WorldWideScience

Sample records for aquatic peer input

  1. Young mangrove stands produce a large and high quality litter input to aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, B.T.; Tinh, H.Q.; Tam, D.T.; Scheffer, M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove swamps are key ecosystems along the Vietnam coast. Although mangrove litter is thought to represent an important input of organic matter and nutrients to the coastal aquatic systems, the factors determining the quality and size of this litter flux have not been studied so far. We monitored

  2. A sugar biomarker proxy for assessing terrestrial versus aquatic sedimentary input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Johannes; Rabus, Max; Laforsch, Christian; Anhäuser, Tobias; Glaser, Bruno; Zech, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Lake sediments are valuable, often continuous and potentially high resolution archives for studying past climate changes. Thereby, one of the crucial questions is often whether the origin of the organic matter in lake sediments is allochthonous (terrestrial) or autochthonous (aquatic). Here we present patterns of neutral sugars of various plants and algae species to answer the question whether the deoxyhexoses (fucose, rhamnose) to pentoses (arabinose, xylose) ratio can serve as a proxy for aquatic versus terrestrial sedimentary lake input, respectively. Our sugar pattern results show that the fucose + rhamnose content plotted against arabinose and xylose in a ternary diagram can be used to distinguish between algae and other (namely aquatic plants, emergent plant, and terrestrial plants) sugar sources. This finding is confirmed by a compilation with sugar data from the literature. Mosses plot within the range of algae. Although the (fucose + rhamnose)/(arabinose + xylose) ratio yields some overlapping between algae and soil/litter samples, we recommend this ratio, particularly when applied within a multiproxy approach, as promising proxy for distinguishing between aquatic vs. terrestrial organic matter in sedimentary archives. Regarding the sugar concentrations of the investigated samples, emergent plants show the highest values as well as the highest variability. Mosses, aquatic plants and algae yield lower sugar concentrations comparable to those of terrestrial plants.

  3. Young mangrove stands produce a large and high quality litter input to aquatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nga, B.T.; Tinh, H.Q.; Tam, D.T.; Scheffer, M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove swamps are key ecosystems along the Vietnam coast. Although mangrove litter is thought to represent an important input of organic matter and nutrients to the coastal aquatic systems, the factors determining the quality and size of this litter flux have not been studied so far. We monitored leaf, stipule, twig, and reproductive litter monthly in monocultures of Rhizophora apiculata mangrove forests of 7, 11, 17 and 24 years old in the Camau province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Litter trap...

  4. Benzotriazole and tolyltriazole as aquatic contaminants. 1. Input and occurrence in rivers and lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Walter; Schaffner, Christian; Kohler, Hans-Peter E

    2006-12-01

    The complexing agents benzotriazole (BT) and tolyltriazole (TT) are not only widely applied as anticorrosives, e.g., in aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF), but they are also used for so-called silver protection in dishwasher detergents. Due to their low biodegradability and limited sorption tendency, BT and TT are only partly removed in wastewater treatment. Residual concentrations of BT and TT were determined in ambient surface waters in Switzerland including 7 rivers which have distinct water flows and receive treated wastewater effluents at various dilution ratios. A maximum BT concentration of 6.3 microg/L was found in the Glatt River, and a maximum mass flow of 277 kg BT per week was observed in the Rhine River. In most cases, TT was about a factor 5-10 less abundant. During winter 2003/4, BT mass flows at 2 locations in the lower stretch of the Glatt River clearly indicated the input from nearby Zurich airport, where BT was applied as an anticorrosive ADAF component. BT concentrations measured in the three lakes Greifensee, Lake Zurich, and Lake Geneva were approximately 1.2, 0.1-0.4, and 0.2 microg/L, respectively. The observed environmental occurrences indicate that BT and TT are ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic environment and that they belong to the most abundant individual water pollutants. PMID:17180965

  5. Aquatic Macrophytes Inputs of Middle Chain Length n-alkyl Lipids into Lake Sediments: a Linear Algebra Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Huang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Quantitatively delineating multiple source inputs is a common but often difficult task in geological and environmental researches. Binary mixing model works well for simple two-component mixing problems when the two end members can be accurately defined. However, real world mixing problems usually involve more than two source components, and each component may have many composite profiles. Therefore, binary model is inadequate to provide an accurate estimate of contribution of all the end member sources. In such cases, linear combination model by solving linear algebra equations will have to be developed. In this study, we demonstrate the application of the linear algebra method to accurately calculate the percentage inputs of leaf waxes from different plant groups to lake sediments of Blood Pond and Rocky Pond in Massachusetts. We systematically sampled 28 species, including 6 tree species, 6 grass species, 7 emergent plants, 4 floating and 3 submerged aquatic plants around Blood Pond as well as 6 sediments samples of different depth. The distributions of these plants leaf waxes (n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids) show distinctively different patterns, but also significant overlaps. To accurately quantify the percentage source inputs, we develop the 4-end member linear combination model. As we have an equation for each of the total 6 n-alkane compounds we use (C23 alkane ~C33 alkane), a 'least square fitting' is applied to solved the overdetermined linear system. Our results show that 91.7% of the total C23 alkane in sediments is derived from floating and submerged plants. We also applied our approach to Rocky Pond in southeastern Massachusetts and found >92 % of mid chain n-alkyl lipids are contributed by floating and submerged plants. Our results provide critical basis for using D/H ratios of mid-chain n-alkyl lipids (such as behenic acid) in lake sediments for reconstructing lake water D/H ratios.

  6. Erosion-Induced Carbon Fluxes from Semiarid Rangelands: Implications of Vegetation Cover and Enrichment Dynamics for Carbon Inputs to Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Andrew; Puttock, Alan; Turnbull, Laura; Wainwright, John; Brazier, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Dryland ecosystems are a globally significant of the global carbon cycle. They cover ca. 40% of the land surface, and dominate both the long-term trend and interannual variability in the terrestrial carbon sink. Therefore, developing process-based understanding of carbon dynamics in drylands is essential for understanding terrestrial carbon dynamics globally. This study focuses on the amounts of organic carbon (OC) eroded from semiarid hillslopes. Dryland ecosystems are characteristically susceptible to change. One example of this is the encroachment of woody shrubs into former grasslands, substantially altering the structure and function of these landscapes. We established four, 30 x 10 m runoff plots across an ecotone from grass- to shrub dominated landscapes, which we monitored during natural rainstorm events over four monsoon seasons. The OC fluxes associated with the eroded sediment were analysed, yielding detailed information on the lateral efflux of OC from these hillslopes. Previous monitoring by our group has demonstrated that production of dissolved OC from these dryland soils is very low. Erosion-induced effluxes of OC were found to systematically increase across the grass-shrub ecotone, resulting in six-fold increases in event-average OC fluxes. The increases were caused by to changes in both erosion rates (three and a half-fold increase) and OC enrichment (almost two-fold increase). Eroded sediments were enriched in OC by up to an order of magnitude, and OC enrichment was a persistent phenomenon. Systematic differences in OC enrichment between different plant functional types in unmanaged ecosystems have not been examined closely in previous work. Together, these findings suggest that (i) failing to consider OC enrichment risks substantially underestimating the input of OC to aquatic systems, and (ii) given the magnitude of systematic differences observed between different plant functional types, attempting to represent OC enrichment via a single

  7. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  8. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  9. An Analysis of Peer-Submitted and Peer-Reviewed Answer Rationales, in an Asynchronous Peer Instruction Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sameer; Lasry, Nathaniel; Desmarais, Michel; Dugdale, Michael; Whittaker, Chris; Charles, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an analyis of data from a novel "Peer Instruction" application, named DALITE. The Peer Instruction paradigm is well suited to take advantage of peer-input in web-based learning environments. DALITE implements an asynchronous instantiation of peer instruction: after submitting their answer to a multiple-choice…

  10. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  11. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Teens > Peer Pressure Print A A A Text Size What's in ... She'd just had a big dose of peer pressure. Who Are Your Peers? When you were a ...

  12. Is there something like a peer to peer science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bauwens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available How will peer to peer infrastructures, and the underlying intersubjective and ethical relational model that is implied by it, affect scientific practice? Are peer-to-peer forms of cooperation, based on open and free input of voluntary contributors, participatory processes of governance, and universal availability of the output, more productive than centralized alternatives? In this short introduction, Michel Bauwens reviews a number of open and free, participatory and commons oriented practices that are emerging in scientific research and practice, but which ultimately point to a more profound epistemological revolution linked to increased participatory consciousness between the scientist and his human, organic and inorganic research material.

  13. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Ferguson; Griffin, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review seems to have had its origins in 18th century England to combat plagiarism. But today, the objectives of peer review are to provide evaluations of the quality of scientific or editorial material submitted. Peer review provides a check on the validity of manuscripts and sets standards for scientific merit. Peer review should help editors in making decisions about the manuscripts by offering second and third opinions. It lifts the quality of published articles to a higher standard. ...

  14. Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Spatial Pattern Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystem Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong Li

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, several modelling approaches are explored to represent spatial pattern dynamics of aquatic populations in aquatic ecosystems by the combination of models, knowledge and data in different scales. It is shown that including spatially distributed inputs retrieved from Remote Sensing i

  16. Peer Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Asher Silberman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer comment on: Crime, Controversy and the Comments Section: Discussing archaeological looting, trafficking, and the illicit antiquities trade online by Meg Lambert and Donna Yates

  17. Peer to Peer Network Mergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYunfei; CHENChangjia

    2005-01-01

    We propose the conception and infrastructure of peer-to-peer network mergence. We show that Peer to peer (P2P for short) mergence is possible and advantageous in file sharing, balance of scalability and performance, higher searching efficiency and security. We alsoput forward four possible mergence schemes-bigger chord,gateway chord, overlay chord and line chord and compare their performance. We find that overlay chord could achieve the same performance as that of bigger chord. Finally one practical solution is proposed to illustrate our idea.

  18. Input in an Institutional Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Hartford, Beverly S.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the nature of input available to learners in the institutional setting of the academic advising session. Results indicate that evidence for the realization of speech acts, positive evidence from peers and status unequals, the effect of stereotypes, and limitations of a learner's pragmatic and grammatical competence are influential…

  19. Peer-to-Peer Secure Multi-Party Numerical Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Bickson, Danny; Dolev, Danny; Pinkas, Benny

    2008-01-01

    We propose an efficient framework for enabling secure multi-party numerical computations in a Peer-to-Peer network. This problem arises in a range of applications such as collaborative filtering, distributed computation of trust and reputation, monitoring and numerous other tasks, where the computing nodes would like to preserve the privacy of their inputs while performing a joint computation of a certain function. Although there is a rich literature in the field of distributed systems security concerning secure multi-party computation, in practice it is hard to deploy those methods in very large scale Peer-to-Peer networks. In this work, we examine several possible approaches and discuss their feasibility. Among the possible approaches, we identify a single approach which is both scalable and theoretically secure. An additional novel contribution is that we show how to compute the neighborhood based collaborative filtering, a state-of-the-art collaborative filtering algorithm, winner of the Netflix progress ...

  20. Peer abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan

    2011-01-01

    Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan nbsp;Olweus According to Olweus bullying is an aggressive behavior that: a is intended to cause harm or distress b occurs repeatedly over nbsp;time and c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of nbsp;abuse namely child maltreatment and domestic violence Bullying behaviors may be ...

  1. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Christian

    Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser.......Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....

  2. The "Peer" in "Peer Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  3. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  4. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  5. Peer-review thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bill; Goodman, Maurice

    2016-03-01

    In reply to the news article on challenges for peer-review by Michael Banks “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12-13), the editorial by Matin Durrani “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too fast (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17).

  6. Modeling structured peer-to-peer systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Li; LEI Zhen-ming

    2006-01-01

    Distributed network architecture and dynamic change of nodes makes the operation of structured peer-to-peer networks unpredictable. This article aims to present a research on the running rule of structured peer-to-peer networks through a mathematical model. The proposed model provides a low-complexity means to estimate the performance of a structured peer-to-peer network from two aspects: the average existent time of a node and probability of returning to a temporarily steady state of network. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that the proposed structured peer-to-peer network is suitable for those conditions where the frequency of node change is under limited value, and this value mainly depends on the initializing time of the node. Otherwise,structured peer-to-peer network can be abstracted as a network queuing system, which is composed of many node queuing systems in a meshy way and the relation between the throughput of the node system and network system is analyzed.

  7. Effects of Peers on Agricultural Productivity in Rural Northern India

    OpenAIRE

    Songsermsawas, Tisorn; Baylis, Katherine R.; Chhatre, Ashwini

    2014-01-01

    Using a unique dataset from a household survey containing explicit social relationships among individual farmers, this study estimate the effect of peers on the revenue from cash crop sales among small-scale farmers in Northern India. We explore the learning mechanism through which peer effect occurs through improved input use and higher degree of commercialization. The significant and positive peer effects support the evidence of social learning. We control for the reflection problem using t...

  8. Automatic input rectification

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Fan; Ganesh, Vijay; Carbin, Michael James; Sidiroglou, Stelios; Rinard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. When given an atypical input that does not satisfy these constraints, SOAP automatically rectifies the input (i.e., changes the input so that it satisfies the learned constraints). The goal is to automatically convert potentially dangerous inputs into typical inputs that the ...

  9. HyperPeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate...... material of interest and this paper presents the HyperPeer Hierarchy of Resemblance (HR) searching algorithm, which provides an efficient search as well as partitioning of the network into groups of common interest....

  10. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in...

  11. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  12. Restoring Damaged Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems must play a major role to ensure that water, which is both essential and scarce, is always available for both present and future generations. This has become even more urgent in light of the ongoing increase in total world population and predicted changes in the world climate. Since aquatic ecosystems have been damaged at a rate far in excess of both natural restoration and anthropogenic restoration, it is essential that both restorative processes be accelerated. However, e...

  13. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  14. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  15. Peer Leadership Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Nikki; Hachmeister, Paula

    This is a manual for peer counselors and parents in an alcohol and drug abuse prevention program for teenagers. The document opens with the training objectives for the peer helpers: to know yourself, to be a resource, and to promote and establish a drug-free peer group and drug-free activities in school. Discussion on these topics is provided: (1)…

  16. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  17. Input reallocation within firms

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbussche, Hylke; Viegelahn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents the within firm reallocation of inputs and outputs as a result of a trade policy shock on the input side. A unique firm-input level dataset for India with information on different raw material inputs used in production, enables us to identify firms with imported inputs subject to trade policy. To guide the empirics, we first develop a back-bone model of heterogeneous firms that source inputs from abroad. We find that affected firms engage in input reallocation and lower t...

  18. Reducing Power Consumption in Peer-to- Peer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish T. Bhole

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In peer-to-peer (P2P system every node is peer and there is no centralized server. In this paper we discuss how to reduce the total electric power consumption of computers in peer to peer system. Firstwe discuss the Round Robin method for reducing power consumption. Then we discuss our proposed load balancer method with queue system for reducing the total power consumption of server peer in peer topeer system.

  19. Contaminated Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, Kendrick

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103

  20. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.;

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  1. Peer-to-Peer Secure Multi-Party Numerical Computation Facing Malicious Adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Bickson, Danny; Dolev, Danny; Pinkas, Benny

    2009-01-01

    We propose an efficient framework for enabling secure multi-party numerical computations in a Peer-to-Peer network. This problem arises in a range of applications such as collaborative filtering, distributed computation of trust and reputation, monitoring and other tasks, where the computing nodes is expected to preserve the privacy of their inputs while performing a joint computation of a certain function. Although there is a rich literature in the field of distributed systems security concerning secure multi-party computation, in practice it is hard to deploy those methods in very large scale Peer-to-Peer networks. In this work, we try to bridge the gap between theoretical algorithms in the security domain, and a practical Peer-to-Peer deployment. We consider two security models. The first is the semi-honest model where peers correctly follow the protocol, but try to reveal private information. We provide three possible schemes for secure multi-party numerical computation for this model and identify a singl...

  2. Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems: Bistability and soil phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen R Carpenter

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication (the overenrichment of aquatic ecosystems with nutrients leading to algal blooms and anoxic events) is a persistent condition of surface waters and a widespread environmental problem. Some lakes have recovered after sources of nutrients were reduced. In others, recycling of phosphorus from sediments enriched by years of high nutrient inputs causes lakes to remain eutrophic even after external inputs of phosphorus are decreased. Slow flux of phosphorus from overfertilized soils ...

  3. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  4. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  5. TART input manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given

  6. TART input manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimlinger, J.R.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1982-04-01

    The TART code is a Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code that is only on the CRAY computer. All the input cards for the TART code are listed, and definitions for all input parameters are given. The execution and limitations of the code are described, and input for two sample problems are given. (WHK)

  7. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a a message to a given peer. However, determining the des

  8. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in the

  9. Peer review of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Charles E; Yu, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview and description of peer review of teaching for faculty members and administrators who would like to implement a peer review program. This may include classroom and clinical settings. A brief overview, procedure, and a teaching competence evaluation rubric are provided. PMID:18483580

  10. Peer Review of Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Charles E.; Yu, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview and description of peer review of teaching for faculty members and administrators who would like to implement a peer review program. This may include classroom and clinical settings. A brief overview, procedure, and a teaching competence evaluation rubric are provided

  11. Peer Review Undergoing Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Established in the 142,000-student Montgomery County, Maryland, district in 1999, peer assistance and review (PAR)--or "peer review," as it is occasionally called--is actually an old idea. In 1981, the then-president of the Toledo Federation of Teachers, Dal Lawrence, helped create the first PAR program. Almost 30 years later, only a handful of…

  12. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137Cs and 60Co to fish; 137Cs and 60Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  13. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  14. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  15. Peer2ref: a peer-reviewer finding web tool that uses author disambiguation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Navarro Miguel A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reviewer and editor selection for peer review is getting harder for authors and publishers due to the specialization onto narrower areas of research carried by the progressive growth of the body of knowledge. Examination of the literature facilitates finding appropriate reviewers but is time consuming and complicated by author name ambiguities. Results We have developed a method called peer2ref to support authors and editors in selecting suitable reviewers for scientific manuscripts. Peer2ref works from a text input, usually the abstract of the manuscript, from which important concepts are extracted as keywords using a fuzzy binary relations approach. The keywords are searched on indexed profiles of words constructed from the bibliography attributed to authors in MEDLINE. The names of these scientists have been previously disambiguated by coauthors identified across the whole MEDLINE. The methods have been implemented in a web server that automatically suggests experts for peer-review among scientists that have authored manuscripts published during the last decade in more than 3,800 journals indexed in MEDLINE. Conclusion peer2ref web server is publicly available at http://www.ogic.ca/projects/peer2ref/.

  16. 78 FR 52192 - Final Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria For Ammonia-Freshwater 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... aquatic environment not only because of its highly toxic nature and occurrence in surface water systems... indirect means such as nitrogen fixation, air deposition, and runoff from agricultural lands. III. What are... obtained from reliable sources and subjected to both internal and external scientific peer review....

  17. PLATON: Peer-to-Peer load adjusting tree overlay networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Lymberopoulos; C. Pittaras; M. Grammatikou; S. Papavassiliou; V. Maglaris

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems supporting multi attribute and range queries use a number of techniques to partition the multi dimensional data space among participating peers. Load-balancing of data accross peer partitions is necessary in order to avoid the presence of network hotspots which may cause perform

  18. Child Pornography in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Chad M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The presence of child pornography in peer-to-peer networks is not disputed, but there has been little effort done to quantify and analyze the distribution and nature of that content to-date. By performing an analysis of queries and query hits on the largest peer-to-peer network, we are able to both quantify and describe the nature of…

  19. Talking Speech Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi

    2002-01-01

    This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…

  20. Reinforcement learning with raw image pixels as input state

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Damien; Marée, Raphaël; Wehenkel, Louis

    2006-01-01

    We report in this paper some positive simulation results obtained when image pixels are directly used as input state of a reinforcement learning algorithm. The reinforcement learning algorithm chosen to carry out the simulation is a batch-mode algorithm known as fitted Q iteration. Peer reviewed

  1. EXPLORING PEER-TO-PEER DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marcozzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The emerging widespread use of Peer-to-Peer computing is making the P2P Data Mining a natural choice when data sets are distributed over such kind of systems. The huge amount of data stored within the nodes of P2P networks and the bigger and bigger number of applications dealing with them as p2p file-sharing, p2p chatting, p2p electronic commerce etc.., is moving the spotlight on this challenging field. In this paper we give an overview of two different approaches for implementing primitives for P2P Data Mining, trying then to show differences and similarities. The first one is based on the definition of Local algorithms; the second one relies on the Newscast model of computation.

  2. Mobility Helps Peer-to-Peer Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Buttyan, Levente

    2006-01-01

    We propose a straightforward technique to provide peer-to-peer security in mobile networks. We show that far from being a hurdle, mobility can be exploited to set up security associations among users. We leverage on the temporary vicinity of users, during which appropriate cryptographic protocols...... are run. We illustrate the operation of the solution in two scenarios, both in the framework of mobile ad hoc networks. In the first scenario, we assume the presence of an offline certification authority and we show how mobility helps to set up security associations for secure routing; in this case......, the security protocol runs over one-hop radio links. We further show that mobility can be used for the periodic renewal of vital security information (e.g., the distribution of hash chain/Merkle tree roots). In the second scenario, we consider fully self-organized security: Users authenticate each other...

  3. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  4. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  5. The Potential of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Fiarman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review of teachers is controversial for several reasons. Some say peer reviewers encroach on the rightful domain of the principal as instructional leader. Others argue that, because peer evaluators are fellow teachers, they may be biased or unwilling to make hard decisions. Many teachers find the prospect of peer evaluation unsettling because…

  6. Victims of peer violence

    OpenAIRE

    Mršević Zorica

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social) of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characterist...

  7. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  8. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists.......This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...

  9. A scoping analysis of peer-reviewed literature about linkages between aquaculture and determinants of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Theresa E; Wade, Joy; Stephen, Craig; Toews, Lorraine

    2014-06-01

    For many of the world's poor, aquatic products are critical for food security and health. Because the global population is increasing as wild aquatic stocks are declining, aquaculture is an increasingly important source of aquatic products. We undertook a scoping review of the English-language peer-reviewed literature to evaluate how the research community has examined the impacts of aquaculture on four key determinants of human health: poverty, food security, food production sustainability, and gender equality. The review returned 156 primary research articles. Most research (75%) was focused in Asia, with limited research from Africa (10%) and South America (2%). Most research (80%) focused on freshwater finfish and shrimp production. We used qualitative content analysis of records which revealed 11 themes: famer income; the common environment; shared resources; integrated farming/ polyculture; employment; extensive vs. intensive production; local vs. distant ownership; food security; income equity; gender equality; and input costs. We used quantitative content analysis of records and full-text publications about freshwater finfish and shrimp aquaculture to record the frequency with which themes were represented and the positive or negative impacts of aquaculture associated with each theme. Scatter plots showed that no theme was identified in more than half of all articles and publications for both production types. Farmer income was a theme that was identified commonly and was positively impacted by both shrimp and fresh water finfish aquaculture. Polyculture, employment, and local ownership were identified less often as themes, but were also associated with positive impacts. The common environment and shared resources were more common themes in shrimp aquaculture than freshwater finfish aquaculture research, while polyculture and local ownership were more common themes in freshwater finfish aquaculture than shrimp aquaculture. Gender equality, employment, and

  10. Input chains and industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    A key aspect of industrialization is the adoption of increasing-returns-to-scale, industrial, technologies. Two other, well-documented aspects are that industrial technologies are adopted throughout intermediate-input chains and that they use intermediate inputs intensively relative to the technologies they replace. These features of industrial technologies combined imply that countries with access to similar technologies may have very different levels of industrial...

  11. Tool use by aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M

    2013-11-19

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  12. Exposures from aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for estimation aquatic pathways contribution to the total population exposure are discussed. Aquatic pathways are the major factor for radionuclides spreading from the Chernobyl Exclusion zone. An annual outflow of 90Sr and 137Cs comprised 10-20 TBq and 2-4 TBq respectively and the population exposed by this effluence constitutes almost 30 million people. The dynamic of doses from 90Sr and 'Cs, which Dnieper water have to delivered, is calculated. The special software has been developed to simulate the process of dose formation in the of diverse Dnieper regions. Regional peculiarities of municipal tap, fishing and irrigation are considered. Seventy-year prediction of dose structure and function of dose forming is performed. The exposure is estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses due to the use of water by ordinary members of the population in Kiev region from 90Sr and 137Cs in 1986 are 1.7*10-5 Sv and 2.7*10-5 Sv respectively. A commercial fisherman on Kiev reservoir in 1986 received 4.7*10-4 Sv and 5*10-3 Sv from 90Sr and 137Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective cumulative (over 70 years) committed effective dose (CCCED70) of irrigation, municipal tap water and fish consumption for members of the population respectively are 18%, 43%, 39% in Kiev region, 8%, 25%, 67% in Poltava region, and 50%, 50%, 0% (consumption of Dnieper fish is absent) in the Crimea. The predicted contribution of the Strontium-90 to CCCED70 resulting from the use of water is 80%. The CCCED70 to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3000 person-Sv due to the use the Dnieper water

  13. Teachers and Peers as Communication Models to Teach Grammatical Forms to Preschoolers with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richels, Corrin G.; Bobzien, Jonna L.; Schwartz, Kathryn S.; Raver, Sharon A.; Browning, Ellen L.; Hester, Peggy P.

    2016-01-01

    Structured input from both teachers and peers maximizes the opportunities for preschoolers to learn grammatical forms. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a teacher and a peer with typical hearing and language skills to model grammatically correct verbal responses to action "wh-" questions…

  14. Peer-Led and Adult-Led Programs--Student Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether peer-led drug prevention programs are preferable to adult-led programs for students (N=2,447) in eighth through eleventh grades. Results show that all input measures and outcome measures were perceived as more positive in the peer-led model. Since the differences found were small this study does not prove with certainty that the…

  15. The Special Column of Aquatic Invasive Species Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard van der Velde; Rob S.E.W. Leuven; Guest Editors

    2011-01-01

    We were delighted when Zhi-Yun Jia,Executive Editor of Current Zoology,approached us with a proposal to engage in a special column on invasive species science.Six papers have been written for this special column,all containing new information and approaches in the field of aquatic invasive species science.Each paper has gone through the rigorous peer review process used at Current Zoology,and Zhi-Yun Jia was very helpful by contacting reviewers and improving the manuscripts.

  16. Peer Instruction for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul

    Peer Instruction for Astronomy is an instructor's guide to an exciting and easily-implemented enhancement for lecture classes in introductory astronomy. Application of this powerful and efficient teaching technique requires that the instructor have on hand a large number of thought-provoking, conceptual short answer questions aimed at a variety of levels. While significant numbers of such questions have been published for use in Physics, Peer Instruction for Astronomy provides the first such compilation for Astronomy, and includes hints on use of the technique and applications of the method. KEY TOPICS: Covers peer instruction, incentives, a large database of conceptual questions for use in class, and a list of readings and resources. MARKET: Ideal for introductory astronomy instructors at the undergraduate or advanced high school level.

  17. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  18. Distributed Data Mining in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are gaining popularity in many applications such as file sharing, e-commerce, and social networking, many of which deal with rich,...

  19. Peer-to-Peer Data Mining, Privacy Issues, and Games

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are gaining increasing popularity in many distributed applications such as file-sharing, network storage, web caching, sear- ching and...

  20. Reflections on Peer Teaching and Peer Assessment: An Undergraduate Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    A study of 14 students in a business administration course shows that peer teaching and peer evaluation may enhance student motivation, satisfaction, and achievement. Learning about oneself is found to be a valuable outcome of peer teaching. Student involvement in determining evaluation criteria is encouraged. (MSE)

  1. Peer Gynti tagasitulek / Hilve Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Hilve, 1938-2012

    1999-01-01

    Arvustus: Ibsen, Henrik. Peer Gynt / tõlkinud Marie Under. 2. tr. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 1998. Ka "Peer Gynti" mõjutusi eesti kirjanduses: August Gailiti, Marie Underi, A. H. Tammsaare ja eriti Karl Ristikivi loomingus

  2. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  3. Peer assessment in het basisonderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meusen-Beekman, Kelly; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée

    2011-01-01

    Meusen-Beekman, K., & Joosten-ten Brinke, D. (2010). Peer assessment in het basisonderwijs. Het effect van peer assessmenttraining op het geven van een spreekbeurt. Examens, Tijdschrift voor de toetspraktijk, 3, 13-16.

  4. Peer review statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.

  5. Victims of peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characteristics form the basis of the victim typology. Due to the fact that the research is phenomenologically based mostly on media report on peer violence cases in the period between September 2011 and the end of 2012, the author illustrates all main statements with the real cases which took place in the focused period. Measures to combat peer violence are presented, like the already established such as the school without violence program, and those recently proposed, such as the so called Aleksa’s class. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

  6. Approaching Authentic Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some scholars writing about improving students' reading and integrating reading and writing instruction suggest using think-aloud techniques to teach students reading comprehension skills. Using think-alouds to teach reading comprehension and then the read-aloud protocol technique (which is based on think-alouds) for peer review has two major…

  7. Comparative Advantages of Cross-strait Aquatic Products Trade and Zhoushan Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the initial stage,the status quo of aquatic products industry in Taiwan and Zhoushan is analyzed.The aquatic products industry in Tai-wan is characterized by high input,high output,advanced fishery import and export trade,refined and specialized fishery organizations and thedominant role played by the government.However,in Zhoushan,there are many problems in the development of aquatic products industry,featu-ring weak brand consciousness,inadequate famous brand and pillar industries,frequently restricted by green trade barrier and disordered competi-tion of aquatic products market.The comparative advantages of aquatic products at both sides of Taiwan Strait are measured by using revealedcomparative advantage index(RCA) and trade specialized index(TSC),the results show that the aquatic products in both the mainland and Tai-wan have certain market share and competitiveness.The revealed comparative advantage index(RCA) of Taiwan’ aquatic products is higher thatthat in the mainland,while the RCA indices in the mainland and Taiwan all show descending trend;the trade specialized index(TSC) cross straitsis positive,which indicates specialized export,but this specialization also shows descending trend.Taiwan has advanced aquaculture technologyand the mainland owns cheap labor cost and low price,but due to the limited resources in the Taiwan Island and the backward processing technolo-gy of aquatic products in the mainland,the comparativeness of aquatic products in the mainland and Taiwan has slid slightly.Therefore,I probe intothe cooperation modality between Zhoushan and Taiwan in terms of mutual investment in aquatic industry,exchange and training for personnel crossstraits and establishing experimental point of aquatic industry of the Zhoushan Island and Taiwan Island.Besides,countermeasures for enhancingthe international comparativeness of aquatic industry in Zhoushan Island are put forward.

  8. Editorial behaviors in peer review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Jun ZHANG; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respe...

  9. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  10. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  11. Peer Influence and Addiction Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Markdissi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.

  12. Re-Viewing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits her essay, "Students as Readers of Their Classmates' Writing," by providing a review of the literature on peer review over the past three decades and comments on patterns she sees in waves of peer review research and theorizing. She describes her subsequent experience with peer review in her own classes, and…

  13. Peer Review in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Pysarchik, Dawn Thorndike; Taylor, William W.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the importance of peer assessment in professional life and describes a course using peer review processes to teach modeling in natural resource management. Uses a typical scientific research protocol and assigns students to review peer proposals considering their expertise and area of interest. Presents guidelines for proposal review,…

  14. Peer review online, wat werkt?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, J.; van den Berg, I.

    2008-01-01

    Bij peer review geven studenten elkaar feedback op elkaars werkstukken. Er bestaan verschillende systemen om dit online te organiseren. In deze workshop gaan we in op selectiecriteria voor peer review systemen. In het PROOF-project (Peer Review Online Opschalen en Faciliteren) is gewerkt met twee so

  15. Further thoughts on peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottey, Alan; noamsoker

    2016-04-01

    In reply to the news article “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12-13), the editorial “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too quickly (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17, http://ow.ly/Ya9gg).

  16. The Myth of Peer Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)

  17. Innovative Rated-Resource Peer-to-Peer Network

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Sharma; Hao Shi

    2010-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks provide a significant solution for file sharing among peers connected to Internet. It is fast and completely decentralised system with robustness. But due to absence of a server documents on a P2P network are not rated which makes it difficult for a peer to obtain precise information in result of a query. In past, some researchers tried to attach ratings to the peers itself but it was complex and less effective. In this paper, a novel P2P architecture is proposed w...

  18. Using Peer Feedback to Promote Reflection on Open-Ended Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Reinholz, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for learning from homework, called Peer-Assisted Reflection (PAR). PAR involves students using peer feedback to improve their work on open-ended homework problems. Collaborating with peers and revising one's work based on the feedback of others are important aspects of doing and learning physics. While notable exceptions exist, homework and exams are generally individual activities that do not support collaboration and refinement, which misses important opportunities to use assessment for learning. In contrast, PAR provides students with a structure to iteratively engage with challenging, open-ended problems and solicit the input of their peers to improve their work.

  19. Using Peer Feedback to Promote Reflection on Open-Ended Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a new approach for learning from homework called Peer-Assisted Reflection (PAR). PAR involves students using peer feedback to improve their work on open-ended homework problems. Collaborating with peers and revising one's work based on the feedback of others are important aspects of doing and learning physics. While notable exceptions exist, homework and exams are generally individual activities that do not support collaboration and refinement, which misses important opportunities to use assessment for learning. In contrast, PAR provides students with a structure to iteratively engage with challenging, open-ended problems and solicit the input of their peers to improve their work.

  20. MELCOR Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation

  1. MELCOR Peer Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dhir, V.K. [Santa Monica, CA. (United States); Gieseke, J.A. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Haste, T.J. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Kenton, M.A. [Gabor, Kenton and Associates, Inc., Westmont, IL (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Leonard, M.T. [Science Applications International Corp., Wolfheze (Netherlands); Viskanta, R. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Heat Transfer Lab.

    1992-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The newest version of MELCOR is Version 1.8.1, July 1991. MELCOR development has reached the point that the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a broad technical review by recognized experts to determine or confirm the technical adequacy of the code for the serious and complex analyses it is expected to perform. For this purpose, an eight-member MELCOR Peer Review Committee was organized. The Committee has completed its review of the MELCOR code: the review process and findings of the MELCOR Peer Review Committee are documented in this report. The Committee has determined that recommendations in five areas are appropriate: (1) MELCOR numerics, (2) models missing from MELCOR Version 1.8.1, (3) existing MELCOR models needing revision, (4) the need for expanded MELCOR assessment, and (5) documentation.

  2. : Peer evaluation in projects

    OpenAIRE

    Bachelet, Rémi

    2011-01-01

    International audience This paper presents learning by projects as it is implemented at école Centrale de Lille. Starting from a series of interviews diagnosing the main issues with our evaluation system, we study a social skill peer self-evaluation system called the "pme matrix". We adapt it through our own framework for groupwork social skills evaluation, and design appropriate software and documentary tools. Finally, six years after the launching of our pme matrix system, we examine how...

  3. On Being a Peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertel, Lykke Brogaard; Rasmussen, Dorte Malig

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates and discusses the persuasive principles of social actors in relation to other theories of technologies as social agents, particularly within the field of Social Robotics and Persuasive Educational and Entertainment Robotics (PEERs). Based on related research and results from...... a case study on social robots as persuasive social actors in education an extension of the persuasive principles is proposed and related design guidelines for Persuasive Technology as social actors in teaching are presented....

  4. Peers at work

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, Alexandre; Moretti, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    We investigate how and why the productivity of a worker varies as a function of the productivity of her co-workers in a group production process. In theory, the introduction of a high productivity worker could lower the effort of incumbent workers because of free riding; or it could increase the effort of incumbent workers because of peer effects induced by social norms, social pressure, or learning. Using scanner level data, we measure high frequency, worker-level productivity of checkers fo...

  5. Personalised Peer-Supported Leraning: The Peer-to-Peer Learning environment (P2PLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Corneli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE is a proposed approach to helpinglearners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations aboutpeople, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, andparticipant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU. We are particularlyinterested in ways of eliciting explicit, coded, user feedback, and in monitoring thetransitions from state to state within the PLE. We discuss the ways in which theseideas can inform the design of a platform for peer-supported study of universitylevelmathematics.

  6. Comprehensible input and learning outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Campillo, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Segones Jornades de Foment de la Investigació de la FCHS (Any 1996-1997) In Krashen’s terms, optimal input has to be comprehensible to the learner if we want acquisition to take place. An overview of the literature on input indicates two ways of making input comprehensible: the first one is to premodify input before it is offered to the learner, (premodified input), and the second one is to negotiate the input through interaction (interactionally modified input). The aim of the...

  7. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  8. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  9. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...

  10. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...

  11. Fast similarity search in peer-to-peer networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bocek, T; Hunt, E; Hausheer, D; Stiller, B.

    2008-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems show numerous advantages over centralized systems, such as load balancing, scalability, and fault tolerance, and they require certain functionality, such as search, repair, and message and data transfer. In particular, structured P2P networks perform an exact search in logarithmic time proportional to the number of peers. However, keyword similarity search in a structured P2P network remains a challenge. Similarity search for service discovery can significantly impr...

  12. Input or intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Navracsics

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the critical period hypothesis, the earlier the acquisition of a second language starts, the better. Owing to the plasticity of the brain, up until a certain age a second language can be acquired successfully according to this view. Early second language learners are commonly said to have an advantage over later ones especially in phonetic/phonological acquisition. Native-like pronunciation is said to be most likely to be achieved by young learners. However, there is evidence of accentfree speech in second languages learnt after puberty as well. Occasionally, on the other hand, a nonnative accent may appear even in early second (or third language acquisition. Cross-linguistic influences are natural in multilingual development, and we would expect the dominant language to have an impact on the weaker one(s. The dominant language is usually the one that provides the largest amount of input for the child. But is it always the amount that counts? Perhaps sometimes other factors, such as emotions, ome into play? In this paper, data obtained from an EnglishPersian-Hungarian trilingual pair of siblings (under age 4 and 3 respectively is analyzed, with a special focus on cross-linguistic influences at the phonetic/phonological levels. It will be shown that beyond the amount of input there are more important factors that trigger interference in multilingual development.

  13. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  14. An aquatic ecosystem in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeste, D; Andriske, M; Paris, F; Levine, H G; Blum, V

    1999-07-01

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) Mini-Module experiment was designed to study aquatic ecosystem performance within a middeck locker on the Space Shuttle. CEBAS was flown aboard STS-89 in January 1998 with a population of four pregnant Xiphophorus helleri female fish and eleven adult Biomphalaria glabrata snails in the first compartment and 200 juvenile X. helleri and 48 adult and juvenile B. glabrata in the second compartment. A plant compartment contained eleven snails and 53 g of the aquatic angiosperm Ceratophyllum demersum. During the flight, Ceratophyllum fresh weight increased from 53 g to 117 g. All adult fish and 65 juveniles survived the flight experiment and 37 adult snails and 40 newly laid snail spawn packs were recovered after the flight. Oxygen production and pH were as expected.

  15. A review of chemosensation and related behavior in aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, José G

    2011-01-01

    Insects that are secondarily adapted to aquatic environments are able to sense odors from a diverse array of sources. The antenna of these insects, as in all insects, is the main chemosensory structure and its input to the brain allows for integration of sensory information that ultimately ends in behavioral responses. Only a fraction of the aquatic insect orders have been studied with respect to their sensory biology and most of the work has centered either on the description of the different types of sensilla, or on the behavior of the insect as a whole. In this paper, the literature is exhaustively reviewed and ways in which antennal morphology, brain structure, and associated behavior can advance better understanding of the neurobiology involved in processing of chemosensory information are discussed. Moreover, the importance of studying such group of insects is stated, and at the same time it is shown that many interesting questions regarding olfactory processing can be addressed by looking into the changes that aquatic insects undergo when leaving their aquatic environment. PMID:21864156

  16. Efficient Skyline Computation in Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Bin; Chen, Lijiang; Xu, Linhao;

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of large-scale applications exploit peer-to-peer network architecture to provide highly scalable and flexible services. Among these applications, data management in peer-to-peer systems is one of the interesting domains. In this paper, we investigate the multidimensional....... Thereafter, we propose a progressive algorithm with adaptive filter technique for efficient skyline computation in this environment. We further discuss some optimization techniques for the algorithm, and summarize the key principles of our algorithm into a query routing protocol with detailed analysis....... Finally, we conduct an extensive experimental evaluation to demonstrate the efficiency of our approach....

  17. Collaborative work model based on peer-to-peer network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jian-zhong; FU Li; ZHANG Xuan-peng; XU Chuan-yun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we incorporated peer-to-peer (P2P) concept with agent technology and put forward a collaborative work model based on peer-to-peer network (P2PCWM) after investigating into business demands of modern enterprises and problems prevailing in mainstream collaborative work systems based on central server. Theoretically, the P2PCWM can effectively overcome the problems in a conventional system with a central server and meet the practical demands of modern businesses. It is distinguished from other systems by its features of equality, openness, promptness, fairness, expandability and convenience.

  18. The missing piece syndrome in peer-to-peer communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Hajek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical protocols for peer-to-peer file sharing over the Internet divide files to be shared into pieces. New peers strive to obtain a complete collection of pieces from other peers and from a seed. In this paper we investigate a problem that can occur if the seeding rate is not large enough. The problem is that, even if the statistics of the system are symmetric in the pieces, there can be symmetry breaking, with one piece becoming very rare. If peers depart after obtaining a complete collection, they can tend to leave before helping other peers receive the rare piece. Assuming that peers arrive with no pieces, there is a single seed, random peer contacts are made, random useful pieces are downloaded, and peers depart upon receiving the complete file, the system is stable if the seeding rate (in pieces per time unit is greater than the arrival rate, and is unstable if the seeding rate is less than the arrival rate. The result persists for any piece selection policy that selects from among useful pieces, such as rarest first, and it persists with the use of network coding.

  19. Peer Effects in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Thomas; Dustmann, Christian; Schönberg, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Existing evidence on peer effects in a work environment stems from either laboratory experiments or from real-word studies referring to a specific firm or specific occupation. Yet, it is unclear to what extent these findings apply to the labor market in general. In this paper, therefore, we investigate peer effects in the workplace for a representative set of workers, firms, and occupations with a focus on peer effects in wages rather than productivity. Our estimation strategy – which links t...

  20. Smoking Initiation: Peers and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Chih-Sheng; van Kippersluis, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions are generally thought to play an important role in smoking initiation among adolescents. In this paper we exploit detailed friendship nominations in the US Add Health data, and extend the Spatial Autoregressive Model (SAR) model to deal with (i) endogenous peer selection, and (ii) unobserved contextual effects, in order to identify the endogenous peer effect. We show that peer effects in the uptake of smoking are predominantly affecting individuals who are emotionally unst...

  1. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions.

  2. Peer bullying in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Rıza Gökler

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the term of "Peer Bullying" has been observed according to definitions and approaches variety in Turkey and abroad. "Bullying" is used synonym of violence and aggressiveness today and spread of all cultures in the world as an international concept. "Bullying" is a widespread fact which consists of physical, verbal and social damage to a feeble one. It is a kind of violence and can be defined as incapability of someone to a person or more than one person's violence. Bullying can...

  3. Peer-Based Control in Self-Managing Teams: Linking Rational and Normative Influence with Individual and Group Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg L.; Courtright, Stephen H.; Barrick, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how "peer-based rational control", which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with…

  4. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); M.F. van Bressem; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractInfections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper vir

  5. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of t

  6. Network-aware SuperPeers-Peers Geometric Overlay Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lua, E.K.; Zhou, X.

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay networks can be utilized to deploy massive Internet overlay services such as multicast, content distribution, file sharing, etc. efficiently without any underlying network support. The crucial step to meet this objective is to design network-aware overlay network topologie

  7. Incentive Mechanisms for Peer-to-Peer Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    The increasing popularity of high-bandwidth Internet connections has enabled new applications like the online delivery of high-quality audio and video content. Conventional server-client approaches place the entire burden of delivery on the content provider's server, making these services expensive to provide. A peer-to-peer approach allows end…

  8. Peer-Assessing Peers' Contribution to EFL Group Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hidetoshi; Fujita, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is three-fold: (1) to examine the similarities and differences between instructor and peer assessments of EFL group presentations; (2) to understand the utility of peer assessment for discriminating each group member's contribution to group presentations in college EFL classrooms; and (3) to investigate the relationship…

  9. Active Minds: Creating Peer-to-Peer Mental Health Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Willliam A.; Abelson, Sara; Malmon, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing student peers is one vital avenue for improving the prevention, detection, and treatment of mental health disorders on college campuses (The Campus Suicide Prevention Center of Virginia, 2011). This article will briefly review research findings indicating the importance of student peers and then focus on a promising model and growing…

  10. Estimating peer effects in networks with peer encouragement designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckles, Dean; Kizilcec, René F; Bakshy, Eytan

    2016-07-01

    Peer effects, in which the behavior of an individual is affected by the behavior of their peers, are central to social science. Because peer effects are often confounded with homophily and common external causes, recent work has used randomized experiments to estimate effects of specific peer behaviors. These experiments have often relied on the experimenter being able to randomly modulate mechanisms by which peer behavior is transmitted to a focal individual. We describe experimental designs that instead randomly assign individuals' peers to encouragements to behaviors that directly affect those individuals. We illustrate this method with a large peer encouragement design on Facebook for estimating the effects of receiving feedback from peers on posts shared by focal individuals. We find evidence for substantial effects of receiving marginal feedback on multiple behaviors, including giving feedback to others and continued posting. These findings provide experimental evidence for the role of behaviors directed at specific individuals in the adoption and continued use of communication technologies. In comparison, observational estimates differ substantially, both underestimating and overestimating effects, suggesting that researchers and policy makers should be cautious in relying on them. PMID:27382145

  11. Peer production & peer support at the Free Technology Academy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Hanneke; Berlanga, Adriana; Bijlsma, Lex

    2012-01-01

    Potters, H., Berlanga, A. J., & Lex, B. (2011). Peer Production & Peer Support at the Free Technology Academy. In G. van de Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Proceedings Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 49-58). April, 7-8, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands: ACM.

  12. CONTAIN independent peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code's targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ''Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy'' that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee's recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment

  13. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  14. Peer til peer i arbejdet med udsatte mennesker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Camilla; Ahlmark, Nanna; Norrhäll, Oskar;

    mænd i risiko for at udvikle type 2 diabetes. En del af evalueringsopdraget har været at tilvejebringe viden om relevant litteratur om peer-metoder. I denne forbindelse er dette notat udarbejdet til Københavns Kommunes Forebyggelsescenter Nørrebro af evaluerings-teamet, som består af forsker, Nanna......Statens Institut for Folkesundhed, Syddansk Universitet har fået til opdrag at lave en formativ procesevaluering af Københavns Kommunes projekt Mænd i København. Projektet omhandler udvikling og implementering af en peer til peer indsats med henblik på at forbedre sundhed og trivsel blandt udsatte...... Ahlmark, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Camilla Dindler, praktikant og specialestuderende Oskar Norrhäll og specialestuderende Pernille Hartvig Jensen. Notatet er en sammenfatning af udvalgt forskningslitteratur og rapporter om peer til peer-relaterede projekter målrettet udsatte grupper i forbindelse...

  15. Commercial Lighting Solutions, Webtool Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Carol C.; Meyer, Tracy A.

    2009-06-17

    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the beta version of the CLS webtool, which contains retail box lighting solutions. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed about which feedback should be addressed for the release of version 1.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in New York City in May 2009. Due to the volume of data (~500 comments) the methodology for addressing the peer review comments was central to the success of the ultimate goal of improving the tool. The comments were first imported into a master spreadsheet, and then grouped and organized in several layers. Solutions to each comment were then rated by importance and feasibility to determine the practicality of resolving the concerns of the commenter in the short-term or long-term. The rating system was used as an analytical tool, but the results were viewed thoughtfully to ensure that they were not the sole the factor in determining which comments were recommended for near-term resolution. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 1.0 as well as appendices containing the short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 1.0 are listed as

  16. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  17. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  18. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  19. Cultivating Change through Peer Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Jonathan J.; Cano, Jamie; Whittington, M. Susie; Wolf, Kattlyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe the impact of peer teaching on both the students and the classroom environment. Students, enrolled in two Introduction to Teaching courses in agricultural and extension education, were asked to engage in peer teaching activities. The researchers utilized discourse analysis, textual…

  20. Peer Mediation in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angaran, Sally; Beckwith, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    Minor disagreements can quickly escalate when a child feels threatened with losing face or fears retaliation. Peer-mediation programs can help students refocus their energies while learning communication skills they can use in other situations. The benefits of an Oregon elementary school's peer-mediation program are discussed. (MLH)

  1. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maunsell John HR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.

  2. Toddlers' Understanding of Peers' Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sara R.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life sees dramatic developments in infants' ability to understand emotions in adults alongside their growing interest in peers. In this study, the authors used a social-referencing paradigm to examine whether 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children could use a peer's positive or negative emotion messages about toys to regulate their…

  3. Quality assurance in radiology: peer review and peer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, N H

    2015-11-01

    Peer review in radiology means an assessment of the accuracy of a report issued by another radiologist. Inevitably, this involves a judgement opinion from the reviewing radiologist. Peer feedback is the means by which any form of peer review is communicated back to the original author of the report. This article defines terms, discusses the current status, identifies problems, and provides some recommendations as to the way forward, concentrating upon the software requirements for efficient peer review and peer feedback of reported imaging studies. Radiologists undertake routine peer review in their everyday clinical practice, particularly when reporting and preparing for multidisciplinary team meetings. More formal peer review of reported imaging studies has been advocated as a quality assurance measure to promote good clinical practice. It is also a way of assessing the competency of reporting radiologists referred for investigation to bodies such as the General Medical Council (GMC). The literature shows, firstly, that there is a very wide reported range of discrepancy rates in many studies, which have used a variety of non-comparable methodologies; and secondly, that applying scoring systems in formal peer review is often meaningless, unhelpful, and can even be detrimental. There is currently a lack of electronic peer feedback system software on the market to inform radiologists of any review of their work that has occurred or to provide them with clinical outcome information on cases they have previously reported. Learning opportunities are therefore missed. Radiologists should actively engage with the medical informatics industry to design optimal peer review and feedback software with features to meet their needs. Such a system should be easy to use, be fully integrated with the radiological information and picture archiving systems used clinically, and contain a free-text comment box, without a numerical scoring system. It should form a temporary record

  4. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029

  5. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-04-01

    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  6. Innovative Rated-Resource Peer-to-Peer Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Sharma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer (P2P networks provide a significant solution for file sharing among peers connected to Internet. It is fast and completely decentralised system with robustness. But due to absence of a serverdocuments on a P2P network are not rated which makes it difficult for a peer to obtain precise information in result of a query. In past, some researchers tried to attach ratings to the peers itself but itwas complex and less effective. In this paper, a novel P2P architecture is proposed which attaches ratings to the uploaded document directly. These ratings then become as element in its XML advertisement which has several child elements for information classification. The attached element is extracted from the advertisement in real time and the document is then sorted accordingly. Therefore, the information can be easily sorted based on a request by a peer according to the relevanceof matter. The information regarding relevance is obtained by the peer issuing the query. This research leads to a smart P2P model, the Rated-Resource P2P network (R2P2P.

  7. Peer-to-Peer Multimedia Sharing based on Social Norms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Empirical data shows that in the absence of incentives, a peer participating in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network wishes to free-riding. Most solutions for providing incentives in P2P networks are based on direct reciprocity, which are not appropriate for most P2P multimedia sharing networks due to the unique features exhibited by such networks: large populations of anonymous agents interacting infrequently, asymmetric interests of peers, network errors, and multiple concurrent transactions. In this paper, we design and rigorously analyze a new family of incentive protocols that utilizes indirect reciprocity which is based on the design of efficient social norms. In the proposed P2P protocols, the social norms consist of a social strategy, which represents the rule prescribing to the peers when they should or should not provide content to other peers, and a reputation scheme, which rewards or punishes peers depending on whether they comply or not with the social strategy. We first define the concept of a sustainab...

  8. Innovative Rated-Resource Peer-to-Peer Network

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Abhishek; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2206

    2010-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks provide a significant solution for file sharing among peers connected to Internet. It is fast and completely decentralised system with robustness. But due to absence of a server documents on a P2P network are not rated which makes it difficult for a peer to obtain precise information in result of a query. In past, some researchers tried to attach ratings to the peers itself but it was complex and less effective. In this paper, a novel P2P architecture is proposed which attaches ratings to the uploaded document directly. These ratings then become as element in its XML advertisement which has several child elements for information classification. The attached element is extracted from the advertisement in real time and the document is then sorted accordingly. Therefore, the information can be easily sorted based on a request by a peer according to the relevance of matter. The information regarding relevance is obtained by the peer issuing the query. This research leads to a smart P...

  9. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  10. A peer-to-peer music sharing system based on query-by-humming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianrong; Chang, Xinglong; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Yebin; Shi, Qingwei

    2007-09-01

    Today, the main traffic in peer-to-peer (P2P) network is still multimedia files including large numbers of music files. The study of Music Information Retrieval (MIR) brings out many encouraging achievements in music search area. Nevertheless, the research of music search based on MIR in P2P network is still insufficient. Query by Humming (QBH) is one MIR technology studied for years. In this paper, we present a server based P2P music sharing system which is based on QBH and integrated with a Hierarchical Index Structure (HIS) to enhance the relation between surface data and potential information. HIS automatically evolving depends on the music related items carried by each peer such as midi files, lyrics and so forth. Instead of adding large amount of redundancy, the system generates a bit of index for multiple search input which improves the traditional keyword-based text search mode largely. When network bandwidth, speed, etc. are no longer a bottleneck of internet serve, the accessibility and accuracy of information provided by internet are being more concerned by end users.

  11. Riparian litter inputs to streams in the central Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie K.; Hibbs, David E.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Riparian-zone vegetation can influence terrestrial and aquatic food webs through variation in the amount, timing, and nutritional content of leaf and other litter inputs. We investigated how riparian-forest community composition, understory density, and lateral slope shaped vertical and lateral litter inputs to 16 streams in the Oregon Coast Range. Riparian forests dominated by deciduous red alder delivered greater annual vertical litter inputs to streams (504 g m−2 y−1) than did riparian forests dominated by coniferous Douglas-fir (394 g m−2 y−1). Deciduous forests also contributed greater lateral litter inputs per meter of stream bank on one side (109 g m−1 y−1) than did coniferous forests (63 g m−1 y−1). Total litter inputs from deciduous forests exceeded those from coniferous forests most strongly in November, coincident with an autumn peak in litter inputs. Lateral litter inputs contributed most to total inputs during winter in both forest types. Annual lateral litter movement increased with slope at deciduous sites, but only in spring/summer months at coniferous sites. Neither experimental removal of understory vegetation nor installation of mesh fences to block downslope litter movement affected lateral litter inputs to streams, suggesting that ground litter moves seasonality of litter delivery to both terrestrial and aquatic food webs in this region and complements the shade and large woody debris provided by large coniferous trees.

  12. Data Management in Peer-to-Peer Environment:A Perspective of BestPeer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU AoYing(周傲英); QIAN WeiNing(钱卫宁); ZHOU ShuiGeng(周水庚); LING Bo(凌波); XU LinHao(徐林昊); Ng Wee Siong(黄维雄); Ooi Beng Chin(黄铭钧); Tan Kian-Lee(陈建利)

    2003-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems have attracted much attention in academic community and industry circles due to their promising applications in various domains. This paper presents the authors' research efforts on introducing complex query capabilities in a P2P environment consisting of numerous peers with large volume of data. An underlying hybrid P2P computing platform, named BestPeer is described first. The connection among peers within BestPeer is selfconfigurable through maintaining the nearest neighbor of peers, and the agent techniques employed in the system ensure its capability of providing sophisticated services. The designs of three P2P data management systems which are all based on BestPeer are described in detail. They provide support for information retrieval, query processing and Web services respectively. Advantages and limitations are discussed, while ongoing work is presented. Current systems can provide basic functions for keyword-based search, SQL-like query processing, and Web services querying and discovery. Some further topics on providing fully-fledged data management functionalities for P2P distributed computing systems with security guarantee are also discussed.

  13. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  14. PeerPigeon: A Web Application to Support Generalised Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Millard, David; Sinclair, Patrick; Newman, David

    2008-01-01

    Peer Review (also known as Peer Assessment) is an important technique in learning, but can be difficult to support through e-learning due to the complexity and variety of peer review processes. In this paper we present PeerPigeon, a Web 2.0 style application that supports generalised Peer Review by using a canonical model of Peer Review based on a Peer Review Pattern consisting of Peer Review Cycles, each defined in terms of Peer Review Transforms. We also demonstrate how PeerPigeon makes use...

  15. Recommendations for peer-to-peer support for NICU parents

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, S L; Ryan, D J; Beatty, J.; Grubbs, L

    2015-01-01

    Peer-to-peer support provided by ‘veteran' neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents to those with current NICU babies is a legitimate and unique form of support that can complement or supplement, but not replace, services provided by professional NICU staff. Peer support can be delivered through hospital- or community-based programs that offer one-to-one in-person or telephone matches, or support groups that meet in-person or via the Internet. Issues in program development, volunteer train...

  16. Stability analysis of peer-to-peer networks against churn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bivas Mitra; Sujoy Ghose; Niloy Ganguly; Fernando Peruani

    2008-08-01

    Users of the peer-to-peer system join and leave the network randomly, which makes the overlay network dynamic and unstable in nature. In this paper, we propose an analytical framework to assess the robustness of p2p networks in the face of user churn. We model the peer churn through degree-independent as well as degree-dependent node failure. Lately, superpeer networks are becoming the most widely used topology among the p2p networks. Therefore, we perform the stability analysis of superpeer networks as a case study. We validate the analytically derived results with the help of simulation.

  17. Serial Input Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  18. An initial peer configuration algorithm for multi-streaming peer-to-peer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    The growth of the Internet technology enables us to use network applications for streaming audio and video. Especially, real-time streaming services using peer-to-peer (P2P) technology are currently emerging. An important issue on P2P streaming is how to construct a logical network (overlay network) on a physical network (IP network). In this paper, we propose an initial peer configuration algorithm for a multi-streaming peer-to-peer network. The proposed algorithm is based on a mesh-pull approach where any node has multiple parent and child nodes as neighboring nodes, and content transmitted between these neighboring nodes depends on their parent-child relationships. Our simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm improves the number of joining node and traffic load.

  19. SDR Input Power Estimation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.

  20. Editorial behaviors in peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Xia, Feng; Wang, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    Editors play a critical role in the peer review system. How do editorial behaviors affect the performance of peer review? No quantitative model to date allows us to measure the influence of editorial behaviors on different peer review stages such as, manuscript distribution and final decision making. Here, we propose an agent-based model in which the process of peer review is guided mainly by the social interactions among three kinds of agents representing authors, editors and reviewers respectively. We apply this model to analyze a number of editorial behaviors such as decision strategy, number of reviewers and editorial bias on peer review. We find out that peer review outcomes are significantly sensitive to different editorial behaviors. With a small fraction (10 %) of biased editors, the quality of accepted papers declines 11 %, which indicates that effects of editorial biased behavior is worse than that of biased reviewers (7 %). While several peer review models exist, this is the first account for the study of editorial behaviors that is validated on the basis of simulation analysis. PMID:27386349

  1. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  2. Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence - from phenomenon to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Darren

    2014-05-01

    The use of fluorescence to quantify and characterise aquatic organic matter in river, ocean, ground water and drinking and waste waters has come along way since its discovery as a phenomenon in the early 20th century. For example, there are over 100 papers published each year in international peer reviewed journals, an order of magnitude increase since a decade ago (see Figure taken from ISI database from 1989 to 2007 for publications in the fields of river water and waste water). Since then it has been extensively used as a research tool since the 1990's by scientists and is currently used for a wide variety of applications within a number of sectors. Universities, organisations and companies that research into aquatic organic matter have either recently readily use appropriate fluorescence based techniques and instrumentation. In industry and government, the technology is being taken up by environmental regulators and water and wastewater companies. This keynote presentation will give an overview of aquatic organic matter fluorescence from its conception as a phenomenon through to its current use in a variety of emerging applications within the sectors concerned with understanding, managing and monitoring the aquatic environment. About the Speaker Darren Reynolds pioneered the use of fluorescence spectroscopy for the analysis of wastewaters in the 1990's. He currently leads a research group within the Centre for Research in Biosciences and sits on the Scientific Advisory Board for the Institute of Bio-Sensing Technology at the University of the West of England, Bristol. He is a multidisciplinary scientist concerned with the development of technology platforms for applications in the fields of environment/agri-food and health. His current research interests include the development of optical technologies and techniques for environmental and biological sensing and bio-prospecting applications. He is currently involved in the development and use of synthetic biology

  3. SECURE SHORT MESSAGE PEER-TO-PEER PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Samanta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Short Message Service (SMS has become an extension of our lives and plays an important role in daily chores. SMS is a popular medium for delivering Value Added Services and are suitable for mobile banking, payment reminders, SOS calls, stock and news alerts, railway and flight enquiries etc. These types of messages are normally computer generated messages sent over Short Message Peer-to-Peer (SMPP protocol. SMPP is an application layer protocol to send messages over TCP/IP connection. SMPP protocol has no security measures specified which allows fast delivery of SMS messages in bulk. Compromised messages or loss of messages can cause lot of revenue loss and fatal consequences. A secure SMPP protocol is proposed and implemented by introducing Transport Layer Security (TLS with SMPP protocol specifications. A client tool is developed to securely connect to the server. Secure Short Message Peer-to-Peer protocol will enhance the security of fast growing messaging and telecommunication world.

  4. From Hazardous Behaviours to a Risk Metric for Reputation Systems in Peer to Peer Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, Erika; Bonnaire, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    International audience Peer to Peer systems have shown to be very powerful to build very large scale distributed information systems. They are self organized, and provide very high availability of the data. However, the management of malicious peers is a very open problem for the Peer to Peer research community, and building trust is a very difficult task. In this context, Reputation Systems have shown to be a very good solution to build trust in Peer to Peer systems. Nevertheless, using o...

  5. 06131 Abstracts Collection -- Peer-to -Peer -Systems and -Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Anthony D.; Steinmetz, Ralf; Stoica, Ion; Wehrle, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    From 26.03.06 to 29.03.06, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06131 ``Peer-to-Peer-Systems and -Applications'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the se...

  6. Peer-to-Peer Usage Analysis: a Distributed Mining Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Masseglia, Florent; Poncelet, Pascal; Teisseire, Maguelonne

    2006-01-01

    International audience With the huge number of information sources available on the Internet, Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems offer a novel kind of system architecture providing the large-scale community with applications for file sharing, distributed file systems, distributed computing, messaging and real-time communication. P2P applications also provide a good infrastructure for data and compute intensive operations such as data mining. In this paper we propose a new approach for improving re...

  7. Die vermeintliche Robustheit von Peer-to-Peer-Netzen

    OpenAIRE

    Dinger, Jochen; Hartenstein, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer- (P2P-) Netze bilden logische bzw. virtuelle Netze auf Basis existierender Netze wie dem Internet. P2P-Netze zeichnen sich insbesondere durch ihre dezentrale Struktur und selbstorganisierende Mechanismen aus, welche im Gegensatz zu Client-Server Architekturen die Last auf alle teilnehmenden Knoten gleichmaeßig verteilen. Durch die dezentrale Struktur in Kombination mit selbstorganisierenden Mechanismen ist es daher moeglich, hoch skalierbare P2P-Netze zu konstruieren. Zudem erhoe...

  8. Workflow-based semantics for peer-to-peer specifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio BROGI; Razvan POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce SMoL, a simplified BPEL-like language for specifying peer and service beha-viour in P2P systems. We then define a transformational semantics of SMoL in terms of Yet Another Workflow Language (YAWL) workflows, which enables the simu-lation (e.g., testing possible execution scenarios) and ana-lysis (e.g., verifying reachability or lock freedom) of the behaviour of P2P peers and services.

  9. Stream my Models: Reactive Peer-to-Peer Distributed

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Thomas; Moawad, Assaad; Fouquet, François; Nain, Grégory; Klein, Jacques; Le Traon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm promotes the use of models during the execution of cyber-physical systems to represent their context and to reason about their runtime behaviour. However, current modeling techniques do not allow to cope at the same time with the large-scale, distributed, and constantly changing nature of these systems. In this paper, we introduce a distributed approach, combining ideas from reactive programming, peer-to-peer distribution, and large-scale models@ru...

  10. SECURE SHORT MESSAGE PEER-TO-PEER PROTOCOL

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Samanta; Radhesh Mohandas; Alwyn R. Pais

    2012-01-01

    Short Message Service (SMS) has become an extension of our lives and plays an important role in daily chores. SMS is a popular medium for delivering Value Added Services and are suitable for mobile banking, payment reminders, SOS calls, stock and news alerts, railway and flight enquiries etc. These types of messages are normally computer generated messages sent over Short Message Peer-to-Peer (SMPP) protocol. SMPP is an application layer protocol to send messages over TCP/IP connection. SMPP ...

  11. Reviewing peer review: a quantitative analysis of peer review

    OpenAIRE

    Casati, Fabio; Marchese, Maurizio; Mirylenka, Katsiaryna; Ragone, Azzurra

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the analysis of peer reviews and reviewers behavior in a number of different review processes. More specifically, we report on the development, definition and rationale of a theoretical model for peer review processes to support the identification of appropriate metrics to assess the processes main properties. We then apply the proposed model and analysis framework to data sets from conference evaluation processes and we discuss the results implications and their eve...

  12. Spreading of Oil Spill on Placid Aquatic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick O. NJOBUENWU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous research in the development of suitable predictive model is vital as the input of oil spills into the aquatic environment particularly in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria is alarming due to frequent oil spills. This eventually affects aquatic organisms and shoreline activities. This work developed an semi-empirical expression that can predict the horizontal spreading of Niger Delta Oil Spills (NDOS on a placid water body using simple physical coefficients of the oil and the aquatic medium. The empirical expression developed is a function of the spreading coefficient which was derived from heuristic arguments and enhanced to deal with gravity, viscous and surface tension forces. The extent of spread of various oil samples was found to correlate with non-dimensional groups comprised of the ratios of the product between density, viscosity for oil and water respectively. This model provides an easy means to estimate oil slick transport under stagnant water conditions at specific locations in the Niger Delta area. The semi-empirical model is verified against most popular empirical model.

  13. Aquatic ecosystem characterisation strategy at a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkala, Teija [Pyhaejaervi Institute, Sepaentie 7, 27500 Kauttua (Finland); Koivunen, Sari [Water and Environment Research of South-West Finland, Telekatu 16, 20360 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. According to regulatory requirements, the safety assessment for the repository should have an assessment timeframe of several millennia. Due to the post-glacial land uplift, the relatively shallow sea areas around Olkiluoto Island will change gradually to lakes, rivers and terrestrial areas. As there are no limnic systems at present Olkiluoto site, the reference area was delineated and reference lakes and rivers were selected as an analogue. For the modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment, aquatic ecosystems were identified and divided into biotopes. Despite the number of available templates, the division of aquatic environment for the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository was necessary to made separately. In this contribution, the processes behind the identification of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. legislation, physical and chemical properties) together with the biotope selection methodology (e.g. light and bottom conditions) and the challenges related to the amount of variable input parameters for each biotope in the modelling are presented. (authors)

  14. Uranium in Aquatic Sediments; Where are the Guidelines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment data has been collected on and around the Ranger uranium mine for over 20 years. This included studies such as annual routine monitoring of metal concentrations, adsorption-desorption conditions, phase associations, transport mechanism, release potential, bioaccumulation and bioconcentration etc. Building on this, performance-based monitoring of the sediments from on-site water bodies was undertaken to ascertain the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants as a basis to determine ecological risks associated with the sediments which in turn underpins closure planning. Highlights of these studies are interpreted using an ecological risk assessment approach. Ideally interpretation of aquatic sediment contamination in Australia is guided by the national guidelines for water quality and a weighted multiple lines of evidence approach whereby the chemistry of sediments is compared with reference and guideline values and predictions of bio-availability, and biological effects data allows cause and effect relationships to be derived. However, where uranium in aquatic sediments is concerned there is a lack of national (Australian) and international guidelines that are applicable to tropical sediments and the biological effects data available are limited or confounded by other variables. In the absence of clear uranium guidelines for sediments an internationally reported “Predicted No Effect Concentration” (PNEC) for uranium in temperate sediments was used as a “pseudo-guideline” value to identify sites with concentrations that might present an environmental risk and that should be further investigated. The applicability of the PNEC to the tropical Ranger site was understandably questioned by stakeholders and peers. The issues raised highlighted the need for international guidelines for uranium in aquatic sediments for tropical and temperate climates and an internationally accepted approach for deriving same. (author)

  15. Peer bullying in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıza Gökler

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the term of "Peer Bullying" has been observed according to definitions and approaches variety in Turkey and abroad. "Bullying" is used synonym of violence and aggressiveness today and spread of all cultures in the world as an international concept. "Bullying" is a widespread fact which consists of physical, verbal and social damage to a feeble one. It is a kind of violence and can be defined as incapability of someone to a person or more than one person's violence. Bullying can be classified as follows: psychological and emotional (a gossip or exclusion etc., verbal (get a nickname, impose constraints, intimidation etc. and physical (impellent, to kick a victim etc.The findings of this study can be summarized as follows: the frequency and extent of violence is very effective on espousal, insensitivity and unresponsiveness of the students. Thus, they use them as a problem solving instrument and also can move them to all parts of theri life. Bully has been determined that some precautions should be taken not to be effected from the short term and long term effects of violence.

  16. Peer bullying in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıza Gökler

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the term of "Peer Bullying" has been observed according to definitions and approaches variety in Turkey and abroad. "Bullying" is used synonym of violence and aggressiveness today and spread of all cultures in the world as an international concept. "Bullying" is a widespread fact which consists of physical, verbal and social damage to a feeble one. It is a kind of violence and can be defined as incapability of someone to a person or more than one person's violence. Bullying can be classified as follows: psychological and emotional (a gossip or exclusion etc., verbal (get a nickname, impose constraints, intimidation etc. and physical (impellent, to kick a victim etc. The findings of this study can be summarized as follows: the frequency and extent of violence is very effective on espousal, insensitivity and unresponsiveness of the students. Thus, they use them as a problem solving instrument and also can move them to all parts of theri life. Bully has been determined that some precautions should be taken not to be effected from the short term and long term effects of violence.

  17. Peer review and journal models

    CERN Document Server

    Dall'Aglio, P

    2006-01-01

    Tentative analysis of alternative peer review and journal models. Open Access and Impact factor issues are not covered. The bibliography, in alphabetical order, lists articles and web sites (with brief description).

  18. Peer Review: Has It a Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Although its history is short, peer review has fast become a fixture of journal publications acquiring the status of a ritual in the academia. Many relevant and important issues have been raised leading to doubts about the value of peer review. The advent of electronic publishing further threatens the future of peer review. For peer review to…

  19. 45 CFR 1388.9 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer review. 1388.9 Section 1388.9 Public Welfare... PROGRAM THE UNIVERSITY AFFILIATED PROGRAMS § 1388.9 Peer review. (a) The purpose of the peer review... D, Section 152 of the Act, must be evaluated through the peer review process. (c) Panels must...

  20. Clean Evidence on Peer Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Armin; Ichino, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    While confounding factors typically jeopardize the possibility of using observational data to measure peer effects, field experiments over the potential for obtaining clean evidence. In this paper we measure the output of subjects who were asked to stuff letters into envelopes, with a remuneration completely independent of output. We study two treatments. In the 'pair' treatment two subjects work at the same time in the same room. Peer effects are possible in this situation and imply that out...

  1. Input and Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周笑盈

    2011-01-01

    The behaviorist, the mentalist and the interactionist have different emphases on the role input in Second Language Acquisition. In order to protrude the importance of second language teaching, it is indispensible to discuss the characteristics of input and to explore its effects.

  2. REEXAMINING THE ROLE OF INPUT AND THE FEATURES OF OPTIMAL INPUT (Ⅱ) Features of Optimal Input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu; Qiang

    2001-01-01

    If input plays a significant role in SLA, then the nextquestion is what kind of input is most helpful to the learner?Krashen (1982) defined that optimal input should (1) becomprehensible; (2) be interesting and/or relevant; (3) not begrammatically sequened; (4) be in sufficient quantity. Wemade some modifications to this list which may still not becomprehensive either. However, if the learner can be exposed toinput having these features, it is considered that acquisition ismore likely to occur. Such input should be comprehensible,authentic, attractive and interesting, interactive, up-to-date,culture-bearing, and in great quantity.

  3. Marine envenomations and aquatic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppe, G G

    1989-08-01

    Jellyfish stings are usually mild except those caused by species in the South Pacific. The box jellyfish can produce a severe cardiorespiratory insult. The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war is more potent than that of the common jellyfish. The Indo-Pacific area is the source of the most venomous bony fish. Many injuries can be avoided by wearing shoes when walking in shallow water or tide pools. Aquatic-related skin infections may involve unusual organisms. Swimmer's itch, a disease of freshwater bathing, is caused by cercariae. Seabather's eruption produces a rash in swimsuit-covered areas; the etiology is not clear. PMID:2569260

  4. Phytoremediation Potential of Aquatic Macrophyte, Azolla

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L.; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The us...

  5. PEERS ORGANIZING TRUST BASED ON METRICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sheshadri Shirisha; K. Chandra Sekharaiah

    2014-01-01

    Every system in the network considered as peer, which are open to malicious activities in nature. Prevention of these malicious activities is achieved by developing trust between the peers. Trustworthiness of a peer can be calculated based on the prior interactions with other peers in the network. Peers create their own trust network in their proximity by using local information available and do not try to learn global trust information. Interactions and recommendations are ...

  6. Current and Evolving Models of Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Fresco-Santalla, Ana; Hernández-Pérez, Tony

    2014-01-01

    New models of scientific publishing and new ways of practicing peer review have injected a recent dynamism into the scholarly communication system. In this article, we delineate the context of the traditional peer review model, reflect upon some of the first experiences with open peer review and forecast some of the challenges that new models for peer review will have to meet. Our findings suggest that the peer review function has the potential to be divorced from the journal system, so that ...

  7. Radioactivity in the Canadian aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of radionuclides arising from natural anthropogenic processes as well as technologically enhanced natural radiation are discussed. Transport, distribution and behaviour of these radionuclides in aquatic systems are influenced by physical, chemical, biological and geological processes and conditions in freshwater and marine environments. Dosimetry of aquatic organisms, as well as various methods of measuring dose rate are presented. Effects of ionizing radiation (acute and chronic exposure) on aquatic organisms, populations and ecosystems are reviewed. This review covers the entire spectrum of the aquatic environment. Results of many studies are summarized. 300+ refs

  8. On Democracy in Peer-to-Peer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baraglia, Ranieri; Mordacchini, Matteo; Ricci, Laura; Alessi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    The information flow inside a P2P network is highly dependent on the network structure. In order to ease the diffusion of relevant data toward interested peers, many P2P protocols gather similar nodes by putting them in direct contact. With this approach the similarity between nodes is computed in a point-to-point fashion: each peer individually identifies the nodes that share similar interests with it. This leads to the creation of a sort of "private" communities, limited to each peer neighbors list. This "private" knowledge do not allow to identify the features needed to discover and characterize the correlations that collect similar peers in broader groups. In order to let these correlations to emerge, the collective knowledge of peers must be exploited. One common problem to overcome in order to avoid the "private" vision of the network, is related to how distributively determine the representation of a community and how nodes may decide to belong to it. We propose to use a gossip-like approach in order t...

  9. Commercial Lighting Solutions Webtool Peer Review Report, Office Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeson, Tracy A.; Jones, Carol C.

    2010-02-01

    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the CLS webtool for offices. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed for the release of version 2.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in Las Vegas in May 2010. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 2.0 as well as appendices containing the comments and short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 2.0 are listed as long-term recommendations.

  10. The interactive effects of excess reactive nitrogen and climate change on aquatic ecosystems and water resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J.S.; Hall, E.K.; Nolan, B.T.; Finlay, J.C.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Harrison, J.A.; Chan, F.; Boyer, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all freshwaters and coastal zones of the US are degraded from inputs of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr), sources of which are runoff, atmospheric N deposition, and imported food and feed. Some major adverse effects include harmful algal blooms, hypoxia of fresh and coastal waters, ocean acidification, long-term harm to human health, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Nitrogen fluxes to coastal areas and emissions of nitrous oxide from waters have increased in response to N inputs. Denitrification and sedimentation of organic N to sediments are important processes that divert N from downstream transport. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly important denitrification hotspots. Carbon storage in sediments is enhanced by Nr, but whether carbon is permanently buried is unknown. The effect of climate change on N transport and processing in fresh and coastal waters will be felt most strongly through changes to the hydrologic cycle, whereas N loading is mostly climate-independent. Alterations in precipitation amount and dynamics will alter runoff, thereby influencing both rates of Nr inputs to aquatic ecosystems and groundwater and the water residence times that affect Nr removal within aquatic systems. Both infrastructure and climate change alter the landscape connectivity and hydrologic residence time that are essential to denitrification. While Nr inputs to and removal rates from aquatic systems are influenced by climate and management, reduction of N inputs from their source will be the most effective means to prevent or to minimize environmental and economic impacts of excess Nr to the nation’s water resources.

  11. The role of peer assessment and peer review in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopee, N

    With the implementation of clinical governance and professional self-regulation, substantial responsibility is devolved on to clinical nurses. Central to these two concepts is accountability for practice. We are accountable for our professional competence and knowledge to various parties such as the professional statutory body, the employer, society as well as ourselves. Although self-assessment provides each individual with a medium for ascertaining his/her own level of performance and, therefore, identifying his/her learning needs, peer review and peer assessment provide healthy means for obtaining feedback and external perceptions. They also bring with them several other benefits and meet other recommended professional requirements. Peer review is an intrinsic component of clinical governance, and it can be initiated and implemented at one-to-one, departmental or organizational level.

  12. The Advanced LIGO Input Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Chris; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; King, Eleanor; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William; Martin, Rodica; Mullavey, Adam; Poeld, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David; Tanner, David; Williams, Luke; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they h...

  13. Nonlinear input-output systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng

    1987-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.

  14. Evaluation of the Peer Helping Program Conducted For University Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    ALADAĞ, Mine

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of the peer helping program conducted for unıversity adjustment. the purpose of this study was to examine the peer helpers’ (university students who present peer helping program) and peer helpees’ (university students who benefit from peer helping program) evaluations of the peer helping program conducted for university adjustment. For this purpose, 47 peer helpees and 14 peer helpers were administered two different Peer Helping Program Evaluation Form developed by the researcher. ...

  15. Intellectual Property Rights Protection in Peer to Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylios, Georgios; Tsolis, Dimitrios

    Peer to Peer Networks are oftenly used by internet users to share and distribute digital content (images, audio and video) which is in most of cases protected by the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) legislation. This fact threatens e-inclusion and Internet democracy as a whole as it forces organizations to block access to valuable content. This paper claims that IPR protection and P2P can be complementary. Specifically, a P2P infrastructure is presented which allows broad digital content exchange while on the same time supports data and copyright protection through watermarking technologies.

  16. Designs and Analyses in Structured Peer-To-Peer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ansary, Sameh

    2005-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing is a recent hot topic in the areas of networking and distributed systems. Work on P2P computing was triggered by a number of ad-hoc systems that made the concept popular. Later, academic research efforts started to investigate P2P computing issues based on scientific principles. Some of that research produced a number of structured P2P systems that were collectively referred to by the term "Distributed Hash Tables" (DHTs). However, the research occurred in a diver...

  17. Peer Effects and Peer Avoidance: Epidemic Diffusion in Coevolving Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fosco, Constanza; Marsili, Matteo; VEGA-REDONDO, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    We study the long-run-emergency of behavioral patterns in dynamic complex networks. Individuals display two kinds of behavior: G("good") or B ("bad"). We assume that agents have an innate tendency towards G, but can also be led towards B though the influence of peer bad behavior. We model the implications of those peer effects as an epidemic process in the standard SIS (Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible) framework. The key novelty of our model is that, unlike in received epidemic literature, t...

  18. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  19. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  20. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  1. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  2. Peer assessment enhances student learning

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Dennis L; Walther, Guenther; Baiocchi, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Feedback has a powerful influence on learning, but it is also expensive to provide. In large classes, it may even be impossible for instructors to provide individualized feedback. Peer assessment has received attention lately as a way of providing personalized feedback that scales to large classes. Besides these obvious benefits, some researchers have also conjectured that students learn by peer assessing, although no studies have ever conclusively demonstrated this effect. By conducting a randomized controlled trial in an introductory statistics class, we provide evidence that peer assessment causes significant gains in student achievement. The strength of our conclusions depends critically on the careful design of the experiment, which was made possible by a web-based platform that we developed. Hence, our study is also a proof of concept of the high-quality experiments that are possible with online tools.

  3. Feedback, Incentives and Peer Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback about relative performance....... The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner takes-all tournament. We find that the principal should not provide any information on relative  performance, regardless of the pay scheme used, since feedback does not improve performance. Indeed, we do not find evidence of positive peer...... effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In both pay schemes, interim feedback generates negative quality peer effects on the less able performers. We find however evidence of positive peer effects in the tournament scheme since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly...

  4. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation. PMID:22396093

  5. Disabled Peers and Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Friesen; Ross Hickey; Brian Krauth

    2010-01-01

    We use data on students in grades 4–7 in the Canadian province of British Columbia to investigate the effect of having disabled peers on value-added exam outcomes. Longitudinal data for multiple cohorts of students are used together with school-by-grade-level fixed effects to account for endogenous selection into schools. Our estimates suggest that same-grade peers with learning and behavioral disabilities have an adverse effect on the test score gains of nondisabled students in British Colum...

  6. A comparison of peer-to-peer query response modes

    CERN Document Server

    Hoschek, W

    2002-01-01

    In a large distributed system spanning many administrative domains such as a Grid (Foster et al., 2001), it is desirable to maintain and query dynamic and timely information about active participants such as services, resources and user communities. However, in such a database system, the set of information tuples in the universe is partitioned over one or more distributed nodes, for reasons including autonomy, scalability, availability, performance and security. This suggests the use of peer-to-peer (P2P) query technology. A variety of query response modes can be used to return matching query results from P2P nodes to an originator. Although from the functional perspective all response modes are equivalent, no mode is optimal under all circumstances. Which query response modes allow to express suitable trade-offs for a wide range ofP2P application? We answer this question by systematically describing and characterizing four query response modes for the unified peer-to-peer database framework (UPDF) proposed ...

  7. Social Networks and Aggressive Behavior: Peer Support or Peer Rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Robert B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied the aggressive behavior in school of two cohorts of boys and girls in the fourth and seventh grades. Highly aggressive subjects were usually solid members of peer clusters and typically had a network of friends. Aggressive patterns and correlated behaviors provided a basis for social cohesion and commonalities in friendships for both boys…

  8. Using Peer Feedback to Improve Learning via Online Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Lee, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of various forms of peer observation and feedback on student learning. We recruited twelve graduate students enrolled in a course entitled, Statistics in Education and Psychology, at a university in northern Taiwan. Researchers adopted the case study method, and the course lasted for ten weeks. Students were…

  9. Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

  10. An Evaluation of the Accuracy of Peer to Peer Surgical Teaching and the Role of the Peer Review Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Oh; Noel Lynch; Nora McCarthy; Tulin Cil; Elaine Lehane; Michelle Reardon; Henry Paul Redmond; Mark Corrigan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer to peer learning is a well-established learning modality which has been shown to improve learning outcomes, with positive implications for clinical practice. Surgical students from across Ireland were invited to upload learning points daily while paired with their peers in a peer-reviewing process. This study was designed to assess content accuracy and evaluate the benefit of the review process. Method: A reflective content sample was selected from the database representing a...

  11. Using Stable Isotopes to Detect Land Use Change and Nitrogen Sources in Aquatic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changing land use is one of the primary causes of increased sedimentation and nutrient levels in aquatic systems, resulting in contamination and reduction of biodiversity. Detecting and quantifying these inputs is the first step towards remediation, and enabling targeted reductions of transport processes into waterways from human impacted land surfaces. More recently, stable isotope analyses are being used as detection and quantification tools in aquatic environments. Carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes of sediments, as well as algae and invertebrates from aquatic systems can be used as proxies to record both short and long term environmental change. Excess nitrogen (or nitrogen-compounds) derived from urbanization, industry, forestry, farming and agriculture, increase the bioavailability of nitrogen to aquatic organisms, changing their natural δ15N isotopic signatures. Allochthonous (terrestrial) input from soil destabilization and human activity in surrounding catchments changes δ13C isotopic compositions and increases the C:N ratio of sediments. Heavy metal and other organic pollutants can also be used to indicate urbanization and industrial contamination. The combined use of carbon and nitrogen isotopes, C:N ratios and heavy metals are powerful environmental monitoring tools, which are useful indicators of source and transport pathways of terrestrial derived material and anthropogenic pollutants into streams, rivers and estuaries. (author)

  12. Mass exchange processes with input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a system of interacting clusters evolving through mass exchange and supplemented by input of small clusters. Three possibilities depending on the rate of exchange generically occur when input is homogeneous: continuous growth, gelation, and instantaneous gelation. We mostly study the growth regime using scaling methods. An exchange process with reaction rates equal to the product of reactant masses admits an exact solution which allows us to justify the validity of scaling approaches in this special case. We also investigate exchange processes with a localized input. We show that if the diffusion coefficients are mass-independent, the cluster mass distribution becomes stationary and develops an algebraic tail far away from the source. (paper)

  13. Peer Counselor Training with the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephanie B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a peer counselor training program for five older adult volunteers. Presents suggestions for advertising, screening, program format, and development of practica, and examines the role and helpfulness of the peer counselors who provided in-home counseling services. (JAC)

  14. Team Projects and Peer Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John Kevin; Meeker, Ralph D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assign semester- or quarter-long team-based projects in several Computer Science and Finance courses. This paper reports on our experience in designing, managing, and evaluating such projects. In particular, we discuss the effects of team size and of various peer evaluation schemes on team performance and student learning. We report…

  15. Peers on Socrates and Plato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is more to be said about two of the topics Chris Peers addresses in his article "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A morpho-logic of teaching and learning" (2012, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 760-774), namely the Socratic method of teaching and Plato's stance with regard to women and feminism. My purpose in this article is…

  16. Classroom Composition and Peer Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattie, John A. C.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter examines the extent to which the composition of classes affects learning outcomes. The aim is to explore peer effects when students are organized into classes on the basis of ability, ethnicity, or gender, as well as the effects of multigrade and multi-age classes and class size. The argument is defended that these composition factors…

  17. The Dedisciplining of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert; Briggle, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The demand for greater public accountability is changing the nature of ex ante peer review at public science agencies worldwide. Based on a four year research project, this essay examines these changes through an analysis of the process of grant proposal review at two US public science agencies, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the…

  18. The Power of Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingle, Jane

    2006-01-01

    In a religion class of 26 bright creative sixth graders, one student demonstrates the power of peer pressure. Part of the morning ritual is to say prayer petitions. Students seems to be calmed by their expressions of care for their families, friends, pets, their military troops, victims of natural disasters, the homeless, etc. However, one student…

  19. COGNITIVE INTERPRETATION OF INPUT HYPOTHESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHongyue; RenLiankui

    2004-01-01

    Krashen's Input Hypothesis, together with its earlier version, the Monitor Model is an influential theory in Second Language Acquisition research. In his studies, Krashen, on the one hand, emphasizes the part '“ comprehensible input” plays in learning a second language, on the other hand, he simply defines“comprehensible input” as “a little beyond the learner's current level”. What input can be considered as“a little beyond the learner's current level ”? Krashen gives no furtherexplanation. This paper tries to offer a more concrete and more detailed interpretation with Ausubel's Cognitive Assimilation theory.

  20. Incentive Effects of Peer Pressure in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Daido

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of peer pressure on incentives. We assume that, in addition to the material payoff, each agent's utility includes the psychological payoff from peer pressure generated by a comparison of effort costs. We show that the optimal incentive schemes depend mainly on the degree of peer pressure and of the heterogeneity of agents. Furthermore, we examine the optimal organizational forms in terms of the principal''s intention to make use of the effects of peer pressure.

  1. 28 CFR 34.110 - Management of peer reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 34.110 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.110 Management of peer reviews. A technical support contractor may assist in managing the peer review process....

  2. Research on Intellectual Property Right Problems of Peer-to-Peer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Li, Mingshu; Chen, Meizhang; Zheng, Shengli

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital intellectual property rights relating to peer-to-peer networks, using Napster as an example. Suggests anti-piracy solutions to prevent litigation and considers how libraries can develop potential service models using peer-to-peer networks, including the development of personal libraries on the Internet, interlibrary loan,…

  3. Managing Supply and Demand of Bandwidth in Peer-to-Peer Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulpolder, M.

    2011-01-01

    On today's Internet, millions of people participate in peer-to-peer communities where they share content such as audio and video files. Contrary to websites such as Youtube, which rely on large and expensive computer servers to store and deliver all of their content, peer-to-peer communities rely on

  4. A Peer Review Training Workshop: Coaching Students to Give and Evaluate Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Trained peer review, as illustrated in a plethora of peer review or peer response scholarship, has a positive effect on students' writing in general and on improved revision quality in particular (Berg, 1999; Hu, 2005; Min, 2006; Paulus, 1999; Stanley, 1992). From these studies, it is evident that trained peer feedback does have a significant role…

  5. Semantic Query Mechanism on Peer to Peer XML- Based Information Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Min; HUANG Yi; GU Jinguang; HE Guiming

    2006-01-01

    To enable accessing web information at semantic level, this paper develops a semantic query rewriting mechanism on peer to peer XISs with complex ontology mapping technology. It discusses the patterns of complex ontology mappings at first, and the ontology-based query mechanism in peer to peer environment. The extension of XML query algebra and XML query rewriting mechanism are dissussed in detail.

  6. Demystifying the peer-review process - workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific writing and peer-review are integral parts of the publishing process. This workshop aims to demystify the peer-review process for early career scientists and provide insightful tips for streamlining the submission and peer review process for all researchers. Providing ...

  7. Peer Tutoring: An Economical Instructional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Kerth T.; Brown, William E.

    1979-01-01

    A peer tutoring model is described and suggestions for implementing peer tutoring programs are provided. The seven steps in the development of a peer tutoring program are: establishing a need, considering curriculum, assessing, selecting learners, selecting tutors, monitoring, and coordinating. (PHR)

  8. Endogenous Peer Effects: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…

  9. 48 CFR 201.170 - Peer Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer Reviews. 201.170... OF DEFENSE GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 201.170 Peer... Procurement and Acquisition Policy, will organize teams of reviewers and facilitate Peer Reviews...

  10. Peer Reviewers Learn from Giving Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Hoan; Cho, Kwangsu

    2011-01-01

    Research on peer reviewing has revealed that comments received from peer reviewers are helpful when it comes to making revisions in an individual's writing, but the role of providing comments to peer writers has been little explored despite the potential value of such research. In this study, we explored how student reviewers learn by reviewing…

  11. Advancing Kinesiology through Improved Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane V.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2014-01-01

    Peer review of scholarship is essential to journal quality, evidence, knowledge advancement, and application of that knowledge in any field. This commentary summarizes recent literature on issues related to peer-review quality and current review practice in kinesiology and provides recommendations to improve peer review in kinesiology journals. We…

  12. Peer Review of Teaching: Sharing Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Shaya; Chan, Judy; Cassidy, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we share examples of best peer review of teaching practices, drawing on our involvement in the design and implementation of the Peer Review of Teaching program at the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology. We review the history of the Peer Review of Teaching Initiative at the University of British Columbia and explain key…

  13. 48 CFR 215.270 - Peer Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer Reviews. 215.270 Section 215.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... of Proposals and Information 215.270 Peer Reviews. Agency officials shall conduct Peer Reviews...

  14. Peer Review: Promoting Efficient School District Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    Many professions recognize the benefits of peer reviews to assess processes and operations because peers can more easily identify one another's inefficiencies and provide some kind of intervention. Generally, the goal of the peer review process is to verify whether the work satisfies the standards set by the industry. A number of states have begun…

  15. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section 194.27... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that...

  16. 42 CFR 24.5 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Peer review. 24.5 Section 24.5 Public Health PUBLIC....5 Peer review. An individual may not be considered for appointment into the SBRS unless his/her qualifications have been reviewed by a PHS peer review committee and the committee has recommended appointment...

  17. 7 CFR 550.17 - Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peer review. 550.17 Section 550.17 Agriculture... § 550.17 Peer review. Upon request of the REE Agency, cooperators may be requested to provide documentation in support of peer review activities and cooperator personnel may be requested to participate...

  18. Peer Pressure: An Issue That Crosses Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittredge, Karen; McCarthy, Alice R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research on peer pressure shows that: parents are important to teens, today's teens face unique challenges, and teaching teens to say no does not mean losing friends. The paper presents parenting tips for countering peer pressure, noting the influence of adult peer pressure on children. A sidebar examines the right age to start talking to…

  19. Introduction to Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium is an alliance of neuroscience journals that have agreed to accept manuscript reviews from other members of the Consortium.Its goals are to support efficient and thorough peer review of original research in neuroscience, speed the publication of research reports, and reduce the burden on peer reviewers.

  20. Human Exploitation of Aquatic Landscapes. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures and in the formation of communal identities. The aim of this special themed issue of Internet Archaeology is to contribute to a better understanding of different forms of human interaction with aquatic landscapes.

  1. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  2. A Mixed Picture of AQUATIC PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aquatic products constitute an important part of China's international trade in agricultural products with the strongest competitiveness for export.The aquatic products industry of apparent competitive edge has maintained a considerable trade surplus despite the general trend of trade deficit among agricultural products in recent years.Nevertheless,the great changes taking place in the global economic and trade pattern in late years have given rise to the increasing uncertainties of the supply and demand as well as the price in the international aquatic products market.

  3. Identifying the risk to the aquatic environment of endocrine disrupters derived from agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Matthiessen, Peter; Arnold, David; Johnson, Andrew; Pepper, Tim; Pottinger, Tom G.; Pulman, Kim G. T.; Williams, Richard

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. The purpose of this project was to review possible inputs to UK headwater streams of steroid hormones originating from livestock, to investigate hormone contamination in some streams in which concentrations were expected to be maximal, and to draw conclusions about possible risks that these hormones may pose to aquatic organisms. 2. The review concluded that although livestock in the UK excretes more steroid sex hormones (oestradiol and testosterone) than the hu...

  4. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  5. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  6. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  7. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  8. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  9. Input/output interface module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyazici, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.

  10. The advanced LIGO input optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Chris L., E-mail: cmueller@phys.ufl.edu; Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; Feldbaum, David; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Martin, Rodica M.; Reitze, David H.; Tanner, David B.; Williams, Luke F.; Mueller, Guido [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); DeRosa, Ryan T.; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Frolov, Valery V.; Mullavey, Adam [LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, Louisiana 70754 (United States); Kawabe, Keita; Vorvick, Cheryl [LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); King, Eleanor J. [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); and others

    2016-01-15

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

  11. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  12. The advanced LIGO input optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Chris L; Arain, Muzammil A; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan T; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Kawabe, Keita; King, Eleanor J; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z; Martin, Rodica M; Mullavey, Adam; Peold, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H; Tanner, David B; Vorvick, Cheryl; Williams, Luke F; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

  13. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  14. BALLS Simulator : Evaluator of a structured Peer-to-Peer system with integrated load balancing

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Viet-Dung; Babin, Gilbert; Kropf, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Simulation is an efficient way to evaluate new peer-to-peer models. It requires two implicit properties: large scale and high dynamicity. In the context of our work that proposes a peer-to-peer structure based on partitioning a de Bruijn graph and its load balancing algorithms, we developed a simulator for evaluation purposes. This paper introduces a three- layer architecture of the simulator. This architecture allows to support simulations in two modes: centralized (where all peers are simul...

  15. Social communication interventions for preschoolers: targeting peer interactions during peer group entry and cooperative play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timler, Geralyn R; Olswang, Lesley B; Coggins, Truman E

    2005-08-01

    Some preschoolers with language impairment approach and manage peer interactions less effectively than typically developing peers. This article discusses assessment and intervention strategies for targeting preschoolers' social communication skills during peer entry and cooperative play situations. Essential features of effective interventions include identification of appropriate social communication targets, addressing and facilitating children's use of these targets during small group sessions with peers, and supporting generalization of newly acquired social communication behaviors to children's peer interactions within the classroom setting. PMID:16155855

  16. Controls on metal exposure to aquatic organisms in urban streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin-Nagel, Katelyn; Vadas, Timothy M

    2016-08-10

    Streams in urban ecosystems receive metal inputs primarily from stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent. The relative contribution of these metal sources to stream impairment is difficult to discern based on simple water characteristics and biological surveys. Stream impairment in these systems is often indicated by reduced abundance and diversity of aquatic insects, which tend to be more sensitive to chronic metal exposures. Metal species and controls on metal species in both the waterborne and dietborne exposure pathways to aquatic organisms are reviewed here. In addition, ecological changes that can control dietborne species are discussed. A main focus is on how organic matter from different anthropogenic sources may control both aqueous metal speciation as well as interaction with various inorganic or microbiological surfaces in streams. Most of the reviewed research focuses on Cu, Zn or Pb as those are the primary metals of concern in developed systems and Cu and Pb have unique and strong interactions with organic matter. Recommendations for further research are described in the context of exposure species, dynamics of exposure, stoichiometry, or advanced analytical tools, and regulatory implications are discussed. PMID:27170052

  17. Key agreement in peer-to-peer wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagalj, Mario; Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a set of simple techniques for key establishment over a radio link in peer-to-peer networks. Our approach is based on the Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol, which is known to be vulnerable to the “man-in-the-middle” attack if the two users involved in the protocol do not share any...... authenticated information about each other (e.g., public keys, certificates, passwords, shared keys, etc.) prior to the protocol execution. In this paper, we solve the problem by leveraging on the natural ability of users to authenticate each other by visual and verbal contact.We propose three techniques......: the first is based on visual comparison of short strings, the second on distance bounding, and the third on integrity codes; in each case, the users do not need to enter any password or other data, nor do they need physical or infrared connectivity between their devices. We base our analysis on a well...

  18. Cooperative peer-to-peer multiagent based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caram, L F; Ausloos, M; Proto, A N

    2015-01-01

    A multiagent based model for a system of cooperative agents aiming at growth is proposed. This is based on a set of generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra differential equations. In this study, strong cooperation is allowed among agents having similar sizes, and weak cooperation if agent have markedly different "sizes", thus establishing a peer-to-peer modulated interaction scheme. A rigorous analysis of the stable configurations is presented first examining the fixed points of the system, next determining their stability as a function of the model parameters. It is found that the agents are self-organizing into clusters. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that, depending on parameter values, multiple stable configurations can coexist. It occurs that only one of them always emerges with probability close to one, because its associated attractor dominates over the rest. This is shown through numerical integrations and simulations,after analytic developments. In contrast to the competitive case, agents are able to in...

  19. A Peer-to-Peer Distributed Collaborative Optimization System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijun Xue

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to solve design optimization problems of complex systems by using a traditional computing method because complex simulation processes usually lead to large-scale computation. Therefore the distributed computing technology based on decomposition-coordination theory has received much attention by design engineers. This paper studies a peer-to-peer collaborative optimization method based on distributed computing technology in order to examine flexible optimization. A new distributed collaborative optimization framework is proposed, and a coordination method is developed and used to deal with the conflict of related variables among sub-optimization problems. A multi-agent based distributed computing environment is implemented. The implementation of an optimization agent, in which CORBA technology is used to implement communication between the components of the optimization agent, is discussed in detail. Two examples are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the computing method and the reliability and flexibility of the multi-agent system.

  20. Tree-connected Peer Group Situations and Peer Group Games

    OpenAIRE

    Brânzei, R.; Fragnelli, V.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    A class of cooperative games is introduced which arises from situations in which a set of agents is hierarchically structured and where potential individual economic abilities interfere with the behavioristic rules induced by the organization structure.These games form a cone generated by a specific class of unanimity games, namely those based on coalitions called peer groups. Different economic situations like auctions, communication situations, sequencing situations and flow situations are ...

  1. Systems and methods for reconfiguring input devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jeff (Inventor); De Mers, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes an input device having first and second input members configured to be activated by a user. The input device is configured to generate activation signals associated with activation of the first and second input members, and each of the first and second input members are associated with an input function. A processor is coupled to the input device and configured to receive the activation signals. A memory coupled to the processor, and includes a reconfiguration module configured to store the input functions assigned to the first and second input members and, upon execution of the processor, to reconfigure the input functions assigned to the input members when the first input member is inoperable.

  2. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter;

    2009-01-01

      A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested...... delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic...... animals is quantitatively important in nitraterich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability...

  3. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) - Volusia County Seagrass

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Aquatic vegetation in Volusia County. DEP SEA_GRASSES This polygon GIS data set represents a compilation of statewide seagrass data from various source agencies and...

  4. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database Marine Fishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NAS) information resource is an established central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of...

  5. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  6. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Brix, Hans; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic animals is quantitatively important in nitrate-rich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability in tropical regions and the numeric dominance of filter- and deposit-feeders in eutrophic ecosystems. PMID:19255427

  7. Hierarchical Data Distribution Scheme for Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Shashi; Dave, M.; Patel, R. B.

    2010-11-01

    In the past few years, peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have become an extremely popular mechanism for large-scale content sharing. P2P systems have focused on specific application domains (e.g. music files, video files) or on providing file system like capabilities. P2P is a powerful paradigm, which provides a large-scale and cost-effective mechanism for data sharing. P2P system may be used for storing data globally. Can we implement a conventional database on P2P system? But successful implementation of conventional databases on the P2P systems is yet to be reported. In this paper we have presented the mathematical model for the replication of the partitions and presented a hierarchical based data distribution scheme for the P2P networks. We have also analyzed the resource utilization and throughput of the P2P system with respect to the availability, when a conventional database is implemented over the P2P system with variable query rate. Simulation results show that database partitions placed on the peers with higher availability factor perform better. Degradation index, throughput, resource utilization are the parameters evaluated with respect to the availability factor.

  8. Peer-to-Peer Enclaves for Improving Network Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Archer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about cyberthreats within networks spreads slowly relative to the speed at which those threats spread. Typical "threat feeds" that are commercially available also disseminate information slowly relative to the propagation speed of attacks, and they often convey irrelevant information about imminent threats. As a result, hosts sharing a network may miss opportunities to improve their defence postures against imminent attack because needed information arrives too late or is lost in irrelevant noise. We envision timely, relevant peer-to-peer sharing of threat information – based on current technologies – as a solution to these problems and as a useful design pattern for defensive cyberwarfare. In our setting, network nodes form communities that we call enclaves, where each node defends itself while sharing information on imminent threats with peers that have similar threat exposure. In this article, we present our vision for this solution. We sketch the architecture of a typical node in such a network and how it might interact with a framework for sharing threat information; we explain why certain defensive countermeasures may work better in our setting; we discuss current tools that could be used as components in our vision; and we describe opportunities for future research and development.

  9. A Threshold Scheme under Peer-to-Peer Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yumin; SHI Feng; MING Yang; MUHAMMAD Kamran; XU Jianqiang

    2006-01-01

    Resource sharing among peers is one of important application in Peer-to-Peer(P2P) network. Inexistence of server makes P2P network to be a less trustable tool for property owners to distribute their resource. In order to protect intelligent property, reputation management strategy is adopted in many P2P network. As long as a P2P network reputation strategy is confirmed, application designer can employ a special detailed distribution scheme to fulfill content distribution within the net. Shmir (k,n) threshold scheme, for example, is an encryption scheme to enhance the distribution security of this kind of design. (k*,n) threshold scheme is a new tool similar to Shmir scheme is proposed in this paper. The new scheme based on polynomial expansion and its security is decided by the one way function used in the secret distribution procedure. The scheme efficiency and its features as well as comparison between new and Shmir scheme are also discussed in this paper.

  10. Effect of Aquatic Immersion on Static Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Louder, Talin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively assess measures of static balance and limits of stability (LOS) in an aquatic environment compared to on land. Methods Fifteen healthy, young adults (23 + or - 2 years) performed 90 s static balance trials on land and aquatic immersion at two different depths (greater trochanter, xiphoid process). Measures of 95% ellipse area and center of pressure (CoP) mean velocity were computed from the force data. Additionally, participants completed a visual analog scale (VAS...

  11. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  12. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. PMID:21435676

  13. Self-Organizing Tunnel Peers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tunneling is an important approach in IPv6 transition techniques. The tunnel broker model provides a way to build virtual IPv6 networks without manual configuration.However, neither it adapts performance variation on the IPv4 infrastructure,nor it is a scalable solution for a wide-area IPv6 networking environment. In this paper, a self-organizing tunnel peer (SOTP)model is presented. Tunnel peers are clustered in the SOTP system so that optimization is scalable. Four primitive operations related to cluster construction - arrest,release,division and death - endow the system with the nature of self-organization.Occurrence and behavior of the operations are decided by criteria on the IPv4 end-to-end performance; hence measurement is an indispensable component of the system. The metabolism of cluster relaxes the requirement to accuracy of measurement and optimization.

  14. Study of Chunks Input Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静

    2003-01-01

    This paper is to describe and investigate Chunks (Lexical Phrases ) Input Approach in vocabulary learning strategies by means of achievement tests,questionnaire surveys and interviews. The study is to reveal how different learners combine different vocabulary learning strategies in their learning process. With the data collected, the author of this paper discusses and summarizes learners' individual differences in selecting vocabulary learning strategies with the hope of giving new insights into English teaching and learning.

  15. Pyramidal parent training by peers.

    OpenAIRE

    Neef, N A

    1995-01-01

    This study replicated a pyramidal model of parent training by peers and compared its effects with training by a professional with 26 parents of children with disabilities. A multiple probe design across 3 tiers of parents showed that both types of training produced acquisition, maintenance, and to varying extents, generalization of parents' teaching skills, with concomitant increases in the children's performance in most cases. Improvements were comparable for parents trained by a professiona...

  16. The Importance of Peer Reviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Franklin

    2000-01-01

    The importance of peer reviewing articles submitted to scientific journals is a subject that conferences and journals regularly revisit. In general such visits are brief. Although a few horror stories abound: ‘competitor holds up acceptance of paper to submit his own and so get priority’ or ‘competitor pours sufficient scorn on a good paper to darken its worth.’

  17. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  18. Crime, Education and Peer Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    P. Buonanno

    2003-01-01

    We present a dynamic two-period model of individual behaviour with heterogeneous agents in which individuals decide how to allocate their disposable time between education, crime and work in the legal sector. Education has a multiple role: it implies higher expected wages in the legal sector, increasing the opportunity cost of committing crime and it has a sort of “civilization” effect that makes more costly to engage in criminal activities. We model this effect by introducing a peer pressure...

  19. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-12-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.

  20. Peer Influence, Peer Status, and Prosocial Behavior: An Experimental Investigation of Peer Socialization of Adolescents' Intentions to Volunteer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2015-12-01

    Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors. PMID:26525387

  1. Peer-to-Peer Cloud Provisioning: Service Discovery and Load-Balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Rajiv; Wu, Xiaomin; Liu, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents: (i) a layered peer-to-peer Cloud provisioning architecture; (ii) a summary of the current state-of-the-art in Cloud provisioning with particular emphasis on service discovery and load-balancing; (iii) a classification of the existing peer-to-peer network management model with focus on extending the DHTs for indexing and managing complex provisioning information; and (iv) the design and implementation of novel, extensible software fabric (Cloud peer) that combines public/private clouds, overlay networking and structured peer-to-peer indexing techniques for supporting scalable and self-managing service discovery and load-balancing in Cloud computing environments. Finally, an experimental evaluation is presented that demonstrates the feasibility of building next generation Cloud provisioning systems based on peer-to-peer network management and information dissemination models. The experimental test-bed has been deployed on a public cloud computing platform, Amazon EC2, which demonstrates t...

  2. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance beta-cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance beta-cypermethrin are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of beta-cypermethrin as an insecticide on oilseed rape, wheat and maize. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified as regards the risk to aquatic organisms, bees and non-target arthropods.

  3. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2007 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2007, in Washington, D.C. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  4. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2005 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S. G.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 23-26, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  5. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2006 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2006-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 16-19, 2006, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  6. Super-proximity routing in structured peer-to-peer overlay networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zeng-de(吴增德); RAO Wei-xiong(饶卫雄); MA Fan-yuan(马范援)

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems are emerging as one of the most popular Internet applications. Structured Peer-to-Peer overlay networks use identifier based routing algorithms to allow robustness, load balancing, and distributed lookup needed in this environment. However, identifier based routing that is independent of Internet topology tends to be of low efficiency. Aimed at improving the routing efficiency, the super-proximity routing algorithms presented in this paper combine Internet topology and overlay routing table in choosing the next hop. Experimental results showed that the algorithms greatly improve the efficiency of Peer-to-Peer routing.

  7. Super-proximity routing in structured peer-to-peer overlay networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴增德; 饶卫雄; 马范援

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems are emerging as one of the most popular Intemet applications. Structured Peer-to-Peer overlay networks use identifier based routing algorithms to allow robustness, load balancing, and distributed lookup needed in this environment. However, identifier based routing that is independent of Internet topology tends to be of low efficiency. Aimed at improving the routing efficiency, the super-proximity routing algorithms presented in this paper combine Internet topology and over|ay routing table in choosing the next hop. Experimental results showed that the algorithms greatly improve the efficiency of Peer-to-Peer routing.

  8. Managing Supply and Demand of Bandwidth in Peer-to-Peer Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Meulpolder, M

    2011-01-01

    On today's Internet, millions of people participate in peer-to-peer communities where they share content such as audio and video files. Contrary to websites such as Youtube, which rely on large and expensive computer servers to store and deliver all of their content, peer-to-peer communities rely on storage and delivery by the PCs of the users themselves. Because of this, a peer-to-peer community can only be successful if there are enough users willing to provide content and bandwidth to othe...

  9. Technology in the Differential Input Demand Model

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mark G.; Lee, Jonq-Ying

    2003-01-01

    This study considers incorporating changes in technology in the differential input demand system through effects on output and input marginal products. The effects of technology on input demand are related to Slutsky coefficients and input shares of marginal cost. Technology effects on marginal-product changes are viewed as price changes, and restrictions on technology are considered.

  10. Ways forward for aquatic conservation: Applications of environmental psychology to support management objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Springett, Kate; Jefferson, Rebecca; Böck, Kerstin; Breckwoldt, Annette; Comby, Emeline; Cottet, Marylise; Hübner, Gundula; Le Lay, Yves-François; Shaw, Sylvie; Wyles, Kayleigh

    2016-01-15

    The success or failure of environmental management goals can be partially attributed to the support for such goals from the public. Despite this, environmental management is still dominated by a natural science approach with little input from disciplines that are concerned with the relationship between humans and the natural environment such as environmental psychology. Within the marine and freshwater environments, this is particularly concerning given the cultural and aesthetic significance of these environments to the public, coupled with the services delivered by freshwater and marine ecosystems, and the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to human-driven environmental perturbations. This paper documents nine case studies which use environmental psychology methods to support a range of aquatic management goals. Examples include understanding the drivers of public attitudes towards ecologically important but uncharismatic river species, impacts of marine litter on human well-being, efficacy of small-scale governance of tropical marine fisheries and the role of media in shaping attitudes towards. These case studies illustrate how environmental psychology and natural sciences can be used together to apply an interdisciplinary approach to the management of aquatic environments. Such an approach that actively takes into account the range of issues surrounding aquatic environment management is more likely to result in successful outcomes, from both human and environmental perspectives. Furthermore, the results illustrate that better understanding the societal importance of aquatic ecosystems can reduce conflict between social needs and ecological objectives, and help improve the governance of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this paper concludes that an effective relationship between academics and practitioners requires fully utilising the skills, knowledge and experience from both sectors. PMID:26599566

  11. Ways forward for aquatic conservation: Applications of environmental psychology to support management objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Springett, Kate; Jefferson, Rebecca; Böck, Kerstin; Breckwoldt, Annette; Comby, Emeline; Cottet, Marylise; Hübner, Gundula; Le Lay, Yves-François; Shaw, Sylvie; Wyles, Kayleigh

    2016-01-15

    The success or failure of environmental management goals can be partially attributed to the support for such goals from the public. Despite this, environmental management is still dominated by a natural science approach with little input from disciplines that are concerned with the relationship between humans and the natural environment such as environmental psychology. Within the marine and freshwater environments, this is particularly concerning given the cultural and aesthetic significance of these environments to the public, coupled with the services delivered by freshwater and marine ecosystems, and the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to human-driven environmental perturbations. This paper documents nine case studies which use environmental psychology methods to support a range of aquatic management goals. Examples include understanding the drivers of public attitudes towards ecologically important but uncharismatic river species, impacts of marine litter on human well-being, efficacy of small-scale governance of tropical marine fisheries and the role of media in shaping attitudes towards. These case studies illustrate how environmental psychology and natural sciences can be used together to apply an interdisciplinary approach to the management of aquatic environments. Such an approach that actively takes into account the range of issues surrounding aquatic environment management is more likely to result in successful outcomes, from both human and environmental perspectives. Furthermore, the results illustrate that better understanding the societal importance of aquatic ecosystems can reduce conflict between social needs and ecological objectives, and help improve the governance of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this paper concludes that an effective relationship between academics and practitioners requires fully utilising the skills, knowledge and experience from both sectors.

  12. Secure Peer-to-Peer Networks for Scientific Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, Homa

    2012-01-01

    The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today includes the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. With the growth of broadband Internet, there has been a desire to share large files (movies, files, scientific data files) over the Internet. Email has limits on the size of files that can be attached and transmitted. FTP is often used to share large files, but this requires the user to set up an FTP site for which it is hard to set group privileges, it is not straightforward for everyone, and the content is not searchable. Peer-to-peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, is the basis for development of a scientific collaboratory called Scientific Peer Network (SciPerNet). This technology combines social networking with P2P file sharing. SciPerNet will be a standalone application, written in Java and Swing, thus insuring portability to a number of different platforms. Some of the features include user authentication, search capability, seamless integration with a data center, the ability to create groups and social networks, and on-line chat. In contrast to P2P networks such as Gnutella, Bit Torrent, and others, SciPerNet incorporates three design elements that are critical to application of P2P for scientific purposes: User authentication, Data integrity validation, Reliable searching SciPerNet also provides a complementary solution to virtual observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase scientific returns from NASA missions. As such, SciPerNet can serve a two-fold purpose for NASA: a cost-savings software as well as a productivity tool for scientists working with data from NASA missions.

  13. Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  14. Solar Energy Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Southwestern United States: Potential Impacts, Mitigation, and Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W.; O'Connor, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  15. Strategies and performances of Soft Input Decryption

    OpenAIRE

    Zivic, Natasa

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes performance aspects of Soft Input Decryption and L values. Soft Input Decryption is a novel method which uses L values (soft output) of a SISO channel decoder for the correction of input of Soft Input Decryption (SID blocks) which have been modified during the transmission over a noisy channel. The method is based on the combination of cryptography and channel coding improving characteristics of both of them. The algorithm, strategies and scenarios of Soft Input Decryption...

  16. An Efficient Causal Group Communication Protocol for Free Scale Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory Evropeytsev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks, a group of n (≥2 peer processes have to cooperate with each other. Each peer sends messages to every peer and receives messages from every peer in a group. In group communications, each message sent by a peer is required to be causally delivered to every peer. Most of the protocols designed to ensure causal message order are designed for networks with a plain architecture. These protocols can be adapted to use in free scale and hierarchical topologies; however, the amount of control information is O(n, where n is the number of peers in the system. Some protocols are designed for a free scale or hierarchical networks, but in general they force the whole system to accomplish the same order viewed by a super peer. In this paper, we present a protocol that is specifically designed to work with a free scale peer-to-peer network. By using the information about the network’s architecture and by representing message dependencies on a bit level, the proposed protocol ensures causal message ordering without enforcing super peers order. The designed protocol is simulated and compared with the Immediate Dependency Relation and the Dependency Sequences protocols to show its lower overhead.

  17. Writing to Learn and Learning to Write across the Disciplines: Peer-to-Peer Writing in Introductory-Level MOOCs

    OpenAIRE

    Denise K. Comer; Charlotte R. Clark; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate how peer-to-peer interactions through writing impact student learning in introductory-level massive open online courses (MOOCs) across disciplines. This article presents the results of a qualitative coding analysis of peer-to-peer interactions in two introductory level MOOCs: English Composition I: Achieving Expertise and Introduction to Chemistry. Results indicate that peer-to-peer interactions in writing through the forums and through peer assessment enhance lea...

  18. EOS: Evolutionary Overlay Service in Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Zhijun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The peer-to-peer (P2P systems nowadays can be mainly classified into two categories: structured and structure-less systems based on their overlay organization. The structured systems can achieve determinate efficiency due to their rigorous structure with the cost of losing robustness and vice versa. We provide a semi-structured overlay based on the separation of routing structures and overlay organizations in this paper and the new overlay can achieve determinate efficiency with high robustness. Moreover, the performance of the existing overlay is determined by the initial design and the overlay can not evolve with the information collected. But the new overlay devised in this paper is evolutionary inherent and accompanied by evolving service (EOS, EOS can improve the performance with the running of the P2P systems. Finally, our evolutionary overlay structure is constructed on the basis of linear algebra. So, the EOS can be theoretically analyzed and the results indicate that EOS can work with preferable integrated performance. The experimental results gained on the simulative platform verify the performance of EOS further.

  19. Cooperative peer-to-peer multiagent-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, L F; Caiafa, C F; Ausloos, M; Proto, A N

    2015-08-01

    A multiagent based model for a system of cooperative agents aiming at growth is proposed. This is based on a set of generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra differential equations. In this study, strong cooperation is allowed among agents having similar sizes, and weak cooperation if agents have markedly different "sizes", thus establishing a peer-to-peer modulated interaction scheme. A rigorous analysis of the stable configurations is presented first examining the fixed points of the system, next determining their stability as a function of the model parameters. It is found that the agents are self-organizing into clusters. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that, depending on parameter values, multiple stable configurations can coexist. It occurs that only one of them always emerges with probability close to one, because its associated attractor dominates over the rest. This is shown through numerical integrations and simulations, after analytic developments. In contrast to the competitive case, agents are able to increase their capacity beyond the no-interaction case limit. In other words, when some collaborative partnership among a relatively small number of partners takes place, all agents act in good faith prioritizing the common good, when receiving a mutual benefit allowing them to surpass their capacity. PMID:26382452

  20. Hybrid Peer-to-Peer Content Sharing in Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Ekler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As the capabilities of mobile phones are increasing and they are able to consume different type of multimedia contents, it is important to provide an efficient content sharing solution for them. Since people usually store their content on their personal computer, we need architecture for content sharing which supports mobiles and personal computers as well. In this paper we propose an innovative content sharing solution, called Swarm, which offers the following benefits to service providers: cost efficient, mobility support, necessary control points to prevent misuse of the service and backend for the stored information. Swarm is a hybrid solution, it combines the advantages of peer-to-peer and client-server systems and it also considers the special abilities of mobile phones by enabling local cooperation. During the paper we introduce the proposed architecture with the main features, discuss our experience with the reference implementation, demonstrate calculations about the cost efficiency of Swarm and propose future plans for further improvements. Index Terms

  1. Gambaran Peer Relationships Pada Remaja Etnis Minoritas

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Helen Lamtiur

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period in social development, marked by an expansion of peer networks, increased importance of close friendships, and the emergence of romantic relationships. A good peer relationships is needed for adolescent, especially for adolescent from minority ethnic and when there is a ethnic stereotype and discrimination. This research is supposed to descriptive the peer relationships among minority ethnic adolescent from Tionghoa and Tamil ethnic background. The partici...

  2. Disentangling Peer Influence On Multiple Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Ivaniushina; Daniel Alexandrov

    2014-01-01

    In this study we focus on the influence of peers on adolescents academic achievement. Specifically, how the learning motivation of peers is related to a student's school grades. We use multilevel regression to analyze the influence of peers on different levels of social circles: school, class, personal network, and compare the effects of "assigned friends" and "chosen friends". The methods of social network analysis are used to define the personal network of a student in different ways: cliqu...

  3. Age Differences in Resistance to Peer Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2007-01-01

    Prior research describes the development of susceptibility to peer pressure in adolescence as following an inverted U-shaped curve, increasing during early adolescence, peaking around age 14, and declining thereafter. This pattern, however, is derived mainly from studies that specifically examined peer pressure to engage in antisocial behavior. In the present study, age differences and developmental change in resistance to peer influence were assessed using a new self-report instrument that s...

  4. Distributed Decision-Tree Induction in Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper offers a scalable and robust distributed algorithm for decision-tree induction in large peer-to-peer (P2P) environments. Computing a decision tree in...

  5. Multi-objective optimization based privacy preserving distributed data mining in Peer-to-Peer networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper proposes a scalable, local privacy preserving algorithm for distributed Peer-to-Peer (P2P) data aggregation useful for many advanced data mining/analysis...

  6. Scalable peer-to-peer resource discovering scheme for wireless self-organized networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi; JI Hong

    2009-01-01

    Peer-to-peer technologies have attracted increasing research attention with fruitful protocols and applications proposed for wired networks. As to mobile environments, there are currently no mature deployments. A novel resource managing and discovering protocol, Cheer, is proposed to realize scalable and effective peer-to-peer lookup in wireless self-organized networks. Cheer resolves the topologies mismatch problem between peer-to-peer overlay networks and actual nodes distribution, allowing for frequent nodes membership changes. With specially designed resource storage table, Cheer also supports multikey and fuzzy lookup. Its hybrid architecture and improved routing scheme based on small-world theory may realize effective lookup routing. Theoretical analysis and simulation results both prove that Cheer makes using peer-to-peer applications in large-scale self-organized mobile networks feasible and promising.

  7. Discouraged by Peer Excellence: Exposure to Exemplary Peer Performance Causes Quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Feller, Avi

    2016-03-01

    People are exposed to exemplary peer performances often (and sometimes by design in interventions). In two studies, we showed that exposure to exemplary peer performances can undermine motivation and success by causing people to perceive that they cannot attain their peers' high levels of performance. It also causes de-identification with the relevant domain. We examined such discouragement by peer excellence by exploiting the incidental exposure to peers' abilities that occurs when students are asked to assess each other's work. Study 1 was a natural experiment in a massive open online course that employed peer assessment (N = 5,740). Exposure to exemplary peer performances caused a large proportion of students to quit the course. Study 2 explored underlying psychological mechanisms in an online replication (N = 361). Discouragement by peer excellence has theoretical implications for work on social judgment, social comparison, and reference bias and has practical implications for interventions that induce social comparisons. PMID:26825105

  8. PADMINI: A PEER-TO-PEER DISTRIBUTED ASTRONOMY DATA MINING SYSTEM AND A CASE STUDY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PADMINI: A PEER-TO-PEER DISTRIBUTED ASTRONOMY DATA MINING SYSTEM AND A CASE STUDY TUSHAR MAHULE*, KIRK BORNE, SANDIPAN DEY*, SUGANDHA ARORA, AND HILLOL KARGUPTA...

  9. A Local Scalable Distributed Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes a local and distributed expectation maximization algorithm for learning parameters of Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in large peer-to-peer (P2P)...

  10. Client-side Web Mining for Community Formation in Peer-to-Peer Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we present a framework for forming interests-based Peer-to-Peer communities using client-side web browsing history. At the heart of this framework is...

  11. A Local Asynchronous Distributed Privacy Preserving Feature Selection Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper we develop a local distributed privacy preserving algorithm for feature selection in a large peer-to-peer environment. Feature selection is often used...

  12. Secure Peer-to-Peer Networks for Scientific Information Sharing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our goal is to adapt the peer?to?peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, as the basis for development of...

  13. Peer influence on adolescent snacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...... to marketers developing social marketing campaigns aiming at reducing bullying among adolescents or promoting healthy snacking. Social implications – Moreover, the results may help generate societal emphasis on the importance of social and self-image aspects in consumption settings when it comes to adolescent...

  14. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training. PMID:24937101

  15. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  16. Emergent aquatic plants: biological and economic perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most productive, but least exploited, biomass resources is the group classified as the emergent aquatic plants. Information is presented concerning the biological and economic factors that must be considered if emergent aquatic plants are to become viable feedstocks for multipurpose systems. The feedstock purposes highlighted include fuel and/or chemical production and the species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolla. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be investigated further. Issues such as the development of base-line yield data for managed systems, mechanization and harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, identification of secondary plant products, and economic considerations require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if successful. 19 references.

  17. Characteristics of peer violence in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinobad Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses types and main characteristics of peer violence in schools as well as forms of their manifestation. The analysis refers to data about the prevalence of peer violence in schools in Serbia, and in particular to forms of peer violence within our country as well as in the world. The part of the text refers to characteristics of perpetrators and their victims as well as on consequences that spring up from long term exposure to violence. Finally, the article has been pointed out an importance of introducing intervention programs in schools, by which use peer violence could be significantly decreased.

  18. Peer Assessment in Engineering Group Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Peer review has proved to be beneficial in project-based environments by involving students in the process and encouraging them to take ownership of their learning. This article reviews how peer assessment has been employed within group work for different engineering programs. Since the administr......Peer review has proved to be beneficial in project-based environments by involving students in the process and encouraging them to take ownership of their learning. This article reviews how peer assessment has been employed within group work for different engineering programs. Since...

  19. Peer support for people with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Alexandra Lourenço Campos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Peer support is a mutual aid system based on the belief that someone who faced/overcome adversity can provide support, encouragement and guidance to those who experience similar situations. Objective To conduct a systematic review that describes this concept and characterizes peer supporters, its practice and efficacy. Method Research on ISI Web of Science, EBSCO Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and Medline databases (from 2001 to December 2013 was conducted using as keywords “mental illness”, “mental health”, “psychiatric disability”, “mental health services”, combined with “peer support”, “mutual support”, “self-help groups”, “consumers as providers”, “peer-run services”, “peer-run programs” and “social support”. Results We found 1,566 articles and the application of both the exclusion (studies with children, teenagers and elderly people; disease in comorbidity; peer support associated to physical illnesses or family members/caregivers and the inclusion criteria (full text scientific papers, peer support or similar groups directed for schizophrenia, depression, bipolar or psychotic disorders lead to 165 documents, where 22 were excluded due to repetition and 31 to incomplete text. We analyzed 112 documents, identifying as main peer support categories: characterization, peer supporter, practices and efficacy. Discussion Despite an increasing interest about this topic, there is no consensus, suggesting realizing more studies.

  20. Dynamics of Peer Grading: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro, L; Shavlovsky, M

    2016-01-01

    Peer grading is widely used in MOOCs and in standard university settings. The quality of grades obtained via peer grading is essential for the educational process. In this work, we study the factors that influence errors in peer grading. We analyze 288 assignments with 25,633 submissions and 113,169 reviews conducted with CrowdGrader, a web based peer grading tool. First, we found that large grading errors are generally more closely correlated with hard-to-grade submission, rather than ...

  1. Advantages and limitations of peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Goršak, Karmen Pižorn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines current theoretical work and research findings regarding the effectiveness of peer assessment. The main purpose of the article is to define peer asses sment and its subcategory peer feedback and to present the advantages and limitations of peer assessment derived from different research findings. In addition, conditions and strategies to successfully guarantee the benefits of peer assessment are presented.The main research studies, mentioned in this article, have been carried out in different disciplines in higher education programmes and their findings reveal positive students’ and teachers’ attitude to peer assessment as well as high correlation between peers’ and te achers’ grades. The main results of the studies show a positive effect of peer assessment on student’s active role in the process of learning and assessment, the development of social and professional skills, student’s autonomy, critical thinking, peer and selfassessment skills. Recommendations for implementing peer assessment within foreign language tea ching, as well as implications for future research work are provided. 

  2. Twelve tips for peer observation of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zarrin Seema; Jonas-Dwyer, Diana; Carr, Sandra E

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines twelve tips for undertaking peer observation of teaching in medical education, using the peer review model and the experiences of the authors. An accurate understanding of teaching effectiveness is required by individuals, medical schools, and universities to evaluate the learning environment and to substantiate academic and institutional performance. Peer Observation of Teaching is one tool that provides rich, qualitative evidence for teachers, quite different from closed-ended student evaluations. When Peer Observation of Teaching is incorporated into university practice and culture, and is conducted in a mutually respectful and supportive way, it has the potential to facilitate reflective change and growth for teachers.

  3. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far as ‘cognit......Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far...... as ‘cognition’ describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio-cognitive...... came to be re-aggregated: agonistic review drove reformatting of argument structure, changes in rhetorical ploys and careful choice of wordings. For this reason, the paper’s knowledge-claims can be traced to human activity that occurs in distributed cognitive systems. Peer-review is on the frontline...

  4. Aquatic and terrestrial organic matter in the diet of stream consumers: implications for mercury bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Timothy D; Kidd, Karen A; Rasmussen, Joseph B

    2012-04-01

    The relative contribution of aquatic vs. terrestrial organic matter to the diet of consumers in fluvial environments and its effects on bioaccumulation of contaminants such as mercury (Hg) remain poorly understood. We used stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in a gradient approach (consumer isotope ratio vs. periphyton isotope ratio) across temperate streams that range in their pH to assess consumer reliance on aquatic (periphyton) vs. terrestrial (riparian vegetation) organic matter, and whether Hg concentrations in fish and their prey were related to these energy sources. Taxa varied in their use of the two sources, with grazing mayflies (Heptageniidae), predatory stoneflies (Perlidae), one species of water strider (Metrobates hesperius), and the fish blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus) showing strong connections to aquatic sources, while Aquarius remigis water striders and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) showed a weak link to in-stream production. The aquatic food source for consumers, periphyton, had higher Hg concentrations in low-pH waters, and pH was a much better predictor of Hg in predatory invertebrates that relied mainly on this food source vs. those that used terrestrial C. These findings suggest that stream biota relying mainly on dietary inputs from the riparian zone will be partially insulated from the effects of water chemistry on Hg availability. This has implications for the development of a whole-system understanding of nutrient and material cycling in streams, the choice of taxa in contaminant monitoring studies, and in understanding the fate of Hg in stream food webs. PMID:22645815

  5. A Survey of Peer-to-Peer Architectures for Service Oriented Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, D.; Coulson, G.; Walkerdine, J.

    2010-01-01

    Peer-to-peer file sharing has become popular for many kinds of resource location and distribution applications including file sharing, distributed computation, multi-media messaging and content distribution. Peer-to-peer approaches also have significant potential for supporting large scale, decentralised service oriented computing. This chapter discusses each class of contemporary P2P architecture in turn and discusses the suitability of each architecture class for supporting service oriented...

  6. Adolescent Aggression: The Role of Peer Group Status Motives, Peer Aggression, and Group Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocat...

  7. Online Peer-to-Peer Support for Young People With Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Kathina; Farrer, Louise; Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescence and early adulthood are critical periods for the development of mental disorders. Online peer-to-peer communication is popular among young people and may improve mental health by providing social support. Previous systematic reviews have targeted Internet support groups for adults with mental health problems, including depression. However, there have been no systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of online peer-to-peer support in improving the mental health of a...

  8. A Semantic Search Framework in Peer-to-Peer based Digital Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Hao

    2006-01-01

    Advances in peer-to-peer overlay networks and Semantic Web technology will have a substantial influence on the design and implementation of future digital libraries. However, it remains unclear how best to combine their advantages in constructing digital library systems. This thesis is devoted for investigating, proposing and evaluating possible solutions to advance developments in this field.The main research goal of this work is to combine the strengths of both peer-to-peer overlay networks...

  9. A Java based framework for simulating peer-to-peer overlay networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselrot, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years many new structured overlay network protocols for peer-to-peer systems have appeared. Following that, the need to test and develop the protocols in a controlled environment arose and many different simulators were written, often only supporting a single protocol and designed with a specific simulation task in mind. We introduce a general component based framework in Java for writing peer-to-peer simulators, complete with methods for exporting and vis...

  10. 28 CFR 34.106 - Number of peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Number of peer reviewers. 34.106 Section 34.106 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.106 Number of peer reviewers. The number of peer reviewers will vary by program...

  11. 28 CFR 34.109 - Qualifications of peer reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Peer Review § 34.109 Qualifications of peer reviewers. The general reviewer qualification criteria to...). Additional details concerning peer reviewer qualifications are provided in the OJJDP “Peer Review Guideline”. ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifications of peer reviewers....

  12. 28 CFR 34.104 - Use of peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of peer review. 34.104 Section 34.104 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.104 Use of peer review. (a) Peer review for competitive and noncompetitive applications. (1)...

  13. 28 CFR 34.102 - Peer review procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review procedures. 34.102 Section 34.102 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.102 Peer review procedures. The OJJDP peer review process is contained in an OJJDP...

  14. "Peer Pressure" and the Group Process: Building Cultures of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…

  15. Effects of modifications of aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies under this program historically have been concerned with the effects of a variety of stress factors on aquatic populations and communities. Current research was focused principally on ionizing radiation, and includes studies on the interaction of acute radiation and temperature on fish, the in situ measurement of radiation exposure in an aquatic environment, and the uptake and retention of tritium in a simulated pond community. In response to the expanded responsibilities of the recently formed Energy Research and Development Administration in dealing with all forms of energy related problems, this program will be redirected in the coming year to nonnuclear energy research

  16. Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

  17. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Jablanica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Katarina S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates was carried out during 2005 and 2006 at four sampling sites along the Jablanica River, a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara River. Fifty-seven taxa were recorded in the course of the investigation. The most diverse group was Ephemeroptera, followed by Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Members of the Rhitrogena semicolorata group were the most abundant. Our results could be the basis for evaluation of the influence of damming of the Jablanica River on the status of its water and can serve as a model for studying the influ­ence of hydromorphological degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Aquatic ape theory and fossil hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, M J

    1991-06-01

    While most older palaeo-anthropological studies emphasise the similarities of the fossil hominids with modern man, recent studies often stress the unique and the apelike features of the australopithecine dentitions, skulls and postcranial bones. It is worth reconsidering the features of Australopithecus, Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis in the light of the so-called Aquatic Ape Theory (AAT) of Hardy and Morgan, and to compare the skeletal parts of our fossil relatives with those of (semi)aquatic animals. Possible convergences are observed with proboscis monkeys, beavers, sea-otters, hippopotamuses, seals, sea-lions, walruses, sea-cows, whales, dolphins, porpoises, penguins and crocodiles. PMID:1909768

  19. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author)

  20. Information Propagation in Peer-to-Peer Networking: Modeling and Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, S.

    2010-01-01

    Although being a young technology, peer-to-peer (P2P) networking has spurred dramatic evolution on the Internet over the recent twenty years. Unlike traditional server-client mode, P2P networking applications are user-centric. Users (peers) generate their own content and share it with others across

  1. Designing student peer assessment in higher education: Analysis of written and oral peer feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, I.; Admiraal, W.; Pilot, A.

    2006-01-01

    Designing student peer assessment in higher education: analysis of written and oral peer feedback Relating it to design features, the present article describes the nature of written and oral peer feedback as it occurred in seven writing courses, each with a different PA design. Results indicate that

  2. The Role of Child Characteristics and Peer Experiences in the Development of Peer Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Cox, R.F.A; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation with peers is challenging for young children, and there are large individual differences in the development of cooperation. The roles of child characteristics and peer experiences for peer interaction during free play have been studied extensively, but it is unclear which factors predict

  3. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  4. Help Seeking among Peers: The Role of Goal Structure and Peer Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Kiefer, Sarah M.; Wang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    With a sample of 373 middle school students, the present longitudinal study examined the role of the classroom peer climate in mediating the relation between perceptions of classroom goal structures and academic help seeking among peers. Classroom goal structures were measured in the fall and classroom peer climate and help seeking among peers…

  5. The Biosphere International Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe van Luik (US DOE- YM, USA), ended the presentation by giving feedback from the IAEA peer review on the biosphere modelling strategy developed by the DOE Yucca Mountain Site Characterisation Office (YMSCO). This review was based on available international standards and guidance. The peer review team was constituted of both experts from regulatory and waste management organisations and national advisory committees. The implementation of the review consisted of an examination of biosphere reports mainly regarding the modelling and question and answer exchanges. The final report was submitted in April 2000. It contained twenty-three recommendations within two broad classifications; one concerning the regulatory framework, the other one regarding the framework to increase stakeholders' confidence in modelling. The three main categories of recommendations were outlined, namely (i) the DOE' s Biosphere assessment Approach, (ii) the definition of the biosphere system, and (iii) the model development, data and results. Regarding in particular the treatment of the uncertainties in the biosphere, it was viewed as a key issue during the review and thus it will be re-evaluated in the future performance assessment. The summary highlighted most of the recommendations received are to be acted on, and are to be included in the License Application plan for biosphere modelling

  6. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? the Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakos, Holly L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data.…

  7. On the application of text input metrics to handwritten text input

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Janet C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the current metrics used in text input research, considering those used for discrete text input as well as those used for spoken input. It examines how these metrics might be used for handwritten text input and provides some thoughts about different metrics that might allow for a more fine grained evaluation of recognition improvement or input accuracy.

  8. Developing future nurse educators through peer mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenau PA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patricia A Rosenau, Rita F Lisella, Tracey L Clancy, Lorelli S NowellFaculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaBackground: The nursing workforce and nursing education demographic trends reinforce the urgency to cultivate future nursing leaders, educators, and mentors. The changing realities of health care environments, involving crowded student placements, overtaxed clinical mentors and preceptors, and inexperienced staff, hamper student learning and professional development. Peer mentoring has been used successfully in nursing education to enhance student engagement and the quality of the student learning experience. Although various terms like peer mentor have been used to describe the role of senior students facilitating junior student learning, the literature is silent about how peer mentoring fosters the development of future nursing education leaders.Objectives: The aim of this study was to understand how peer mentorship fosters the development of nursing education leadership in senior undergraduate nursing students enrolled in an elective undergraduate peer-mentoring credit course, Introductory Concepts in Nursing Education and Leadership Through Peer-Led Learning.Design and method: This phenomenological study explored the development of nursing education leadership in senior undergraduate students through the analysis of critical reflections of individual senior students and online discussions between triads of senior students teaching/learning across diverse junior-level theory and practice courses.Participants: Seventeen senior undergraduate nursing students enrolled in the elective course participated in the study.Results: From the critical reflections and online discussions, four themes emerged: "developing teaching philosophies and pedagogies", "learning teaching strategies", "supportive peer relationship", and "benefits of the peer mentorship program".Conclusion: The creation and promotion of peer leadership

  9. Agent Community based Peer-to-Peer Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Tsunenori; Matsuno, Daisuke; Amamiya, Makoto

    This paper proposes an agent community based information retrieval method, which uses agent communities to manage and look up information related to users. An agent works as a delegate of its user and searches for information that the user wants by communicating with other agents. The communication between agents is carried out in a peer-to-peer computing architecture. In order to retrieve information related to a user query, an agent uses two histories : a query/retrieved document history(Q/RDH) and a query/sender agent history(Q/SAH). The former is a list of pairs of a query and retrieved documents, where the queries were sent by the agent itself. The latter is a list of pairs of a query and sender agents and shows ``who sent what query to the agent''. This is useful to find a new information source. Making use of the Q/SAH is expected to cause a collaborative filtering effect, which gradually creates virtual agent communities, where agents with the same interests stay together. Our hypothesis is that a virtual agent community reduces communication loads to perform a search. As an agent receives more queries, then more links to new knowledge are achieved. From this behavior, a ``give and take''(or positive feedback) effect for agents seems to emerge. We implemented this method with Multi-Agents Kodama which has been developed in our laboratory, and conducted preliminary experiments to test the hypothesis. The empirical results showed that the method was much more efficient than a naive method employing 'broadcast' techniques only to look up a target agent.

  10. Repositioning Recitation Input in College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to discuss how recitation input helps overcome the negative influences on the basis of second language acquisition theory and confirms the important role that recitation input plays in improving college students' oral and written English.

  11. Adaptive Routing Algorithms in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Achmad Nizar Hidayanto; Stephane Bressan

    2011-01-01

    There are a variety of peer-to-peer (P2P) systems for sharing documents currently available. According to their data organization, P2P systems are classified into two categories: structured andunstructured P2P systems. In structured P2P systems, peers are organized according to some mapping techniques, e.g. hashing function. Whereas in unstructured P2P system, peers are connected to each others randomly; resources are not moved to other peers but hosted on site. Unstructured P2P systems offer...

  12. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  13. Aquatics Therapy and the Halliwick Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Alison; Thomson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is the use of the properties of water for the therapeutic benefit of people of all ages and abilities. This article illustrates how people with disabilities may maximize the benefits of activities in water, including individual and group work and swimming. The overall aim is to encourage family activity and social interaction. The…

  14. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  15. Aquatic ecotoxicity effect of engineered aminoclay nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Moon-Hee; Hwang, Yuhoon; Uk Lee, Hyun;

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the short term aquatic ecotoxicity of water-solubilized aminoclay nanoparticles (ANPs) of ~51±31 nm average hydrodynamic diameter was characterized. An ecotoxicological evaluation was carried out utilizing standard test organisms of different phyla and trophic levels namely t...

  16. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  17. Aquatic Habitat Bottom Classification Using ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of physical aquatic habitat often includes data describing distributions of water depth, velocity and bed material type. Water depth and velocity in streams deeper than about 1 m may be continuously mapped using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat. Herein we examine...

  18. Aquatic ecotoxicological indicators in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, David W.; Payet, Jerome; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares available options for the aquatic ecotoxicological effect factor component in life cycle assessment (LCA). The effect factor is expressed here as the change in risk per unit change in cumulative exposure, ƒ´Effect/ƒ´Exposure. The comparison is restricted to approaches linked...

  19. SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION GARDENING MX974861

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Gardening project will acquire the seed/seedlings of SAVs for planting, will create an SAV gardening guide; and will create SAV plots at volunteers waterfront properties. Volunteers will gather data on plant size and spacing. Water quality test ...

  20. Black magic in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.

    2004-01-01

    Sorption to sediment controlsthe actual fate and risks ofhydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs)in most aquatic environments. Sediment-bound HOCs are not readily available for uptake by organisms and degra

  1. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data. PMID:26337600

  2. Toxicokinetic modeling challenges for aquatic nanotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotoxicity has become of increasing concern since the rapid development of metal nanoparticles (NPs. Aquatic nanotoxicity depends on crucial qualitative and quantitative properties of nanomaterials that induce adverse effects on subcellular, tissue, and organ level. The dose-response effects of size-dependent metal NPs, however, are not well investigated in aquatic organisms. In order to determine the uptake and elimination rate constants for metal NPs in the metabolically active/ detoxified pool of tissues, a one-compartmental toxicokinetic model can be applied when subcellular partitioning of metal NPs data would be available. The present review is an attempt to describe the nano-characteristics of toxicokinetics and subcellular partitioning on aquatic organisms with the help of the mechanistic modeling for NP size-dependent physiochemical properties and parameters. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models can provide an effective tool to estimate the time course of NP accumulation in target organs and is useful in quantitative risk assessments. NP accumulation in fish should take into account different effects of different NP sizes to better understand tissue accumulative capacities and dynamics. The size-dependent NP partition coefficient is a crucial parameter that influences tissue accumulation levels in PBPK modeling. Further research is needed to construct the effective systems-level oriented toxicokinetic model that can provide a useful tool to develop quantitatively the robustly approximate relations that convey a better insight into the impacts of environmental metal NPs on subcellular and tissue/organ responses in aquatic organisms.

  3. Effects of radiation on aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the onset of nuclear age, nuclear fuel cycle products, nuclear medicine techniques, disposal of radio active wastes on land or in water, fall out of testing nuclear weapons has contributed large amount of radio nuclides to the water bodies. Radio nuclides can imbalance aquatic ecosystem resulting in danger to natural life. The biological effects of radiation on aquatic life are mortality, pathophysiological, reproductive, developmental and genetic changes. A broad review of the results obtained about the aquatic organisms related to different phyla indicates that the lower or less developed or more primitive organisms are more resistant than the higher or more advanced, developed and complex organisms to ionizing radiation. The algae, protozoa are more resistant than the insects, crustaceans, molluscs and fishes. The changes in sensitivity between different stages of development have also been noted. A review of the results of exposing salmonoid gametes, eggs, fingerlings and adults to X-rays supports the concepts that radio sensitivity decreases with age. This paper presents a selective review on effects of radiation and radio nuclides on the aquatic life. It include uses and sources of radiation, effective quantity of radiation, lethal and sub lethal effect, effects on survival, growth, reproduction, behaviour, metabolism, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (author)

  4. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  5. Peer Mentors Can Improve Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Shaki; Carter, Frederick, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between peer mentoring and academic performance. Students from two introductory psychology classes either received (n = 37) or did not receive (n = 36) peer mentoring. The data indicated a consistent improvement in the performance (i.e., grades on scheduled exams) of the mentored group. A similar pattern…

  6. Quality Assurance of Peer Health Education Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Billie J.; Saunders, Cynthia M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated whether college level peer educators were adequately prepared to teach peers about sexual health, sexual assault, and substance abuse. They completed 20 hours of training on the issues and on public speaking, leadership, and presentation skills. Pretesting and posttesting indicated that the program increased students' factual…

  7. Teaching peers to talk to peers: the time has come for science to create a respectable, full-time career track for "peer-peer communication teachers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Armando Chapin

    2012-11-01

    Scientists should learn to communicate effectively with their colleagues through long-term, sustained training instead of ad hoc, one-off "interventions" that may or may not occur during graduate school or postdoctoral work. Since such training may place unreasonable demands on research advisors, institutions should create career opportunities for "peer-peer communication teachers."

  8. Ontology-Based Peer Exchange Network (OPEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui

    2010-01-01

    In current Peer-to-Peer networks, distributed and semantic free indexing is widely used by systems adopting "Distributed Hash Table" ("DHT") mechanisms. Although such systems typically solve a. user query rather fast in a deterministic way, they only support a very narrow search scheme, namely the exact hash key match. Furthermore, DHT systems put…

  9. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  10. Strengthening Controls from Within: Manipulated by Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasler, Claire E.; Laursen, Erik K.

    2004-01-01

    Since friendship and peer relationships are particularly important to teenagers, students with passive aggressive behaviors frequently and intentionally "set up" more aggressive peers to get them to react and to lose control, guaranteeing a behavioral consequence. As a result, the victim of being set up or "manipulated" also ends up being…

  11. Learning through Observing Peers in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Learning through peer observation in higher education is most frequently investigated from the perspective of the teacher who is observed. What is under-examined is "how" learning arises for the observer by watching a peer in practice. This paper provides insight into this question through an interpretive-phenomenological analysis of a…

  12. Loneliness and Peer Relations in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Susan S.; Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether adolescent loneliness would be lower within the context of positive relationships with peers. The core conceptual model predicted that hypothesized links between peer-rated social behaviors or victimization and loneliness would be mediated by social acceptance. Relationship experiences (i.e., social acceptance,…

  13. Fort Lee's Comprehensive Peer Outreach Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayan, V. Alex

    This paper describes the Peer Outreach Service Team (POST), a peer multi-service, student support system organization operating in the Fort Lee schools in Fort Lee, New Jersey. The goals of the POST program are described as reducing numbers of school dropouts as well as levels of negative behavior, chemical dependency, teenage depression, and…

  14. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  15. Postsecondary Peer Cooperative Learning Programs: Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, David R., Comp.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This annotated bibliography is focused intentionally on postsecondary peer cooperative learning programs that increasing student achievement. Peer learning has been popular in education for decades. As both a pedagogy and learning strategy, it has been frequently adapted for a wide range of academic content areas at the elementary,…

  16. Peer Learning in Specialist Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Ingrid Maria

    2016-01-01

    Research on peer learning in higher education indicates that learning from and together with peers can benefit students in a number of ways. Within higher music education in Western, classical music, however, the master-apprentice tradition with its dominant one-to-one mode of tuition focuses predominantly on knowledge transmission from teacher to…

  17. The Problem of Humiliation in Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Schwartz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of vituperative feedback from peer reviewers. We argue that such feedback is morally unacceptable, insofar as it humiliates authors and damages their dignity. We draw from social-psychological research to explore those aspects of the peer-review process in general and the anonymity of blind reviewing in particular…

  18. Peer Review: Structured, Informal, Confidential, Helpful!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Alice; Lee, Jack

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an introductory workshop, Preparing to be a Peer Reviewer, presented at the University of British Columbia (UBC) to give hands-on practice to faculty members and others in order to provide formative peer review upon request. This workshop, which was designed at the request of a faculty member, is complemented by an Advanced…

  19. Writing Quality Peer Reviews of Research Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Graber, Kim C.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is an important mechanism for advancing knowledge in a manner deemed as acceptable by the research community. It can also serve the function of providing guidance to an author(s) to improve the likelihood that manuscripts will be accepted in peer reviewed journals. There is, however, little assistance for new or existing reviewers of…

  20. Peer Victimization, Depression, and Suicidiality in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…

  1. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  2. 2009 Water Power Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Michael [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Higgins, Mark [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Reed, Mike [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report contains the findings of the 2009 Water Power Peer Review Panel, as well as the Water Power Program's responses to those findings. This Peer Review focused on the Program's marine and hydrokinetic energy projects.

  3. Online Peer Discourse in a Writing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to explore the interaction discourse of second language undergraduate learners in the online peer review process of a writing classroom in Hong Kong. Specifically, the writer sought to investigate the types of online discourse learners have in the peer discussions on their writing, and to examine the role of explicit…

  4. Understanding Peer Review of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…

  5. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  6. Temperament and Preschool Children's Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Victoria; Torquati, Julia; Prokasky, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study is an examination of children's temperament as a predictor of their interactions with peers in preschool, with a particular focus on children's regulatory temperament characteristics (i.e., inhibitory control and attentional focusing) as moderators of associations between shyness and interactions with peers.…

  7. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  8. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Lacustrine Submergent Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Submergent aquatic vegetation (SAV) provides the foundation for wildlife use in aquatic systems. Sago pondweed is of particular significance in providing protein by...

  9. Computational Complexity of Input/Output Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xin; Ambrossio, Diego Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Input/output logics are abstract structures designed to represent conditional norms. The complexity of input/output logic has been sparsely developed. In this paper we study the complexity of input/output logics. We show that the lower bound of the complexity of the fulfillment problem of 4 input/output logics is coNP, while the upper bound is either coNP or P^NP.

  10. Input-Output Economics and Material Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Faye Duchin

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that resources constitute the fundamental area of overlap between the interests of input-output economists and industrial ecologists. Three misconceptions about input-output economics obscure this fact: the frequent failure to utilize combined quantity and price input-output models, treatment of value-added as a monetary concept only, and the belief that all input-output models assume a linear relationship between output and final deliveries. The paper dispels these misconce...

  11. Controlling Linear Networks with Minimally Novel Inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Gautam; Menolascino, Delsin; Kafashan, MohammadMehdi; Ching, ShiNung

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novelty-based metric for quantitative characterization of the controllability of complex networks. This inherently bounded metric describes the average angular separation of an input with respect to the past input history. We use this metric to find the minimally novel input that drives a linear network to a desired state using unit average energy. Specifically, the minimally novel input is defined as the solution of a continuous time, non-convex optimal control pr...

  12. Jumping into the deep-end: results from a pilot impact evaluation of a community-based aquatic exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna L; Talevski, Jason; Morello, Renata T; Nolan, Genevieve A; De Silva, Renee D; Briggs, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    This multi-center quasi-experimental pilot study aimed to evaluate changes in pain, joint stiffness, physical function, and quality of life over 12 weeks in adults with musculoskeletal conditions attending 'Waves' aquatic exercise classes. A total of 109 adults (mean age, 65.2 years; range, 24-93 years) with musculoskeletal conditions were recruited across 18 Australian community aquatic centers. The intervention is a peer-led, 45 min, weekly aquatic exercise class including aerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance exercises (n = 67). The study also included a control group of people not participating in Waves or other formal exercise (n = 42). Outcomes were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and EuroQoL five dimensions survey (EQ-5D) at baseline and 12 weeks. Satisfaction with Waves classes was also measured at 12 weeks. Eighty two participants (43 Waves and 39 control) completed the study protocol and were included in the analysis. High levels of satisfaction with classes were reported by Waves participants. Over 90 % of participants reported Waves classes were enjoyable and would recommend classes to others. Waves participants demonstrated improvements in WOMAC and EQ-5D scores however between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. Peer-led aquatic exercise classes appear to improve pain, joint stiffness, physical function and quality of life for people with musculoskeletal conditions. The diverse study sample is likely to have limited the power to detect significant changes in outcomes. Larger studies with an adequate follow-up period are needed to confirm effects.

  13. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  14. Peer victimization, deviant peer affiliation and impulsivity: Predicting adolescent problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianjun; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Yanping; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhen, Shuangju

    2016-08-01

    Abundant evidence has demonstrated an association between peer victimization and adolescent problem behaviors. However, there is a large gap in knowledge about the potential mediators that associate peer victimization with problem behaviors and the potential moderators that exacerbate or buffer this association. The current study examined whether deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between peer victimization and problem behaviors and whether the direct and indirect associations were moderated by impulsivity. A sample of 1401 adolescents (50.1% boys, 11-14 years old) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding peer victimization, impulsivity, deviant peer affiliation, and problem behaviors. Gender, age and socioeconomic status (SES) were controlled for in the analyses. Structural equation models showed that peer victimization was significantly associated with more problem behaviors, and this association was mediated by deviant peer affiliation. Impulsivity moderated both the direct association (peer victimization→problem behaviors) and the second stage of the indirect path (deviant peer affiliation→problem behaviors). Specifically, these associations were especially stronger for adolescents with higher impulsivity. Identifying the processes by which peer victimization is associated with adolescent problem behaviors has important implications for an integrative framework of theory and prevention. PMID:27348798

  15. Multi-Data Source Fusion Approach in Peer-To-Peer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Nachouki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach for data fusion in the context of schema-basedPeer-To-Peer (P2P systems is proposed. Schema-based systems manage andprovide query capabilities for (semi-structured information: queries have to beformulated in terms of schema. Schema-based P2P are called Peer DataManagement system (PDMS. A challenging problem in a schema-based peerto-peer (P2P system is how to locate peers who have data relevant to a givenquery.Our proposal lies in application of the multi-data source fusion approach in thecontext of PDMS. Multi-data source schemas, distributed, shared andmaintained by peers, are the basis of a semantic overlay network. The semanticoverlay network and the power of Multi-data source Fusion Language (MFLare exploited for efficient query routing towards the relevant peers. We showthe design of the Peer Multi-Data source Management System (PMDMS andwe focus on the Matchmaker and routing components. We give a performanceevaluation of the semantic query routing with respect to important criteria suchas precision, recall, response time and number of messages. We give aperformance evaluation of the semantic reconciliation between peers. Wecompare this result with other systems developed according to peer/super-peerapproach. Finally, we show a prototype developed according to PMDMS. Webuild an application that shares, data between peers, in the domain of leisuresuch as, bank, cinema, restaurant, etc.

  16. Peer Effects and Academics’ Industry Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschhoff, Birgit; Grimpe, Christoph

    of the scientist. We suggest that both localized and personal peer effects drive industry involvement but that the effects from such imprinting are more pronounced for younger researchers, suggesting that professional imprinting takes place in the early stages of a scientist’s academic career. Based on a sample...... of 330 German academics in the field of biotechnology and publication data from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we find that scientists with industry-oriented co-authors are more likely to be involved with industry (personal peer effect). Moreover, we find that the scientist’s involvement...... increases with the orientation of the scientist’s department towards industry (localized peer effect). Only the latter effect turns out to be moderated by scientist’s age. While personal peer effects are independent of the scientist’s age, localized peer effects emerge for younger researchers....

  17. Censorship and the peer review system

    CERN Document Server

    Svozil, K

    2002-01-01

    In the best of all worlds, peer review amounts to benign censorship, saving trees, human efforts and money spent by attempts to cope with erroneous or badly written papers. In the worst case, ``peer review'' amounts to malign censorship, impede progress, and hence to a waste of human efforts and (mostly taxpayer's) money. It is argued that, by the way it is commonly executed by editorial boards and funding agencies, peer review does often more bad than good. In an academic environment which is increasingly ``objectivized'' and administered by quality measures of private business, careful peer review is almost punished, since it amounts to ``unproductive time.'' If paid realistically, it would be excessively expensive. Very little attention is also given to the quality of the review process. Alternatives to ``peer review'' are briefly suggested and discussed.

  18. 7 CFR 3430.15 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.15 Section 3430.15... Stakeholder input. Section 103(c)(2) of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998... RFAs for competitive programs. CSREES will provide instructions for submission of stakeholder input...

  19. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input. CSREES shall seek and obtain stakeholder input through a variety...

  20. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... § 3430.607 Stakeholder input. CSREES shall seek and obtain stakeholder input through a variety of...

  1. Effects of Seven Fungicides on Non-Target Aquatic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Dijksterhuis, Jan; van Doorn, Tineke; Samson, Rob; Postma, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic risk assessments for fungicides are carried out without information on their toxicity to non-target aquatic fungi. This might cause an underestimation of the toxic effects to the aquatic fungal community. This study focuses on the question whether recently derived concentrations limits for fungicides considered to protect populations of primary producers and (in)vertebrates also do protect the aquatic fungi. A panel of fungal species and Oomycetes was isolated and identified from unpo...

  2. Input calibration for negative originals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    1995-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the prepress environment consists of controlling the electronic color reproduction process such that a perfect match of any original can be realized. Whether this goal can be reached depends on many factors such as the dynamic range of the input device (scanner, camera), the color gamut of the output device (dye sublimation printer, ink-jet printer, offset), the color management software etc. The characterization of the color behavior of the peripheral devices is therefore very important. Photographs and positive transparents reflect the original scene pretty well; for negative originals, however, there is no obvious link to either the original scene or a particular print of the negative under consideration. In this paper, we establish a method to scan negatives and to convert the scanned data to a calibrated RGB space, which is known colorimetrically. This method is based on the reconstruction of the original exposure conditions (i.e., original scene) which generated the negative. Since the characteristics of negative film are quite diverse, a special calibration is required for each combination of scanner and film type.

  3. Distributed Stable-Group Differentiated Admission Control Algorithm in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEGuangtao; SHIHua; YOUJinyuan; YAOWensheng

    2003-01-01

    Mobile peer-to-peer media streaming systems are expected to become as popular as the peer-to-peer file sharing systems. In this paper, we study two key problems arising from mobile peer-to-peer media streaming: the stability of interconnection between supplying peers and requesting peers in mobile peer-to-peer streaming system; and fast capacity amplification of the entire mobile peer-to-peer streaming system. We use the Stable group algorithm to characterize user mobility in mobile ad hoc networks. Based on the stable group, we then propose a distributed Stable-group differentiated admission control algorithm (SGDACp2p), which leads to fast amplifying the system's total streaming capacity using its self-growing. At last, the extensive simulation results are presented to compare between the SGDACp2p and traditional methods to prove the superiority of the algorithm.

  4. An approach to the calculation of dose commitment arising from different methods for the long-term management of uranium mill tailings through aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the development and use of the aquatic pathway portion of a diagnostic model. The model was developed as part of a study intended to improve methods for estimating the environmental dispersion of radionuclides from uranium mill tailings disposal sites. This, the aquatic portion of the study, investigates radionuclide dispersion through aquatic pathways from a hypothetical mill tailings disposal site and presents dose commitment calculations for human exposure to the simulated patterns of radionuclide concentrations over time. Dose commitment estimates are made, based on the simulated geochemical behaviour of the hypothetical site and tailings, aquatic dispersion from the generic site located in northern Ontario and human exposure to and utilization of aquatic products (fish, water). The dose commitment estimates are presented based upon a range of input variable assumptions. This, the 'Aquatic Technical Appendix', describes all important aspects of: the aquatic portion of the diagnostic model, the modelling of the hypothetical tailings site and tailings mass, and findings resulting from use of the models. This report does not predict real radiation doses, or real radionuclide dispersion patterns for any site whether existing or projected

  5. A coupled two-dimensional hydrodynamic and terrestrial input model to simulate CO2 diffusive emissions from lake systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most lakes worldwide are supersaturated with carbon dioxide (CO2 and consequently act as atmospheric net sources. Since CO2 is a major greenhouse gas (GHG, the accurate estimation of CO2 exchanges at air/water interfaces of aquatic ecosystems is vital in quantifying the carbon budget of aquatic ecosystems overall. To date, lacustrine CO2 emissions are poorly understood, and lake carbon source proportions remain controversial, largely due to a lack of integration between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this paper a new process-based model (TRIPLEX-Aquatic is introduced incorporating both terrestrial inputs and aquatic biogeochemical processes to estimate diffusive emissions of CO2 from lake systems. The model was built from a two-dimensional hydrological and water quality model coupled with a new lacustrine CO2 diffusive flux model. For calibration and validation purposes, two years of data collected in the field from two small boreal oligotrophic lakes located in Québec (Canada were used to parameterize and test the model by comparing simulations with observations for both hydrodynamic and carbon process accuracy. Model simulations were accordant with field measurements in both calibration and verification. Consequently, the TRIPLEX-Aquatic model was used to estimate the annual mean CO2 diffusive flux and predict terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC impacts on the CO2 budget for both lakes. Results show a significant fraction of the CO2 diffusive flux (~30–45% from lakes was primarily attributable to the input and mineralization of terrestrial DOC, which indicated terrestrial organic matter was the key player in the diffusive flux of CO2 from oligotropical lake systems in Québec, Canada.

  6. Aquatic vegetation in response to increased eutrophication and degraded light climate in Eastern Lake Taihu: Implications for lake ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Deng, Jianming; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem degradation is widely recognized as a major global environmental and development problem. Although great efforts have been made to prevent aquatic ecosystem degradation, the degree, extent and impacts of this phenomenon remain controversial and unclear, such as its driving mechanisms. Here, we present results from a 17-year field investigation (1998–2014) of water quality and a 12-year remote sensing mapping (2003–2014) of the aquatic vegetation presence frequency (VPF) in Eastern Lake Taihu, a macrophyte-dominated bay of Lake Taihu in China. In the past 17 years, nutrient concentrations and water level (WL) have significantly increased, but the Secchi disk depth (SDD) has significantly decreased. These changes were associated with increased lake eutrophication and a degraded underwater light climate that further inhibited the growth of aquatic vegetation. In Eastern Lake Taihu, increased nutrients, chlorophyll a and WL, and a decreased SDD were all significantly correlated with a decreased VPF. NH4+-N concentration and SDD/WL were the most important controlling factors for VPF. Therefore, increased anthropogenic nutrient inputs and a degraded underwater light climate surely result in a decreased VPF. These results elucidate the driving mechanism of aquatic vegetation degradation and will facilitate Lake Taihu ecological restoration.

  7. Aquatic vegetation in response to increased eutrophication and degraded light climate in Eastern Lake Taihu: Implications for lake ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Deng, Jianming; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem degradation is widely recognized as a major global environmental and development problem. Although great efforts have been made to prevent aquatic ecosystem degradation, the degree, extent and impacts of this phenomenon remain controversial and unclear, such as its driving mechanisms. Here, we present results from a 17-year field investigation (1998–2014) of water quality and a 12-year remote sensing mapping (2003–2014) of the aquatic vegetation presence frequency (VPF) in Eastern Lake Taihu, a macrophyte-dominated bay of Lake Taihu in China. In the past 17 years, nutrient concentrations and water level (WL) have significantly increased, but the Secchi disk depth (SDD) has significantly decreased. These changes were associated with increased lake eutrophication and a degraded underwater light climate that further inhibited the growth of aquatic vegetation. In Eastern Lake Taihu, increased nutrients, chlorophyll a and WL, and a decreased SDD were all significantly correlated with a decreased VPF. NH4+-N concentration and SDD/WL were the most important controlling factors for VPF. Therefore, increased anthropogenic nutrient inputs and a degraded underwater light climate surely result in a decreased VPF. These results elucidate the driving mechanism of aquatic vegetation degradation and will facilitate Lake Taihu ecological restoration. PMID:27041062

  8. Stable isotopes and Digital Elevation Models to study nutrient inputs in high-Arctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calizza, Edoardo; Rossi, David; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Careddu, Giulio; Rossi, Loreto

    2016-04-01

    Ice cover, run-off from the watershed, aquatic and terrestrial primary productivity, guano deposition from birds are key factors controlling nutrient and organic matter inputs in high-Arctic lakes. All these factors are expected to be significantly affected by climate change. Quantifying these controls is a key baseline step to understand what combination of factors subtends the biological productivity in Arctic lakes and will drive their ecological response to environmental change. Basing on Digital Elevation Models, drainage maps, and C and N elemental content and stable isotope analysis in sediments, aquatic vegetation and a dominant macroinvertebrate species (Lepidurus arcticus Pallas 1973) belonging to Tvillingvatnet, Storvatnet and Kolhamna, three lakes located in North Spitsbergen (Svalbard), we propose an integrated approach for the analysis of (i) nutrient and organic matter inputs in lakes; (ii) the role of catchment hydro-geomorphology in determining inter-lake differences in the isotopic composition of sediments; (iii) effects of diverse nutrient inputs on the isotopic niche of Lepidurus arcticus. Given its high run-off and large catchment, organic deposits in Tvillingvatnet where dominated by terrestrial inputs, whereas inputs were mainly of aquatic origin in Storvatnet, a lowland lake with low potential run-off. In Kolhamna, organic deposits seem to be dominated by inputs from birds, which actually colonise the area. Isotopic signatures were similar between samples within each lake, representing precise tracers for studies on the effect of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in lakes. The isotopic niche of L. aricticus reflected differences in sediments between lakes, suggesting a bottom-up effect of hydro-geomorphology characterizing each lake on nutrients assimilated by this species. The presented approach proven to be an effective research pathway for the identification of factors subtending to nutrient and organic matter inputs and transfer

  9. Peer Support for Clinicians: A Programmatic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jo; Galowitz, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Burnout is plaguing the culture of medicine and is linked to several primary causes including long work hours, increasingly burdensome documentation, and resource constraints. Beyond these, additional emotional stressors for physicians are involvement in an adverse event, especially one that involves a medical error, and malpractice litigation. The authors argue that it is imperative that health care institutions devote resources to programs that support physician well-being and resilience. Doing so after adverse and other emotionally stressful events, such as the death of a colleague or caring for victims of a mass trauma, is crucial as clinicians are often at their most vulnerable during such times. To this end, the Center for Professionalism and Peer Support at Brigham and Women's Hospital redesigned the peer support program in 2009 to provide one-on-one peer support. The peer support program was one of the first of its kind; over 25 national and international programs have been modeled off of it. This Perspective describes the origin, structure, and basic workings of the peer support program, including important components for the peer support conversation (outreach call, invitation/opening, listening, reflecting, reframing, sense-making, coping, closing, and resources/referrals). The authors argue that creating a peer support program is one way forward, away from a culture of invulnerability, isolation, and shame and toward a culture that truly values a sense of shared organizational responsibility for clinician well-being and patient safety.

  10. Peer Support for Clinicians: A Programmatic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jo; Galowitz, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Burnout is plaguing the culture of medicine and is linked to several primary causes including long work hours, increasingly burdensome documentation, and resource constraints. Beyond these, additional emotional stressors for physicians are involvement in an adverse event, especially one that involves a medical error, and malpractice litigation. The authors argue that it is imperative that health care institutions devote resources to programs that support physician well-being and resilience. Doing so after adverse and other emotionally stressful events, such as the death of a colleague or caring for victims of a mass trauma, is crucial as clinicians are often at their most vulnerable during such times. To this end, the Center for Professionalism and Peer Support at Brigham and Women's Hospital redesigned the peer support program in 2009 to provide one-on-one peer support. The peer support program was one of the first of its kind; over 25 national and international programs have been modeled off of it. This Perspective describes the origin, structure, and basic workings of the peer support program, including important components for the peer support conversation (outreach call, invitation/opening, listening, reflecting, reframing, sense-making, coping, closing, and resources/referrals). The authors argue that creating a peer support program is one way forward, away from a culture of invulnerability, isolation, and shame and toward a culture that truly values a sense of shared organizational responsibility for clinician well-being and patient safety. PMID:27355784

  11. Who are the victims of peer violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedimović Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peer violence is a very current problem in schools. There are plenty of studies on the characteristics of perpetrators, while the characteristics of victims have been explored much less frequently. This research was aimed at determining the factors from the domain of upbringing and socio-demographic characteristics of the victims that contribute to the exposure to peer violence. The total sample comprised 504 primary school students. In order to determine the effect of victimological factors, hierarchical regression analysis was performed. The data obtained by the Questionnaire measuring the manifestation forms and frequency of peer violence were processed by factor analysis, which yielded the following three factors of exposure to peer violence: direct, manipulative and social. Factor scores on these factors were used as criterion variables. In the first step, the variable of gender was entered into the regression, the second set included three socio-demographic variables, and the third set of variables comprised parental upbringing styles and violent behavior in the family. The cold upbringing style of the mother was identified as an important predictor for the exposure to direct peer violence; for the exposure to manipulative peer violence - the cold upbringing attitude of the father and mother; and for the exposure to social peer violence - gender (female and the cold upbringing attitude of the father. The results are discussed in the context of pedagogical implications of the research, i.e. the guidelines for designing prevention programmes in schools focused on enhancing parental educational competences and students’ social skills.

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF REPUTATION EXCHANGE PROTOCOL IN PEER-TO-PEER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Udhaya,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The motivation behind basing applications on peer-to-peer architectures derives to a large extent from their ability to function, scale and self-organize in the presence of a highly transient population of nodes, network and computer failures, without the need of a central server and the overhead of its administration. P2P networks are vulnerable to peers, who cheat, propagate malicious codes, or peers who do not cooperate. Traditional client-server security models are not sufficient to P2P networks because of their centralized nature. Absence of central authority in P2P poses unique challenges like identity management of the peers, secure reputation data management and Sybil attack for reputation management in the network. In this paper we present a cryptographic protocol for ensuring secure and timely availability of the reputation data of a peer extremely at low cost. The past behavior of the peer is encapsulated in its digital reputation and is subsequently used to predict the future actions. The cryptographic protocol is coupled with self-certification and cryptographic mechanisms for identitymanagement and countering Sybil attacks. The latency associated with a file replication in a P2P system consists of two components: the query search time and the time required by the peers to transmit the file. In order to model the peer level latency, we develop a queuing model to evaluate the time required at each peer to serve its replication requests.

  13. Head-Tail Video Streaming Over Peer To Peer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sianati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available P2P systems similar to file sharing applications are being used vastly due to unrestricted nature of thesesystems. Their unrestricting comes from their ability to cooperate and aggregate peer’s resources andtheir scalability. On the other side, today technologies are traditional client-server applications. Theseapplications can perform strongly but they are not scalable due to limitations on server resources. Thislimitation of the client/server technology leads designers to use alternative technologies mainly P2P. Asa streaming system, P2P streaming network can be formed into two types, Tree-based and Mesh-based.In this paper a new mesh-based P2P system named Head-Tail streaming is proposed. Head-Tailsimplifies packet scheduling and node failure recovery by using paired-peer sending and node failureprediction. Our system outperforms ordinary systems comparing as delay and receive time. Our systemperforms better than ordinary systems based on two reasons :Overlapping sequence of chunks and nodereplacement policy.

  14. Characteristics of peer violence in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Sinobad Sandra

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the author analyses types and main characteristics of peer violence in schools as well as forms of their manifestation. The analysis refers to data about the prevalence of peer violence in schools in Serbia, and in particular to forms of peer violence within our country as well as in the world. The part of the text refers to characteristics of perpetrators and their victims as well as on consequences that spring up from long term exposure to violence. Finally, the article has be...

  15. Understanding Peer Effects in Financial Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bursztyn, Leonardo; Ederer, Florian; Ferman, Bruno; Yuchtman, Noam

    2012-01-01

    Using a high-stakes field experiment conducted in partnership with a large financial brokerage in Brazil, we attempt to disentangle channels through which a person's financial decisions affect his peers'. When someone purchases an asset, his peers may want to purchase it as well, both because they learn from his choice (“social learning") and because his possession of the asset affects others' utility of owning the same asset (“social utility"). We randomize whether one member of a peer pair ...

  16. Nitrous Oxide Emission by Aquatic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. With increasing eutrophication, filter- and deposit-feeders often become the dominant feeding guilds of benthic communities. Thus, with increasing nitrate pollution, aquatic macrofauna has the potential to further......Many macrofauna species co-ingest large quantities of microorganisms some of which survive the gut passage. Denitrifying bacteria, in particular, become metabolically induced by anoxic conditions, nitrate, and labile organic compounds in the gut of invertebrates. A striking consequence of the short......, respectively. Aside from these case studies, we screened more than 20 macrofauna species in various aquatic habitats for nitrous oxide production. Filter- and deposit-feeders that ingest large quantities of microorganisms were the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species that do...

  17. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... management. Marineecosystems aims at understanding the mechanisms that govern the interaction between individuals,species and populations in an ecosystem enabling us to determine the stability and flexibility of theecosystem.Marine living resources looks at the sustainable utilization of fish and shellfish...... habitats – from the North Atlantic Oceanand European shelf areas to coastal areas and innerDanish waters, ecosystems in lakes and streams as well as aquaculture. European shelf seas, Danish coastalareas and freshwaters are our main working areas, but we also work on Arctic and sub-Arctic waters...

  18. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2015-11-01

    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments.

  19. Measuring Complexity in an Aquatic Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Nelson; Gershenson, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We apply formal measures of emergence, self-organization, homeostasis, autopoiesis and complexity to an aquatic ecosystem; in particular to the physiochemical component of an Arctic lake. These measures are based on information theory. Variables with an homogeneous distribution have higher values of emergence, while variables with a more heterogeneous distribution have a higher self-organization. Variables with a high complexity reflect a balance between change (emergence) and regularity/orde...

  20. Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de [Solvay S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Boutonnet, J.C. [Elf Atochem, Levallois-Perret (France); Thompson, R.S. [Zeneca Ltd., Devon (United Kingdom). Brixham Environmental Lab.

    1999-05-01

    As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  1. Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations...

  2. Mechanical performance of aquatic rowing and flying.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.A.; Westneat, M. W.

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic flight, performed by rowing or flapping fins, wings or limbs, is a primary locomotor mechanism for many animals. We used a computer simulation to compare the mechanical performance of rowing and flapping appendages across a range of speeds. Flapping appendages proved to be more mechanically efficient than rowing appendages at all swimming speeds, suggesting that animals that frequently engage in locomotor behaviours that require energy conservation should employ a flapping stroke. The...

  3. Mycoloop: chytrids in aquatic food webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko eKagami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are ecologically significant in various ecosystems through their role in shaping food web structure, facilitating energy transfer, and controlling disease. Here in this review, we mainly focus on parasitic chytrids, the dominant parasites in aquatic ecosystems, and explain their roles in aquatic food webs, particularly as prey for zooplankton. Chytrids have a free-living zoosporic stage, during which they actively search for new hosts. Zoospores are excellent food for zooplankton in terms of size, shape, and nutritional quality. In the field, densities of chytrids can be high, ranging from 101-109 spores L-1. When large inedible phytoplankton species are infected by chytrids, nutrients within host cells are transferred to zooplankton via the zoospores of parasitic chytrids. This new pathway, the ‘mycoloop,’ may play an important role in shaping aquatic ecosystems, by altering sinking fluxes or determining system stability. The grazing of zoospores by zooplankton may also suppress outbreaks of parasitic chytrids. A food web model demonstrated that the contribution of the mycoloop to zooplankton production increased with nutrient availability and was also dependent on the stability of the system. Further studies with advanced molecular tools are likely to discover greater chytrid diversity and evidence of additional mycoloops in lakes and oceans.

  4. Refining atmospheric correction for aquatic remote spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Guild, L. S.; Negrey, K.; Kudela, R. M.; Palacios, S. L.; Gao, B. C.; Green, R. O.

    2015-12-01

    Remote spectroscopic investigations of aquatic ecosystems typically measure radiance at high spectral resolution and then correct these data for atmospheric effects to estimate Remote Sensing Reflectance (Rrs) at the surface. These reflectance spectra reveal phytoplankton absorption and scattering features, enabling accurate retrieval of traditional remote sensing parameters, such as chlorophyll-a, and new retrievals of additional parameters, such as phytoplankton functional type. Future missions will significantly expand coverage of these datasets with airborne campaigns (CORAL, ORCAS, and the HyspIRI Preparatory Campaign) and orbital instruments (EnMAP, HyspIRI). Remote characterization of phytoplankton can be influenced by errors in atmospheric correction due to uncertain atmospheric constituents such as aerosols. The "empirical line method" is an expedient solution that estimates a linear relationship between observed radiances and in-situ reflectance measurements. While this approach is common for terrestrial data, there are few examples involving aquatic scenes. Aquatic scenes are challenging due to the difficulty of acquiring in situ measurements from open water; with only a handful of reference spectra, the resulting corrections may not be stable. Here we present a brief overview of methods for atmospheric correction, and describe ongoing experiments on empirical line adjustment with AVIRIS overflights of Monterey Bay from the 2013-2014 HyspIRI preparatory campaign. We present new methods, based on generalized Tikhonov regularization, to improve stability and performance when few reference spectra are available. Copyright 2015 California Institute of Technology. All Rights Reserved. US Government Support Acknowledged.

  5. Phytoremediation using eichhornia crassipes aquatic plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation is a cost effective approach for the Treatment of polluted soil and contaminated water. The effectiveness of one aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes was evaluated for its capability in removing copper from copper solution using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The aquatic plant was placed in solutions containing 2 mg/L, 4 mg/L an d 6 mg/L of copper, for a period of 18 days and the change in Cu concentration was measured. Results showed an increase of copper within the plants' root and shoot tissues and a decrease of copper concentration in the solution. It was found that roots tend to accumulate a higher amount of copper than shoots due to translocation process. The maximum growth of Eichhornia crassipes was in the 2 mg/L solution which shows that growth was affected by the presence of Cu in the water. The maximum removal of copper in the solutions containing Eichhornia crassipes was 87.5% from the 4 mg/L solution. Eichhornia crassipes accumulated upto 1265.0 mg/kg of Cu in its roots indicating that this aquatic plant species may be used as a hyper-accumulator for copper. (author)

  6. The Pedagogical Anatomy of Peer-Assessment: Dissecting a peerScholar Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne E. Paré

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer-assessment is a process wherein students grade the work of their peers rather than relying on an expert. With the recent advent of online tools for peer-assessment [1] it is possible to utilize peer-assessment within any course context, even extremely large courses, with virtually no logistic or economic barriers. Given this potential for widespread use, the present paper highlights the pedagogical value of peer-assessment by breaking down a specific assignment and highlighting the manner in which the learning experienced by students maps onto prominent categorizations of strong pedagogy. We argue that peer-assessment provides a powerful compliment to multiple-choice testing by providing support for the sort of deep, critical and creative learning that is simply not possible to either encourage or assess via multiple- choice.

  7. On the Degree Distribution of Faulty Peer-to-Peer Overlays

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework to model fault-tolerance in unstructured peer-to-peer overlays, represented as complex networks. We define a distributed protocol peers execute for managing the overlay and reacting to node faults. Based on the protocol, evolution equations are defined and manipulated by resorting to generating functions. Obtained outcomes provide insights on the nodes' degree probability distribution. From the study of the degree distribution, it is possible to estimate other important metrics of the peer-to-peer overlay, such as the diameter of the network. We study different networks, characterized by three specific desired degree distributions, i.e. nets with nodes having a fixed desired degree, random graphs and scale-free networks. All these networks are assessed via the analytical tool and simulation as well. Results show that the approach can be factually employed to dynamically tune the average attachment rate at peers so that they maintain their own desired degree and, in ...

  8. The Incidence of Peer Aggression and Peer Victimization between the Sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn M. Calaguas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Reduced Aggression and Victimization Scales (RAVS developed by Orpinas and Horne (2006 were administered to 148 sixth-graders with the aim of knowing the differences in the incidence of peer aggression and peer victimization between boys and girls. RAVS measures the frequency of reporting aggressive behaviors or of being victimized during the previous week prior to the survey. The scales are composed of six items each. Each point represents one instance of aggression or victimization. To be able to determine the differences, independent samples t-test was used. Statistical analyses showed that there were differences in the incidence of peer aggression and peer victimization and were significant at the 0.01 level. With reference to the mean scores, the incidence of both peer aggression and peer victimization were higher among boys compared to girls.

  9. An Evaluation of the Accuracy of Peer to Peer Surgical Teaching and the Role of the Peer Review Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peer to peer learning is a well-established learning modality which has been shown to improve learning outcomes, with positive implications for clinical practice. Surgical students from across Ireland were invited to upload learning points daily while paired with their peers in a peer-reviewing process. This study was designed to assess content accuracy and evaluate the benefit of the review process. Method: A reflective content sample was selected from the database representing all gastrointestinal (GI surgical entries. All questions and answers were double corrected by four examiners, blinded to the “review” status of the entries. Statistical analysis was performed to compare accuracy between “reviewed” and “non-reviewed” entries. Results: There were 15,569 individual entries from 2009–2013, 2977 were GI surgery entries; 678 (23% were peer reviewed. Marked out of 5, accuracy in the reviewed group was 4.24 and 4.14 in the non-reviewed group. This was not statistically different (p = 0.11. Accuracy did not differ between universities or grade of tutors. Conclusion: The system of student uploaded data is accurate and was not improved further through peer review. This represents an easy, valuable and safe method of capturing surgical oral ward based teaching.

  10. Processing distributed inputs in coupled excitable lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many instances, networks of dynamical elements are subject to distributed input signals that enter the network through different nodes. In these cases, processing of the input signals may be mediated by coupling, in what constitutes an emerging property of the network. Here we study experimentally this effect in two mutually injected semiconductor lasers with optical feedback, operating in an excitable regime. The lasers are subject to different periodic input signals in their pump current, with distinct frequencies. Our results show that when the signals are harmonics of an absent fundamental, the laser array is able to process these signals and respond at the missing fundamental frequency. When the input frequencies are rigidly shifted from their harmonic values, the response frequency follows a simple law derived from a linear sum of the inputs, even though the array integrates the electrical inputs after having transduced them optically. The results are reproduced numerically with a dynamical model of the laser array

  11. Peer Victimization and Social Alienation: Predicting Deviant Peer Affiliation in Middle School

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Agoston, Anna Monica; Sugimura, Niwako; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Two prospective studies examined a theoretical model wherein exposure to victimization, resulting from early behavioral risk, heightens children’s social alienation and subsequent deviant peer affiliation (DPA). Across Study 1 (298 girls, 287 boys; K – 7th grade; 5 – 12 years) and Study 2 (338 girls, 298 boys; 2nd – 6th grade; 7 – 11 years), children, parents, peers, and teachers reported on children’s externalizing behavior and internalizing symptoms, peer victimization, social alienation, a...

  12. IBC Secured Key Partition for A Peer-To-Peer Network

    OpenAIRE

    Suneeta peddireddy

    2013-01-01

    For identity verification and authentication purposes we introduced an Identity based cryptography (IBC) into peer-to-peer (P2P) . However problems on secure private key issuing could not be addressed by current IBC-based solution. In this paper we present a IBC infrastructure setup phase, a peer registration solution using Shamir’s (k, n) secret sharing scheme, and a secure key issuing scheme, which adopts key generate center (KGC) and key privacy authorities (KPAs) to issue private keys ...

  13. Peer Led Team Learning in Introductory Biology: Effects on Peer Leader Critical Thinking Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Julia J.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders’ critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders’ perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants w...

  14. A Framework for Distributing Scalable Content over Peer-to-Peer Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhard, M.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Mignanti, S.; Petrocco, R.; Uitto, M. (Minna)

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems are nowadays a very popular solution for multimedia distribution, as they provide significant cost benefits compared with traditional server-client distribution. Additionally, the distribution of scalable content enables the consumption of the content in a quality suited for the available bandwidth and the capabilities of the end-user devices. Thus, the distribution of scalable content over Peerto- Peer network is a very actual research topic. This paper presents a framew...

  15. Positive peer pressure: the effects of peer monitoring on children's disruptive behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Carden Smith, L K; Fowler, S A

    1984-01-01

    Classroom peers can serve as powerful sources of reinforcement in increasing or maintaining both the positive and negative behaviors of their classmates. In two experiments, we examined the effectiveness of a peer-monitored token system on reducing disruption and nonparticipation during a transition period of a kindergarten class for behaviorally impaired children. Additionally, the effect of providing and subsequently withholding corrective feedback to peer mediators on the accuracy of their...

  16. Peer Feedback Content Quality: The added value of structuring peer assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gielen, Mario; De Wever, Bram

    2015-01-01

    The present studies examined the added value of structuring the peer assessment (PA) process for the peer feedback (PFB) content quality in a wiki-based computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment in higher education, by firstly investigating a varying structuring degree in the peer feedback template (study 1) and secondly, by further structuring the role of both the assessor and assessee in the PFB process (study 2). Results of the first study revealed that structuring the P...

  17. When Can School Inputs Improve Test Scores?

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon

    2004-01-01

    Most studies fail to find an impact of school inputs on outcomes such as test scores. We argue that this might be a consequence of ignoring the possibility that households respond optimally to changes in school inputs and thus obscure the real effect of such provision on cognitive achievement. To incorporate the forward-looking behavior of households, we present a household optimization model relating household resources and cognitive achievement to school inputs. In this framework if househo...

  18. Input Scheme for Hindi Using Phonetic Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Nisheeth; Mathur, Iti

    2010-01-01

    Written Communication on Computers requires knowledge of writing text for the desired language using Computer. Mostly people do not use any other language besides English. This creates a barrier. To resolve this issue we have developed a scheme to input text in Hindi using phonetic mapping scheme. Using this scheme we generate intermediate code strings and match them with pronunciations of input text. Our system show significant success over other input systems available.

  19. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. PMID:24907371

  20. Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the `tragedy of the commons' in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome.

  1. 2013 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  2. Peer ja Protassov tuuleveskite vastu / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    1999-01-01

    H. Ibseni "Peer Gynt" "Endlas", lavastaja A.-E. Kerge, peaosas Raivo Trass,.esietendus 10. okt. 1998. L. Tolstoi "Elav laip" "Ugalas", lavastaja K. Komissarov, peaosas Andres Lepik, esietendus 26. sept. 1998. Kokkuvõte inglise keeles lk. 94

  3. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  4. EERE Peer Review Guide - August 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Provides guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE research, development, demonstration, & deployment (supporting business administration) programs, both retrospective and pr

  5. Gendered-peer relationships in educational contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A; Hanish, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are to discuss the theories and evidence concerning the roles of gendered-peer interactions and relationships in children's lives at school. We begin by discussing the tendency of boys and girls to separate into same-sex peer groups and consider the theories and evidence concerning how gender segregation occurs and how peers influence children's learning and development. We then turn to the important and understudied question of why some children have more exposure to same-sex peers than others. We consider factors that contribute to variability in children's experiences with gender segregation such as the types of schools children attend and the kinds of classroom experiences they have with teachers. Finally, we review new evidence concerning the cognitive and affective factors that illustrate that children are actively involved in constructing the social world that surrounds them. PMID:25344996

  6. Peer-Assisted Content Distribution with Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøll, Martin; Ledet-Pedersen, Jeppe; Sluyterman, Georg;

    2014-01-01

    Peer-to-peer networks constitute a widely used, cost-effective and scalable technology to distribute bandwidth-intensive content. The technology forms a great platform to build distributed cloud storage without the need of a central provider. However, the majority of todays peer-to-peer systems r...

  7. Perceptions of Social Behavior and Peer Acceptance in Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipsen, Leslie C.; Bridges, Sara K.; McLemore, T. Gayle; Saponaro, Lisa A.

    1999-01-01

    Used social behavior ratings from observers, teachers, and parents to predict kindergartners' perceptions of peer acceptance. Found that friendship skill predicted parent- and child-reported peer acceptance. Shyness/withdrawal inversely predicted teacher-reported peer acceptance. Aggression did not predict peer acceptance. Girls were rated as more…

  8. Collaborative Learning through Formative Peer Review: Pedagogy, Programs and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondergaard, Harald; Mulder, Raoul A.

    2012-01-01

    We examine student peer review, with an emphasis on formative practice and collaborative learning, rather than peer grading. Opportunities to engage students in such formative peer assessment are growing, as a range of online tools become available to manage and simplify the process of administering student peer review. We consider whether…

  9. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and ad hoc reviewers will be selected based upon their training...

  10. 28 CFR 34.105 - Peer review methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review methods. 34.105 Section 34.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.105 Peer review methods. (a) For both competitive and noncompetitive applications,...

  11. 7 CFR 3411.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3411.11 Section... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and ad hoc reviewers will be selected based upon their training...

  12. Assessing together. Peer assessment from an interpersonal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennip, Anna Eva (Nanine) van

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focused on how the social context in which peer assessment takes place is related to the learning effects of peer assessment. We wanted to identify interpersonal beliefs in peer assessment settings that influence the peer assessment process on the one hand, but could also been seen

  13. Evaluacion entre colegas profesores (Peer Review of Teachers). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    This digest in Spanish examines peer review, focusing on how these types of reviews can improve teacher competence. Peer review is often linked to peer assistance, which helps new and veteran teachers improve their knowledge and skills. In peer-review programs, consulting teachers conduct formal evaluations and recommend whether the participating…

  14. Managing Peer to Peer and Overlay Content Traffic in ISP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaus Kaosoluchukwu Ogbuokebe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer content distribution systems are major source of traffic in today’s internet services, Peer-to-peer (P2P traffic consumes network resources without creating additional revenue. It is estimated that high percentage of broadband bandwidth is consumed by downloads of music, games, video, and other content. The use of peer to peer systems introduces many new problems related to traffic engineering or network optimization. This research work will investigate characteristics and behavioural interactions between Peer to Peer overlay content distribution operations, as well as suggests/discuss algorithms for optimizing P2P content distribution overlay infrastructure and the internet service provider “ISP” network. Techniques to harmonise the relationship between P2P overlay content distribution services and the underlying network is also discussed. Indeed the system performance of a P2P network is critically affected by its overload, thus the processing load of the peers, the communication load and the system management load, must be carefully handled to obtain satisfactory system performance.

  15. Resource Search in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer System Based on Multiple-Tree Overlay Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianqiao; LIAO Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    We propose a multiple-tree overlay structure for resource discovery in unstructured P2P systems. Peers that have similar interests or hold similar type of resources will be grouped into a tree-like cluster. We exploit the heterogeneity of peers in each cluster by connecting peers with more capacities closer to the root of the tree. The capacity of a peer can be defined in different ways (e.g. higher network bandwidth, larger disk space, more data items of a certain type etc.) according to different needs of users or applications.

  16. Constructing Limited Scale-Free Topologies Over Peer-to-Peer Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Eyuphan; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.

    2013-01-01

    Overlay network topology together with peer/data organization and search algorithm are the crucial components of unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P) networks as they directly affect the efficiency of search on such networks. Scale-free (powerlaw) overlay network topologies are among structures that offer high performance for these networks. A key problem for these topologies is the existence of hubs, nodes with high connectivity. Yet, the peers in a typical unstructured P2P network may not be wil...

  17. DOLCLAN – Middleware Support for Peer-to-Peer Distributed Shared Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob; Mogensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    invocations. In this paper we present an approach to support distributed programming, which rely on local object replicas keeping themselves synchronized using an underlying peer-to-peer infrastructure. We have termed our approach Peer-to-peer Distributed Shared Objects (PDSO). This PDSO approach has been...... implemented in the DOLCLAN framework. An evaluation demonstrates that DOLCLAN performs well and that the PDSO approach is complete in expressiveness. The approach has been utilized to create a real distributed collaborative system for adhoc collaboration in hospitals, which demonstrates that the approach can...

  18. Study on Load Management for Hierarchical Peer-to-Peer File Search

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    In a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) system, multiple interconnected peers or nodes contribute a portion of their resources (e.g., files, disk storage, network bandwidth) in order to inexpensively handle tasks that would normally require powerful servers. Since the emergency of P2P file sharing, load balancing has been considered as a primary concern, as well as other issues such as autonomy, fault tolerance and security. In a process of file search, a heavily loaded peer may incur a long latency or failu...

  19. Positive peer pressure: the effects of peer monitoring on children's disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden Smith, L K; Fowler, S A

    1984-01-01

    Classroom peers can serve as powerful sources of reinforcement in increasing or maintaining both the positive and negative behaviors of their classmates. In two experiments, we examined the effectiveness of a peer-monitored token system on reducing disruption and nonparticipation during a transition period of a kindergarten class for behaviorally impaired children. Additionally, the effect of providing and subsequently withholding corrective feedback to peer mediators on the accuracy of their point awards was evaluated. Results in Experiment 1 suggest that both teacher- and peer-monitored interventions were successful in decreasing disruption and increasing participation of monitored peers. Experiment 2 further demonstrated that peer monitors could successfully initiate the token system without prior adult implementation. Analysis of the point awards in both experiments indicates that peer monitors consistently awarded points that were earned. However, when corrective feedback was withdrawn the peer monitors frequently awarded points that were not earned, i.e., they rarely withheld points for undesirable behavior. Even so, the monitored peers' disruptive behavior was maintained at low rates. PMID:6735953

  20. Peer Review in Collective Context of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀峰

    2013-01-01

    Peer review, which incorporates the U.S. ideology of individualism, is regarded as an effective tool in writing classes for improving students’ writing proficiency and fostering their critical writing/revising skills (Ramanathan&Atkinson, 1999). Collectivism seems to be an impediment in peer reviewing according to Ramanathan&Atkinson (1999);however, it may not be the case due to the different contexts or cultural beliefs that students carry with.

  1. The Open Medicine student peer review program

    OpenAIRE

    Lail, Parabhdeep; Wilkinson, Krista; Metcalfe, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Open Medicine has provided an opportunity to acquire experience in peer review for a group of graduate students in the Department of Community Health Sciences at the University of Calgary. To date, approximately 40 students have regularly participated in the peer review of manuscripts for Open Medicine. Participating students attend group sessions on the practicalities of reviewing papers, the revision and resubmission process, and specific topic areas that arise from particular papers. Throu...

  2. Horizontal Evaluation: Stimulating social learning among peers

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Graham; Devaux, Andre; Velasco, Claudio; Manrique, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Horizontal evaluation is a flexible evaluation method that combines self-assessment and external review by peers. We have developed and applied this method for use within an Andean regional network that develops new methodologies for research and development (R&D). The involvement of peers neutralizes the lopsided power relations that prevail in traditional external evaluations, creating a more favourable atmosphere for learning and improvement. The central element of a horizontal evaluation ...

  3. Designing a mobile academic peer support system

    OpenAIRE

    AlSugair, Balsam; Hopkins, Gail; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Brailsford, Tim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss work in progress into the design of a mobile academic peer support system that enables 11-to-14 year old children to request and provide academic help to each other. Our proposed system was designed based on background research into the areas of peer learning, child development, help-seeking and academic motivation. Several methods, such as focus groups, interviews and Wizard of Oz, were used during the requirements gathering and initial testing stages. The proposed ...

  4. Peer assessment as a tool for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gielen, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The dissertation includes three theoretical contributions and three empirical studies on peer assessment, a general introduction and final reflections including a discussion of the results, a discussion of the educational implications and a discussion of some methodological issues. The first contribution delineates the role that peer assessment can play in raising the consequential validity of an assessment system. First, it clarifies the type of effects that assessment in general can have on...

  5. The invisible hand of peer review

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2000-01-01

    The refereed journal literature needs to be freed from both paper and its costs, but not from peer review, whose "invisible hand" is what maintains its quality. The residual cost of online-only peer review is low enough to be recovered from author-institution-end page charges, covered from institutional subscription savings, thereby vouchsafing a toll-free refereed research literature for everyone, everywhere, forever.

  6. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  7. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  8. Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

  9. Diets and abundances of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining and milling of uranium in the Alligator River Region in the Northern Territory has raised the possibility that heavy metals and radionuclides might escape into the aquatic system and be accumulated by the reptilian fauna. Aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles are regularly eaten by Aboriginal people of the region, and data on diets and reproduction of these species, as well as on their dispersion and abundance, are essential before the possibility that reptiles might act as pathways for these contaminants to Aboriginals can be assessed. The objectives of this study were to provide quantitative data on the diets of filesnakes, sand goannas and water goannas, to provide information on seasonal changes in their abundance and distribution within the Magela Creek system; and to describe their reproductive cycles

  10. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Larsen

    Full Text Available Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13C patterns among amino acids (δ(13CAA could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  11. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13)C patterns among amino acids (δ(13)CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13)CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13)C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13)CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13)C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13)C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs. PMID:24069196

  12. Bilinearity in spatiotemporal integration of synaptic inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songting Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons process information via integration of synaptic inputs from dendrites. Many experimental results demonstrate dendritic integration could be highly nonlinear, yet few theoretical analyses have been performed to obtain a precise quantitative characterization analytically. Based on asymptotic analysis of a two-compartment passive cable model, given a pair of time-dependent synaptic conductance inputs, we derive a bilinear spatiotemporal dendritic integration rule. The summed somatic potential can be well approximated by the linear summation of the two postsynaptic potentials elicited separately, plus a third additional bilinear term proportional to their product with a proportionality coefficient [Formula: see text]. The rule is valid for a pair of synaptic inputs of all types, including excitation-inhibition, excitation-excitation, and inhibition-inhibition. In addition, the rule is valid during the whole dendritic integration process for a pair of synaptic inputs with arbitrary input time differences and input locations. The coefficient [Formula: see text] is demonstrated to be nearly independent of the input strengths but is dependent on input times and input locations. This rule is then verified through simulation of a realistic pyramidal neuron model and in electrophysiological experiments of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The rule is further generalized to describe the spatiotemporal dendritic integration of multiple excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. The integration of multiple inputs can be decomposed into the sum of all possible pairwise integration, where each paired integration obeys the bilinear rule. This decomposition leads to a graph representation of dendritic integration, which can be viewed as functionally sparse.

  13. What Protects Rejected Adolescents from Also Being Bullied by Their Peers? The Moderating Role of Peer-Valued Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knack, Jennifer M.; Tsar, Vasilinka; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Hymel, Shelley; McDougall, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents rejected by peers are often targets of bullying. However, peer rejection is not a sure path to victimization. We examined whether characteristics valued by peers (i.e., attractiveness, wealth, academic, and athletic ability) moderated the relationship between peer rejection and victimization. We predicted rejected adolescents high on…

  14. Effects of Positive Peer Reporting (PPR) on Social Acceptance and Negative Behaviors among Peer-Rejected Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shelia M.; Simon, Joan; Bramlett, Ronald K.

    2009-01-01

    Positive peer reporting (PPR) is a peer-mediated intervention that involves teaching and rewarding peers for providing descriptive praise during structured daily sessions. PPR has been used in residential facilities to improve social acceptance, increase prosocial behaviors, and decrease negative interactions of youth identified as peer rejected.…

  15. Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

  16. Writing to Learn and Learning to Write across the Disciplines: Peer-to-Peer Writing in Introductory-Level MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Denise K.; Clark, Charlotte R.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate how peer-to-peer interactions through writing impact student learning in introductory-level massive open online courses (MOOCs) across disciplines. This article presents the results of a qualitative coding analysis of peer-to-peer interactions in two introductory level MOOCs: English Composition I: Achieving Expertise…

  17. Procedural Justice in Family Conflict Resolution and Deviant Peer Group Involvement among Adolescents: The Mediating Influence of Peer Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jennifer; Fondacaro, Mark; Miller, Scott A.; Brown, Veda; Brank, Eve M.

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of adolescents with deviant peer groups is one of the strongest proximal correlates to juvenile delinquency and stems from a variety of causes. Past research has linked ineffective parenting with peer variables, including deviant peer group involvement and peer conflict during adolescence. In this study, adolescents' appraisals of…

  18. Trajectories of Peer Victimization: The Role of Multiple Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Reavis, Rachael D.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined early elementary school children’s trajectories of peer victimization with a sample of 218 boys and girls. Peer victimization was assessed (via peer report) in kindergarten, 1st, 2nd, and 5th grades. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine multiple types of relationships (mother-child, student-teacher, friendship) as predictors of kindergarten levels of peer victimization and changes in peer victimization across time. Results indicated that the mother-child ...

  19. Peer Influences on Risk-taking in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Many injuries to school-aged children occur during unsupervised peer activities, but peer influences on risky behavior in preadolescence remain under-investigated. We examined peer context effects on reported risk-taking, identified predictors of peer influence, and compared peer influence in high- and low-social-functioning groups. Forty-one boys aged 8-10 years listened to scenarios in which they encountered oppo...

  20. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounts, Nina S

    2011-04-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  1. Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs in the Seattle, WA Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. K.; Alberti, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen loading has been identified as a potential stressor to marine ecosystems of the Puget Sound in the Pacific Northwest, and the Washington State Department of Ecology has estimated that anthropogenic sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the Sound are 2.7 times higher than natural loads (Mohamedali et al. 2011). The Seattle urban area, situated in the southeast of the Sound, has the largest population in the northwestern US. Heavily urbanized along the coast, the 4 counties comprising the region (Snohomish, King, Pierce, and Kitsap) also include forests and agriculture. Urban and agricultural areas tend to have substantial anthropogenic N loading due to fertilizer application, presence of N-fixing vegetation, N atmospheric deposition, and human and other animal waste. To determine the relative contribution of urban vs. rural agricultural activities to N loads from the Seattle region to the Puget Sound, we used the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) calculator developed by Hong et al. (2011) for the watersheds of this region. The NANI calculator uses nationally available datasets to calculate NANI as the sum of oxidized N deposition, fertilizer application, agricultural N fixation, net food and feed inputs, and net animal and human N consumption. We found that NANI ranged from approximately 100 to 1500 kg m-2 y-1, with some of the highest rates in watersheds with high impervious surface or agricultural areas with N-fixing crops or large fertilizer additions. Many of the agricultural watersheds have intervening low-NANI watershed between themselves and the coast, thus it is likely that agricultural NANI is attenuated before entering the Puget Sound. The urban areas in the region do not have these attenuating watersheds, and so are likely to be the main contributor to the observed total aquatic N yield. This information is helpful for developing policies to reduce N loading to the Sound.

  2. SFES:A scalable, fault-tolerant, efficient search scheme in a peer-to-peer network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振武; 杨舰; 史旭东; 白英彩

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents SFES: a scalable, fault-tolerant, efficient search scheme in a peer-to-peer network. The idea is based on the fact that data distribution in an information society has structured features. We designed an algorithm to cluster peers that have similar interests. When receiving a query request, a peer will preferentially forward it to another peer which belongs to the sane cluster and shares more similar interests. By this method, search efficiency will be remarkably improved and at the same time good resistance against peer failure (the ability to withstand peer failure) is reserved. Keyword partial-match is supported, too.

  3. The transient behaviour of an input protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de Kees; Luchies, Jan Marc; Vrehen, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The high frequency behaviour of input protections has been measured with electro-optic sampling. These measurements allow the determination of the time dependence of the voltages at internal nodes as well as the time dependence of the current through the input protection. Simulations are performed u

  4. Wave energy input into the Ekman layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave energy input into the Ekman layer, based on 3 observational facts that surface waves could significantly affect the profile of the Ekman layer. Under the assumption of constant vertical diffusivity, the analytical form of wave energy input into the Ekman layer is derived. Analysis of the energy balance shows that the energy input to the Ekman layer through the wind stress and the interaction of the Stokes-drift with planetary vorticity can be divided into two kinds. One is the wind energy input, and the other is the wave energy input which is dependent on wind speed, wave characteristics and the wind direction relative to the wave direction. Estimates of wave energy input show that wave energy input can be up to 10% in high-latitude and high-wind speed areas and higher than 20% in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, compared with the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. Results of this paper are of significance to the study of wave-induced large scale effects.

  5. Managing Input during Assistive Technology Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    Many different sources of input are available to assistive technology innovators during the course of designing products. However, there is little information on which ones may be most effective or how they may be efficiently utilized within the design process. The aim of this project was to compare how three types of input--from simulation tools,…

  6. 39 CFR 3020.92 - Public input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public input. 3020.92 Section 3020.92 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Requests Initiated by the Postal Service to Change the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.92 Public input. The Commission shall publish...

  7. Computing Functions by Approximating the Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2012-01-01

    In computing real-valued functions, it is ordinarily assumed that the input to the function is known, and it is the output that we need to approximate. In this work, we take the opposite approach: we show how to compute the values of some transcendental functions by approximating the input to these functions, and obtaining exact answers for their…

  8. Do peers matter? A review of peer and/or friends' influence on physical activity among American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Fitzgerald, Noelle; Aherne, Cian

    2012-08-01

    This systematic review investigated the relationship between peer and/or friend variables and physical activity among adolescents by synthesising cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research conducted in the US. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify related articles published within the last 10 years and the articles reviewed included adolescents between 10 and 18 years. Studies reporting a measure of physical activity for adolescents and at least one potential peer and/or friend variable were included. Research demonstrated that peers and friends have an important role to play in the physical activity behavior of adolescents. Six processes were identified through which peers and/or friends may have an influence on physical activity including: peer and/or friend support, presence of peers and friends, peer norms, friendship quality and acceptance, peer crowds, and peer victimization. The theoretical significance of these results is assessed and the development of peer-related physical activity programs for adolescents is discussed.

  9. Input impedance characteristics of microstrip structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Nazarko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Electromagnetic crystals (EC and EC-inhomogeneities are one of the main directions of microstrip devices development. In the article the input impedance characteristics of EC- and traditional microstrip inhomogeneities and filter based on EC-inhomogeneities are investigated. Transmission coefficient characteristics. Transmission coefficient characteristics of low impedance EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are considered. Characteristics are calculated in the software package Microwave Studio. It is shown that the efficiency of EC-inhomogeneity is much higher. Input impedance characteristics of low impedance inhomogeneities. Dependences of input impedance active and reactive parts of EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are given. Dependences of the active part illustrate significant low impedance transformation of nominal impedance. The conditions of impedance matching of structure and input medium are set. Input impedance characteristics of high impedance inhomogeneities. Input impedance characteristics of high impedance EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are considered. It was shown that the band of transformation by high impedance inhomogeneities is much narrower than one by low impedance inhomogeneities. Characteristics of the reflection coefficient of inhomogeneities are presented. Input impedance characteristics of narrowband filter. The structure of narrowband filter based on the scheme of Fabry-Perot resonator is presented. The structure of the filter is fulfilled by high impedance EC-inhomogeneities as a reflectors. Experimental and theoretical amplitude-frequency characteristics of the filter are presented. Input impedance characteristics of the filter are shown. Conclusions. Input impedance characteristics of the structure allow to analyse its wave properties, especially resonant. EC-inhomogeneity compared with traditional microstrip provide substantially more significant transformation of the the input impedance.

  10. Relations among Chronic Peer Group Rejection, Maladaptive Behavioral Dispositions, and Early Adolescents' Peer Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Rudolph, Karen D.; Andrews, Rebecca K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of peers' relational characteristics (e.g., support, trustworthiness) were examined for subtypes of youth who evidenced chronic maladaptive behavior, chronic peer group rejection, or combinations of these risk factors. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify subgroups of participants within a normative…

  11. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  12. DServO: A Peer-to-Peer-based Approach to Biomedical Ontology Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambone, Zakaria; Savadogo, Mahamadi; Some, Borlli Michel Jonas; Diallo, Gayo

    2015-01-01

    We present in this poster an extension of the ServO ontology server system, which adopts a decentralized Peer-To-Peer approach for managing multiple heterogeneous knowledge organization systems. It relies on the use of the JXTA protocol coupled with information retrieval techniques to provide a decentralized infrastructure for managing multiples instances of Ontology Repositories.

  13. Paternal/Maternal Attachment, Peer Support, Social Expectations of Peer Interaction, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how paternal and maternal attachment might relate to adolescents' peer support, social expectations of peer interaction, and depressive symptoms; 1,144 8th graders in Taiwan participated in the study. The relationships were examined through a structural equating modeling. Consistent with theoretical…

  14. Agent-oriented Modeling for Collaborative Learning Environments: A Peer-to-Peer Helpdesk Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi-Silva Souza, R.; Wagner, G.; Aroyo, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the analysis and modelling of Help&Learn, an agent-based peer-to-peer helpdesk system to support extra-class interactions among students and teachers. Help&Learn expands the student’s possibility of solving problems, getting involved in a cooperative learning experience tha

  15. Introduction to the special section on peer-to-peer computing and web data management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aoying ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    @@ Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing has been attracting attention from quite a few researchers and practitioners from different fields of computer science, such as networking, distributed computing, and database. Over P2P environment, the data management becomes a challenging issue.

  16. EZEL : a Visual Tool for Performance Assessment of Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voinea, Lucian; Telea, Alex; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present EZEL, a visual tool we developed for the performance assessment of peer-to-peer file-sharing networks. We start by identifying the relevant data transferred in this kind of networks and the main performance assessment questions. Then we describe the visualization of data fro

  17. Telemedicine for Peer-to-Peer Psychiatry Learning between U.K. and Somaliland Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne; Ali, Faisal R.; Finlayson, Alexander E. T.; Handuleh, Jibriil; Adam, Gudon; Bowen, Jordan S. T.; Leather, Andrew; Little, Simon J.; Whitwell, Susannah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The proportion of U.K. medical students applying for psychiatry training continues to decline, whereas, in Somaliland, there are no public-sector psychiatrists. This pilot study assessed the usefulness and feasibility of online, instant messenger, peer-to-peer exchange for psychiatry education between cultures. Method: Twenty medical…

  18. A Framework for Distributing Scalable Content over Peer-to-Peer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberhard, M.; Kumar, A.; Mignanti, S.; Petrocco, R.; Uitto, M.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems are nowadays a very popular solution for multimedia distribution, as they provide significant cost benefits compared with traditional server-client distribution. Additionally, the distribution of scalable content enables the consumption of the content in a quality suited for the

  19. A Peer-to-Peer Health Education Program for Vulnerable Children in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Diane S.; Pettet, Kristen; Mpagi, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, children attending a U.S.-sponsored private primary school serving orphaned and vulnerable children in Uganda were interviewed in focus groups about their participation in a peer-to-peer health education program in which they used music, dance, poetry, art, and drama to convey health information. The children reported enhanced…

  20. SNAP: SNowbAll multi-tree Pushing for Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Given the respective advantages of the two complimentary techniques for peer-to-peer media streaming (namely tree-based push and mesh-based pull), there is a strong trend of combining them into a hybrid streaming system. Backed by recently proposed mechanisms to identify stable peers, such a hybrid system usually consists of backbone trees formed by the stable peers and other overlay structures in the second tier to accommodate the remaining peers. In this paper, we embrace the hybrid push-pull structure for peer-to-peer media streaming. Our protocol is dominated by a multi-tree push mechanism to minimize the delay in the backbone and is complemented by other overlay structures to cope with peer dynamics. What mainly distinguishes our multi-tree pushing from the conventional ones is an unbalanced tree design guided by the so called snow-ball streaming, which has a provable minimum delay and can be smoothly "melded" with virtually any other existing overlay structures lying in the second tier. We design algori...