient loading can produce changes in lake ecosystems. Removal of aquatic plants by lakeshore property owners is a diffuse behavior that may lead to cumulative impacts on lake ecosystems. This class of behavior is challenging to manage because collective impacts are not obvious to the actors. This paper distinguishes positive and negative beliefs about aquatic plants, in models derived from norm activation theory (Schwartz, Adv Exp Soc Psychol 10:221-279, 1977) and the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research, Addison-Wesley, Boston 1975), to examine protection of native aquatic plants by Minnesota lakeshore property owners. We clarify how positive and negative evaluations of native aquatic plants affect protection or removal of these plants. Results are based on a mail survey (n = 3,115). Results suggest that positive evaluations of aquatic plants (i.e., as valuable to lake ecology) may not connect with the global attitudes and behavioral intentions that direct plant protection or removal. Lakeshore property owners' behavior related to aquatic plants may be driven more by tangible personal benefits derived from accessible, carefully managed lakeshore than intentional action taken to sustain lake ecosystems. The limited connection of positive evaluations of aquatic plants to global attitudes and behavioral intentions may reflect either lack of knowledge of what actions are needed to protect lake health and/or unwillingness to lose perceived benefits derived from lakeshore property. PMID:23609308

  20. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  1. Ecotoxicogenomic Approaches for Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Chemical Toxicity Using Aquatic Invertebrate, Daphnia Model Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jeong Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid advent in genomics technologies and attention to ecological risk assessment, the term “ecotoxicogenomics” has recently emerged to describe integration of omics studies (i.e., transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics into ecotoxicological fields. Ecotoxicogenomics is defined as study of an entire set of genes or proteins expression in ecological organisms to provide insight on environmental toxicity, offering benefit in ecological risk assessment. Indeed, Daphnia is a model species to study aquatic environmental toxicity designated in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s toxicity test guideline and to investigate expression patterns using ecotoxicology-oriented genomics tools. Our main purpose is to demonstrate the potential utility of gene expression profiling in ecotoxicology by identifying novel biomarkers and relevant modes of toxicity in Daphnia magna. These approaches enable us to address adverse phenotypic outcomes linked to particular gene function(s and mechanistic understanding of aquatic ecotoxicology as well as exploration of useful biomarkers. Furthermore, key challenges that currently face aquatic ecotoxicology (e.g., predicting toxicant responses among a broad spectrum of phytogenetic groups, predicting impact of temporal exposure on toxicant responses necessitate the parallel use of other model organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. By investigating gene expression profiling in an environmentally important organism, this provides viable support for the utility of ecotoxicogenomics.

  2. Influence of the geothermal waters on fishes and aquatic invertebrates, in the Plain of Banat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu-Marinescu, V.; Elain-Talau, L.; Papadopol, M.; Nicolescu, D.; Teodorescu, L.

    1982-01-01

    Research on the effects of geothermal waters (both used and unused) on vertebrates and invertebrates made the water's toxico-lethal character obvious in waters with a normal concentration or diluted up to over 17%. Among the organisms used in the experiment, Daphnia magna (a cladoceran) and young carp (Cyprinus carpio) have proved to be more sensitive. Tubifex tubifex (an oligochaete) have proved to be more resistant. Taking in account the toxicity of geothermal waters with addition of a specific smell and taste contracted by the meat fish, their overflow into natural receivers is not recommended. 7 references, 12 figures.

  3. Master plan: Guntersville Reservoir Aquatic Plant Management. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, Congress provided funding to start a five-year comprehensive project to manage aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir, to be jointly implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). TVA serves as the overall project coordinator and is the lead agency for this project. Known as the Joint Agency Guntersville Project (JAGP), the project will test and demonstrate innovative management technologies, and incorporate the most effective technologies into a comprehensive aquatic plant management plan for Guntersville Reservoir. The JAGP is intended to serve as a National Demonstration Project for aquatic plant management. As part of this JAGP, the Master Plan for Aquatic Plant Management for the Guntersville Reservoir Project, Alabama-Tennessee is authorized by Corps Contract Number DACW62-90-C-0067.

  4. Cytochemical and ultrastructural aspects of aquatic carnivorous plant turions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachno, B.J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, M.; Świątek, P.; Kamińska, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 6 (2014), s. 1449-1454. ISSN 0033-183X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plants * winter buds * storage functions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2014

  5. Modeling the element cycle of aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquatic plants play an important role in element cycles in wetlands and the efficiency of the process is extremely related to their proportional biomass allocation to above- and belowground organs. Therefore, the framework of most macrophyte productivity models is usually similar with a mass-balance approach consisting of gross production, respiration and mortality losses and the translocation between organs. These growth models are incorporated with decomposition models to evaluate the annual cycle of elements. Perennial emergent macrophytes with a relatively large biomass have a particularly important role in element cycles. Their phenological stages, such as the beginning of hibernation of belowground rhizome systems, emergence of new shoots in spring with resources stocked in the rhizomes, flowering, downward translocation of photosynthetic products later on and then the mortality of the aboveground system in late autumn, depend on the environmental conditions, basically the nutrients, water depth, climatic variations, etc. Although some species retain standing dead shoots for a long time, dead shoots easily fall into water, starting to decompose in the immediate aftermath. However, their decomposition rates in the water are relatively low, causing to accumulate large amounts of organic sediments on the bottom. Together with the deposition of allochthonous suspended matters in the stand, this process decreases the water depth, transforming wetlands gradually into land. The depth of penetration of roots into the sediments to uptake nutrients and water is extremely site specific, however, in water-logged areas, the maximum penetrable depth may be approximately estimated by considering the ability of oxygen transport into the rhizome system. The growth of perennial submerged plants is also estimated by a process similar to that of emergent macrophytes. However, compared with emergent macrophytes, the root system of submerged macrophytes is weaker, and the nutrient

  6. Aquatic plant surface as a niche for methanotrophs

    OpenAIRE

    YasuyoshiSakai; NaokoYoshida; AkioMurakami

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential local CH4 sink in various plant parts as a boundary environment of CH4 emission and consumption. By comparing CH4 consumption activities in cultures inoculated with parts from 39 plant species, we observed significantly higher consumption of CH4 associated with aquatic plants than other emergent plant parts such as woody plant leaves, macrophytic marine algae, and sea grass. In situ activity of CH4 consumption by methanotrophs associated with different s...

  7. Aquatic plant surface as a niche for methanotrophs

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Naoko; Iguchi, Hiroyuki; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Murakami, Akio; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential local CH4 sink in various plant parts as a boundary environment of CH4 emission and consumption. By comparing CH4 consumption activities in cultures inoculated with parts from 39 plant species, we observed significantly higher consumption of CH4 associated with aquatic plants than other emergent plant parts such as woody plant leaves, macrophytic marine algae, and sea grass. In situ activity of CH4 consumption by methanotrophs associated with different sp...

  8. Aquatic plant surface as a niche for methanotrophs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko eYoshida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential local CH4 sink in various plant parts as a boundary environment of CH4 emission and consumption. By comparing CH4 consumption activities in cultures inoculated with parts from 39 plant species, we observed significantly higher consumption of CH4 associated with aquatic plants than other emergent plant parts such as woody plant leaves, macrophytic marine algae, and sea grass. In situ activity of CH4 consumption by methanotrophs associated with different species of aquatic plants was in the range of 3.7 – 37 μmol⋅h-1⋅g-1 dry weight, which was ca 5.7-370 fold higher than epiphytic CH4 consumption in submerged parts of emergent plants. The qPCR-estimated copy numbers of the particulate methane monooxygenase-encoding gene pmoA were variable among the aquatic plants and ranged in the order of 105 to 107 copies⋅g-1 dry weight, which correlated with the observed CH4 consumption activities. Phylogenetic identification of methanotrophs on aquatic plants based on the pmoA sequence analysis revealed a predominance of diverse gammaproteobacterial type-I methanotrophs, including a phylotype of a possible plant-associated methanotroph with the closest identity (86-89% to Methylocaldum gracile.

  9. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  10. Tank bromeliads as natural microcosms: a facultative association with ants influences the aquatic invertebrate community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dézerald, Olivier; Carteron, Alexis; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Leroy, Céline; Céréghino, Régis; Dejean, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Many tank bromeliads have facultative relationships with ants as is the case in French Guiana between Aechmea aquilega (Salib.) Griseb. and the trap-jaw ant, Odontomachus haematodus Linnaeus. Using a redundancy analysis, we determined that the presence of O. haematodus colonies is accompanied by a greater quantity of fine particulate organic matter in the water likely due to their wastes. This increase in nutrient availability is significantly correlated with an increase in the abundance of some detritivorous taxa, suggesting a positive bottom-up influence on the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities living in the A. aquilega wells. On the other hand, the abundance of top predators is negatively affected by a lower number of available wells due to ant constructions for nesting, releasing a top-down pressure that could also favor lower trophic levels. PMID:26302833

  11. Bioremoval of toxic elements with aquatic plants and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.C.; Ramesh, G. [Harbor Branch Oceanographic Inst., Fort Pierce, FL (United States); Weissman, J.C.; Varadarajan, R. [Microbial Products, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States); Benemann, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic plants were screened to evaluate their ability to adsorb dissolved metals. The plants screened included those that are naturally immobilized (attached algae and rooted plants) and those that could be easily separated from suspension (filamentous microalgae, macroalgae, and floating plants). Two plants were observed to have high adsorption capabilities for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) removal: one blue green filamentous alga of the genus Phormidium and one aquatic rooted plant, water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). These plants could also reduce the residual metal concentration to 0.1 mg/L or less. Both plants also exhibited high specific adsorption for other metals (Pb, Ni, and Cu) both individually and in combination. Metal concentrations were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

  12. The effect of organic and inorganic aqueous uranium speciation on U(VI) bioavailability to an aquatic invertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C.; Croteau, M. N.; Campbell, K. M.; Cain, D.; Aiken, G.

    2015-12-01

    Growing world-wide demand for uranium (U) as an energy source has raised concerns of the human and ecological risks of U extraction and processing in the United States. Because of limited information on the relationship between U speciation and bioavailability, particularly in aquatic animals, we are characterizing U uptake by a model freshwater invertebrate (the snail Lymnaea stagnalis). This species grazes on biofilms and is thus key in the trophic transfer of contaminants through aquatic food webs. We determined the bioavailability of dissolved U(VI) over a range of water hardness, pH (6 to 8), and the presence of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) as a competing ligand, to test the effect of aqueous speciation on uptake. Bioavailability was assessed using U uptake rate constants (kuw) derived from a kinetic bioaccumulation model. Dissolved U (1 to 1000 nM) was bioavailable over the range of geochemical conditions tested with kuw (L/g/d) decreasing with increasing dissolved Ca and with increasing pH. For example, kuw decreased from 1.6 to 0.3 as dissolved Ca was increased from 0.04 to 1.5 mM, suggesting competition between bioavailable U(VI) species and strong ternary calcium uranyl carbonato complexes. At pH 7.5 in synthetic moderately hard freshwater, kuw decreased from 0.22 in the absence of NOM to 0.07 in the presence of a hydrophobic acid NOM isolate of high aromaticity (SUVA = 5) consistent with strong aqueous complexation of U(VI) by the NOM. The co-variance of U uptake and aqueous U species distribution is being analyzed to determine which U species are bioavailable. U speciation in systems with NOM is calculated using conditional U-NOM binding constants derived by equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange methodology. The bioavailability of dietborne U is being tested since dietary metal uptake prevails for many aquatic species. These experiments include addition of ferrihydrite with U sorbed, both in the presence and absence of NOM, and mixed with diet.

  13. STUDY OF AQUATIC ANGIOSPERMIC PLANTS OF ANAND CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. PATEL1 AND N. K. PATEL2

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the taxonomic study of Aquatic Angiosperms growing throughout the Anand city. The plants are listed along with their brief taxonomic account of each species with current nomenclature, vernacular name, family and uses. The  collected plants are systematically observed during present work, During my study I observed various aquatic angiospermic plants such as   Ceratophyllum demersum, Colocasia esculenta, Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Nymphoides indicum, Ludwigia repens, Polygonum orientale, Typha elephantina, Lemna perpusilla, Spirodella polyrrhiza, Xanthium indicum, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Cynodon dactylon, Hydrilla verticillata were very common. Whereas Nymphaea nouchali, Polygonum barbatum, Scirpus articulatus were very rare in the study area.

  14. Hydrothermal liquefaction of aquatic plants to bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S.; Fu, H.; Chen, J. [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of producing bio-oils from aquatic plants by hydrothermal liquefaction using 2 typical aquatic plants as feedstocks, notably Enteromorpha prolifera and water hyacinth which are typical aquatic plants found in seawater and freshwater. Bio-oil production from these 2 feedstocks was studied in a batch reactor at controlled temperatures under an initial partial pressure of 2.0 MPa N2. The effects of temperature and reaction time on the liquefaction products yields were also studied. GC-MS and elemental analysis were carried out to analyze the composition of bio-oils. The bio-oil produced from Enteromorpha prolifera contained mainly fatty acids, esters and quite a few heterocyclic compounds. Phenols and their derivatives were found to be the main compounds in bio-oils produced from water hyacinth. An elemental analysis revealed that bio-oils produced from the 2 aquatic plants have higher energy density. It was concluded that the use of aquatic plants as feedstock for liquid fuel can contribute to environmental protection and sustainable energy development by reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the burning of fossil fuels. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Pleistocene climate change promoted rapid diversification of aquatic invertebrates in Southeast Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawlitschek Oliver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pleistocene Ice Ages were the most recent geohistorical event of major global impact, but their consequences for most parts of the Southern hemisphere remain poorly known. We investigate a radiation of ten species of Sternopriscus, the most species-rich genus of epigean Australian diving beetles. These species are distinct based on genital morphology but cannot be distinguished readily by mtDNA and nDNA because of genotype sharing caused by incomplete lineage sorting. Their genetic similarity suggests a Pleistocene origin. Results We use a dataset of 3858 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to reconstruct a phylogeny of Sternopriscus using gene and species trees. Diversification analyses support the finding of a recent rapid speciation event with estimated speciation rates of up to 2.40 species per MY, which is considerably higher than the proposed average rate of 0.16 species per MY for insects. Additionally, we use ecological niche modeling and analyze data on habitat preferences to test for niche divergence between species of the recent Sternopriscus radiation. These analyses show that the species can be characterized by a set of ecological variables referring to habitat, climate and altitude. Conclusions Our results suggest that the repeated isolation of populations in glacial refugia might have led to divergent ecological adaptations and the fixation of morphological traits supporting reproductive isolation and therefore may have promoted speciation. The recent Sternopriscus radiation fulfills many characteristics of a species flock and would be the first described example of an aquatic insect species flock. We argue that the species of this group may represent a stage in speciation past the species flock condition because of their mostly broad and often non-overlapping ranges and preferences for different habitat types.

  16. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cúneo, N Rubén; Gandolfo, María A; Zamaloa, María C; Hermsen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla) and a monocot (Araceae). Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae). Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form) and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae) are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae), ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America. PMID:25148081

  17. Late cretaceous aquatic plant world in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rubén Cúneo

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we describe latest Cretaceous aquatic plant communities from the La Colonia Formation, Patagonia, Argentina, based on their taxonomic components and paleoecological attributes. The La Colonia Formation is a geological unit deposited during a Maastrichtian-Danian transgressive episode of the South Atlantic Ocean. This event resulted in the deposition of a series of fine-grained sediments associated with lagoon systems occurring along irregular coastal plains in northern Patagonia. These deposits preserved a diverse biota, including aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. The aquatic macrophytes can be broadly divided into two groups: free-floating and rooted, the latter with emergent or floating leaves. Free-floating macrophytes include ferns in Salviniaceae (Azolla and Paleoazolla and a monocot (Araceae. Floating microphytes include green algae (Botryoccocus, Pediastrum and Zygnemataceae. Among the rooted components, marsileaceous water ferns (including Regnellidium and an extinct form and the eudicot angiosperm Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae are the dominant groups. Terrestrial plants occurring in the vegetation surrounding the lagoons include monocots (palms and Typhaceae, ferns with affinities to Dicksoniaceae, conifers, and dicots. A reconstruction of the aquatic plant paleocommuniy is provided based on the distribution of the fossils along a freshwater horizon within the La Colonia Formation. This contribution constitutes the first reconstruction of a Cretaceous aquatic habitat for southern South America.

  18. Population-level effects and recovery of aquatic invertebrates after multiple applications of an insecticide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, P.; Preuss, T.G.; Hamer, M.; Galic, N.G.; Strauss, T.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Standard risk assessment of plant protection products (PPP) combines “worst-case” exposure scenarios with effect thresholds using assessment (safety) factors to account for uncertainties. If needed, risks can be addressed applying more realistic conditions at higher tiers, which refine exposure and/

  19. Predicting the response of aquatic invertebrates to stress using species traits and stressor mode of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubach, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    How much stress can one take? It depends, on the combination of your mental and physical characteristics (traits), but it’s hard to predict. Chemicals can have devastating effects on ecosystems and they can cause stress in animals and plants. Thus, their risk for ecosystem health needs to be assesse

  20. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  1. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water

  2. A co-beneficial system using aquatic plants: bioethanol production from free-floating aquatic plants used for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, S; Mishima, D; Inoue, D; Ike, M

    2013-01-01

    A co-beneficial system using constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with aquatic plants is proposed for bioethanol production and nutrient removal from wastewater. The potential for bioethanol production from aquatic plant biomass was experimentally evaluated. Water hyacinth and water lettuce were selected because of their high growth rates and easy harvestability attributable to their free-floating vegetation form. The alkaline/oxidative pretreatment was selected for improving enzymatic hydrolysis of the aquatic plants. Ethanol was produced with yields of 0.14-0.17 g-ethanol/ g-biomass in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation mode using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain or a typical yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subsequently, the combined benefits of the CWs planted with the aquatic plants for bioethanol production and nutrient removal were theoretically estimated. For treating domestic wastewater at 1,100 m(3)/d, it was inferred that the anoxic-oxic activated sludge process consumes energy at 3,200 MJ/d, whereas the conventional activated sludge process followed by the CW consumes only 1,800 MJ/d with ethanol production at 115 MJ/d. PMID:23752400

  3. Aluminum-dependent regulation of intracellular silicon in the aquatic invertebrate Lymnaea stagnalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Mahmoud; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; McCrohan, Catherine R.; White, Keith N.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon is essential for some plants, diatoms, and sponges but, in higher animals, its endogenous regulation has not been demonstrated. Silicate ions may be natural ligands for aluminum and here we show that, in the freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis), intracellular silicon seems specifically up-regulated in response to sublethal aluminum exposure. X-ray microanalysis showed that exposure of snails to low levels of aluminum led to its accumulation in lysosomal granules, accompanied by marked up-regulation of silicon. Increased lysosomal levels of silicon were a specific response to aluminum because cadmium and zinc had no such effect. Furthermore, intra-lysosomal sulfur from metallothionein and other sulfur-containing ligands was increased after exposure to cadmium and zinc but not aluminum. To ensure that these findings indicated a specific in vivo response, and not ex vivo formation of hydroxy-aluminosilicates (HAS) from added aluminum (555 μg/liter) and water-borne silicon (43 μg/liter), two further studies were undertaken. In a ligand competition assay the lability of aluminum (527 μg/liter) was completely unaffected by the presence of silicon (46 μg/liter), suggesting the absence of HAS. In addition, exogenous silicon (6.5 mg/liter), added to the water column to promote formation of HAS, caused a decrease in lysosomal aluminum accumulation, showing that uptake of HAS would not explain the loading of aluminum into lysosomal granules. These findings, and arguments on the stability, lability, and kinetics of aluminum–silicate interactions, suggest that a silicon-specific mechanism exists for the in vivo detoxification of aluminum, which provides regulatory evidence of silicon in a multicellular organism. PMID:11891333

  4. USE OF VASCULAR AQUATIC PLANTS IN PHYTOTOXICITY STUDIES WITH SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediments and rooted aquatic plants are major components of wetland systems. ediments in these systems act as sinks and reservoirs for organic and inorganic pollutants that are adsorbed to sediment particles or contained-in interstitial water that exists between the particle spac...

  5. Avoidance and tolerance to avian herbivores in aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hidding, A.

    2009-01-01

    Tolerance and avoidance are the two contrasting strategies that plants may adopt to cope with herbivores. Tolerance traits define the degree to which communities remain unaffected by herbivory. Trade-offs between herbivore avoidance and competitive strength and between avoidance and colonization ability may shape population traits and communities under herbivory. In this thesis I present comparative and experimental studies on populations and communities of aquatic plants and how they deal wi...

  6. Leachate treatment and anaerobic digestion using aquatic plants and algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ström, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Phytoremediation as a way to control and lessen nutrient concentrations in landfill leachate is a cheap and environmentally sustainable method. Accumulated nutrients in the plants can then be removed by harvesting and anaerobically digesting the biomass. This study presents two aquatic plants (L. minor (L.) and P. stratiotes (L.)) and one microalgae species (C. vulgaris (L.)), their capacities for growth and nutrient removal in leachate from Häradsudden landfill, Sweden, are investigated. The...

  7. No association between the use of Bti for mosquito control and the dynamics of non-target aquatic invertebrates in French coastal and continental wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Schäfer, Ralf B; Roucaute, Marc; Szöcs, Eduard; Chouin, Sébastien; de Maupeou, Jérôme; Duchet, Claire; Franquet, Evelyne; Le Hunsec, Benoit; Bertrand, Céline; Fayolle, Stéphanie; Francés, Benoît; Rozier, Yves; Foussadier, Rémi; Santoni, Jean-Baptiste; Lagneau, Christophe

    2016-05-15

    The environmental safety of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is still controversial, mainly because most of the previous field studies on its undesired effects were spatially limited and did not address the relationship between community similarity and application time and frequency. No general statement can therefore be drawn on the usage conditions of Bti that insure protection of non-target organisms. The present study was conducted in eight sites distributed over the main geographical sectors where mosquito control is implemented in mainland France and Corsica. Changes in non-target aquatic invertebrates were followed at elapsed time after repeated applications of two Bti formulations (VectoBac® WDG or 12AS) up to four consecutive years. We examined the influence of both larvicide treatments and environmental variables on community dynamics and dissimilarity between treated and control areas. As it can be argued that chironomids are the most vulnerable group of non-target invertebrates, we scrutinised potential Bti-related effects on the dynamics of their community. The use of VectoBac® WDG and 12AS in coastal and continental wetlands had no immediate or long-term detectable effect on the taxonomic structure and taxa abundance of non-target aquatic invertebrate communities, including chironomids. This applied to the main habitats where mosquito larvae occur, regardless of their geographic location. Flooding, whose frequency and duration depend on local meteorological and hydrological conditions, was identified as the main environmental driver of invertebrate community dynamics. Our findings add support to the environmental safety of currently available Bti formulations when following recommended application rates and best mosquito control practices. PMID:26930319

  8. Aquatic Plant Management Program current status and seasonal workplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, E.R.; Bates, A.L.; Webb, D.H.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the TVA Aquatic Plant Management Program is to support in an environmentally and economically responsible manner, the balanced multiple uses of the water resource of the Tennessee Valley. This is accomplished by following an integrated approach to prevent introduction and spread of noxious species, documenting occurrence and spread of existing species, and suppressing or eliminating problems in designated high use areas. It is not the TVA objective, nor is it biologically feasible and prudent to eliminate all aquatic vegetation. Aerial photography, helicopter reconnaissance, and field surveys are used to assess distributions and abundance of various aquatic macrophytes. Water level fluctuations are supplemented by herbicide applications to control undesirable vegetation. Investigations are conducted to evaluate water level fluctuation schemes, as well as biological, mechanical, and alternative chemical control techniques which offer potential for more environmentally compatible and cost-effective management operations.

  9. Procedures for Collecting and Processing Aquatic Invertebrates and Fish for Analysis of Mercury as Part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Barbara C.; Chasar, Lia C.; DeWeese, L. Rod; Brigham, Mark E.; Wentz, Dennis A.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury studies conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program have included nationwide reconnaissance samplings of hundreds of stream sites, as well as detailed, process-oriented research at selected sites. These reconnaissance and detailed studies are intended to provide a better understanding of methylmercury bioaccumulation in stream ecosystems over a range of environmental settings. This publication describes trace-element-clean techniques used for collection and processing of aquatic invertebrates and fish to be analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, and stable isotopes as part of NAWQA studies.

  10. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious concerns about the consequences of PG applications on agricultural soils

  11. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentati, Olfa, E-mail: olfa_hentati@yahoo.fr [High Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 4.5 P.O. Box 1175, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Abrantes, Nelson [Departamento de Ambiente da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Caetano, Ana Luísa [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Bouguerra, Sirine [High Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 4.5 P.O. Box 1175, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Römbke, Jörg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstrasse 2-14, D-65439 Flörsheim am Main (Germany); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-08-30

    observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious concerns about the consequences of PG applications on agricultural soils.

  12. Moist Soil Management of Wetland Impoundments for Plants and Invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In year’s past an impoundment was drained (a drawdown) when floating-leaved plants covered more than 50% of the water area. Drawdowns encourage beneficial moist...

  13. Shifts in Rhizoplane Communities of Aquatic Plants after Cadmium Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Lisa M.; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    In this study we present the comparative molecular analysis of bacterial communities of the aquatic plant Lemna minor from a contaminated site (RCP) and from a laboratory culture (EPA), as well as each of these with the addition of cadmium. Plants were identified as L. minor by analysis of the rpl16 chloroplast region. Comparative bacterial community studies were based on the analyses of 16S rRNA clone libraries, each containing about 100 clones from the root surfaces of plants. Bacterial com...

  14. Long-term effects of riparian-plant diversity loss on a stream invertebrate shredder

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Isabel Rodrigues; Duarte, Sofia; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    We used a pool of 3 common riparian-plant species in Portugal (alder, oak and eucalyptus) to examine the potential long-term impacts of riparian diversity loss on the feeding behaviour and body composition of a stream invertebrate shredder (Limnephilidae). Fine-mesh bags containing mixtures of the 3 leaf species were immersed in a mixed-forested stream to allow microbial colonization. After 2 weeks, colonized leaves were transferred to microcosms contain...

  15. Preliminary study of some environmental and ecological aspects of the communities of fish and aquatic macro-invertebrates in the Tutunendo River, Choco, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From June to October 2003 studies related to environmental and ecological aspects of fishes and macro-invertebrates in three sampling stations of Tutunendo River located in the Department of Choco, Colombia, were carried out. Abiotic factors like conductivity, pH, oxygen and temperature were also measured. Eighty one hundred fish specimens, belonging to three orders, seven families and twelve species were collected. The order Siluriformes presented the greatest abundance (70.72%) with three families, seven species and 128 specimens, followed by Characiformes with three families, three species and 43 specimens (23.53%). At the same time 1.211 aquatic macro-invertebrates were collected represented by the orders Ephemeroptera (50.28%), Odonata (11.40%), Coleoptera (8.67%), Hemiptera (8.42%), Trichoptera (7.30%), Plecoptera (5.7%), Megaloptera (3.3%), Lepidoptera (2.31%), Diptera (0.37%) and Haplotaxida (0.08%). The families Leptophlebiidae (37.24%), followed by Naucoridae (8.42%) and Baetidae (8%) were the most represented. Relationship between fishes and macro invertebrates as food items in Geophagus pellegrini and Astyanaxfasciatus were also studied. G. pellegrini was zooplanctophage with preference for Baetidae, Leptohyphidae, Hydrobiosidae, Leptoceridae and Naucoridae. Finally, the present work indicated that Tutunendo town does not have potential fishery; the economy is supported in productive traditional systems based in the agriculture, complemented with fishery and extractive activities

  16. The effects of dietary administration with chemical treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 on the growth of aquatic invertebrates in Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Shekarchi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the biological effects of β-glucans in cell wall of new identified strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 on the growth of aquatic invertebrates, in Artemia as model organism. Methods: All yeasts used in the present study were isolated from Rainbow trout intestine and then cultured in yeast extract-peptone-glycerol medium. Activation of β-glucan in yeasts was performed by chemical treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME (3.5% v/v. Then nauplii and larvae individuals of Artemia urmiana and Artemia franciscana (two different species of Artemia as test organisms were fed with 2ME-treated yeasts during the culture. At the end of experiment, after feeding individual length (total length and growth rate in adult individuals of Artemia was measured. Results: Following this administration, growth in both species of Artemia was improved (P < 0.05. So, the results showed that Artemia urmiana adults individuals that fed with 2MEtreated yeasts had the highest growth and total length. These results were confirmed with growth measurement in adult individuals of Artemia. Conclusions: This study suggested that 2ME-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 yeasts can be used for enhancing the growth of other aquatic invertebrates like shrimps as probiotic supplement and growth promoter.

  17. The effects of dietary administration with chemical treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 on the growth of aquatic invertebrates in Artemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behnam Shekarchi; Ali Nekuiefard; Ramin Manaffar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biological effects of β-glucans in cell wall of new identified strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 on the growth of aquatic invertebrates, in Artemia as model organism. Methods: All yeasts used in the present study were isolated from Rainbow trout intestine and then cultured in yeast extract-peptone-glycerol medium. Activation of β-glucan in yeasts was performed by chemical treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) (3.5% v/v). Then nauplii and larvae individuals of Artemia urmiana and Artemia franciscana (two different species of Artemia as test organisms) were fed with 2ME-treated yeasts during the culture. At the end of experiment, after feeding individual length (total length and growth rate) in adult individuals of Artemia was measured. Results: Following this administration, growth in both species of Artemia was improved (P Conclusions: This study suggested that 2ME-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YG3-1 yeasts can be used for enhancing the growth of other aquatic invertebrates like shrimps as probiotic supplement and growth promoter.

  18. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  19. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated. PMID:11402559

  20. Removal of fluoride contamination in water by three aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Sukalpa; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation, popularly known as 'green technology' has been employed in the present investigation to examine the potential of fluoride removal from water by some aquatic plants. Fluoride contamination in drinking water is very much prevalent in different parts of the world including India. Batch studies were conducted using some aquatic plants e.g., Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, and Spirodela polyrhiza which profusely grow in natural water bodies. The experimental data exhibited that all the above three aquatic floating macrophytes could remove fluoride to some relative degree of efficiency corresponding to initial concentration of fluoride 3, 5, 10, 20 mg/l after 10 days exposure time. Result showed that at lower concentration level i.e., 3 mg/L removal efficiency of Pistia stratiotes (19.87%) and Spirodela polyrhiza (19.23%) was found to be better as compared to Eichhornia crassipes (12.71%). Some of the physiological stress induced parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, total protein, catalase, and peroxidase were also studied to explore relative damage within the cell. A marginal stress was imparted among all the plants for lower concentration values (3 mg/L), whereas at 20 mg/l, maximum damage was observed. PMID:26247406

  1. Aquatics task force on environmental assessment of the Atikokn Power Plant: effects on aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1978-11-01

    Possible impacts of an 800-MW coal-fired power plant to be built near Atikokan, Ontario were evaluated. It is feared that the emissions of SO/sub 2/ will lead to the deposition of sulfuric acid and result in the acidification of freshwaters in nearby parks and wilderness areas. The most obvious biological effects of acidification are damages to populations of fish. Less conspicuous but no less severe damages also occur to other organisms. It appears that all trophic levels are affected: species numbers are reduced, biomasses are altered, and primary production and decomposition are impaired. Field experiments and laboratory experiments indicate that microbial activity is reduced and that the recycling of materials is greatly impeded at low pH. This may interfere with nutrient supplies to plants and decrease the microbial biomass available to higher trophic levels. Phytoplankton densities decrease in acidified lakes and there is a reduction in some species of macrophytes. On the other hand, Sphagnum and benthic filamentous algae greatly increase in acidified conditions. The total primary productivity of lakes and streams may actually increase because of such dense growths on the bottom. Zooplankton and benthic invertebrate communities become less complex as acidity increases. This may in part be due to reduced food supplies, but direct inhibition by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ has also been demonstrated. This removal of fish food organisms may exacerbate damage to fisheries, especially in the pH range of 5 to 6. When a lake loses all fish because of low pH, a few species of invertebrates may become very abundant. The salamanders Ambystoma jeffersonium and A. maculatum, sensitive to acidity below pH 7.0 and 5.0 respectively, are being eliminated from small ponds or temporary pools in the region around Ithaca, NY because of the impact of acid precipitation. Species of frogs in some lakes are also being eliminated because of acidification. (ERB)

  2. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  3. Effects of ozonation treatment on benthic fauna : How does the density of aquatic invertebrates change in the river Knivsta during removal of pharmaceuticals?

    OpenAIRE

    Hagberg, Ludvig

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of pharmaceuticals that end up in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are increasing due to a global increase in usage and poor removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment plants (STP). These compounds may cause great effects on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Pharmaceuticals are biologically active compounds that may affect non-target organisms. This report focused primarily on if and how the density of Chironomidae (nonbiting midges), Isopoda, Trichoptera ...

  4. Radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems associated with power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of liquid radioactivity releases to the environment from most of the operating nuclear power reactors in the U.S. through 1973. Concentrations and half-lives of radionuclides in the primary coolant water of a typical boiling water reactor are tabulated. It is noted that the releases of radionuclides from operating nuclear power plants have amounted to small fractions of the limits established by Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20 (10CFR20). Recommendations are made for research on the effects of nuclear power plants on aquatic ecosystems

  5. Quantitative assessment of aquatic impacts of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in a continuing study of the design and analysis of aquatic environmental monitoring programs for assessing the impacts of nuclear power plants. Analysis of data from Calvert Cliffs, Pilgrim, and San Onofre nuclear power plants confirmed the generic applicability of the control-treatment pairing design suggested by McKenzie et al. (1977). Substantial progress was made on the simulation model evaluation task. A process notebook was compiled in which each model equation was translated into a standardized notation. Individual model testing and evaluating was started. The Aquatic Generalized Environmental Impact Simulator (AGEIS) was developed and will be tested using data from Lake Keowee, South Carolina. Further work is required to test the various models and perfect AGEIS for impact analyses at actual power plant sites. Efforts on the hydrologic modeling task resulted in a compendium of models commonly applied to nuclear power plants and the application of two well-received hydrodynamic models to data from the Surry Nuclear Power Plant in Virginia. Conclusions from the study of these models indicate that slight inaccuracies of boundary data have little influence on mass conservation and accurate bathymetry data are necessary for conservation of mass through the model calculations. The hydrologic modeling task provides valuable reference information for model users and monitoring program designers

  6. Quantitative assessment of aquatic impacts of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Arnold, E.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Baker, K.S.

    1979-08-01

    Progress is reported in a continuing study of the design and analysis of aquatic environmental monitoring programs for assessing the impacts of nuclear power plants. Analysis of data from Calvert Cliffs, Pilgrim, and San Onofre nuclear power plants confirmed the generic applicability of the control-treatment pairing design suggested by McKenzie et al. (1977). Substantial progress was made on the simulation model evaluation task. A process notebook was compiled in which each model equation was translated into a standardized notation. Individual model testing and evaluating was started. The Aquatic Generalized Environmental Impact Simulator (AGEIS) was developed and will be tested using data from Lake Keowee, South Carolina. Further work is required to test the various models and perfect AGEIS for impact analyses at actual power plant sites. Efforts on the hydrologic modeling task resulted in a compendium of models commonly applied to nuclear power plants and the application of two well-received hydrodynamic models to data from the Surry Nuclear Power Plant in Virginia. Conclusions from the study of these models indicate that slight inaccuracies of boundary data have little influence on mass conservation and accurate bathymetry data are necessary for conservation of mass through the model calculations. The hydrologic modeling task provides valuable reference information for model users and monitoring program designers.

  7. Impact on the aquatic environment of hydro-peaking in hydroelectric plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of types of hydroelectric installations on French rivers. Some of these intermittently turbine water stored in dammed reservoirs, in order to use available reserves at the most opportune moment for power generation. These plants, run under 'hydro-peaking' management procedures, cause variations in discharge in river sections downstream of the restitution, on a daily or weekly scale. To answer questions concerning the impact of such variations in discharge on the aquatic environment, EDF launched a research program aimed at describing and better understanding the physical and biological phenomena related to hydro-peaking and assessing the possible impact of this type of plant management on French streams. Seven sites subjects to hydro-peaking were studied on rivers with mean flow rates lower than 20 m3/s (which corresponds to over 65 % of EDF hydro-peaking sites). Four themes in particular were examined: hydraulic characterization of hydro-peaking, modifications in thermal regime and water quality, response of benthic invertebrates and response of fish populations to hydro-peaking. For fish as well as for invertebrates, the role of the base discharge - in the absence of peaking flow - and that of the morphology of the river bed (and, in particular, the presence of shelter for fish) during periods of strong discharge were clearly highlighted. Impact assessment requires a precise diagnosis of the state of biocenoses. To carry out such a diagnosis, one must reason in terms of species, life phase (particularly the most sensitive phases) and population structure as well as the type of stream and the faunizone involved. A risk assessment is possible by means of simultaneous study of the morphology of the river bed and the response of the signal generated by hydro-peaking in terms of hydrology and physical characteristics downstream of the restitution. (authors)

  8. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. PMID:16781033

  9. Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: Ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentati, Olfa; Abrantes, Nelson; Caetano, Ana Luísa; Bouguerra, Sirine; Gonçalves, Fernando; Römbke, Jörg; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a metal and radionuclide rich-waste produced by the phosphate ore industry, which has been used as soil fertilizer in many parts of the world for several decades. The positive effects of PG in ameliorating some soil properties and increasing crop yields are well documented. More recently concerns are emerging related with the increase of metal/radionuclide residues on soils and crops. However, few studies have focused on the impact of PG applications on soil biota, as well as the contribution to soils with elements in mobile fractions of PG which may affect freshwater species as well. In this context the main aim of this study was to assess the ecotoxicity of soils amended with different percentages of Tunisian phosphogypsum (0.0, 4.9, 7.4, 11.1, 16.6 and 25%) and of elutriates obtained from PG - amended soil (0.0, 6.25, 12.5 and 25% of PG) to a battery of terrestrial (Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Zea mays, Lactuca sativa) and aquatic species (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Lemna minor). Both for amended soils and elutriates, invertebrates (especially D. magna and E. andrei) were the most sensitive species, displaying acute (immobilization) and chronic (reproduction inhibition) effects, respectively. Despite the presence of some concerning metals in PG and elutriates (e.g., zinc and cadmium), the extremely high levels of calcium found in both test mediums, suggest that this element was the mainly responsible for the ecotoxicological effects observed. Terrestrial and aquatic plants were the most tolerant species, which is in line with studies supporting the application of PG to increase crop yields. Nevertheless, no stimulatory effects on growth were observed for any of the species tested despite the high levels of phosphorus added to soils by PG. Given the importance of soil invertebrates for several soil functions and services, this study gives rise to new serious

  10. Downstream Effects of a Hydroelectric Reservoir on Aquatic Plant Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bernez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes were studied downstream of the Rophémel hydroelectric dam on the River Rance (Côtes d’Armor Department, western France to assess the effects of hydroelectric functioning on river macrophyte communities. We studied ten representative sections of the hydro-peaking channel on five occasions in 1995 and 1996, on a 15-km stretch of river. Floristic surveys were carried out on sections 50 m in length, and genera of macroalgae, species of bryophyta, hydrophytes, and emergent rhizophytes were identified. For the aquatic bryophytes and spermatophytes section of our study, we compared our results with 19th century floristic surveys, before the dam was built. During the vegetative growth period, the hydro-peaking frequency was low. The plant richness was highest near the dam. The macrophyte communities were highly modified according to the distance to the dam. The frequency and magnitude of hydro-peaking was related to the aquatic macrophyte richness in an Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis position. However, the results of the eco-historical comparison with 19th century floristic surveys point to the original nature of the flora found at the site. Some floral patterns, seen during both periods and at an interval of 133 years, were indicative of the ubiquity of the aquatic flora and of the plants’ adaptability. This demonstrates the importance of taking river basin history into account in such biological surveys.

  11. Toxicity Concerns of Semiconducting Nanostructures on Aquatic Plant Hydrilla verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra, Priya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have examined toxicity of nanostructures such as flower-like ZnO capped with starch, spherical uncapped ZnO and spherical CdS on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata, which has not done before. Hydrilla plant was exposed by these nanoparticles at a concentration of 400 mg/L for 7 days and changes in the biochemical parameters such as catalase activity, chlorophyll content and protein content were observed. It was perceived that spherical CdS nanoparticles were more toxic than the corresponding ZnO nanoparticles since there was a decrease in chlorophyll content and increase in catalase activity. This effort upsurge an interest in understanding the hazards of nanomaterials and their risk, which poses an impact on our environment and how they can be monitored via simple biochemical assays on plant systems.

  12. Responses of predatory invertebrates to seeding density and plant species richness in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Danielson, Stephen D.; Helzer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, agricultural producers and non-governmental organizations have restored thousands of hectares of former cropland in the central United States with native grasses and forbs. However, the ability of these grassland restorations to attract predatory invertebrates has not been well documented, even though predators provide an important ecosystem service to agricultural producers by naturally regulating herbivores. This study assessed the effects of plant richness and seeding density on the richness and abundance of surface-dwelling (ants, ground beetles, and spiders) and aboveground (ladybird beetles) predatory invertebrates. In the spring of 2006, twenty-four 55 m × 55 m-plots were planted to six replicates in each of four treatments: high richness (97 species typically planted by The Nature Conservancy), at low and high seeding densities, and low richness (15 species representing a typical Natural Resources Conservation Service Conservation Reserve Program mix, CP25), at low and high seeding densities. Ants, ground beetles, and spiders were sampled using pitfall traps and ladybird beetles were sampled using sweep netting in 2007–2009. The abundance of ants, ground beetles, and spiders showed no response to seed mix richness or seeding density but there was a significant positive effect of richness on ladybird beetle abundance. Seeding density had a significant positive effect on ground beetle and spider species richness and Shannon–Weaver diversity. These results may be related to differences in the plant species composition and relative amount of grass basal cover among the treatments rather than richness.

  13. Ecogenotoxicity testing of aquatic environment by comet assay in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of environmental monitoring is the detection of potentially hazardous compounds in water. We have set up a standard method to apply the Comet assay in aquatic plants that could be of great interest to evaluate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress on the same species regarded as most sensitive to environmental pollutants. The aim of the present study was to set up of standardized procedure to evaluate genotoxicity in aquatic plants- Ceratophyllum demersum one that is submerged free floating and the other is Lemna minor - a fresh water floating plant by Comet assay. Electrophoresis and unwinding times were adapted to obtain minimum DNA migration evaluated as tail intensity % or tail moment in the control group and, at the same time maximum sensitivity for DNA damage with known genotoxicants. We further investigated the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced in the same species. Based on the repeatability of results obtained we suggest that Ceratophyllum, Lemna can serve as model species and Comet assay could be adopted to monitor the eco-genotoxicity of water pollutants.

  14. Differentiating aquatic plant communities in a eutrophic river using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.Q.; Yu, Q.; Zimmerman, M.J.; Flint, S.; Waldron, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of remote sensing technology to monitor species composition, areal extent and density of aquatic plants (macrophytes and filamentous algae) in impoundments where their presence may violate water-quality standards. Multispectral satellite (IKONOS) images and more than 500 in situ hyperspectral samples were acquired to map aquatic plant distributions. By analyzing field measurements, we created a library of hyperspectral signatures for a variety of aquatic plant species, associations and densities. We also used three vegetation indices. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), near-infrared (NIR)-Green Angle Index (NGAI) and normalized water absorption depth (DH), at wavelengths 554, 680, 820 and 977 nm to differentiate among aquatic plant species composition, areal density and thickness in cases where hyperspectral analysis yielded potentially ambiguous interpretations. We compared the NDVI derived from IKONOS imagery with the in situ, hyperspectral-derived NDVI. The IKONOS-based images were also compared to data obtained through routine visual observations. Our results confirmed that aquatic species composition alters spectral signatures and affects the accuracy of remote sensing of aquatic plant density. The results also demonstrated that the NGAI has apparent advantages in estimating density over the NDVI and the DH. In the feature space of the three indices, 3D scatter plot analysis revealed that hyperspectral data can differentiate several aquatic plant associations. High-resolution multispectral imagery provided useful information to distinguish among biophysical aquatic plant characteristics. Classification analysis indicated that using satellite imagery to assess Lemna coverage yielded an overall agreement of 79% with visual observations and >90% agreement for the densest aquatic plant coverages. Interpretation of biophysical parameters derived from high-resolution satellite or airborne imagery should prove to be a

  15. Shoot branching of the aquatic carnivorous plant Utricularia australis as the key process of plant growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2011), 133-148. ISSN 0079-2047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plant * branching characteristics * mathematical model Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.833, year: 2011

  16. An updated checklist of aquatic plants of Myanmar and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Tropical Asia is among the richest in the world, yet the actual diversity is estimated to be much higher than previously reported. Myanmar and Thailand are adjacent countries that together occupy more than the half the area of continental Tropical Asia. This geographic area is diverse ecologically, ranging from cool-temperate to tropical climates, and includes from coast, rainforests and high mountain elevations. An updated checklist of aquatic plants, which includes 78 species in 44 genera from 24 families, are presented based on floristic works. This number includes seven species, that have never been listed in the previous floras and checklists. The species (excluding non-indigenous taxa were categorized by five geographic groups with the exception of to reflect the rich diversity of the countries' floras.

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Li; Haixin Yu; Yaning Luan

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pont...

  18. Remote Sensing and Modeling for Improving Operational Aquatic Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California’s water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  19. Effects of Eichhornia crassipes Growth on Aquatic Plants in Dianchi Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of Eichhornia crassipes as an invasive plant on aquatic plants in Dianchi Lake. [Method] Based on the determination of chlorophyll content of phytoplankton and submerged plant (Potamogeton pectinatus) in Dianchi Lake in different months, the effects of E. crassipes on aquatic plants in Dianchi Lake were studied, and the allelopathy effect of root culture solution of E. crassipes on Microcystis aquaticum was discussed. [Result] The growth of E. crassipes in Dianch...

  20. 78 FR 14503 - Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... 30, 2011 (76 FR 82414). The 2011 Caribbean ACL Amendment included Amendment 3 to the Coral FMP... Amendment 2 to the Queen Conch FMP and Amendment 5 to the Reef Fish FMP (2010 Caribbean ACL Amendment)(76 FR... Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  1. 78 FR 33255 - Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... availability for Amendment 4 and requested comments (78 FR 12703). On March 6, 2013, NMFS published a proposed rule for Amendment 4 to the Coral FMP and requested public comments (78 FR 14503). The proposed rule... Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  2. Holocene climate variability on the Kola Peninsula, Russian Subarctic, based on aquatic invertebrate records from lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyashuk, Elena A.; Ilyashuk, Boris P.; Kolka, Vasily V.; Hammarlund, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Sedimentary records of invertebrate assemblages were obtained from a small lake in the Khibiny Mountains, Kola Peninsula. Together with a quantitative chironomid-based reconstruction of mean July air temperature, these data provide evidence of Holocene climate variability in the western sector of the Russian Subarctic. The results suggest that the amplitude of climate change was more pronounced in the interior mountain area than near the White Sea coast. A chironomid-based temperature reconstruction reflects a warming trend in the early Holocene, interrupted by a transient cooling at ca. 8500-8000 cal yr BP with a maximum drop in temperature (ca. 1°C) around 8200 cal yr BP. The regional Holocene Thermal Maximum, characterized by maximum warmth and dryness occurred at ca. 7900-5400 cal yr BP. During this period, July temperatures were at least 1°C higher than at present. The relatively warm and dry climate persisted until ca. 4000 cal yr BP, when a pronounced neoglacial cooling was initiated. Minimum temperatures, ca. 1-2°C lower than at present, were inferred at ca. 3200-3000 cal yr BP. Faunal shifts in the stratigraphic profile imply also that the late-Holocene cooling was followed by a general increase in effective moisture.

  3. Acute Upper Thermal Limits of Three Aquatic Invasive Invertebrates: Hot Water Treatment to Prevent Upstream Transport of Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jessica; Moy, Philip; de Stasio, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Transport of aquatic invasive species (AIS) by boats traveling up rivers and streams is an important mechanism of secondary spread of AIS into watersheds. Because physical barriers to AIS movement also prevent navigation, alternate methods for preventing spread are necessary while allowing upstream navigation. One promising approach is to lift boats over physical barriers and then use hot water immersion to kill AIS attached to the hull, motor, or fishing gear. However, few data have been published on the acute upper thermal tolerance limits of potential invaders treated in this manner. To test the potential effectiveness of this approach for a planned boat lift on the Fox River of northeastern WI, USA, acute upper thermal limits were determined for three AIS, adult zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussels ( Dreissena rostriformis bugensis), and spiny water fleas ( Bythotrephes longimanus) from the local area employing temperatures from 32 to 54°C and immersion times from 1 to 20 min. Mortality was determined after immersion followed by a 20-min recovery period. Immersion at 43°C for at least 5 min was required to ensure 100% mortality for all three species, but due to variability in the response by Bythotrephes a 10 min immersion would be more reliable. Overall there were no significant differences between the three species in acute upper thermal limits. Heated water can be an efficient, environmentally sound, and cost effective method of controlling AIS potentially transferred by boats, and our results should have both specific and wide-ranging applications in the prevention of the spread of aquatic invasive species.

  4. Invertebrates in managed waterfowl marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Janke, Adam K.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrates are an important food for breeding, migrating, and wintering waterfowl. Sparse study has been devoted to understanding the influence of waterfowl and wetland management on production of invertebrates for waterfowl foods; however, manipulation of hydrology and soils may change or enhance production. Fish can compete with waterfowl for invertebrate forage in wetlands and harm aquatic macrophytes; biomanipulation (e.g., stocking piscivores) may improve waterfowl habitat quality. Similarly, some terrestrial vertebrates (e.g., beaver (Castor canadensis)) may positively or negatively impact invertebrate communities in waterfowl habitats. Various challenges exist to wetland management for invertebrates for waterfowl, but the lack of data on factors influencing production may be the most limiting.

  5. Sucessão de invertebrados durante o processo de decomposição de duas plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia azurea e Polygonum ferrugineum - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1017 Succession of invertebrates during the decomposition process of two aquatic plants (Eichhornia azurea and Polygonum ferrugineum - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Monkolski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A colonização de invertebrados durante o período de 56 dias de decomposição de duas espécies de plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia azurea e Polygonum ferrugineum foi investigada para determinar o papel de macroinvertebrados no processo de fragmentação da folha. Durante a análise do material, foi constatado um total de 2096 invertebrados, associados a E.azurea e 6154 invertebrados associados a P. ferrugineum, identificados dentro de 18 táxons, com predominância de larvas de Diptera da família Chironomidae, seguido por espécimes de Oligochaeta, microcrustáceos como Cladocera e Copepoda. Em ambas as plantas, os macroinvertebrados mostraram um aumento significativo de densidade ao longo do processo de decomposição, o que provavelmente está associado à perda de compostos fenólicos. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies de macrófitas apresentam associações específicas com seus consumidores, ou seja, o processo de sucessão da colonização torna-se diferenciado de acordo com as características fenológicas da planta.The invertebrate colonization was investigated during 56-day decomposition of two macrophytes species (Eichhornia azurea and Polygonum ferrugineum. The aim was to determine the role of macroinvertebrates in the process of leaf fragmentation. During material analysis, 2096 invertebrates were associated with E.azurea and 6154 were associated with P. ferrugineum, identified in 18 taxons, with predominance of Diptera larvae (Chironomidae family specially, followed by Oligochaeta species and microcrustaceans such as Cladocera and Copepoda. In both macrophytes the macroinvertebrates showed a significant increase of density through the process of decomposition, which is probably associated with the loss of phenolic compounds. Results suggest that macrophytes specimens show specific associations with their consumers, i.e., the succession process of colonization becomes singular according to the phenolic characteristics of the

  6. The response of three aquatic plants to different concentration od selenite in media

    OpenAIRE

    Mohorko, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    The response of three aquatic plants (Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Potamogeton perfoliatus) to the change in selenite content in their environment was studied. All chosen aquatic plants were at first exposed to the medium with 10 mg/L of added selenite for various days of exposure (1 to 15 days). After the treatments the plants were transplanted to medium without added selenite for 5 days. After each treatment the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PS II), electr...

  7. Ash characteristics and plant nutrients in some aquatic biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; Pandit, Ankita; George, Joshy; Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Selvi, Vetrivel; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic biomasses are explored as potential fuel source for direct combustion because of their faster growth and no land requirement. The energy density and the ash characteristics of the aquatic biomasses are to be evaluated for their suitability for energy extraction. In the study, four aquatic plant samples namely Eichornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticilleta, Lemna minor, Spirogyra spp were collected from a pond in Digwadih Campus of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad. The biomasses were air dried, powdered and ashed at different temperatures. Volatile C was relatively lower in Spirogyra and Hydrilla (53 %) than Eichornia (62.6 %) or Lemna (59.7 %), whereas fixed C was higher for Eichornia and Lemna (about 10 %) and lower for Hydrilla (1 %). Ultimate analysis showed that the carbon content was in the order Eichornia > Lemna > Spirogyra > Hydrilla. The IR spectra of each raw biomass is compared to their respective ashes obtained at different temperatures (500-900°C). With increase in ashing temperature from 500-900°C there is gradual breakdown of the cellulosic structure hence, peaks around 2900-2800cm-1 caused by aliphatic C-H vibration tends to disappear slowly in ash. More number of peaks appears at lower wavenumbers in ashes of all the biomass samples indicating towards increased percentage of inorganic ion species. Considerable enrichment of SiO2 is validated with prominent peaks at 1100-900 cm-1 in all the ashes. Lemna and Spirogyra has a similar ash composition (Si > Al > Ca > K), whereas, Ca was higher in Hydrilla (Si > Ca > K > Al). Eichornia (Si > K > Ca > Al) has higher K and Ca than Al. SiO2 and Al2O3 were higher in Spirogyra, while SiO2 and CaO in Eichornia and Hydrilla. K first increased from 500-700/800⁰C, and then decreased from 800-900⁰C. Cl is lost slowly in ash from 500-700/800⁰C and then by a drastic reduction from 800-900⁰C. S is enhanced in ash at all temperatures although the change is quite small. Most of the Cl

  8. Pesticide impact on aquatic invertebrates identified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers and the SPEAR(pesticides) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Kaske, Oliver; Beketov, Mikhail A; Hundt, Matthias; Bauer, Coretta; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Möder, Monika; Liess, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Pesticides negatively affect biodiversity and ecosystem function in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pesticides on stream macroinvertebrates at 19 sites in a rural area dominated by forest cover and arable land in Central Germany. Pesticide exposure was quantified with Chemcatcher® passive samplers equipped with a diffusion-limiting membrane. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate communities and on the ecosystem function detritus breakdown were identified using the indicator system SPEARpesticides and the leaf litter degradation rates, respectively. A decrease in the abundance of pesticide-vulnerable taxa and a reduction in leaf litter decomposition rates were observed at sites contaminated with the banned insecticide Carbofuran (Toxic Units≥-2.8), confirming the effect thresholds from previous studies. The results show that Chemcatcher® passive samplers with a diffusion-limiting membrane reliably detect ecologically relevant pesticide pollution, and we suggest Chemcatcher® passive samplers and SPEARpesticides as a promising combination to assess pesticide exposure and effects in rivers and streams. PMID:26282741

  9. Invertebrate communities of Lake Nabisojjo

    OpenAIRE

    Ndawula, L.M.; Kiggundu, V.; Pabire Ghandi, W.

    2000-01-01

    Invertebrates are organisms without a backbone on the basis of body size. Aquatic invertebrates can be divided into two broad categories: micro-and macro-invertebrates. The former commonly known as zooplankton, ranging in size from < 100um 10 ca.1500um and are mainly planktonic (i.e living suspended in the water column). The latter, also known as benthos, (bottom dwelling) are associated with bottom sediments(ie, living on sediment surface or burrowing in sediments), are much bigger organism ...

  10. Characterization of the potential impact of metal contaminated sediments on aquatic plants and insects at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tim's Branch is an ephemeral second order tributary of Upper Three Runs Creek at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At present, Tim's Branch is the receiving stream for eight NPDES outfalls. Historic contamination of Tim's Branch through untreated discharges has resulted in significant levels of natural uranium, nickel, aluminum, mercury, copper, lead, chromium, and zinc in the stream sediments and flood plain. Indigenous plant and chironomid species in the area were identified. Sediment, benthic invertebrate and aquatic plant samples were harvested from several sites to determine metal concentrations. Physical and chemical parameters of sediment including acid volatile sulfides, pH, oxidation/reduction potential, organic carbon and particle size distribution were assessed to determine their influence on metal bioavailability. Laboratory tests indicated that significant levels of heavy metals are translocated from sediment to Hydrilla verticillata with a concurrent elevation of plant peroxidase activity. Laboratory sediment toxicity bioassays were also performed with laboratory-reared Chironomus tentans. In situ sediment toxicity bioassays were performed with indigenous chironomids and plants to validate laboratory results

  11. Environmental Assessment: Submerged Aquatic Plant Management of Banks Lake, Banks Lake NWR, Lakeland, Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment is an analysis of five alternatives developed to address themanagement of the submerged aquatic plants of Banks Lake on Banks Lake...

  12. Testing the stress-gradient hypothesis with aquatic detritivorous invertebrates : insights for biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research

    OpenAIRE

    Fugère, V.; Andino, P.; Espinosa, R; Anthelme, Fabien; D. Jacobsen; Dangles, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    1. The stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) states that environmental stress modulates species interactions, causing a shift from negative interactions to net positive interactions with increasing stress. 2. Potentially, this modulation of species interactions could in turn influence biodiversity-ecosystem function (B-EF) relationships along stress gradients. Although the SGH has been extensively discussed in plant community ecology in the past two decades, it has received little attention from a...

  13. Radionuclides in higher aquatic plants of water reservoirs within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs content in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone have been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and spice-indicators of radioactive contamination are exposed as well. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclides content in macrophites was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose have been demonstrated

  14. 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of 90Sr and 137Cs radionuclides in higher aquatic plants of water object within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated

  15. The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio R. Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil. The aquatic caterpillar Paracles klagesi (Rothschild, 1910 was collected from the headwaters of a stream in an ecotone between Cerrado and Babaçu forest in northeastern Brazil. The single caterpillar found was observed feeding on the macrophyte Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. (Eriocaulaceae and other aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae present in the area, but also accepted as food Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae and Cabomba sp. (Cabombaceae under laboratory conditions.

  16. Digestive plasticity in Mallard ducks modulates dispersal probabilities of aquatic plants and crustaceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charalambidou, I.; Santamaria, L.; Jansen, C.; Nolet, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    1. The consequences of plastic responses of the avian digestive tract for the potential of birds to disperse other organisms remain largely uninvestigated. 2. To explore how a seasonal diet switch in Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L.) influences their potential to disperse plants and invertebrates, we

  17. Effects of Elimination of Alligator Weed on Certain Aquatic Plants and the Value of these Plants as Waterfowl Foods

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The effects of elimination of alligatorweed by granular silvex on the abundance of 12 species of aquatic plants were studied on the Santee National Wildlife Refuge,...

  18. MORPHO-STRUCTURAL ADAPTATIONS OF SOME AQUATIC CARNIVOROUS PLANT SPECIES (ALDROVANDA VESICULOSA L. AND UTRICULARIA VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANESCU IRINA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the authors emphasize a few structure particularities of two aquatic carnivorous plant species, Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. and Utricularia vulgaris L., underlining their adaptation to the aquatic medium and to the carnivory menu.

  19. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively. PMID:27474848

  20. Transfer of oxytetracycline from swine manure to three different aquatic plants: implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsaner, Maliwan; Hawker, Darryl W

    2015-03-01

    Little is known regarding the potential for pharmaceuticals including antibiotics to be accumulated in edible aquatic plants and enter the human food chain. This work investigates the transfer of a widely used veterinary antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC), from swine manure to aquatic plants by firstly characterizing desorption from swine manure to water and fitting data to both nonlinear and linear isotherms. Bioconcentration of OTC from water was then quantified with aquatic plants of contrasting morphology and growth habit viz. watermeal (Wolffia globosa Hartog and Plas), cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana A. Gray) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.). Watermeal and water spinach are widely consumed in Southeast Asia. The OTC desorption and bioconcentration data were used to provide the first quantitative estimates of human exposure to OTC from a manure-water-aquatic plant route. Results show that under certain conditions (plants growing for 15d in undiluted swine manure effluent (2% w/v solids) and an initial OTC swine manure concentration of 43mgkg(-1) (dry weight)), this pathway could provide a significant fraction (>48%) of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for OTC. While effluent dilution, lower OTC manure concentrations and not all plant material consumed being contaminated would be expected to diminish the proportion of the ADI accumulated, uptake from aquatic plants should not be ignored when determining human exposure to antibiotics such as OTC. PMID:25496742

  1. Treatment with aquatic plants by a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsina Mukti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tribal healers mainly use land plants in their medicinal formulations; use of aquatic plants has been scarcely reported. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey working with a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out working with a Bagdi healer, who lived alone in the wetlands of Rajbari District and used primarily aquatic plants for treatment. Materials and Methods: Interview of the healer was carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Bagdi healer was observed to use seven different aquatic plant species coming from five plant families for treatment of ailments such as hemorrhoids, tonsillitis, heart disorders, burning sensations and pain in hands or legs, blurred vision, debility, sexual weakness in males, chronic dysentery, infertility in women, constipation, chronic leucorrhea, blackness and foul odor of menstrual blood, hair loss, graying of hair and to keep the head cool. One plant was used to treat what the healer mentioned as "evil eye", this refers to their belief in black-magic. Conclusions: This is the first reported instance of a Bagdi healer who primarily uses aquatic plants for treatment. Ethnomedicinal uses of a number of the plants used by the Bagdi healer have been reported for other places in India and Pakistan. Taken together, the various uses of the different plant species opens up scientific possibilities of new drug discoveries from the plants.

  2. 单克隆抗体在水产无脊椎动物血淋巴细胞研究中的应用%Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in Research on Blood Lymphocytes of Aquatic Invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚瑞荣; 李强; 于毅; 李华

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the monoclonal antibodies in aquatic invertebrates is more and more widely applied, but being mainly reported in shrimp .shellfish and some other aquatic animals, such as; sea cucumber. They were mainly used in recognition and identification of blood lymphocytes, and preliminary researches were also carried out by monoclonal antibodies on ontogenesis and differentiation. In this paper, we review the application of monoclonal antibodies on classification, distribution, ontogenesis and functions of blood lymphocytes in aquatic invertebrates based on the literatures reported at home and abroad.%近年来,单克隆抗体在水产无脊椎动物血淋巴细胞研究中的应用越来越广泛,迄今报道的研究种类主要是对虾和贝类,另外还包括一些其他水产无脊椎动物,如海参等.主要应用于血淋巴细胞的识别和鉴定,并对其个体的发生和分化方面也进行了初步的研究.对单克隆抗体在水产无脊椎动物血淋巴细胞的分类、分布、发生和功能研究等方面的应用进行了综述.

  3. Aquatic macroinvertebrates collected at Ravenna Army Ammunition Plant, Portage and Trumbull Counties, Ohio, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertuliani, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a survey of macroinvertebrate communities in the Ravenna Army Ammunition Plant, were used as an indicator of disturbance in streams flowing through or near the training areas at the Plant. The data were interpreted using the Invertebrate Community Index (ICI), a multiple-metric index developed by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency and based on the structural and functional characteristics of the macroinvertebrate community. Quantitative samples of the macroinvertebrate were collected for ICI determination from three streams South Fork Eagle Creek, Sand Creek, and Hinkley Creek flowing through the study area. These samples were collected using Hester-Dendy type artificial substrate samplers, which were placed in the streams during a 6-week sampling period, June 2 through July 15, 1998. A qualitative- dipnet sample from the natural substrates also was collected at each station on July 15, 1998, the last day of the sampling period. The macroinvertebrate communities at all three stations met the criterion designated for warmwater habitat aquatic life use, and communities at two of the three stations exceeded the criterion. The ICI scores were 42 at South Fork Eagle Creek, 50 at Sand Creek, and 48 at Hinkley Creek. The density of macroinvertebrates at South Fork Eagle Creek was 1,245 per square foot and represented 38 distinct taxa. The density at Sand Creek was 246 per square foot and represented 29 distinct taxa. The density at Hinkley Creek was 864 per square foot and represented 36 distinct taxa. Qualitative samples were also collected at 21 other sites using a D-framed dipnet. The qualitative sites encompassed three main environments: stream, pond, and swamp-wetland. All available habitat types in each environment were sampled until no new taxa were evident during coarse examination. The highest number of taxa were collected from the streams. The total number of taxa collected in streams ranged from 25 to 76; the mean was 60 and median 64. The

  4. Aquatic grazers reduce the establishment and growth of riparian plants along an environmental gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G.F.; Sarneel, J.M.; Ravensbergen, L.; Huig, N.; van Paassen, J.; Rip, W.; Bakker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The establishment of riparian plants is determined by abiotic conditions and grazing, although it is usually presumed that the former are most important. We tested the impact of aquatic grazers on the survival and growth of establishing riparian plants and whether the impact of grazing inter

  5. Field effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) in ornamental ceramic containers with common aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Seleena, B; Lau, K W; Daliza, A R; Ella Syafinas, S; Mohd Sofian, A

    2009-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the impact of larvaciding using a Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis) formulation (VectoBac WG) against Aedes aegypti larvae in earthen jars containing aquatic plants. Aquatic plants commonly used for landscaping, Pistia stratiotes (L.) (Liliopsida: Araceae) and Sagittaria sp. (Liliopsida: Alismataceae) were placed inside earthen jars filled with 50 L tap water. All earthen jars were treated with Bti formulation at 8g/1000L. Untreated jars with and without aquatic plants were also set up as controls. Fifty laboratory-bred 2nd instar larvae were introduced into each earthen jar. All earthen jars were observed daily. Number of adults emerged was recorded and the larval mortality was calculated. The indicators of effectiveness of Bti for these studies were (i) residual activities of Bti, and (ii) larval mortality in earthen jars with or without aquatic plants. The treated earthen jars containing P. stratiotes and Sagittaria sp. showed significant residual larvicidal effect up to 7 weeks, in comparison to untreated control (p < 0.05). The larval mortality ranged from 77.34% - 100% for jars with aquatic plants vs 80.66% - 100% for jars without aquatic plant. Earthen jars treated with Bti without aquatic plants also exhibited significantly longer residual larvicidal activity of up to 10 weeks (p < 0.05). The larval mortality ranged from 12.66% - 100% for jars with aquatic plants vs 59.34% - 100% for jars without aquatic plant. Thus, earthen jars without aquatic plants exhibited longer residual larvicidal effect compared to those with aquatic plants. This study suggested that containers with aquatic plants for landscaping should be treated more frequently with Bti in view of the shortened residual activity. PMID:19696734

  6. Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic plant-based systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment are regarded as emerging contaminants and have attracted increasing concern. The use of aquatic plant-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs) for treatment of conventional pollutants has been well documented. However, available research studies on aquatic plant-based systems for PPCP removal are still limited. The removal of PPCPs in CWs often involves a diverse and complex set of physical, chemical and biological processes, which can be affected by the design and operational parameters selected for treatment. This review summarizes the PPCP removal performance in different aquatic plant-based systems. We also review the recent progress made towards a better understanding of the various mechanisms and pathways of PPCP attenuation during such phytoremediation. Additionally, the effect of key CW design characteristics and their interaction with the physico-chemical parameters that may influence the removal of PPCPs in functioning aquatic plant-based systems is discussed. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the removal performance of PPCPs in CW systems. • Investigation of the mechanisms and pathways contributing to PPCP removal in CWs. • Investigation of the effect of CW design parameters on PPCP removal. • Investigation of the correlation between physico-chemical parameters and PPCP removal. -- This review gives an overview of the present state of research on the removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products by means of constructed wetlands

  7. RhizoFlowCell system reveals early effects of micropollutants on aquatic plant rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynampati, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Lee, Yong Jian; Wijdeveld, Arjan; Reuben, Sheela; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    In aquatic systems, one of the non-destructive ways to quantify toxicity of contaminants to plants is to monitor changes in root exudation patterns. In aquatic conditions, monitoring and quantifying such changes are currently challenging because of dilution of root exudates in water phase and lack of suitable instrumentation to measure them. Exposure to pollutants would not only change the plant exudation, but also affect the microbial communities that surround the root zone, thereby changing the metabolic profiles of the rhizosphere. This study aims at developing a device, the RhizoFlowCell, which can quantify metabolic response of plants, as well as changes in the microbial communities, to give an estimate of the stress to which the rhizosphere is exposed. The usefulness of RhizoFlowCell is demonstrated using naphthalene as a test pollutant. Results show that RhizoFlowCell system is useful in quantifying the dynamic metabolic response of aquatic rhizosphere to determine ecosystem health. PMID:26386206

  8. Understory vegetation, soil structure and soil invertebrates in Congolese eucalypt plantations, with special reference to the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata and earthworm populations

    OpenAIRE

    Mboukou Kimbatsa, Irène; Bernhard Reversat, France; Loumeto, J.J.; J. Ngao; Lavelle, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Earthworm relationships with vegetation have received extensive attention, and earthworm density has been shown to be related to vegetation types or plant species. However, the factors involved are rarely known. In Congo, we studied the effect of Chromolaena odorata (L) R.M. King and H. Robinson, which invades eucalypt plantations, on soil invertebrates, especially earthworms. In order to investigate relationships between vegetation cover and soil invertebrates, four understory species, inclu...

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-12-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters. PMID:26703632

  10. Comparative Studies of the Phytoextraction Capacity of Five Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal Contaminated Water

    OpenAIRE

    Erzsébet BUTA; Anamária TÖRÖK; Zongo, Bilassé; Maria CANTOR; Buta, Mihai; Majdik, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    The uptake capacity of the aquatic plants (Salvinia natans Kunth., Eichhornia crassipes Mart., Lemna minor L., Elodea canadensis Michx., Pistia stratiotes L.) was analyzed in phytoextraction of Cu2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+. It was attend to study the plants capacity comparatively using mono and multimetallic systems. In particular, the chlorophyll, protein and carotenoids contents were studied during heavy metals uptake, in order to observe the stress effect on plants. The results obtained for the m...

  11. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged also affect the plant’s ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  12. Aquatic and wetland plants of Puerto Rico. I. Pteridophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Hernández, Efrén

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of the aquatic and wetland families of Pteridophytes in Puerto Rico is presented herein. Included are brief descriptions of each family, genus and species, and, when appropriate, keys for genera and species accompany the descriptions. The distribution of each species is also documented with maps, as well as with information on some ecological characteristics of each species.Estudio de los helechos acuáticos y palustres de Puerto Rico, con especial atención a las especies asociadas a cuerpos de aguas quietas y pantanos. Se reconocen 8 géneros y 13 especies. Se dan descripciones, claves, notas de sus hábitats y mapas de distribucidn.

  13. The importance of litter for interactions between terrestrial plants and invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Gelfgren, Maria

    2010-01-01

    According to the exploitation ecosystem hypothesis (EEH), terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by well defined trophic levels and strong trophic interactions with community level tropic cascades. In unproductive terrestrial habitats as tundra heaths, the energy shunt from litter and apparent competition between herbivores and detritivores are expected to be important for the structure and dynamics of the invertebrate community. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis by investig...

  14. Cytogenetic consequences of low dose chronic irradiation on native populations of higher aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original data of cytogenetic monitoring of the most wide-spread species of higher aquatic plants of water bodies from Chernobyl accident exclusive zone are analyzed. There are discussed the correlation between chromosome aberration rate in apical root meristems cells and absorbed dose rate. (authors)

  15. Ecophysiological traits of terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous plants: are the costs and benefits the same?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ellison, A. M.; Adamec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 11 (2011), 1721-1731. ISSN 0030-1299 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : terrestrial and aquatic carnivorous plants * photosynthesis * mineral nutrition Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.061, year: 2011

  16. Micronutrient content does not reflect the status of health in the aquatic carnivorous plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2007), s. 711-714. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : rootless aquatic plant * disorder of shoot apices * tissue microelement content Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.207, year: 2007

  17. Statistical Verification of Folk Medicinal Potentiality of Wild Dicot Aquatic Plants in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Al-Qura'n

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a floristic study of Jordan with its environs. The study was carried out during 2001-2003 and 287 aquatic dicot samples were collected and photographed in the field. After the identification of the specimens, the total wild aquatic dicot species have been determined as 87 species belonging to 59 genera and 33 plant families were presented in investigated Jordan sites. The endemism rate of the investigated area is 26.4% for the 23 species. The largest 3 families are Labiatae (9 aquatic species, Compositae (7 species and Salicaceae (7 species. The largest genera are Mentha (6 species, Polygonum (5 species and Salix (5 species. Similarities between the taxa and those of neighbouring regions performed were compared in this study. 63 aquatic dicot species (73.3% have therapeutic similarities with neighbouring countries, while the 24 remaining species (26.7% haven't such therapeutic similarity. Emerged species (living with close contact with water body were the most recorded, while amphibious, submerged and floating species were the least. The folk medicinal importance value of aquatic species recorded was identified according to Friedman et al. [1]. Twenty one species (24% have ROP values higher than 50 and therefore; have the highest popularity in folk medicinal potentiality. Twenty six species (29.9% have therapeutic effects informed by less than three informants and therefore; excluded from further consideration. Forty species (46.1% have ROP values less than 50 and therefore; considered nonpopular medicinal plants.

  18. Uranium accumulation by aquatic plants from uranium-contaminated water in Central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratas, João; Favas, Paulo J C; Paulo, Carlos; Rodrigues, Nelson; Prasad, M N V

    2012-03-01

    Several species of plants have developed a tolerance to metal that enables them to survive in metal contaminated and polluted sites. Some of these aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate significant amounts of specific trace elements and are, therefore, useful for phytofiltration. This work focuses the potential of aquatic plants for the phytofiltration of uranium (U) from contaminated water. We observed that Callitriche stagnalis, Lemna minor, and Fontinalis antipyretica, which grow in the uraniferous geochemical province of Central Portugal, have been able to accumulate significant amounts of U. The highest concentration of U was found in Callitriche stagnalis (1948.41 mg/kg DW), Fontinalis antipyretica (234.79 mg/kg DW), and Lemna minor (52.98 mg/kg DW). These results indicate their potential for the phytofiltration of U through constructed treatment wetlands or by introducing these plants into natural water bodies in the uraniferous province of Central Portugal. PMID:22567707

  19. Plant response strategies to stress and disturbance: the case of aquatic plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michèle Trémolières

    2004-12-01

    The environmental factors controlling the establishment and development of plants in different ecosystems are of two types, stress and disturbance. The effects of stress or disturbance on aquatic systems are discussed in relation to the following questions: Can we predict the state and rate of recolonization after a disturbance? What are the strategies of recolonization developed by plants? How high is the resilience of a disturbed system? Two theories, the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and the patch dynamics concept proposed to predict the composition, structure and dynamics of plants due to physical-chemical factors, were tested on two scales, that of communities and that of species, within two alluvial floodplains (the Rhine and the Rhône systems in France). With regard to the change of community on a larger scale (i.e. the whole network of the cut-off channels in the floodplain), large gradients of connection and disturbance induce high diversities within communities. Moreover, the highest flood disturbance induces a higher species richness and the occurrence of a particular species. The change in species is analysed using biological traits (morphological, reproductive or physiological). In the floodplain of the river Rhône, the response of plants corresponds well to theory, i.e. that habitats with an intermediate disturbance are richer than more or less disturbed habitats. So we can predict, through the biological traits, the functioning of a habitat. The last remaining question is that of the resilience of the system, which can be discussed in terms of species competition and the risk of biological invasion after an opening of habitat.

  20. Plant Functions in Wetland and Aquatic Systems: Influence of Intensity and Capacity of Soil Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    DeLaune, R.D.; Pezeshki, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    Wetland or hydric soils, in addition to excess water and limited air-filled porosity, are characterized by anaerobic or reducing conditions. Wetland plants have developed physiological and morphological adaptations for growing under these conditions. Various methods exist for measuring plant responses to reducing conditions in wetland and aquatic environments, including assessment of radial oxygen transport, cellular enzymatic transformations, changes in root structure, and nutrient uptake. H...

  1. Potential of some aquatic plants for removal of arsenic from wastewater by green technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Barznji Dana A.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation or green technology is counted among the successful and effective biological contaminated water treatment techniques. Basically, the concept of this green, cost-effective, simple, environmentally nondisruptive method consists in using plants and microbiological processes to reduce contaminants in the ecosystem. Different species from aquatic plants (emerged, free-floating, and submerged) have been studied to mitigate toxic contaminants such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copp...

  2. 环境污染对几类水生无脊椎动物内分泌功能扰乱的研究现状%Current status of environmental endocrine disruption in selected aquatic invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enmin ZOU

    2003-01-01

    近年来,在环境毒理学这门边缘学科中又诞生了一个新的领域,即环境污染对内分泌功能的扰乱.研究发现,许多人工合成的杀虫剂和工业化合物能够扰乱脊椎动物的内分泌功能,这些化合物也存在于水环境中.近年来,这些环境有机污染物是否对水生无脊椎动物的内分泌功能同样具有扰乱作用成了环境内分泌学这个新领域的热点之一.由于近年来的研究侧重于腔肠动物、轮虫、软体动物、甲壳动物及棘皮动物,因此,本文主要介绍有关环境污染物对这几类水生无脊椎动物内分泌功能扰乱的研究进展.另外,对环境污染对水生无脊椎动物内分泌扰乱这个研究热点的现状以及今后的发展方向进行了评述.在从事环境污染对无脊椎动物内分泌功能影响的研究时,研究者必须意识到无脊椎动物和脊椎动物在内分泌机制上的差异,不可随意地在这两大类动物类群之间互相引伸研究结果.%Endocrine disruption by environmental contaminants has recently emerged as a new subdiscipline of environmental toxicology. Aquatic environments are increasingly contaminated with various anthropogenic chemicals,many of which are capable of disrupting endocrine functions of vertebrates. Where aquatic invertebrates are concerned, most of the recent reports are concerned with the impact of organic xenobiotics on endocrine functions in cnidarians, rotifers, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms. This review provides an overview of the current status of this research on endocrine disruption in these invertebrates. Suggestions for future research directions in the field of invertebrate endocrine disruption are also presented. Because of the disparities between the endocrine systems of invertebrates and vertebrates, care must be exercised in extrapolating to invertebrates, particularly the non-deuterostome invertebrates, the results of endocrine disruption studies with vertebrates

  3. By which mechanism does prey capture enhance plant growth in aquatic carnivorous plants: Stimulation of shoot apex?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 178, č. 2 (2011), s. 171-176. ISSN 1863-9135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plants * dark respiration * tissue N and P content Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.145, year: 2011

  4. Assessment of lead distribution in aquatic plant Lemna minor, using sequential extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The contamination of water resources by toxic metals demands for attention since this kind of contamination, sometimes, is difficult to realize. Moreover, lead, for instance, has the capacity to be accumulated in fish and plants utilized in the food, and also in human beings, causing several disturbances. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. The model plant Lemna minor is a genera of Duckweed plant, and refers to a group of floating, flowering plants of the family Lemnaceae. The aquatic plant Lemna minor is relevant to many aquatic environments, including lakes, streams, effluent, rain, and sediment. The aquatic plant Lemna minor has been studied due its potential to extract lead from contaminated waters. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Pb in the aquatic plant Lemna minor under stress, using a modified sequential extraction with different solvents: hexane, ethyl acetate, 2-propanol, methanol, ethanol/water (1:1) and water. Non-extractable residues formed the last fraction. Elemental distributions in the plants were determined using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F AAS), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX). It was found that the aquatic plant L. minor has the capacity to accumulate lead: in the first day of contamination, about 79% of lead had been intake by the plant. After 7 days, the Pb content was 142 mg Kg-1. After sequential extraction, the methanol and ethanol/water fractions were dominants: 27 and 45% of total content, respectively. In these fractions we can find acids that form specific chelating agents, such as oligopeptides (phytochelatins). The hexane, ethyl acetate, and 2-propanol fractions gave the smallest isolated fraction. These fractions consisted of non-polar lipid compounds. Elemental distribution by X-ray fluorescence spectra and maps

  5. Chromium stress induced alterations in biochemical and enzyme metabolism in aquatic and terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, K Sankar; Baskaran, L; Rajasekaran, S; Sumathi, K; Chidambaram, A L A; Sundaramoorthy, P

    2008-06-01

    Water is seriously polluted by the discharge of various industrial wastewater containing heavy metals. Among them, chromium is considered to be toxic to living organisms and it is released mostly from tanneries. The chromium-contaminated water is discharged into nearby water bodies and it affects both aquatic and terrestrial plants. So the present experiment was conducted with an aquatic plant, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) and a terrestrial plant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). They were treated with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/L) of potassium dichromate solution. The biochemical parameters such as total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and amino acid content and the enzymatic activities like catalase and peroxidase were estimated. The accumulation of chromium was also analysed in both the plants. All the biochemical contents and enzyme activities of water lettuce and soybean seedlings showed a great variation with respect to the increase in chromium concentrations. The accumulation of chromium increased gradually with the increase of chromium concentrations. Total inhibition of all the parameters were observed at 300 mg/L chromium concentration. The terrestrial plant soybean was sensitive than the aquatic plant water lettuce towards chromium stress. PMID:18206355

  6. Aeolian Transport of Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, T. E.; Walsh, E. J.; Wallace, R. L.; Rojo, L.; Rivas, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Playas and other ephemeral desert wetlands are preferential terrestrial landforms for dust emission. These sites also are habitat for a diverse assemblage of minute invertebrates. When wetlands desiccate, these invertebrates survive as resting stages (propagules). Thus, playas serve as isolated, ephemeral, biogeographical islands for aquatic invertebrates, but it is unclear how propagules disperse across distances as far as hundreds of kilometers to colonize hydrologically disconnected basins. Aeolian transport (anemochory) may provide the mechanism, especially since many invertebrate propagules are long-lived, aerodynamically shaped, possess low-density, and their size (30-600 μm) falls within the same texture as aeolian dust and sand grains. We are collecting and culturing wind-transported sediment to document its ability to serve in the dispersal of aridland invertebrate propagules. Deposited aeolian sediment was collected from marble-type traps placed on the roof of the Biological Sciences Building at the University of Texas, El Paso, during 19 individual regional-scale Chihuahuan Desert blowing dust/sand events between April 2010 and May 2012. Known source areas for these dust events include playas and ephemeral streams ~40- 150 km upwind. The mean dry grain size of the deposited sediment for each event ranged from 66 to 141 μm. Clean-water rinses of material from each event or standard rehydrations for culturing invertebrates were monitored microscopically for the appearance of organisms. Invertebrates hatched from the sediment of 13 events. Ciliates were detected in each of those samples: gastrotrichs appeared in three samples, nematodes and bdelloid rotifers in two samples, and clam shrimp in one. We have also rehydrated aeolian sediments, collected in standard dust traps, from many dust-emitting playas in Southwest North America and hatched viable organisms including all those previously mentioned as well as branchiopods, fairy shrimp, copepods

  7. Weed risk assessment for aquatic plants: modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria R Gordon

    Full Text Available We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand's Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders, and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31-39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species.

  8. Effects of power plant cooling on aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several bibliographies and reviews on 'ecological consequences of power plant cooling' have been published. Other reports compile additional data, but are not available to the public. Altogether, more than 3,000 literature citations have been gathered until now, too many to be studied by an individual scientist. The bibliography becomes more comprehensible if only titles are accepted that deal with power plant cooling itself, neglecting the influence of temperature and other stress factors on organisms as examined under laboratory conditions. Among these 600 remaining titles, about 370 are published in journals and periodicals available to the public. They are presented in this bibliography. (orig./RW)

  9. Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes

  10. Aquatic indicator organisms as a tool to monitor discharges from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outola, Iisa; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka; Klemola, Seppo [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant units in Finland at two separate locations. The units started operation during 1977-1980. The surveillance of radioactive substances in the vicinities of the nuclear power plant is carried out under the permanent monitoring programs. Some 1000 samples are taken annually from the surroundings of the power plants to confirm that the discharges from the power plants are within permissible release limits and to monitor the dispersion of discharges in the environment. Aquatic indicator organisms (macro-algae, periphyton, mussels, crustacean, submerged aquatic plants) are included in the monitoring program. The indicator organisms are valuable monitoring objects both in normal and emergency situations because they accumulate effectively and often very rapidly radioactive substances from the medium. Six different species (Periphyton, Fucus vesiculosus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saduria entomon, Macoma Baltica/Mytilus edulis) are collected regularly. Number of sampling location for each species varies from 1 to 7. Some species are collected continuously, some 1-2 times in a year. In this study we have evaluated the monitoring results for the aquatic indicator organisms for the period of 2005-2010 concerning concentration of discharge nuclides. Our aim was to answer the following questions using the monitoring data from aquatic organisms: 1) Which radionuclides are released to the marine environment and how often do we detect them? 2) How far from the nuclear power plants discharge radionuclides are detected? 3) How concentration of discharge radionuclides has changed with time in aquatic organisms? The number of discharge nuclides detected in the aquatic indicator samples was 11. Most of them were only detected in few samples, but {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 110m}Ag were detected more frequently. Most of the observations above detection limits were made within the 5 km distance from the

  11. Aquatic indicator organisms as a tool to monitor discharges from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are four operating nuclear power plant units in Finland at two separate locations. The units started operation during 1977-1980. The surveillance of radioactive substances in the vicinities of the nuclear power plant is carried out under the permanent monitoring programs. Some 1000 samples are taken annually from the surroundings of the power plants to confirm that the discharges from the power plants are within permissible release limits and to monitor the dispersion of discharges in the environment. Aquatic indicator organisms (macro-algae, periphyton, mussels, crustacean, submerged aquatic plants) are included in the monitoring program. The indicator organisms are valuable monitoring objects both in normal and emergency situations because they accumulate effectively and often very rapidly radioactive substances from the medium. Six different species (Periphyton, Fucus vesiculosus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saduria entomon, Macoma Baltica/Mytilus edulis) are collected regularly. Number of sampling location for each species varies from 1 to 7. Some species are collected continuously, some 1-2 times in a year. In this study we have evaluated the monitoring results for the aquatic indicator organisms for the period of 2005-2010 concerning concentration of discharge nuclides. Our aim was to answer the following questions using the monitoring data from aquatic organisms: 1) Which radionuclides are released to the marine environment and how often do we detect them? 2) How far from the nuclear power plants discharge radionuclides are detected? 3) How concentration of discharge radionuclides has changed with time in aquatic organisms? The number of discharge nuclides detected in the aquatic indicator samples was 11. Most of them were only detected in few samples, but 58Co, 60Co, 54Mn and 110mAg were detected more frequently. Most of the observations above detection limits were made within the 5 km distance from the nuclear power plants

  12. ZINC AND LEAD IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND AQUATIC PLANTS IN RIVER NAREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are a valuable part of natural environment. The increasing level of pollution in waters transforming biocoenoses and other adverse effects of the impact of toxic substances have contributed to the development of biological monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in contents of zinc and lead in bottom sediments and roots of aquatic plants: Phragmites australis and Acorus calamus in the river Narew. There were 14 points on the river, from where samples of bottom sediments and plant material were collected. The contents of lead and zinc were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using Varian device. It was proven that bottom sediments were characterized by low contents of zinc and lead except from two sampling points: in Bondary and Narew. Achieved results of analyzes of plant material showed a slight exceeding in the case of lead. Spatial distribution of zinc and lead contents in examined roots of plants coincided with their contents in bottom sediments, which was also confirmed by statistical analysis. It was proven that aquatic plants had greater tendency for accumulation of metals than bottom sediments.

  13. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: prospects for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n=200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1,217 μg L(-1). The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4,979 mg kg(-1)) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963mgkg(-1)), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg(-1)), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg(-1)), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg(-1)), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg(-1)). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg(-1)). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg(-1)) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. PMID:24239820

  14. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates: Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms - Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Ward, Jeffrey A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2012-05-01

    This fiscal year (FY) 2011 progress report (Task 2.1.3 Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.3.1.1 Electromagnetic Fields) describes studies conducted by PNNL as part of the DOE Wind and Water Power Program to examine the potential effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from marine and hydrokinetic devices on aquatic organisms, including freshwater and marine fish and marine invertebrates. In this report, we provide a description of the methods and results of experiments conducted in FY 2010-FY 2011 to evaluate potential responses of selected aquatic organisms. Preliminary EMF laboratory experiments during FY 2010 and 2011 entailed exposures with representative fish and invertebrate species including juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister). These species were selected for their ecological, commercial, and/or recreational importance, as well as their potential to encounter an MHK device or transmission cable during part or all of their life cycle. Based on previous studies, acute effects such as mortality were not expected to occur from EMF exposures. Therefore, our measurement endpoints focused on behavioral responses (e.g., detection of EMF, interference with feeding behavior, avoidance or attraction to EMF), developmental changes (i.e., growth and survival from egg or larval stage to juvenile), and exposure markers indicative of physiological responses to stress. EMF intensities during the various tests ranged from 0.1 to 3 millitesla, representing a range of upper bounding conditions reported in the literature. Experiments to date have shown there is little evidence to indicate distinct or extreme behavioral responses in the presence of elevated EMF for the species tested. Several developmental and physiological responses were observed in the fish exposures, although most were not

  15. The effect of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei river on cytogenetic characteristics of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolsunovsky, A.; Medvedeva, M. [Institute of Biophysics SB Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Muratova, E. [Institute of Forest SB Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Yenisei River, one of the world's largest rivers, is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian facilities producing weapons-grade plutonium (the Mining-and-Chemical Combine, MCC), which has been in operation for many years. Aquatic plants are an important component of water ecosystems, which can accumulate high levels of radionuclides and, thus, can be used in bio-monitoring and bioremediation. The purpose of the study was to assess levels of radionuclides and to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in samples of submerged plants collected in different parts of the Yenisei River. The following species were studied: Fontinalis antipyretica, Batrachium kauffmanii, Myriophyllum spicatum, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum and various Potamogeton species. Samples were collected at positions in the vicinity of the MCC discharge point, at a distance of 330 km downstream of Krasnoyarsk, and upstream of the MCC, during sampling campaigns in 2003-2012. Detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of aquatic plants of the Yenisei River revealed large-scale contamination of aquatic plants as far as 250 km downstream of the MCC. Before the last MCC reactor was shut down in 2010, about 30 radionuclides, including uranium and transuranium elements, were detected in the biomass of aquatic plants. The highest concentration factors of the major radionuclides were obtained for Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton lucens. Samples of the plants collected after the shutdown of the reactor contained considerably lower activity levels of artificial radionuclides, and their diversity was significantly decreased. Results of cytogenetic investigations of aquatic plants collected when the reactor was still operating (2003-2009) suggest that at the MCC discharge site and downstream the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations in ana-telophase and metaphase cells of the plants was considerably higher (up to 30%) than in the control

  16. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: An ecosustainable approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, P.K. [Mizoram Central University, Tanhril (India). School for Earth Science & Natural Resource Management

    2008-07-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavy metal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavy metal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some of the potent wetland plants for heavy metal removal. Biomass disposal problem and seasonal growth of aquatic macrophytes are some limitations in the transfer of phytoremediation technology from the laboratory to the field. However, the disposed biomass of macrophytes may be used for various fruitful applications. An ecosustainable model has been developed through the author's various works, which may ameliorate some of the limitations. The creation of more areas for phytoremediation may also aid in wetlands conservation. Genetic engineering and biodiversity prospecting of endangered wetland plants are important future prospects in this regard.

  17. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  18. Potential of some aquatic plants for removal of arsenic from wastewater by green technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Barznji Dana A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation or green technology is counted among the successful and effective biological contaminated water treatment techniques. Basically, the concept of this green, cost-effective, simple, environmentally nondisruptive method consists in using plants and microbiological processes to reduce contaminants in the ecosystem. Different species from aquatic plants (emerged, free-floating, and submerged have been studied to mitigate toxic contaminants such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, etc. Arsenic is one of the most severe toxic elements; it is widely distributed in the environment, usually found in combination with chloride, oxygen, sulphur and metal ions as a result of mineral dissolution from sedimentary or volcanic rocks and the dilution of geothermal water. The effluents from both industrial and agricultural sectors are also regarded as sources to contaminate water. From the accumulation point of view, several aquatic plants have been mentioned as good arsenic accumulators and their performance is evaluated using the green technology method. These include Spirodela polyrhiza, Wolffia globosa, Lemna gibba, L. minor, Eichhornia crassipes, Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, Azolla pinnata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Pistia stratiotes. The up-to-date information illustrated in this review paper generates knowledge about the ability of some common aquatic plants around the globe to remediate arsenic from contaminated water.

  19. Foraging behaviour of coypus Myocastor coypus: why do coypus consume aquatic plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichón, M. L.; Benítez, V. B.; Abba, A.; Borgnia, M.; Cassini, M. H.

    2003-12-01

    Foraging behaviour of wild coypu was studied to examine two hypotheses that had been previously proposed to explain the species' preference for aquatic plants. First, the nutritional benefit hypothesis which states that aquatic plants are more nutritional than terrestrial plants. Second, the behavioural trade-off hypothesis which states that coypus avoid foraging far from the water because of the costs associated with other types of behaviour. In order to test the nutritional benefit hypothesis, we studied the diet composition of coypus in relation to the protein content of the diet and of the plants available in the environment. Fieldwork was conducted seasonally from November 1999 to August 2000 at one study site located in the Province of Buenos Aires, east central Argentina. Behavioural observations showed that coypus remained foraging in the water and microhistological analysis of faeces indicated that their diet was principally composed of hygrophilic monocotyledons ( Lemna spp. and Eleocharis spp.) throughout the year. We did not find support for the nutritional benefit hypothesis: nutritional quality (based on nitrogen content) of hygrophilic plants was not higher than that of terrestrial plants, and seasonal changes in diet quality did not match either fluctuations in vegetation quality or proportion of hygrophilic plants in the diet. Although not directly tested, the behavioural trade-off hypothesis may explain why coypus prefer to forage in or near the water as a mechanism for reducing predation risk.

  20. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  1. Uptake of uranium by native aquatic plants: potential for bioindication and phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is a part the on going study on the uraniferous geochemical province of Central Portugal in which, the use of aquatic plants as indicators of uranium contamination is being probed using aquatic plants emphasizing their potential use in the emerging phytotechnologies. Even though we have observed very low concentration of U in the fresh waters of the studied sites we found a set of vegetable species with the ability to accumulate U in concentrations which are orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding environment. We have observed that Apium nodiflorum, Callitriche stagnalis, Lemna minor and Fontinalis antipyretica accumulated significant amounts of uranium, whereas Oenanthe crocata excluded U. These results indicate substantial scope for proper radiophytoremediation and phytosociological investigation exploiting the native flora. These species show great potential for phytoremediation because they are endemic and easy to grow in their native conditions. A. nodiflorum and C. stagnalis have high bioproductivity and yield good biomass.

  2. Interactions between a cyanobacterial bloom (Microcystis) and the submerged aquatic plant Ceratophyllum oryzetorum Kom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dunhai; LI Genbao; CHEN Wuxiong; LIU Yongding

    2009-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, macrophytes and phytoplankton are main primary producers, in which macrophyte plays an important role in maintaining clear water state, while phytoplankton often dominates in turbid waterbodies. In the present study, the growth and photosynthetic activity of the submerged aquatic plant Ceratophyllum oryzetorum Kom. in different cell densities of cyanobacterial bloom are studied. The results show that the plant length and fresh mass of C. oryzetorum are promoted by low cyanobacterial cell densities. Medium and high cyanobacterial cell densities, on the contrary, act as inhibitory. Furthermore, the photosynthetic activity of C. oryzetorum is strongly inhibited by high cyanobacterial cell densities. To a certain extent, the growth of cyanobacteria is inhibited by C. oryzetorum, but no significant effect is found in this study.

  3. Radionuclide biosorption by the aquatic plants of Pistia stratiotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of leaves and roots of Pistia stratiotes from the Seversky Donets river has been measured. The visible activity of 131I in roots of plant is found. The content estimate of 131I in water of Seversky Donets river before extraction of samples of a hydrophyte gives value exceeding 1 Bk/l. The detection of activity of 131I in roots of Pistia stratiotes can be used for its monitoring in the biosphere. The photoactivation analysis has been used for measuring of element content in leaves and roots of Pistia stratiotes. Accumulation in roots versus leaves of Pistia stratiotes Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, I, Pb and also isotopes 228Ac, 214Pb and 214Bi was detected.

  4. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: an ecosustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavymetal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. Heavymetal contamination in aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of industrial effluents may pose a serious threat to human health. Alkaline precipitation, ion exchange columns, electrochemical removal, filtration, and membrane technologies are the currently available technologies for heavy metal removal. These conventional technologies are not economical and may produce adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Phytoremediation of metals is a cost-effective "green" technology based on the use of specially selected metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals from soils and water. Wetland plants are important tools for heavy metal removal. The Ramsar convention, one of the earlier modern global conservation treaties, was adopted at Ramsar, Iran, in 1971 and became effective in 1975. This convention emphasized the wise use of wetlands and their resources. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. The extensive rhizosphere of wetland plants provides an enriched culture zone for the microbes involved in degradation. The wetland sediment zone provides reducing conditions that are conducive to the metal removal pathway. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavymetal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some

  5. Dinitrogen fixation associated with shoots of aquatic carnivorous plants: is it ecologically important?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirová, D.; Šantrůček, Jiří; Adamec, Lubomír; Bárta, J.; Borovec, Jakub; Pech, J.; Owens, S.M.; Šantrůčková, H.; Schaeufele, R.; Štorchová, Helena; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 1 (2014), s. 125-133. ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0783 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : Aldrovanda vesiculosa * aquatic carnivorous plants * Utricularia vulgaris * nitrogen fixation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EF - Botanics (BU-J); EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  6. Re-establishment of an extinct population of the endangered aquatic plant Potamogeton coloratus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplan, Zdeněk; Šumberová, Kateřina; Formanová, I.; Ducháček, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, Oct. 2014 (2014), s. 91-99. ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0291; GA ČR GA206/09/0329; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : aquatic plants * endangered species * population restoration Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2014

  7. The Impact of Endothall on the Aquatic Plant Community of Kress Lake, Washington

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Jenifer K.; Hamel, K. S.; O'Neal, S. L,; Moore,, James E.

    2004-01-01

    CA dense mat-forming population of Eurasian watermilfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum L . ) was interfering with fishing and recreation in a small western Washington lake. A low concentration (1.5 mg/L active ingredient) of the herbicide endothall formulated as Aquathol® K was used in 2000 to attempt to selectively control the Eurasian watermilfoil. Aquatic plant biomass and frequency data were collected before treatment, ten weeks after treatment and during the gr...

  8. Removal of Herbicide Residua and Nitrates from Agricultural Waters by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, David E; Rejmankova, Eliska

    1990-01-01

    WRC project W-727 focuses on evaluating the capacity of selected aquatic plant species for low concentrations of herbicide and nitrate removal from nursery waste waters. Two nurseries in the Sacramento area were selected as test sites. From June 1988 through October 1989, water samples from inflow and outflow water from both nurseries were collected and analysed for inorganic constituents and herbicides. Of the herbicides analyzed (simazine, oryzalin, oxyfluorfen and pendimethalin), only oryz...

  9. Effect of arsenic on reflectance spectra and chlorophyll fluorescence of aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analia; Dundas, Gavin; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia; Lagorio, Maria G

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic pollution of groundwater is a serious problem in many regions of Latin America that causes severe risks to human health. As a consequence, non-destructive monitoring methodologies, sensitive to arsenic presence in the environment and able to perform a rapid screening of large polluted areas, are highly sought-after. Both chlorophyll - a fluorescence and reflectance of aquatic plants may be potential indicators to sense toxicity in water media. In this work, the effects of arsenic on the optical and photophysical properties of leaves of different aquatic plants (Vallisneria gigantea, Azolla filiculoides and Lemna minor) were evaluated. Reflectance spectra were recorded for the plant leaves from 300 to 2400 nm. The spectral distribution of the fluorescence was also studied and corrected for light re-absorption processes. Photosynthetic parameters (Fv/Fm and ΦPSII) were additionally calculated from the variable chlorophyll fluorescence recorded with a pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer. Fluorescence and reflectance properties for V. gigantea and A. filiculoides were sensitive to arsenic presence in contrast to the behaviour of L. minor. Observed changes in fluorescence spectra could be interpreted in terms of preferential damage in photosystem II. The quantum efficiency of photosystem II for the first two species was also affected, decreasing upon arsenic treatment. As a result of this research, V. gigantea and A. filiculoides were proposed as bioindicators of arsenic occurrence in aquatic media. PMID:25150973

  10. Observations on anopheline breeding in relation to aquatic plants in different breeding habitats of Kheda (Gujarat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Rajni; Srivastava, H C

    2004-09-01

    Water bodies infested with aquatic vegetations may pose problems in mosquito control through bio-environmental methods. Paucity of information pertaining to association of mosquito breeding with aquatic vegetation was the basis for present investigation. The mosquito breeding sites infested with solitary/dominating plant community viz., Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphea neuchali, Trapa bispinosa, Lemna paucicostata, Trachelomonas spp., Azolla pinnata, Algae spp. and Cynodon dactylon were selected for the study. The investigation revealed that breeding of eleven anopheline species was associated with Eichhornia in different habitats followed by Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon (8 each), Ipomoea and Trapa (6), Lemna. and Nymphea (5), Azolla and Trachelomonas (4). An. subpictus was associated with all types of vegetation. An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. barbirostris were associated with nine plant species. An. culicifacies, the principal malaria vector was found breeding in association with seven aquatic plants and showed strong association with Cynodon, Hydrilla and algae. The species diversity in habitats infested with Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon seems to be most favourable for the breeding of An. culicifacies. It is suggested that thinning or removal of such vegetations at regular interval may help to reduce vector population and enhance the efficacy of biological control agents particularly the larvivorous fishes in such habitats. PMID:16509256

  11. Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2011-09-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent. PMID:22319874

  12. Distribution patterns and changes of aquatic plant communities in Napahai Wetland in northwestern Yunnan Plateau,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derong XIAO; Kun TIAN; Hua YUAN; Yuming YANG; Ningyun LI; Shouguo XU

    2008-01-01

    Using GPS technology and community research methods for plant communities,we investigated the distribution patterns of aquatic plant communities in the high plateaus of the Napahai Wetlands,Yunnan,China,as well as the species changes of plant communities compared with that of 24 years ago since 2005.We found that the types and numbers of aquatic plant communities have changed.Some pollution-tolerant,nutrient-loving plant communities such as Scirpus tabernaemontani,Zizania caduciflora,Myriophyllum spicatum,and Azolla imbricata flourished,while the primary aquatic plant com-munities were reduced or even disappeared.The number of aquatic plant communities were increased from nine to 12 with the addition of two new emergent plant com-munities and one new floating-leaved plant community.The increase in emergent plant communities was signifi-cant.From east to west and from south to north,various types of plant communities were continuously distributed,including floating-leaved plant communities,emergent plant communities and submerged plant communities.The composition of the communities became more com-plicated and the number of accompanying species increased,while the percentage ratio of dominant plant species declined.In 2005,the coverage of emergent plant communities was the largest (528.42 hm2) followed by submerged plant communities (362.50 hm2) and the float-ing-leaf plant communities was the smallest (70.23 hm2).The variations in the distribution of aquatic plant com-munities in the Napahai Wetlands reflect the natural responses to the change of the wetland ecological envir-onment.This study indicates that human disturbances have led to an inward movement of the wetland shoreline,a decrease in water quality and a reduction in wetland habitat.

  13. Invertebrate neurophylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Stefan; Loesel, Rudi; Purschke, Günter;

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups......, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa....

  14. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that

  15. Simultaneous determination of multiclass emerging contaminants in aquatic plants by ultrasound assisted matrix solid phase dispersion and GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar Roca, Ramón; Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Martín Girela, Isabel; José L. Tadeo

    2016-01-01

    A multiresidue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 31 emerging contaminants (pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, personal care products, biocides and flame retardants) in aquatic plants. Analytes were extracted by ultrasound assisted-matrix solid phase dispersion (UA-MSPD) and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after sylilation. The method was validated for different aquatic plants (Typha angustifolia, Arundo donax and Lemna minor) and a semiaquatic cult...

  16. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit; Clayton, John S.; Brix, Hans; Sorrell, Brian K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important. Here the primary adaptive strategy in three non-native, clonally reproducing macrophytes (Egeria densa, Elodea canadensis and Lagarosiphon major) in New Zealand freshwaters were examined and an attempt was made to link observed differences in plant morphology to local variation in habitat conditions. Methods Field populations with a large phenotypic variety were sampled in a range of lakes and streams with different chemical and physical properties. The phenotypic plasticity of the species before and after cultivation was studied in a common garden growth experiment, and the genetic diversity of these same populations was also quantified. Key Results For all three species, greater variation in plant characteristics was found before they were grown in standardized conditions. Moreover, field populations displayed remarkably little genetic variation and there was little interaction between habitat conditions and plant morphological characteristics. Conclusions The results indicate that at the current stage of spread into New Zealand, the primary adaptive strategy of these three invasive macrophytes is phenotypic plasticity. However, while limited, the possibility that genetic diversity between populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis and L. major, but no other relationships between plant characteristics and habitat conditions were apparent. This implies that within-species differences in plant size can be explained

  17. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  18. Aging and immunosenescence in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Stanley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most contemporary research into aging is driven by interest in the human aging process and in interventions that attenuate the normal and pathophysiological effects of aging, or senescence. Operationally, senescence is the progressive, inevitable breakdown of the organism. Among the changes associated with senescence is the diminished capacity of the immune systems and reactions to challenge, known as immunosenescence. Senescence and age-related immunosenescence has been recorded in several invertebrates, including insects. Two invertebrates, the worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are model organisms for research into mechanisms of senescence and of prolonged life spans. In this essay, I will treat some of the available information on immunosenescence in invertebrates. The purpose is to move away from trying to understand human senescence and toward generating new ideas around the application of research into invertebrate immunosenescence to contemporary and emerging problems in aquatic and terrestrial agriculture. I cover mechanisms of senescence, beginning with the original idea of increasing oxidative damage and moving to more recent views. I provide a thumb-nail sketch of insect immunity as a model for the generality of complex invertebrates, then discuss selected examples of immunosenescence in invertebrates. In some instances, changes that look like immunosenescence may be physiological resource trade-offs and I highlight a few examples. Finally, I complete the essay with a few remarks on the potential practical significance of research to understand immunosenescence in invertebrates.

  19. Natural attenuation of weathered oil using aquatic plants in a farm in Southeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Cruz, María Del Carmen; Trujillo-Narcía, Antonio; Trujillo-Rivera, Eduardo A; Arias-Trinidad, Alfredo; Mendoza-López, María Remedios

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in field for three years to assess the sustainability of aquatic plants Leersia hexandra, Cyperus articulatus, and Eleocharis palustris for use in the removal of total hydrocarbons of weathered oil in four areas contaminated with 60916-119373 mg/kg of hydrocarbons. The variables evaluated were coverage of plant, dry matter, density of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and the removal of total weathered oil. The variables showed statistical differences (p = 0.05) due to the effects of time and the amount of oil in the soil. The three aquatic plants survived on the farm during the 36-month evaluation. The grass L. hexandra yielded the greatest coverage of plant but was inhibited by the toxicity of the oil, which, in contrast, stimulated the coverage of C. articulatus. The rhizosphere of L. hexandra in control soil was more densely colonized by N-fixing bacteria, while the density of phosphate and potassium solubilizing rhizobacteria was stimulated by exposure to oil. C. articulatus coverage showed positive relationship with the removal of weathered oil; positive effect between rhizosphere and L. hexandra grass coverage was also identified. These results contributed to the removal of weathered oil in Gleysols flooded and affected by chronic discharges of crude oil. PMID:26939740

  20. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sérandour

    Full Text Available Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, <0.5 nM uracil, 0.6 nM thymine, 2.8 nM uridine, 86 nM thymidine, much lower than those found for each compound tested individually. These results provide strong evidence that a mixture of polyols (glycerol, pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and nucleosides (uridine, thymidine functions as an efficient attractive signal in nature for Coquillettidia larvae. We therefore show for the first time, that such commonly found compounds may play an important role in plant-insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  1. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: Prospects for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n = 200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1217 μg L−1. The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4979 mg kg−1) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963 mg kg−1), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg−1), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg−1), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg−1), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg−1). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg−1). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg−1) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • Exploration of U contamination extent in uraniferous province of Central Portugal • A group of previously untested species with the ability to accumulate U was assessed • U accumulation patterns in the species indicate their potential in bioindication and phytoremediation of U-contaminated water

  2. The Effects of Rainfall on the Population Dynamics of an Endangered Aquatic Plant, Schoenoplectus gemmifer (Cyperaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Koshi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of aquatic plants in river ecosystems should consider the wash-out (away) problem resulting from severe rainfall. The aquatic plant Schoenoplectus gemmifer is an endangered species endemic to Japan. Our previous study reported that the population size of S. gemmifer in Hamamatsu city, Japan, had decreased by one-tenth because many individuals had been washed out by a series of heavy rains in 2004. However, there is insufficient information on the ecological nature of this endangered aquatic plant for adequate conservation. In this paper, we report the population dynamics of one population in Hamamatsu city from 2004 to 2012 in relation to rainfall. We surveyed the number and growing location of all living individuals in the population 300 times during the study period. To examine the temporal changes of individual plants, we also counted the number of culms for 38 individuals in four observations among 300 records. Decreases and increases in the population size of this plant were associated with washing out and the settlement of gemmae (vegetative propagation), respectively. The major cause of the reduction in the population size was an increase in the number of washed-out individuals and not the decreased settlement of gemmae. The wash-out rates for small and large individuals were not significantly different. Small individuals having a stream form with linear leaves resisted flooding, and large individuals were often partially torn off by flooding events. Modification of river basins to reduce the flow velocity may be effective for the conservation of S. gemmifer. PMID:27327439

  3. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: Prospects for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favas, Paulo J.C., E-mail: pjcf@utad.pt [School of Life Sciences and the Environment, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Pratas, João [Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); IMAR-CMA Marine and Environmental Research Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Varun, Mayank; D' Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S. [Department of Botany, St. John' s College, Agra 282 002 (India)

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n = 200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1217 μg L{sup −1}. The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4979 mg kg{sup −1}) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg{sup −1}), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg{sup −1}), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg{sup −1}), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg{sup −1}). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg{sup −1}). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg{sup −1}) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. - Highlights: • Exploration of U contamination extent in uraniferous province of Central Portugal • A group of previously untested species with the ability to accumulate U was assessed • U accumulation patterns in the species indicate their potential in bioindication and phytoremediation of U-contaminated water.

  4. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the tritium released from nuclear facilities into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered algae, aquatic plants, invertebrates, fish, and food chain studies, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near that of the external medium. Incorporation of tritium from triated water into the organic matter of cells is at a slower rate than incorporation into the tissue free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the 'carrier' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher tropic levels. Radiation doses to large populations of humans from tritium releases will most likely be from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products. (author)

  5. Phylogenetic diversity of plants alters the effect of species richness on invertebrate herbivory

    OpenAIRE

    Russell Dinnage

    2013-01-01

    Long-standing ecological theory proposes that diverse communities of plants should experience a decrease in herbivory. Yet previous empirical examinations of this hypothesis have revealed that plant species richness increases herbivory in just as many systems as it decreases it. In this study, I ask whether more insight into the role of plant diversity in promoting or suppressing herbivory can be gained by incorporating information about the evolutionary history of species in a community. In ...

  6. Photoacoustic analysis of the ultrasonic irradiation effect in the photosynthetic activity in aquatic lirium plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report, the application of the photoacoustic technique for monitoring the photosynthesis evolution in aquatic lirium (Eichhornia Crassipes), before and after it was exposed to ultrasonic irradiations. We obtained the disappearance of the phototobaric contribution in the PA signal measured for the irradiated samples with ultrasound of 17 kHz, and therefore of a possible damage in the centers producing the photosynthesis, due to the irradiation. These results show the utility of the ultrasonic irradiation, as well as, of the photosynthesis monitoring by means of the photoacoustic technique, for the elaboration and establishment of methodologies in the control of this aquatic plant, whose propagation causes many consequences extremely unfavorable for the environment, as well as for the diverse human activities that are developed in the bodies of water in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world

  7. Field evidence for the potential of waterbirds as dispensers of aquatic organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charalambidou, I.; Santamaria, L.

    2005-01-01

    Field collections during November of green-winged teal (Anas crecca), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and coot (Fulica atra) feces in Denmark, England, and France were used to examine the potential of waterbirds to disperse aquatic plant, algae, and invertebrate species across Europe. A total of 216 f

  8. Repellence of plant essential oils to Dermanyssus gallinae and toxicity to the non-target invertebrate Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2009-05-26

    With changes in legislation and consumer demand, alternatives to synthetic acaricides to manage the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) in laying hen flocks are increasingly needed. These mites may cause losses in egg production, anaemia and even death of hens. It may be possible to use plant-derived products as D. gallinae repellents, especially if such products have a minimal impact on non-target organisms. An experiment was conducted with D. gallinae to assess the repellence of a range of plant essential oils, previously found to be of varying toxicity (relatively highly toxic to non-toxic) to this pest. Experiments were also undertaken to assess the toxicity of these products to mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor L.), a non-target invertebrate typical of poultry production systems. Results showed that all seven essential oils tested (manuka, thyme, palmarosa, caraway, spearmint, black pepper and juniper leaf) were repellent to D. gallinae at 0.14mg oil/cm(3) (initial concentration) during the first 2 days of study. Thyme essential oil appeared to be the most effective, where repellence lasted until the end of the study period (13 days). At the same concentration toxicity to T. molitor differed, with essential oils of palmarosa and manuka being no more toxic to adult beetles than the control. There was neither a significant association between the rank toxicity and repellence of oils to D. gallinae, nor the toxicity of oils to D. gallinae (as previously determined) and T. molitor. PMID:19264408

  9. Investigation and assessment of tritium concentration of aquatic environment surrounding haiyang nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate tritium concentrations of aquatic environment surrounding Haiyang nuclear power plant, and make a analysis of the influencial factors of the tritium concentration; to assess the accumulated-effective dose of the residents surrounding nuclear power plant. Methods: We collected 16 sample points, including surface water, groundwater, drinking water and sea water within 30 km surrounding Haiyang nuclear power plant in wet period and dry period. The pretreatment and preparation of samples referred to the recommended methods of the national standards GB 12375-90. The low background liquid scintillation spectrometer is used to measure the tritium concentration. Result: The average level of the tritium concentration of water samples was (0.62 ± 0.163) Bq · L-1, the range of the tritium concentrations was from 0.27Bq · L-1 to 0.93Bq · L-1. The difference of the tritium concentrations between two different periods analyzed by the paired t test was considered statistically significant. (P-1, 0.008 μ Sv · a-1, 0.007 μ Sv · a-1, respectively. Conclusion: The activity concentration of tritium in the aquatic environment surrounding Haiyang nuclear power plant was at the lower level than that of others; according to the limited value that is regulated by basic standards for protection against ionizing radiation and of the safety of radiation sources (GB 18871-2002) (2 mSv), the accumulated-effective dose which residents suffered was in background level of radiation. (authors)

  10. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Göthe, Emma; Riis, Tenna; O'Hare, Matthew T

    2016-02-01

    Historically, close attention has been paid to negative impacts associated with nutrient loads to streams and rivers, but today hydromorphological alterations are considered increasingly implicated when lowland streams do not achieve good ecological status. Here, we explore if trait-abundance patterns of aquatic plants change along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and eutrophication in lowland stream sites located in Denmark. Specifically, we hypothesised that: i) changes in trait-abundance patterns occur along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and ii) trait-abundance patterns can serve to disentangle effects of eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation in lowland streams reflecting that the mechanisms behind changes differ. We used monitoring data from a total of 147 stream reaches with combined data on aquatic plant species abundance, catchment land use, hydromorphological alterations (i.e. planform, cross section, weed cutting) and water chemistry parameters. Traits related to life form, dispersal, reproduction and survival together with ecological preference values for nutrients and light (Ellenberg N and L) were allocated to 41 species representing 79% of the total species pool. We found clear evidence that habitat degradation (hydromorphological alterations and eutrophication) mediated selective changes in the trait-abundance patterns of the plant community. Specific traits could distinguish hydromorphological degradation (free-floating, surface; anchored floating leaves; anchored heterophylly) from eutrophication (free-floating, submerged; leaf area). We provide a conceptual framework for interpretation of how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact and how this is reflected in trait-abundance patterns in aquatic plant communities in lowland streams. Our findings support the merit of trait-based approaches in biomonitoring as they shed light on mechanisms controlling structural changes under environmental

  11. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide

  12. A quantitative and qualitative comparison of aquatic and terrestrial plant lignin phenols: Critical information for paleoecological reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E. K.; Gao, L.; Huang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Currently, lignin phenols are used in marine and lacustrine ecosystems as proxies for terrestrial vegetation inputs. Lignins are found in all vascular plants, where they play a crucial role in conduction of water, nutrients and photosynthates through the vascular system, and where they provide structural support. Furthermore, different types of lignin phenols are found in specific types of vegetation (e.g., both syringyl and vanillyl phenols are in angiosperm wood, but only vanillyl phenols are in gymnosperm wood). The ratio of lignin phenols (e.g. syringyl:vanillyl) is indicative of the type of plant from which the lignin phenols were derived. Studies that examine lignin phenols in sedimentary archives assume that lignin phenols are derived solely from terrestrial plants, and changes in the types of lignin phenols are therefore assumed to mark changes in terrestrial vegetation. These assumptions may be flawed, however, because many aquatic plants, including those that are submerged, are vascular, yet little is known about the type and concentration of lignin phenols present in aquatic vascular plants. This knowledge is imperative to the success of paleoecological studies that utilize lignin phenols as a geochemical proxy for terrestrial vegetation. Furthermore, lignin phenols may be important targets for compound-specific radiocarbon dating, which is useful when suitable macrofossils are unavailable. Knowing the origin of the molecules used for radiocarbon dating, however, (i.e. whether they are terrestrial or aquatic) is critical to obtaining meaningful chronologies. We isolated and analyzed lignin phenol monomers from different types of aquatic vascular plants. All plants analyzed are angiosperms, but they occupy different niches in aquatic plant communities: floating, emergent and submergent. We also analyzed different parts of aquatic plants (i.e., stems and leaves). We found lignin phenols in all aquatic species that we analyzed, which highlights the need for

  13. Plant-microbe interaction in aquatic system and their role in the management of water quality: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jatin K.; Chandra, Harish; Kalra, Swinder J. S.; Mishra, Pratibha; Khan, Hena; Yadav, Poonam

    2016-04-01

    Microbial assemblage as biofilm around the aquatic plant forms a firm association that largely depends upon the mutual supplies of nutrients, e.g., microbes interact with plants in an aquatic system most likely for organic carbon and oxygen, whereas plants receive defensive immunity and mineral exchange. Apart from the mutual benefits, plant-microbe interactions also influence the water quality especially at rhizosphere providing inherent ability to the aquatic system for the mitigation of pollution from the water column. The review presents and in-depth information along with certain research advancements made in the field of ecological and bio/chemical aspects of plant-microbe interactions and the underlying potential to improve water quality.

  14. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species. PMID:27219711

  15. Distribution of metals in aquatic edible plants: Trapa natans (Roxb.) Makino and Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Sinha, S

    2001-09-01

    Most of the water bodies being used for the cultivation of edible aquatic plants (Trapa natans and Ipomoea aquatica) in Lucknow district, U.P., India, were found to be contaminated with a variety of toxic metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Mn and Pb). The concentration of metals Cr, Pb and Fe in water was much higher than recommended permissible limits of WHO (1995). The edible parts of these plants bioconcentrated metals from their surrounding water significantly. Therefore, the present study was planned to assess the metal concentration in edible part of plants which was collected from various water bodies used for cultivation of these crops. Despite varying levels of metals found in various fruit parts of T. natans, the metal accumulation in kernel was alarming. However, metal content decreased significantly in various parts after boiling the fruit. Similarly, I. aquatica also accumulated significantly higher amounts of these metals in leaves, however the metal accumulating potential varied considerably depending upon level of metal contamination in the water body in which they were growing. The importance of these findings in the exploitation of these aquatic crops to meet the demand of food and health perspectives for human beings is highlighted. PMID:11554485

  16. Aquatic adventitious roots of the wetland plant Meionectes brownii can photosynthesize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Pedersen, Ole;

    2011-01-01

    roots during submergence. • Underwater photosynthetic light and CO(2) response curves were determined for aquatic-adapted leaves, stems and aquatic roots of M. brownii. Oxygen microelectrode and (14)CO(2)-uptake experiments determined shoot inputs of O(2) and photosynthate into aquatic roots. • Aquatic...... m(-3) dissolved CO(2), aquatic roots fix carbon at 0.016 µmol CO(2) g(-1) DM s(-1). Illuminated aquatic roots do not rely on exogenous inputs of O(2). • The photosynthetic ability of aquatic roots presumably offers an advantage to submerged M. brownii as aquatic roots, unlike sediment roots, need...

  17. Whole effluent toxicity assessment at a wastewater treatment plant upgraded with a full-scale post-ozonation using aquatic key species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdeburg, Axel; Stalter, Daniel; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2012-08-01

    Ozonation as final wastewater (WW) polishing step, following conventional activated sludge treatment is increasingly implemented in sewage treatment for contaminant degradation to prevent surface water pollution. While the oxidative degradation of chemicals has been extensively investigated, the in vivo toxicological characteristics of ozonated whole effluents are rarely a matter of research. In the present study, whole effluents were toxicologically evaluated with an in vivo test battery before and after full-scale ozonation and subsequent sand filtration on site at a treatment plant. One aquatic plant (duckweed, Lemna minor) and five invertebrate species of different systematic groups (Lumbriculus variegatus, Chironomus riparius, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Daphnia magna) were exposed to the effluents in a flow-through-designed test system with a test duration of 7-28 d. None of the considered toxicity endpoints correlated with the pollutant elimination. A tendency towards an increased toxicity after ozonation was apparent in three of the test systems showing [statistically] significant adverse effects in the L. variegatus toxicity test (decrease in reproduction and biomass). After sand filtration, adverse effects were reduced to a similar level like after conventional treatment. Solely the Daphnia reproduction test revealed beneficial effects after ozonation in combination with sand filtration. Results of the test battery indicate the formation of adverse oxidation products during WW ozonation. L. variegatus appeared to be the most sensitive of the five test species. Sand filtration effectively removes or detoxifies toxic oxidation products, as toxic effects were subsequently reduced to the level after conventional treatment. PMID:22560180

  18. Density-dependent reproductive and vegetative allocation in the aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Flávia Freitas; Deboni, Liene; Lopes, Frederico Santos

    2005-01-01

    Pistia stratiotes is an aquatic macrophyte that grows in temporary-ponds in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. It reproduces both sexually and asexually and is usually observed forming dense mats on the water surface, a condition favored by the plant's vegetative reproduction coupled with an ability for rapid growth. In this study we examined the effect of densely crowded conditions on the production of reproductive and vegetative structures. In addition, we verified whether there is a trade-off between clonal growth and investment in sexual reproductive structures, and whether there is an allocation pattern with plant size. Individual plant biomass and the number of the rosettes producing sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures both increased with density. Increase in plant size resulted in increased proportional allocation to sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures. Allocation of biomass to reproduction did not occur at the expense of clonal growth. Thus, the density response appears as a increase of rosettes producing sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures. Therefore, long leaves and stolons may be adaptive under densely crowded conditions where competition for light is intense. An important aspect in the study of trade-offs is the size-dependency of the allocation patterns .Usually, larger plants produce more biomass. Therefore, larger plants can allocate more biomass to both vegetative and sexual reproduction than smaller plants and thus show a positive correlation between both traits rather than the expected negative one. PMID:17354448

  19. Ecotoxicity of titanium silicon oxide (TiSiO4) nanomaterial for terrestrial plants and soil invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguerra, Sirine; Gavina, Ana; Ksibi, Mohamed; da Graça Rasteiro, Maria; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Pereira, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    The huge evolution of nanotechnology and the commercialization of nanomaterials (NMs) positively contributed for innovation in several industrial sectors. Facing this rapid development and the emergence of NMs in the market, the release of this nanometric sized materials in the environment and the possible impact on different ecosystem components attracted the attention of researchers in the last few years. In our study we aimed to assess the impact of titanium silicon oxide nanomaterial (nano-TiSiO4) on soil biota to estimate a risk limit for this material. In the present research a battery of standardized ecotoxicological assays aimed at evaluating a wide range of endpoints (avoidance and reproduction of earthworms and collembolans, emergence/growth of four selected terrestrial plants) were carried out, using OECD artificial soil as test substrate spiked with aqueous suspension of different concentrations of nano-TiSiO4. The results showed a maximum avoidance percentage of 40% for earthworms (Esenia andrei) at the highest concentration tested (1000mgkg(-1) soildw of nano-TiSiO4). No significant effect on the reproductive function of both invertebrate species was recorded. Nevertheless, significant phytotoxic data was registered at least for the growth of dicotyledonous plant species (Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicon lycopersicum) with EC20 values ranging between 236 and 414 mg kg(-1) soildw of nano-TiSiO4 for L. sativa dry mass and fresh mass, respectively. Further, the characterization of nano-TiSiO4 in suspensions used to spike the soil, performed by Dynamic Light Scattering, showed the formation of aggregates with important average size diameter, thus demonstrating that the toxic effects observed were likely not size dependent. A deterministic PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) for this NM of 10.02mg kg(-1) soildw of nano-TiSiO4, is suggested, while no more ecotoxicological information exists. PMID:27060256

  20. Aquatic Food Plants and their Consumer Birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary, Hardoi, Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the Bird Sanctuaries of Uttar Pradesh, Sandi, was selected for studying some ecological aspects like, aquatic food plants, their food calendar and dependent birds of migratory as well as resident origin. The study site is considered as an ideal wetland. This is located at 27o15’ N and 79o55’ E. Thirty four food plant species were identified to be eaten by 16 birds.These plants were the species of Alloteropsis, Arundo, Azolla, Ceratophyllum, Chloris, Commelina, Cyperus, Echinochloa, Eichhornia, Eleocharis, Hydrilla, Ipomoea, Jussiaea, Lemna, Najas, Nelumbo, Nymphea, Nymphoides, Oryza, Pistia, Polygonum, Potamogeton, Scirpus, Spirodela, Trapa, Typha, Vallisneria, and Wolffia. Common consumer birds eating plant parts were Coot, Pochards, Teal, Wigeon, Gadwal, Gargany, Goose, Whistling-duck, Mallard, Pintail, Shoveler, and Swamphen. These are primarily the migratory birds except Coot, Whistling-duck and Swamphen. Spot-billed Duck, and Indian Moorhen were occasionally seen eating submerged hydrophytes and filamentous slimy green algae. On the basis of multi-strata growth of plants in the Sanctuary a wetland profile was prepared. Food calendar i.e., availability of palatable parts of plants during different months was recorded. Information collected in the study could be used for habitat management, especially the weed removal and ensuring food sustainability for the vegetarian birds.

  1. Bibliographical survey of radiostrontium uptake capacity and processes in aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers 302 articles published between 1949 and 1980 on the contamination of freshwater and marine aquatic plants by radioactive strontium. For the marine and continental environments, the results of laboratory experiments on the dynamics of radiostrontium buildup and localization, concentration factors, elimination processes, the effects of biological factors and of the environment, the activity levels and concentration factors measured in areas directly and indirectly affected by waste discharges, discrimination factors and the role of plants as radiation indicators, are examined. The radioactive strontium uptake potentials are higher for freshwater plants -especially mosses and characeae- than for marine plants. In zones not directly affected by waste discharges, the maximum activity measured is 82 pCi/kg wet weight, compared with 750 pCi/kg for freshwater plants. The peak values were observed in 1964-1965. In zones directly affected by waste discharges, the activity levels range from 15 to 1700 pCi of 90Sr per kilogram of wet weight in the marine environment, and from 20 to 207000 pCi/kg in fresh water. This work underlines the need for greater accuracy in allowing for the ecological characteristics of each site when assessing the impact of nuclear facilities, and for thoroughly correlating field observations with laboratory experiments in order to obtain a prospective view of the potentials for radioactive strontium uptake by plants according to the activity levels present in the liquid effluents

  2. Hydrologic modeling of aquatic plant treatment systems polishing dairy lagoon effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothren, G M; Chen, S; Rahman, M; Malone, R

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a mathematical model of the hydrologic balance of an aquatic plant treatment system (APTS) has been developed. The mass balance approach has been adopted and the major components of the water balance, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET) and percolation have been incorporated into the model. For estimation of ET for duckweed and water hyacinth plants, mathematical relationships were established between ET and pan evaporation using data collected at the site. The observed ET rates of water hyacinths were up to 66% higher than the pan evaporation rates. But for duckweed, the observed ET rates were 10 to 20% lower than the pan evaporation rates. Using the available historic precipitation and pan evaporation data, several computer simulations of the model were run to estimate the HLR and HRT of the ponds under different design requirements. The results indicate that aquatic ponds with water hyacinths can operate at greater HLR's than ponds supporting duckweed. For a zero discharge system, the allowable HLR for a water hyacinth pond was found to be 5 times that of a pond containing duckweed. PMID:11759904

  3. Genetic uniformity characterizes the invasive spread of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a clonal aquatic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Ye; Zhang, Da-Yong; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2010-05-01

    Aquatic plant invasions are often associated with long-distance dispersal of vegetative propagules and prolific clonal reproduction. These reproductive features combined with genetic bottlenecks have the potential to severely limit genetic diversity in invasive populations. To investigate this question we conducted a global scale population genetic survey using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers of the world's most successful aquatic plant invader -Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth). We sampled 1140 ramets from 54 populations from the native (South America) and introduced range (Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, Central America and the Caribbean). Although we detected 49 clones, introduced populations exhibited very low genetic diversity and little differentiation compared with those from the native range, and approximately 80% of introduced populations were composed of a single clone. A widespread clone ('W') detected in two Peruvian populations accounted for 70.9% of the individuals sampled and dominated in 74.5% of the introduced populations. However, samples from Bangladesh and Indonesia were composed of different genotypes, implicating multiple introductions to the introduced range. Nine of 47 introduced populations contained clonal diversity suggesting that sexual recruitment occurs in some invasive sites where environmental conditions favour seedling establishment. The global patterns of genetic diversity in E. crassipes likely result from severe genetic bottlenecks during colonization and prolific clonal propagation. The prevalence of the 'W' genotype throughout the invasive range may be explained by stochastic sampling, or possibly because of pre-adaptation of the 'W' genotype to tolerate low temperatures. PMID:20529068

  4. Screening potential genotoxic effect of aquatic plant extracts using the mussel micronucleus test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bettina Eck-Varanka; Nora Kovts; Katalin Hubai; Gbor Paulovits; rpd Ferincz; Eszter Horvth

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the genotoxic potential of selected aquatic macrophytes:Ceratophyllum demersum L. (hornwort, family Ceratophyllaceae),Typha angustifolia L. (narrowleaf cattail, family Typhaceae),Stratiotes aloides L. (water soldier, family Butomaceae), andOenanthe aquatica (L.) Poir. (water dropwort, family Umbelliferae). Methods: For genotoxicity assessment, the mussel micronucleus test was applied. Micronucleus frequency was determined from the haemolymph ofUnio pictorum L. (painter’s mussel). In parallel, total and hydrolisable tannin contents were determined. Results:All plant extracts elucidated significant mutagenic effect. Significant correlation was determined between tannin content and mutagenic capacity. Conclusions:The significant correlation between genotoxicity as expressed by micronucleus frequency and tannin content (both total and hydrolisable tannins) indicate that tannin is amongst the main compounds being responsible for the genotoxic potential. It might be suggested that genotoxic capacity of these plants elucidate a real ecological effect in the ecosystem.

  5. Groundwater interactions with Lobelia lakes- effects on the aquatic plant, Littorella uniflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Daniela Oliveira; Vinther, Hanne Fogh; Krüger, Laila;

    Lake Hampen is representative of a group of lakes called Lobelia lakes. These are oligotrophic, clear water lakes which tend to have a low alkalinity. These lakes are termed “Lobelia lakes” due to the characteristic isoetid species which thrive in these conditions. Isoetids are small, evergreen...... aquatic plants whose leaves grow in a rosette form and have a large root base. The large root system enables the plants to better assimilate nutrients from the sediments, and the uptake of CO2 which is used for photosynthesis, and to release O2 into otherwise anoxic sediments. Lake Hampen is situated high...... up in the Jylland ridge and lies close to the groundwater boundary. This means that the groundwater flow between the aquifer and the lake is not constant, sometimes the groundwater flows from the aquifer into the lake (discharge) and other times it flows from the lake into the aquifer (recharge...

  6. Radiological impact of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on invertebrates in the coastal benthic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) concentrations in invertebrates of benthic food web (10 taxonomic classes with 46 identified families) collected from wide areas off Fukushima Prefecture (3–500 m depth) were inspected from July 2011, four months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, to August 2013 to elucidate time-series trends among taxa and areas. Cesium-137 was detected in seven classes (77% of 592 specimens). Higher 137Cs concentrations within detected data were often found in areas near or south of the FDNPP, which is consistent with the reported spatial distribution of 137Cs concentrations in highly contaminated seawater and sediments after the FDNPP accident. Overall 137Cs concentrations in invertebrates, the maxima of which (290 Bq kg−1-wet in the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis) were lower than in many demersal fishes, had decreased exponentially with time, and exhibited taxon-specific decreasing trends. Concentrations in Bivalvia and Gastropoda decreased clearly with respective ecological half-lives of 188 d and 102 d. In contrast, decreasing trends in Malacostraca and Polychaeta were more gradual, with longer respective ecological half-lives of 208 d and 487 d. Echinoidea showed no consistent trend, presumably because of effects of contaminated sediments taken into their digestive tract. Comparison of 137Cs concentrations in the invertebrates and those in seawater and sediments suggest that contaminated sediments are the major source of continuing contamination in benthic invertebrates, especially in Malacostraca and Polychaeta. - Highlights: • Radioactive cesium was measured in benthic invertebrates collected off Fukushima. • Results show taxon-specific and area-specific decreases in ecological half-lives. • Reasonable depuration of 137Cs concentration was found in Bivalvia and Gastropoda. • Slow depuration was observed in Polychaeta and Malacostraca. • Sediments are expected to be the major continued

  7. Design and analysis of aquatic monitoring programs at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses some of the problems of designing, conducting, and analyzing aquatic environmental monitoring programs for impact assessment of nuclear power plants. The concepts discussed are applicable to monitoring the effects of chemical, radioactive, or thermal effluents. The concept of control and treatment station pairs is the fundamental basis for the experimental method proposed. This concept is based on the hypothesis that the relationship between the two stations forming the pair can be estimated from the preoperational period and that this relationship holds during the operational period. Any changes observed in this relationship during the operational period are assumed to be the result of the power plant impacts. Thus, it is important that station pairs are selected so it can be assumed that they respond to natural environmental changes in a manner that maintains that relationship. The major problem in establishing the station pairs will be the location of the control station. The universal heterogeneity in the environment will prevent the establishment of identical station pairs. The requirement that the control station remain unaffected by the operation of the power plant dictates a spacial separation with its associated differences in habitat. Thus, selection of the control station will be based upon balancing the following two criteria: (1) far enough away from the plant site to be beyond the plant influence, and (2) close enough to the treatment station that the biological communities will respond to natural environmental changes consistently in the same manner

  8. Accumulation and kinetics of 90Sr in fishes and other components of an artificial aquatic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regularities are described of 90Sr transfer from water into the particular components of a simplified experimental aquatic system - the sediments, algae, invertebrates (gastropods) and fish - based on a model experiment simulating conditions of a section of the Jihlava River as influenced by the release of liquid wastes from the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Owing to their high abundance, both in nature and in the experiment, the aquatic algae and sediments are the most important accumulators of 90Sr. Nevertheless, the highest increase in the specific radionuclide concentrations and in the accumulation coefficients were found in aquatic gastropods and in fish bones. (author). 1 tab., 12 refs

  9. Luxury Uptake and Removal of Phosphorus from Water Column by Representative Aquatic Plants and Its Implication for Wetland Management

    OpenAIRE

    Shardendu Shardendu; Sayantan, D.; Deepti Sharma; Sufia Irfan

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic plants with their high relative growth rates efficiently absorb nutrients from their surrounding media, thereby providing a simple and inexpensive solution for nutrient-polluted aquifers. The present study determined the P accumulation efficiencies of four different aquatic plants namely, Eleocharis plantaginea, Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes, and Hydrilla verticillata from the 6043 ha Kabar Wetland (86°05′ E to 86°09′ E, 25°30′ N to 25°32′ N). The aim of the study was to sel...

  10. The toxicity of sulfolane and DIPA from sour gas plants to aquatic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological effects of sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA), which are used to remove sulfur compounds from natural gas, were studied to establish risk-based cleanup criteria and to evaluate effective remedial measures. Toxicity tests were conducted on both the parent compounds and the thermal and biological degradation products. Toxicity testing focused on aquatic species because surface outlets, such as creeks, were found to be the major pathways for the water soluble DIPA and sulfolane chemicals. Sulfolane proved to be relatively non-toxic to aquatic species, with the exception of bacteria. DIPA was relatively toxic to algae at pH found in ground and surface waters. Aqueous and methanol reclaimer bottom extracts from five different gas plant sites were also tested using modified acute toxicity screening tests with different species. The reclaimer bottoms were found to be highly toxic to all species tested. DIPA and sulfolane did not entirely account for the toxicity of the reclaimer bottoms. Inorganic salts and metals present in reclaimer bottoms were found not to contribute to toxicity directly. The same was true for DIPA and sulfolane degradation products. 3 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  11. Potential benefits of commercial willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for farm-scale plant and invertebrate communities in the agri-environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Rebecca L.; Hanley, Mick E.; Goulson, Dave; Clarke, Donna J.; Doncaster, C. Patrick; Taylor, Gail [University of Southampton, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences Building, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The cultivation of bioenergy crops (BECs) represents a significant land-use change in agri-environments, but their deployment has raised important issues globally regarding possible impacts on biodiversity. Few studies however, have systematically examined the effect of commercial scale bioenergy plantations on biodiversity in agri-ecosystems. In this study we investigate how the abundance and diversity of two key components of farmland biodiversity (ground flora and winged invertebrates) varied between mature willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and two alternative land-use options (arable crops and set-aside land). Although the abundance of winged invertebrates was similar across all land-uses, taxonomic composition varied markedly. Hymenoptera and large Hemiptera (>5 mm) were more abundant in willow SRC than in arable or set-aside. Similarly although plant species richness was greater in set-aside, our data show that willow SRC supports a different plant community to the other land-uses, being dominated by competitive perennial species such as Elytrigia repens and Urtica dioica. Our results suggest that under current management practices a mixed farming system incorporating willow SRC can benefit native farm-scale biodiversity. In particular the reduced disturbance in willow SRC allows the persistence of perennial plant species, potentially providing a stable refuge and food sources for invertebrates. In addition, increased Hymenoptera abundance in willow SRC could potentially have concomitant effects on ecosystem processes, as many members of this Order are important pollinators of crop plants or otherwise fulfil an important beneficial role as predators or parasites of crop pests. (author)

  12. Aquatic Plants Planting Design of Pingtian Lake Wetland Park%平天湖湿地公园水生植物种植设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘妍

    2012-01-01

    依据湿地生态系统稳定发展的原则,在保证最小程度破坏当地原有植被的基础上,通过查阅资料和调查研究,从水生植物配置的角度,总结出平天湖湿地公园水生植物选择的依据和适当建议,以期为公园水生植物的选择提供思路.%Based on the principles of the steady development of wetland ecosystem to guarantee the minimal damage to native vegetation, the basis and suggestions on the choice of aquatic plants in Pingtian Lake Wetland Park were summarized from the perspective of aquatic plants configuration, with the aim to provide basis for the selection of aquatic plants in parks.

  13. Comparative Studies of the Phytoextraction Capacity of Five Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet BUTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The uptake capacity of the aquatic plants (Salvinia natans Kunth., Eichhornia crassipes Mart., Lemna minor L., Elodea canadensis Michx., Pistia stratiotes L. was analyzed in phytoextraction of Cu2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+. It was attend to study the plants capacity comparatively using mono and multimetallic systems. In particular, the chlorophyll, protein and carotenoids contents were studied during heavy metals uptake, in order to observe the stress effect on plants. The results obtained for the monometallic system showed that Salvinia natans Kunth. accumulated the highest quantity of Cu2+ (4.72 mg/g, Zn2+ (2.23 mg/g and Cd2+ (1.90 mg/g. The leaves of Lemna minor L. accumulated the highest concentration of Cu2+ (10.80 mg/g and Cd2+ (2.78 mg/g in multimetallic system. The water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L. translocated the highest quantity of Zn2+ in its roots (4.80 mg/g. The chlorophyll and the carotenoids levels decreased under the stress of heavy metals in both systems, while protein content increased under the influence of Cu2+ and Cd2+, but decreased for Zn2+.  The studied hydrophytes proved to be useful in the uptake of heavy metals in monometallic system and much more effective in the multimetallic system and showed great potential for further applications in the industrial and commercial wastewater treatments.

  14. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on the higher aquatic plants in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the earliest years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the radioecological study on freshwater plant communities in the water-bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) has been held. At first stages it was the research on plant species collection and radionuclide contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Now, it is the seasonal monitoring with several groups of data deals with different areas of plant communities investigation: (1) the data characterized the level of radionuclides contamination of the abiotic and biotic components of phyto-coenosis and connected absorbed dose rates for various species of aquatic plants; (2) indexes of plant reproduction, including productivity, sterility, seed germination indexes and different abnormalities of ontogenesis; (3) indexes of morphological deviations (radiomorphoses) of aquatic plant's reproduction organs such as panicle and seeds; (4) cytogenetic indexes including the rate and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in cells of apical root meristem of air-aquatic plants; (5) the group of indexes, connected with plant's immunity. The calculated absorbed dose rate for littoral emergent plants in sampling water bodies was varied from 0.7 to 1.4 Gy/year in dependence of radioactive contamination of bottom sediments, plant tissues and level of gamma-background. There were registered rather low rate of plant productivity (hundred times lower than normal), high percentage of sterility (20-80%), low germinating ability (14-48 %) and germinating power (40-50%) of seeds from all sampling water bodies within the ChEZ. Against the general suppressed background the effect of relative stimulation of more affected seeds was observed. With increase of internal absorbed dose in range of 0.2-5.3 mGy/year the number of germinated seeds was increased. At the same time the number of different abnormalities of seeds was increased as well. The highest rate of the morphological damages (up to 25 % of the total number of germinated seeds

  15. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on the higher aquatic plants in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    From the earliest years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the radioecological study on freshwater plant communities in the water-bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) has been held. At first stages it was the research on plant species collection and radionuclide contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Now, it is the seasonal monitoring with several groups of data deals with different areas of plant communities investigation: (1) the data characterized the level of radionuclides contamination of the abiotic and biotic components of phyto-coenosis and connected absorbed dose rates for various species of aquatic plants; (2) indexes of plant reproduction, including productivity, sterility, seed germination indexes and different abnormalities of ontogenesis; (3) indexes of morphological deviations (radiomorphoses) of aquatic plant's reproduction organs such as panicle and seeds; (4) cytogenetic indexes including the rate and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in cells of apical root meristem of air-aquatic plants; (5) the group of indexes, connected with plant's immunity. The calculated absorbed dose rate for littoral emergent plants in sampling water bodies was varied from 0.7 to 1.4 Gy/year in dependence of radioactive contamination of bottom sediments, plant tissues and level of gamma-background. There were registered rather low rate of plant productivity (hundred times lower than normal), high percentage of sterility (20-80%), low germinating ability (14-48 %) and germinating power (40-50%) of seeds from all sampling water bodies within the ChEZ. Against the general suppressed background the effect of relative stimulation of more affected seeds was observed. With increase of internal absorbed dose in range of 0.2-5.3 mGy/year the number of germinated seeds was increased. At the same time the number of different abnormalities of seeds was increased as well. The highest rate of the morphological damages (up to 25 % of the total number of

  16. Distribution of the main physicochemical forms of the Chernobyl origin radionuclides in aquatic plants of the Glyboke lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of the physicochemical forms of radionuclides in the aquatic vegetation of the Glyboke lake located on the territory of the inner Chernobyl exclusion zone is studied. The interspecific features of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation are analyzed, and the differences in the distributions of radionuclide physicochemical forms in accordance with the nutrition type of the studied plant species are determined.

  17. Effect of mercury on some aquatic plants. [Hydrilla verticillata Presl. ; Pistia stratiotes L. ; Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhatre, G.N.; Chaphekar, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    Three aquatic plants, Hydrilla verticillata Presl, Pistia stratiotes L. and Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell, were treated with different concentrations of mercury ranging from 1 to 1000 ..mu..g liter/sup -1/ at three different exposure durations, i.e. 1, 3 and 5 h. All were found to be severely affected by mercury. Foliar injury, chlorophyll content and phytomass showed perceptible effects with increasing exposure to the metal. In the case of floating plants a positive relationship was obtained between Leaf Injury Index (LII) and doses of the metal. The possible use of aquatic plants in general, and floating plants in particular, as simple bioassay material in biomonitoring and toxicity studies is discussed with special reference to LII as a simple biomonitoring parameter.

  18. Heavy metals in sediments, soils, and aquatic plants from a secondary anabranch of the three gorges reservoir region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun-Min; Sun, Xiu-Qian; Jiang, Wen-Chao; Wei, Yun-Mei; Guo, Jin-Song; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Ke

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Znic (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and magnesium (Mg) in sediments, as well as in related soils and aquatic plants in the Liangtan River, a typical secondary anabranch of the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) of China. We found that sediments accumulated more metals than soils and aquatic plants. Concentrations of the nine metals in sediments and soils followed the same sequence, while their concentrations in aquatic plants followed a different sequence. Potential adverse effects of contaminated sediments on benthic fauna were evaluated, and the results showed that the toxic effect on benthic organisms followed the sequence Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Cd > Pb. The potential ecological risk index analysis indicated that Cd in sediments had considerable ecological risk, whereas Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb had low ecological risk. The potential ecological risk index (RI) of the heavy metals in sediments of the Liangtan River was 174.9, indicating moderate ecological risk. The transfer factor trend of metals for aquatic plants showed that Cd and Ni had the most and least accumulation, respectively. For Cu, Cd, Mg, Pb, and Cr, a significant positive correlation of the metal concentrations was observed between sediments and soils, but no correlations (excluding Cr) were detected between sediments and aquatic plants. Our study indicated that anthropogenic input may be the primary source of metal contamination in the Liangtan River, and that Zn and Cd pollution in the Liangtan River should be further explored. PMID:27055891

  19. Replacement of cowdung by fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use as fuel, fertilizer and biogas plant feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, C.R. (Tata Energy Research Inst., Bombay, India); Ghatnekar, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of fuel for cooking in rural india (85% of the population), where 98% of the fuel requirement is for cooking purposes, is addressed. Currently, women and children spend 8 hours/day foraging for firewood and cowdung. As a solution to the problem (and to prevent further deforestation) a replacement material is suggested which is produced by simple technology and is within the reach of the poorest village dwellers. It is suggested that aquatic and terrestrial plants (water hyacinth, water lettuce, African payal, duck weed, paragrass, durva grass, etc.) be fermented in plastic bags for periods of 14 to 33 days. The fermented products would be made into cakes which can be burned as fuel or used as a fertilizer. Also, the cakes could be used as plant feed for a biogas process to produce methane. Experiments are described in which it is shown that the process is feasible, that the fermented mass is a suitable fuel, and that the fermented mass can be used as biogas plant feed. Plans for future experiments are outlined. (MJJ)

  20. Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems in the areas of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative analysis of the radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems in the territory of Russia has been performed. The estimated contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in water, bottom sediments and fish are presented for cooling ponds of nuclear power plants (NPPs), aquifers of the Urals and of Chernobyl, and for the Yenisei River. The most highly contaminated water bodies in Russia are the Techa River and several lakes in the Chelyabinsk and Bryansk Regions. The analysis of doses due to the radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems is given. (orig.)

  1. Estimation of bioaccumulation of lead in the aquatic plants using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three aquatic plants, water hyacinth, Hydrilla and Pithophora were exposed to different concentrations of lead and the accumulation of lead in these plants for different exposure period was studied using 14 MeV (with a flux of approximately equal to 2x108 ncm-2sec-1) neutron activation analysis technique. The lead uptake in these plants was estimated by measuring gamma activity due to sup(207m)Pb (T=0.8 sec) produced by 14 MeV neutrons. Possibility of using these plants for waste water treatment is discussed. (author)

  2. Potential accumulation of estrogenic substances in biofilms and aquatic plants collected in sewage treatment plant (STP) and receiving water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultis, T.; Kuch, B.; Kern, A.; Metzger, J.W. [Inst. for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management ISWA, Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    During the past years the estrogenic potency of natural (e.g. estrone and 17{beta}-estradiol E2) and synthetic hormones (e.g. ethinylestradiol EE2) and xenoestrogens (e.g. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), alkylphenolic compounds or bisphenol A (BPA)) has attracted increasing scientific attention. Especially the occurrence and behaviour of these substances in waste water of sewage treatment plants (STPs) were often investigated. Andersen et al. found steroid estrogen concentrations in the effluent of a municipal STP always below the limit of quantification of 1 ng/l. However, Aerni et al. detected E2 and EE2 concentrations up to 6 ng/l and 2 ng/l, and alkylphenols, alkylphenolmonoand diethoxylates even at {mu}g/l concentrations in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant with a significant industrial impact3. In activated and digested sewage sludge concentrations of estrone and E2 up to 37 ng/g and 49 ng/g, of the synthetic EE2 up to 17 ng/g were observed4. In river sediments the concentrations detected were lower with up to 2 ng/g estrone and 0,9 ng/g EE24. In the meantime many studies exist about raw and treated water in STPs, but there is little knowledge about the influence of estrogenic active substances on aquatic plants so far. In this study we investigated therefore the potency of estrogenic substances to accumulate in the duckweed Lemna minor from STP in comparison to the estrogenicity of duckweed from a natural pond, biofilms in drain and microsieve of the STP by the in vitro E-Screen- and LYES-assay (yeast estrogen screen-assay assisted by enzymatic digestion with lyticase). In addition, we tested the estrogenic activity of moss-like aquatic plants collected at different sites of the receiving water and analyzed the concentrations of four phenolic xenoestrogens in the effluent by GC/MS.

  3. Ants swimming in pitcher plants: kinematics of aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in Camponotus schmitzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Holger Florian; Thornham, Daniel George; Federle, Walter

    2012-06-01

    Camponotus schmitzi ants live in symbiosis with the Bornean pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata. Unique among ants, the workers regularly dive and swim in the pitcher's digestive fluid to forage for food. High-speed motion analysis revealed that C. schmitzi ants swim at the surface with all legs submerged, with an alternating tripod pattern. Compared to running, swimming involves lower stepping frequencies and larger phase delays within the legs of each tripod. Swimming ants move front and middle legs faster and keep them more extended during the power stroke than during the return stroke. Thrust estimates calculated from three-dimensional leg kinematics using a blade-element approach confirmed that forward propulsion is mainly achieved by the front and middle legs. The hind legs move much less, suggesting that they mainly serve for steering. Experiments with tethered C. schmitzi ants showed that characteristic swimming movements can be triggered by submersion in water. This reaction was absent in another Camponotus species investigated. Our study demonstrates how insects can use the same locomotory system and similar gait patterns for moving on land and in water. We discuss insect adaptations for aquatic/amphibious lifestyles and the special adaptations of C. schmitzi to living on an insect-trapping pitcher plant. PMID:22526112

  4. Phenotypic responses to water flow and wave exposure in aquatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gałka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic responses of 10 aquatic plant species from 5 rivers and 5 lakes in NW Poland were examined. Chara fragilis, C. delicatula, Potamogeton pectinatus, P. perfoliatus, P. natans, Spirodela polyrhiza, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Salvinia natans, Nymphoides peltata and Juncus bulbosus were the subject of research. In the running water of rivers, rhizophytes were generally bigger and they allocated from 0.6% to 58.6% more biomass for anchoring in the substrate than in stagnant water (ox bow lakes. In both flow variants rhizophytes allocated a similar biomass fraction for generative reproduction. On the other hand, under the influence of water flow pleustophytes reduced the mass of an individual (Spirodela by 25%, Hydrocharis 67%, Salvinia 77% and emergent structures (p<0.001, and the number of sporangia (p<0.001. In both flow variants the input of biomass to generative reproduction was the same (Salvinia, or it was greater in running water (Hydrocharis; an increase from 4.9±1.3% to 15.1±3.6%. Under the conditions of strong wave action, in comparison with the lack of this environmental factor, Chara delicatula was several times shorter (p<0.001. However, it was also stouter, and as a result it had similar mass. In the areas of wave action the plant allocated 88.8% of its mass for anchoring in the substrate, whereas when there were no waves, only 22.7%.

  5. Assessment of macro and microelement accumulation capability of two aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Alfani, Anna; Di Tommasi, Paul; Bartoli, Giovanni; De Santo, Amalia Virzo

    2004-07-01

    The concentrations of four macroelements (C, N, P, S) and eight trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were measured in the leaves and roots of the emergent plant, Phragmites communis Trin., and in the shoots and roots of the submersed Najas marina L., taken from Lake Averno (Naples, Italy). Phragmites communis leaves showed higher concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus than roots, while the roots exhibited significantly higher concentrations of sulphur and trace metals. Najas marina roots also showed higher concentrations of sulphur and trace metals than shoots, but these differences were less marked than in Phragmites communis except for sulphur. Sulphur was the only macronutrient to show the highest concentrations in the roots. Phragmites communis roots had higher values of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni than Najas marina roots. By contrast, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher in Najas marina shoots than in Phragmites communis leaves. Phragmites communis, available through the year, showing high capability to accumulate trace metals in the roots, appears a good monitor of lake contamination, better than Najas marina. - Element accumulation in roots and shoots of aquatic plants was used as a criteria for selecting useful biomonitors.

  6. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: Review and database value to resource sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytotoxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils. The phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of reactive research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for at least 41 crude oils and 56 dispersants. As many as 107 response parameters have been monitored for 85 species of unicellular and multicellular algae, 28 wetland plants, 13 mangroves and 9 seagrasses. Effect concentrations have varied by as much as six orders of magnitude due to experimental diversity. This diversity restricts phytotoxicity predictions and identification of sensitive species, life stages and response parameters. As a result, evidence-based risk assessments for most aquatic plants and petrochemicals and dispersants are not supported by the current toxicity database. A proactive and experimentally-consistent approach is recommended to provide threshold toxic effect concentrations for sensitive life stages of aquatic plants inhabiting diverse ecosystems. -- The phytotoxicity database does not support toxicity predictions for most oils and dispersants

  7. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, p<0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, p<0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p<0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. PMID:26360459

  8. Nuclear microprobe study of heavy metal uptake and transport in aquatic plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In aquatic ecosystems water contamination by trace metals is one of the main types of pollution that may stress the biotic community. Although some metals are needed as micronutrients for autotrophic organisms, they can have toxic effects at higher concentration. Aquatic plants can take up large quantities of nutrients and metals from the environment, they can live under extreme environmental conditions therefore they are being increasingly used in remediation processes to reduce contamination. Besides the usually applied bulk analytical techniques quantitative micro-PIXE investigation of the macro, micro and trace element distribution within the root can lead to a better understanding of the heavy metal up-take, transport and detoxification mechanisms of the plants and thus helps to select the proper species for the remedial activity, or possibly to increase the efficiency of the remediation. In this work we determined the elemental distributions in root cross sections and along the roots of reed (Phragmaties australis), bulrush (Typha angustifolia) and sea club-rush (Bolboschoemus maritimus) using the Debrecen nuclear microprobe. The plants originate from the dried units of the wastewater sedimentation pond system of the tannery of Kunszentmarton. 1500 m3 waste water containing lime, sodium-salts, ammonium-salts, chromium-salts, sodium, chlorine and magnesium ions, sulphur and organic material was released to the pond system every day till 1988. The chosen species are the dominant species of the area, composing 85-90% of the green plant covering. This heavily contaminated area has been regularly monitored by the colleagues of the Dept. of Applied Ecology of the Univ. of Debrecen since 1998. They focused their work the potentially toxic heavy metal chromium. In order to conserve the samples in the living state, the roots were frozen in liquid nitrogen. 16-20 μm thick cross sections were made with cryo-microtome, and all the

  9. Genetic effects of flow dose irradiation on higher aquatic plants within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The rate of chromosome aberrations has been studied in four species of higher aquatic plants: common reed (Phragmites australis), sagittaria (Sagittaria sagittifolia), flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) and manna (Glyceria maxima). The main water bodies were Glubokoye Lake and Dalekoye-1 Lake (left-bank flood lands of the Pripyat River), Azbuchin Lake and Yanovsky Crawl (right-bank flood lands of the Pripyat River), cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP as well as Pripyat River and Uzh River. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from above water bodies in decreasing sequence was: 3.4- 1.6 (Glubokoye Lake) > 0.09-0.05 (Dalekoye Lake) > 0.08-0.02 (Azhbuchin Lake) > 0.05- 0.01 (Yanovsky Crawl) > 0.03-0.01(cooling pond of Chernobyl NPP) > 0.004-0.002 (Pripyat River) > 0.003-0.001 Gy year-1 (Uzh River). The highest chromosome aberrations rate in root meristems (17.8-10.8%) were registered in plants from lakes within the left-bank flood lands of the Pripyat River, the lowest one (4.5-2.2%) - in plants from the Pripyat River and Uzh River. The rate of chromosome aberration in closed and slow-running water bodies of the Pripyat River flood land in 3-4 times higher than spontaneous mutagenesis level. It seems that spectrum of the main types of chromosome damages in plants of the right-bank flood land determines by the chemical mutagens (up to 69% of single fragments). The type of chromosome damages distribution in plants of the leftbank flood land points to practically equivalent effects of radiation and chemical factors - 44-49% of bridges, 43-50% of fragments and 6-8% of plural aberrations. Partial or close to complete seed sterility (from 47 to 72%.) are observed for common reed from investigated water bodies, except of running ones. The correlation between high level of chromosome damages and decrease of plant production has been registered.

  10. Actual versus predicted impacts of three ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To help reduce US dependence on imported petroleum, Congress passed the Energy Security Act of 1980 (public Law 96-294). This legislation authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to promote expansion of the fuel alcohol industry through, among other measures, its Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program. Under this program, selected proposals for the conversion of plant biomass into fuel-grade ethanol would be granted loan guarantees. of 57 applications submitted for loan guarantees to build and operate ethanol fuel projects under this program, 11 were considered by DOE to have the greatest potential for satisfying DOE's requirements and goals. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), DOE evaluated the potential impacts of proceeding with the Loan Guarantee Program in a programmatic environmental assessment (DOE 1981) that resulted in a finding of no significant impact (FANCY) (47 Federal Register 34, p. 7483). The following year, DOE conducted site-specific environmental assessments (EAs) for 10 of the proposed projects. These F-As predicted no significant environmental impacts from these projects. Eventually, three ethanol fuel projects received loan guarantees and were actually built: the Tennol Energy Company (Tennol; DOE 1982a) facility near Jasper in southeastern Tennessee; the Agrifuels Refining Corporation (Agrifuels; DOE 1985) facility near New Liberia in southern Louisiana; and the New Energy Company of Indiana (NECI; DOE 1982b) facility in South Bend, Indiana. As part of a larger retrospective examination of a wide range of environmental effects of ethanol fuel plants, we compared the actual effects of the three completed plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA EAs several years earlier. A secondary purpose was to determine: Why were there differences, if any, between actual effects and predictions? How can assessments be improved and impacts reduced?

  11. Influence of cooling water discharges from Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant on aquatic ecology of the Kadra reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alterations induced in the ambient temperature can lead to wide manifestations in species distribution and community structure. In general, elevated water temperature causes changes in species composition, species dominance, standing crop and productivity of biota including phytoplankton communities in any aquatic ecosystem. Thus warm water discharges from power plants into the receiving water bodies may adversely affect aquatic ecology. In the absence of exhaustive data on the response of aquatic organisms and ecosystems in the tropics to elevated temperatures, the only option is to draw inferences, from the experiences in the subtropical and temperature areas. Since, sufficient data on similar line are not available in tropical environment, present paper delineates certain aspects of aquatic ecology of the Kadra reservoir where cooling water is discharged. The study suggests the heated effluents from Kaiga Nuclear Power plant caused changes in dissolved oxygen and pH of water, heterotrophic bacterial population, sediment biogeochemical cycles related biochemical processes, species composition, species dominance, standing crop and productivity of biota including phytoplankton communities within 500 m from End of Discharge Canal point of Kadra reservoir when two units are running in full capacity. (author)

  12. 水生植物的生态功能和资源应用%Ecological Functions and Resource Utilization of Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬林; 王磊; 丁晶晶; 芮雯奕

    2011-01-01

    水生植物具有水体产氧、氮循环、吸附沉积物、抑制浮游藻类繁殖、减轻水体富营养化、提高水体自净能力的重要功能,同时还能为水生动物、微生物提供栖息地和食物源,维持水岸带物种多样性.通过综述国内外水生植物的研究进展,阐明了水生植物的概念及分类方法,全面概述了水生植物的生态功能,讨论了中国城市建设中水生植物资源利用现状和效果,提出了水生植物在水岸带生态恢复应用中需要关注的问题以及今后水生植物研究的目标和方向.%Aquatic plants are one of the important factors in maintaining water ecological quality effectively. A lots of research showed that aquatic plants have many important functions, such as producing oxygen, nitrogen cycling, and adsorption deposit, controlling the harmful algal breeding, lightening water eutrophication, improving water clear ability. Moreover aquatic plants can provide inhabits and food to aquatic animals and microbe, maintain species diversity too. The concepts and classifying methods of aquatic plants were clarified by synthesized researched progress of aquatic plants in the paper. Ecological functions of aquatic plants were systematically summarized; their utilizing actuality and effect on building in the cities were discussed. Presently, much of correlative basic researches on aquatic plants, such as the collecting of genetic resources, breeding of new varieties, the general industrialized level and ecological functions with much faultiness in China. The more efforts of relevant studies were concentrated on ecological effect of aquatic plants on rivers and lakes water environment, but studies on their eco-physiological characteristics and regulation in adverse circumstances were few; presently, the researches on absorption of aquatic plants to nitrogen and phosphorus from polluted water have already been reported frequently in China, but the studies on the morphology

  13. Envisioning invertebrates and other aquatic encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Eva

    2007-12-01

    To "envision" animals is to visualize, to experience, to figure, to image, kinds of species, discourses, representations, institutions, histories, epistemologies; and, to "imagine possible" a set of material and ethical relationships between species. This dissertation explores the "envisioning of animals" that takes place through/across/between the interfaces of seawater/visuality/experience/biology/technology/phyla---as illustrated in the documentary works of Jean Painleve (scientist and filmmaker), Genevieve Hamon (filmmaker and set-designer), Leni Riefenstahl (filmmaker and photographer), and David Powell (scientist and aquarist). In each case, aesthetic conceptions of beauty and/or ambiguity coupled with biological epistemology and phenomenology of the organisms themselves compete over "what gets to count as culture and nature," and in doing so, construct a host of hybridized and enmeshed "encounters." In the process the following questions are raised: What is the role of the ocean---it's ecosystems and semiotics---in the production of "envisioning"? How are animals used---and in turn shape and reshape the users---to construct tropes of encounter? What theories can be used to understand the phenomenological, semiotic, material, and rhetorical use/miss-use of animals in the articulation of history, economy, biology, narrativity, and representation? How does this motley crew of documentarians answer differently "the animal question," and challenge and/or reinforce anthropocentrism? Divided into two parts, the dissertation first develops a set of methodological questions derived from critical appraisal of "envisioning," encountering, and embodying through science studies, as well as an account of the use and misuse of animals as only "stand ins" for human intentionality; secondly, the dissertation analyses the work of the documentarians in question. Jean Painleve and Genevieve Hamon are shown to critique traditions of representation in nature/science films, particularly through challenging anthropocentrism with a "toolkit" of surrealist strategies and a biological knowledge of octopuses. Soft and hard corals (anthrozoans) are shown to enact a "biosemiotics" or "zoosemiotics" that "presses against" Leni Riefenstahl's "fascist (and humanist) aesthetic," which desires to memorialize "beautiful and unpolluted" coral communities. "The Drifter's Gallery," the primary designer being David Powell, at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, is shown to install a promise of immediate and luminous experience of "jellyfish otherness," but delivers an account of jellyfish as historically situated "actors" with in biocapitalism. The work of these documentarians is particularly prescient, considering the growing international concern about coral bleaching, anthropogenic pollution, over-harvesting, and commercialization of the oceans' resources. As a form of "situated knowledge," this dissertation expands the boundaries of "who/what gets to count?" to encompass an ethical concern about systems of power that constitutively produce animal and human actors. If we are to be committed to understanding the encounters and formations of encounters between non-human animals and human animals, then projects that bridge---rather than divide---disciplines are necessary endeavors for more inhabitable futures; this project attempts such a bridge.

  14. Numerical modelling of distribution the discharged heat water from thermal power plant on the aquatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issakhov, Alibek

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model of distribution the discharged heat water from thermal power plant under various operational capacities on the aquatic environment. It was solved by the Navier-Stokes and temperature equations for an incompressible fluid in a stratified medium were based on the splitting method by physical parameters which approximated by the finite volume method. The numerical solution of the equation system was divided into four stages. At the first step it was assumed that the momentum transfer carried out only by convection and diffusion. While the intermediate velocity field was solved by 5-step Runge-Kutta method. At the second stage, the pressure field was solved by found the intermediate velocity field. Whereas Poisson equation for the pressure field was solved by Jacobi method. The third step assumes that the transfer was carried out only by pressure gradient. Finally the fourth step of the temperature equation was also solved as motion equations, with 5-step Runge-Kutta method. The algorithm was parallelized on high-performance computer. The obtained numerical results of three-dimensional stratified turbulent flow were compared with experimental data. What revealed qualitatively and quantitatively approximately the basic laws of hydrothermal processes occurring in the reservoir-cooler.

  15. Phytoremediation capacity of aquatic plants is associated with the degree of phytochelatin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Anamaria; Gulyás, Zsolt; Szalai, Gabriella; Kocsy, Gábor; Majdik, Cornelia

    2015-12-15

    Phytochelatins (PCs) play important role in phytoremediation as heavy metal binding peptides. In the present study, the association between heavy metal removal capacity and phytochelatin synthesis was compared through the examination of three aquatic plants: Elodea canadensis, Salvinia natans and Lemna minor. In case of a Cd treatment, or a Cd treatment combined with Cu and Zn, the highest removal capacity was observed in L. minor. At the same time, E. canadensis showed the lowest removal capacity except for Zn. The heavy metal-induced (Cu+Zn+Cd) oxidative stress generated the highest ascorbate level in L. minor. Cd in itself or combined with the other two metals induced a 10-15-fold increase in the amount of ɣ-glutamylcysteine in L. minor while no or smaller changes were observed in the other two species. Correspondingly, the total PC content was 6-8-fold greater in L. minor. In addition, PCs with higher degree of polymerization were only observed in L. minor (PC4, PC6 and PC7) while PC2 and PC3 occurred in E. canadensis and S. natans only. The correlation analysis indicated that the higher phytoremediation capacity of L. minor was associated with the synthesis of PCs and their higher degree of polymerization. PMID:26143200

  16. Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasrotia, Shivakshi; Kansal, Arun; Mehra, Aradhana

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte and microphyte for phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with high arsenic concentration. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and two algae (Chlorodesmis sp. and Cladophora sp.) found near arsenic-enriched water bodies were used to determine their tolerance toward arsenic and their effectiveness to uptake arsenic thereby reducing organic pollution in arsenic-enriched wastewater of different concentrations. Parameters like pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and arsenic concentration were monitored. The pH of wastewater during the course of phytoremediation remained constant in the range of 7.3-8.4, whereas COD reduced by 50-65 % in a period of 15 days. Cladophora sp. was found to survive up to an arsenic concentration of 6 mg/L, whereas water hyacinth and Chlorodesmis sp. could survive up to arsenic concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L, respectively. It was also found that during a retention period of 10 days under ambient temperature conditions, Cladophora sp. could bring down arsenic concentration from 6 to water hyacinth could reduce arsenic by only 20 %. Cladophora sp. is thus suitable for co-treatment of sewage and arsenic-enriched brine in an algal pond having a retention time of 10 days. The identified plant species provides a simple and cost-effective method for application in rural areas affected with arsenic problem. The treated water can be used for irrigation.

  17. Application of cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis in environmental studies of aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of cold-neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis (CNPGAA) to determine carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the aquatic plant Typha domingensis, commonly known as cattail, during spring and fall seasons. According to studies of the Florida Everglades, cattail replaces sawgrass as a result of nutrient enrichment from farm water runoff. Nutrient enrichment, especially phosphorus, in sediment and the water column can lead to undesirable expansion. Early signs of this expansion are apparent in the Apalachicola River floodplain near Apalachicola, Florida, USA. This research project is designed to use cattails as biomonitors of nutrient enrichment in the lower Apalachicola River floodplain. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in cattail using cold neutron prompt-gamma activation has been developed in our previous studies at the CNPGAA facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. The results of numerous field samples, collected from the study area during spring and fall seasons in 2002, will be presented in this paper. (author)

  18. Algal and aquatic plant carbon concentrating mechanisms in relation to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario; Beardall, John; Maberly, Stephen C

    2011-09-01

    species with or without CCMs. The information available permits less predictive power as to the effect of the forcing factors on CCM expression than for their overall effects on growth. CCMs are currently not part of models as to how global environmental change has altered, and is likely to further alter, algal and aquatic plant primary productivity. PMID:21327536

  19. Ocean circulation modeling of east sea for aquatic dispersion of liquid radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM. The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation. and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z-coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 .deg. E to 142.5 .deg. E of east longitude and 33 .deg. N and 52 .deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 .deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC, KNFRDI, and ECMWF. The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site

  20. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the aquatic and terrestrial environment around a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thanh; Yu, Junchao; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-08-01

    The distribution and fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a riparian ecosystem nearby a wastewater treatment plant effluent were investigated. Different aqueous and terrestrial samples such as soil, sediment, plants, and invertebrates were collected and analyzed for tri- to heptabrominated PBDEs. Furthermore, the food web structure was elucidated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The highest PBDE levels were found for sediment- and soil-dwelling invertebrates, such as earthworms (Σ13 PBDEs 144 ng/g lipid weight), Tubifex tubifex (77 ng/g lw), and scarab larvae (49 ng/g lw). Differences in congener composition profiles among the different matrices show that the environmental distribution and fate of PBDEs in ecosystems can be very complex. Among the analyzed PBDEs in this ecosystem, the tetra-brominated BDE-47 was the dominant PBDE congener and followed by the penta-brominated BDE-99. A potential trend of increasing BDE-47/99 ratio with the increase of δ(15)N was observed for species with similar energy sources (δ(13)C), indicating a higher bioaccumulation potential for BDE-47 in this ecosystem. A significant correlation was also found between PBDEs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicating similar sources and fate between the two compound groups in this area. The biota-soil or biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were somewhat different among the PBDE congeners and species, but were generally highest for those with log Kow values around 6.5-7. PMID:27164882

  1. Biodigestion of the aquatics plants mixtures and biogas production; Biodigestao de misturas de plantas aquaticas e producao de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Abreu, Fernando Luiz Barbuda de; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Several systems of generating electricity using water storage reservoirs. One problem that occurs constantly in these reservoirs is the accumulation of aquatic plants, such as Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia that may cause serious problems for the system. Periodically, the biomass must be removed and disposed of appropriate form, so that does not cause contamination of soil, groundwater or allowing the proliferation of vectors. One possible destination is the use of biomass in a process of biodigestion, resulting in biogas. The bench of biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced and a reservoir for the monitoring the production of biogas. The reactor is located inside a container containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the aim of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor was obtained using a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity. These results show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humidity, total organic matter, waste mineral and organic carbon. The process of biodigestion of the mixture of aquatic plants: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea and Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia shows potential for obtaining biogas, with considerable levels of methane, in order to facilitate its recovery.

  2. Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. IV. Bioconcentration of mercury in in situ aquatic and terrestrial plants at Ganjam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenka, M; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1992-02-01

    In situ aquatic and terrestrial plants including a few vegetable and crop plants growing in and around a chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India were analyzed for concentrations of root and shoot mercury. The aquatic plants found to bioconcentrate mercury to different degrees included Marsilea spp., Spirodela polyrhiza, Jussiea repens, Paspalum scrobiculatam, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Hygrophila schulli, Monochoria hastata and Bacopa monniera. Among wild terrestrial plants Chloris barbata, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus and Croton bonplandianum were found growing on heavily contaminated soil containing mercury as high as 557 mg/kg. Analysis of mercury in root and shoot of these plants in relation to the mercury levels in soil indicated a significant correlation between soil and plant mercury with the exception of C. bonplandianum. Furthermore, the tolerance to mercury toxicity was highest with C. barbata followed by C. dactylon and C. rotundus, in that order. The rice plants analyzed from the surrounding agricultural fields did not show any significant levels of bioconcentrated mercury. Of the different vegetables grown in a contaminated kitchen garden with mercury level at 8.91 mg/kg, the two leafy vegetables, namely cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and amaranthus (Amaranthus oleraceous), were found to bioconcentrate mercury at statistically significant levels. The overall study indicates that the mercury pollution is very much localized to the specific sites in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant. PMID:1536599

  3. Roles for root iron plaque in sequestration and uptake of heavy metals and metalloids in aquatic and wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Rudra D; Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Aradhana; Chauhan, Puneet S; Norton, Gareth J; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2014-10-01

    Toxic metal(loid) contamination of soil and sediment poses long term risk to soil and human health through plant-human or plant-animal-human food chain pathways. Iron plaque (IP) formation is frequent in aquatic and wetland plant species and is responsible for the sequestration of various metal(loids). The presence of IP may act as a buffer or barrier and may thus enhance or reduce the uptake of potentially phytotoxic metals and metalloids by plants. If IP acts as a barrier, then low IP producing macrophytes/aquatic plants may be better accumulators of toxic metals and may find use in constructed wetlands for remediation of pollutants, while high IP forming edible plant species could be safer for human consumption. Conversely, if IP acts as a buffer for mineral nutrients and toxic elements then those cultivars may be rich in nutrients, but may also cause toxicity. However, an ecotoxicological risk is also inevitable if IP rich macrophyte roots containing heavy metals are consumed by herbivores. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the role of IP in metal and metalloid sequestration, uptake, and transport. Furthermore, we will address the role of root IP in Oryza sativa for arsenic (As) sequestration leading to lower grain As translocation, reducing the risk of human exposure. PMID:24925182

  4. New approach for the removal of metal ions from water: adsorption onto aquatic plants and microwave reaction for the fabrication of nanometals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chefetz, B; Sominski, L; Pinchas, M; Ginsburg, T; Elmachliy, S; Tel-Or, E; Gedanken, A

    2005-08-18

    We adsorb heavy metal ions such as Ag(+), Pb(2+), and Ru(3+) onto an aquatic plant and convert the adsorbed ions to the corresponding nanometallic particles by the polyol reaction carried out in a microwave oven. PMID:16852922

  5. Bioeconomic Modeling of the Invasive Aquatic Plants Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), and Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) and their impacts on angler effort on Florida lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Damian C.; Lee, Donna J.

    2005-01-01

    The invasive aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), and Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) have the potential to negatively impact recreational use of Florida lakes if consistent, adequate control expenditures are not made. In the mid-1990's, Florida significantly reduced its spending on invasive aquatic plant control measures, which resulted in a significant increase in needed control expenditures in subsequent years. This paper attempts to for...

  6. Aquatic plant and waterfowl habitat survey, 1988 : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area and vicinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aquatic vegetation surveys were conducted on Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Canvasback Club, Carson Lake, and several other wetlands in Lahontan Valley,...

  7. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in...

  8. Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasrotia, Shivakshi; Kansal, Arun; Mehra, Aradhana

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte and microphyte for phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with high arsenic concentration. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and two algae (Chlorodesmis sp. and Cladophora sp.) found near arsenic-enriched water bodies were used to determine their tolerance toward arsenic and their effectiveness to uptake arsenic thereby reducing organic pollution in arsenic-enriched wastewater of different concentrations. Parameters like pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and arsenic concentration were monitored. The pH of wastewater during the course of phytoremediation remained constant in the range of 7.3-8.4, whereas COD reduced by 50-65 % in a period of 15 days. Cladophora sp. was found to survive up to an arsenic concentration of 6 mg/L, whereas water hyacinth and Chlorodesmis sp. could survive up to arsenic concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L, respectively. It was also found that during a retention period of 10 days under ambient temperature conditions, Cladophora sp. could bring down arsenic concentration from 6 to <0.1 mg/L, Chlorodesmis sp. was able to reduce arsenic by 40-50 %; whereas, water hyacinth could reduce arsenic by only 20 %. Cladophora sp. is thus suitable for co-treatment of sewage and arsenic-enriched brine in an algal pond having a retention time of 10 days. The identified plant species provides a simple and cost-effective method for application in rural areas affected with arsenic problem. The treated water can be used for irrigation.

  9. Anti-tumour activities of fucoidan from the aquatic plant Utricularia aurea lour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with several biological activities, is usually isolated from marine seaweeds or from echinoderms. Here, we report on the anti-tumour activity of fucoidan isolated from the aquatic plant Utricularia aurea Lour (Lentibulariaceae. A crude extract (CE prepared by incubating U.aurea with hot water at 95ºC for 12 hr was partially purified by Sephadex G-50, eluting with a 50mM sodium acetate buffer, at pH 5.0, containing 0.5M NaCl. Partially purified fucoidan (PPF had a 3- fold increase in fucose content when compared with the CE and a molecular weigÄt of 11.6 kDa as determined by Sephadex G-200. Chemical analysis showed that CE consisted of 62.5% glucuronic acid, 5.0% fucose, 1.7% sulfate and 12.0% proteins while PPF consisted of 65.0% glucuronic acid, 15.3% fucose, 2.1 % sulfate and 8.3% proteins.The anti-tumour activity of the CE and PPF was determined by the MTT test. The CE at 125 μg/mL fucoidan and PPF at 250 μg/mL inhibited the growth of KB cells (a nasopharynx tumour cell line, but did not inhibit that of normal fibroblast cells. The inhibition was postulated to occur via apoptosis as significantlymore apoptotic cells were found after treatment than in the untreated KB cells (P<0.05 by the TUNNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labelling assay.

  10. THE ABILITY OF LEAVES AND RHIZOMES OF AQUATIC PLANTS TO ACCUMULATE MACRO- AND MICRONUTRIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Edyta Parzych

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The samples of macrophytes and bottom sediments originated from the littoral zone of the Słupia River were collected in summer 2013. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of the accumulation of leaves and rhizomes of Glyceria maxima, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and Phalaris arundinacea for macro- and micronutrients. The largest quantities of macroelements were found in the leaves of the examined species, and microelements dominated the rhizomes of most examined macrophytes except for Mn in P.australis and T.latifolia. The obtained results show that N and K dominated in the leaves of P.arundinacea, P and Mg in the leaves of P.australis, and Ca in the leaves of G.maxima. The largest quantities of N, P and K were cumulated in the rhizomes of P.arundinacea, while Mg and Ca in the rhizome of T.latifolia. The leaves of aquatic plants accumulated from 1354.9 mmolc·kg-1 (T.latifolia to 1844.0 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea, and rhizomes from 985.8 mmolc·kg-1 (G.maxima to 1335.2 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea of all the analyzed components. In these species of macrophytes lower accumulated value of the sum of macro- and microelements were found in the rhizomes. The share of nitrogen was 42.4–59.8% of this amount, phosphorus 4.3–8.6%, potassium 22.8–35.1%, calcium from 2,6% to 12.4%, magnesium 3.0–7.5%, and heavy metals were from 0.6% (G.maxima to 1.2% (T.latifolia in leaves and from 2.2% (T.latifolia to 8.7% (G.maxima in rhizomes.

  11. The diversity of macro invertebrates in the Victoria and Kyoga lake basin and their relationship to ecosystem functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pabire Ghandi, W.; Ndawula, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic macro-invertebrates encompass all those organisms that be seen with unaided eyes. Most macro-invertebrates are categorised as semi-aquatic in that they are aquatic in early stages, but live as terrestrial organisms as adults, while others like gastropods, bivalves, Oligochaetae, Hirudinae and ostracods are exclusively aquatic. Some of them such as mayflies lay eggs in water and subsequent stages also live in water until adulthood when they emerge to live a terrestrial life. In others,...

  12. Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program.

  13. Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program

  14. On the concept of the database on the role of aquatic organisms in biogenic migration of matter including metals and other elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal elements of the concept of the database for assessment of the role of aquatic organisms (including invertebrates - mollusks and others) in biogenic migration of matter are given. It is suggested that the database include both some biological parameters of the populations of aquatic organisms and some chemical parameters on the elemental composition of the tissues of the organisms. Among biological parameters, it is relevant to include the data on the filtration rates of filter-feeders, and the data on the rate of excretion of pellets. The database will also accommodate the data on the role of aquatic plants

  15. Accumulation of arsenic by aquatic plants in large-scale field conditions: opportunities for phytoremediation and bioindication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Prasad, M N V

    2012-09-01

    This work focuses on the potential of aquatic plants for bioindication and/or phytofiltration of arsenic from contaminated water. More than 71 species of aquatic plants were collected at 200 sampling points in running waters. The results for the 18 most representative plant species are presented here. The species Ranunculus trichophyllus, Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius, Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana and the leaves of Juncus effusus showed a very highly significant (P<0.001) positive correlation with the presence of arsenic in the water. These species may serve as arsenic indicators. The highest concentration of arsenic was found in Callitriche lusitanica (2346 mg/kg DW), Callitriche brutia (523 mg/kg DW), L. minor (430 mg/kg DW), A. caroliniana (397 mg/kg DW), R. trichophyllus (354 mg/kg DW), Callitriche stagnalis (354 mg/kg DW) and Fontinalis antipyretica (346 mg/kg DW). These results indicate the potential application of these species for phytofiltration of arsenic through constructed treatment wetlands or introduction of these plant species into natural water bodies. PMID:22820614

  16. A mesocosm approach for detecting stream invertebrate community responses to treated wastewater effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge of wastewater from sewage treatment plants is one of the most common forms of pollution to river ecosystems, yet the effects on aquatic invertebrate assemblages have not been investigated in a controlled experimental setting. Here, we use a mesocosm approach to evaluate community responses to exposure to different concentrations of treated wastewater effluents over a two week period. Multivariate analysis using Principal Response Curves indicated a clear, dose-effect response to the treatments, with significant changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages after one week when exposed to 30% effluent, and after two weeks in the 15% and 30% effluent treatments. Treatments were associated with an increase in nutrient concentrations (ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) and reduction of dissolved oxygen. These findings indicate that exposure to wastewater effluent cause significant changes in abundance and composition of macroinvertebrate taxa and that effluent concentration as low as 5% can have detectable ecological effects. - Highlights: ► Stream invertebrate communities are altered by exposure to wastewater effluent. ► Principal Response Curves indicate a dose-effect response to effluent treatment. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing effluent concentration and exposure time. ► Effluent concentrations as low as 5% have detectable ecological effects. - Exposure to treated effluent in a stream mesocosm caused a dose-dependent response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  17. Co-occurrence of the cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and anatoxin-a in Nebraska reservoirs, fish, and aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sammak, Maitham Ahmed; Hoagland, Kyle D; Cassada, David; Snow, Daniel D

    2014-02-01

    Several groups of microorganisms are capable of producing toxins in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria are prevalent blue green algae in freshwater systems, and many species produce cyanotoxins which include a variety of chemical irritants, hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Production and occurrence of potent neurotoxic cyanotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), 2,4-diaminobutyric acid dihydrochloride (DABA), and anatoxin-a are especially critical with environmental implications to public and animal health. Biomagnification, though not well understood in aquatic systems, is potentially relevant to both human and animal health effects. Because little is known regarding their presence in fresh water, we investigated the occurrence and potential for bioaccumulation of cyanotoxins in several Nebraska reservoirs. Collection and analysis of 387 environmental and biological samples (water, fish, and aquatic plant) provided a snapshot of their occurrence. A sensitive detection method was developed using solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD) with confirmation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). HPLC/FD detection limits ranged from 5 to 7 µg/L and LC/MS/MS detection limits were BMAA in about 18.1%, DABA in 17.1%, and anatoxin-a in 11.9%. PMID:24476710

  18. Evaluating bio environmental effects of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant on water and aquatic organism of Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of nuclear power plants is always subjected to emission of some radioactive materials in the form of gaseous, liquids and solids in the environment. The heat from condenser coolant discharged to the sea can have some adverse effects on biological systems as thermal pollution. In this project, the radiation and thermal effects on Bushehr Nuclear Power Plants on aquatic animals in Persian Gulf were studied. The mathematical models for atmospheric dispersion of pollutant and pathways of radioactive materials from air to sea water and from sea to animals and human bodies were considered. some environmental samples from Persian Gulf were measured for radioactivity using high-purity Ge/Li detectors and Gamma-spectroscopy. The results indicates that the erection of B usher Nuclear Power Plants and its operation in the normal operation can have no adverse effects on environment, and also its thermal pollution is of no importance due to low area for coolant discharges

  19. Can sacrificial feeding areas protect aquatic plants from herbivore grazing? Using behavioural ecology to inform wildlife management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin A; Stillman, Richard A; Daunt, Francis; O'Hare, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

  20. Plutonium, 137Cs and 90Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented for 137Cs, 90Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight - a.w.) for 137Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52 ± 0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for 90Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium.

  1. Plutonium, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.p [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Maksimova, Svetlana, E-mail: soilzool@biobel.bas-net.b [Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya 27, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Szwalko, Przemyslaw [Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Krakow (Poland); Wnuk, Katarzyna [Holycross Cancer Center, Department on Nuclear Medicine, Artwinskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Zagrodzki, Pawel [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Krakow (Poland); Blazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Pawel; Tomankiewicz, Ewa [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Orlov, Olexandr, E-mail: station@zt.ukrpack.ne [Poleskiy Branch of Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Forestry and Agro-Forest-Amelioration, Prospect Mira 38, Zhytomyr 10004 (Ukraine)

    2010-06-15

    Results are presented for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight - a.w.) for {sup 137}Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52 +- 0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for {sup 90}Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium.

  2. 77 FR 49601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... aquatic fauna, area springs have served for centuries as an important source of irrigation water for local... most of the irrigation water for downstream agricultural irrigation by the Reeves County Water... water rights for the spring which is channeled through an extensive system of concrete-lined...

  3. Physical model of a floating trash boom to control aquatic weeds at the TVA Widows Creek Fossil Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Widows Creek Fossil plant seasonally encounters adverse accumulations of aquatic weeds at the intakes of the condenser cooling water pumps. To reduce the accumulations, a floating trash boom has been proposed for the intakes. To evaluate the hydraulic feasibility of a boom, a physical model of the intakes has been built at the TVA Engineering Laboratory. The model was used to determine the boom alignment and depth of skimming needed to successfully deflect weeds away from the intakes and provide self-cleaning

  4. Research on the relationship between benthic invertebrates and aquatic ecosystem health of SUDS%SUDS水健康与底栖无脊椎动物的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严明渝; 刘惠清; 王灵芝

    2012-01-01

    The temporal and spatial features of physio-chemical indies and the structure of benthic invertebrates of 4 SUDS ponds within Dunfermline were analyzed, which provided suggestions for the SUDS design and construction of China. Results showed that diversity and the ratio of sensitive of benthic invertebrates were Wetland>Pond 3>Pond 2>Pond 1. The structure of benthic invertebrates was significantly negative correlated with total organic nitrogen and conductivity. Moreover, benthic invertebrates were significantly correlated with environmental factors. The depth, nutrient input and pervious patch ratio of SUDS had great influences on the structure of benthic invertebrates. In wetland, exotic species would gradually replace native species.%对苏格兰邓佛姆林郡4个城市可持续排水系统(sustainable urban drainage system,SUDS)的理化指标及底栖无脊椎动物群落结构的时空变化特征进行了分析.结果表明:底栖无脊椎动物的丰富度及敏感种比重为人工湿地>3号滞留池>2号滞留池>1号滞留池,底栖无脊椎动物的丰富度与敏感种比重与环境要素显著相关,SUDS的深度、流域内透水斑块比重和污染物输入量对底栖动物群落结构及污染物的移除率有显著影响,随时间的延长,外来种逐渐替代了人工湿地的本地种.

  5. Vegetation development following stream/river restoration: more natural fluvial dynamics and morphology, return of aquatic and riparian plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    After centuries of human interventions in stream/river dynamics and morphology aimed at optimizing landscapes for agricultural and industrial purposes, new insights have inspired water managers to try and combine stream and river ecosystem functions with the conservation of biodiversity. Around the world, aquatic and riparian species have declined strongly due to pollution, destruction and fragmentation of their habitat, so that biodiversity conservation initiatives primarily focus on habitat restoration. In the past decades many stream and river restoration projects have been carried out and often hydrological dynamics and morphology have been restored to a more natural state. However, the successful restoration of aquatic and riparian habitats very often failed to result in restoration of their biodiversity. This lack of success from a biodiversity conservation perspective is usually attributed to 'dispersal limitation', meaning that the habitat may be restored, but species fail to reach the site and re-colonize it. Especially re-colonization by aquatic and riparian plant species is important, as such species function as ecosystem engineers: their presence alters fluvial dynamics and morphology, generates additional habitat heterogeneity and provides habitat and food for animal species. Following minor disturbances, re-colonization is often possible through locally remaining populations, by seeds in the seed bank or by surviving plant fragments. However, following major disturbances, colonization and establishment from other source populations are necessary. This usually occurs through dispersal of seeds (and in more aquatic species also by dispersal of vegetative fragments) into the restored wetland area. As dispersal occurs predominantly over short distances and source populations of aquatic and riparian species may be lacking in the surroundings, dispersal may be a limiting factor in the development of aquatic and riparian vegetation at a restored site. But

  6. Phytoremediation Potential of Aquatic Macrophyte, Azolla

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L.; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The us...

  7. Anti- and Pro-Lipase Activity of Selected Medicinal, Herbal and Aquatic Plants, and Structure Elucidation of an Anti-Lipase Compound

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Abubakar Ado; Faridah Abas; Abdulkarim Sabo Mohammed; Hasanah M. Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    Plants that help in slowing down the digestion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in the pancreas and small intestine of humans play an important role in the reduction of obesity. On the other hand, there may be plants or plant parts that stimulate intestinal lipolytic activity, thus contributing to greater TAG assimilation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aqueous methanolic extracts of ninety eight (98) medicinal, herbal and aquatic plant materials from Malaysia for their effect on porcine...

  8. Amchitka aquatic ecology studies, third quarter, January through March 1968: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the aquatic ecology study include an assessment of the fish and aquatic invertebrate populations in the streams and in the ponds throughout the...

  9. Guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR was tasked to revise the Guidance Document (GD on Aquatic Ecotoxicology under Council Directive 91/414/EEC (SANCO/3268/2001 rev.4 (final, 17 October 2002. This Guidance of the PPR Panel is the first of three requested deliverables within this mandate. It has its focus on tiered acute and chronic effect assessment schemes with detailed guidance on tier 1 and higher tier effect assessments for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters and on proposals regarding how to link effects to exposure estimates. The exposure assessment methodology was not reviewed and it is assumed that the current FOCUS surface water exposure assessment methodology will continue to be used for exposure assessment at EU level. The current GD is intended to be used for authorisation of active substances at EU level as well as for plant protection products at Member State level. The effect assessment schemes in this GD allow for the derivation of regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs on the basis of two options: (1 the ecological threshold option (ETO, accepting negligible population effects only, and (2 the ecological recovery option (ERO, accepting some population-level effects if ecological recovery takes place within an acceptable time period. In the tiered effect assessment schemes, in principle, all tiers (1, 2 and 3 are able to address the ETO, while the model ecosystem approach (tier 3, under certain conditions, is able to also address the ERO. The GD provides the scientific background for the risk assessment to aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters and is structured to give detailed guidance on all assessment steps. An executive summary joining all parts of the guidance and decision schemes in a concise way is provided and is intended to help applicants and regulatory authorities in day-to-day use.

  10. Utilization of two invasive free-floating aquatic plants (Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes) as sorbents for oil removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xunan; Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-01-01

    Free-floating aquatic plants Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes are well-known invasive species in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to utilize the plants as cost-effective and environmentally friendly oil sorbents. Multilevel wrinkle structure of P. stratiotes leaf (PL), rough surface of E. crassipes leaf (EL), and box structure of E. crassipes stalk (ES) were observed using the scanning electron microscope. The natural hydrophobic structures and capillary rise tests supported the idea to use P. stratiotes and E. crassipes as oil sorbents. Experiments indicated that the oil sorption by the plants was a fast process. The maximum sorption capacities for different oils reached 5.1-7.6, 3.1-4.8, and 10.6-11.7 g of oil per gram of sorbent for PL, EL, and ES, respectively. In the range of 5-35 °C, the sorption capacities of the plants were not significantly different. These results suggest that the plants can be used as efficient oil sorbents. PMID:24146323

  11. Tumors in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tascedda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumors are ectopic masses of tissue formed by due to an abnormal cell proliferation. In this review tumors of several invertebrate species are examined. The description of tumors in invertebrates may be a difficult task, because the pathologists are usually inexperienced with invertebrate tissues, and the experts in invertebrate biology are not familiar with the description of tumors. As a consequence, the terminology used in defining the tumor type is related to that used in mammalian pathology, which can create misunderstandings in some occasions.

  12. Invertebrates associated with ipomea aquatica in ogbe creek, logos, nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of invertebrates in Ogbe creek with Ipomea aquatica was investigated within the period from 7th September to 30th November, 2001, 167 invertebrates comprising of 19 species were harvested from 73 weeds. Corixa punctata (22.16%) was the most abundant invertebrate on Ipomea aquatica while Gyrinus notator larvae (0.60%) were the least abundant. The roots sheltered the highest number of invertebrates (113), comprising of 12 species recording a species diversity of 5.36 while the stem sheltered the lowest number of invertebrates (10) comprising of 3 species with a species diversity of 2.00. The ability of Ipomea aquaTica to harbour invertebrates was influenced by the morphological form of the plant. The root was the preferred site for the invertebrates because it was a suitable substrate for clinging and nutrient supply. (author)

  13. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2% and zinc (93.7% and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8% compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5% and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  14. Effects of non-native Spartina patens on plant and sediment organic matter carbon incorporation into the local invertebrate community

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Henry M.; Lastra, Mariano; Rodil, Iván F.; Briones, María Jesús; Garrido, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    The cycling of organic matter through food webs is a fundamental process that may be altered by the invasion of non-indigenous plants. We explored consequences of the invasion of non-indigenous Spartina patens to the composition of soil organic matter (SOM) and to detritivore and herbivore diets in the upper salt marsh within Corrubedo National Park, northwest Spain. We tested for the incorporation of S. patens carbon (C) into SOM and by detritivores and herbivores using stable isotope analys...

  15. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract

  16. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khataee, Alireza, E-mail: ar_khataee@yahoo.com [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movafeghi, Ali [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Research Laboratory of Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vafaei, Fatemeh [University of Tabriz, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadpour, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo@yu.ac.kr [Yeungnam University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15–20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes’ activity.Graphical Abstract.

  17. Adventitious shoot regeneration of the medicinal aquatic plant water hyssop (Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell using different internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatas M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hyssop (Bacopa monnieri L. is an important medicinal plant due to its active compounds. The plant is also used in ornamental aquaria mainly due to its appearance and adaptability. This study reports on the adventitious shoot regeneration of water hyssop by culturing different internodes and leaf explants on MS media supplemented with various combinations of BA and NAA. All explants induced calli and shoots on all combinations of BA+NAA. The maximum number of shoots per explant on all explants was observed on MS medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l BA+0.25 mg/l NAA. A higher concentration of NAA inhibited shoot regeneration with all concentrations of BA. Shoots obtained from leaf explants were longer than those from other explants. Regenerated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium supplemented with IBA. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized in water of various pH levels between 4.0-10.00. It was found that plants can be established on slightly acidic to slightly alkaline media. However, pH 8.0 was found to be more suitable for plant growth under aquatic conditions.

  18. An experimental study into the influence of aquatic plant motion characteristics on the generation of a fluvial turbulent flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, R. J.; Marjoribanks, T.; Parsons, D. R.; Thomas, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic vegetation has a determining effect on flow and consequently sediment transport as it generates both skin friction and form drag. The measurement of flow above the vegetation canopy has received much attention and there is now a good process understanding of mean and turbulent flow, although, much of this research has focused on rigid vegetation with relatively simple morphology. However, vegetation immersed in a flow experiences several forces (buoyancy; drag; virtual mass; Basset; and Saffman) which are counteracted by the properties of the vegetation (flexural rigidity; modulus of elasticity; the plant area exposed to the flow and; the packing density of the stems). The ratio of these forces determines the plant motion characteristics which are generally classified as either i) erect with no movement; ii) gently swaying; iii) strong, coherent swaying or; iv) prone. Here we report on an investigation into the influence of plant motion on the turbulence structure in the mixing zone as vortices in this region have been shown to account for the majority of the momentum transport between the canopy and the open flow. We report on a series of flume experiments where flow over a canopy of surrogate aquatic vegetation was measured using PIV at a spatial resolution of ~1mm2 and at a temporal resolution of 100 Hz. This provided whole flow field measurements for all three components of flow over the vegetation canopy. Plant motion characteristics were altered by modifying the flow Reynolds number through both velocity and depth. The influences of plant stem length were also assessed. The measured flows were analysed by standard Reynolds decomposition approaches and Eulerian and Lagrangian coherent flow structure identification methods. Kelvin-Helmholtz and Görtler-type vortices were identified within the canopy shear layer that are generated close to the canopy top and evolve downstream into span-wise roller vortices, which expand with both distance and time. When

  19. SILENT WITNESS OF WATER POLLUTION: BIOINDICATOR FRESHWATER INVERTEBRATES

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Naime; Kara, Deniz; ODABAŞI, Deniz Anıl

    2015-01-01

    During the last years, not only industrial activities, but also anthropogenic activities have had negative consequences for the freshwater ecosystems. All aquatic organisms accumulate organic or inorganic elements in their bodies whether or not these elements are essential to metabolism. Community compositions of freshwater invertebrates such as gastropods, oligochaetes and chironomids, reflect the states and changes in aquatic ecosystems. Many factors regulate the occurrence and distribution...

  20. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid

    OpenAIRE

    Tessa C Van Dijk; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and...

  1. Effects of Seven Fungicides on Non-Target Aquatic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Dijksterhuis, Jan; van Doorn, Tineke; Samson, Rob; Postma, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic risk assessments for fungicides are carried out without information on their toxicity to non-target aquatic fungi. This might cause an underestimation of the toxic effects to the aquatic fungal community. This study focuses on the question whether recently derived concentrations limits for fungicides considered to protect populations of primary producers and (in)vertebrates also do protect the aquatic fungi. A panel of fungal species and Oomycetes was isolated and identified from unpo...

  2. Assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station and evaluation of radiological doses to aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During operation and maintenance of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS), low level radioactive liquid waste is generated and released to the aquatic ecosystem (Moticher lake). The silt and aquatic weed (Hydrilla verticillata) samples collected from different locations in Moticher lake were analysed for 137Cs, 134Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn and 40K during 2007-2008. A wide variation in activity levels of 137Cs, 134Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn and 40K in silt and weed samples were observed in aquatic system of KAPS. The activity buildup in the silt is confined to a small area in the Moticher lake. The activity levels were found to be insignificant at 1 km away from discharge point (upstream and downstream). An attempt was made to evaluate the radiological dose to aquatic weed (Hydrilla verticillata), which was found to be well within the dose limit prescribed by US DOE. The total radiological dose due to the naturally occurring radionuclide (40K) is comparatively higher than that of other reactor released gamma emitting radionuclides. (author)

  3. Generic phylogeny, historical biogeography and character evolution of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant family Hydrocharitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling-Yun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrocharitaceae is a fully aquatic monocot family, consists of 18 genera with approximately 120 species. The family includes both fresh and marine aquatics and exhibits great diversity in form and habit including annual and perennial life histories; submersed, partially submersed and floating leaf habits and linear to orbicular leaf shapes. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution and is well represented in the Tertiary fossil record in Europe. At present, the historical biogeography of the family is not well understood and the generic relationships remain controversial. In this study we investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of Hydrocharitaceae by integrating fossils and DNA sequences from eight genes. We also conducted ancestral state reconstruction for three morphological characters. Results Phylogenetic analyses produced a phylogeny with most branches strongly supported by bootstrap values greater than 95 and Bayesian posterior probability values of 1.0. Stratiotes is the first diverging lineage with the remaining genera in two clades, one clade consists of Lagarosiphon, Ottelia, Blyxa, Apalanthe, Elodea and Egeria; and the other consists of Hydrocharis-Limnobium, Thalassia, Enhalus, Halophila, Najas, Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Nechamandra and Maidenia. Biogeographic analyses (DIVA, Mesquite and divergence time estimates (BEAST resolved the most recent common ancestor of Hydrocharitaceae as being in Asia during the Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene (54.7-72.6 Ma. Dispersals (including long-distance dispersal and migrations through Tethys seaway and land bridges probably played major roles in the intercontinental distribution of this family. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that in Hydrocharitaceae evolution of dioecy is bidirectional, viz., from dioecy to hermaphroditism, and from hermaphroditism to dioecy, and that the aerial-submerged leaf habit and short-linear leaf shape are the ancestral states. Conclusions

  4. Coastal Maine Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Data 1993-1997 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maine's eelgrass (SAV) meadows form an important aquatic habitat for the state. These meadows provide shelter for juvenile fish, and invertebrates. In certain...

  5. Use of aquatic mosses for monitoring artificial radionuclides downstream of the nuclear power plant of Bugey (River Rhone, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire); Baudin, J.P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France)); Brottet, D. (Electricite de France (EDF), 91 -Camp de la Valbonne (France). Centre de Production Nucleaire du Bugey)

    1994-01-01

    The detection of radionuclides in water, downstream of nuclear installations located on river banks, is often very difficult notably because of their low concentrations. Thus the use of biological indicators is an interesting process to detect radioactive contamination of an aquatic ecosystem. From 1986 to 1990, artificial radionuclides were measured in freshwater mosses sampled downstream of the nuclear power station of Bugey. These field data on the whole, have shown a comparatively good qualitative and quantitative relationship between radioactive composition of liquid waste and radionuclides detected in mosses. In other respects, the results showed up a relatively clear hierarchical structure in the affinity of the different radionuclides for the mosses. To specify these relations, mesh bags containing allochtonous mosses were immersed at four stations downstream of the power plant and regularly sampled during a 10-h waste discharge period. (author).

  6. Monitoring of arsenic in aquatic plants, water, and sediment of wastewater treatment ponds at the Mae Moh Lignite power plant, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateewattana, Jomjun; Trichaiyaporn, Siripen; Saouy, Maliwan; Nateewattana, Jintapat; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Pengchai, Petch; Choonluchanon, Somporn

    2010-06-01

    Mae Moh is a risky area for arsenic contamination caused by the effluent from biowetland ponds in Mae Moh lignite-fuelled power plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the arsenic concentrations of Mae Moh biowetland ponds and determine the main factors which are important for arsenic phytoremediation in the treatment system. The result revealed that arsenic concentrations in the supernant were in the range of less than 1.0 microg As L(-1) to 2.0 microg As L(-1) while those in the sediment were in the range of 25-200 microg As kg soil(-1). Both values were below the Thailand national standard of 0.25 mg As L(-1) for water and 27 mg As kg soil(-1) for the soil. Arsenic accumulation in the biomass of 5 aquatic plants at the biowetland ponds ranged from 123.83 to 280.53 mg As kgPlant(-1). Regarding the result of regression analysis (R (2) = 0.474 to 0.954), high concentrations of organic matter and other soluble ions as well as high pH value in the sediment could significantly enhance the removal of soluble arsenic in the wetland ponds. From the regression equation of accumulated arsenic concentration in each aquatic plant, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. (R (2) = 0.954), Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (R (2) = 0.850), and Typha angustifolia (L.) (R (2) = 0.841) were found to be preferable arsenic removers for wastewater treatment pond in the condition of low Eh value and high content of solid phase EC and phosphorus. On the other hand, Canna glauca (L.) (R (2) = 0.749) appeared to be favorable arsenic accumulator for the treatment pond in the condition of high Eh value and high concentration of soluble EC. PMID:19455397

  7. Assessment of aquatic plants in the reservoirs of AES-tietê and development of an integrated control model for the most important species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velini, Edivaldo Domingues; Galo, Maria Lourdes B T; Carvalho, Fernando Tadeu; Martins, Dagoberto; Cavenaghi, Anderson Luis; Trindade, Maria Lúcia Bueno; Bravin, Luis Fernando N; Negrisoli, Eduardo; Antuniassi, Ulisses Rocha; Simionato, José L A; Santos, Silvio C A

    2005-01-01

    The general objective of this work was to develop a monitoring and management model for aquatic plants that could be used in reservoir cascades in Brazil, using the reservoirs of AES-Tietê as a study case. The investigations were carried out at the reservoirs of Barra-Bonita, Bariri, Ibitinga, Promissão, and Nova-Avanhandava, located in the Tietê River Basin; Agua Vermelha, located in the Grande River Basin; Caconde, Limoeiro, and Euclides da Cunha, which are part of the Pardo River Basin; and the Mogi-Guaçu reservoir, which belongs to the Mogi-Guaçu River basin. The main products of this work were: development of techniques using satellite-generated images for monitoring and planning aquatic plant control; planning and construction of a boat to move coating plant masses and an airboat equipped with a DGPS navigation and application flow control system. Results allowed to conclude that the occurrence of all types of aquatic plants is directly associated with sedimentation process and, consequently, with nutrient and light availability. Reservoirs placed at the beginning of cascades are more subject to sedimentation and occurrence of marginal, floating and emerged plants, and are the priority when it comes to controlling these plants, since they provide a supply of weeds for the other reservoirs. Reservoirs placed downstream show smaller amounts of water-suspended solids, with greater transmission of light and occurrence of submerged plants. PMID:15656166

  8. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    significantly raised the amount of heavy metals and radionuclides in it. Also, these activities are continuously increasing the area of the contaminated sites. In this context, an attempt has been made to review different modes of the phytoremediation and various terrestrial and aquatic plants which are being used to remediate the heavy metals and radionuclide-contaminated soil and aquatic systems. Natural and synthetic enhancers, those hasten the process of metal adsorption/absorption by plants, are also discussed. The article includes 216 references. PMID:25277712

  9. Bibliographical review of radioactive cesium uptake capacity and processes in aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both freshwater and marine plants are included in this survey covering 217 reports published between 1954 and 1979. These articles involve the radiocesium abundance found in areas either directly or indirectly affected by liquid waste releases. They specify the concentration factors determined from field measurements and laboratory works. Other areas covered include contamination kinetics, radiocesium distribution in higher plants, effects of biological and environmental factors. Radiocesium uptake potential is higher in freshwater algae and plants than in marine algae. Radiocesium adsorption phenomena seem to predominate in algae over absorption, while in the higher freshwater plants absorption is the primary phenomena. In areas not directly affected by liquid wastes, plant activity levels increased until they reached 10000 pCi/kg wet weight in 1965, and reduced thereafter. In areas directly affected by waste discharges, the activity levels range from 10 to 16000 pCi/kg wet weight in seawater, and from practically zero to 230000 pCi/kg in fresh water. This variability also affects the concentration factors. In most cases, the values measured in marine algae range from 10 to 100; the highest radiocesium uptake is found in brown algae and red algae. The concentration factors measured in freshwater mosses and algae are most often around 4000, while they are about 2000 in submerged, floating and emergent plants. Some plants, specially mosses and algae, proved to be better bioindicators than others. The biological half-lives range from 2 to 21 days in marine algae, and from 1 to 65 days in freshwater plants. This survey underscores the necessity of allowing for the ecological characteristics of each site when evaluating the impact of nuclear plants

  10. Po-210 high levels in aquatic plants of the Carapebus sandbank, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    210 Po concentration have been determined in one green alga and in five freshwater plants grown in a pond of the Carapebus restinga (state of Rio de Janeiro). The alga Chara sp showed elevated concentration of 210 Po, similar to that observed in marine algae. All the other plants had the lowest concentration of 210 Po in the stems and the highest in the roots. Intermediate values were observed in the leaves. The unexpected high concentration of 210 Po in the roots, even superior to reported values for roots of plants from high radioactive background areas, must be due to the elevated levels of this radionuclide in associated soils that are known to be rich in humic organic material. There seem to have no translocation of this radionuclide from the roots to the other parts of the plants. (author)

  11. HISTOANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE AQUATIC PLANT HELANTHIUM TENELLUM (MART.) BRITT. (ALISMATACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica BERCU

    2015-01-01

    The paper concerns a histological study of the main features of the stem (rhizome) and leaf (petiole and blade) of a perennial herb native to North, Central and South America, Helanthium tenellum (Mart.) Britt., growing both submerged and emerged in its native region. In our country the plant is known as an aquarium plant. However, the stem cortex is well-developed with epidermis, hypodermis and an aerenchyma tissue with a number of air chambers. The vascular system consists of amphivasal vas...

  12. Ecophysiological Traits of Terrestrial and Aquatic Carnivorous Plants: Are the Costs and Benefits the Same?

    OpenAIRE

    Adamec, Lubomír; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of trade-offs among physiological and morphological traits and their use in cost-benefit models and ecological or evolutionary optimization arguments have been hallmarks of ecological analysis for at least 50 years. Carnivorous plants are model systems for studying a wide range of ecophysiological and ecological processes and the application of a cost-benefit model for the evolution of carnivory by plants has provided many novel insights into trait-based cost-benefit models. Ce...

  13. Assessment of heavy metals in clarins buthopogon (fish) parts and nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) in river niger, delta state of nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    River Niger, the largest river in Nigeria flows southwards across Asaba and Onitsha to the Delta areas. The clarins buthopogon (fish) and Nymphaea lotus (aquatic plant) from the River Niger at Asaba were sampled for analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The concentration of the heavy metals from the three parts of the fish (head, muscle and tail) had the following ranges: Cr, 8.90-9.70, Cu, 2.90-3.90, Fe, 6.00-113.20; Mg, 138.00-3398; Ni, 5.48-14.68, Pb, 0.20-1.60; Hg, 0.38-2.00 and Cd, 1.41-1.78 mg kg/sup -1/ on dry weight basis. These values were higher than those obtained in Kaduna River and Mediterranean coaster waters. The concentrations in Nymphaea Lotus (aquatic plant) were extremely high (Cr, 20.30; Cu, 10.70; Fe, 569.20; Mg, 6798.00; Ni, 72.08; Pb, 6.00; Hg, 51.30 and Cd, 31.10 mg kg/sup -1/ dry weight) and were also higher than those of fish part. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish parts and aquatic plant indicated pollution, as per WHO and FEPA standards for aquatic life. (author)

  14. Chain-Length Distribution and Hydrogen Isotopic Fraction of n-alkyl Lipids in Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants: Implications for Paleoclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Littlejohn, S.; Hou, J.; Toney, J.; Huang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that in lacustrine sediments, aquatic plant lipids (e.g., C22-fatty acid) record lake water D/H ratio variation, while long-chain fatty acids (C26-C32, major components of terrestrial plant leaf waxes), record D/H ratios of precipitation (especially in arid regions). However, there are insufficient literature data for the distribution and hydrogen isotopic fractionation of n-alkyl lipids in aquatic and terrestrial plants. In this study, we determined the chain-length distributions and D/H ratios of n-alkyl lipids from 17 aquatic plant species (9 emergent, 4 floating and 4 submerge species) and 13 terrestrial plant species (7 grasses and 6 trees) from Blood Pond, Massachusetts. Our results are consistent with previous studies and provide a solid basis for the paleoclimatic reconstruction using D/H ratios of aquatic and terrestrial plant biomarkers. In addition, systematic hydrogen isotopic analyses on leaf waxes, leaf, stem and soil waters from trees and grasses significantly advance our understanding of our previously observed large D/H ratio difference between tree and grass leaf waxes. Our data indicate that the observed difference is not due to differences in leaf water D/H ratios. In comparison with grasses, trees use greater proportion of D-enriched residual or stored carbohydrates (as opposed to current photosynthetic carbohydrates) for leaf wax biosynthesis, resulting in higher leaf wax D/H ratios. The residual carbohydrates are enriched in deuterium because of the preferential consumption of light-hydrogen substrates during plant metabolism.

  15. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Patoka; Martin Bláha; Lukáš Kalous; Vladimír Vrabec; Miloš Buřič; Antonín Kouba

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no res...

  16. Do invertebrates have culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Danchin, Étienne; Blanchet, Simon; Mery, Frédérick; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper in Current Biology1 showed for the first time that female invertebrates (Drosophila melanogaster) can perform mate choice copying. Here, we discuss how female mating preferences in this species may be transmitted culturally. If culture occurs in invertebrates, it may be a relatively ancient evolutionary process that may have contributed to the evolution of many different taxa. This would considerably broaden the taxonomic range of cultural processes and suggest the need to incl...

  17. Influence of sediment organic enrichment and water alkalinity on growth of aquatic isoetid and elodeid plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Borum, Jens; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2010-01-01

    ) increasing alkalinity (from 0.17 to 3.20 meq. L-1) enhances growth and reduces inhibition of organic sediment enrichment for elodeids but not for isoetids. 2. In low organic sediments, higher oxygen release from roots of isoetids than elodeids generated oxic conditions to greater sediment depth for Lobelia...... two elodeids (Potamogeton crispus and P. perfoliatus), we test whether organic enrichment of lake sediments has a long-lasting influence by: (i) reducing plant growth because of oxygen stress on plant roots and (ii) inhibiting growth more for isoetids than elodeids. We also test whether (iii...... because of greater CO2 supply from sediments being their main CO2 source. At higher organic enrichment, isoetid biomass was reduced, leaf chlorophyll declined up to 10-fold, root length declined from 7 to <2 cm and mortality rose (up to 50%) signalling high plant stress. 4. Lobelia was not affected by HCO...

  18. Dark respiration and photosynthesis of dormant and sprouting turions of aquatic plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 2 (2011), s. 151-158. ISSN 1863-9135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Carnivorous and non-carnivorous plants * dormancy * storage function Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.145, year: 2011

  19. Optimization of medium for growing the aquatic carnivorous plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír; Kondo, K.

    Tokyo: Hiroshima University, 2002 - (Kondo, K.), s. 147-151 [The International Carnivorous Plant Conference. Tokyo (JP), 21.01.2002-23.01.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Grant ostatní: JSPS Invitation Fellowship(JP) S-00141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Aldrovanda vesiculosa Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  20. Tissue mineral nutrient content in turions of aquatic plants: does it represent a storage function?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 2 (2010), s. 145-151. ISSN 1863-9135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : carnivorous and non-carnivorous plant s * turion N, P, K, Ca and Mg content * water chemistry Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.108, year: 2010

  1. Bioaccumulation and chemical forms of cadmium, copper and lead in aquatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinZhao Hu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium(Cd, copper(Cu and lead(Pb accumulation, as well as their relative content of different chemical forms in Sagittaria sagittifolia L. and Potamogeton crispus L. were determined. The results showed that both the plants had the ability to accumulate large amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb, and they absorbed metals in dose-dependent manners. The roots of S. sagittifolia appeared more sensitive to Cd and Pb than the leaves of P. crispus. The potential of Cu uptake by these two plant tissues was similar. Under the same concentration, the uptake of Cu for both the plants was higher than Pb and Cd, while that of Pb was lowest. The Cd, Cu and Pb existed with various forms in the plants. Cd and Pb were mainly in the NaCl extractable form in S. sagittifolia and P. crispus. The HAc and ethanol extractable Cu were the main forms in the root, whereas the ethanol extractable form was the dominant chemical form in the caulis and bulb of the S. sagittifolia L.

  2. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in surface water polluted with Imidacloprid: A rebuttal and soome new analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface w

  3. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Trevor [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: trevor.williams@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts. (author)

  4. Alkalinity and trophic state regulate aquatic plant distribution in Danish lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    distinct differences in the distribution of species and growth forms among the lakes. The lakes separated into five groups of characteristic species compositions. Alkalinity was the main factor responsible for the species distribution. Lakes of high alkalinity were dominated by vascular plants......Main distribution patterns of submerged macrophytes in a large number of Danish lakes were determined and relationships to environmental variables evaluated by different multivariate analysis techniques. The lakes varied greatly in location, size, depth, alkalinity and trophic status. There were...... of the elodeid growth form, lakes of intermediate alkalinity contained a variety of elodeids and vascular plants of the isoetid growth form, while lakes of low alkalinity and low pH had several isoetids and bryophytes, but very few elodeids. Alkalinity is a close descriptor of the bicarbonate concentration...

  5. Looking for biomarkers of Hg exposure by transcriptome analysis in the aquatic plant Elodea nuttallii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regier N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently developed genomics tools have a promising potential to identify early biomarkers of exposure to toxicants. In the present work we used transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq of Elodea nuttallii –an invasive rooted macrophyte that is able to accumulate large amounts of metals- to identify biomarkers of Hg exposure. RNA-seq allowed identification of genes affected by Hg exposure and also unraveled plant response to the toxic metal: a change in energy/reserve metabolism caused by the inhibition of photosynthesis, and an adaptation of homeostasis networks to control accumulation of Hg. Data were validated by RT-qPCR and selected genes were further tested as biomarkers. Samples exposed in the field and to natural contaminated sediments clustered well with samples exposed to low metal concentrations under laboratory conditions. Our data suggest that this plant and/or this approach could be useful to develop new tests for water and sediment quality assessment.

  6. HISTOANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE AQUATIC PLANT HELANTHIUM TENELLUM (MART. BRITT. (ALISMATACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns a histological study of the main features of the stem (rhizome and leaf (petiole and blade of a perennial herb native to North, Central and South America, Helanthium tenellum (Mart. Britt., growing both submerged and emerged in its native region. In our country the plant is known as an aquarium plant. However, the stem cortex is well-developed with epidermis, hypodermis and an aerenchyma tissue with a number of air chambers. The vascular system consists of amphivasal vascular bundles to the center and peripheral few collateral bundles. The leaf mesophyll is heterogenous, represented by a palisade and a spongy tissue. In the mesophyll are embedded few poor developed vascular bundles. Excepting some taxonomic studies, a study concerning the anatomy of this species is lacking.

  7. Quantitative distribution of aquatic plant and animal communities in the Forsmark-area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE'. The aim of SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. SFR is for the repository of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The aim of this report is to provide background information of the quantitative distribution of macroscopic (>1 mm) plants and animals on the sea floor (the phytobenthic communities) above the SFR. The phytobenthic plant and animal communities in the Bothnian Sea may constitute over half of the total production of the ecosystem in the coastal zone. Data will be used in a simulation model of the area. The attached plant and animal communities of the sea floor can be the major component to find radioactive isotopes when a leakage should occur from the SFR below the investigated area. Their ability to bioaccumulate the isotopes and the abundance of the plants and animals might to a large extent determine the amount of radionuclides that could be retained in the biological system. This might then affect the form of further dispersal of the radionuclides over larger areas, whether they are kept within and accumulated in the food chain or retained in the sediments or diluted in the water column. In the investigated area divers described the sea floor substrate and the dominating plant and animal communities along transect lines. In addition, the divers collected quantitative samples. Three transects were placed just above SFR, and two transects were placed from the shore of islands adjacent to SFR. In total, divers collected 54 quantitative samples. Also, divers collected 6 sediment cores for analysis of the organic contents and chlorophylla. The results from the divers estimates of plant and animal species distribution and cover degree, as well as the quantitative samples, indicated the area being fairly rich. An eroded moraine (boulders, stones, gravel and sand) dominated the substrate with occasional rock outcrops. At several sites, on the hard, more stable substrates (boulders

  8. Quantitative distribution of aquatic plant and animal communities in the Forsmark-area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, H.; Plantman, P.; Borgiel, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE'. The aim of SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. SFR is for the repository of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The aim of this report is to provide background information of the quantitative distribution of macroscopic (>1 mm) plants and animals on the sea floor (the phytobenthic communities) above the SFR. The phytobenthic plant and animal communities in the Bothnian Sea may constitute over half of the total production of the ecosystem in the coastal zone. Data will be used in a simulation model of the area. The attached plant and animal communities of the sea floor can be the major component to find radioactive isotopes when a leakage should occur from the SFR below the investigated area. Their ability to bioaccumulate the isotopes and the abundance of the plants and animals might to a large extent determine the amount of radionuclides that could be retained in the biological system. This might then affect the form of further dispersal of the radionuclides over larger areas, whether they are kept within and accumulated in the food chain or retained in the sediments or diluted in the water column. In the investigated area divers described the sea floor substrate and the dominating plant and animal communities along transect lines. In addition, the divers collected quantitative samples. Three transects were placed just above SFR, and two transects were placed from the shore of islands adjacent to SFR. In total, divers collected 54 quantitative samples. Also, divers collected 6 sediment cores for analysis of the organic contents and chlorophylla. The results from the divers estimates of plant and animal species distribution and cover degree, as well as the quantitative samples, indicated the area being fairly rich. An eroded moraine (boulders, stones, gravel and sand) dominated the substrate with occasional rock outcrops. At several sites, on the hard, more stable substrates

  9. Effects of Co2 Concentrations and light intensity on photosynthesis of a rootless submerged plant, ceratophyllum demersum L., used for aquatic food production in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Okayama, T.; Murakami, K.; Takeuchi, T.

    Aquatic higher plants are likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feeds for fish, converting CO2 to O2 and remedying water quality in addition to green microalgae. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the net photosynthetic rate of a rootless submerged plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., was investigated to determine the optimum culture conditions for plant function in aquatic food production modules including both plant culture and fish culture systems . The net photosynthetic rate in plants was determined by the increase in dissolved O2 concentrations in a closed vessel containing a plantlet and water. The water in the vessel was aerated sufficiently with a gas containing a known level CO 2 gas mixed with N2 gas before closing the vessel. The CO 2 concentrations in the aerating gas ranged from 0.3 to 100 mmol mol-1 . Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in the vessel ranged from 0 (dark) to 1.0 mmol m-2 s-1 , which was controlled with a metal halide lamp. Temperature was kept at 28 C. The net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing PPFD levels and was saturated at 0.2 and 0.5 mmol m-2 s-1 PPFD under CO 2 levels of 1.0 and 3.0 mmol mol-1 , respectively. The net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing CO2 levels from 0.3 to 3.0 mmol mol-1 showing the maximum value, 70 nmolO 2 gDW s at 3.0 mmol mol-1 CO2 and gradually decreased with increasing CO 2 levels from 3.0 to 100 mmol mol-1 . The results demonstrate that Ceratophyllum demersum L. could be an efficient CO 2 to O2 converter under a 3.0 mmol mol-1 CO2 level and relatively low PPFD levels in aquatic food production modules.

  10. Indicator value of aquatic organisms in environmental monitoring programmes of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 1970s, extensive monitoring programmes have been carried out in the environs of the Finnish nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto, situated on the southern coast and the western coast of Finland, respectively. In terrestrial environments, the main objects of sampling are ground level air and deposition, as well as soil, moss, grass, milk, garden produce, grain, meat and some other foodstuffs. In marine environments, samples of sea water, sinking matter, bottom sediments, fish, some seaweeds and benthic animals are taken

  11. The role of aquatic plants and sediments in radium cycling in a tropical wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Magela floodplain, in the Northern Territory of Australia, drains two large uranium deposits: Ranger, where mining began in 1980, and Jabiluka, which is undeveloped. Radium may enter the floodplain through leaching or seepage from the mine site or through accidental or controlled release of waste waters. If effluent Ra does enter the floodplain it may be flushed out to sea by subsequent floodwater or, more likely, be taken up onto vegetation or bed sediment. The vegetation may, in turn, remobilize Ra from the sediment into the water column. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the relative importance of these processes and to predict the potential for Ra transfer through the buffalo-human food-chain. The study began with a survey of the natural Ra distribution in soil, plants and buffalo faeces on the floodplain in 1975-76 before mining began in 1980. This showed a natural accumulation of Ra at the beginning of the floodplain and from this it was predicted that effluent Ra may behave in a similar way and be held up in the floodplain rather than being flushed out to sea. Laboratory experiments were carried out on the major plant species from the floodplain, to measure the rates of Ra exchange between the water column, the plants and the sediment. A computer model was constructed from these data to simulate Ra transfer through the floodplain. These experiments identified direct Ra uptake from the water column onto plants and bed sediment as the major process in Ra transport through the system. When effluent Ra was introduced into the model and traced through the buffalo-human food-chain, a fourfold increase in Ra concentration in water over the entire wet season led to an average 2-fold increase in the human dietary intake of Ra. These effluent simulation experiments predicted that the Ranger mine could dispose of a million cubic metres of Ra-contaminated waste water over a 10-day period in the early part of the wet season without significant impact

  12. The Experiment Study of the Influence on Plant Seeds and Aquatic Bio-logical Survival in High Altitude Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霈润

    2015-01-01

    There is A certain foundation in this experiment. It was the second time we did this experiment. The purposes are three parts, first, explore the 30000~40000 meters high sky with two cameras recording the scene. The Second, find out whether the high sky condition (temperature, air pressure, cosmic ray) make influence on plants seeds. The third, text whether normal aquatic animal is able to survive in high sky. The conclusions are also three parts. It is important to set a deadline for my group member to finish the assignment, and also check their process, or they might delay their own part of work or they are not in charge of the work. As the leader, I should be thoughtful. Not only about members’assignment, but also the details of their work, previously. Discuss about each task with group to ensure the correctness. Last but not least, every part of the experiment needs to be tested carefully. Only if we try our best to prevent accidents that might happen, then the experiment is able to suc⁃cess.

  13. Determination of mercury(II) in aquatic plants using quinoline-thiourea conjugates as a fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guodong; Ding, Yuanyuan; Gong, Zhiyong; Dai, Yanna; Fei, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a quinoline-thiourea conjugate (1-phenyl-3-(quinoline-8-yl) thiourea, PQT) was synthesized and used as a fluorescence sensor to detect mercury ion. The observation is coincident with the well-documented phenomenon that a thiocarbonyl-containing group on a fluorochrome quenches the fluorescence due to the heavy atom effect of the S atom. The large fluorescence enhancement of PQT in the buffered MeCN-water mixture (1/1 v/v; HEPES 100 mM; pH 8.0) was caused by the Hg(2+) induced transformation of the thiourea function into a urea group. As such, protic solvents can be ascribed to hydrogen bond formation on the carbonyl oxygen to reduce the internal conversion rate. The fluorescence intensity of PQT was enhanced quantitatively with an increase in the concentration of mercury ion. The limit of detection of Hg(2+) was 7.5 nM. The coexistence of other metal ions with mercury had no obvious influence on the detection of mercury. A quinolone-thiourea conjugate was used as a fluorescent probe to detect Hg(2+) in aquatic plants and the experimental results were satisfactory. PMID:23842417

  14. Economic Potentialities of Some Aquatic Plants Growing in North East Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ziada, M. E.; Mashaly, I. A.; Abd El-Monem, M.; Torky, M.

    The present study provides quantitative assessment of the vegetative yield, growth characteristics, metabolic products, elemental composition and antimicrobial bioactivity of five common macrohydrophytes: Bolboschoenus glaucus (Cyperaceae), Veronica anagallis-aquatica (Scrophulariaceae), Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaceae), Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) and Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragidaceae). These plants tend to flourish vegetatively during the summer season (June-August). Their relative growth rate, relative assimilating surface growth rate and net assimilation rate were higher during early vegetative stage (February-May). The highest percentages of protein and lipids content were recorded in Nymphaea, while the crude fiber content was higher in Bolboschoenus than in other species. The macronutrient elements were detected with relatively high concentration and sodium cation appeared to be an essential accumulatent as compared with K, Ca and Mg. Myriophyllum appeared to be the major accumulator species of heavy metals, while Pistia appeared to be the minor one. Sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and resins were detected in these plants. Nymphyaea was found to have the most effective antimicrobial activities than the other studied species.

  15. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid: A Rebuttal and Some New Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, Martina G.; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface waters was hypothesised in a recent paper by Van Dijk, Van Staalduinen and Van der Sluijs (PLOS ONE, May 2013). Although we do not disagree with imidacloprid's inherent toxicity to aquatic organisms...

  16. Invertebrate communities of the High Arctic ponds in Hornsund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoto Tomi P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available How environmental conditions influence current distributions of organisms at the local scale in sensitive High Arctic freshwaters is essential to understand in order to better comprehend the cascading consequences of the ongoing climate change. This knowledge is also important background data for paleolimnological assessments of long-term limnoecological changes and in describing the range of environmental variability. We sampled five limnologically different freshwater sites from the Fuglebergsletta marine terrace in Hornsund, southern Svalbard, for aquatic invertebrates. Invertebrate communities were tested against non-climatic environmental drivers as limnological and catchment variables. A clear separation in the communities between the sites was observed. The largest and deepest lake was characterized by a diverse Chironomidae community but Cladocera were absent. In a pond with marine influence, crustaceans, such as Ostracoda, Amphipoda, and calanoid Copepoda were the most abundant invertebrates. Two nutrient-rich ponds were dominated by a chironomid, Orthocladius consobrinus, whereas themost eutrophic pond was dominated by the cladoceran Daphnia pulex, suggesting decreasing diversity along with the trophic status. Overall, nutrient related variables appeared to have an important influence on the invertebrate community composition and diversity, the trophic state of the sites being linked with their exposure to geese guano. Other segregating variables included water color, presence/absence of fish, abundance of aquatic vegetation and lake depth. These results suggest that since most of these variables are climate-driven at a larger scale, the impacts of the ongoing climate change will have cumulative effects on aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Root length of aquatic plant, Lemna minor L., as an optimal toxicity endpoint for biomonitoring of mining effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalapillai, Yamini; Vigneault, Bernard; Hale, Beverley A

    2014-10-01

    Lemna minor, a free-floating macrophyte, is used for biomonitoring of mine effluent quality under the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) of the Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program in Canada and is known to be sensitive to trace metals commonly discharged in mine effluents such as Ni. Environment Canada's standard toxicity testing protocol recommends frond count (FC) and dry weight (DW) as the 2 required toxicity endpoints-this is similar to other major protocols such as those by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-that both require frond growth or biomass endpoints. However, we suggest that similar to terrestrial plants, average root length (RL) of aquatic plants will be an optimal and relevant endpoint. As expected, results demonstrate that RL is the ideal endpoint based on the 3 criteria: accuracy (i.e., toxicological sensitivity to contaminant), precision (i.e., lowest variance), and ecological relevance (metal mining effluents). Roots are known to play a major role in nutrient uptake in conditions of low nutrient conditions-thus having ecological relevance to freshwater from mining regions. Root length was the most sensitive and precise endpoint in this study where water chemistry varied greatly (pH and varying concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, dissolved organic carbon, and an anthropogenic organic contaminant, sodium isopropyl xanthates) to match mining effluent ranges. Although frond count was a close second, dry weight proved to be an unreliable endpoint. We conclude that toxicity testing for the floating macrophyte should require average RL measurement as a primary endpoint. PMID:25045146

  18. Aquatic ecology of the Kadra reservoir, the source of cooling water for Kaiga nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is being conducted since July 2000 to evaluate impact of cooling water discharges from Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant on physicochemical and biological characteristics of Kadra reservoir. Besides marginal decrease of DO, sulfate, nitrate and potassium near discharge point at surface water, abiotic features of the water samples collected from three layers, viz. surface, 3-m depth and bottom at nine locations of the reservoir, did not show remarkable differences with reference to pH, phosphate, conductivity, suspended solids, sodium, hardness, chloride, alkalinity and heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn). The DT varied between 5 and 8.5 degC at surface water during the study. The abiotic characteristics of the reservoir water meet the specification of drinking water standard of Bureau of Indian Standards. While the counts of phytoplankton and zooplankton were reduced near discharge point, their population at 500 m off the discharge point was comparable to those near dam site at about 11 km down stream from plant site. Plamer's index (0-15) and Shannon's diversity index values (1.39-2.44) of the plankton at different sampling points indicate oligotrophic and semi productive nature of the water body. The total coliform (TC), staphylococcus and heterotrophic counts were, in general, less near discharge point. Based on TC count, the reservoir water, during most of the period, is categorized as 'B' following CPCB classification of surface waters. Generation of data needs to be continued till 2-3 years for statistical interpretation and drawing conclusions pertaining to extent of impact of cooling water discharges on Kadra reservoir ecology. (author)

  19. Broad-scale patterns of invertebrate richness and community composition in temporary rivers: effects of flow intermittence

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central goal in ecology is to identify general relationships between environmental drivers and community patterns. In this study, we investigated the relationships between aquatic invertebrate communities and river flow intermittence across multiple continents. Particularly, we...

  20. Hawaii ESI: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream invertebrates, anchialine pool invertebrates, and threatened/endangered terrestrial...

  1. Response of stream invertebrates to short-term salinization: A mesocosm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinization is a major and growing threat to freshwater ecosystems, yet its effects on aquatic invertebrates have been poorly described at a community-level. Here we use a controlled experimental setting to evaluate short-term stream community responses to salinization, under conditions designed to replicate the duration (72 h) and intensity (up to 5 mS cm−1) of salinity pulses common to Mediterranean rivers subjected to mining pollution during runoff events. There was a significant overall effect, but differences between individual treatments and the control were only significant for the highest salinity treatment. The community response to salinization was characterized by a decline in total invertebrate density, taxon richness and diversity, an increase in invertebrate drift and loss of the most sensitive taxa. The findings indicate that short-term salinity increases have a significant impact on the stream invertebrate community, but concentrations of 5 mS cm−1 are needed to produce a significant ecological response. - Highlights: ► Short-term salinization has a significant impact on the aquatic invertebrates. ► A significant short-term ecological response is registered at 5 mS cm−1. ► Salinization causes a decline in invertebrate density, richness and diversity. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing salinity and exposure time. - Short-term salinization in a stream mesocosm caused a significant response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  2. Mucosal immunity in invertebrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin

    Vol. 1. Elsevier: Academic Press, 2015 - (Městecký, J.; Strober, W.; Russell, M.; Kelsall, B.; Cheroutre, H.; Lambrecht, B.), s. 135-144. (Fourth Edition). ISBN 978-0-12-415847-4 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : mucosal immunity * invertebrates Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  3. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Islair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community composition. We conducted two surveys in the rainy (February, 2011 and dry (August, 2012 seasons in the Floresta Nacional (Flona of Contendas do Sincorá, municipality of Contendas do Sincorá, Bahia state, Brazil. We delimited fifteen 5 m x 5 m sampling plots along a 355 m trail. Two terrestrial bromeliads (Aechmea bromeliifolia were collected per plot. Invertebrate fauna were identified and richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. The richness of taxa did not differ between seasons and was considered high for Caatinga. Abundance and composition differed between the rainy and dry seasons. The present study demonstrates the importance of bromeliads as available water resources for the local invertebrate community. Our findings also provide a framework for more in-depth studies on animal-plant interactions, and for the conservation of Caatinga animal and plant.

  4. β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine exposure alters defense against oxidative stress in aquatic plants Lomariopsis lineata, Fontinalis antipyretica, Riccia fluitans and Taxiphyllum barbieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Funke, Marc Sebastian; Peuthert, Anja; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2013-02-01

    Four different aquatic plants, the Pteridophyte Lomariopsis lineata and the Bryophytes Fontinalis antipyretica, Riccia fluitans and Taxiphyllum barbieri, were tested for their capacity to absorb the neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from water and thus their possible applicability in a "Green Liver System". After exposure to 10 and 100 μg L(-1) BMAA for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days exposure concentration of medium and tissue were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The amount removed by the plants within only 1 day was equal to the biological degradation of 14 days. Comparing the "BMAA-removal" capacity of the 4 tested aquatic plants R. fluitans, L. lineata and T. barbieri turned out to be most effective in cleaning the water from this cyanobacterial toxin by up to 97% within 14 days. Activity of the antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), as well as biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) was compared between exposed and control plants to determine possible harmful effects induced by BMAA. Whereas the Bryophytes displayed increased POD activity and subsequent adaptation when exposed to the lower concentration, as well as partly inhibited antioxidant response at the higher applied BMAA concentration, the Pteridophyte L. lineata reacted with increased POD activity during the whole experiment and increased GST activity after longer exposure for 14 days. To give a recommendation of the suitability of an aquatic plant to be used for sustainable phytoremediation of contaminated water, testing of removal capacity of specific contaminants as well as studying general physiological parameters giving hint on survivability in such environments has to be combined. PMID:23177931

  5. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation. PMID:22396093

  6. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  7. Trends of Superoxide Dismutase and Soluble Protein of Aquatic Plants in Lakes of Different Trophic Levels in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Ping Wu; Te Cao; Shi-Kai Wu; Le-Yi Ni; Ping Xie

    2009-01-01

    A limnological study was carried out to determine the responses of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and soluble protein (SP) contents of 11 common aquatic plants to eutrophication stress.Field investigation in 12 lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River was carried out from March to September 2004.Our results indicated that nonsubmersed (emergent and floating-leafed) plants and submersed plants showed different responses to eutrophication stress.Both SOD activities of the non-submersed and submersed plants were negatively correlated with their SP contents (P < 0.000 1).SP contents of non-submersed plants were significantly correlated with all nitrogen variables in the water (P < 0.05),whereas SP contents of submersed plants were only significantly correlated with carbon variables as well as ammonium and Secchi depth (SD) in water (P<0.05).Only SOD activities of submersed plants were decreased with decline of SD in water (P < 0.001).Our results indicate that the decline of SOD activities of submersed plants were mainly caused by light limitation,this showed a coincidence with the decline of macrophytes in eutrophic lakes,which might imply that the antioxidant system of the submersed plants were impaired under eutrophication stress.

  8. Embryonic mortality and abnormalities of aquatic birds: Apparent impacts of selenium from irrigation drainwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Hoffman, D.J.; Saiki, M.K.; Aldrich, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Severe reproductive impacts were found in aquatic birds nesting on irrigation drainwater ponds in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Of 347 nests studied to late incubation or to hatching, 40.6% had at least one dead embryo and 19.6% had at least one embryo or chick with an obvious external anomaly. The deformities were often multiple and included missing or abnormal eyes, beaks, wings, legs and feet. Brain, heart, liver and skeletal anomalies were also present. Mean selenium concentrations in plants, invertebrates, and fish from the ponds were 22?175 ppm (dry weight), about 12 to 130 times those found at a nearby control area. Bird eggs (2.2?110 ppm) and livers (19?130 ppm) also contained elevated levels of selenium. Aquatic birds may experience similar problems in other areas where selenium occurs at elevated levels.

  9. Response of aquatic plants of peat pits to eutrophication processes resulted from intensive management and overdrying of surrounding them peat meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołdyn, H.; Arczyńska-Chudy, E.

    2009-04-01

    Aquatic and wetland habitats belong to the most precious nature elements of rural environment. At the same time they are very sensitive to eutrophication and diverse impacts caused by intensive agriculture. If protected and well kept they may enrich plant diversity in agricultural landscape. One of the most important reasons of degradation of waters within the lowland landscape is intensive agriculture. Drainage of marshes, which was especially intensive in the last two centuries, has changed hydrological conditions and modified relationships in many aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This resulted in eutrophication of aquatic habitats. The presented study are the part of investigations on the changes of aquatic and marsh vegetation during the last thirty years period within agricultural landscape of Gen. Chlapowski Landscape Park in Wielkopolska Region. Their goal was to analyse changes in aquatic plant communities within the peat pits, which are situated among the meadows. Vegetation of these ecosystems was first studied from 1976 to 1979 and investigations were repeated in 2007. This allowed to evaluate the transformation of vegetation during the last 30 years. Analyses of the chemical composition of water showed a gradual increase in its trophic state. The strongest increase was observed in the concentrations of phosphates and ammonium nitrogen. It was a consequence of intensive management of the surrounding meadows and drainage, led to their overdrying in the 1980s, which simultaneously effected the transformation of meadow vegetation. These changes caused the acceleration of peat mineralization, which was the reason of the increased leaching of nutrients and enrichment of water stored in the peat pits. The diversity of aquatic plant communities revealed significant transformations during the last 30 years. Species diversity, measured by the Shannon index (H') increased from 3.09 to 3.45. The increase in the number of identified plant species and associations

  10. Assessment of the bioavailability and the transfer of organic and metallic pollutants in 'soil - plant - invertebrate' food webs; Evaluation de la biodisponibilite et des transferts de polluants metalliques et organiques dans les reseaux trophiques ''sols-plantes-invertebres''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifler, R.

    2002-06-15

    beetles to the most highly contaminated preys led to a significant increase in mortality (during metamorphosis). Cd concentrations in beetles were very low and much lower than those measured in snail tissues. These results confirmed previous studies, which showed that bio-magnification (increase of a pollutant concentration from one level in a food chain to the upper link) is not a general rule for pollutant transfers in contaminated ecosystems. In a second approach, microcosms were developed to study the transfers in at least three links of a food web. In a first experiment, the transfer of 5 ETMs was studied in the system 'soil (2 agricultural soils: one contaminated and one non-polluted) - plant (lettuce L. sativa) - invertebrate (snail H. aspersa)'. After 4 weeks of exposure, Cd, Zn and Pb concentrations were much higher in the tissues of snails exposed to the polluted soil. Cu concentrations were not different between snails exposed to the polluted soil and those exposed to the non-contaminated one, suggesting MTE regulation by snails. Ni concentrations were higher in snails exposed to the non-polluted soil. The transfer kinetic, which was studied for 2 months in the snails exposed to the polluted soil, showed a regular increase of Cd and Zn concentrations, a rapid increase then a stabilization of Pb concentrations and a regulation of Cu and Ni concentrations. In a second experiment, microcosms were used to study the transfers 'soil - snails', 'maize (Z. mays) - snails' and 'soil - maize - snails' of a {sup 14}C-labelled herbicide, the Isoproturon. The transfer 'soil - snails' was much higher than the transfer 'maize - snails'. Metabolites of Isoproturon were determined in snail tissues. Very small quantities of native Isoproturon were found in snail tissues and the metabolites were mainly unknown residues (i.e. different from those obtained during Isoproturon degradation in soils, plants and microorganisms

  11. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-10-13

    In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.1: Electromagnetic Fields.

  12. Effects of CO 2 concentration and light intensity on photosynthesis of a rootless submerged plant, Ceratophyllumdemersum L., used for aquatic food production in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Okayama, T.; Murakami, K.; Takeuchi, T.

    In addition to green microalgae, aquatic higher plants are likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feed for fish, converting CO 2 to O 2 and remedying water quality. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the net photosynthetic rate of a rootless submerged plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., was investigated to determine the optimum culture conditions for maximal function of plants in food production modules including both aquatic plant culture and fish culture systems. The net photosynthetic rate in plants was determined by the increase in dissolved O 2 concentrations in a closed vessel containing a plantlet and water. The water in the vessel was aerated sufficiently with a gas containing a known concentration of CO 2 gas mixed with N 2 gas before closing the vessel. The CO 2 concentrations in the aerating gas ranged from 0.3 to 10 mmol mol -1. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in the vessel ranged from 0 (dark) to 1.0 mmol M -2 s -1, which was controlled with a metal halide lamp. Temperature was kept at 28°C. The net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing PPFD levels and was saturated at 0.2 and 0.5 mmol m -2 s -1 PPFD under CO 2 levels of 1.0 and 3.0 mmol mol -1, respectively. The net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing CO 2 levels from 0.3 to 3.0 mmol mol -1 showing the maximum value, 75 nmolO 2 gDW -1 s -1, at 2-3 mmol mol -1 CO 2 and gradually decreased with increasing CO 2 levels from 3.0 to 10 mmol mol -1. The results demonstrate that C. demersum could be an efficient CO 2 to O 2 converter under a 2.0 mmol mol -1 CO 2 level and relatively low PPFD levels in aquatic food production modules.

  13. Effects of CO2 concentration and light intensity on photosynthesis of a rootless submerged plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., used for aquatic food production in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Okayama, T.; Murakami, K.; Takeuchi, T.

    2003-01-01

    In addition to green microalgae, aquatic higher plants are likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feed for fish, converting CO2 to O2 and remedying water quality. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the net photosynthetic rate of a rootless submerged plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., was investigated to determine the optimum culture conditions for maximal function of plants in food production modules including both aquatic plant culture and fish culture systems. The net photosynthetic rate in plants was determined by the increase in dissolved O2 concentrations in a closed vessel containing a plantlet and water. The water in the vessel was aerated sufficiently with a gas containing a known concentration of CO2 gas mixed with N2 gas before closing the vessel. The CO2 concentrations in the aerating gas ranged from 0.3 to 10 mmol mol-1. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in the vessel ranged from 0 (dark) to 1.0 mmol m-2 s-1, which was controlled with a metal halide lamp. Temperature was kept at 28 degrees C. The net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing PPFD levels and was saturated at 0.2 and 0.5 mmol m-2 s-1 PPFD under CO2 levels of 1.0 and 3.0 mmol mol-1, respectively. The net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing CO2 levels from 0.3 to 3.0 mmol mol-1 showing the maximum value, 75 nmol O2 gDW-1 s-1, at 2-3 mmol mol-1 CO2 and gradually decreased with increasing CO2 levels from 3.0 to 10 mmol mol-1. The results demonstrate that C. demersum could be an efficient CO2 to O2 converter under a 2.0 mmol mol-1 CO2 level and relatively low PPFD levels in aquatic food production modules. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of toxicity of radioactively contaminated sediments of the Yenisei River for aquatic plants in laboratory assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.; Trofimova, E.; Medvedeva, M.; Bolsunovsky, A. [Institute of Biophysic SB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Yenisei River has been subjected to radioactive contamination due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Rosatom) (MCC) producing weapon-grade plutonium for more than fifty years (1958-2010). As a result, high activities of long-lived artificial radionuclides (Cs-137, Pu-238, 239, 241, Am-241) were deposited in sediments of the river. Bottom sediments of the Yenisei River downstream of the Krasnoyarsk city are also polluted with heavy metals because of industrial discharges and from the water catchment area. The purpose of this research was to estimate the ability of submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum to serve as indicators of toxicity of bottom sediments of the Yenisei River. Activities of artificial radionuclides in the biomass of aquatic plants sampled in the Yenisei River upstream of the MCC were below detection limit (< 0.5 Bq/kg of dry mass for Cs-137). The activities of artificial radionuclides in the biomass of macrophytes sampled in the Yenisei River in the vicinity of the MCC in autumn 2012 were (Bq/kg of dry mass): 67±4 for Co-60, 16±2 for Cs-137, and 8±1 for Eu-152. For eco-toxicological experiments, top 20-cm layers of bottom sediments (BS) were collected from the Yenisei River at three sites in the vicinity of the MCC (No. 2-4) and at one site upstream of the MCC (No. 1). Samples of sediments contained natural isotope K-40 (240-330 Bq/kg, fresh mass) and artificial radionuclides: Co-60 (up to 70 Bq/kg), Cs-137 (0.8-1400 Bq/kg), Eu-152, 154 (up to 220 Bq/kg), Am-241 (up to 40 Bq/kg). The total activity concentration of radionuclides measured on an HPGe-Gamma-spectrometer (Canberra, U.S.) in samples of BS No. 1-4 was 330, 500, 880 and 1580 Bq/kg of fresh mass, respectively. Apical shoots of submersed macrophytes were planted in sediments (6-9 shoots per sediment sub-sample in three replicates). Endpoints of shoot and root growth were used as toxicity indicators; the number of cells with chromosome

  15. Downstream changes in spring-fed stream invertebrate communities: the effect of increased temperature range?

    OpenAIRE

    Russell G. DEATH; José BARQU��N

    2011-01-01

    Reduced thermal amplitude has been highlighted as a limiting factor for aquatic invertebrate diversity in springs. Moving downstream water temperature range increases and invertebrate richness is expected to change accordingly. In the present study temperature patterns were investigated in seven spring-fed streams, between April 2001 and November 2002, and compared to five run-off-fed streams to assess the degree of crenic temperature constancy. Temperature and physico-chemical characteristic...

  16. Primary producers sustaining macro-invertebrate communities in intertidal mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    BOUILLON, S; N. Koedam; Raman, A. V.; Dehairs, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to the large number of studies on the trophic significance of mangrove primary production to the aquatic foodweb, there have been few attempts to provide an overview of the relative importance of different primary carbon sources to invertebrates in the intertidal mangrove habitats. We determined carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (delta 13C, delta 15N) in sediments, primary producers, and 22 invertebrate species from an intertidal mangrove forest located along the southeast...

  17. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  18. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  19. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  20. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J; Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management. PMID:27513336

  1. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey Horvath; Dario Angeletti; Giuseppe Nascetti; Claudio Carere

    2013-01-01

    While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as...

  2. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  3. Pattern classification and recognition of invertebrate functional groups using self-organizing neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, WenJun

    2007-07-01

    Self-organizing neural networks can be used to mimic non-linear systems. The main objective of this study is to make pattern classification and recognition on sampling information using two self-organizing neural network models. Invertebrate functional groups sampled in the irrigated rice field were classified and recognized using one-dimensional self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural networks. Comparisons between neural network models, distance (similarity) measures, and number of neurons were conducted. The results showed that self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural network models were effective in pattern classification and recognition of sampling information. Overall the performance of one-dimensional self-organizing map neural network was better than self-organizing competitive learning neural network. The number of neurons could determine the number of classes in the classification. Different neural network models with various distance (similarity) measures yielded similar classifications. Some differences, dependent upon the specific network structure, would be found. The pattern of an unrecognized functional group was recognized with the self-organizing neural network. A relative consistent classification indicated that the following invertebrate functional groups, terrestrial blood sucker; terrestrial flyer; tourist (nonpredatory species with no known functional role other than as prey in ecosystem); gall former; collector (gather, deposit feeder); predator and parasitoid; leaf miner; idiobiont (acarine ectoparasitoid), were classified into the same group, and the following invertebrate functional groups, external plant feeder; terrestrial crawler, walker, jumper or hunter; neustonic (water surface) swimmer (semi-aquatic), were classified into another group. It was concluded that reliable conclusions could be drawn from comparisons of different neural network models that use different distance

  4. Co-occurrence of the Cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and Anatoxin-a in Nebraska Reservoirs, Fish, and Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sammak, Maitham; Hoagland, Kyle; Cassada, David; Snow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Several groups of microorganisms are capable of producing toxins in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria are prevalent blue green algae in freshwater systems, and many species produce cyanotoxins which include a variety of chemical irritants, hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Production and occurrence of potent neurotoxic cyanotoxins β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), 2,4-diaminobutyric acid dihydrochloride (DABA), and anatoxin-a are especially critical with environmental implications to public and...

  5. Development of aquatic plant bioassays for rapid screening and interpretive risk assessments of metal mining liquid waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of non-photosynthetic organisms alone to describe environmental impact has been recognized by regulatory agencies, industry and academia as being totally inadequate both in Europe and North America. Lack of adequate testing methods for photosynthetic aquatic organisms has been recognized as a major impediment to the successful regulation and safe use of pesticides and waste water discharges and is of even more concern to the metal mining industry due to the non-biodegradable nature of its waste streams. This work shows that the chemical effluent limits set in the 'Metal mining liquid effluent regulations and guidelines' provide variable protection of aquatic photosynthetic organisms and aquatic effects of the more toxic metals (e.g., copper, nickel, and zinc) may occur at levels that are one to two orders of magnitude lower than present limits. To establish adequate protection of receiving water bodies it may be necessary to establish site-specific criteria taking into consideration toxicity modifying factors of individual sites. If the establishment of such criteria is determined with a host of ecologically relevant organisms, it will be possible to design effective environmental protection at the least possible cost. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Soil nutrient additions increase invertebrate herbivore abundances, but not herbivory, across three grassland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Pierre, Kimberly J; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-02-01

    Resource availability may influence invertebrate communities, with important consequences for ecosystem function, such as biomass production. We assessed: (1) the effects of experimental soil nutrient additions on invertebrate abundances and feeding rates and (2) the resultant changes in the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass at three grassland sites spanning the North American Central Plains, across which plant tissue chemistry and biomass vary. Invertebrate communities and rates of herbivory were sampled within a long-term nutrient-addition experiment established at each site along the broad Central Plains precipitation gradient. Additionally, the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass were determined under ambient and elevated nutrient conditions. At the more mesic sites, invertebrate herbivore abundances increased and their per capita rate of herbivory decreased with nutrient additions. In contrast, at the semi-arid site where plant biomass is low and plant nutrient concentrations are high, invertebrate herbivore abundances did not vary and per capita rates of herbivory increased with nutrient additions. No change in the effect of invertebrate herbivores on aboveground plant biomass was observed at any of the sites. In sum, nutrient additions induced shifts in both plant biomass and leaf nutrient content, which altered invertebrate abundances and feeding rate. However, due to the inverse relationship between changes in herbivore abundance and per capita rates of herbivory, nutrient additions did not alter the effect of invertebrates on aboveground biomass. Overall, we suggest that this inverse response of herbivore abundance and per capita feeding rate may buffer ecosystems against changes in invertebrate damage in response to fluctuations in nutrient levels. PMID:26474567

  7. Aquatic Invertebrates - Thornton Creek Restoration Project Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA has designed and is currently implementing a hyporheic monitoring plan for the Thornton Creek watershed in North Seattle. This work is being conducted for...

  8. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge aquatic invertebrate survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the 1993 study was to investigate the premise that macroinvertebrate species diversity and abundance increases significantly following a...

  9. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki; Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio da S.

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, fe...

  10. Use of the Maximum Cumulative Ratio As an Approach for Prioritizing Aquatic Coexposure to Plant Protection Products: A Case Study of a Large Surface Water Monitoring Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Nathalie; Price, Paul S

    2016-05-17

    This paper uses the maximum cumulative ratio (MCR) as part of a tiered approach to evaluate and prioritize the risk of acute ecological effects from combined exposures to the plant protection products (PPPs) measured in 3 099 surface water samples taken from across the United States. Assessments of the reported mixtures performed on a substance-by-substance approach and using a Tier One cumulative assessment based on the lowest acute ecotoxicity benchmark gave the same findings for 92.3% of the mixtures. These mixtures either did not indicate a potential risk for acute effects or included one or more individual PPPs that had concentrations in excess of their benchmarks. A Tier Two assessment using a trophic level approach was applied to evaluate the remaining 7.7% of the mixtures. This assessment reduced the number of mixtures of concern by eliminating the combination of endpoint from multiple trophic levels, identified invertebrates and nonvascular plants as the most susceptible nontarget organisms, and indicated that a only a very limited number of PPPs drove the potential concerns. The combination of the measures of cumulative risk and the MCR enabled the identification of a small subset of mixtures where a potential risk would be missed in substance-by-substance assessments. PMID:27057923

  11. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  12. Diversity of litter invertebrates communities from the tunel’na gully in Dnipropetrovsk city

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Brygadyrenko; L. I. Faly; K. G. Yakimets

    2012-01-01

    Species community of invertebrates in 10 antropogenically transformed ecosystems on the territory of Tunel’na gully (south-west part of Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine) is investigated. The plant cover of sample areas is shortly described. Taxonomic and ecomorphical structure, indices of biological diversity of litter invertebrate communities are analysed. The invertebrate species inhabited the Tunel’na gully and listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine and Dnepropetrovsk province are described. The va...

  13. Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Assessment of the bioavailability and the transfer of organic and metallic pollutants in 'soil - plant - invertebrate' food webs; Evaluation de la biodisponibilite et des transferts de polluants metalliques et organiques dans les reseaux trophiques ''sols-plantes-invertebres''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheifler, R.

    2002-06-15

    beetles to the most highly contaminated preys led to a significant increase in mortality (during metamorphosis). Cd concentrations in beetles were very low and much lower than those measured in snail tissues. These results confirmed previous studies, which showed that bio-magnification (increase of a pollutant concentration from one level in a food chain to the upper link) is not a general rule for pollutant transfers in contaminated ecosystems. In a second approach, microcosms were developed to study the transfers in at least three links of a food web. In a first experiment, the transfer of 5 ETMs was studied in the system 'soil (2 agricultural soils: one contaminated and one non-polluted) - plant (lettuce L. sativa) - invertebrate (snail H. aspersa)'. After 4 weeks of exposure, Cd, Zn and Pb concentrations were much higher in the tissues of snails exposed to the polluted soil. Cu concentrations were not different between snails exposed to the polluted soil and those exposed to the non-contaminated one, suggesting MTE regulation by snails. Ni concentrations were higher in snails exposed to the non-polluted soil. The transfer kinetic, which was studied for 2 months in the snails exposed to the polluted soil, showed a regular increase of Cd and Zn concentrations, a rapid increase then a stabilization of Pb concentrations and a regulation of Cu and Ni concentrations. In a second experiment, microcosms were used to study the transfers 'soil - snails', 'maize (Z. mays) - snails' and 'soil - maize - snails' of a {sup 14}C-labelled herbicide, the Isoproturon. The transfer 'soil - snails' was much higher than the transfer 'maize - snails'. Metabolites of Isoproturon were determined in snail tissues. Very small quantities of native Isoproturon were found in snail tissues and the metabolites were mainly unknown residues (i.e. different from those obtained during Isoproturon degradation in soils, plants and microorganisms

  15. Above- and below-ground vertebrate herbivory may each favour a different subordinate species in an aquatic plant community

    OpenAIRE

    Hidding, B.; Nolet, B.A.; de Boer, T.; De Vries, P.P.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    At least two distinct trade-offs are thought to facilitate higher diversity in productive plant communities under herbivory. Higher investment in defence and enhanced colonization potential may both correlate with decreased competitive ability in plants. Herbivory may thus promote coexistence of plant species exhibiting divergent life history strategies. How different seasonally tied herbivore assemblages simultaneously affect plant community composition and diversity is, however, largely unk...

  16. The aquatic fern Azolla as a natural plant-factory for ammonia removal from fish-breeding fresh wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Pietro; Padovani, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    This study has investigated the potential of an Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis, a marriage between the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae and the aquatic fern (Azolla), to remove ammonia from freshwater fish breeding areas. Experiments were carried out under artificial light of 20, 70, and 140 μmol m(-2) s(-1). We investigated three different water temperatures for the growing Azolla, ranging from sub-optimal to optimal temperatures (15, 22, and 28 °C). The capability of Azolla to remove ammonia from wastewater was demonstrated, and the highest ammonia concentration tolerated by the symbiosis between Azolla-anabaena without any toxic effect on the aquatic ferns was ascertained. The shortest time taken to remove ammonia from wastes, 2.5 cm deep and at 28 °C, was 40 min. The ammonia removal rate (A RR) was both light and temperature dependent and the highest rate (6.394 h(-1)) was attained at light intensity of 140 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and at a temperature of 28 °C; the lowest (0.947 h(-1)) was achieved at 20 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and 15 °C. The depth of the fish-wastewater pool also affected the A RR with the relation between A RR and the depth being a hyperbolic function. PMID:26805923

  17. Concentration of 129I in aquatic biota collected from a lake adjacent to the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan, has been undergoing final testing since March 2006. During April 2006-October 2008, that spent fuel was cut and chemically processed, the plant discharged 129I into the atmosphere and coastal waters. To study 129I behaviour in brackish Lake Obuchi, which is adjacent to the plant, 129I concentrations in aquatic biota were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Owing to 129I discharge from the plant, the 129I concentration in the biota started to rise from the background concentration in 2006 and was high during 2007-08. The 129I concentration has been rapidly decreasing after the fuel cutting and chemically processing were finished. The 129I concentration factors in the biota were higher than those reported by IAEA for marine organisms and similar to those reported for freshwater biota. The estimated annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of foods with the maximum 129I concentration in the biota samples was 2.8 nSv y-1. (authors)

  18. Bottom invertebrates of the Volchya river under impact of pollutants of various origin

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Zagubizhenko; V. M. Kochet; О. О. Khristov

    2005-01-01

    Zoobenthos state of the Vovcha-river along its full length in Dnipropetrovsk region is under consideration. Hydrocoles' response to the two main pollution types – mining water of the Central Donbass and municipal and industrial sewage of the city of Pavlograd – was found out. Relative importance of the every pollution type on the communities of aquatic invertebrates was determined.

  19. Bottom invertebrates of the Volchya river under impact of pollutants of various origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Zagubizhenko

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Zoobenthos state of the Vovcha-river along its full length in Dnipropetrovsk region is under consideration. Hydrocoles' response to the two main pollution types – mining water of the Central Donbass and municipal and industrial sewage of the city of Pavlograd – was found out. Relative importance of the every pollution type on the communities of aquatic invertebrates was determined.

  20. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackrel, Sara L; Wootton, J Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to

  1. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  2. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  3. Hygienic and microbiological influences exerted on natural water biotopes by algae and the growth of water plants. 2. Communication: improvement of the chemical and bacteriological water quality by the natural growth of aquatic plants (author's transl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graef, W.; Kersch, D.; Pawlofsky, C.M.

    1981-12-01

    For a natural pond, whose waters are used for recreational purposes (swimming) and are subject to waste water inflow, the biological purifying function of a zone overgrown with reeds and aquatic plants was ascertained by means of chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters. In the years from 1975 to 1980 the contents of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates and chlorides as well as the colony counts (CFU/ml), the coli titres and the content of fruiting myxobacteria were determined from water samples, both during the lush-growth summer period and the low-growth winter season. The location of the 6 sampling points systematically extended from the sewage outlet via the tributary ditch, in front of and behind the natural growth zone as far as the swimming waters. The test series showed - that in the tributary ditch and especially during the passage through the upper water zone densely overgrown with aquatic plants, the proportion of degradable nitrogen compounds and phosphates is distinctly reduced beyond the extent of reduction by dilution processes, - that the colony counts in the effluent water as well as the content of E. coli and of the fruiting myxobacteria, which act as indirect faecal indicator, are also reduced considerably, - that the biological purifying of the vegetation zone is definitely higher in summer than during the low-growth winter months. From this the conclusion can be drawn that for maintaining and furthering an adequate water quality of recreational waters compromised by waste water, the preservation of the naturally growing aquatic plants both in the water itself and on the banks is absolutely necessary.

  4. A compilation of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways and the suggested default values for the RESRAD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; Yu, C.

    1993-08-01

    The ongoing development and revision of the RESRAD computer code at Argonne National Laboratory requires update of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways. Default values for these transfer factors used in published radiological assessment reports are compiled and compared with values used in RESRAD. The differences among the reported default values used in different radiological assessment codes and reports are also discussed. In data comparisons, values used in more recent reports are given more weight because more recent experimental work tends to be conducted under better-defined laboratory or field conditions. A new default value is suggested for RESRAD if one of the following conditions is met: (1) values used in recent reports are an order of magnitude higher or lower than the default value currently used in RESRAD, or (2) the same default value is used in several recent radiological assessment reports.

  5. Terrestrial contributions to the aquatic food web in the middle Yangtze River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhu Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding the carbon sources supporting aquatic consumers in large rivers is essential for the protection of ecological integrity and for wildlife management. The relative importance of terrestrial and algal carbon to the aquatic food webs is still under intensive debate. The Yangtze River is the largest river in China and the third longest river in the world. The completion of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD in 2003 has significantly altered the hydrological regime of the middle Yangtze River, but its immediate impact on carbon sources supporting the river food web is unknown. In this study, potential production sources from riparian and the main river channel, and selected aquatic consumers (invertebrates and fish at an upstream constricted-channel site (Luoqi, a midstream estuarine site (Huanghua and a near dam limnetic site (Maoping of the TGD were collected for stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N and IsoSource analyses. Model estimates indicated that terrestrial plants were the dominant carbon sources supporting the consumer taxa at the three study sites. Algal production appeared to play a supplemental role in supporting consumer production. The contribution from C4 plants was more important than that of C3 plants at the upstream site while C3 plants were the more important carbon source to the consumers at the two impacted sites (Huanghua and Maoping, particularly at the midstream site. There was no trend of increase in the contribution of autochthonous production from the upstream to the downstream sites as the flow rate decreased dramatically along the main river channel due to the construction of TGD. Our findings, along with recent studies in rivers and lakes, are contradictory to studies that demonstrate the importance of algal carbon in the aquatic food web. Differences in system geomorphology, hydrology, habitat heterogeneity, and land use may account for these contradictory findings reported in various studies.

  6. Similar stress responses are elicited by copper and ultraviolet radiation in the aquatic plant Lemna gibba: Implication of reactive oxygen species as common signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are two environmental stressors that can cause damage to plants. These two types of stressors often impact simultaneously on plants and both are known to promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, little information is available on the potential parallel stress responses elicited by metals and UV radiation. Using the aquatic plant Lemna gibba, we found that copper and simulated solar radiation (SSR, a light source containing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV radiation) induced similar responses in the plants. Both copper and SSR caused ROS formation. The ROS levels were higher when copper was combined with SSR than when applied with PAR. Higher concentrations of copper plus PAR caused toxicity as monitored by diminished growth and chlorophyll content. This toxicity was more pronounced when copper was combined with SSR. Because the generation of ROS was also higher when copper was combined with SSR, we attributed this enhanced toxicity to elevated levels of ROS. In comparison to PAR-grown plants, SSR treated plants exhibited elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). These enzyme levels were further elevated under both PAR and SSR when copper was added at concentrations that generated ROS. Interestingly, copper treatment in the absence of SSR (i.e. copper plus PAR) induced synthesis of the same flavonoids as those observed in SSR without copper. Finally, addition of either dimethyl thiourea or GSH (two common ROS scavengers) lowered in vivo ROS production, alleviated toxicity and diminished induction of GR as well as accumulation of UV absorbing compounds. Thus, the potential of ROS being a common signal for acclimation to stress by both copper and UV can be considered. (author)

  7. 上海乡土水生植物资源及其在水生态恢复与水景观建设中的应用潜力%SURVEY OF NATIVE AQUATIC VASCULAR PLANTS AND ITS POTENTIAL APPLICATION FOR RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS IN SHANGHAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婕; 张净; 达良俊

    2011-01-01

    水生植物作为水生生态系统的主体,对发挥水生生态系统的自维持、自循环功能有重要作用.研究通过相关资料的查阅,建立上海地区乡土水生植物名录,并对其科属组成、区系特征、生活型、生长型等进行统计分析.结果表明上海地区乡土水生植物共计35科83属160种(含变种),单属科、单种属的比例较高,均达65%以上;植物区系组成丰富、成分复杂,以热带成分占优势,达64.6%;生活型以挺水植物为主,沉水植物次之,浮水植物最少;生长型类型丰富,以草本型、禾草型居多,20种生长型可进一步归为表征相似生态学特征和功能地位的6个生长型组.在水生态恢复与水景观建设中,仅有68.8%的景观水体有水生植物应用,且应用种类在2种以下的占79.2%.乡土水生植物应用不足,一半以上为观赏性强的外来物种,应用频率较高的为挺水植物,对具有良好净化效果的沉水植物重视不够.因此,在水生态恢复与水景观建设中,建议加强乡土水生植物资源的繁育栽培,在充分利用乡土水生植物资源配置群落的基础上,根据水质的富营养及基底状况,通过不同生长型组水生植物的应用,构建“沉水-浮水-挺水”植物群落复合体,并通过“近自然型”护岸的营造,形成“水生-湿生”复合生态系统.运用植被工程学的原理和方法,采用“生态浮岛”、“生态沉岛”等技术营造水生植被,将强人工化的水景观建成具生命的水生生态系统.%With the rapid economical development, more and more degraded aquatic ecosystems can not be restored by themselves after they were polluted seriously. Aquatic vascular plant especially the native species, as an important component, play a significant role for implication of self-sustainable and self-circulation in aquatic ecosystems. Reconstruction and restoration of aquatic plants and vegetations is vital to construct the artificial

  8. Effects of acrolein and other pesticides on water quality and aquatic biota in Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impacts of acrolein and other pesticides on water quality and aquatic invertebrates and fish, with a...

  9. Relation between aquatic plants and gastropods (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the region of Gentilly I (Quebec) nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is based on a sampling of the gastropods present in the vegetation of the St. Lawrence riverside zone at Gentilly. A total of 536 plant specimens belonging to 20 species as well as 37 239 specimens grouping 10 different species of gastropods were sampled. A comparison of the plant species - mollusc data was carried out. The analysis of the results indicates that prosobranchs have no affinity whatsoever for any plant species in particular. The pulmonates, however, are found mainly on emergent plants. (author)

  10. Absorption and metabolism of bisphenol A, a possible endocrine disruptor, in the aquatic edible plant, water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddin, Imadeddin M; Furumoto, Toshio; Ishida, Yutaka; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2004-06-01

    Water convolvulus, a vegetable, absorbed bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, from the medium. One week later, no BPA could be detected in the plant, indicating that BPA had been metabolized in the plant. BPA monoglucoside was detected as the BPA base at ca. 10% in the roots, some in the stems, but none in the leaves. (2)H-NMR analyses of MeOH extracts and hydrolyzates of the plant treated with BPA-d(16) showed the presence of metabolites (ca. 7% and 26%, respectively, as BPA equivalents) other than the glucoside. Over 50% of BPA might be polymerized and/or tightly bound in the plant residues. PMID:15215615

  11. Alabama ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  12. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  13. Maryland ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and rare coastal invertebrate species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data set...

  14. Hawaii ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, terrestrial, and native stream invertebrate species in coastal Hawaii. Vector...

  15. Virginia ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and rare invertebrate species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  16. Anti- and Pro-Lipase Activity of Selected Medicinal, Herbal and Aquatic Plants, and Structure Elucidation of an Anti-Lipase Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abubakar Ado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants that help in slowing down the digestion of triacylglycerols (TAGs in the pancreas and small intestine of humans play an important role in the reduction of obesity. On the other hand, there may be plants or plant parts that stimulate intestinal lipolytic activity, thus contributing to greater TAG assimilation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aqueous methanolic extracts of ninety eight (98 medicinal, herbal and aquatic plant materials from Malaysia for their effect on porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL activity and to identify the structure of an anti-lipase compound from one of the sources. The degree of inhibition was also quantified as relative to orlistat activity against PPL (orlistat equivalents. Results revealed that while 19.4% of the extracts were found to have anti-lipase activity ≥80%, 12% were actually found to promote PPL activity. Twenty two percent (22.4% exhibited moderate inhibition (41%–80% and 2% were neutral toward PPL activity. The ripe fruit of Averrhoa carambola and the leaves of Archidendron jiringa (Jack I.C Nielsen L. (jering, Cynometra cauliflora (nam-nam and Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd (candle nut/buah keras had the highest (100% anti-lipase activity and are equivalent to 0.11 µg orlistat/mL. Plants that stimulated lipase activity included Pimpinella anisum L. (aniseed/jintan manis, activating the enzyme by 186.5%. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of C. cauliflora leaves and found to be an active lipase inhibitor. The structure was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR analyses.

  17. Anti- and pro-lipase activity of selected medicinal, herbal and aquatic plants, and structure elucidation of an anti-lipase compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Muhammad Abubakar; Abas, Faridah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ghazali, Hasanah M

    2013-01-01

    Plants that help in slowing down the digestion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in the pancreas and small intestine of humans play an important role in the reduction of obesity. On the other hand, there may be plants or plant parts that stimulate intestinal lipolytic activity, thus contributing to greater TAG assimilation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aqueous methanolic extracts of ninety eight (98) medicinal, herbal and aquatic plant materials from Malaysia for their effect on porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) activity and to identify the structure of an anti-lipase compound from one of the sources. The degree of inhibition was also quantified as relative to orlistat activity against PPL (orlistat equivalents). Results revealed that while 19.4% of the extracts were found to have anti-lipase activity ≥80%, 12% were actually found to promote PPL activity. Twenty two percent (22.4%) exhibited moderate inhibition (41%-80%) and 2% were neutral toward PPL activity. The ripe fruit of Averrhoa carambola and the leaves of Archidendron jiringa (Jack) I.C Nielsen L. (jering), Cynometra cauliflora (nam-nam) and Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd (candle nut/buah keras) had the highest (100%) anti-lipase activity and are equivalent to 0.11 µg orlistat/mL. Plants that stimulated lipase activity included Pimpinella anisum L. (aniseed/jintan manis), activating the enzyme by 186.5%. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of C. cauliflora leaves and found to be an active lipase inhibitor. The structure was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR analyses. PMID:24287996

  18. A controlled aquatic ecological life support system (CAELSS) for combined production of fish and higher plant biomass suitable for integration into a lunar or planetary base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, V; Andriske, M; Eichhorn, H; Kreuzberg, K; Schreibman, M P

    1995-10-01

    Based on the construction principle of the already operative Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) the concept of an aquaculture system for combined production of animal and plant biomass was developed. It consists of a tank for intensive fish culture which is equipped with a feeding lock representing also a trap for biomass removal followed by a water recycling system. This is an optimized version of the original C.E.B.A.S. filters adapted to higher water pollutions. It operates in a fully biological mode and is able to convert the high ammonia ion concentrations excreted by the fish gills into nitrite ions. The second biomass production site is a higher plant cultivator with an internal fiber optics light distributor which may utilize of solar energy. The selected water plant is a tropical rootless duckweed of the genus Wolffia which possesses a high capacity in nitrate elimination and is terrestrially cultured as a vegetable for human nutrition in Southeast Asia. It is produced in an improved suspension culture which allows the removal of excess biomass by tangential centrifugation. The plant cultivator is able to supply the whole system with oxygen for respiration and eliminates vice versa the carbon dioxide exhaled by the fish via photosynthesis. A gas exchanger may be used for emergency purposes or to deliver excess oxygen into the environment and may be implemented into the air regeneration system of a closed environment of higher order. The plant biomass is fed into a biomass processor which delivers condensed fresh and dried biomass as pellets. The recovered water is fed back into the aquaculture loop. The fresh plants can be used for human nutrition immediately or can be stored after sterilization in an adequate packing. The dried Wolffia pellets are collected and brought into the fish tank by an automated feeder. In parallel the water from the plant cultivator is driven back to the animal tank by a pump. The special feature of the

  19. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stief

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal–microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal–microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) e...

  20. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stief

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal–microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal–microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosys...

  1. Accumulation of transuranic elements in the aquatic biota of the Belarusian sector of contaminated area near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant - Accumulation of transuranic elements in aquatic biota of Belarusian sector of contaminated area of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, Alexander; Mironov, Vladislav [International Sakharov Environmental University. Box 220070, 23 Dolgobrodskaya Street, Minsk, 220070 (Belarus)

    2014-07-01

    The evolution of nuclear contamination of Belarus territory after Chernobyl accident includes the four stages: 1. Iodine-neptunium stage, caused mainly by short-lived radionuclides {sup 131}I, {sup 239}Np and others with a half-life period of several weeks; II. Intermediate stage, caused by radionuclides with a half-life period of a year ({sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs, etc.); III. Strontium-cesium stage, caused by {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs with a half-life period of about 30 years; IV. Plutonium-americium, caused by long-lived α-emitting radionuclides {sup 241}Am (period of half-life of 432 years) and {sup 239+240}Pu, having high radio and chemo-toxicity. According to forecasts, activity of {sup 241}Am to 2050 year will increase by 2.5 times and it will be the most important dose-related factor for the aquatic biota within the Chernobyl accident zone. In 2002 - 2008 years we have studied the accumulation of trans-uranic elements (TUE, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239+240}Pu) in basic components of water body ecosystems within the Chernobyl zone - non-flowing Perstok Lake, weak-flowing Borschevka flooding and small Braginka River. Among investigated components are water, bottom sediments, submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum submersum, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lemna minor, Nuphar lutea, Stratiotes aloides), emergent macrophytes (Typha spp.), shellfish and fish. In the soil cover in the vicinity of the Perstok Lake activity of {sup 241}Am at present is equivalent to 300 - 600 Bq.kg{sup -1}, that is the basic source of its income to the lake. Radionuclides mobility in the water environment is higher than in the soil, that facilitates the rapid incorporation of {sup 241}Am to the trophic nets of water bodies and its removal by near-water animals in the terrestrial biotopes, including outside Chernobyl zone. Thus, the activity of {sup 241}Am in bottom sediments in the Perstok Lake and Borschevka flooding in 2008 year reach respectively 324 and 131 Bq.kg{sup -1}, and the

  2. Accumulation of transuranic elements in the aquatic biota of the Belarusian sector of contaminated area near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant - Accumulation of transuranic elements in aquatic biota of Belarusian sector of contaminated area of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of nuclear contamination of Belarus territory after Chernobyl accident includes the four stages: 1. Iodine-neptunium stage, caused mainly by short-lived radionuclides 131I, 239Np and others with a half-life period of several weeks; II. Intermediate stage, caused by radionuclides with a half-life period of a year (144Ce, 106Ru, 134Cs, etc.); III. Strontium-cesium stage, caused by 90Sr and 137Cs with a half-life period of about 30 years; IV. Plutonium-americium, caused by long-lived α-emitting radionuclides 241Am (period of half-life of 432 years) and 239+240Pu, having high radio and chemo-toxicity. According to forecasts, activity of 241Am to 2050 year will increase by 2.5 times and it will be the most important dose-related factor for the aquatic biota within the Chernobyl accident zone. In 2002 - 2008 years we have studied the accumulation of trans-uranic elements (TUE, 241Am, 239+240Pu) in basic components of water body ecosystems within the Chernobyl zone - non-flowing Perstok Lake, weak-flowing Borschevka flooding and small Braginka River. Among investigated components are water, bottom sediments, submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum submersum, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lemna minor, Nuphar lutea, Stratiotes aloides), emergent macrophytes (Typha spp.), shellfish and fish. In the soil cover in the vicinity of the Perstok Lake activity of 241Am at present is equivalent to 300 - 600 Bq.kg-1, that is the basic source of its income to the lake. Radionuclides mobility in the water environment is higher than in the soil, that facilitates the rapid incorporation of 241Am to the trophic nets of water bodies and its removal by near-water animals in the terrestrial biotopes, including outside Chernobyl zone. Thus, the activity of 241Am in bottom sediments in the Perstok Lake and Borschevka flooding in 2008 year reach respectively 324 and 131 Bq.kg-1, and the activity of 241Am in macrophytes of the Perstok Lake at the same year was 1,0 - 3,7 Bq.kg-1. In

  3. Distribution of benthic invertebrates at different depths in a shallow reservoir in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Samways

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The bottom of a freshwater reservoir in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands was sampled for macro-invertebrates and macrophytes at depths of 0.5 m, 1 m, 2 m, and 3 m. The water plants Elodea spp. which did not occur much beyond 1 m appeared to be a major deter-minant for the presence of invertebrates. At 2 m and 3 m, when temperature and light decreased greatly, it was replaced by the algae Chara spp. Over 98 of the macroinvertebrate individuals in 21 species and 14 families occurred in water 1 m or less in depth. At 2 m and deeper, there was a rapid decline of species, with only one, a snail, occurring at 3 m. Odonata species occurred only in water 1 m or less in depth. Among the Ephemeroptera, Caenis sp. was abundant at 0.5 m and the most dominant species of all. At 1 m, the most dominant species was Cleon palidulosum of the Baetidae. Both in terms of food for waterfowl and trout, and as a reserve for aquatic macroin vertebrates, the shallow fringe of the reservoir was playing by far the major role compared with the deeper, open water. It is recommended both for biotic conservation and fishing that reservoirs have a shallow rim and constant water levels.

  4. Diversity of Aquatic Vascular Plants in the Yangtze Delta%长江三角洲地区水生维管植物的多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦恬; 张光富; 李跃; 李玲; 俞立鹏

    2012-01-01

    Based on field investigation and literature survey, the species composition, geographical elements,and endangered state of aquatic vascular plants in the Yangtze Delta were analyzed. We found 185 wild species belonging to 90 genera and 39 families in this area,most of which were distributed in habitats such as ditches, rice-fields, and ponds. Additionally,e-mergent plants were the main type in terms of life form. This flora was chiefly temperate in nature according to areal-type analysis both at the level of genera and of species. In light of IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Edition 3. 1),those species were classified into 9 types, including Regionally Extinct (RE) 1,Critically Endangered (CR) 3,Endangered (EN) 8,and Vulnerable (VU) 10. Finally,we also examined the main reasons causing these aquatic plants to become threatened.%根据野外调查及相关资料,分析了长江三角洲地区水生植物区系的种类组成、地理成分以及濒危现状.该区现有水生维管植物39科90属185种,其生活型以挺水植物为主(占64.32%),主要分布于田边沟渠、农田以及池塘等不同水体.属、种等级的地理成分分析结果表明:其区系性质主要为温带性质.根据水生植物的濒危现状,参照世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)红色名录的等级和标准(3.1版本),将该区的植物分为9大类,其中地区性灭绝1种,极危种3种,濒危种8种,易危种10种,并简要讨论了该区水生植物受威胁的主要原因.

  5. Comparing aquatic risk assessment methods for the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides metribuzin and metamitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different risk assessment procedures are described that aim to protect freshwater habitats from risks of the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides metribuzin and metamitron. These procedures are (1) the first-tier approach, based on standard toxicity tests and the application of an assessment factor, (2) the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) approach, based on laboratory tests with a wider array of species and the application of a statistical model to calculate the HCx (the Hazardous Concentration for x% of the species), and (3) the model ecosystem approach, based on the evaluation of treatment-related effects in field enclosures. A comparison of the risk assessment procedures reveals that the first-tier approach is the most conservative for metamitron and metribuzin, and that HC5 values (and even HC10 values) based on acute EC50 values of algae and aquatic vascular plants may be used to derive maximum permissible concentrations for single applications. For both compounds these HC5 values were very similar to the ecological threshold concentrations in the enclosure studies. In contrast to model ecosystem experiments, however, HCx values based on lab toxicity tests do not provide information on the recovery potential of sensitive endpoints and on indirect effects, which may be important for regulatory decision-making. In the enclosure study, indirect effects of metribuzin on invertebrate populations were observed at an exposure concentration that was approximately 20 times lower than the corresponding HC5 value based on lab toxicity data for aquatic invertebrates. - Laboratory toxicity data for aquatic primary producers can be used to derive ecological thresholds for herbicides

  6. Heavy metals in water, sediments and wetland plants in an aquatic ecosystem of tropical industrial region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Hg, Ni, and Cd) and macronutrients (Mn) were measured in industrial effluents, water, bottom sediments, and wetland plants from a reservoir, Govind Ballabh (G.B.) Pant Sagar, in Singrauli Industrial region, India. The discharge point of a thermal power plant, a coal mine, and chlor-alkali effluent into the G.B. Pant Sagar were selected as sampling sites with one reference site in order to compare the findings. The concentrations of heavy metals in filtered water, sieved sediment samples (0.4-63 microm), and wetland plants were determined with particle-induced X-ray emission. The collected plants were Aponogeton natans, L. Engl. & Krause, Cyperus rotundus, L., Hydrilla verticillata, (L.f.) Royle, Ipomoea aquatica, Forssk., Marsilea quadrifolia, L., Potamogeton pectinatus, L., Eichhornia crassipes, (Mart.) Solms Monogr., Lemna minor, L., Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Linnaea, Azolla pinnata, R.Br., Vallisneria spiralis, L., and Polygonum amphibium, L. In general, metal concentration showed a significant positive correlation between industrial effluent, lake water, and lake sediment (p < 0.01). Likewise, significant positive correlation was recorded with metals concentration in plants and lake ambient, which further indicated the potential of aforesaid set of wetland macrophytes for pollution monitoring. PMID:18998227

  7. Coupling interaction between biodiversity and aquatic habitat area in Western Route Project vicinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-min TIAN; Zhao-yin WANG; Xiang-jun LIU; Shi-kui LIANG

    2010-01-01

    The Western Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project will divert water from the upper Yangtze River and its tributaries,the Dadu River and Yalong River,to the upper Yellow River.The project may ease the water shortage in the Yellow River Basin.However,it may also have some effects on the ecosystem in the upper Yangtze River Basin.Benthic invertebrates play an important role in the river ecosystem,particularly in the circulation of materials and nutrition.Benthic invertebrates are widely used to quickly assess river ecosystems because of their rapid response to changes in the water environment.The diversity of benthic invertebrates is closely associated with the aquatic habitat area.This study examined this interaction by sampling the benthic invertebrates in an expanding area.The conclusions are that the diversity of benthic invertebrates begins to decrease when the aquatic habitat area is reduced to 45% of the original area,and decreases dramatically when the aquatic habitat area is reduced to 10% of the original area.The aquatic habitat area should be kept at more than 45% of the original area in order to maintain the significant diversity of benthic invertebrates.

  8. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ((Simon)); ((Royal))

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  9. Micro-scale elemental partition in tissues of the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. exposed to highway drainage water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes Godinho, R., E-mail: rmgodinho@yahoo.com [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); IPMA Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisboa 1449-006 (Portugal); Raimundo, J.; Vale, C.; Anes, B.; Brito, P. [IPMA Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisboa 1449-006 (Portugal); Alves, L.C.; Pinheiro, T. [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL – Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    In the scope of a monitoring program to assess the environmental impact of automobile traffic over one main bridge in Lisbon, both water and duckweed (Lemna minor L.) were sampled from the road drainage tanks and analyzed for chemical elements. Plants uptake Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn metals from rain water draining the bridge road. Nuclear microprobe elemental maps of cryosections of L. minor tissues showed that incorporated elements were internalized in fronds of the plant. This approach at micrometer level allows a better knowledge of the elemental tissue partitioning in this biomonitor organism.

  10. A review of methods used in the preparation and analysis of Orimulsion-related samples (part 2 : aquatic toxicology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented a review of aquatic toxicity studies developed by several research groups around the world working on Orimulsion since its commercial debut in 1993. Orimulsion is an emulsion of natural bitumen, freshwater and a surfactant which maintains its stability. The review includes studies of Orimulsion-100 and Orimulsion-400 formulations. The chemical composition of the two formulations is similar, with the primary component being Cerro Negro bitumen from the Orinoco Belt in eastern Venezuela. The methods used in the aquatic toxicity studies were reviewed. They included water-soluble fractions, oil-in-water dispersions, and water-accommodated fractions. The aquatic toxicity studies provided comparative toxicity data for marine and freshwater species, plants and animals, as well as static and dynamic exposures. A brief description of studies of bacteria, algae and aquatic invertebrates was presented. Comparative toxicity data of the two formulations suggests that both have similar acute toxicity, with Orimulsion-400 being slightly lower. It was recommended that an oil-in-water dispersion (OWD) should be used for all water column exposures. 25 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  11. The maximization of the productivity of aquatic plants for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. G.

    Lemna minor (common duckweed) and a Wolffia sp. were grown in submerged growth systems. Submerged growth increased the productivity/unit volume (P/UV) of the organisms and may allow these plants to be used in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS).

  12. Crassulacean acid metabolism enhances underwater photosynthesis and diminishes photorespiration in the aquatic plant Isoetes australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, S.M.; Pulido Pérez, Cristina;

    2011-01-01

    were evaluated for Isoetes australis, a submerged plant that inhabits shallow temporary rock pools. • Leaves high or low in malate were evaluated for underwater net photosynthesis and apparent photorespiration at a range of CO2 and O2 concentrations. • CAM activity was indicated by 9.7-fold higher leaf...

  13. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (Porders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  14. Vertebrate interleukins originated in invertebrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gerber

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that invertebrate immune and neural tissues contain mammalian-like cytokines, which activate specific cellular functions. Therefore, it was of interest to attempt to identify these molecules via Applied Biosystems Human Genome Survey Arrays. The array was used to analyze the transcriptional profiles of Mytilus edulis RNA samples. The Applied Biosystems Human Genome Survey Array contains 31,700 60-mer oligonucleotides probes representing a set of 27, 868 individual human genes and more than 1,000 control probes. We show interleukin-like and tumor necrosis factor-like genes among other cytokine-like genes significantly expressed in this invertebrate tissue with a signal to noise value greater than 2. In morphine treated tissue additional cytokine genes were expressed. These cytokine-like genes are directly related to previously discovered molecules in invertebrates, suggesting that they first appeared earlier in evolution.

  15. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g−1 (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g−1 internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent

  16. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  17. Ocorrência de plantas aquáticas nos reservatórios da Light-RJ Ocurrence of aquatic plants in the Light-RJ reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar as comunidades infestantes de plantas aquáticas presentes nos reservatórios da Light-Sistema de Eletricidade S.A., localizada no município de Piraí-RJ. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de julho a setembro de 1998. Os reservatórios analisados foram: Vigário, Pereira Passos e Lajes, sendo as quantidades de pontos amostrados de 19, 9 e 15, respectivamente. Em cada ponto amostrado fez-se a marcação das coordenadas geográficas e avaliou-se a porcentagem de ocupação do corpo d'água pelas espécies de plantas aquáticas presentes. Depois da identificação das plantas, pôde-se verificar quais eram as espécies mais freqüentes e a sua distribuição dentro do sistema de geração de energia. As espécies encontradas nos reservatórios foram: Brachiaria arrecta (Hack. Stent.; Egeria densa Planch.; Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth.; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms.; Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge Nees.; Panicum rivulare Trin.; Pistia stratiotis L.; Polygonum spp.; Sagitaria montevidensis Cham. & Schlecht; Salvinia auriculata (Micheli Adans; e Thypha dominguensis L.This study aimed to describe the aquatic weeds infesting the Light-Electric System S.A. reservoirs, located in Pirai-RJ, Brazil. The survey was carried out from July to September 1998. The reservoirs analyzed were: Vigario, Pereira Passos and Lajes, with 19, 9 and 15 points being sampled, respectively. Sampled geographic coordinates were marked in each point and a visual estimate was made of the percentage of river water occupied by the aquatic plants. After plant identification, the most frequent species and their distribution were determined as follows: Brachiaria arrecta (Hack. Stent.; Egeria densa Planch.; Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth.; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms.; Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge Nees.; Panicum rivulare Trin.; Pistia stratiotis L.; Polygonum spp.; Sagitaria montevidensis Cham.& Schlecht

  18. Invertebrate and Seed Biomass of Wetland Habitats Managed for Waterfowl at Erie National Wildlife Refuge 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to compare the plant and invertebrate communities of three moist soil units at Erie National Wildlife Refuge to two other types of...

  19. Aluminium and iron burdens of aquatic biota in New Zealand streams contaminated by acid mine drainage. Effects of trophic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterbourn, M.J. [Department of Zoology, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); McDiffett, W.F.; Eppley, S.J. [Biology Department, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA (United States)

    2000-05-24

    Concentrations of Al and Fe were determined in samples of filamentous algae, bryophytes and invertebrates from 24 stream sites in North Westland, South Island, New Zealand. Sites were variably contaminated by acid coal mine drainage and ranged in pH from 2.6 to 6.2. Conductivity of stream water ranged from 16 to 944 {mu}S{sub 25} cm{sup -1} and maximum concentrations of total dissolved Al and total Fe measured in two successive years were 35.5 and 32.6 mg l{sup -1}, respectively. Metal burdens of algae and bryophytes were not correlated with pH, conductivity or the concentrations of Al and Fe observed in stream water. Metal concentrations in invertebrates were significantly lower than those in plants (mg per g dry wt.), and were similar in herbivore-detritivores (mainly mayfly larvae) and carnivorous species. No evidence was found for the biomagnification of either metal within aquatic food webs. However, invertebrate species exposed to very high concentrations of Al and Fe varied considerably in body burdens, suggesting that groups of insects differ considerably in their physiological or morphological ability to exclude potentially toxic metals.

  20. Assessment of the dye removal capability of submersed aquatic plants in a laboratory-scale wetland system using anova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Keskinkan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The textile dye (Basic Blue 41(BB41 removal capability of a laboratory-scale wetland system was presented in this study. Twenty glass aquaria were used to establish the wetland. Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum were planted in the aquaria and acclimated. After establishing flow conditions, the aquaria were fed with synthetic wastewaters containing BB41. The concentration of the dye was adjusted to 11.0 mg/L in the synthetic wastewater. Hydraulic retention times (HRTs ranged between 3 and 18 days. Effective HRTs were 9 and 18 days. The highest dye removal rates were 94.8 and 94.1% for M. spicatum and C. demersum aquaria respectively. The statistical ANOVA method was used to assess the dye removal capability of the wetland system. In all cases the ANOVA method revealed that plants in the wetland system and HRT were important factors and the wetland system was able to remove the dye from influent wastewater.

  1. Assessment of the dye removal capability of submersed aquatic plants in a laboratory-scale wetland system using anova

    OpenAIRE

    O. Keskinkan; M. Z. Lugal Göksu

    2007-01-01

    The textile dye (Basic Blue 41(BB41)) removal capability of a laboratory-scale wetland system was presented in this study. Twenty glass aquaria were used to establish the wetland. Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum were planted in the aquaria and acclimated. After establishing flow conditions, the aquaria were fed with synthetic wastewaters containing BB41. The concentration of the dye was adjusted to 11.0 mg/L in the synthetic wastewater. Hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranged...

  2. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests. PMID:25732700

  3. The invertebrate ecology of the Chalk aquifer in England (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, L.; Robertson, A. R.; White, D.; Knight, L.; Johns, T.; Edwards, F.; Arietti, M.; Sorensen, J. P. R.; Weitowitz, D.; Marchant, B. P.; Bloomfield, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    The Chalk is an important water supply aquifer, yet ecosystems within it remain poorly understood. Boreholes (198) in seven areas of England (UK) were sampled to determine the importance of the Chalk aquifer as a habitat, and to improve understanding of how species are distributed. Stygobitic macro-invertebrates were remarkably common, and were recorded in 67 % of boreholes in unconcealed Chalk, although they were not recorded in Chalk that is concealed by low-permeability strata and thus likely to be confined. Most species were found in shallow boreholes (50 m) water tables, indicating that the habitat is vertically extensive. Stygobites were present in more boreholes in southern England than northern England (77 % compared to 38 %). Only two species were found in northern England compared to six in southern England, but overall seven of the eight stygobitic macro-invertebrate species found in England were detected in the Chalk. Two species are common in southern England, but absent from northern England despite the presence of a continuous habitat prior to the Devensian glaciation. This suggests that either they did not survive glaciations in the north where glaciers were more extensive, or dispersal rates are slow and they have never colonised northern England. Subsurface ecosystems comprising aquatic macro-invertebrates and meiofauna, as well as the microbial organisms they interact with, are likely to be widespread in the Chalk aquifer. They represent an important contribution to biodiversity, and may influence biogeochemical cycles and provide other ecosystem services.

  4. Deficiency and toxicity of nanomolar copper in low irradiance-A physiological and metalloproteomic study in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Andresen, Elisa; Mattusch, Jürgen; Hubáček, Tomáš; Küpper, Hendrik

    2016-08-01

    Essential trace elements (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), etc) lead to toxic effects above a certain threshold, which is a major environmental problem in many areas of the world. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu(2+) and simulations of natural light and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum a s a model for plant shoots. In this low irradiance study resembling non-summer conditions, growth was optimal in the range 7.5-35nM Cu, while PSII activity (Fv/Fm) was maximal around 7.5nM Cu. Damage to the light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII) was the first target of Cu toxicity (>50nM Cu) where Cu replaced Mg in the LHCII-trimers. This was associated with a subsequent decrease of Chl a as well as heat dissipation (NPQ). The growth rate was decreased from the first week of Cu deficiency. Plastocyanin malfunction due to the lack of Cu that is needed for its active centre was the likely cause of diminished electron flow through PSII (ΦPSII). The pigment decrease added to the damage in the photosynthetic light reactions. These mechanisms ultimately resulted in decrease of starch and oxygen production. PMID:27309311

  5. Evaluation of selected ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic environment and their transformation products. A pilot study of their removal from a sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, M J Martínez; Uclés, S; Hernando, M D; Dávoli, E; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2011-03-01

    A simple method using direct sample injection combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of six alkaloid compounds in environmental samples. The target list includes two psychostimulants (nicotine and caffeine), three metabolites (cotinine, nicotinic acid and paraxanthine) and a coffee chemical (trigonelline). The analytical method was evaluated in three different matrices (surface water, influent and effluent wastewater). The method developed showed an adequate sensitivity, below 0.6 μg L(-1) for wastewater and 0.1 μg L(-1) for river matrices, without any prior treatment of the samples. Finally, the methodology was applied to real samples for evaluation of their removal from a sewage treatment plant and their persistence/fate in the aquatic environment. All compounds studied in this work were detected at all sampling points collected along the Henares River. However, nicotinic acid was only detected three times in treated sewage samples at levels above its detection limit. PMID:21333319

  6. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in water, sediments, aquatic plant and histopathological effects on the golden apple snail in Beung Boraphet reservoir, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummee, Vipawee; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the seasonal concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd) were determined in water, sediments, snails (Pomacea canaliculata) and aquatic plants (Ipomoea aquatica) in three selected tributaries of the Beung Boraphet reservoir, Nakhon Sawan Province, central Thailand. Only Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn were detected by FAAS in all samples collected. The water quality of Beung Boraphet was medium clean with Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations well below internationally accepted limits. According to the criteria proposed for sediments by the EPA Region V, Zn and Mn concentrations were within the non-polluted range while Fe and Cu (wet season) concentrations fell into the class of severely polluted sediment. Both P. canaliculata and I. aquatica bioconcentrated more Mn in their tissues than were found in sediments, especially in the wet season. The results of Pearson correlation study and BCF values also indicated similar findings. Only Mn showed the importance of sediment-to-snail concentration and high BCF values in both snails and plants. P. canaliculata exposed to contaminated sediment for two months, showed higher accumulation of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) in the digestive tracts and digestive glands than in the foot muscles. Histopathological changes included alterations in the epithelial lining of the digestive tracts, digestive glands and the gills. Loss of cilia and increase in mucous cells were observed in the digestive tracts and gills, while the digestive glands exhibited an increase of dark granules and basophilic cells, and dilation of digestive cells. The results indicated that both P. canaliculata and I. aquatica could be used as biomonitors of sedimentary metal contamination for the Beung Boraphet reservoir. PMID:23079739

  7. Some aspects of radioecological monitoring of high aquatic plants from water bodies within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone - 16368

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact analysis of low doses of ionizing radiation on the breathers in natural populations is an important part of radiobiological studies of non-human biota. The main aim of our studies was to investigate some cytogenetic, morphological and reproductive rates of the common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex. Steud.) from different water bodies within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone. The absorbed dose rate for littoral emergent plants in sampling water bodies was varied from 1.3 E-02 to 1.6 E-01 Gy/h. The rate and main types of chromosome aberrations in roots meristems, morphological damages in seed germs, as well as rates of germinating ability and power were analyzed. There were registered rather low rate of germinating ability (14-48 %) and germinating power (<1) of seeds from all sampling water bodies with high levels of radioactive contamination in comparison to control ones. Against the general suppressed background the effect of relative stimulation of more affected seeds was observed. With increase of absorbed dose in range of 1.3 E-02-1.6 E-01 Gy/h the number of germinated seeds was increased. At the same time the number of morphological damages of seeds was increased as well. There was determined the positive correlation between absorbed dose rate and chromosome aberration rate in roots of the common reed from sampling water bodies. The highest rate of chromosome aberrations (up to 17 %) were registered in plants with high level of morphological deviations in seeds germs. The data obtained from the complex analysis of natural populations of the common reed from the radioactive contaminated water bodies testify about rather high level of genetic efficiency of low doses of long-term exposure. (authors)

  8. Grasslands, Invertebrates, and Precipitation: A Review of the Effects of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Kirk L.; Facey, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrates are the main components of faunal diversity in grasslands, playing substantial roles in ecosystem processes including nutrient cycling and pollination. Grassland invertebrate communities are heavily dependent on the plant diversity and production within a given system. Climate change models predict alterations in precipitation patterns, both in terms of the amount of total inputs and the frequency, seasonality and intensity with which these inputs occur, which will impact grassland productivity. Given the ecological, economic and biodiversity value of grasslands, and their importance globally as areas of carbon storage and agricultural development, it is in our interest to understand how predicted alterations in precipitation patterns will affect grasslands and the invertebrate communities they contain. Here, we review the findings from manipulative and observational studies which have examined invertebrate responses to altered rainfall, with a particular focus on large-scale field experiments employing precipitation manipulations. Given the tight associations between invertebrate communities and their underlying plant communities, invertebrate responses to altered precipitation generally mirror those of the plants in the system. However, there is evidence that species responses to future precipitation changes will be idiosyncratic and context dependent across trophic levels, challenging our ability to make reliable predictions about how grassland communities will respond to future climatic changes, without further investigation. Thus, moving forward, we recommend increased consideration of invertebrate communities in current and future rainfall manipulation platforms, as well as the adoption of new technologies to aid such studies. PMID:27547213

  9. Grasslands, Invertebrates, and Precipitation: A Review of the Effects of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Kirk L; Facey, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrates are the main components of faunal diversity in grasslands, playing substantial roles in ecosystem processes including nutrient cycling and pollination. Grassland invertebrate communities are heavily dependent on the plant diversity and production within a given system. Climate change models predict alterations in precipitation patterns, both in terms of the amount of total inputs and the frequency, seasonality and intensity with which these inputs occur, which will impact grassland productivity. Given the ecological, economic and biodiversity value of grasslands, and their importance globally as areas of carbon storage and agricultural development, it is in our interest to understand how predicted alterations in precipitation patterns will affect grasslands and the invertebrate communities they contain. Here, we review the findings from manipulative and observational studies which have examined invertebrate responses to altered rainfall, with a particular focus on large-scale field experiments employing precipitation manipulations. Given the tight associations between invertebrate communities and their underlying plant communities, invertebrate responses to altered precipitation generally mirror those of the plants in the system. However, there is evidence that species responses to future precipitation changes will be idiosyncratic and context dependent across trophic levels, challenging our ability to make reliable predictions about how grassland communities will respond to future climatic changes, without further investigation. Thus, moving forward, we recommend increased consideration of invertebrate communities in current and future rainfall manipulation platforms, as well as the adoption of new technologies to aid such studies. PMID:27547213

  10. The overlooked biodiversity of flower-visiting invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl W Wardhaugh

    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1 canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2 canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the 'diversity jigsaw puzzle' than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species

  11. A Review on the Toxicity and Non-Target Effects of Macrocyclic Lactones in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Errouissi, Faiek; Floate, Kevin; Römbke, Jörg; Wardhaugh, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The avermectins, milbemycins and spinosyns are collectively referred to as macrocyclic lactones (MLs) which comprise several classes of chemicals derived from cultures of soil micro-organisms. These compounds are extensively and increasingly used in veterinary medicine and agriculture. Due to their potential effects on non-target organisms, large amounts of information on their impact in the environment has been compiled in recent years, mainly caused by legal requirements related to their marketing authorization or registration. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present knowledge about the acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of MLs on organisms, mainly invertebrates, in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Detailed information is presented on the mode-of-action as well as the ecotoxicity of the most important compounds representing the three groups of MLs. This information, based on more than 360 references, is mainly provided in nine tables, presenting the effects of abamectin, ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin, emamectin, moxidectin, and spinosad on individual species of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates as well as plants and algae. Since dung dwelling organisms are particularly important non-targets, as they are exposed via dung from treated animals over their whole life-cycle, the information on the effects of MLs on dung communities is compiled in an additional table. The results of this review clearly demonstrate that regarding environmental impacts many macrocyclic lactones are substances of high concern particularly with larval instars of invertebrates. Recent studies have also shown that susceptibility varies with life cycle stage and impacts can be mitigated by using MLs when these stages are not present. However information on the environmental impact of the MLs is scattered across a wide range of specialised scientific journals with research focusing mainly on ivermectin and to a lesser extent on abamectin

  12. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861

  13. Cadmium toxicity investigated at the physiological and biophysical levels under environmentally relevant conditions using the aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Elisa; Kappel, Sophie; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Riegger, Ulrike; Borovec, Jakub; Mattusch, Jürgen; Heinz, Andrea; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Matoušková, Šárka; Dickinson, Bryan; Küpper, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under environmentally relevant conditions, including nature-like light and temperature cycles, and a low biomass to water ratio. We measured chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence kinetics, oxygen exchange, the concentrations of reactive oxygen species and pigments, metal binding to proteins, and the accumulation of starch and metals. The inhibition threshold concentration for most parameters was 20 nM. Below this concentration, hardly any stress symptoms were observed. The first site of inhibition was photosynthetic light reactions (the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre measured as Fv /Fm , light-acclimated PSII activity ΦPSII , and total Chl). Trimers of the PSII light-harvesting complexes (LHCIIs) decreased more than LHC monomers and detection of Cd in the monomers suggested replacement of magnesium (Mg) by Cd in the Chl molecules. As a consequence of dysfunctional photosynthesis and energy dissipation, reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) appeared. Cadmium had negative effects on macrophytes at much lower concentrations than reported previously, emphasizing the importance of studies applying environmentally relevant conditions. A chain of inhibition events could be established. PMID:26840406

  14. Aquatic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the high reproduction rates of the plankton and good tidal mixing at existing plants, depletion of plankton populations has not occurred. Spawning occurs throughout the Bay for the species of fish present here, so local depletions are insufficient to decrease Bay populations. Impingement totals are small compared to mortality due to other sources. In addition, efforts to reduce these totals are now underway at all three existing plants, Calvert Cliffs, Morgantown, and Chalk Point. Habitat modification effects, usually more subtle in nature, have minor, localized impacts. Coupled together, the power plant monitoring studies show a low cumulative impact on the mesohaline environment. The major area of concern within this region is the impact of cooling water withdrawals upon the nursery and spawning areas of striped bass and other anadromous species. Possum Point and Vienna have the highest potential for impact. New facilities planned for this region (Douglas Point, Summit, and Vienna) would increase withdrawals. The overall impact upon striped bass due to entrainment drops from an estimated 6.6% entrainment (upper bound) of the eggs and larvae spawned in the Maryland portion of the Bay at present to an estimated 3.4% (upper bound) after 1987. The addition of Douglas Point and Summit is more than off-set by the retirements of the once-through cooling units at Vienna. No impingement data are available at any of the present plants; however, degraded water quality at the Baltimore and Washington plants appears to have severely restricted fish populations in these waters. The proposed plants are expected to have no major impacts in the areas of impingement or habitat modification due to the small amount of water withdrawn

  15. Influence of antifouling paint on freshwater invertebrates (Mytilidae, Chironomidae and Naididae): density, richness and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M; Coutinho, R; Fernandes, F C

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study about invertebrates on artificial substrates with different antifouling paints in order to answer the following questions 1) is there lower accumulation of organic matter on substrates with antifouling paints, 2) is invertebrate colonization influenced by the release of biocides from antifouling paints, 3) is the colonization of aquatic invertebrates positively influenced by the material accumulated upon the substrate surface and 4) is the assemblage composition of invertebrates similar among the different antifouling paints? To answer these questions, four structures were installed in the Baía River in February 1st, 2007. Each structure was composed of 7 wood boards: 5 boards painted with each type of antifouling paints (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), one painted only with the primer (Pr) and the other without any paint (Cn). After 365 days, we observed a greater accumulation of organic matter in the substrates with T2 and T3 paint coatings. Limnoperna fortunei was recorded in all tested paints, with higher densities in the control, primer, T2 and T3. The colonization of Chironomidae and Naididae on the substrate was positively influenced by L. fortunei density. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the invertebrate community provided evidence of the clear distinction of invertebrate assemblages among the paints. Paints T2 and T3 were the most similar to the control and primer. Our results suggest that antifouling paints applied on substrates hinder invertebrate colonization by decreasing the density and richness of invertebrates. PMID:26628222

  16. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  17. Controle químico de plantas aquáticas: Polygonum lapathifolium Chemical control of aquatic plants: Polygonum lapathifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Terra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de alguns herbicidas no controle de Polygonum lapathifolium. O experimento foi instalado e conduzido no Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP - Botucatu-SP. Plantas de P. lapathifolium foram coletadas no rio Tietê e cultivadas em caixas d'água de fibra de vidro de 0,6 x 0,6 x 0,45 m, contendo 15 cm de solo. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: 2,4-D amina a 720 a 1.440 g e.a. ha-1; diquat a 480 g i.a. ha-1; glyphosate a 2.400 e 3.360 g e.a. ha-1 + Aterbane 0,5% v/v; imazapyr a 250 e 500 g e.a. ha-1; e testemunha sem aplicação de herbicida. A aplicação foi realizada com um pulverizador costal pressurizado a CO2, a pressão constante de 2,0 bars, equipado com barra de pulverização munida de dois bicos de jato plano, tipo Teejet XR 110.02 VS. O consumo de calda foi de 200 L ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As avaliações foram visuais, atribuindo-se notas para os sintomas de injúrias de acordo com uma escala percentual. Apenas o herbicida glyphosate, independentemente da dose utilizada, controlou as plantas de Polygonum lapathifolium, atingindo 100% aos 46 dias após a aplicação. Inicialmente o herbicida diquat promoveu injúrias severas, entretanto, no decorrer do período de avaliações, elas se dissiparam e as plantas rebrotaram.The objective of this trial was to study the efficacy of some herbicides in controlling P. lapathifolium. The experiment was carried out at Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia of the Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas/Botucatu - São Paulo, Brazil. Polygonum lapathifolium plants were collected in the Tietê River and cultivated in 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.45 m fiber glass tanks containing 15 cm of soil. The herbicides used were 2,4-D amine at 720 and 1,440 g e.a. ha-1, diquat at 480 g a.i. ha-1, glyphosate at 2,400 and 3,360 g e

  18. Validation trial of Japan's zinc water quality standard for aquatic life using field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Kanae

    2011-10-01

    This study sought to validate Japan's zinc water quality standard for aquatic life (algae and benthic invertebrates) based on field survey data. The effects of zinc on aquatic life, especially algae and benthic invertebrates, were investigated mainly in water areas with upstream basins that contain mines. Seven biological indicators (number of cells or individuals, number of taxa, number of EPT taxa, number of collector-gatherer taxa of benthic invertebrates, and Simpson index, Shannon-Weiner index, and Margalef index for algae and benthic invertebrates) were analyzed with respect to zinc concentrations and the zinc toxic equivalent quantity (Zn-TEQ), and additive contribution from other metals was assumed. The results showed that the number of taxa of algae and benthic invertebrates significantly decreased with increases in zinc concentration and Zn-TEQ. For benthic invertebrates, six of the metrics (all except the number of individuals) tended to decrease with increases in zinc concentration and Zn-TEQ. The effect level of biocenosis (ELB) was defined as the concentration at which the metrics decrease significantly with Wilcoxon's rank sum test. The ELB calculated for zinc was in the range of 16-54 μg/L for zinc concentration and 38-50 μg/L for Zn-TEQ; thus, Japan's environmental zinc standard for the protection of aquatic life, at 30 μg/L, was found to be a level consistent with these results. PMID:21851980

  19. Nitrous Oxide Emission by Aquatic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    Many macrofauna species co-ingest large quantities of microorganisms some of which survive the gut passage. Denitrifying bacteria, in particular, become metabolically induced by anoxic conditions, nitrate, and labile organic compounds in the gut of invertebrates. A striking consequence of the short......, respectively. Aside from these case studies, we screened more than 20 macrofauna species in various aquatic habitats for nitrous oxide production. Filter- and deposit-feeders that ingest large quantities of microorganisms were the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species that do...... not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. With increasing eutrophication, filter- and deposit-feeders often become the dominant feeding guilds of benthic communities. Thus, with increasing nitrate pollution, aquatic macrofauna has the potential to...

  20. GPCRs in invertebrate innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Jerome; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2016-08-15

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a privileged point of contact between cells and their surrounding environment. They have been widely adopted in vertebrates as mediators of signals involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Invertebrates rely on innate immune defences to resist infection. We review here evidence from a number of different species, principally the genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster that points to an important role for GPCRs in modulating innate immunity in invertebrates too. In addition to examples of GPCRs involved in regulating the expression of defence genes, we discuss studies in C. elegans addressing the role of GPCR signalling in pathogen aversive behaviour. Despite the many lacunae in our current knowledge, it is clear that GPCR signalling contributes to host defence across the animal kingdom. PMID:27262554

  1. Invertebrate populations in miscanthus (Miscanthusxgiganteus) and reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea) fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.M. [Llysdinam Field Centre, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llandrindod Wells, Powys, LD1 6NB (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Monitoring of invertebrates at four field sites in Herefordshire, England, growing miscanthus and reed canary-grass was carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2004 to investigate the ecological impact of these crops on ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping; and arboreal invertebrates by sweep netting and stem beating. The Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's Butterflies Monitoring Scheme methodology was used to record butterflies. The effects of the biomass crops on invertebrates were indirect, through the use of weeds as food resources and habitat. The greater diversity of weed flora within miscanthus fields than within reed canary-grass fields had a greater positive effect on invertebrates. Ground beetles, butterflies and arboreal invertebrates were more abundant and diverse in the most floristically diverse miscanthus fields. The difference in crop architecture and development between miscanthus and reed canary-grass was reflected in their differences in crop height and ground cover early on in the season. However, most of the difference in arthropod abundance between the two crops was attributed to the difference in the agronomic practice of growing the crops such as plant density, and the effect of this on weed growth. Since perennial rhizomatous grasses require a single initial planting and related tillage, and also no major chemical inputs; and because the crops are harvested in the spring and the land is not disturbed by cultivation every year, the fields were used as over-wintering sites for invertebrates suggesting immediate benefits to biodiversity. (author)

  2. Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mather

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them.

  3. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticit...... and memory has long been a matter of debate. A recent study on Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes now establishes Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) as a key immune surveillance factor with characteristics analogous to antibodies....

  4. Marine invertebrates: communities at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Our definition of the word 'animal' centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

  5. Assessment of Missouri River floodplain invertebrates during historic inundation: implications for river restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Gosch N.J.C.; Miller M.L.; Dzialowski A.R.; Morris D.M.; Gemeinhardt T.R.; Bonneau J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Floodplain connectivity is important to aquatic organisms in large rivers. Anthropogenic alterations regulating the Missouri River have limited connectivity and negatively affected native fauna. Determining the biological response to rare inundation events may be important when considering potential restoration options on a regulated river; thus, we assessed benthic invertebrate and zooplankton communities at three floodplain sites during a historic Missouri River high-water event. Chironomid...

  6. Survival, Growth and Reproduction of Cryopreserved Larvae from a Marine Invertebrate, the Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

    OpenAIRE

    Suquet, Marc; Labbé, Catherine; Puyo, Sophie; Mingant, Christian; Quittet, Benjamin; Boulais, Myrina; Queau, Isabelle; Ratiskol, Dominique; Diss, Blandine; Haffray, Pierrick

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first demonstration of successful post-thawing development to reproduction stage of diploid cryopreserved larvae in an aquatic invertebrate. Survival, growth and reproductive performances were studied in juvenile and adult Pacific oysters grown from cryopreserved embryos. Cryopreservation was performed at three early stages: trochophore (13 +/- 2 hours post fertilization: hpf), early D-larvae (24 +/- 2 hpf) and late D-larvae (43 +/- 2 hpf). From the beginning (88 days) at th...

  7. Organic carbon in intertidal mangrove forests: sources and utilization by benthic invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    BOUILLON, S; N. Koedam; Raman, A. V.; Rao, A.V.V.S.; F. Dehairs

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to the large number of studies on the trophic significance of mangrove primary production to the aquatic foodweb, there have been few attempts to provide an overview of the relative importance of different primary carbon sources to invertebrates in the intertidal mangrove habitats. Mangrove sediments from three different mangrove ecosystems (Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary in the Godavari Delta, Andhra Pradesh, India, and Galle and Pambala, Sri Lanka) were analysed for their organic ca...

  8. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Litter Chemistry and Subsequent Invertebrate Detritivore Feeding Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Matthew W.; Crowther, Thomas W.; Thomas, Stephen M; A’Bear, A. Donald; Godbold, Douglas L.; Ormerod, Steve J.; Hartley, Susan E.; Jones, T. Hefin

    2014-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can change foliar tissue chemistry. This alters leaf litter palatability to macroinvertebrate detritivores with consequences for decomposition, nutrient turnover, and food-web structure. Currently there is no consensus on the link between CO2 enrichment, litter chemistry, and macroinvertebrate-mediated leaf decomposition. To identify any unifying mechanisms, we presented eight invertebrate species from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with litter from Alnus glutinos...

  9. The effects of riparian forestry on invertebrate drift and brown trout in upland streams of contrasting acidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, S. J.; Jones, M. E.; Jones, M. C.; Phillips, D. R.

    Variations in macroinvertebrate drift and benthic invertebrate abundance were assessed in 30 upland Welsh streams of varying acidity (pH 6.0) and riparian land-use (conifer, moorland or native broadleaf). The consequences for the diet and condition of wild brown trout Salmo trutta were also assessed. As expected from previous studies, there were significant reductions in benthic invertebrate abundance, aquatic drift density (by >60%), aquatic drift biomass (by >35%), total drift density (by >35%) and total drift biomass (by >20%) at acid sites by comparison with circumneutral sites due largely to the scarcity of mayflies. Absolute drift from terrestrial sources was unrelated to stream pH but formed a significantly greater proportion of total drift at acid sites (30-65% of density) than at circumneutral sites (20-40%) as aquatic contributions declined. Most of this apparent land use effect reflected significantly increased terrestrial drift under broadleaves. There was no significant reduction in terrestrial or aquatic drift at conifer forest sites per se after accounting for low pH. Trout diet varied substantially between locations partly reflecting variations in drift: significantly fewer mayflies and stoneflies were eaten at acid sites, and significantly more terrestrial prey were eaten under broadleaves. However, acidity did not reduce trout condition or gut-fullness. Unexpectedly, trout condition was significantly enhanced at conifer sites, irrespective of their pH. Hence, acidity has greater effects on the benthic abundance and drift density of invertebrates in upland streams than does riparian land use. However, trout forage flexibly enough to offset any possible food deficit, for example by switching to chironomids and terrestrial invertebrates. Enhanced terrestrial contributions to invertebrate drift from riparian broadleaf trees may be important in supplementing foraging opportunities for trout where aquatic prey are scarce. These data illustrate the value

  10. Diversity of litter invertebrates communities from the tunel’na gully in Dnipropetrovsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Species community of invertebrates in 10 antropogenically transformed ecosystems on the territory of Tunel’na gully (south-west part of Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine is investigated. The plant cover of sample areas is shortly described. Taxonomic and ecomorphical structure, indices of biological diversity of litter invertebrate communities are analysed. The invertebrate species inhabited the Tunel’na gully and listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine and Dnepropetrovsk province are described. The value of the inspected territory for the conservation of rare and endangered animal species is underlined. The creation of new nature protected reservation in the Tunel’na gully is proposed

  11. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. PMID:21435676

  12. Bright lights, big city: influences of ecological light pollution on reciprocal stream-riparian invertebrate fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lars A; Sullivan, S Mazeika P

    2013-09-01

    Cities produce considerable ecological light pollution (ELP), yet the effects of artificial night lighting on biological communities and ecosystem function have not been fully explored. From June 2010 to June 2011, we surveyed aquatic emergent insects, riparian arthropods entering the water, and riparian spiders of the family Tetragnathidae at nine stream reaches representing common ambient ELP levels of Columbus, Ohio, USA, streams (low, 0.1-0.5 lux; moderate, 0.6-2.0 lux; high, 2.1-4.0 lux). In August 2011, we experimentally increased light levels at the low- and moderate-treatment reaches to 10-12 lux to represent urban streams exposed to extremely high levels of ELP. Although season exerted the dominant influence on invertebrate fluxes over the course of the year, when analyzed by season, we found that light strongly influenced multiple invertebrate responses. The experimental light addition resulted in a 44% decrease in tetragnathid spider density (P = 0.035), decreases of 16% in family richness (P = 0.040) and 76% in mean body size (P = 0.022) of aquatic emergent insects, and a 309% increase in mean body size of terrestrial arthropods (P = 0.015). Our results provide evidence that artificial light sources can alter community structure and ecosystem function in streams via changes in reciprocal aquatic-terrestrial fluxes of invertebrates. PMID:24147405

  13. Beneficial Invertebrate Activity in Organic and Conventional Vegetable Fields in Eastern England

    OpenAIRE

    Eyre, Dr M.D.; Labanowska-Bury, Ms D.; White, R.(Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile); Leifert, Prof C.

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial invertebrate activity was assessed in 2005 and 2006 in three organic and one conventional vegetable field using pitfall and pan traps. Data was generated from a total of 208 trapping sites in cauliflower, leek, cabbage, purple sprouting broccoli and calabrese crops and 80 sites in planted field margins. More activity of epigeal invertebrates was found in Brassica fields compared with leek fields and there was more in organic than conventional Brassica fields. Activity of useful inv...

  14. Does Botanical Diversity in Sewage Treatment Reed-Bed Sites Enhance Invertebrate Biodiversity?

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Feest; Ian Merrill; Philippa Aukett

    2012-01-01

    (1) This study examines the effect of increasing botanical diversity, through reed-bed planting and maintenance regimes, on sewage treatment reed-bed invertebrate biodiversity and the possible enrichment of overall catchment biodiversity. (2) Reed-bed invertebrates were identified as a good indicator group of overall site biodiversity quality and were sampled at a range of sewage treatment reed-bed sites in the same geographical area between May and August 2006 (plus one natural reed-bed cont...

  15. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.;

    2013-01-01

    conservation biologists. Here, we identify some invertebrate characteristics that will likely influence iDNA retrieval and elaborate on the potential uses of invertebrate-derived information. We hypothesize that beyond inventorying local faunal diversity, iDNA should allow for more profound insights into......Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population and...... should aim at cataloguing invertebrate properties relevant to iDNA retrieval so as to guide future usage of the invertebrate tool box....

  16. Storm-event-transport of urban-use pesticides to streams likely impairs invertebrate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D; Kuivila, Kathryn M; Hladik, Michelle L; Haluska, Tana; Cole, Michael B

    2016-06-01

    Insecticide use in urban areas results in the detection of these compounds in streams following stormwater runoff at concentrations likely to cause toxicity for stream invertebrates. In this 2013 study, stormwater runoff and streambed sediments were analyzed for 91 pesticides dissolved in water and 118 pesticides on sediment. Detections included 33 pesticides, including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, degradates, and a synergist. Patterns in pesticide occurrence reveal transport of dissolved and sediment-bound pesticides, including pyrethroids, from upland areas through stormwater outfalls to receiving streams. Nearly all streams contained at least one insecticide at levels exceeding an aquatic-life benchmark, most often for bifenthrin and (or) fipronil. Multiple U.S. EPA benchmark or criterion exceedances occurred in 40 % of urban streams sampled. Bed sediment concentrations of bifenthrin were highly correlated (p insects and tolerant invertebrates such as amphipods, flatworms, nematodes, and oligochaetes dominated streams with relatively high concentrations of bifenthrin in bed sediments, whereas insects, sensitive invertebrates, and mayflies were much more abundant at sites with no or low bifenthrin concentrations. The abundance of sensitive invertebrates, % EPT, and select mayfly taxa were strongly negatively correlated with organic-carbon normalized bifenthrin concentrations in streambed sediments. Our findings from western Clackamas County, Oregon (USA), expand upon previous research demonstrating the transport of pesticides from urban landscapes and linking impaired benthic invertebrate assemblages in urban streams with exposure to pyrethroid insecticides. PMID:27170357

  17. Impact of heavy metals on macro-invertebrate fauna of the thaddo stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact of some heavy metals like zinc, lead, copper, chromium and cadmium were studied at four spots on the macro-invertebrate fauna of the Thaddo stream, a tributary of Malir River. This was in correlation with an earlier study on the physico-chemical aspects of water which showed a severe pollution in this stream. Present data for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of macro-invertebrates and the ranges of heavy metals (Zn 0.5-3.5, Pb 0.90-1.42, Cu 0.35-0.93, Cr 0.0-0.08 and Cd 0.003-0.01 ppm) in the water samples also indicate high level of pollution in the stream. Macro-invertebrate fauna comprises only of aquatic insects which include larvae of Chironomus spp., adults of the Notonectus sp., and nymphs of Gomphus sp. (dragon fly) belonging to the order Diptera , Hemiptera and Odonata, respectively. Quantitatively Notonectus sp. predominated and followed by Chironomus larvae. The maximum concentrations of all heavy metals were recorded at spot 3. A general trend of increase was observed from up stream to down stream regions particularly in the level of zinc. However, a reverse trend was observed in the abundance of macro-invertebrates with a great reduction at spot 4. The statistical analysis of the data generally indicates a negative correlation between the values of the studied heavy metals and the abundance of macro-invertebrates throughout this study. (author)

  18. Aquatic plants and lake ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jan; Květ, Jan

    Malden : Blackwell Science, 2004 - (O´Sullivan, P.; Reynolds, C.), s. 309-340 ISBN 0-632-04797-6 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : macrophytes * biomass * functioning Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  19. Uncoupling proteins of invertebrates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Barylski, Jakub; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) mediate inducible proton conductance in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, we summarize our knowledge regarding UCPs in invertebrates. Since 2001, the presence of UCPs has been demonstrated in nematodes, mollusks, amphioxi, and insects. We discuss the following important issues concerning invertebrate UCPs: their evolutionary relationships, molecular and functional properties, and physiological impact. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the branch of vertebrate and invertebrate UCP4-5 diverged early in the evolutionary process prior to the divergence of the animal groups. Several proposed physiological roles of invertebrate UCPs are energy control, metabolic balance, and preventive action against oxidative stress. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):691-699, 2016. PMID:27385510

  20. 五种水生植物对水中铀的去除作用%Uranium removal from water by five aquatic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡南; 丁德馨; 李广悦; 王永东; 李乐; 郑济芳

    2012-01-01

    采用水培实验,研究了浮叶植物野生水葫芦(Eichhornia crassipes)、漂浮植物浮萍(Lemna minor L)、满江红(Azolla imbircata)、沉水植物菹草(Potamogeton crispus)、挺水植物空心莲子草(Alligator Alternanthera Herb)在初始铀浓度分别为0.15、1.50和15.00mg·L-1水中的生长状况及它们对水中铀的去除能力.结果表明,在21d的水培试验期内,满江红对铀表现出了最强的抗性,0.15、1.50和15.00mg·L-1的铀对满江红的生长抑制率分别只有4.56%、2.48%和6.79%,而满江红对水中铀的去除率分别达到了94%、97%和92%.进一步的试验表明,每1L水中种植7.5g满江红,可以获得最大的铀去除率,将初始铀浓度为1.25、2.50、5.00和10.00mg·L-1的水体降至国家排放标准(GB23727-2009)规定值(0.05mg·L-1)以下分别需要17、19、23和25d.研究结果为进一步开展铀污染水体植物修复的研究打下了基础.%Hydroponic solution culture experiments were conducted on the growth of Eichhornia crassipes,Lemna minor L,Azolla imbircata,Potamogeton crispus,and Alligator alternanthera Herb in water with 0.15,1.50 and 15.00 mg · L-1 concentrations of uranium.The uranium removal from the water by the aquatic plants was also examined.For the 21 days of hydroponic solution culture experiments,Azolla imbircata exhibited the strongest resistance to uranium and its growth inhibition rates induced by the water with 0.15,1.50 and 15.00 mg · L-1 concentrations of uranium were 4.56%,2.48%,6.79%,respectively.The uranium removal rates from the water by the plant amounted to 94%,97% and 92%,respectively.Further experiments revealed that the most uranium removal could be achieved when 7.5 g Azolla imbircata was grown in 1 L of water.17,19,23 and 25 days were required for the plant with the uranium concentration in water of 1.25,2.50,5.00 and 10.00 mg · L-1 to reduce to below the national emission standards of China,respectively.The results

  1. Arthropod use of invertebrate carrion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seastedt, T.R.; Mameli, L.; Gridley, K.

    1981-01-01

    Arthropods associated with cricket carcasses placed on top and within deciduous forest litter were collected for 12 months. Vespid wasps and ants quickly removed carcasses left on top of forest litter, but carcasses placed within litter persisted throughout the study. Major consumers of carcasses in litter varied seasonally; maggots dominated on fresh carcasses in summer, but fresh carcasses placed in litter in autumn were consumed by other arthropods. A gamasid mite, Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) johnieae, dominated the microarthropod fauna found on exoskeleton fragments. A method for collecting invertebrate carrion feeders and measuring carrion disappearance is presented. 15 references, 2 tables.

  2. Arthropod use of invertebrate carrion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seastedt, T.R.; Mameli, L.; Gridley, K.

    1980-08-01

    Arthropods associated with cricket carcasses placed on top and within deciduous forest litter were collected over a 12 month interval. Vespid wasps and ants quickly removed carcasses left on top of forest litter, but carcasses placed within litter persisted throughout the study. Major consumers of carcasses in litter varied seasonally; maggots dominated on fresh carcasses in summer, but fresh carcasses placed in litter in autumn were consumed by other arthropods. A gamasid mite, Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) johnieae dominated the microarthropod fauna found on exoskeleton fragments. A method for collecting invertebrate carrion feeders and measuring carrion disappearance is presented.

  3. Bioavailability of mercury in contaminated Oak Ridge watershed and potential remediation of river/runoff/storm water by an aquatic plant - 16319

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically as part of its national security mission, the U.S. Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Facility in Oak Ridge, TN, USA acquired a significant fraction of the world's supply of elemental mercury. During the 1950's and 1960's, a large amount of elemental mercury escaped confinement and is still present in the buildings and grounds of the Y-12 Facility and in the Y-12 Watershed. Because of the adverse effects of elemental mercury and mercury compounds upon human health, the Oak Ridge Site is engaged in an on-going effort to monitor and remediate the area. The main thrust of the Oak Ridge mercury remediation effort is currently scheduled for implementation in FY09. In order to more cost effectively implement those extensive remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of the role that mercury and mercury compounds play in the Oak Ridge ecosystem. Most recently, concentrations of both total mercury and methylmercury in fish and water of lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) of Oak Ridge increased although the majority of mercury in the site is mercury sulfide. This drives the US DOE and the Oak Ridge Site to study the long-term bioavailability of mercury and speciation at the site. The stability and bioavailability of mercury sulfide as affected by various biogeochemical conditions -presence of iron oxides have been studied. We examined the kinetic rate of dissolution of cinnabar from Oak Ridge soils and possible mechanisms and pathways in triggering the most recent increase of mercury solubility, bioavailability and mobility in Oak Ridge site. The effects of pH and chlorine on oxidative dissolution of cinnabar from cinnabar-contaminated Oak Ridge soils is discussed. On the other hand, aquatic plants might be good candidate for phyto-remediate contaminated waste water and phyto-filtration of collective storm water and surface runoff and river. Our greenhouse studies on uptake of Hg by water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes

  4. Transport distance of invertebrate environmental DNA in a natural river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Deiner

    Full Text Available Environmental DNA (eDNA monitoring is a novel molecular technique to detect species in natural habitats. Many eDNA studies in aquatic systems have focused on lake or ponds, and/or on large vertebrate species, but applications to invertebrates in river systems are emerging. A challenge in applying eDNA monitoring in flowing waters is that a species' DNA can be transported downstream. Whether and how far eDNA can be detected due to downstream transport remains largely unknown. In this study we tested for downstream detection of eDNA for two invertebrate species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus, which are lake dwelling species in our study area. The goal was to determine how far away from the source population in a lake their eDNA could be detected in an outflowing river. We sampled water from eleven river sites in regular intervals up to 12.3 km downstream of the lake, developed new eDNA probes for both species, and used a standard PCR and Sanger sequencing detection method to confirm presence of each species' eDNA in the river. We detected D. longispina at all locations and across two time points (July and October; whereas with U. tumidus, we observed a decreased detection rate and did not detect its eDNA after 9.1 km. We also observed a difference in detection for this species at different times of year. The observed movement of eDNA from the source amounting to nearly 10 km for these species indicates that the resolution of an eDNA sample can be large in river systems. Our results indicate that there may be species' specific transport distances for eDNA and demonstrate for the first time that invertebrate eDNA can persist over relatively large distances in a natural river system.

  5. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-05-26

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as 'marine invertebrates'. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remarkably, species of corals (Cnidaria) living in non-exploited ecosystems also suffer from devastating infectious diseases that display intriguing similarities with those affecting farmed animals. Infectious diseases affecting wild and farmed animals that are present in marine environments are predicted to increase in the future. This paper summarizes the role of the main pathogens and their interaction with host immunity, with a specific focus on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and pathogen resistance against AMPs. We provide a detailed review of penaeid shrimp AMPs and their role at the interface between the host and its resident/pathogenic microbiota. We also briefly describe the relevance of marine invertebrate AMPs in an applied context.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. PMID:27160602

  6. SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION GARDENING MX974861

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Gardening project will acquire the seed/seedlings of SAVs for planting, will create an SAV gardening guide; and will create SAV plots at volunteers waterfront properties. Volunteers will gather data on plant size and spacing. Water quality test ...

  7. In vivo biodegradation of colloidal quantum dots by a freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Dongwook; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Chansik; Park, Jaehong [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyungho [Department of Environmental Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae Hyun, E-mail: thyoon@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Impacts of planktonic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, on the speciation of colloidal quantum dots (QD) were investigated using fluorescence spectromicroscopic technique. Well-dispersed {sup GA/TOPO}QD were prepared by forming a supramolecular assembly of hydrophobic {sup TOPO}QD with biomacromolecules (i.e., Gum Arabic, GA). Biological degradation of this nanomaterial was monitored by fluorescence spectromicroscopic methods. Our study confirmed the major uptake pathway of manufactured nanomaterials and in vivo biodegradation processes in a well-known toxicity test organism, D. magna. In addition, we also found that D. magna can induce significant deterioration of aquatic media by releasing fragments of partially degraded QD colloids. These biological processes may significantly change the predicted toxicities of nanomaterials in aquatic environments. Thus, we propose that the impacts of aquatic living organisms on the environmental fate of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) should be carefully taken into account when assessing the risk of MNs to the environment and human health.

  8. In vivo biodegradation of colloidal quantum dots by a freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impacts of planktonic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, on the speciation of colloidal quantum dots (QD) were investigated using fluorescence spectromicroscopic technique. Well-dispersed GA/TOPOQD were prepared by forming a supramolecular assembly of hydrophobic TOPOQD with biomacromolecules (i.e., Gum Arabic, GA). Biological degradation of this nanomaterial was monitored by fluorescence spectromicroscopic methods. Our study confirmed the major uptake pathway of manufactured nanomaterials and in vivo biodegradation processes in a well-known toxicity test organism, D. magna. In addition, we also found that D. magna can induce significant deterioration of aquatic media by releasing fragments of partially degraded QD colloids. These biological processes may significantly change the predicted toxicities of nanomaterials in aquatic environments. Thus, we propose that the impacts of aquatic living organisms on the environmental fate of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) should be carefully taken into account when assessing the risk of MNs to the environment and human health.

  9. AQUATIC ANIMAL RESPIRATION AND COUGH RESPONSE APPLIED TO INNOVATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL BIOMONITORING: A BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This bibliography encompasses a body of in-depth technical information on the mechanics and physiology of respiration in aquatic animals (vertebrate and invertebrate). In compiling the bibliography, special emphasis was given to identifying studies that deal with responses of thi...

  10. Application of the Activity Framework for Assessing Aquatic Ecotoxicology Data for Organic Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Paul; Dawick, James; Lampi, Mark;

    2015-01-01

    potential for partitioning and diffusive uptake. In the present study, more than 2000 acute and chronic algal, aquatic invertebrates and fish toxicity data, as well as water solubility and melting point values, were collected from a series of sources. The data were critically reviewed and grouped by mode of...

  11. Resource Assessment for Microalgal/Emergent Aquatic Biomass Systems in the Arid Southwest: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, B. W.; Arthur, M. F.; Taft, L. G.; Wagner, C. K.; Lipinsky, E. S.; Litchfield, J. H.; McCandlish, C. D.; Clark, R.

    1982-12-23

    This research project has been designed to facilitate the eventual selection of biomass production systems using aquatic species (microalgal and emergent aquatic plant species (MEAP) which effectively exploit the potentially available resources of the Southwest.

  12. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Schoenoplectus litter in a constructed wetland in California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.M.; Thullen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Culm processing characteristics were associated with differences in invertebrate density in a study of invertebrates and senesced culm packs in a constructed treatment wetland. Invertebrate abundance differed by location within the wetland and there were differences between the two study years that appeared to be related to water quality and condition of culm material. Open areas in the wetland appeared to be critical in providing dissolved oxygen (DO) and food (plankton) to the important invertebrate culm processor, Glyptotendipes. As culm packs aged, invertebrate assemblages became less diverse and eventually supported mostly tubificid worms and leeches. It appears from this study that wetland design is vital to processing of plant material and that designs that encourage production and maintenance of high DO's will encourage microbial and invertebrate processing of material.

  13. 黄河三角洲湿地水生维管束植物资源及其区系研究%Studies on Resource and Flora of Aquatic Vascular Plants in Wetland of Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘莹; 许经伟

    2011-01-01

    在参照相关资料的基础上,结合实地调查,对黄河三角洲湿地水生维管束植物种类、生态类群及其区系特征进行了分析.结果表明,黄河三角洲湿地共有水生维管束植物64种,隶属25科40属,含3种以上的9个较大科构成了区系的主体,共24属44种,占总属数的60%和总种数的68.75%.其中以挺水植物为主要生态类群,共有32种,占总种数的50%;区系中单种属多,属的分化程度较高;从分布区类型来看,世界分布属最多,温带分布属次之,热带分布属亦较多,区系总体表现出明显的温带特征.并具有向亚热带过渡的特点.%Based on some correlated reference data and field investigations, the resources, ecological groups and flora characteristics of aquatic vascular plants in wetland of Yellow River delta were studied. The results indicated that there were 64 species of aquatic vascular plants in wetland of Yellow River delta which belonged to 25 families and 40 genera. 9 more important big families with 3 or more than 3 species were the principle parts of all the aquatic vascular plants, occupied 60% of total genera and 68.75% of total species. Emerged plants were the main ecological groups, occupied 50% of total species. There were many genera with single specie, which showed the flora was highly differentiated in genera level. In view of the areal types, most plants genera belonged to cosmopolitan widespread type, followed by temperate-areal type and tropic-areal type which also was quite a lot. And the region generally exhibited obvious temperate characteristics and equipped features of transitioning to sub-tropical zone.

  14. Flow effects on benthic stream invertebrates and ecological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivsek, Maja; Brilly, Mitja

    2010-05-01

    Flow is the main abiotic factor in the streams. Flow affects the organisms in many direct and indirect ways. The organisms are directly affected by various hydrodynamic forces and mass transfer processes like drag forces, drift, shear stress, food and gases supply and washing metabolites away. Indirect effects on the organisms are determining and distribution of the particle size and structure of the substrate and determining the morphology of riverbeds. Flow does not affect only on individual organism, but also on many ecological effects. To expose just the most important: dispersal of the organisms, habitat use, resource acquisition, competition and predator-prey interactions. Stream invertebrates are adapted to the various flow conditions in many kinds of way. Some of them are avoiding the high flow with living in a hyporeic zone, while the others are adapted to flow with physical adaptations (the way of feeding, respiration, osmoregulation and resistance to draught), morphological adaptations (dorsoventrally flattened shape of organism, streamlined shape of organism, heterogeneous suckers, silk, claws, swimming hair, bristles and ballast gravel) or with behaviour. As the flow characteristics in a particular stream vary over a broad range of space and time scales, it is necessary to measure accurately the velocity in places where the organisms are present to determine the actual impact of flow on aquatic organisms. By measuring the mean flow at individual vertical in a single cross-section, we cannot get any information about the velocity situation close to the bottom of the riverbed where the stream invertebrates are living. Just measuring the velocity near the bottom is a major problem, as technologies for measuring the velocity and flow of natural watercourses is not adapted to measure so close to the bottom. New researches in the last two decades has shown that the thickness of laminar border layer of stones in the stream is only a few 100 micrometers, what

  15. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  16. The buzz on caffeine in invertebrates: effects on behavior and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Julie A

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion and sleep in both invertebrates and mammals. Furthermore, as in mammals, caffeine appears to have complex effects on learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects may differ between invertebrates and vertebrates. While caffeine's ability to cause release of intracellular calcium stores via ryanodine receptors and its actions as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor have been clearly established in invertebrates, its ability to interact with invertebrate adenosine receptors remains an important open question. Initial studies in insects and mollusks suggest an interaction between caffeine and the dopamine signaling pathway; more work needs to be done to understand the mechanisms by which caffeine influences signaling via biogenic amines. As of yet, little is known about whether other actions of caffeine in vertebrates, such as its effects on GABAA and glycine receptors, are conserved. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine remains to be elucidated. Overall behavioral responses to caffeine appear to be conserved amongst organisms; however, we are just beginning to understand the mechanisms underlying its effects across animal phyla. PMID:24162934

  17. The mode of bioturbation triggers pesticide remobilization from aquatic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Schletz, Marco; Goedkoop, Willem

    2016-08-01

    After their release into the aquatic environment, contaminants may - depending on the physicochemical properties - adsorb to sediments. From there these contaminants can either be buried or remobilised by abiotic factors (e.g., resuspension) as well as by the bioturbating activity of sediment dwelling invertebrates. Little is, however, know about the effects of bioturbation on the fate of pesticides. Therefore, the present study quantified the impact of the bioturbation mode of benthic invertebrate species (bio-diffusor vs. bio-irrigation), the invertebrate density (i.e. 0-8 individuals per replicate), and the substance-inherent properties (i.e. hydrophobicity, water solubility) on the remobilization of sediment-associated pesticides in a laboratory-based set-up over 13 days. We found that both the bioturbation mode (i.e., species identity) and species density, as well as pesticide properties (i.e., hydrophobicity) affected the direction and magnitude of remobilisation of sediment-bound pesticides. The oligochaeta Lumbriculus variegatus showed a density-dependent effect on the remobilization of lindane to the water phase, whereas those with the amphipod Monoporeia affinis and larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius did not. Although these findings show that sediments not per definition are a sink for pesticides, the rates of pesticide remobilization are limited. This observation, thus, suggests that the risk for aquatic communities posed by the remobilization of pesticides from the sediment due to bioturbation is low. PMID:27107774

  18. Allelopathy of Aquatic Autotrophs

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Allelopathy in aquatic environments may provide a competitive advantage to angiosperms, algae, or cyanobacteria in their interaction with other primary producers. Allelopathy can influence the competition between different photoautotrophs for resources and change the succession of species, for exarnple, in phytoplankton cornmunities. Field evidence and laboratory studies indicate that allelopathy occurs in all aquatic habitats (marine and freshwater), and that ail prirnary producing organisms...

  19. Species specificity of resistance to oxygen diffusion in thin cuticular membranes from amphibious plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost-Christensen, Henning; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Floto, Franz

    2003-01-01

    oxygen, diffusion, cuticula, amphibious plants, Hygrophila, Berula, Lobelia, Mentha, Potamogeton, Veronica, aquatic plants, submerged plants......oxygen, diffusion, cuticula, amphibious plants, Hygrophila, Berula, Lobelia, Mentha, Potamogeton, Veronica, aquatic plants, submerged plants...

  20. A multiple testing approach for hazard evaluation of complex mixtures in the aquatic environment: the use of diesel oil as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B T; Romanenko, V I

    1989-01-01

    Traditional single species toxicity tests and multiple component laboratory-scaled microcosm assays were combined to assess the toxicological hazard of diesel oil, a model complex mixture, to a model aquatic environment. The immediate impact of diesel oil dosed on a freshwater community was studied in a model pond microcosm over 14 days: a 7-day dosage and a 7-day recovery period. A multicomponent laboratory microcosm was designed to monitor the biological effects of diesel oil (1.0 mg litre(-1)) on four components: water, sediment (soil + microbiota), plants (aquatic macrophytes and algae), and animals (zooplanktonic and zoobenthic invertebrates). To determine the sensitivity of each part of the community to diesel oil contamination and how this model community recovered when the oil dissipated, limnological, toxicological, and microbiological variables were considered. Our model revealed these significant occurrences during the spill period: first, a community production and respiration perturbation, characterized in the water column by a decrease in dissolved oxygen and redox potential and a concomitant increase in alkalinity and conductivity; second, marked changes in microbiota of sediments that included bacterial heterotrophic dominance and a high heterotrophic index (0.6), increased bacterial productivity, and the marked increases in numbers of saprophytic bacteria (10 x) and bacterial oil degraders (1000 x); and third, column water acutely toxic (100% mortality) to two model taxa: Selenastrum capricornutum and Daphnia magna. Following the simulated clean-up procedure to remove the oil slick, the recovery period of this freshwater microcosm was characterized by a return to control values. This experimental design emphasized monitoring toxicological responses in aquatic microcosm; hence, we proposed the term 'toxicosm' to describe this approach to aquatic toxicological hazard evaluation. The toxicosm as a valuable toxicological tool for screening aquatic

  1. [Invertebrate survey: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this study was to investigate the premise that invertebrate species diversity and abundance increases significantly following a draw down,...

  2. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole; Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about...... the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates...... concerning the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan...

  3. Marine Invertebrate assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of invertebrate site clusters calculated from benthic trawls completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data...

  4. Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Keniam River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdi, Z.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study on biodiversity of aquatic insects was carried out covering the area of Kuala Keniam to Kuala Perkai River, National Park, Pahang, Malaysia. The macro invertebrate community was found in the different types of micro-habitat and various flowing speed levels in good quality of water of Keniam Rivers consisted mainly of aquatic insects. There are large numbers and wide species of aquatic insects in aquatic habitats make them of great ecological importance. There are three divided strata with total of nine sampling location were carried out within several varieties of microhabitats such as sandy, cobble, gravel, leaf and the pool area. The aquatic insects were collected and sampled by using a D-framed aquatic kick net. There was a wide variety of aquatic insects belonging to at least 8 orders in the study area. The orders of insect were Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Thysanura, Orthopthera, Hemiptera and Ephemeroptera. Throughout the study period, there is range from total of 140 to 604 individuals of aquatic insect trapped monthly and collected in Keniam River from September 2009 to December 2010. Some group of aquatic insects were found significant (χ2<0.05 different abundance between strata and sampling dates as well as habitat on the diversity of aquatic insects in Keniam River. The abundance and distribution of aquatic insects‟ species were varied and not constant from one month to another during the study period due to biotic and abiotic factors. Species diversity of aquatic insects varied in different strata of the Keniam River. This indicates the richness and diverse groups of aquatic insects in the study area. It adds to the fact that the undisturbed habitat quality is most suitable for insects to breed and multiply under the natural ecosystem with abundant food supply. Moving upstream from Kuala Perkai to lower stream to Kuala Keniam, one can observe various types of habitats for aquatic insects to live.

  5. Bioaccumulation of sediment-bound Cr-51, Ni-63 and C-14 by benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediments in many areas of the Baltic Sea are highly contaminated with particle-reactive trace metals and/or radionuclides. These may be re-mobilised into aquatic food chains by bioaccumulation into benthic organisms. In this study, we examined and compared assimilation efficiencies and bioaccumulation kinetics (rates of uptake and elimination) of sediment-associated Cr-51, Ni-63 and organic-associated C- 14 in three common benthic invertebrates from the Baltic Sea (the bivalve Macoma balthica, the amphipod Monoporeia affinis and the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus). There were differences between animals and radionuclides in both the rate of uptake and elimination and the maximum amount accumulated. Understanding how and to what degree different deposit-feeding benthic invertebrates are exposed to and bio-accumulate sediment-associated metals are important for both ecological risk assessment and management decisions in coastal ecosystems. (author)

  6. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of subtidal benthic invertebrates in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem (Andhra Pradesh, India)

    OpenAIRE

    Bouillon, Steven; Raman, AV; Dauby, P; F. Dehairs

    2002-01-01

    In order to assess the relative trophic importance of mangrove litterfall and aquatic primary production in the mangrove creeks of the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (Andhra Pradesh, India) and the adjacent semi-enclosed Kakinada Bay, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in a variety of benthic invertebrate species collected at 22 sites during the pre-monsoon period (May-June) of 1997 and 1999. delta(13)C values showed little interspecific variation at any given location, but...

  7. Behavioural and biochemical responses of two marine invertebrates Scrobicularia plana and Hediste diversicolor to copper oxide nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Tankoua, Olivia Fossi; Pan, Jin-Fen; Berhanu, Deborah; Herrenknecht, Christine; Poirier, Laurence; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Bérard, Jean-Baptiste; Risso, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Roméo, Michèle; Reip, Paul; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Engineered nano-sized Cu oxide particles are extensively used in diverse applications. Because aquatic environments are the ultimate "sink" for all contaminants, it is expected that nanoparticles (NP) will follow the same fate. In this study, two marine invertebrates Scrobicularia plana and Hediste diversicolor were chosen as ecotoxicological models. The aim was to evaluate behavioural (burrowing kinetics, feeding rate) and biochemical (biomarkers) responses of S. plana and H. diversicolor ex...

  8. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in terrestrial ecology studies with regard to plutonium in biota from the White Oak Creek forest; comparative distribution of plutonium in two forest ecosystems; an ecosystem model of plutonium dynamics; actinide element metabolism in cotton rats; and crayfish studies. Progress is reported in aquatic studies with regard to transuranics in surface waters, frogs, benthic algae, and invertebrates from pond 3513; and radioecology of transuranic elements in cotton rats bordering waste pond 3513. Progress is also reported in stability of trivalent plutonium in White Oak Lake water; chemistry of plutonium, americium, curium, and uranium in pond water; uranium, thorium, and plutonium in small mammals; and effect of soil pretreatment on the distribution of plutonium

  9. Bromeliads in Caatinga: an oasis for invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Islair; Karine Santana Carvalho; Fabio Cop Ferreira; Juliana Zina

    2015-01-01

    The Bromeliaceae family exhibits several adaptations that allow the occurrence of its members in different physiognomies, including the Caatinga. The arrangement of leaves in rosette forms a cistern or tank, in which nutrient-rich water accumulates. This provides a microhabitat for reproduction, feeding, and larval development of many invertebrates. The aim of this study was to survey the bromeliad-associated invertebrate fauna to test the hypothesis of seasonal changes in community compositi...

  10. Invertebrate Iridovirus Modulation of Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor Williams; Nllesh S. Chitnis; Sh(a)n L. Bilimoria

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a key host response to virus infection. Viruses that can modulate host apoptotic responses are likely to gain important opportunities for transmission. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate that particles of Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) (Iridoviridae, genus Iridovirus), or an IIV-6 virion protein extract, are capable of inducing apoptosis in lepidopteran and coleopteran cells, at concentrations 1000-fold lower than that required to shut-off host macromolecular synthesis. Induction of apoptosis depends on endocytosis of one or more heat-sensitive virion component(s). Studies with a JNK inh ibitor(SP600125) indicated that the JNK signaling pathway is significantly involved in apoptosis in IIV-6 infections of Choristoneurafumiferana ceils. The genome of IIV-6 codes for an inhibitor of apoptosis iap gene (193R) that encodes a protein of 208 aa with 15% identity and 28% similarity in its amino acid sequence to IAP-3 from Cydia pomonella ganulovirus (CpGV). Transcription of IIV-6 iap did not require prior DNA or protein synthesis, indicating that it is an immediate-early class gene. Transient expression and gene knockdown studies have confirmed the functional nature of the IIV-6 iap gene. We present a tentative model for IIV-6 induction and inhibition of apoptosis in insect cells and discuss the potential applications of these findings in insect pest control.

  11. Methanotrophic symbioses in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jillian M; Dubilier, Nicole

    2009-10-01

    Symbioses between marine animals and aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria are found at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in the deep sea where reduced, methane-rich fluids mix with the surrounding oxidized seawater. These habitats are 'oases' in the otherwise nutrient-poor deep sea, where entire ecosystems are fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. By associating with bacteria that gain energy from the oxidation of CH4 with O2 , the animal host is indirectly able to gain nutrition from methane, an energy source that is otherwise only available to methanotrophic microorganisms. The host, in turn, provides its symbionts with continuous access to both electron acceptors and donors that are only available at a narrow oxic - anoxic interface for free-living methanotrophs. Symbiotic methane oxidizers have resisted all attempts at cultivation, so that all evidence for these symbiotic associations comes from ultrastructural, enzymatic, physiological, stable isotope and molecular biological studies of the symbiotic host tissues. In this review, we present an overview of the habitats and invertebrate hosts in which symbiotic methane oxidizers have been found, and the methods used to investigate these symbioses, focusing on the symbioses of bathymodiolin mussels that have received the most attention among methanotrophic associations. PMID:23765884

  12. Evaluation of seven aquatic sampling methods for amphibians and other aquatic fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    To design effective and efficient research and monitoring programs researchers must have a thorough understanding of the capabilities and limitations of their sampling methods. Few direct comparative studies exist for aquatic sampling methods for amphibians. The objective of this study was to simultaneously employ seven aquatic sampling methods in 10 wetlands to compare amphibian species richness and number of individuals detected with each method. Four sampling methods allowed counts of individuals (metal dipnet, D-frame dipnet, box trap, crayfish trap), whereas the other three methods allowed detection of species (visual encounter, aural, and froglogger). Amphibian species richness was greatest with froglogger, box trap, and aural samples. For anuran species, the sampling methods by which each life stage was detected was related to relative length of larval and breeding periods and tadpole size. Detection probability of amphibians varied across sampling methods. Box trap sampling resulted in the most precise amphibian count, but the precision of all four count-based methods was low (coefficient of variation > 145 for all methods). The efficacy of the four count sampling methods at sampling fish and aquatic invertebrates was also analyzed because these predatory taxa are known to be important predictors of amphibian habitat distribution. Species richness and counts were similar for fish with the four methods, whereas invertebrate species richness and counts were greatest in box traps. An effective wetland amphibian monitoring program in the southeastern United States should include multiple sampling methods to obtain the most accurate assessment of species community composition at each site. The combined use of frogloggers, crayfish traps, and dipnets may be the most efficient and effective amphibian monitoring protocol. ?? 2007 Brill Academic Publishers.

  13. Toll-like receptors of deuterostome invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo eSatake

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates. Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and -2, were shown to possess hybrid functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating the confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates of deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs.

  14. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der;

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected and...

  15. Does Botanical Diversity in Sewage Treatment Reed-Bed Sites Enhance Invertebrate Biodiversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Feest

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 This study examines the effect of increasing botanical diversity, through reed-bed planting and maintenance regimes, on sewage treatment reed-bed invertebrate biodiversity and the possible enrichment of overall catchment biodiversity. (2 Reed-bed invertebrates were identified as a good indicator group of overall site biodiversity quality and were sampled at a range of sewage treatment reed-bed sites in the same geographical area between May and August 2006 (plus one natural reed-bed control site. Standardised water trapping and pitfall trapping techniques were employed throughout this sampling period. (3 Statistical analysis of the sampling results revealed that the number of plant species recorded was inversely related to terrestrial invertebrate species richness, species conservation value index and biomass within the study sites. For example, the natural reed-bed sampled had the highest botanical diversity but the lowest terrestrial invertebrate species richness. (4 This study has demonstrated that sewage treatment reed-beds support a diverse range of invertebrate species, some of them being of national conservation value. This suggests that sewage treatment reed-beds may be at least as biodiverse as naturally occurring reed-beds and will add to the overall biodiversity and ecohydrology of a catchment whilst saving energy.

  16. Aquatic invertebrate's distribution in a freshwater coastal lagoon of southern Brazil in relation to water and sediment characteristics Distribuição de invertebrados aquáticos em uma lagoa costeira de água doce ao sul do Brasil em relação às características de água e sedimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Kleba Lisboa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of water and sediment characteristics on the abundance, richness and diversity of the benthic invertebrate community in Peri lagoon, a freshwater coastal lagoon located in central coast of Santa Catarina State; METHODS: Samplings were performed in April, May and June 2009, in five different sites of Peri lagoon. The samples were taken with an Eckman-Birge drag, totalizing 60 for the invertebrate community, and 45 for sediment. Water physicochemical variables were also measured. Environmental influences in benthic community have been measured using a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. Linear regressions were also plotted for main correlations; RESULTS: A total of 5,535 specimens were collected, identified into 18 taxa. Tanaidacea was the most abundant representing 54% of relative abundance, followed by Diptera (23%, and Ostracoda (17%. The richest family was Chironomidae with 6 taxa. CCA results indicated positive correlation between Chaoborus and Stenocypris with local depth, and negative correlation between Odonata, Gastropoda, Cytheridella and Coleoptera with the finest grains of sediment, as well as between Tanaidacea, Lopescladius, Annelida and Nematoda with both organic matter (OM content in sediment and local depth. Linear regression analysis demonstrated inverse relation of Tanaidacea in response to OM (y = 0.6 - 0.62.OM and sand (y = 0.6 - 0.6.sand, and of Lopescladius in response to OM (y = 0.37 - 0.41.OM and sand (y = 0.37 - 0.46.sand. The fact that Peri lagoon has no marine influence and has Tanaidacea as the most abundant taxa, a group not expected in freshwaters, gives to this lagoon a particular relevance among coastal lagoons. The study concluded that sediment characteristics and local depth are more significant than water variables in determining the benthic community structure in Peri lagoon, which varied in accordance with different local conditions.OBJETIVO: O

  17. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  18. The macro-invertebrates and their value like indicators of the water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the water pollution problems is presented and some of the more used methods for assessment of its damage degree through bio indicators are discussed. There are biological methods for assessment of water quality widely used in developed countries. Because the aquatic fauna existing there is different from the one here, those methods cannot be applied in the tropics before knowing what kinds of organisms live here and what ecological requirements they have. The adoption of a method for assessment of water quality in tropical mountains ecosystems is proposed, using macro invertebrates as bio indicators

  19. Metamorphosis of Benthic Invertebrate Larvae: A Sensitive Indicator for Detection of Changes in Marine Environmental Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelei Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Many marine coastal ecosystems are threatened by increasing waste discharge, and bioassays are needed because chemical and physical tests alone are not sufficient to assess potential effects on aquatic biota. In light of the fact that larval metamorphosis of benthic invertebrates is usually very sensitive to environmental changes, this paper reviews sensitivity comparisons of larval metamorphosis with other common bioassays in different species and those in different developmental stages of the same species, and it discusses the potential use of larval metamorphosis as an indicator of marine environmental quality.

  20. Influence of benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation on the biogeochemical behaviour of uranium within freshwater sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. Secondary, there can also represent endogenous sources of contamination by resuspension (e.g. flood, bioturbation) or changes of metal speciation that acts upon their bioavailability. Indeed, metallic compounds can be transformed in more or less toxic or inert compounds through physico-chemical (e.g. pH, redox conditions, ionic force) and microbiological variations. These conditions are themselves under the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate activities via bioturbation processes. The main objective of this PhD was to determinate the influence of two benthic macro-invertebrate species (Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex) on the distribution and the transfers of uranium within freshwater sediments. To reach this goal, laboratory experiments were performed in order to (i) assess the effects of uranium on benthic macro-invertebrates, more particularly on their bioturbation activity, (ii) determine the influence of these organisms on uranium behaviour through high resolution physico-chemical measurements (e.g. oxygen optodes, DET gel probes), and (iii) estimate the consequences of these interactions on pelagic organisms via genotoxicity measurements (micronuclei assay and molecular bio-markers analysis on Xenopus laevis). The results demonstrate that bioturbation intensity of macro-invertebrates can be affected in uranium-contaminated sediments, but the two species studied in this work show a relative tolerance. For high uranium concentrations (>100 times the geochemical background level), corresponding however to realistic concentrations in highly contaminated sites, T. tubifex worms are able to maintain a sufficient bioturbation activity that induces a high remobilization of uranium initially associated with sediments to the overlying water (factor 2 to 10). That represents therefore a potential risk for the remaining aquatic biocenose. However, by