Sample records for aquatic organisms submitted




    Aquatic organisms play a very important role in human nutrition. They also pose a real threat for human health by causing various diseases. Parasites, bacteria and viruses may either directly or indirectly be carried from aquatic organisms to humans. Disease outbreaks are influenced by many factors among which decreased immune response and feeding habits and higyene are most important. More frequent occuence of foodborne diseases has a number of reasons, including international travel and tra...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Kurtović


    Full Text Available Aquatic organisms play a very important role in human nutrition. They also pose a real threat for human health by causing various diseases. Parasites, bacteria and viruses may either directly or indirectly be carried from aquatic organisms to humans. Disease outbreaks are influenced by many factors among which decreased immune response and feeding habits and higyene are most important. More frequent occuence of foodborne diseases has a number of reasons, including international travel and trade, microbial adaptation and changes in the food production system. Parasitic diseases occur most frequently as a result of human role in parasites life cycles. The prevalence is further increased by consuming raw fish and shellfish. The main feature of bacterial infections is facultative pathogenicity of most ethiological agents. In most cases disease occures as a result of decreased immunoreactivity. Several bacteria are, however, hightly pathogenic and capable of causing high morbidity and mortality in human. To date it has not been reported the case of human infection with viruses specific for aquatic organisms. Human infections are caused with human viruses and aquatic organisms play role only as vechicles. The greatest risk in that respect present shellfish. Fish and particularly shellfish are likely to cause food poisoning in humans. In most cases the cause are toxins of phithoplancton origins accumulating in shellfish and fish.

  3. Impact of Organic Contamination on Some Aquatic Organisms (United States)

    Yasser, El-Nahhal; Shawkat, El-Najjar; Samir, Afifi


    Background: Contamination of water systems with organic compounds of agricultural uses pose threats to aquatic organisms. Carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diuron were considered as model aquatic pollutants in this study. The main objective of this study was to characterize the toxicity of organic contamination to two different aquatic organisms. Materials and Methods: Low concentrations (0.0–60 µmol/L) of carbaryl, diuron and very low concentration (0.0–0.14 µmol/L) of chlorpyrifos and their mixtures were tested against fish and Daphnia magna. Percentage of death and immobilization were taken as indicators of toxicity. Results: Toxicity results to fish and D. magna showed that chlorpyrifos was the most toxic compound (LC50 to fish and D. magna are 0.08, and 0.001 µmol/L respectively), followed by carbaryl (LC50 to fish and D. magna are 43.19 and 0.031 µmol/L), while diuron was the least toxic one (LC50 values for fish and D. magna are 43.48 and 32.11 µmol/L respectively). Mixture toxicity (binary and tertiary mixtures) showed antagonistic effects. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference among mixture toxicities to fish and D. magma. Conclusion: Fish and D. magam were sensitive to low concentrations. These data suggest potent threats to aquatic organisms from organic contamination. PMID:26862260

  4. Effects of triclosan on various aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Teshima, Kenji; Kishi, Katsuyuki; Arizono, Koji


    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in various industrial products, such as textile goods, soap, shampoo, liquid toothpaste and cosmetics, and often detected in wastewater effluent. However, there is a paucity of data on the toxicity of triclosan and its effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, the acute toxicity of triclosan to the Microtox bacterium (Vibrio fischeri), a microalga (Selenastrum capricornutum), a crustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fish (Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes) was examined. As a result, the MicrotoxR bacterium, crustacean and fish had similar sensitivities towards triclosan toxicity (i.e., IC25 from 0.07 to 0.29 mg/L triclosan). In contrast, the microalga was about 30-80-fold (IC25 = 0.0034 mg/L triclosan) more sensitive to triclosan toxicity than the bacterium and fish. Therefore, triclosan is quite highly toxic to aquatic animals, and is particularly highly toxic to the green alga used as a test organism in this study. This result indicates that triclosan exerts a marked influence on algae, which are important organisms being the first-step producers in the ecosystem; therefore, the possible destruction of the balance of the ecosystem is expected if triclosan is discharged into the environment at high levels.

  5. Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de [Solvay S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Boutonnet, J.C. [Elf Atochem, Levallois-Perret (France); Thompson, R.S. [Zeneca Ltd., Devon (United Kingdom). Brixham Environmental Lab.


    As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  6. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.


    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  7. Rotation in turbulence of aquatic organisms modeled as particles (United States)

    Variano, Evan; Byron, Margaret; Bellani, Gabriele


    We investigate which length and time scales are relevant for determining the rotation of aquatic organisms and their gametes. We are interested in parameter space beyond the Stokes regime, and also the effect of particle shape on rotation. We report experimental measurements that use custom-manufactured particles to model aquatic organisms, which are designed with the necessary optical properties so that we can measure their rotation, simultaneously with the vorticity statistics of the surrounding fluid. Lagrangian timeseries of particles' angular velocity allows investigation of rotational diffusion.

  8. Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Katagi, Toshiyuki


    The ecotoxicological assessment of pesticide effects in the aquatic environment should normally be based on a deep knowledge of not only the concentration of pesticides and metabolites found but also on the influence of key abiotic and biotic processes that effect rates of dissipation. Although the bioconcentration and bioaccumulation potentials of pesticides in aquatic organisms are conveniently estimated from their hydrophobicity (represented by log K(ow), it is still indispensable to factor in the effects of key abiotic and biotic processes on such pesticides to gain a more precise understanding of how they may have in the natural environment. Relying only on pesticide hydrophobicity may produce an erroneous environmental impact assessment. Several factors affect rates of pesticide dissipation and accumulation in the aquatic environment. Such factors include the amount and type of sediment present in the water and type of diet available to water-dwelling organisms. The particular physiological behavior profiles of aquatic organisms in water, such as capacity for uptake, metabolism, and elimination, are also compelling factors, as is the chemistry of the water. When evaluating pesticide uptake and bioconcentration processes, it is important to know the amount and nature of bottom sediments present and the propensity that the stuffed aquatic organisms have to absorb and process xenobiotics. Extremely hydrophobic pesticides such as the organochlorines and pyrethroids are susceptible to adsorb strongly to dissolved organic matter associated with bottom sediment. Such absorption reduces the bioavailable fraction of pesticide dissolved in the water column and reduces the probable ecotoxicological impact on aquatic organisms living the water. In contrast, sediment dweller may suffer from higher levels of direct exposure to a pesticide, unless it is rapidly degraded in sediment. Metabolism is important to bioconcentration and bioaccumulation processes, as is

  9. Synthetic musks in fish and other aquatic organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonards, P.E.G.; Boer, de J.


    Musk compounds are widely spread environmental pollutants. Musk compounds were found in aquatic organisms from the North Sea, in rivers, lakes and estuaries in Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Japan, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Two nitro musks, musk xylene (M

  10. Dissolved organic matter enhances transport of PAHs to aquatic organisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laak, T.L.; ter Bekke, M.A.; Hermens, J.L.M.


    In this study, the uptake of pyrene and benzo[b]fluoranthene by an aquatic worm (Lumbriculus variegatus) and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) coated glass fiber was studied at different humic acid concentrations. The accumulation of pyrene was not affected by the presence of the humic matrix. However, the a

  11. Radiation doses to aquatic organisms from natural radionuclides. (United States)

    Brown, J E; Jones, S R; Saxén, R; Thørring, H; Vives i Batlle, J


    A framework for protection of the environment is likely to require a methodology for assessing dose rates arising from naturally occurring radionuclides. This paper addresses this issue for European aquatic environments through a process of (a) data collation, mainly with respect to levels of radioactivity in water sediments and aquatic flora and fauna, (b) the use of suitable distribution coefficients, concentration factors and global data where data gaps are present and (c) the utilisation of a reference organism approach whereby a finite number of suitable geometries are selected to allow dose per unit concentration factors to be derived and subsequent absorbed dose calculations (weighted or unweighted) to be made. The majority of the calculated absorbed dose, for both marine and freshwater organisms, arises from internally incorporated alpha emitters, with 210Po and 226Ra being the major contributors. Calculated doses are somewhat higher for freshwater compared to marine organisms, and the range of doses is also much greater. This reflects both the much greater variability of radionuclide concentrations in freshwater as compared to seawater, and also variability or uncertainty in concentration factor values. This work has revealed a number of substantial gaps in published empirical data especially for European aquatic environments.

  12. Toxicity of anthelmintic drugs (fenbendazole and flubendazole) to aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Wagil, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Puckowski, Alan; Wychodnik, Katarzyna; Maszkowska, Joanna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan


    Flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) belong to benzimidazoles-pharmaceuticals widely used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of intestinal parasites as well as for the treatment of systemic worm infections. In recent years, usage of these drugs increased, which resulted in a larger contamination of the environment and possible negative effects on biota. Hence, in our research, we investigated an aquatic ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals towards: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustacean (Daphnia magna). Ecotoxicity tests were combined with chemical analysis in order to investigate the actual exposure concentration of the compounds used in the experiment as well as to stability and adsorption studies. As a result, study evaluating sensitivity of different aquatic organisms to these compounds and new ecotoxicological data is presented. The strongest negative impact of FLU and FEN was observed to D. magna.

  13. Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence - from phenomenon to application (United States)

    Reynolds, Darren


    The use of fluorescence to quantify and characterise aquatic organic matter in river, ocean, ground water and drinking and waste waters has come along way since its discovery as a phenomenon in the early 20th century. For example, there are over 100 papers published each year in international peer reviewed journals, an order of magnitude increase since a decade ago (see Figure taken from ISI database from 1989 to 2007 for publications in the fields of river water and waste water). Since then it has been extensively used as a research tool since the 1990's by scientists and is currently used for a wide variety of applications within a number of sectors. Universities, organisations and companies that research into aquatic organic matter have either recently readily use appropriate fluorescence based techniques and instrumentation. In industry and government, the technology is being taken up by environmental regulators and water and wastewater companies. This keynote presentation will give an overview of aquatic organic matter fluorescence from its conception as a phenomenon through to its current use in a variety of emerging applications within the sectors concerned with understanding, managing and monitoring the aquatic environment. About the Speaker Darren Reynolds pioneered the use of fluorescence spectroscopy for the analysis of wastewaters in the 1990's. He currently leads a research group within the Centre for Research in Biosciences and sits on the Scientific Advisory Board for the Institute of Bio-Sensing Technology at the University of the West of England, Bristol. He is a multidisciplinary scientist concerned with the development of technology platforms for applications in the fields of environment/agri-food and health. His current research interests include the development of optical technologies and techniques for environmental and biological sensing and bio-prospecting applications. He is currently involved in the development and use of synthetic biology

  14. Screening of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in various aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Sanjuan, Maria; Meyer, Johan; Damasio, Joana; Faria, Melissa; Barata, Carlos; Lacorte, Silvia [IDAEA-CSIC, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of five perfluorinated chemicals (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid) in aquatic organisms dwelling in either freshwater or marine ecosystems. Organisms selected were insect larvae, oysters, zebra mussels, sardines, and crabs, which are widespread in the environment and may represent potential bioindicators of exposure to PFCs. The study comprises the optimization of a solid-liquid extraction method and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Using spiked zebra mussels at 10 and 100 ng/g level, the method developed provided recoveries of 96% and 122%, and 82% to 116%, respectively, and a limit of detection between 0.07 and 0.22 ng/g ww. The method was highly sensitivity and robust to determine PFC compounds in a wide array of biological matrices, and no matrix interferents nor blank contamination was observed. Among organisms studied, none of the bivalves accumulated PFCs, and contrarily, insect larvae, followed by fish and crabs contained levels ranging from 0.23 to 144 ng/g ww of PFOS, from 0.14 to 4.3 ng/g ww of PFOA, and traces of PFNA and PFHxS. Assessment of the potential use of aquatic organisms for biomonitoring studies is further discussed. (orig.)

  15. Uptake and toxicity of hexafluoroarsenate in aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Daus, Birgit; Weiss, Holger; Altenburger, Rolf


    The arsenic species hexafluoroarsenate has been described as a contaminant of surface waters of anthropogenic origin. Here, we undertake to identify the most sensitive biological receptor among several sentinel aquatic species used in eco-toxicological assessment and to understand toxicity in terms of internal dose. Therefore, a screening of short-term effects using different aquatic organisms (bacterium Vibrio fischeri, fish Danio rerio, crustacean Daphnia magna and green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus and Scenedesmus vacuolatus) was conducted. For most organisms tested, effects were not detectable even at very high hexafluoroarsenate concentrations (up to 9.6mM) and thus the ecotoxic potential was found to be low in comparison to other arsenic compounds. The only organisms showing a clear response were the unicellular green alga, e.g. S. vacuolatus with an EC(50) value of 1.12 mM (84 mg L(-1) As). A linear relationship between ambient and internal concentration was found for this organism with a slope of 1.63 x 10(-3). Therefore, the internal concentration which shows a significant effect, e.g. 20% of inhibition of reproduction, was found to occur at a relatively low internal dose of 0.98 microM. Moreover, no biotransformation products inside the algae could be detected using arsenic speciation analysis with HPLC-ICP-MS, thus biological effects must be attributed to the untransformed compound. We conclude that the very low uptake observed for hexafluoroarsenate may be interpreted as preventive against toxic effects for the organisms.

  16. Research of aquatic organism addition influence on the reproduction of yeast cells in the dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Павлович Крамаренко


    Full Text Available The analysis of the research results of influence of various amounts of aquatic organism additions on the reproduction of yeast cells is given. A positive impact of aquatic organism addition of animal and plant origin in investigated quantities on the reproduction of yeast cells is revealed. The influence of the chemical composition of the aquatic organism additives on the reproduction of yeast cells is proved

  17. Molecular markers of endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Rotchell, Jeanette M; Ostrander, Gary K


    A wide range of organic contaminant compounds prevalent in the aquatic environment has been shown to exhibit hormone-disrupting activity. The actual potency of such compounds are low compared with endogenous hormones, such as 17beta-estradiol, but may still produce detrimental biological effects. Induced hormone levels are routinely measured using commercial testing kits, though these fail to relate to actual effects. Field and laboratory studies on the biological effects of environmental estrogens have, in the past, largely relied on assays of vitellogenin (vtg) induction in male fish, reduced growth in testes formation, and intersex incidence. Here, we critically review the current and potential application of molecular techniques in assessing the adverse biological reproductive effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in aquatic organisms. The role of fish (estrogen, androgen, and progestogen) hormone receptors and invertebrate (ecdysone) hormone receptor, egg production (vtg and chorion) proteins, steroid biosynthesis enzymes (aromatase, sulfotransferase, and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), DNA damage, apoptosis, and their potential development as biomarkers are discussed in turn. In each case, the sequences characterized are presented and homologies across species are highlighted. Molecular methods of gauging vtg and zona radiata (ZR) expression and protein concentrations have included immunoassay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Suggestions for the isolation for key gene expression products (aromatase, ZR, and vtg, for instance), from a wider range of fish species using degenerate primers, are given. Endocrine disruption in invertebrates has received less attention compared with fish, partly because the knowledge regarding invertebrate endocrinology is limited. Here we review and suggest alternate isolation strategies for key players in the imposex induction process: vitellin (Vn), aromatase, and Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp (APGW) amide

  18. Converging hazard assessment of gold nanoparticles to aquatic organisms. (United States)

    García-Cambero, Jesús Pablo; Núñez García, Mercedes; López, Gema Díaz; Herranz, Ana López; Cuevas, Laureano; Pérez-Pastrana, Esperanza; Cuadal, Judith Sendra; Castelltort, Marc Ramis; Calvo, Argelia Castaño


    The gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are being increasingly used because of their huge diversity of applications, and consequently, elevated levels in the environment are expected. However, due to their physico-chemical properties and functionalization a high variety of Au-NPs can be found, and complete toxicological information for each type of Au-NPs still lacks, and even, the toxicological information for the same species is sometimes contradictory. Therefore, hazard assessment should be done case by case. Hence, the objective of this study was to obtain ecotoxicological information of the same Au-NPs in aquatic organisms and to find a rationale for Au-NPs toxicity. For such a purpose, bare and hyaluronic acid capped Au-NPs (12.5 nm) along with Au-NPs bulk material were tested on freshwater algae, Daphnia and zebrafish. Results showed that while gold nanoparticles were found to be harmless to the tested organisms, the soluble gold showed to be toxic to algae and Daphnia, with an LC50 between 1 and 2 mg L(-1). Comparing our results with those gathered in the literature, it appears that a common hazard assessment of Au-NPs on the studied organisms can be elucidated.

  19. A method for partitioning cadmium bioaccumulated in small aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardena, S.N.; Rana, K.J.; Baird, D.J. [Univ. of Stirling (United Kingdom). Institute of Aquaculture


    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to evaluate bioaccumulation and surface adsorption of aqueous cadmium (Cd) by sac-fry of the African tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In the first experiment, the design consisted of two cadmium treatments: 15 {micro}g Cd{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} in dilution water and a Cd-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Cd-EDTA) complex at 15 {micro}m{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1}, and a water-only control. There were five replicates per treatment and 40 fish per replicate. It was found that EDTA significantly reduced the bioaccumulation of cadmium by tilapia sac-fry by 34%. Based on the results, a second experiment was conducted to evaluate four procedures: a no-rinse control; rinsing in EDTA; rinsing in distilled water; and rinsing in 5% nitric acid, for removing surface-bound Cd from exposed sac-fry. In this experiment, 30 fish in each of five replicates were exposed to 15 {micro}g Cd{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} for 72 h, processed through the rinse procedures, and analyzed for total Cd. The EDTA rinse treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) Cd concentrations of the exposed fish relative to those receiving no rinse. It was concluded that the EDTA rinse technique may be useful in studies evaluating the partitioning of surface-bound and accumulated cadmium in small aquatic organisms.

  20. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem (United States)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.


    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  1. The Toxicity of Guanidine Nitrate to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms. (United States)


    0.002 - Epoxide Cobalt 0.0065 ɘ.002 Lindane ɘ.01 Copper 0.0035 0.008 Alpha-BHC ɘ.01 Iron 0.1 0.1 Beta-BHC ɘ.02 Lead ɘ.002 - De 1ta- BC (0.02...other fish species, aquatic invertebrates (e.g. benthic invertebrates) and at least one algal or aquatic plant species. Addi- tional studies on the

  2. Ecotoxicity of selected nano-materials to aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Blaise, C; Gagné, F; Férard, J F; Eullaffroy, P


    Present knowledge concerning the ecotoxic effects of nano-materials is very limited and merits to be documented more fully. For this purpose, we appraised the toxicity of nine metallic nano-powders (copper zinc iron oxide, nickel zinc iron oxide, yttrium iron oxide, titanium dioxide, strontium ferrite, indium tin oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, and holmium oxide) and of two organic nano- powders (fullerene-C60 and single-walled carbon nanotube or SWCNT). After a simple process where nano-powders (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution and filtered, they were then bioassayed across several taxonomic groups including decomposers (bacteria), primary producers (micro-algae), as well as primary and secondary consumers (micro-invertebrates and fish). Toxicity data generated on the 11 NPs reflected a wide spectrum of sensitivity that was biological level-, test-, and endpoint-specific. With all acute and chronic tests confounded for these 11 NPs, toxicity responses spanned over three orders of magnitude: >463 mg/L (24 h LC50 of the invertebrate Thamnoplatyurus platyurus for fullerene-C60) / 0.3 mg/L (96 h EC50 of the invertebrate Hydra attenuata for indium tin oxide), that is a ratio of 1543. On the basis of the MARA (Microbial Array for Risk Assessment) assay toxic fingerprint concept, it is intimated that NPs may have different modes of toxic action. When mixed in a 1:1 ratio with a certified reference material (CRM) sediment, two solid phase assays and an elutriate assay, respectively, showed that five NPs (copper zinc iron oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, holmium oxide, and SWCNT) were able to increase both CRM sediment toxicity and its elutriate toxicity. This initial investigation suggests that chemicals emerging from nanotechnology may pose a risk to aquatic life in water column and sediment compartments and that further studies on their adverse effects are to be encouraged.

  3. Stream Segments Captures and Crossings Associated With 2012 Aquatic Organism Passage Study Siuslaw National Forest (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Stream segments, aquatic organism captures, stream surveys, and road-stream crossings described by these metadata accompany a 2012 electrofishing study of the...

  4. Thermal effects on aquatic organisms. Annotated bibliography of the 1975 literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C.; Talmage, S.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Collier, B.N.; Dailey, N.S. (comps.)


    Abstracts are presented of 716 papers published during 1975 concerning thermal effects on aquatic organisms. Indexes are included for author, subject category, geographic location, toxon, title, and keywords. (CH)

  5. Aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings—synthesis and guidelines for effectiveness monitoring (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hansen, Bruce P.


    Restoration and maintenance of passage for aquatic organisms at road-stream crossings represents a major management priority, involving an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars (for example, U.S. Government Accounting Office, 2001). In recent years, passage at hundreds of crossings has been restored, primarily by replacing barrier road culverts with bridges or stream simulation culverts designed to pass all species and all life stages of aquatic life and simulate natural hydro-geomorphic processes (U.S. Forest Service, 2008). The current situation has motivated two general questions: 1. Are current design standards for stream simulation culverts adequately re-establishing passage for aquatic biota? and 2. How do we monitor and evaluate effectiveness of passage restoration? To address the latter question, a national workshop was held in March 2010, in Portland, Oregon. The workshop included experts on aquatic organism passage from across the nation (see table of participants, APPENDIX) who addressed four classes of methods for monitoring effectiveness of aquatic organism passage—individual movement, occupancy, demography, and genetics. This report has been written, in part, for field biologists who will be undertaking and evaluating the effectiveness of aquatic organism passage restoration projects at road-stream crossings. The report outlines basic methods for evaluating road-stream crossing passage impairment and restoration and discusses under what circumstances and conditions each method will be useful; what questions each method can potentially answer; how to design and implement an evaluation study; and points out the fundamental reality that most evaluation projects will require special funding and partnerships among researchers and resource managers. The report is organized into the following sections, which can be read independently: 1. Historical context: In this section, we provide a brief history of events leading up to the present situation

  6. Toxicity of Cúspide 480SL® spray mixture formulation of glyphosate to aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Currie, Zachary; Prosser, Ryan S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jose Luis; Mahon, Kim; Poirier, Dave; Solomon, Keith R


    In 2011, an alternative formulation of glyphosate (Cúspide 480SL®) was chosen to replace Roundup-SL®, Fuete-SL®, and Gly-41® for the control of Erythroxylum coca, the source of cocaine, in Colombia. Cúspide 480SL contains the active ingredient glyphosate isopropylamine (IPA) salt, which is the same active ingredient used in previous formulations. However, Cúspide 480SL contains an alkyl polyglycoside surfactant rather than the polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) surfactant used in other formulations and known to be more toxic to nonprimary producing aquatic organisms than glyphosate itself. An adjuvant, Cosmo-Flux F411, and water also are added to the spray mixture before application. Aquatic ecosystems adjacent to the target coca fields might be exposed to the spray mix, placing aquatic organisms at risk. Because no toxicity data were available for spray mixture on aquatic organisms, acute toxicity tests were conducted on aquatic plants, invertebrates, and fish, by using the Cúspide 480SL spray mix as described on the label. Based on the median effective concentration (EC50) values for similar organisms, the spray mixture was less toxic to aquatic organisms than formulations previously used for the control of coca (i.e., Roundup-SL, Fuete-SL, and Gly-41). A physical effect induced by Cosmo-Flux F411 was observed in Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hyalella azteca, causing the invertebrates to be trapped in an oily film that was present at the surface of the water. However, a hazard assessment for the Cúspide 480SL spray mix, using estimated worst-case exposure scenario concentrations and EC50 values from the toxicity tests, indicated de minimis hazard for the tested aquatic animals, with hazard quotients all <1.

  7. Plastic as a Carrier of POPs to Aquatic Organisms: A Model Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Besseling, E.; Wegner, A.; Foekema, E.M.


    It has been hypothesized that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in microplastic may pose a risk to aquatic organisms. Here we develop and analyze a conceptual model that simulates the effects of plastic on bioaccumulation of POPs. The model accounts for dilution of exposure concentration by sorpt

  8. Joint toxicity of mixtures of groups of organic aquatic pollutants to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, J.L.M.; Leeuwangh, Peter; Musch, Aalt


    In this study acute lethal concentrations (LC50) to the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were determined for mixtures of 4 groups of aquatic pollutants. The groups were composed of 11 nonreactive, nonionized organic chemicals, 11 chloroanilines, 11 chlorophenols, and 9 reactive organic halides. Earlier s

  9. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach. (United States)

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico


    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions.

  10. How to assess exposure of aquatic organisms to manufactured nanoparticles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quik, Joris T.K.; Vonk, Jan Arie; Hansen, Steffen Foss;


    Ecological risk of chemicals is measured by the quotient of predicted no-effect concentrations and predicted exposure concentrations, which are hard to assess for manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). This paper proposes modifications to currently used models, in order to make them suitable for estim......Ecological risk of chemicals is measured by the quotient of predicted no-effect concentrations and predicted exposure concentrations, which are hard to assess for manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). This paper proposes modifications to currently used models, in order to make them suitable...... for estimating exposure concentrations of NMs in the aquatic environment. We have evaluated the adequacy of the current guidance documents for use with NMs and conclude that nano-specific fate processes, such as sedimentation and dissolution need to be incorporated. We have reviewed the literature...... on sedimentation and dissolution of NMs in environmentally relevant systems. We deduce that the overall kinetics of water–sediment transport of NMs should be close to first order. The lack of data on dissolution of NMs under environmentally realistic conditions calls for a pragmatic decision on which rates...

  11. Aquatics task force on environmental assessment of the Atikokn Power Plant: effects on aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G.R.


    Possible impacts of an 800-MW coal-fired power plant to be built near Atikokan, Ontario were evaluated. It is feared that the emissions of SO/sub 2/ will lead to the deposition of sulfuric acid and result in the acidification of freshwaters in nearby parks and wilderness areas. The most obvious biological effects of acidification are damages to populations of fish. Less conspicuous but no less severe damages also occur to other organisms. It appears that all trophic levels are affected: species numbers are reduced, biomasses are altered, and primary production and decomposition are impaired. Field experiments and laboratory experiments indicate that microbial activity is reduced and that the recycling of materials is greatly impeded at low pH. This may interfere with nutrient supplies to plants and decrease the microbial biomass available to higher trophic levels. Phytoplankton densities decrease in acidified lakes and there is a reduction in some species of macrophytes. On the other hand, Sphagnum and benthic filamentous algae greatly increase in acidified conditions. The total primary productivity of lakes and streams may actually increase because of such dense growths on the bottom. Zooplankton and benthic invertebrate communities become less complex as acidity increases. This may in part be due to reduced food supplies, but direct inhibition by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ has also been demonstrated. This removal of fish food organisms may exacerbate damage to fisheries, especially in the pH range of 5 to 6. When a lake loses all fish because of low pH, a few species of invertebrates may become very abundant. The salamanders Ambystoma jeffersonium and A. maculatum, sensitive to acidity below pH 7.0 and 5.0 respectively, are being eliminated from small ponds or temporary pools in the region around Ithaca, NY because of the impact of acid precipitation. Species of frogs in some lakes are also being eliminated because of acidification. (ERB)

  12. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms. (United States)

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne


    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.


    Goldberg, Marvin C.


    Organic materials that will not absorb light at wavelengths longer than 295 nanometers (the solar wavelength cutoff) may nevertheless, undergo electron transfer reactions initiated by light. These reactions occur when the organic materials are adsorbed as ligand complexes to the surface of iron oxy-hydroxide (goethite). The adsorbed materials can be either inner or outer coordination sphere complexes. Goethite was chosen as the iron oxyhydroxide surface because it has the highest thermodynamic stability of any of the oxyhydroxides in water and it can be synthesized easily, with high purity.

  14. Study on accumulation of 137Cs in aquatic organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengDing-Hua; CheungT


    The organisms were cultivated for 7d in well water contaminated with 137Cs,The experimental results show that the accumulation level of tissues of carassius auratus had the order of gill>viscera>epidermis(including scales)>bone(including head and tail)>flesh.The concentration capability of them had the order of shrimp>carassius auratus>ophiocephalus argus,The concentration factors(CF) of shrimp was 12.6 times of that of ophiocephalus argus.

  15. Effects of magnesium, chromium, iron and zinc from food supplements on selected aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Bosnir, Jasna; Puntarić, Dinko; Cvetković, Zelimira; Pollak, Lea; Barusić, Lidija; Klarić, Ivana; Miskulin, Maja; Puntarić, Ida; Puntarić, Eda; Milosević, Milan


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of uncontrolled environmental disposal of food supplements containing magnesium (Mg), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) on selected aquatic organisms including freshwater algae Scenedesmus subspicatus and Raphidocelis subcapitata, water flea Daphnia magna and duckweed Lemna minor. Thirty different food supplements containing Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn were analyzed. Results were expressed as effective concentration 50 (EC50), i.e. growth inhibiting Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn (mg/L) concentration immobilizing 50% of treated organisms. Particular metal EC50 differed significantly (p food supplements containing Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn exerts adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Therefore, legal provisions should regulate both the utilization and disposal of food supplements into the environment.

  16. Methods for estimating doses to organisms from radioactive materials released into the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.; Soldat, J.K.


    The US Department of Energy recently published an interim dose limit of 1 rad d{sup {minus}1} for controlling the radiation exposure of nature aquatic organisms. A computer program named CRITR, developed previously for calculating radiation doses to aquatic organisms and their predators, has been updated as an activity of the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project to facilitate demonstration of compliance with this limit. This report presents the revised models and the updated computer program, CRITR2, for the assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and their predators; tables of the required input parameters are also provided. Both internal and external doses to fish, crustacea, mollusks, and algae, as well as organisms that subsist on them, such as muskrats, raccoons, and ducks, may be estimated using CRITR2. Concentrations of radionuclides in the water to which the organisms are exposed may be entered directly into the user-input file or may be calculated from a source term and standard dilution models developed for the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  17. Aquatic and terrestrial organic matter in the diet of stream consumers: implications for mercury bioaccumulation. (United States)

    Jardine, Timothy D; Kidd, Karen A; Rasmussen, Joseph B


    The relative contribution of aquatic vs. terrestrial organic matter to the diet of consumers in fluvial environments and its effects on bioaccumulation of contaminants such as mercury (Hg) remain poorly understood. We used stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in a gradient approach (consumer isotope ratio vs. periphyton isotope ratio) across temperate streams that range in their pH to assess consumer reliance on aquatic (periphyton) vs. terrestrial (riparian vegetation) organic matter, and whether Hg concentrations in fish and their prey were related to these energy sources. Taxa varied in their use of the two sources, with grazing mayflies (Heptageniidae), predatory stoneflies (Perlidae), one species of water strider (Metrobates hesperius), and the fish blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus) showing strong connections to aquatic sources, while Aquarius remigis water striders and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) showed a weak link to in-stream production. The aquatic food source for consumers, periphyton, had higher Hg concentrations in low-pH waters, and pH was a much better predictor of Hg in predatory invertebrates that relied mainly on this food source vs. those that used terrestrial C. These findings suggest that stream biota relying mainly on dietary inputs from the riparian zone will be partially insulated from the effects of water chemistry on Hg availability. This has implications for the development of a whole-system understanding of nutrient and material cycling in streams, the choice of taxa in contaminant monitoring studies, and in understanding the fate of Hg in stream food webs.

  18. Aquatic indicator organisms as a tool to monitor discharges from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outola, Iisa; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka; Klemola, Seppo [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)


    There are four operating nuclear power plant units in Finland at two separate locations. The units started operation during 1977-1980. The surveillance of radioactive substances in the vicinities of the nuclear power plant is carried out under the permanent monitoring programs. Some 1000 samples are taken annually from the surroundings of the power plants to confirm that the discharges from the power plants are within permissible release limits and to monitor the dispersion of discharges in the environment. Aquatic indicator organisms (macro-algae, periphyton, mussels, crustacean, submerged aquatic plants) are included in the monitoring program. The indicator organisms are valuable monitoring objects both in normal and emergency situations because they accumulate effectively and often very rapidly radioactive substances from the medium. Six different species (Periphyton, Fucus vesiculosus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saduria entomon, Macoma Baltica/Mytilus edulis) are collected regularly. Number of sampling location for each species varies from 1 to 7. Some species are collected continuously, some 1-2 times in a year. In this study we have evaluated the monitoring results for the aquatic indicator organisms for the period of 2005-2010 concerning concentration of discharge nuclides. Our aim was to answer the following questions using the monitoring data from aquatic organisms: 1) Which radionuclides are released to the marine environment and how often do we detect them? 2) How far from the nuclear power plants discharge radionuclides are detected? 3) How concentration of discharge radionuclides has changed with time in aquatic organisms? The number of discharge nuclides detected in the aquatic indicator samples was 11. Most of them were only detected in few samples, but {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 110m}Ag were detected more frequently. Most of the observations above detection limits were made within the 5 km distance from the

  19. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael

    that of their bulk forms. With release of ENPs to the environment a need for evaluation of the potential risk of ENPs is necessary. Potential risks are assessed through a chemical safety assessment. Test guidelines (TGs) to evaluate the risk of compounds for the chemical safety assessment were developed for soluble...... and a physical identity. For soluble chemicals the chemical identity has been the parameter controlling ecotoxicological endpoints (e.g. toxicity and bioaccumulation). However, with ENPs consisting of a wide range of particle sizes, coatings and functionalizations influencing the performance and result of test...... of different particle sizes, coatings and functionalizations were investigated using model ENPs (Au ENPs) with two different sizes (10 and 30nm) and coatings (citrate and mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUDA)) and a standardized test setup with a standardized test organism (Daphnia magna). It was found that while...

  20. Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colquhoun Duncan J


    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide. While the increasing incidence of diagnoses may in part be due to the development and widespread availability of molecular detection techniques, the domestication of new organisms has undoubtedly instigated emergence of clinical disease in some species. Francisellosis in fish develops in a similar fashion independent of host species and is commonly characterised by the presence of multi-organ granuloma and high morbidity, with varying associated mortality levels. A number of fish species are affected including Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua; tilapia, Oreochromis sp.; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis and three-lined grunt, Parapristipoma trilinineatum. The disease is highly infectious and often prevalent in affected stocks. Most, if not all strains isolated from teleost fish belong to either F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis in warm water fish species or Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis in coldwater fish species. The disease is quite readily diagnosed following histological examination and identification of the aetiological bacterium by culture on cysteine rich media or PCR. The available evidence may indicate a degree of host specificity for the various Francisella strains, although this area requires further study. No effective vaccine is currently available. Investigation of the virulence mechanisms and host response shows similarity to those known from Francisella tularensis infection in mammals. However, no evidence exists for zoonotic potential amongst the fish pathogenic Francisella.

  1. Boron in Pariette Wetland Sediments, Aquatic Vegetation & Benthic Organisms (United States)

    Vasudeva, P.; Jones, C. P.; Powelson, D.; Jacobson, A. R.


    The Pariette Wetlands are comprised of 20 ponds located in Utah's Uintah Basin. Boron concentration in the Pariette Wetlands have been observed to exceed the total maximum daily limit of 750 µg L-1. Considering water flow in and out of the wetlands, boron is accumulating within the wetlands where it is sorbed to sediments and bioconcentrated by wetland plant and macro invertebrates. Since boron is an avian teratogen, an estimate of boron ingestion exposure is warranted. Samples from 3 of the 23 Pariette Wetland ponds with one pond near the inlet, one near the outlet, and one in the middle were collected. Five sampling points were designated along a 100 m transect of each pond. At each sampling point duplicate (or triplicate) samples of water, sediments, benthic organisms and wetland vegetation were collected. The sediments were collected with a KB-corer and divided at depths of 0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm from the sediment surface. Sample splits were sent to the USU Bug lab for identification of invertebrate species. Whenever this transect was not intercepting vegetation, 2-3 additional sample sites were identified at the pond within stands of representative vegetation where bird nests are located. The plant parts used for boron analyses will include seeds, shoot and roots of vascular plants, as well as algae or duckweeds skimmed from the surface. Samples were processed within 2 days of collection. Water samples filtered through a 0.45 μ membrane filter were analyzed for DOC, pH and ECe. The dried and washed vegetation samples were ground and stored. The benthic organisms and macro invertebrates were netted at the water surface. The dried samples were weighed, ground and stored. Samples were weighed, oven dried and reweighed. For plant and macro-invertebrate samples, a nitric and hydrogen peroxide digestion procedure is used to dissolve environmentally available elements. The Hot Water extraction and DTPA-Sorbitol extraction were compared to estimate wetland plant

  2. Ecotoxicological assays of Diethyltoluamide and Lemongrass Essencial Oil in irradiated and non-irradiated aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimiliani, Giovana T.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Martini, Gisela A.; Rogero, Jose R., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Aquatic invertebrates can be potentially exposed to nonradioactive contaminants in conjunction with ionizing radiation, especially in highly industrialized areas surrounding nuclear facilities, where radionuclides can accidentally be discharged in the aquatic environment containing stable chemicals. The aquatic organisms have continually been exposed to chemical contaminants like personal care products (PCPs) which have been found in various environmental matrices and may cause adverse effects to aquatic life and human health as radioactive products. In this study was used C. silvestrii as bioindicator organism in chronic ecotoxicity assays with lemongrass essencial oil (LEO) and Diethyltoluamide (DEET), both are insect repellent. In addition to exposition of the compounds, the organisms were irradiated with gamma rays from Co-60 source. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of gamma radiation and mosquito repellent products in the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii utilizing standardized ecotoxicological tests. The C. silvestrii inhibition concentration (IC25; 7 days) result after DEET exposition was 16.4 ± 1.4 mg L{sup -1} and for LEO was 3.1 ± 1.4 mg L{sup -1}. In the irradiated (25 Gy) C. silvestrii exposed to DEET and LEO, the concentration that inhibited reproduction was 16.1 ± 0.9 mg L{sup -1} and 2.4 ± 0.3 mg L{sup -1} respectively. The results showed that the reproduction of irradiated C. silvestrii was not significantly affected when compared with non-irradiated organisms when exposed to DEET or LEO. (author)

  3. Natural and active chemical remediation of toxic metals, organics, and radionuclides in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, G.; Pintauro, P.; O`Connor, S. [and others


    This project focuses on the chemical aspects of remediation, with the underlying theme that chemical remediation does occur naturally. Included are studies on the fate of heavy metal and organic contaminants discharged into aquatic environments; accurate assay metal contaminants partitioned into soils, water and tissue; development of novel polymeric membranes and microporous solids for the entrapment of heavy metals; and the development of hybrid chemo-enzymatic oxidative schemes for aromatics decontamination. 49 refs.

  4. Influence of Lipophilicity on the Toxicity of Bisphenol A and Phthalates to Aquatic Organisms. (United States)

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; Wallace, Sarah J; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valerie S


    Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are among the most popular plasticizers used today and have been reported ubiquitously in surface water, ground water, and sediment. For aquatic organisms, BPA was the most toxic (96 h LC50s) to aquatic invertebrates (0.96-2.70 mg/L) and less toxic to fish (6.8-17.9 mg/L). The toxicity of BPA to amphibians differed among developmental stages, with embryos having an LC50 of 4.6-6.8 mg/L and juveniles 0.50-1.4 mg/L. The toxicity of phthalates is affected by aromatic ring substitution, alkyl chain length, and metabolism. The toxicity (96 h LC50s) of phthalates was similar to aquatic invertebrates (0.46-377 mg/L) and fish (0.48-121 mg/L). In general, the toxicity of phthalates appears to be highest around a log KOW of 6, which corresponds to the highest potential for bioconcentration and bioaccumulation. In conclusion, the lipophilicity of BPA and phthalates influence their toxicity to aquatic species.

  5. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, Cecilia


    The load of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is considered high in the Baltic ecosystem. The Baltic Sea spans over 12 latitudes and the regional differences in climate affect the behavior of POPs. Therefore spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations of POPs in air and precipitation within this area has been investigated at 16 (mostly rural) stations around the Baltic Sea between 1990-1993. In addition, the deposition of gaseous and particulate associated POPs to the Baltic Sea is estimated from empirical data. This atmospheric input of POPs is compared with the input from rivers. Additionally, data from Ross Island, Antarctica and Lake Kariba, Zimbabve, Africa is presented, and all results are discussed and explained using the `global fractionation hypothesis` as a framework. In the Baltic Sea, concentration of individual POPs in air were found to be influenced by their physical-chemical properties, ambient air temperature and location. A latitudinal gradient, with higher levels in the south was found for PCBs and the gradient was more pronounced for the low volatility congeners. As a result, the high volatility congeners in air increased in relative importance with latitude. Generally, PCB concentration increased with temperature, but slopes of the partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature were different between congeners and between stations. In general, the low volatility congeners were more temperature dependent than the high volatility PCB congeners. Steep slopes at a sampling location indicate that the concentration in air is largely determined by diffusive exchange with soils. Lack of a temperature dependence may be due to the influence of long-range transported air masses at remote sites and due to the episodic, or random nature of PCB sources at urban sites. The concentrations of individual congeners in precipitation were found to be influenced by atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, ambient temperature, precipitation volume and

  6. Application of the Activity Framework for Assessing Aquatic Ecotoxicology Data for Organic Chemicals. (United States)

    Thomas, Paul; Dawick, James; Lampi, Mark; Lemaire, Philippe; Presow, Shaun; van Egmond, Roger; Arnot, Jon A; Mackay, Donald; Mayer, Philipp; Galay Burgos, Malyka


    Toxicological research in the 1930s gave the first indications of the link between narcotic toxicity and the chemical activity of organic chemicals. More recently, chemical activity has been proposed as a novel exposure parameter that describes the fraction of saturation and that quantifies the potential for partitioning and diffusive uptake. In the present study, more than 2000 acute and chronic algal, aquatic invertebrates and fish toxicity data, as well as water solubility and melting point values, were collected from a series of sources. The data were critically reviewed and grouped by mode of action (MoA). We considered 660 toxicity data to be of acceptable quality. The 328 data which applied to the 72 substances identified as MoA 1 were then evaluated within the activity-toxicity framework: EC50 and LC50 values for all three taxa correlated generally well with (subcooled) liquid solubilities. Acute toxicity was typically exerted within the chemical activity range of 0.01-0.1, whereas chronic toxicity was exerted in the range of 0.001-0.01. These results confirm that chemical activity has the potential to contribute to the determination, interpretation and prediction of toxicity to aquatic organisms. It also has the potential to enhance regulation of organic chemicals by linking results from laboratory tests, monitoring and modeling programs. The framework can provide an additional line of evidence for assessing aquatic toxicity, for improving the design of toxicity tests, reducing animal usage and addressing chemical mixtures.

  7. Semipermeable membrane devices in monitoring of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaliunas, D.


    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are passive samplers capable of concentrating hydrophobic chemicals from water, sediments, soil and air. They consist of layflat polymeric membrane such as polyethylene containing a thin film of synthetic lipid such as triolein. The transport of hydrophobic chemicals through the membrane into the lipid is governed by the process of passive diffusion. Therefore, SPMDs sample chemicals in a way similar to organisms. This thesis deals with the application of SPMDs in the monitoring of concentrations and effects of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment. SPMDs were exposed to various pesticides (organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids, dinitroanilines, amides) in laboratory flow-through experiments to study the uptake kinetics of organic chemicals from water. To compare the uptake of model compounds by SPMDs and aquatic organisms, the membrane samplers were exposed to chemicals side-by-side with bivalves. Mixtures of chemicals accumulated by SPMDs and mussels were tested in standard toxicity and genotoxicity assays (Microtox, Mutatox, invertebrate toxicity tests, the Ames test, sister chromatid exchange test). These studies showed that the uptake pattern of organic compounds by SPMDs and aquatic organisms was similar, and the passive samplers accumulated levels of chemicals sufficient for standard bioassays. To further validate the method, SPMDs were deployed in a number of polluted water sources in Lithuania. Bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical analytical methods were used to identify pollutants sampled (PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines) and their effects were evaluated in bioassays. SPMDs proved to be useful tools in monitoring of organic pollutants under the field conditions. Criteria for bioassays to be integrated with the SPMD technique were defined based on the results of these studies. Some important factors in the integration of SPMDs and bioassays (toxicity of SPMD-inherent oleic and sediment

  8. Hazard identification and risk characterization of bisphenols A, F and AF to aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Tišler, Tatjana; Krel, Alja; Gerželj, Urška; Erjavec, Boštjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Pintar, Albin


    Production of bisphenol A (BPA) analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) has recently increased, due to clear evidence of adverse effects of BPA on humans and wildlife. Bisphenols (BPs) have already been released into aquatic environment without previous available information about potential adverse effects of BPs and their potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In this study, lethal and sublethal effects of BPF and BPAF to bacteria, algae, crustacea and fish embryos were investigated and the results were compared to the adverse effects obtained for BPA. We found that BPAF was the most toxic compound to Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and Desmodesmus subspicatus; the lowest 72 h EC50 (median effective concentration) and 21 d NOEC (no observed effect concentration) values were determined at 2.2 mg/L regarding zebrafish hatching success and 0.23 mg/L of BPAF obtained for growth and reproduction of water fleas, respectively. In most cases, BPA was more toxic to D. magna, D. rerio and D. subspicatus in comparison to BPF, but pigmentation of zebrafish embryos after 48 h of exposure and reproduction of water fleas after 21-day D. magna reproductive test exposure to BPF were much more impaired. Risk quotients (measured environmental concentration/21 d NOEC) showed that BPA, BPF and BPAF are recently not chronically hazardous to the survival, reproduction and growth of water fleas in surface waters. On the other hand, we importantly show that currently present BPAF concentrations in surface waters could cause a potential ecological risk to aquatic organisms. In the near future, higher concentrations of BPF and BPAF in surface waters are anticipated and for this reason further testing using test systems with various aquatic species and endpoints are needed to provide additional information about toxic impacts of BPF and BPAF on aquatic biota.

  9. Impact of fungicide and insecticide use on non-target aquatic organisms in rice paddy fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The intensive use of plant protection products in rice paddy fields ( Oryza sativa L. has caused concern about the environmental impact on communities of non-target organisms that are natural inhabitants in these agroecosystems. The purpose of this review is to analyze the data currently available in the literature about some important fungicides and insecticides (such as trifloxystrobin, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam, which are currently used to control pests and diseases in rice paddy fields, as well as their effects on the community of non-target aquatic organisms.

  10. Pressure of non-professional use of pesticides on operators, aquatic organisms and bees in Belgium. (United States)

    Fevery, Davina; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter


    Various studies focus on professional pesticide use, whereas pressure of non-professional use on human and the environment is often neglected. In this study, an attempt was made to estimate the pressure of non-professional use of pesticides on operators, aquatic organisms and bees in Belgium based on sales figures and by using three exposure models. A classification in non-professional use was made based on type of pesticide, application method and on intensity of non-professional use. Pressure of non-professional use on operators is highest for intensive operators, caused by the use of insecticides in an aerosol spray can. Pressure of non-professional pesticides on aquatic life is mainly generated by the use of herbicides. The aerosol spray induces the highest pressure whereas the trigger application hardly affects operator and environmental exposure. The ordinary non-professional user generates most pressure on aquatic organisms. Pressure of non-professional pesticides on bees is mainly caused by the use of insecticides, especially the active substance imidacloprid in combination with the aerosol spray can application method applied by an intensive operator. In general, both total usage (kg) and pressure of pesticides decreased for the period 2005 to 2012 due to efforts made by the government and industry. The results of this study suggest to pay special attention to aerosol spray applications and the non-professional use of insecticides.

  11. Mosquitocidal essential oils: are they safe against non-target aquatic organisms? (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Ceccarini, Lucia; Macchia, Mario; Benelli, Giovanni


    In latest years, the importance of the Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (EO) has been greatly empathised due to its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as to its toxic properties towards many arthropods of great medical and veterinary importance. In this research, the EO extracted from aerial parts of M. alternifolia was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and towards adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea), a non-target aquatic organism that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The chemical composition of M. alternifolia EO was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Tea tree EO was mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole as the major constituent. M. alternifolia EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae, with a LC50 = 267.130 ppm. However, this EO had a remarkable acute toxicity also towards adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50 = 80.636 ppm. This research provide useful information for the development of newer and safer mosquito control tools, highlighting that the non-target effects against aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus larvae are crucial in the development of ecofriendly mosquito control strategies. Further research is needed to investigate the chronic and/or reproductive toxicity of M. alternifolia EO both towards target and non-target aquatic arthropods.

  12. Review of reproductive and developmental toxicity induced by organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, A.; Takagi, A.; Nishimura, T.; Kanno, J.; Ema, M. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)


    Widespread use of organotins has caused increasing amounts to be released into the environment. The most important non-pesticidal route of entry of organotins into the environment is through leaching of organotin-stabilized PVC in water, and the use in antifouling agents, resulting in the introduction of organotin into the aquatic environment. Data are available regarding the detection of butyltins and phenyltins in aquatic marine organisms and marine products. Food chain bioamplification of butyltin in oysters, mud crabs, marine mussels, chinook salmons, dolphins, tunas, and sharks and of phenyltin in carps and horseshoe crabs has been reported. These findings indicate that organotins accumulate in the food chain and are bioconcentrated, and that humans can be exposed to organotins via seafood. The levels of organotin compounds in seafood are not considered to be sufficiently high to affect human health. However, Belfroid et al. (2000) noted that more research on residual TBT levels in seafood was needed before a definitive conclusion on possible health risks could be drawn. Although the toxicity of organotins has been extensively reviewed, the reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins is not well understood. We summarized the data of the studies on reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals.

  13. Turnover of eroded soil organic carbon after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten

    The fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) after deposition is a large uncertainty in assessing the impact of soil erosion on C budgets. Globally, large amounts of SOC are transported by erosion and a substantial part is transferred into adjacent inland waters, linking terrestrial and aquatic C...... cycling. However, the net effect on C fluxes between soils, inland waters and atmosphere remains uncertain. In this study, we determined SOC turnover in terrestrial and aquatic environments and indentified its major controls. A European gradient of agricultural sites was sampled, spanning a wide range...... soil properties (e.g. texture, aggregation, etc.), SOC quantity and quality. In a 16-week incubation experiment, SOC turnover was determined for conditions reflecting downslope soils or inland waters. Moreover, we studied the impact of labile C inputs (‘priming’) on SOC stability using 13C labeled...

  14. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses--a review. (United States)

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina


    During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic, due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in air and water has proven to be insufficient to capture deposition and effects of these compounds in the biota. To overcome this limitation, environmental biomonitoring using lichens and aquatic mosses, have aroused as promising tools. The main aim of this work is to provide a review of: i) factors that influence the interception and accumulation of POPs by lichens; ii) how lichens and aquatic bryophytes can be used to track different pollution sources and; iii) how can these biomonitors contribute to environmental health studies. This review will allow designing a set of guidelines to be followed when using biomonitors to assess environmental POP pollution.

  15. The mysteriously variable half-life of dissolved organic matter in aquatic ecosystems: artefact or insight? (United States)

    Evans, Chris; Fovet, Ophelie; Jones, Tim; Jones, Davey; Moldan, Filip; Futter, Martyn


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluxes from land to water represent an important loss term in the terrestrial carbon balance, a major pathway in the global carbon cycle, a significant influence on aquatic light, nutrient and energy regimes, and an important concern for drinking water production. Although freshwaters are now recognised as zones of active carbon cycling, rather than passive conduits for carbon transport, evidence regarding the magnitude of, and controls on, DOM cycling in aquatic systems is incomplete and in some cases seemingly contradictory, with DOM 'half-lives' ranging from a few days to many years. Bringing together experimental, isotopic, catchment mass balance and modelling data, we suggest that apparently conflicting results can be reconciled through understanding of differences in: i) the terrestrial sources of DOM within heterogeneous landscapes, and consequent differences in its reactivity and stoichiometry; ii) experimental methodologies (i.e. which reactions are actually being measured), and iii) the extent of prior transformation of DOM upstream of the point of study. We argue that rapid photo-degradation, particularly of peat-derived DOM, is a key process in headwaters, whilst apparently slow DOM turnover in downstream, agriculturally-influenced lakes and rivers can partly be explained by the offsetting effect of in situ DOM production. This production appears to be strongly constrained by nutrient supply, thus linking DOM turnover and composition to the supply of inorganic nutrient inputs from diffuse agricultural pollution, and also providing a possible mechanistic link between aquatic DOM production and terrestrial DOM breakdown via the mineralisation and re-assimilation of organic nutrients. A more complete conceptual understanding of these interlinked processes will provide an improved understanding of the sources and fate of aquatic DOM, its role in the global carbon cycle, and the impact of anthropogenic activities, for example

  16. Toxicity of five antibiotics and their mixtures towards photosynthetic aquatic organisms: implications for environmental risk assessment. (United States)

    González-Pleiter, Miguel; Gonzalo, Soledad; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Leganés, Francisco; Rosal, Roberto; Boltes, Karina; Marco, Eduardo; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca


    The individual and combined toxicities of amoxicillin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin and tetracycline have been examined in two organisms representative of the aquatic environment, the cyanobacterium Anabaena CPB4337 as a target organism and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as a non-target organism. The cyanobacterium was more sensitive than the green alga to the toxic effect of antibiotics. Erythromycin was highly toxic for both organisms; tetracycline was more toxic to the green algae whereas the quinolones levofloxacin and norfloxacin were more toxic to the cyanobacterium than to the green alga. Amoxicillin also displayed toxicity to the cyanobacterium but showed no toxicity to the green alga. The toxicological interactions of antibiotics in the whole range of effect levels either in binary or multicomponent mixtures were analyzed using the Combination Index (CI) method. In most cases, synergism clearly predominated both for the green alga and the cyanobacterium. The CI method was compared with the classical models of additivity Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA) finding that CI could accurately predict deviations from additivity. Risk assessment was performed by calculating the ratio between Measured Environmental Concentration (MEC) and the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC). A MEC/PNEC ratio higher than 1 was found for the binary erythromycin and tetracycline mixture in wastewater effluents, a combination which showed a strong synergism at low effect levels in both organisms. From the tested antibiotic mixtures, it can be concluded that certain specific combinations may pose a potential ecological risk for aquatic ecosystems with the present environmentally measured concentrations.

  17. Ecological risk assessment for aquatic organisms from over-water uses of glyphosate. (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Thompson, Dean G


    Although the herbicide glyphosate is most widely used in agriculture, some is used for the control of emergent aquatic weeds in ditches, wetlands, and margins of water bodies, largely as the formulation Rodeo. This article presents an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of glyphosate and some of the recommended surfactants as used in or near aquatic systems. Glyphosate does not bioaccumulate, biomagnify, or persist in a biologically available form in the environment. Its mechanism of action is specific to plants and it is relatively nontoxic to animals. As a commercial product, glyphosate may be formulated with surfactants that increased efficacy but, in some cases, are more toxic to aquatic organisms than the parent material. For this risk assessment, three model exposure scenarios--static or low-flow systems such as ponds, flowing waters such as streams, and systems subjected to tidal flows such as estuaries--were chosen and application rates from 1 to 8 kg glyphosate/ha were modeled. Additional measured exposure data from several field studies were also used. As acute exposures are most likely to occur, acute toxicity data were used as effect measures for the purposes of risk assessment. Toxicity data were obtained from the literature and characterized using probabilistic techniques. Risk assessments based on estimated and measured concentrations of glyphosate that would result from its use for the control of undesirable plants in wetlands and over-water situations showed that the risk to aquatic organisms is negligible or small at application rates less than 4 kg/ha and only slightly greater at application rates of 8 kg/ha. Less is known about the environmental fate and toxicology of the surfactants commonly used in combination with the Rodeo formulation of glyphosate. The surfactants used for this purpose were judged not to be persistent nor bioaccumulative in the environment. Distributional analysis of measured deposition concentrations of LI 700, suggest that

  18. Dissolved Organic Carbon Dynamics Along Terrestrial-aquatic Flowpaths in a Catchment Dominated by Sandy Soils (United States)

    Wickland, K.; Walker, J. F.; Hood, K.; Butler, K. D.


    Aquatic systems receive significant amounts of terrestrially-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from their watersheds. The amount and nature received depends on terrestrial carbon source strength, processing and losses of carbon during transport, and hydrologic connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic systems. While much research has been done on terrestrial DOC dynamics along terrestrial-aquatic flowpaths, there is still considerable uncertainty in many areas including the importance of different carbon sources, microbial metabolism and sorption of DOC, and processing of carbon in groundwater. Here we investigate DOC dynamics in soils, groundwater, and stream waters at the USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical (WEBB) Program research site in northern Wisconsin. This site is well-suited for studying DOC dynamics as soils are sandy and homogenous with small DOC sorption potential, and previous work has characterized the hydrology of the region in detail. We collected water samples over two years from soil pit lysimeters along a series of hillslope transects, from shallow and deep groundwater wells, and from a first-order stream receiving these waters. We measured DOC concentration, DOC optical properties, and biodegradability of DOC. Combined with historical DOC and companion water chemistry data we characterize DOC generation and loss along the following flowpaths: 1) infiltration through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table, 2) shallow groundwater flow, and 3) long groundwater flowpaths of different origin (lake-derived vs. terrestrial-derived water).

  19. Toxicological impacts of antibiotics on aquatic micro-organisms: A mini-review. (United States)

    Välitalo, Pia; Kruglova, Antonina; Mikola, Anna; Vahala, Riku


    Antibiotics are found globally in the environment at trace levels due to their extensive consumption, which raises concerns about the effects they can have on non-target organisms, especially environmental micro-organisms. So far the majority of studies have focused on different aspects of antibiotic resistance or on analyzing the occurrence, fate, and removal of antibiotics from hospital and municipal wastewaters. Little attention has been paid to ecotoxicological effects of antibiotics on aquatic micro-organisms although they play a critical role in most ecosystems and they are potentially sensitive to these substances. Here we review the current state of research on the toxicological impacts of antibiotics to aquatic micro-organisms, including proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and bacteria commonly present in biological wastewater treatment processes. We focus on antibiotics that are poorly removed during wastewater treatment and thus end up in surface waters. We critically discuss and compare the available analytical methods and test organisms based on effect concentrations and identify the knowledge gaps and future challenges. We conclude that, in general, cyanobacteria and ammonium oxidizing bacteria are the most sensitive micro-organisms to antibiotics. It is important to include chronic tests in ecotoxicological assessment, because acute tests are not always appropriate in case of low sensitivity (for example for proteobacteria). However, the issue of rapid development of antibiotic resistance should be regarded in chronic testing. Furthermore, the application of other species of bacteria and endpoints should be considered in the future, not forgetting the mixture effect and bacterial community studies. Due to differences in the sensitivity of different test organisms to individual antibiotic substances, the application of several bioassays with varying test organisms would provide more comprehensive data for the risk assessment of antibiotics

  20. Status of water quality in the Dhaleshwari River and its effect on aquatic organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirajul Islam


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to know the status of water quality in the Dhaleshwari river and its temporal changes over monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons due to change of physicochemical parameters during the period from June 2011 to May 2012. The river starts off the Jamuna near the north-western tip of Tangail district with high potential for fisheries production in this area. Over exploitation of fisheries resources, river bank erosion and human activities are gradually hampered the aquatic environment of the river. For existence and conservation of aquatic resources, it is essential to investigate the water quality and surrounding environment of the river. The results of the study showed that the concentrations of EC (Electric conductivity, DO (Dissolved oxygen, BOD (Biological oxygen demand, Hardness, Sodium, Potassium and Copper were within the standard limit as well as suitable for aquatic lives. The water pH was less than the standard i.e. slightly acidic, transparency was incalculable and TDS (Total dissolved solid was increased in both post and pre-monsoon seasons. The content of Total Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Cadmium exceeded the permissible limit in all seasons. The excessive abundance of Total Nitrogen and Phosphorus made the river prone to eutrophication which ultimately resulted into degradation of water quality, phytoplankton blooms and change in fish production. This could be due to excessive agricultural activities near and adjacent to the bank of the river. The comparative study showed that most of the water quality parameters of the Dhaleshwari river were suitable for aquaculture of aquatic organisms as well as fishes.

  1. Current Advances on Virus Discovery and Diagnostic Role of Viral Metagenomics in Aquatic Organisms (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron M.; Mugimba, Kizito K.; Byarugaba, Denis K.; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein


    The global expansion of the aquaculture industry has brought with it a corresponding increase of novel viruses infecting different aquatic organisms. These emerging viral pathogens have proved to be a challenge to the use of traditional cell-cultures and immunoassays for identification of new viruses especially in situations where the novel viruses are unculturable and no antibodies exist for their identification. Viral metagenomics has the potential to identify novel viruses without prior knowledge of their genomic sequence data and may provide a solution for the study of unculturable viruses. This review provides a synopsis on the contribution of viral metagenomics to the discovery of viruses infecting different aquatic organisms as well as its potential role in viral diagnostics. High throughput Next Generation sequencing (NGS) and library construction used in metagenomic projects have simplified the task of generating complete viral genomes unlike the challenge faced in traditional methods that use multiple primers targeted at different segments and VPs to generate the entire genome of a novel virus. In terms of diagnostics, studies carried out this far show that viral metagenomics has the potential to serve as a multifaceted tool able to study and identify etiological agents of single infections, co-infections, tissue tropism, profiling viral infections of different aquatic organisms, epidemiological monitoring of disease prevalence, evolutionary phylogenetic analyses, and the study of genomic diversity in quasispecies viruses. With sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analytical tools becoming cheaper and easier, we anticipate that metagenomics will soon become a routine tool for the discovery, study, and identification of novel pathogens including viruses to enable timely disease control for emerging diseases in aquaculture.

  2. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity in aquatic organisms after pesticide exposure and the role of oxidative stress. (United States)

    Pašková, Veronika; Hilscherová, Klára; Bláha, Luděk


    Many pesticides have been documented to induce embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in non-target aquatic biota such a fish, amphibians and invertebrates. Our review of the existing literature shows that a broad range of pesticides, representing several different chemical classes, induce variable toxic effects in aquatic species. The effects observed include diverse morphological malformations as well as physiological and behavioral effects. When development malformations occur, the myoskeletal system is among the most highly sensitive of targets. Myoskeletal effects that have been documented to result from pesticides were also known to interfere with the development of organ systems including the eyes or the heart and are also known to often cause lethal or sublethal edema in exposed organisms. The Physiological, behavioral, and population endpoints affected by pesticides include low or delayed hatching, growth suppression, as well as embryonal or larval mortality. The risks associated with pesticide exposure increase particularly during the spring. This is the period of time in which major pepticide applications take place, and this period unfortunately also coincides with many sensitive reproductive events such as spawning, egg laying, and early development of many aquatic organisms. Only few experimental studies with pesticides have directly linked developmental toxicity with key oxidative stress endpoints, such as lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, or modulation of antioxidant mechanisms. On the other hand, it has been documented in many reports that pesticide-related oxidative damage occurs in exposed adult fish, amphibians, and invertebrates. Moreover, the contribution of oxidative stress to the toxicity of pesticides has been emphasized in several recent review papers that have treated this topic. In conclusion, the available experimental data, augmented by several indirect lines of evidence, provide support to the concept that oxidative stress is a

  3. Design and setup of intermittent-flow respirometry system for aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Bushnell, P.G.; Steffensen, John Fleng


    periods of closed-chamber oxygen consumption measurements with regular flush periods, accurate oxygen uptake rate measurements can be made without the accumulation of waste products, particularly carbon dioxide, which may confound results. Automating the procedure with easily available hardware......Intermittent-flow respirometry is an experimental protocol for measuring oxygen consumption in aquatic organisms that utilizes the best features of closed (stop-flow) and flow-through respirometry while eliminating (or at least reducing) some of their inherent problems. By interspersing short...

  4. Acute Toxicity of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Three Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungile P. Lukhele


    Full Text Available This study investigated the toxicity of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs to three aquatic organisms, namely, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia pulex, and Poecilia reticulata under the influence of exposure media properties specifically the ionic strength and organic matter represented by humic acid. Results indicated that ionic strength enhanced DWCNTs agglomeration whilst humic acid stabilized the CNTs and in turn inhibited the formation of aggregates. LC50s for D. pulex were higher at 2.81 and 4.45 mg/L for pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively; however, P. reticulata had lower values of 113.64 mg/L and 214.0 mg/L for the same CNTs correspondingly. P. subcapitata had EC50s of 17.95 mg/L and 10.93 mg/L for the pristine and oxidised DWCNTs, respectively. In the presence of humic acid high DWCNTs acute toxicity towards D. pulex and P. reticulata was observed but ionic strength led to opposite effect irrespective of DWCNTs form. Both humic acid and ionic strength shielded the P. subcapitata from toxic effects of DWCNTs. Overall, our findings suggest that the toxicity of DWCNTs in the aquatic systems (i will be dependent on media properties and (ii is likely to proceed at different rates to organisms at different trophic levels.

  5. The relationship between metal toxicity and biotic ligand binding affinities in aquatic and soil organisms: a review. (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M


    The biotic ligand model (BLM) is a theoretical, potentially mechanistic approach to assess metal bioavailability in soil and aquatic systems. In a BLM, toxicity is linked to the fraction of biotic ligand occupied, which in turn, depends on the various components of the solution, including activity of the metal. Bioavailability is a key factor in determining toxicity and uptake of metals in organisms. In this study, the present status of BLM development for soil and aquatic organisms is summarized. For all species and all metals, toxicity was correlated with the conditional biotic ligand binding constants. For almost all organisms, values for Ag, Cu, and Cd were higher than those for Zn and Ni. The constants derived for aquatic systems seem to be equally valid for soil organisms, but in the case of soils, bioavailability from the soil solution is greatly influenced by the presence of the soil solid phase.

  6. Toxicity of the veterinary sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamonomethoxine to five aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Huang, Da-Ji; Hou, Jung-Hsin; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lai, Hong-Thih


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) to aquatic organisms to evaluate its impact at different trophic levels in the ecosystem. Regarding the growth inhibition of microalgae, SMM exhibited 72-h median effective concentration (EC50) values of 5.9mgL(-1) for freshwater Chlorella vulgaris and 9.7mgL(-1) for marine Isochrysis galbana. In a study on the cladocerans, SMM exhibited acute toxicity and 48-h median lethal concentrations of 48mgL(-1) for Daphnia magna and 283mgL(-1) for D. similis. An examination of chronic toxicity revealed that SMM inhibited the brook production of the cladocerans and exhibited 21-day EC50 values of 14.9mgL(-1) for D. magna and 41.9mgL(-1) for D. similis. This study investigated the potentially adverse effects of SMM on aquatic organisms and revealed that microalgae exhibited higher sensitivity to SMM than cladocerans did. The residue of SMM in water is recommended to be carefully evaluated to reduce ecological impacts after applied to cultured animals.

  7. 水产动物代谢组学%The metabolomic in aquatic organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡铭炎; 薛良义


    现阶段对水产动物代谢提取物的检测手段很多,包括核磁共振(NMR)技术、质谱(MS)技术、气质联用(GC-MS)技术、气相色谱(GC)、高效液相色谱(HPLC)和高效毛细管电泳(HPCE)等.色谱技术是最常用的技术,而核磁共振技术是新近发展起来的一门新技术.本文重点介绍了核磁共振的基本原理,以及基于核磁共振的水产动物代谢组学在国内外的研究进展.%At present, there are many methods of measuring the metabolic extraction of aquatic organisms, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology, mass spectrometry (MS) technology, GC-MS (Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry) technology, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) and so on. Chromatographic technique is commonly used and nuclear magnetic resonance technology was a new technique. This paper focuses on the basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance and research progress of NMR-based-metabolomics in aquatic organisms.

  8. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms; La contamination radioactive des milieux et des organismes aquatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [French] Apres une courte etude des dechets radioactifs produits par les utilisations pacifiques ou militaires de l'Industrie Atomique, l'auteur fait etat d'abord des observations effectuees 'sur le terrain' concernant l'extension de la contamination des organismes aquatiques en rapport avec celle du milieu. L'auteur analyse ensuite les etudes experimentales se rapportant aussi bien au metabolisme des radioisotopes qu'aux facteurs et aux modalites de la contamination des organismes aquatiques par les dechets de l'industrie atomique. Un projet de travail experimental precis est presente a la fin de cette revue qui comporte pres de 300 references bibliographiques. (auteur)

  9. Biodegradability of dissolved organic carbon in permafrost soils and aquatic systems: a meta-analysis (United States)

    Jorien E. Vonk,; Tank, Suzanne E.; Paul J. Mann,; Robert G.M. Spencer,; Treat, Claire C.; Striegl, Robert G.; Benjamin W. Abbott,; Wickland, Kimberly P.


    As Arctic regions warm and frozen soils thaw, the large organic carbon pool stored in permafrost becomes increasingly vulnerable to decomposition or transport. The transfer of newly mobilized carbon to the atmosphere and its potential influence upon climate change will largely depend on the degradability of carbon delivered to aquatic ecosystems. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a key regulator of aquatic metabolism, yet knowledge of the mechanistic controls on DOC biodegradability is currently poor due to a scarcity of long-term data sets, limited spatial coverage of available data, and methodological diversity. Here, we performed parallel biodegradable DOC (BDOC) experiments at six Arctic sites (16 experiments) using a standardized incubation protocol to examine the effect of methodological differences commonly used in the literature. We also synthesized results from 14 aquatic and soil leachate BDOC studies from across the circum-arctic permafrost region to examine pan-arctic trends in BDOC.An increasing extent of permafrost across the landscape resulted in higher DOC losses in both soil and aquatic systems. We hypothesize that the unique composition of (yedoma) permafrost-derived DOC combined with limited prior microbial processing due to low soil temperature and relatively short flow path lengths and transport times, contributed to a higher overall terrestrial and freshwater DOC loss. Additionally, we found that the fraction of BDOC decreased moving down the fluvial network in continuous permafrost regions, i.e. from streams to large rivers, suggesting that highly biodegradable DOC is lost in headwater streams. We also observed a seasonal (January–December) decrease in BDOC in large streams and rivers, but saw no apparent change in smaller streams or soil leachates. We attribute this seasonal change to a combination of factors including shifts in carbon source, changing DOC residence time related to increasing thaw-depth, increasing water temperatures later

  10. Biodegradability of dissolved organic carbon in permafrost soils and aquatic systems: a meta-analysis (United States)

    Vonk, J. E.; Tank, S. E.; Mann, P. J.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Treat, C. C.; Striegl, R. G.; Abbott, B. W.; Wickland, K. P.


    As Arctic regions warm and frozen soils thaw, the large organic carbon pool stored in permafrost becomes increasingly vulnerable to decomposition or transport. The transfer of newly mobilized carbon to the atmosphere and its potential influence upon climate change will largely depend on the degradability of carbon delivered to aquatic ecosystems. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a key regulator of aquatic metabolism, yet knowledge of the mechanistic controls on DOC biodegradability is currently poor due to a scarcity of long-term data sets, limited spatial coverage of available data, and methodological diversity. Here, we performed parallel biodegradable DOC (BDOC) experiments at six Arctic sites (16 experiments) using a standardized incubation protocol to examine the effect of methodological differences commonly used in the literature. We also synthesized results from 14 aquatic and soil leachate BDOC studies from across the circum-arctic permafrost region to examine pan-arctic trends in BDOC. An increasing extent of permafrost across the landscape resulted in higher DOC losses in both soil and aquatic systems. We hypothesize that the unique composition of (yedoma) permafrost-derived DOC combined with limited prior microbial processing due to low soil temperature and relatively short flow path lengths and transport times, contributed to a higher overall terrestrial and freshwater DOC loss. Additionally, we found that the fraction of BDOC decreased moving down the fluvial network in continuous permafrost regions, i.e. from streams to large rivers, suggesting that highly biodegradable DOC is lost in headwater streams. We also observed a seasonal (January-December) decrease in BDOC in large streams and rivers, but saw no apparent change in smaller streams or soil leachates. We attribute this seasonal change to a combination of factors including shifts in carbon source, changing DOC residence time related to increasing thaw-depth, increasing water temperatures later

  11. Aquatic organisms in ballasting. New international agreement; Organismos acuaticos perjudiciales en el agua de lastre. Proyecto de nuevo convenio internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villnueva, F. J.


    The Committee of Protection of the Marine Environment of the International Marine Organization has been working for several years on the possible regulation on the ballasting and unballasting of ships. Different countries presented documents titled Aquatic Organisms that harm the ballast water. (Author)

  12. Acute toxicity of anionic and non-ionic surfactants to aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Lechuga, M; Fernández-Serrano, M; Jurado, E; Núñez-Olea, J; Ríos, F


    The environmental risk of surfactants requires toxicity measurements. As different test organisms have different sensitivity to the toxics, it is necessary to establish the most appropriate organism to classify the surfactant as very toxic, toxic, harmful or safe, in order to establish the maximum permissible concentrations in aquatic ecosystems. We have determined the toxicity values of various anionic surfactants ether carboxylic derivatives using four test organisms: the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna, the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum (freshwater algae) and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (seawater algae). In addition, in order to compare and classify the different families of surfactants, we have included a compilation of toxicity data of surfactants collected from literature. The results indicated that V. fischeri was more sensitive to the toxic effects of the surfactants than was D. magna or the microalgae, which was the least sensitive. This result shows that the most suitable toxicity assay for surfactants may be the one using V. fischeri. The toxicity data revealed considerable variation in toxicity responses with the structure of the surfactants regardless of the species tested. The toxicity data have been related to the structure of the surfactants, giving a mathematical relationship that helps to predict the toxic potential of a surfactant from its structure. Model-predicted toxicity agreed well with toxicity values reported in the literature for several surfactants previously studied. Predictive models of toxicity is a handy tool for providing a risk assessment that can be useful to establish the toxicity range for each surfactant and the different test organisms in order to select efficient surfactants with a lower impact on the aquatic environment.

  13. Three-dimensional tracking of small aquatic organisms using fluorescent nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael T Ekvall

    Full Text Available Tracking techniques are vital for the understanding of the biology and ecology of organisms. While such techniques have provided important information on the movement and migration of large animals, such as mammals and birds, scientific advances in understanding the individual behaviour and interactions of small (mm-scale organisms have been hampered by constraints, such as the sizes of existing tracking devices, in existing tracking methods. By combining biology, chemistry and physics we here present a method that allows three-dimensional (3D tracking of individual mm-sized aquatic organisms. The method is based on in-vivo labelling of the organisms with fluorescent nanoparticles, so-called quantum dots, and tracking of the organisms in 3D via the quantum-dot fluorescence using a synchronized multiple camera system. It allows for the efficient and simultaneous study of the behaviour of one as well as multiple individuals in large volumes of observation, thus enabling the study of behavioural interactions at the community scale. The method is non-perturbing - we demonstrate that the labelling is not affecting the behavioural response of the organisms - and is applicable over a wide range of taxa, including cladocerans as well as insects, suggesting that our methodological concept opens up for new research fields on individual behaviour of small animals. Hence, this offers opportunities to focus on important biological, ecological and behavioural questions never before possible to address.

  14. Effects of Outreach on the Prevention of Aquatic Invasive Species Spread among Organism-in-Trade Hobbyists (United States)

    Seekamp, Erin; Mayer, Jessica E.; Charlebois, Patrice; Hitzroth, Greg


    Releases of aquatic organisms-in-trade by aquarists, water gardeners, and outdoor pond owners have been identified as aquatic invasive species vectors within the Laurentian Great Lakes region. The trademarked U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Habitattitude campaign was developed in 2004 to encourage self-regulation by these groups, but little is known about its effects. We surveyed organisms-in-trade hobbyists in the eight Great Lakes states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, USA) to assess their recognition of the Habitattitude campaign and their compliance with the campaign's recommended behaviors for organism purchase and disposal. Awareness of the Habitattitude campaign was low, but hobbyists that identified as both water gardeners and aquarium hobbyists were more aware of the campaign than individuals who participated in one of those hobbies. Engaged hobbyists (high aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) were significantly more likely than passive hobbyists (low aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) to make decisions about disposal of live organisms with the intention of preventing aquatic invasive species spread, were more likely to contact other hobbyists for disposal and handling advice, and were less likely to contact professionals, such as retailers. On the basis of our results, we suggest that compliance with recommended behaviors may be increased by fostering hobbyist networks; creating materials that both explain tangible, negative environmental impacts and list specific prevention behaviors; and disseminating these materials through trusted information sources and venues.

  15. Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Ramos


    Full Text Available Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms.

  16. Manufactured nanoparticles in the aquatic environment-biochemical responses on freshwater organisms: A critical overview. (United States)

    Vale, Gonçalo; Mehennaoui, Kahina; Cambier, Sebastien; Libralato, Giovanni; Jomini, Stéphane; Domingos, Rute F


    The enormous investments in nanotechnology have led to an exponential increase of new manufactured nano-enabled materials whose impact in the aquatic systems is still largely unknown. Ecotoxicity and nanosafety studies mostly resulted in contradictory results and generally failed to clearly identify biological patterns that could be related specifically to nanotoxicity. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most discussed nanotoxicity mechanism in literature. ROS can induce oxidative stress (OS), resulting in cyto- and genotoxicity. The ROS overproduction can trigger the induction of anti-oxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx), which are used as biomarkers of response. A critical overview of the biochemical responses induced by the presence of NPs on freshwater organisms is performed with a strong interest on indicators of ROS and general stress. A special focus will be given to the NPs transformations, including aggregation, and dissolution, in the exposure media and the produced biochemical endpoints.

  17. Thermal effects on aquatic organisms: an annotated bibliography of the 1977 literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, S.S. (comp.)


    This bibliography, containing 537 references from the 1977 literature, is the seventh in a series of annotated bibliographies on the effects of heat on aquatic organisms. The effects of thermal discharges at power plant sites are emphasized. Laboratory and field studies on temperature tolerance and the effects of temperature changes on reproduction, development, growth, distribution, physiology, and sensitivity to other stresses are included. References in the bibliography are divided into three subject categories: marine systems, freshwater systems, and estuaries. The references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Indexes are provided for author, keywords, subject category, geographic location of the study, taxon, and title (alphabetical listing of keywords-in-context of nontrivial words in the title).

  18. Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) Revisited: First Steps toward a Network of Networks for Monitoring Organic Contaminants in the Aquatic Environment. (United States)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Muir, Derek; Zeng, Eddy Y; Bao, Lian-Jun; Allan, Ian J; Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Booij, Kees; Helm, Paul; Kaserzon, Sarit; Mueller, Jochen F; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Smedes, Foppe; Tsapakis, Manolis; Wong, Charles S; You, Jing


    Organic contaminants, in particular persistent organic pollutants (POPs), adversely affect water quality and aquatic food webs across the globe. As of now, there is no globally consistent information available on concentrations of dissolved POPs in water bodies. The advance of passive sampling techniques has made it possible to establish a global monitoring program for these compounds in the waters of the world, which we call the Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) network. A recent expert meeting discussed the background, motivations, and strategic approaches of AQUA-GAPS, and its implementation as a network of networks for monitoring organic contaminants (e.g., POPs and others contaminants of concern). Initially, AQUA-GAPS will demonstrate its operating principle via two proof-of-concept studies focused on the detection of legacy and emerging POPs in freshwater and coastal marine sites using both polyethylene and silicone passive samplers. AQUA-GAPS is set up as a decentralized network, which is open to other participants from around the world to participate in deployments and to initiate new studies. In particular, participants are sought to initiate deployments and studies investigating the presence of legacy and emerging POPs in Africa, Central, and South America.

  19. A Review of the Tissue Residue Approach for Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Aquatic Organisms (United States)

    This paper reviews the tissue residue approach (TRA) for toxicity assessment as it applies to organic chemicals and some organometallic compounds (tin, mercury, and lead). Specific emphasis was placed on evaluating key factors that influence interpretation of critical body resid...

  20. Development of a passive, in situ, integrative sampler for hydrophilic organic contaminants in aquatic environments (United States)

    Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Getting, D.T.; Goddard, J.P.; Manahan, S.E.


    Increasingly it is being realized that a holistic hazard assessment of complex environmental contaminant mixtures requires data on the concentrations of hydrophilic organic contaminants including new generation pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and many chemicals associated with household, industrial, and agricultural wastes. To address this issue, we developed a passive in situ sampling device (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler [POCIS]) that integratively concentrates trace levels of complex mixtures of hydrophilic environmental contaminants, enables the determination of their time-weighted average water concentrations, and provides a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to the complex mixture of waterborne contaminants. Using a prototype sampler, linear uptake of selected herbicides and pharmaceuticals with log KowS < 4.0 was observed for up to 56 d. Estimation of the ambient water concentrations of chemicals of interest is achieved by using appropriate uptake models and determination of POCIS sampling rates for appropriate exposure conditions. Use of POCIS in field validation studies targeting the herbicide diuron in the United Kingdom resulted in the detection of the chemical at estimated concentrations of 190 to 600 ng/L. These values are in agreement with reported levels found in traditional grab samples taken concurrently.

  1. sAC from aquatic organisms as a model to study the evolution of acid/base sensing. (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin


    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is poised to play multiple physiological roles as an acid/base (A/B) sensor in aquatic organisms. Many of these roles are probably similar to those in mammals; a striking example is the evolutionary conservation of a mechanism involving sAC, carbonic anhydrase and vacuolar H⁺-ATPase that acts as a sensor system and regulator of extracellular A/B in shark gills and mammalian epididymis and kidney. Additionally, the aquatic environment presents unique A/B and physiological challenges; therefore, sACs from aquatic organisms have likely evolved distinct kinetic properties as well as distinct physiological roles. sACs from aquatic organisms offer an excellent opportunity for studying the evolution of A/B sensing at both the molecular and whole organism levels. Moreover, this information could help understand and predict organismal responses to environmental stress based on mechanistic models.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Role of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in Health and Disease," guest edited by J. Buck and L. R. Levin.

  2. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water qu

  3. The role of dissolved organic matters in the aquatic photodegradation of atenolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Ya [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Yang, Xi, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main reactive species in the photosensitization between atenolol and DOMs is {center_dot}OH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can quench {center_dot}OH and screen light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High yield of {center_dot}OH was observed with iron ions and DOM coexisting under irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRFA can promote addition of {center_dot}OH on aromatic ring. - Abstract: Atenolol (ATL) is a photostable and hydrolysis resistant beta-blocker and has been frequently detected in natural water. In this study, mechanism on aquatic photodegradation of ATL was investigated with an emphasis on the role of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) as well as other natural water compositions (nitrate, bicarbonate and ferric ions). Significant acceleration of photodegradtion of ATL was observed in the presence of each DOMs added, namely Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA), Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA), Nordic Lake Fulvic Acid (NOFA) and Nordic Lake Humic Acid (NOHA). Hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) was determined as the main reactive species in this process, instead of singlet oxygen or excited triplet of DOM. Addition of these four DOMs all inhibited photodegradation of ATL in nitrate solutions through reducing nitrated-derived {center_dot}OH and screening photons absorbed by nitrate. No loss of ATL was detected in bicarbonate solution with or without DOMs. Bicarbonate exhibited a scavenger of {center_dot}OH derived from DOMs. However, in the presence of iron species, photodegradation of ATL was significantly enhanced by the addition of each DOM, due to the high yield of {center_dot}OH in the photoprocess of Fe(III)-DOM complex. The photoproducts distribution of ATL demonstrated that SRFA promote the hydroxylation on aromatic ring in the presence of nitrate and reduce the ketone moiety to alcohol in the system of ferric ions. Our findings indicate that DOMs should be considered in

  4. Unexpected toxicity to aquatic organisms of some aqueous bisphenol A samples treated by advanced oxidation processes. (United States)

    Tišler, Tatjana; Erjavec, Boštjan; Kaplan, Renata; Şenilă, Marin; Pintar, Albin


    In this study, photocatalytic and catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) processes were used to examine removal efficiency of bisphenol A from aqueous samples over several titanate nanotube-based catalysts. Unexpected toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) samples treated by means of the CWAO process to some tested species was determined. In addition, the CWAO effluent was recycled five- or 10-fold in order to increase the number of interactions between the liquid phase and catalyst. Consequently, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated higher concentrations of some toxic metals like chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silver, and zinc in the recycled samples in comparison to both the single-pass sample and the photocatalytically treated solution. The highest toxicity of five- and 10-fold recycled solutions in the CWAO process was observed in water fleas, which could be correlated to high concentrations of chromium, nickel, and silver detected in tested samples. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that aqueous samples treated by means of advanced oxidation processes should always be analyzed using (i) chemical analyses to assess removal of BPA and total organic carbon from treated aqueous samples, as well as (ii) a battery of aquatic organisms from different taxonomic groups to determine possible toxicity.

  5. Triplet state dissolved organic matter in aquatic photochemistry: reaction mechanisms, substrate scope, and photophysical properties. (United States)

    McNeill, Kristopher; Canonica, Silvio


    Excited triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter ((3)CDOM*) play a major role among the reactive intermediates produced upon absorption of sunlight by surface waters. After more than two decades of research on the aquatic photochemistry of (3)CDOM*, the need for improving the knowledge about the photophysical and photochemical properties of these elusive reactive species remains considerable. This critical review examines the efforts to date to characterize (3)CDOM*. Information on (3)CDOM* relies mainly on the use of probe compounds because of the difficulties associated with directly observing (3)CDOM* using transient spectroscopic methods. Singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O2), which is a product of the reaction between (3)CDOM* and dissolved oxygen, is probably the simplest indicator that can be used to estimate steady-state concentrations of (3)CDOM*. There are two major modes of reaction of (3)CDOM* with substrates, namely triplet energy transfer or oxidation (via electron transfer, proton-coupled electron transfer or related mechanisms). Organic molecules, including several environmental contaminants, that are susceptible to degradation by these two different reaction modes are reviewed. It is proposed that through the use of appropriate sets of probe compounds and model photosensitizers an improved estimation of the distribution of triplet energies and one-electron reduction potentials of (3)CDOM* can be achieved.

  6. An in vitro screening with emerging contaminants reveals inhibition of carboxylesterase activity in aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Solé, Montserrat; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C


    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) form part of the new generation of pollutants present in many freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although environmental concentrations of these bioactive substances are low, they cause sublethal effects (e.g., enzyme inhibition) in non-target organisms. However, little is known on metabolism of PPCPs by non-mammal species. Herein, an in vitro enzyme trial was performed to explore sensitivity of carboxylesterase (CE) activity of aquatic organisms to fourteen PPCPs. The esterase activity was determined in the liver of Mediterranean freshwater fish (Barbus meridionalis and Squalius laietanus), coastal marine fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Solea solea), middle-slope fish (Trachyrhynchus scabrus), deep-sea fish (Alepocephalus rostratus and Cataetix laticeps), and in the digestive gland of a decapod crustacean (Aristeus antennatus). Results showed that 100μM of the lipid regulators simvastatin and fenofibrate significantly inhibited (30-80% of controls) the CE activity of all target species. Among the personal care products, nonylphenol and triclosan were strong esterase inhibitors in most species (36-68% of controls). Comparison with literature data suggests that fish CE activity is as sensitive to inhibition by some PPCPs as that of mammals, although their basal activity levels are lower than in mammals. Pending further studies on the interaction between PPCPs and CE activity, we postulate that this enzyme may act as a molecular sink for certain PPCPs in a comparable way than that described for the organophosphorus pesticides.

  7. Plastic as a carrier of POPs to aquatic organisms: a model analysis. (United States)

    Koelmans, Albert A; Besseling, Ellen; Wegner, Anna; Foekema, Edwin M


    It has been hypothesized that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in microplastic may pose a risk to aquatic organisms. Here we develop and analyze a conceptual model that simulates the effects of plastic on bioaccumulation of POPs. The model accounts for dilution of exposure concentration by sorption of POPs to plastic (POP "dilution"), increased bioaccumulation by ingestion of plastic-containing POPs ("carrier"), and decreased bioaccumulation by ingestion of clean plastic ("cleaning"). The model is parametrized for the lugworm Arenicola marina and evaluated against recently published bioaccumulation data for this species from laboratory bioassays with polystyrene microplastic. Further scenarios include polyethylene microplastic, nanosized plastic, and open marine systems. Model analysis shows that plastic with low affinity for POPs such as polystyrene will have a marginal decreasing effect on bioaccumulation, governed by dilution. For stronger sorbents such as polyethylene, the dilution, carrier, and cleaning mechanism are more substantial. In closed laboratory bioassay systems, dilution and cleaning dominate, leading to decreased bioaccumulation. Also in open marine systems a decrease is predicted due to a cleaning mechanism that counteracts biomagnification. However, the differences are considered too small to be relevant from a risk assessment perspective.

  8. Exploring how organic matter controls structural transformations in natural aquatic nanocolloidal dispersions. (United States)

    King, Stephen M; Jarvie, Helen P


    The response of the dispersion nanostructure of surface river bed sediment to the controlled removal and readdition of natural organic matter (NOM), in the absence and presence of background electrolyte, was examined using the technique of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Partial NOM removal induced aggregation of the mineral particles, but more extensive NOM removal restored colloidal stability. When peat humic acid (PHA) was added to a NOM-deficient sediment concentration-related structural transformations were observed: at 255 mg/L PHA aggregation of the nanocolloid was actually enhanced, but at 380 mg/L PHA disaggregation and colloidal stability were promoted. The addition of 2 mM CaCl(2) induced mild aggregation in the native sediment but not in sediments with added PHA, suggesting that the native NOM and the PHA respond differently to changes in ionic strength. A first attempt at using SANS to directly characterize the thickness and coverage of an adsorbed PHA layer in a natural nanocolloid is also presented. The results are discussed in the context of a hierarchical aquatic colloidal nanostructure, and the implications for contemporary studies of the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in sustaining the transport of colloidal iron in upland catchments.

  9. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lenaker, Peter L.; Lutz, Michelle A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Richards, Kevin D.


    Organic compounds used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewer overflows, among other sources. Concentrations of these organic waste compounds (OWCs) in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. During 2010–13, 709 water samples were collected at 57 tributaries, together representing approximately 41% of the total inflow to the lakes. Samples were collected during runoff and low-flow conditions and analyzed for 69 OWCs, including herbicides, insecticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plasticizers, antioxidants, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, non-prescription human drugs, flavors/fragrances, and dyes. Urban-related land cover characteristics were the most important explanatory variables of concentrations of many OWCs. Compared to samples from nonurban watersheds ( 15% urban land cover) had nearly four times the number of detected compounds and four times the total sample concentration, on average. Concentration differences between runoff and low-flow conditions were not observed, but seasonal differences were observed in atrazine, metolachlor, DEET, and HHCB concentrations. Water quality benchmarks for individual OWCs were exceeded at 20 sites, and at 7 sites benchmarks were exceeded by a factor of 10 or more. The compounds with the most frequent water quality benchmark exceedances were the PAHs benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene, the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol, and the herbicide atrazine. Computed estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) using only nonsteroidal endocrine-active compounds indicated medium to high risk of estrogenic effects (intersex or vitellogenin induction) at 10 sites. EEQs at 3 sites were comparable to values reported in effluent. This multifaceted study is the largest, most comprehensive assessment of the

  10. Reduction in toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms by vertical tubular biological reactor. (United States)

    Zhou, Siyun; Watanabe, Haruna; Wei, Chang; Wang, Dongzhou; Zhou, Jiti; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Masunaga, Shigeki; Zhang, Ying


    We conducted a battery of toxicity tests using photo bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish to evaluate acute toxicity profile of coking wastewater, and to evaluate the performance of a novel wastewater treatment process, vertical tubular biological reactor (VTBR), in the removal of toxicity and certain chemical pollutants. A laboratory scale VTBR system was set up to treat industrial coking wastewater, and investigated both chemicals removal efficiency and acute bio-toxicity to aquatic organisms. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol reductions by VTBR were approximately 93% and 100%, respectively. VTBR also reduced the acute toxicity of coking wastewater significantly: Toxicity Unit (TU) decreased from 21.2 to 0.4 for Photobacterium phosphoreum, from 9.5 to 0.6 for Isochrysis galbana, from 31.9 to 1.3 for Daphnia magna, and from 30.0 to nearly 0 for Danio rerio. VTBR is an efficient treatment method for the removal of chemical pollutants and acute bio-toxicity from coking wastewater.

  11. Analysis of aquatic-phase natural organic matter by optimized LDI-MS method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Renqi


    The composition and physiochemical properties of aquatic-phase natural organic matter (NOM) are most important problems for both environmental studies and water industry. Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry facilitated successful examinations of NOM, as humic and fulvic acids in NOM are readily ionized by the nitrogen laser. In this study, hydrophobic NOMs (HPO NOMs) from river, reservoir and waste water were characterized by this technique. The effect of analytical variables like concentration, solvent composition and laser energy was investigated. The exact masses of small molecular NOM moieties in the range of 200-1200 m/z were determined in reflectron mode. In addition, spectra of post-source-decay experiments in this range showed that some compounds from different natural NOMs had the same fragmental ions. In the large mass range of 1200-15 000 Da, macromolecules and their aggregates were found in HPO NOMs from natural waters. Highly humic HPO exhibited mass peaks larger than 8000 Da. On the other hand, the waste water and reservoir water mainly had relatively smaller molecules of about 2000 Da. The LDI-MS measurements indicated that highly humic river waters were able to form large aggregates and membrane foulants, while the HPO NOMs from waste water and reservoir water were unlikely to form large aggregates. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Environmental DNA sampling protocol - filtering water to capture DNA from aquatic organisms (United States)

    Laramie, Matthew B.; Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Strickler, Katherine M.


    Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is an effective method of determining the presence of aquatic organisms such as fish, amphibians, and other taxa. This publication is meant to guide researchers and managers in the collection, concentration, and preservation of eDNA samples from lentic and lotic systems. A sampling workflow diagram and three sampling protocols are included as well as a list of suggested supplies. Protocols include filter and pump assembly using: (1) a hand-driven vacuum pump, ideal for sample collection in remote sampling locations where no electricity is available and when equipment weight is a primary concern; (2) a peristaltic pump powered by a rechargeable battery-operated driver/drill, suitable for remote sampling locations when weight consideration is less of a concern; (3) a 120-volt alternating current (AC) powered peristaltic pump suitable for any location where 120-volt AC power is accessible, or for roadside sampling locations. Images and detailed descriptions are provided for each step in the sampling and preservation process.

  13. Ultraviolet irradiation effects incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.


    One of the concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet radiation for treatment of drinking water and wastewater is the fate of nitrate, particularly its photolysis to nitrite. In this study, 15N NMR was used to establish for the first time that UV irradiation effects the incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter (NOM). Irradiation of 15N-labeled nitrate in aqueous solution with an unfiltered medium pressure mercury lamp resulted in the incorporation of nitrogen into Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM) via nitrosation and other reactions over a range of pH from approximately 3.2 to 8.0, both in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, confirming photonitrosation of the NOM. The major forms of the incorporated label include nitrosophenol, oxime/nitro, pyridine, nitrile, and amide nitrogens. Natural organic matter also catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia on irradiation. The nitrosophenol and oxime/nitro nitrogens were found to be susceptible to photodegradation on further irradiation when nitrate was removed from the system. At pH 7.5, unfiltered irradiation resulted in the incorporation of 15N-labeled nitrite into SRNOM in the form of amide, nitrile, and pyridine nitrogen. In the presence of bicarbonate at pH 7.4, Pyrex filtered (cutoff below 290–300 nm) irradiation also effected incorporation of nitrite into SRNOM as amide nitrogen. We speculate that nitrosation of NOM from the UV irradiation of nitrate also leads to production of nitrogen gas and nitrous oxide, a process that may be termed photo-chemodenitrification. Irradiation of SRNOM alone resulted in transformation or loss of naturally abundant heterocyclic nitrogens.

  14. Removal of high organic loads from winery wastewater by aquatic plants. (United States)

    Zimmels, Y; Kirzhner, F; Schreiber, J


    Laboratory- and field-scale purification tests of raw and diluted winery wastewater (WWW) were carried out using aquatic plants at high organic loads. The laboratory tests were performed using artificial light at 1800 to 1900 lux. The objective of the current study was to define the potential of floating and emergent aquatic macrophytes and the microorganisms attached to their roots, to reduce high organic loads that characterize WWW, thereby providing, for these effluents, an effective treatment and management system. These microorganisms are believed to have a major role in the treatment process. In this context, the potential of floating and emergent macrophytes to improve the water quality of raw compared with diluted WWW was evaluated. In raw WWW (chemical oxygen demand [COD] 5.6 g/L),growth inhibition of both water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) was observed. A 1:1 dilution of WWW with fresh (tap) water facilitated growth of these plants. At this dilution level, growth of pennywort was limited, while that of water hyacinth was robust. In terms of reductions in biochemical oxygen demand, COD, and total suspended solids, both water hyacinth and pennywort performed better in diluted compared with raw WWW. At 1:1 and 1:3 dilution, 95.9 to 97% of the COD was removed after 23 days, in the presence of Hydrocotyle and Eichhornia plants and aeration. The capacity of new emergent plants to remove high organic loads from WWW, at enhanced kinetics, was demonstrated. This unique property was tested and compared with the role of the gravel media that support growth of the high-capacity emergent plants. In the presence of reed and salt marsh plants, 83 to 99% of the COD was removed within a period of 24 to 29 days, at 1.5:1 dilution. The new emergent plants proved to be effective, even at record high levels of COD. At an initial level of 16,460 mg/L, the COD was brought down to 2870 mg/L after 24 days (82.6% removal), while 12

  15. Ecological Dose Modeling of Aquatic and Riparian Receptors to Strontium-90 with an Emphasis on Radiosensitive Organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, Ted M.; Traub, Richard J.; Antonio, Ernest J.


    The 100-NR-2 site is the location of elevated releases of strontium-90 to the Columbia River via contaminated groundwater. The resulting dose to aquatic and riparian receptors was evaluated in 2005 (DOE 2009) and compared to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) dose guidance values. We have conducted additional dose assessments for a broader spectrum of aquatic and riparian organisms using RESRAD Biota and specific exposure scenarios. Because strontium-90 accumulates in bone, we have also modeled the dose to the anterior kidney, a blood-forming and immune system organ that lies close to the spinal column of fish. The resulting dose is primarily attributable to the yttrium-90 progeny of strontium-90 and very little of the dose is associated with the beta emission from strontium-90. All dose modeling results were calculated with an assumption of secular equilibrium between strontium-90 and yttrum-90.

  16. Uptake and toxic effects of surface modified nanomaterials in freshwater aquatic organisms (United States)

    Seda, Brandon Casey

    Nanomaterials are a class of materials with unique properties due to their size, and the association of these properties with the toxicity of nanomaterials is poorly understood. The present study assessed the toxic effects of stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of three distinctly different classes of nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. The fullerene, C70, was stabilized through non-covalent surface modification with gallic acid. Toxicity of C70-gallic acid was confirmed to exhibit similar toxic effects as C60-fullerene, including changes in antioxidative processes in Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna fecundity was significantly reduced in 21d bioassays at C70-gallic concentrations below quantifiable limits (0.03 mg/L C70). Antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as well as lipid peroxidation suggested that exposed organisms experienced oxidative stress. Carbon dots are a class of nanomaterials proposed for use as nontoxic alternatives to semiconductor quantum dots for photoluminescent applications, because of the difference in toxicity of their core components: carbon as opposed to heavy metals. In vivo analysis of treated organisms by confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed carbon dots were absorbed and systemically distributed regardless of particle size. The present study did not find any evidence of acute toxicity at concentrations up to 10mg/L carbon dots. These concentrations also failed to produce negative effects in Ceriodaphnia dubia bioassays to predict chronic toxicity. Carbon dots also failed to elicit developmental toxic effects in zebrafish. The toxic effects of semiconductor quantum dots have been partially attributed to the release of heavy metals with their degradation, particularly cadmium. Laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry was used to compare the uptake of cadmium, selenium and zinc in Daphnia magna treated to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots or CdCl2. These quantum dots were observed to accumulate

  17. Development of polar organic integrative samplers for analysis of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems. (United States)

    Togola, Anne; Budzinski, Hélène


    Integrative passive sampling is a new approach developed for environmental monitoring. Nowadays, the evaluations of pollution level are obtained by important sampling campaigns using spot samplings that give a snapshot of the aquatic system contamination state. An alternative way is to achieve a time weighted average concentration using passive samplers. The use of polar organic chemical integrative sampling (POCIS) has been recently documented for the detection of pharmaceuticals in the environment (Alvarez, D.; Petty, J. D.; Huckins, J. N.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Getting, D. T.; Goddard, J. P.; Manahan, S. E. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2004, 23, 1640-1648 (ref 1). Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.; Petty, J. D.; Huckins, J. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2004, 47, 427-739 (ref 2). Petty, J. D.; Huckins, J. N.; Alvarez, D.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Cranor, W. L.; Gale, R. W.; Rastall, A. C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T. J.; Rostad, C. E.; Furlong, E. T. Chemosphere 2004, 54, 695-705 (ref 3)). There is a need for laboratory data to extend the use of this type of tool to new compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the sampling rates (Rs; expressed as effective volumes of water extracted daily) of POCIS devices for 14 pharmaceuticals in several conditions of temperature, salinity, and analyte concentration. These values are influenced by significant changes in water temperature and salinity. Overall, POCIS Rs values were independent from aqueous concentrations. After laboratory experiments, an environmental field study has been performed, implementing POCIS devices in the Seine estuary (North Atlantic coast of France) and testing the qualitative and quantitative application of POCIS devices on the contaminated system. The suitability of the devices for monitoring multiple media under a wide range of environmental conditions has also been discussed. The uniformity or reproducibility of the sampling matrix and, on the other hand, the ability to detect compounds at low

  18. Revisiting the concept of recalcitrance and organic matter persistence in soils and aquatic systems: Does environment trump chemistry? (United States)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.


    Most ecological models of decomposition rely on plant litter chemistry. However, growing evidence suggests that the chemical composition of organic matter (OM) is not a good predictor of its eventual fate in terrestrial or aquatic environments. New data on variable decomposition rates of select organic compounds challenge concepts of chemical recalcitrance, i.e. the inherent ability of certain molecular structures to resist biodegradation. The role of environmental or "ecosystem" properties on influencing decomposition dates back to some of the earliest research on soil OM. Despite early recognition that the physical and aqueous matrices are critical in determining the fate of organic compounds, the prevailing paradigm hinges on intrinsic chemical properties as principal predictors of decay rate. Here I build upon recent reviews and discuss new findings that contribute to three major transformations in our understanding of OM persistence: (1) a shift away from an emphasis on chemical recalcitrance as a primary predictor of turnover, (2) new interpretations of radiocarbon ages which challenge predictions of reactivity, and (3) the recognition that most detrital OM accumulating in soils and in water has been microbially processed. Predictions of OM persistence due to aromaticity are challenged by high variability in lignin and black C turnover observed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Contradictions in the behavior of lignin are, in part, influenced by inconsistent methodologies among research communities. Even black C, long considered to be one of the most recalcitrant components of OM, is susceptible to biodegradation, challenging predictions of the stability of aromatic structures. At the same time, revised interpretations of radiocarbon data suggest that organic compounds can acquire long mean residence times by various mechanisms independent of their molecular structure. Understanding interactions between environmental conditions and biological

  19. Toxicological assessment of indium nitrate on aquatic organisms and investigation of the effects on the PLHC-1 fish cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurita, Jorge L. [National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences, Av. Dr Fedriani s/n, 41009, Seville (Spain); Jos, Angeles [Area of Toxicology, University of Seville, Prof. Garcia Gonzalez 2, 41012, Seville (Spain); Peso, Ana del; Salguero, Manuel [National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences, Av. Dr Fedriani s/n, 41009, Seville (Spain); Camean, Ana M. [Area of Toxicology, University of Seville, Prof. Garcia Gonzalez 2, 41012, Seville (Spain); Lopez-Artiguez, Miguel [National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences, Av. Dr Fedriani s/n, 41009, Seville (Spain); Repetto, Guillermo [National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences, Av. Dr Fedriani s/n, 41009, Seville (Spain); Area of Toxicology, University of Seville, Prof. Garcia Gonzalez 2, 41012, Seville (Spain)], E-mail:


    Indium nitrate is mainly used as a semiconductor in batteries, for plating and other chemical and medical applications. There is a lack of available information about the adverse effects of indium compounds on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the toxic effects on systems from four trophic levels of the aquatic ecosystem were investigated. Firstly, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the alga Chlorella vulgaris and the cladoceran Daphnia magna were used in the toxicological evaluation of indium nitrate. The most sensitive model was V. fischeri, with a NOAEL of 0.02 and an EC{sub 50} of 0.04 mM at 15 min. Although indium nitrate should be classified as harmful to aquatic organisms, it is not expected to represent acute risk to the aquatic biota. Secondly, PLHC-1 fish cell line was employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of toxicity. Although protein content, neutral red uptake, methylthiazol metabolization, lysosomal function and acetylcholinesterase activity were reduced in cells, stimulations were observed for metallothionein levels and succinate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. No changes were observed in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. To clarify the main events in PLHC-1 cell death induced by indium nitrate, nine modulators were applied. They were related to oxidative stress ({alpha}-tocopherol succinate, mannitol and sodium benzoate), disruption of calcium homeostasis (BAPTA-AM and EGTA), thiol protection (1,4-dithiotreitol), iron chelation (deferoxiamine) or regulation of glutathione levels (2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and malic acid diethyl ester). The main morphological alterations were hydropic degeneration and loss of cells. At least, in partly, toxicity seems to be mediated by oxidative stress, and particularly by NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation.

  20. Toxicological assessment of indium nitrate on aquatic organisms and investigation of the effects on the PLHC-1 fish cell line. (United States)

    Zurita, Jorge L; Jos, Angeles; del Peso, Ana; Salguero, Manuel; Cameán, Ana M; López-Artíguez, Miguel; Repetto, Guillermo


    Indium nitrate is mainly used as a semiconductor in batteries, for plating and other chemical and medical applications. There is a lack of available information about the adverse effects of indium compounds on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the toxic effects on systems from four trophic levels of the aquatic ecosystem were investigated. Firstly, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the alga Chlorella vulgaris and the cladoceran Daphnia magna were used in the toxicological evaluation of indium nitrate. The most sensitive model was V. fischeri, with a NOAEL of 0.02 and an EC(50) of 0.04 mM at 15 min. Although indium nitrate should be classified as harmful to aquatic organisms, it is not expected to represent acute risk to the aquatic biota. Secondly, PLHC-1 fish cell line was employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of toxicity. Although protein content, neutral red uptake, methylthiazol metabolization, lysosomal function and acetylcholinesterase activity were reduced in cells, stimulations were observed for metallothionein levels and succinate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. No changes were observed in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. To clarify the main events in PLHC-1 cell death induced by indium nitrate, nine modulators were applied. They were related to oxidative stress (alpha-tocopherol succinate, mannitol and sodium benzoate), disruption of calcium homeostasis (BAPTA-AM and EGTA), thiol protection (1,4-dithiotreitol), iron chelation (deferoxiamine) or regulation of glutathione levels (2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and malic acid diethyl ester). The main morphological alterations were hydropic degeneration and loss of cells. At least, in partly, toxicity seems to be mediated by oxidative stress, and particularly by NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation.

  1. The Life Cycle of Mercury Within the Clear Lake Aquatic Ecosystem: From Ore to Organism (United States)

    Suchanek, T. H.; Suchanek, T. H.; Nelson, D. C.; Nelson, D. C.; Zierenberg, R. A.; King, P.; King, P.; McElroy, K.; McElroy, K.


    Clear Lake (Lake County) is located in the geologically active Clear Lake volcanics mercury (Hg) bearing Franciscan formation within the Coast Range of California, which includes over 300 abandoned Hg mines and prospects. Intermittent mining at the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (from 1872-1957), now a USEPA SuperFund site, has resulted in approximately 100 metric tonnes of Hg being deposited into the aquatic ecosystem of Clear Lake, with sediment concentrations of total-Hg as high as 650 mg/kg (parts per million = ppm) near the mine, making Clear Lake one of the most Hg contaminated lakes in the world. As a result, largemouth bass and other top predatory fish species often exceed both the Federal USFDA recommended maximum recommended concentrations of 1.0 ppm and the State of California level of 0.5 ppm. Acid rock drainage leaches Hg and high concentrations of sulfate from the mine site through wasterock and subsurface conduits through subsediment advection and eventually upward diffusion into lake sediments and water. When mineral-laden pH 3 fluids from the mine mix with Clear Lake water (pH 8), an alumino-silicate precipitate (floc) is produced that promotes the localized production of toxic methyl Hg. Floc "hot spots" in sediments near the mine exhibit low pH, high sulfate, anoxia and high organic loading which create conditions that promote Hg methylation by microbial activity, especially in late summer and fall. Wind-driven currents transport methyl-Hg laden floc particles throughout Clear Lake, where they are consumed by plankton and benthic invertebrates and bioaccumulated throughout the food web. While Clear Lake biota have elevated concentrations of methyl-Hg, they are not as elevated as might be expected based on the total Hg loading into the lake. A science-based management approach, utilizing over 10 years of data collected on Hg cycling within the physical and biological compartments of Clear Lake, is necessary to affect a sensible remediation plan.

  2. Aquatic Organisms and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria Associated with Their Digestive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Šyvokienė


    Full Text Available Laboratory investigation was carried out on the abundance and composition of bacteria in the digestive system of a total of 35 specimens, including bivalve molluscs, i.e. swan mussel Anodonta cygnea (Linnaeus, 1758 from Lake Spėra (Širvintos district and swollen river mussel Unio tumidus (Philipson, 1788 from the Curonian Lagoon near Juodkrantė, zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha from the Curonian Lagoon near Juodkrantė and an anostracan – Chirocephalus josephinae (Grube, 1853 from a pond in Ilčiukai village, Utena district, and in the water of related water bodies. Studies on bivalve molluscs (swan mussel and swollen river mussel, zebra mussel and an anostracan – Chirocephalus josephinae, as well as microbiological investigation of water demonstrated that the number of microorganisms in the digestive system of mollusc and anostracan species fluctuated and varied between different species and water bodies. The greatest percentage of HDB among total heterotrophic bacteria was found in the digestive system of swollen river mussels (21.53% and in zebra mussels (19.99% caught in the Curonian Lagoon and in the water of the lagoon (24%. A considerably smaller percentage of HDB was detected in the digestive system of swan mussels from Lake Spėra (17.6% and in the water of the lake (16.66%. The smallest percentage of HDB was found in the digestive system of Chirocephalus josephinae (6.63% and in the water of the Ilčiukai pond (2.72%. According to the values of abundance of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB and total coliform bacteria (TCFB in the digestive system of aquatic organisms we can state that the water ecosystem of Ilčiukai pond was the least contaminated with petroleum, its products and sewage water, and the Curonian Lagoon water ecosystem was the most contaminated. Abundance of petroleum hydrocarbons degrading bacteria could be used as a bioindicator reflecting the level of ecosystem pollution petroleum and its

  3. β-blockers as endocrine disruptors: the potential effects of human β-blockers on aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Massarsky, Andrey; Trudeau, Vance L; Moon, Thomas W


    β-Adrenergic blockers or β-blockers have been used therapeutically to treat human hypertension since the late 1960s. The global market value and prescription rates of β-blockers keep rising substantially each year, and over the past decade the number of prescriptions has doubled. The widespread use of β-blockers has resulted in their appearance in the aquatic environment originating primarily from sewage effluents. The objective of this review is to analyze the literature as a means to determine the endocrine-disrupting potential of β-blockers in aquatic organisms. The mammalian adrenergic system is compared with the adrenergic system of fish and the homologous octopaminergic system in aquatic invertebrates, in particular mollusks. The structure and functions of these systems are linked to the molecular similarities between adrenoceptors and the octopaminergic/tyraminergic receptors, the various catecholamine molecules (epinephrine, norepinephrine, octopamine, and tyramine), and the processes controlled. Knowledge of these similarities as well as the effects of β-blockers, mainly in humans, is then used to create a broad picture of the endocrine-disrupting potential of β-blockers, particularly during the stress response. The main conclusion is that β-blockers have endocrine-disrupting effects.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in the Olifants River Basin, South Africa: Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer through a subtropical aquatic food web. (United States)

    Verhaert, Vera; Newmark, Nadine; D'Hollander, Wendy; Covaci, Adrian; Vlok, Wynand; Wepener, Victor; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Jooste, Antoinette; Teuchies, Johannes; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven


    This study investigates the trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: PCBs, PBDEs, OCPs and PFASs) in the subtropical aquatic ecosystem of the Olifants River Basin (South Africa) by means of trophic magnification factors (TMFs). Relative trophic levels were determined by stable isotope analysis. POP levels in surface water, sediment and biota were low. Only ∑DDTs levels in fish muscle (contaminants through the food web. TMFs were >1, indicating biomagnification of all detected POPs. Calculated TMFs for PCBs were comparable to TMF values reported from the tropical Congo River basin and lower than TMFs from temperate and arctic regions. For p,p'-DDT, a higher TMF value was observed for the subtropical Olifants River during the winter low flow season than for the tropical Congo river. TMFs of DDTs from the present study were unexpectedly higher than TMFs from temperate and arctic aquatic food webs. The fish species in the aquatic ecosystem of the Olifants River can be consumed with a low risk for POP contamination.

  5. Morphological evolution and reconstruction of silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments: The roles of natural organic matter and light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Junpeng [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Zhang, Hongwu, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Research Center for Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China)


    Highlights: • In the dark, AgNPs formed chain-like structures through bridging effects with NOM. • NOM decelerated the photoreaction of AgNPs but did not stop the photoconversion. • Under extended irradiation, NOM substituted for citrate as a stabilizer. • In different aquatic systems AgNPs would suffer distinct environmental behavior. - Abstract: With the proliferation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), their potential entry into the environment has attracted increasing concern. Although photochemical transformation is an important fate of AgNPs in aquatic environments due to their strong light absorption, little is known about the evolution and transformation mechanisms of AgNPs. This study investigated the morphological evolution and reconstruction of AgNPs during photoconversion in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). In the dark, the AgNPs formed chain-like structures through bridging effects with NOM at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L, and the proportion of Ag{sup +} in solution in the presence of 10 mg/L NOM was reduced by roughly half compared with that in the absence of NOM. Under irradiation, NOM participated in the photoreaction of AgNPs and can decelerate the photoreaction of AgNPs via several mechanisms, including light attenuation, the formation of a NOM coating, and competing with Ag for photons. Additionally, NOM can substitute for citrate as a stabilizing agent to compensate for the loss of AgNP stability due to citrate mineralization under extended irradiation, producing stable triangular nanosilver in aquatic environments. This study sheds light on the behavioral differences of AgNPs in different aquatic systems, which create uncertainties and difficulties in assessing the environmental risks of AgNPs.

  6. The fate of eroded soil organic carbon along a European transect – controls after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten;

    on the fate of SOC such as amounts and composition of soil organic matter (SOM), distribution of SOC in density fractions and aggregates as well as soil physical and chemical properties. NMR analysis provided an in-depth characterization of SOM quality, showing large similarities in chemical composition among...... of eroded SOC takes place on downslope soils within the catchment and in adjacent inland waters, i.e. substantial amounts of SOC are transferred from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. However, the net effect on C exchange between soils, atmosphere and inland waters is unknown. We hypothesize...

  7. Hydroecology of Intermittent and Ephemeral Streams: Will Landscape Connectivity Sustain Aquatic Organisms in a Changing Climate? (United States)


    applicability to a broad spectrum of time periods relevant to aquatic biota of choice (i.e. aspects that define functional connectivity) that varies widely...processes (Waples and Gaggiotti 2006). Secondary contact after removal of a historical barrier may manifest as a cryptic genetic signal unrelated to...brachypterous; their wings are small and ineffective for flight, whereas females have larger, functional wings (Jacobi & Cary 1996). The presumed

  8. Toxicity of Military Unique Compounds in Aquatic Organisms: An Annotated Bibliography (Studies Published Through 1996) (United States)


    Biochemistry/Air Pollution/Soil Pollutants/Water. Haley, M. V., Checkai, R. T., Kurnas , C. W., and Wentsel, R. S. Toxicity Determination of Explosive...Membranes/Metals/Operations/Residues/Sites/Soil Surveys/ Toxicity/Water/Hazardous Materials/Contamination/Explosives/ Response. Haley, M. V., and Kurnas ... Kurnas , C. W., Chester, N. A., and Muse, W. T. Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontamination Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution. Giveth

  9. Exposures of aquatic organisms to the organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos resulting from use in the United States. (United States)

    Williams, W Martin; Giddings, Jeffrey M; Purdy, John; Solomon, Keith R; Giesy, John P


    Concentrations of CPY in surface waters are an integral determinant of risk to aquatic organisms. CPY has been measured in surface waters of the U.S. in several environmental monitoring programs and these data were evaluated to characterize concentrations, in relation to major areas of use and changes to the label since 2001, particularly the removal of domestic uses. Frequencies of detection and 95th centile concentrations of CPY decreased more than fivefold between 1992 and 2010. Detections in 1992-2001 ranged from 10.2 to 53%, while 2002-2010 detections ranged from 7 to 11%. The 95th centile concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 0.056 j.lg L -I in 1992-2001 and 0.006-0.008 j.lg L -I in 2002-2010.The greatest frequency of detections occurred in samples from undeveloped and agricultural land-use classes. Samples from urban and mixed land-use classes had the smallest frequency of detections and 95th centile concentrations, consistent with the cessation of most homeowner uses in 2001. The active metabolite of CPY, CPYO, was not detected frequently or in large concentrations. In 10,375 analyses from several sampling programs conducted between 1999 and 2012, only 25 detections (0.24% of samples) of CPYO were reported and estimated concentrations were less than the LOQ.Although the monitoring data on CPY provide relevant insight in quantifying the range of concentrations in surface waters, few monitoring programs have sampled at a frequency sufficient to quantify the time-series pattern of exposure. Therefore,numerical simulations were used to characterize concentrations of CPY in water and sediment for three representative high exposure environments in the U.S. Thefate of CPY in the environment is dependent on a number of dissipation and degradation processes. In terms of surface waters, fate in soils is a major driver of the potential for runoff into surface waters and results from a number of dissipation studies in the laboratory were characterized. Aerobic

  10. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus. (United States)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H J H; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N


    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  11. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  12. Guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR


    Full Text Available EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR was tasked to revise the Guidance Document (GD on Aquatic Ecotoxicology under Council Directive 91/414/EEC (SANCO/3268/2001 rev.4 (final, 17 October 2002. This Guidance of the PPR Panel is the first of three requested deliverables within this mandate. It has its focus on tiered acute and chronic effect assessment schemes with detailed guidance on tier 1 and higher tier effect assessments for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters and on proposals regarding how to link effects to exposure estimates. The exposure assessment methodology was not reviewed and it is assumed that the current FOCUS surface water exposure assessment methodology will continue to be used for exposure assessment at EU level. The current GD is intended to be used for authorisation of active substances at EU level as well as for plant protection products at Member State level. The effect assessment schemes in this GD allow for the derivation of regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs on the basis of two options: (1 the ecological threshold option (ETO, accepting negligible population effects only, and (2 the ecological recovery option (ERO, accepting some population-level effects if ecological recovery takes place within an acceptable time period. In the tiered effect assessment schemes, in principle, all tiers (1, 2 and 3 are able to address the ETO, while the model ecosystem approach (tier 3, under certain conditions, is able to also address the ERO. The GD provides the scientific background for the risk assessment to aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters and is structured to give detailed guidance on all assessment steps. An executive summary joining all parts of the guidance and decision schemes in a concise way is provided and is intended to help applicants and regulatory authorities in day-to-day use.

  13. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G. [McNeese State Univ., Lake Charles, LA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Science


    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  14. Scoping assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and wildlife -- N Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Soldat, J.K.


    Estimated does rates were determined for endemic biota inhabiting the N Springs area based primarily on spring water data collected from the first 6 months of 1991. Radiological dose estimates were computed from measured values of specific radionuclides and modeled levels of radionuclides using established computer codes. The highest doses were predicted in hypothetical populations of clams, fish-eating ducks, and rabbits. The calculated dose estimates did not exceed 1 rad/d, an administrative dose rate established by the US Department of Energy for the protection of native aquatic biota. An administrative dose rate has not been established for terrestrial wildlife.

  15. Scoping assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and wildlife -- N Springs. [N Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Soldat, J.K.


    Estimated does rates were determined for endemic biota inhabiting the N Springs area based primarily on spring water data collected from the first 6 months of 1991. Radiological dose estimates were computed from measured values of specific radionuclides and modeled levels of radionuclides using established computer codes. The highest doses were predicted in hypothetical populations of clams, fish-eating ducks, and rabbits. The calculated dose estimates did not exceed 1 rad/d, an administrative dose rate established by the US Department of Energy for the protection of native aquatic biota. An administrative dose rate has not been established for terrestrial wildlife.

  16. Ag nanoparticles: size- and surface-dependent effects on model aquatic organisms and uptake evaluation with NanoSIMS. (United States)

    Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Balachandran, Yekkuni L; Rosenkranz, Philipp; Dusinska, Maria; Lankoff, Anna; Wojewodzka, Maria; Kruszewski, Marcin; Guignard, Cédric; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Girija, Shanmugam; Hoffmann, Lucien; Gutleb, Arno C


    This study aims to assess the effects of Ag particles synthesised by a chemical (Ag 20, 200 nm) and biological method (Ag 23, 27 nm) in aquatic organisms: the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the alga Desmodesmus subspicatus and the crustacean Daphnia magna. Ag particles exerted toxic effects in all organisms studied with Ag particles 23 nm being the most potent. Although soluble Ag was released in all media, the differences between the tested Ag particles still cannot be explained solely based on soluble Ag. NanoSIMS analysis performed with D. magna showed that apart from their localisation in the gut lumen, Ag 200 nm and Ag NPs 23 nm seemed to pass through the epithelial barrier as well. Ag NPs 23 nm localised in specific areas seemed to be within the ovaries. This study strengthens the argument that size, method of synthesis as well as surface chemistry may affect the uptake and toxic effects of Ag NPs.

  17. Natural origin arsenic in aquatic organisms from a deep oligotrophic lake under the influence of volcanic eruptions. (United States)

    Juncos, Romina; Arcagni, Marina; Rizzo, Andrea; Campbell, Linda; Arribére, María; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro


    Volcanic eruptions are recognized sources of toxic elements to freshwater, including arsenic (As). In order to study the short term changes in the bioaccumulation of naturally occurring As by aquatic organisms in Lake Nahuel Huapi (Argentina), located close to the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (PCCVC), we described As concentrations at different trophic levels and food web transfer patterns in three sites of the lake prior to the last PCCVC eruption (June 2011), and compared As concentrations in biota before and after the eruption. The highest As concentrations and greater variations both between sites and position in the water column, were observed in phytoplankton (3.9-64.8 µg g(-1) dry weight, DW) and small zooplankton (4.3-22.3 µg g(-1) DW). The pattern of As accumulation in aquatic organisms (whole body or muscle) was: primary producers (phytoplankton) > scrapper mollusks (9.3-15.3 µg g(-1) DW) > filter feeding mollusks (5.4-15.6 µg g(-1) DW) > omnivorous invertebrates (0.4-9.2 µg g(-1) DW) > zooplankton (1.2-3.5 µg g(-1) DW) > fish (0.2-1.9 µg g(-1) DW). We observed As biodilution in the whole food web, and in salmonids food chains, feeding on fish prey; but biomagnification in the food chain of creole perch, feeding on benthic crayfish. The impact of the 2011 PCCVC eruption on the As levels of biota was more evident in pelagic-associated organisms (zooplankton and planktivorous fish), but only in the short term, suggesting a brief high bioavailability of As in water after ash deposition. In benthic organisms As variations likely responded to shift in diet due to coverage of the littoral zone with ashes.

  18. Chemical attributes, total organic carbon stock and humified fractions of organic matter soil submitted to different systems of sugarcane management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset


    Full Text Available Mechanized harvesting maintenance of trash from cane sugar and soil application of waste as vinasse and filter cake can improve the system of crop yield. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in the chemical, the stock of total organic carbon and humified organic matter fractions in an Oxisol cultivated with cane sugar with the following management systems: with sugarcane vinasse application (CCV, without application of burnt cane waste (CQS, with burnt cane vinasse application (CQV, with application of burnt cane filter cake (CQTF and burnt cane with joint application of vinasse and filter cake (CQVTF. For reference we used an area of natural vegetation (NV, Cerrado sensu stricto. Treatment CQVTF showed improvement in soil chemical properties, increased inventory levels of total organic carbon – TOC (values ranging from 21.28 to 40.02 Mg ha-1 and humified fractions of soil organic matter in relation to other treatments. The CQS area at a depth of 0-0.05 m, showed the greatest losses of soil TOC stocks (56.3% compared to NV. The adoption of management presented CCV and chemical attributes of the soil TOC stocks equivalent to those observed in areas with CQV CQTF and despite the short period of adoption (3 years. The TOC correlated with the sum of bases (r = 0.76 **, cation exchange capacity (r = 0.59 ** and base saturation (r = 0.63 **, while the humic acids (r = 0.40 ** fulvic acids (r = 0.49 ** and humin (r = 0.59 ** correlated with the cation exchange capacity of the soil. These results indicate that the preservation of trash in the management of cane sugar added to the application of vinasse and filter cake increases the TOC stocks promoting improvement in soil chemical properties.

  19. Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing. (United States)

    Carstens, Keri; Anderson, Jennifer; Bachman, Pamela; De Schrijver, Adinda; Dively, Galen; Federici, Brian; Hamer, Mick; Gielkens, Marco; Jensen, Peter; Lamp, William; Rauschen, Stefan; Ridley, Geoff; Romeis, Jörg; Waggoner, Annabel


    Environmental risk assessments (ERA) support regulatory decisions for the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance for ERA of GM crops in aquatic ecosystems is not as well-defined. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how comprehensive problem formulation can be used to develop a conceptual model and to identify potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study. Within problem formulation, the insecticidal trait, the crop, the receiving environment, and protection goals were characterized, and a conceptual model was developed to identify routes through which aquatic organisms may be exposed to insecticidal proteins in maize tissue. Following a tiered approach for exposure assessment, worst-case exposures were estimated using standardized models, and factors mitigating exposure were described. Based on exposure estimates, shredders were identified as the functional group most likely to be exposed to insecticidal proteins. However, even using worst-case assumptions, the exposure of shredders to Bt maize was low and studies supporting the current risk assessments were deemed adequate. Determining if early tier toxicity studies are necessary to inform the risk assessment for a specific GM crop should be done on a case by case basis, and should be guided by thorough problem formulation and exposure assessment. The processes used to develop the Bt maize case study are intended to serve as a model for performing risk assessments on future traits and crops.

  20. Estimation of the Risks of Collision or Strike to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Resulting from Operation of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL


    Hydrokinetic energy technologies have been proposed as renewable, environmentally preferable alternatives to fossil fuels for generation of electricity. Hydrokinetic technologies harness the energy of water in motion, either from waves, tides or from river currents. For energy capture from free-flowing rivers, arrays of rotating devices are most commonly proposed. The placement of hydrokinetic devices in large rivers is expected to increase the underwater structural complexity of river landscapes. Moore and Gregory (1988) found that structural complexity increased local fish populations because fish and other aquatic biota are attracted to structural complexity that provides microhabitats with steep flow velocity gradients (Liao 2007). However, hydrokinetic devices have mechanical parts, blades, wings or bars that move through the water column, posing a potential strike or collision risk to fish and other aquatic biota. Furthermore, in a setting with arrays of hydrokinetic turbines the cumulative effects of multiple encounters may increase the risk of strike. Submerged structures associated with a hydrokinetic (HK) project present a collision risk to aquatic organisms and diving birds (Cada et al. 2007). Collision is physical contact between a device or its pressure field and an organism that may result in an injury to that organism (Wilson et al. 2007). Collisions can occur between animals and fixed submerged structures, mooring equipment, horizontal or vertical axis turbine rotors, and structures that, by their individual design or in combination, may form traps. This report defines strike as a special case of collision where a moving part, such as a rotor blade of a HK turbine intercepts the path of an organism of interest, resulting in physical contact with the organism. The severity of a strike incidence may range from minor physical contact with no adverse effects to the organism to severe strike resulting in injury or death of the organism. Harmful effects

  1. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation, (United States)

    Objectives. This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Approach/Activities. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive sampler uptake...

  2. Wastewater treatment plant effluent as a source of microplastics: review of the fate, chemical interactions and potential risks to aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L


    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been identified as a potential source of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Microplastics have recently been detected in wastewater effluent in Western Europe, Russia and the USA. As there are only a handful of studies on microplastics in wastewater, it is difficult to accurately determine the contribution of wastewater effluent as a source of microplastics. However, even the small amounts of microplastics detected in wastewater effluent may be a remarkable source given the large volumes of wastewater treatment effluent discharged to the aquatic environment annually. Further, there is strong evidence that microplastics can interact with wastewater-associated contaminants, which has the potential to transport chemicals to aquatic organisms after exposure to contaminated microplastics. In this review we apply lessons learned from the literature on microplastics in the aquatic environment and knowledge on current wastewater treatment technologies, with the aim of identifying the research gaps in terms of (i) the fate of microplastics in WWTPs, (ii) the potential interaction of wastewater-based microplastics with trace organic contaminants and metals, and (iii) the risk for aquatic organisms.

  3. Experimental insights into the importance of aquatic bacterial community composition to the degradation of dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logue, J.B.; Stedmon, Colin; Kellerman, A.M.


    Bacteria play a central role in the cycling of carbon, yet our understanding of the relationship between the taxonomic composition and the degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still poor. In this experimental study, we were able to demonstrate a direct link between community composition...... and ecosystem functioning in that differently structured aquatic bacterial communities differed in their degradation of terrestrially derived DOM. Although the same amount of carbon was processed, both the temporal pattern of degradation and the compounds degraded differed among communities. We, moreover......, uncovered that low-molecular-weight carbon was available to all communities for utilisation, whereas the ability to degrade carbon of greater molecular weight was a trait less widely distributed. Finally, whereas the degradation of either low- or high-molecular-weight carbon was not restricted to a single...

  4. Ecotoxicological evaluation of sodium fluoroacetate on aquatic organisms and investigation of the effects on two fish cell lines. (United States)

    Zurita, Jorge L; Jos, Angeles; Cameán, Ana M; Salguero, Manuel; López-Artíguez, Miguel; Repetto, Guillermo


    Sodium monofluoroacetate (compound 1080) is one of the most potent pesticides. It is also a metabolite of many other fluorinated compounds, including anticancer agents, narcotic analgesics, pesticides or industrial chemicals. Other sources of water contamination are the atmospheric degradation of hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. However, there is little information available about the adverse effects of sodium fluoroacetate in aquatic organisms. Firstly, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri (decomposer), the alga Chlorella vulgaris (1st producer) and the cladoceran Daphnia magna (1st consumer) were used for the ecotoxicological evaluation of SMFA. The most sensitive models were C. vulgaris and D. magna, with a NOAEL of 0.1 and an EC50 of 0.5 mM at 72 h, respectively. According to the results after the acute exposure and due to its high biodegradation rate and low bioaccumulation potential, sodium fluoroacetate is most unlikely to produce deleterious effects to aquatic organisms. Secondly, two fish cell lines were employed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of toxicity in tissues from 2nd consumers. The hepatoma fish cell line PLHC-1 was more sensitive to SMFA than the fibroblast-like fish cell line RTG-2, being the uptake of neutral red the most sensitive bioindicator. Lysosomal function, succinate dehydrogenase and acetylcholinesterase activities were inhibited, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was particularly stimulated, and metallothionein and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase levels were not modified. Intense hydropic degeneration, macrovesicular steatosis and death mainly by necrosis but also by apoptosis were observed. Moreover, sulphydryl groups and oxidative stress could be involved in PLHC-1 cell death induced by SMFA more than changes in calcium homeostasis.

  5. Polyvinylpyrrolidone and arsenic-induced changes in biological responses of model aquatic organisms exposed to iron-based nanoparticles (United States)

    Llaneza, Verónica; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Zhou, Zuo; Rosal, Roberto; Fernández-Pina, Francisca; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.


    The efficiency of zero-valent iron particles used in the remediation of contaminated groundwater has, with the emergence of nanotechnology, stimulated interest on the use of nano-size particles to take advantage of high-specific surface area and reactivity characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs). Accordingly, engineered iron-NPs are among the most widely used nanomaterials for in situ remediation. However, while several ecotoxicity studies have been conducted to investigate the adverse impacts of these NPs on aquatic organisms, research on the implications of spent iron-based NPs is lacking. In this study, a comparative approach is used, in which the biological effects of three iron-based NPs (Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 NPs with particle sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm, and Fe0-NPs with an average particle size of 40 nm) on Raphidocelis subcapitata (formely known as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and Daphnia magna were investigated using both as-prepared and pollutant-doped Fe-based NPs. For the latter, arsenic (As) was used as example sorbed pollutant. The results show that improved degree of NP dispersion by use of polyvinylpyrrolidone overlapped with both increased arsenic adsorption capacity and toxicity to the tested organisms. For R. subcapitata, Fe-oxide NPs were more toxic than Fe0-NPs, due primarily to differences in the degree of NPs aggregation and ability to produce reactive oxygen species. For the invertebrate D. magna, a similar trend of biological responses was observed, except that sorption of As to Fe0-NPs significantly increased the toxic response when compared to R. subcapitata. Overall, these findings point to the need for research on downstream implications of NP-pollutant complexes generated during water treatment by injection of NPs into aquatic systems.

  6. Chlorinated organic compounds in aquatic biological resources of the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubova O. L.


    Full Text Available The results of studying dependencies of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in the liver and muscles of the main commercial fish species of the Baltic Sea (sprat, herring, cod, flounder, the Vistula and the Curonian Bay (pike-perch, bream, roach on the fishing area, season and fish species have been considered. Determination of PCBs and pesticides has been carried out in accordance with MVI MN 2352–2005 "Method for simultaneous determination of residual amounts of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in fish and fish products by gas-liquid chromatography". Separation, identification and quantification have been performed by the gas chromatography Varian 3400 on the DB-1701 column, 30 m  0.25 mm  0.25 m, the column temperature 150–250 °C, the detector one – 300 °C. Identification and quantification have been performed by retention time of individual PCB congeners by the internal standard. The content of PCBs in liver of the Curonian and Vistula Bays fish is much lower than in liver of aquatic biological resources (ABR of the Baltic Sea. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are accumulated more intensively in liver of fish caught in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. β-HCH and γ-HCH prevail in the liver and muscle tissue of ABR samples as individual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The all three isomers of HCH are present in cod liver. Accumulation ratio in cod liver compared to that in the muscle tissue content reaches 7-8 units HCH for isomers, and for DDT and metabolites – 10-12 units. It has been proposed that the secondary admission of HCH in the aquatic environment and in ABG (delivery from sediments takes place. Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor and aldrin are present in the Baltic Sea ABR in quantities below the detection limit used in the analysis methods. In spring and summer, there is an increased level of HCH and DDT in

  7. Below a Historic Mercury Mine: Non-linear Patterns of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms (United States)

    Haas, J.; Ichikawa, G.; Ode, P.; Salsbery, D.; Abel, J.


    Unlike most heavy metals, mercury is capable of bioaccumulating in aquatic food-chains, primarily because it is methylated by bacteria in sediment to the more toxic methylmercury form. Mercury concentrations in a number of riparian systems in California are highly elevated as a result of historic mining activities. These activities included both the mining of cinnabar in the coastal ranges to recover elemental mercury and the use of elemental mercury in the gold fields of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The most productive mercury mining area was the New Almaden District, now a county park, located in the Guadalupe River drainage of Santa Clara County, where cinnabar was mined and retorted for over 100 years. As a consequence, riparian systems in several subwatersheds of the Guadalupe River drainage are contaminated with total mercury concentrations that exceed state hazardous waste criteria. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue frequently exceed human health guidelines. However, the potential ecological effects of these elevated mercury concentrations have not been thoroughly evaluated. One difficulty is in extrapolating sediment concentrations to fish tissue concentrations without accounting for physical and biological processes that determine bioaccumulation patterns. Many processes, such as methylation and demethylation of mercury by bacteria, assimilation efficiency in invertebrates, and metabolic rates in fish, are nonlinear, a factor that often confounds attempts to evaluate the effects of mercury contamination on aquatic food webs. Sediment, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish tissue samples were collected in 1998 from the Guadalupe River drainage in Santa Clara County at 13 sites upstream and downstream from the historic mining district. Sediment and macroinvertebrate samples were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Fish samples were analyzed for total mercury as whole bodies, composited by species and size. While linear correlations of sediment

  8. Toxicity of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin to photoautotrophic aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Ebert, Ina; Bachmann, Jean; Kühnen, Ute; Küster, Anette; Kussatz, Carola; Maletzki, Dirk; Schlüter, Christoph


    The present study investigated the growth inhibition effect of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin on four photoautotrophic aquatic species: the freshwater microalga Desmodesmus subspicatus, the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae, the monocotyledonous macrophyte Lemna minor, and the dicotyledonous macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum. Both antibiotics, which act by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, demonstrated high toxicity to A. flos-aquae and L. minor and moderate to slight toxicity to D. subspicatus and M. spicatum. The cyanobacterium was the most sensitive species with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 173 and 10.2 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Lemna minor proved to be similarly sensitive, with EC50 values of 107 and 62.5 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. While enrofloxacin was more toxic to green algae, ciprofloxacin was more toxic to cyanobacteria. Calculated EC50s for D. subspicatus were 5,568 µg/L and >8,042 µg/L for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. These data, as well as effect data from the literature, were compared with predicted and reported environmental concentrations. For two of the four species, a risk was identified at ciprofloxacin concentrations found in surface waters, sewage treatment plant influents and effluents, as well as in hospital effluents. For ciprofloxacin the results of the present study indicate a risk even at the predicted environmental concentration. In contrast, for enrofloxacin no risk was identified at predicted and measured concentrations.

  9. Evidence for the aquatic binding of arsenate by natural organic matter-suspended Fe(III) (United States)

    Ritter, K.; Aiken, G.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Bauer, M. E.; Macalady, D.L.


    Dialysis experiments with arsenate and three different NOM samples amended with Fe(III) showed evidence confirming the formation of aquatic arsenate-Fe(III)-NOM associations. A linear relationship was observed between the amount of complexed arsenate and the Fe(III) content of the NOM. The dialysis results were consistent with complex formation through ferric iron cations acting as bridges between the negatively charged arsenate and NOM functional groups and/or a more colloidal association, in which the arsenate is bound by suspended Fe(III)-NOM colloids. Sequential filtration experiments confirmed that a significant proportion of the iron present at all Fe/C ratios used in the dialysis experiments was colloidal in nature. These colloids may include larger NOM species that are coagulated by the presence of chelated Fe(III) and/or NOM-stabilized ferric (oxy)hydroxide colloids, and thus, the solution-phase arsenate-Fe(III)-NOM associations are at least partially colloidal in nature. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  10. Toxicity of tetramethylammonium hydroxide to aquatic organisms and its synergistic action with potassium iodide. (United States)

    Mori, Izumi C; Arias-Barreiro, Carlos R; Koutsaftis, Apostolos; Ogo, Atsushi; Kawano, Tomonori; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu; Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H; Aoyama, Isao


    The aquatic ecotoxicity of chemicals involved in the manufacturing process of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays was assessed with a battery of four selected acute toxicity bioassays. We focused on tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, CAS No. 75-59-2), a widely utilized etchant. The toxicity of TMAH was low when tested in the 72 h-algal growth inhibition test (Pseudokirchneriellia subcapitata, EC50=360 mg L(-1)) and the Microtox® test (Vibrio fischeri, IC50=6.4 g L(-1)). In contrast, the 24h-microcrustacean immobilization and the 96 h-fish mortality tests showed relatively higher toxicity (Daphnia magna, EC50=32 mg L(-1) and Oryzias latipes, LC50=154 mg L(-1)). Isobologram and mixture toxicity index analyses revealed apparent synergism of the mixture of TMAH and potassium iodide when examined with the D. magna immobilization test. The synergistic action was unique to iodide over other halide salts i.e. fluoride, chloride and bromide. Quaternary ammonium ions with longer alkyl chains such as tetraethylammonium and tetrabutylammonium were more toxic than TMAH in the D. magna immobilization test.

  11. A summary of the acute toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to representative aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.J. [ABC Labs. (United States), Inc., Columbia, MO (United States); Biddinger, G.R. [Exxon Biomedical Sciences Inc., Benecia, CA (United States); Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W. [Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (United States)


    Acute aquatic toxicity studies were performed with 14 commercial phthalate esters and representative freshwater and marine species. The 14 esters were dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; butyl benzyl phthalate; dihexyl phthalate; butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate; di-(n-hexy, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate; di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; diisooctyl phthalate; diisononyl phthalate; di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate; diisodecyl phthalate; diundecyl phthalate; and ditridecyl phthalate. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of four carbon atoms or fewer were determined to be actually toxic at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 377 mg/L depending on the ester and the solubility of the test chemical in water. Three was a general trend for the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters (C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl chain lengths: dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; and butyl benzyl phthalate) to become more toxic with decreasing water solubility for all species tested. There were only minor differences in species sensitivity to each of the phthalate esters. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of six carbon atoms or more were not acutely toxic at concentrations approaching their respective aqueous solubilities. Insufficient mortality occurred to calculate either LC50 or EC50 values or acute no-observed-effect concentrations for these higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters. The lack of toxicity observed for the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters resulted from their limited water solubility ({le}1.1 mg/L).

  12. The effect of organic and inorganic aqueous uranium speciation on U(VI) bioavailability to an aquatic invertebrate (United States)

    Fuller, C.; Croteau, M. N.; Campbell, K. M.; Cain, D.; Aiken, G.


    Growing world-wide demand for uranium (U) as an energy source has raised concerns of the human and ecological risks of U extraction and processing in the United States. Because of limited information on the relationship between U speciation and bioavailability, particularly in aquatic animals, we are characterizing U uptake by a model freshwater invertebrate (the snail Lymnaea stagnalis). This species grazes on biofilms and is thus key in the trophic transfer of contaminants through aquatic food webs. We determined the bioavailability of dissolved U(VI) over a range of water hardness, pH (6 to 8), and the presence of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) as a competing ligand, to test the effect of aqueous speciation on uptake. Bioavailability was assessed using U uptake rate constants (kuw) derived from a kinetic bioaccumulation model. Dissolved U (1 to 1000 nM) was bioavailable over the range of geochemical conditions tested with kuw (L/g/d) decreasing with increasing dissolved Ca and with increasing pH. For example, kuw decreased from 1.6 to 0.3 as dissolved Ca was increased from 0.04 to 1.5 mM, suggesting competition between bioavailable U(VI) species and strong ternary calcium uranyl carbonato complexes. At pH 7.5 in synthetic moderately hard freshwater, kuw decreased from 0.22 in the absence of NOM to 0.07 in the presence of a hydrophobic acid NOM isolate of high aromaticity (SUVA = 5) consistent with strong aqueous complexation of U(VI) by the NOM. The co-variance of U uptake and aqueous U species distribution is being analyzed to determine which U species are bioavailable. U speciation in systems with NOM is calculated using conditional U-NOM binding constants derived by equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange methodology. The bioavailability of dietborne U is being tested since dietary metal uptake prevails for many aquatic species. These experiments include addition of ferrihydrite with U sorbed, both in the presence and absence of NOM, and mixed with diet.

  13. Strategies for Transferring Mixtures of Organic Contaminants from Aquatic Environments into Bioassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; Schäfer, Sabine;


    Mixtures of organic contaminants are ubiquitous in the environment. Depending on their persistence and physicochemical properties, individual chemicals that make up the mixture partition and distribute within the environment and might then jointly elicit toxicological effects. For the assessment...

  14. Reactivity of Zerovalent Metals in Aquatic Media: Effects of Organic Surface Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tratnyek, Paul G.; Salter-Blanc, Alexandra; Nurmi, James; Amonette, James E.; Liu, Juan; Wang, Chong M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Baer, Donald R.


    Granular, reactive zerovalent metals (ZVMs)—especially iron (ZVI)—form the basis for model systems that have been used in fundamental and applied studies of a wide variety of environmental processes. This has resulted in notable advances in many areas, including the kinetics and mechanisms of contaminant reduction reactions, theory of filtration and transport of colloids in porous media, and modeling of complex reactive-transport scenarios. Recent emphasis on nano-sized ZVI has created a new opportunity: to advance the understanding of how coatings of organic polyelectrolytes—like natural organic matter (NOM)—influence the reactivity of environmental surfaces. Depending on many factors, organic coatings can be activating or passivating with respect to redox reactions at particle-solution interfaces. In this study, we show the effects of organic coatings on nZVI vary with a number of factors including: (i) time (i.e., “aging” is evident not only in the structure and composition of the nZVI but also in the interactions between nZVI and NOM) and (ii) the type of organic matter (i.e., suspensions of nZVI are stabilized by NOM and the model polyelectrolyte carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), but NOM stimulates redox reactions involving nZVI while CMC inhibits them).

  15. Influence of sediment organic enrichment and water alkalinity on growth of aquatic isoetid and elodeid plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Borum, Jens; Jensen, Kaj Sand


    1. Lake eutrophication has increased phytoplankton blooms and sediment organic matter. Among higher plants, small, oligotrophic rosette species (isoetids) have disappeared, while a few tall, eutrophic species (elodeids) may have persisted. Despite recent reduction of nutrient loading in restored......) and two elodeids (Potamogeton crispus and P. perfoliatus), we test whether organic enrichment of lake sediments has a long-lasting influence by: (i) reducing plant growth because of oxygen stress on plant roots and (ii) inhibiting growth more for isoetids than elodeids. We also test whether (iii...... because of greater CO2 supply from sediments being their main CO2 source. At higher organic enrichment, isoetid biomass was reduced, leaf chlorophyll declined up to 10-fold, root length declined from 7 to plant stress. 4. Lobelia was not affected by HCO...

  16. Facile synthesis of mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles using Mussaenda glabra leaf extract: characterisation and impact on non-target aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni


    Plant-borne compounds have been proposed for extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, their impact against mosquito natural enemies has been scarcely studied. Here, we synthesised silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Mussaenda glabra leaf extract as reducing and stabilising agent. Biofabricated Ag NPs were characterised by UV-vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesised Ag NPs showed higher toxicity against mosquito vectors Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 of 17-19 μg/mL, respectively. Ag NPs were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 1446 to 8628 μg/mL. Overall, M. glabra-fabricated Ag NPs are a promising and eco-friendly tool against larval populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance, with negligible toxicity against other non-target aquatic organisms.

  17. Silver nanoparticle accumulation by aquatic organisms – neutron activation as a tool for the environmental fate of nanoparticles tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asztemborska Monika


    Full Text Available Water environments are noted as being some of the most exposed to the influence of toxic nanoparticles (NPs. Therefore, there is a growing need for the investigation of the accumulation and toxicity of NPs to aquatic organisms. In our studies neutron activation followed by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting were used for studying the accumulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by freshwater larvae of Chironomus and fish Danio rerio. The influence of exposition time, concentration and the source of nanoparticles on the efficiency of AgNP accumulation were studied. It was found that AgNPs are efficiently accumulated by Chironomid larvae for the first 30 hours of exposition; then, the amount of silver nanoparticles decreases. The silver content in larvae increases together with the NP concentration in water. Larvae which have accumulated AgNPs can be a source of nanoparticles for fish and certainly higher levels of Ag in the trophic chain. In comparison with water contamination, silver nanoparticles are more efficiently accumulated if fish are fed with AgNP-contaminated food. Finally, it was concluded that the applied study strategy, including neutron activation of nanoparticles, is very useful technique for tracing the uptake and accumulation of NPs in organisms

  18. Toxicity on aquatic organisms exposed to secondary effluent disinfected with chlorine, peracetic acid, ozone and UV radiation. (United States)

    da Costa, Juliana Berninger; Rodgher, Suzelei; Daniel, Luiz Antonio; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta


    The toxic potential of four disinfectant agents (chlorine, ozone, peracetic acid and UV radiation), used in the disinfection of urban wastewater, was evaluated with respect to four aquatic organisms. Disinfection assays were carried out with wastewater from the city of Araraquara (São Paulo State, Brazil), and subsequently, toxicity bioassays were applied in order to verify possible adverse effects to the cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Daphnia similis), midge larvae Chironomus xanthus and fish (Danio rerio). Under the experimental conditions tested, all the disinfectants were capable of producing harmful effects on the test organisms, except for C. xanthus. The toxicity of the effluent to C. silvestrii was observed to increase significantly as a result of disinfection using 2.5 mg L(-1) chlorine and 29.9 mg L(-1) ozone. Ozonation and chlorination significantly affected the survival of D. similis and D. rerio, causing mortality of 60 to 100 % in comparison to the non-disinfected effluent. In experiments with effluent treated with peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation, a statistically significant decrease in survival was only detected for D. rerio. This investigation suggested that the study of the ideal concentrations of disinfectants is a research need for ecologically safe options for the treatment of wastewater.

  19. Application of the Activity Framework for Assessing Aquatic Ecotoxicology Data for Organic Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Paul; Dawick, James; Lampi, Mark;


    Toxicological research in the 1930s gave the first indications of the link between narcotic toxicity and the chemical activity of organic chemicals. More recently, chemical activity has been proposed as a novel exposure parameter that describes the fraction of saturation and that quantifies the p...


    Pioneering studies by Don Crosby and co-workers demonstrated that the sunlight-induced dissipation of agrochemicals in water often is strongly affected by natural constituents in the water such as nitrate and dissolved organic matter. In this presentation, the focus is on the rol...

  1. Behavior persistence in defining threshold switch in stepwise response of aquatic organisms exposed to toxic chemicals. (United States)

    Ren, Zongming; Li, Shangge; Zhang, Tingting; Qi, Luhuizi; Xing, Na; Yu, Huimin; Jian, Jinfeng; Chon, Tae-Soo; Tang, Bo


    As a characteristic in bacterial colony, persistence model described the dynamics of two subpopulations (normal (n) and persister (p)). In order to illustrate the switch of "Threshold" in the stepwise behavior responses of organisms, it is hypothesized that total behavior (Bt) of organisms consists of two types in behavior tendency, intoxication (Bp) and normal/recovery behavior (Bn). Both Bp and Bn could be concurrently affected by environmental stress E, and behavior response modes (M) are decided by the relationship between E and toxicity threshold of test organisms (Ti). The results suggested stress constant λ was decided by the constant rates gnE,gpE, an and ap. Due to different stress constant λ, the behavior responses of indicators showed great difference in different M, which included 'safe mode' (Ms), 'acclimation mode' (Mac), 'adjustment mode' (Maj) and 'toxic effect' (Mte). Usually, Bt during Ms could maintain around 0.8, and Mte would happen once it is lower than 0.2. According to the relationship between Bt values and E changes in 7 Majs, behavior persistence relying on adjustment could reflect the behavior homeostasis of organisms under environmental stress and be regarded as a threshold switch for the stepwise behavior responses. The mathematical analysis of behavior persistence allows making a quantitative prediction on environment assessment that would promote the emergence of persistence, as well as evaluating its ecological implications.

  2. Development and validation of an in-house quantitative analysis method for cylindrospermopsin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Quantification demonstrated in 4 aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Kühn, Sandra; Pflugmacher, Stephan


    The cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is of great concern in aquatic environments because of its incidence, multiple toxicity endpoints, and, therefore, the severity of health implications. It may bioaccumulate in aquatic food webs, resulting in high exposure concentrations to higher-order trophic levels, particularly humans. Because of accumulation at primary levels resulting from exposure to trace amounts of toxin, a sensitive analytical technique with proven aquatic applications is required. In the present study, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method with a lower limit of detection of 200 fg on column (signal-to-noise ratio = 3, n = 9) and a lower limit of quantification of 1 pg on column (signal-to-noise ratio = 11, n = 9) with demonstrated application in 4 aquatic organisms is described. The analytical method was optimized and validated with a linear range (r(2) = 0.999) from 0.1 ng mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) CYN. Mean recovery of the extraction method was 98 ± 2%. Application of the method was demonstrated by quantifying CYN uptake in Scenedesmus subspicatus (green algae), Egeria densa (Brazilian waterweed), Daphnia magna (water flea), and Lumbriculus variegatus (blackworm) after 24 h of static exposure to 50 μg L(-1) CYN. Uptake ranged from 0.05% to 0.11% of the nominal CYN exposure amount. This constitutes a sensitive and reproducible method for extraction and quantification of unconjugated CYN with demonstrated application in 4 aquatic organisms, which can be used in further aquatic toxicological investigations.

  3. Daphnia as a model organism in limnology and aquatic biology: some aspects of its reproduction and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Petrusek


    Full Text Available Invertebrates comprise the overwhelming majority of all animal species - around 95% of described species, not including substantial cryptic variation. As it is an extremely diverse and heterogeneous group, research on various invertebrate taxa often follows parallel trajectories, with little interaction among experts on different groups. To promote sharing of knowledge within as well as across taxa, the International Society of Invertebrate Reproduction and Development (ISIRD was established in 1975 in Calicut, India. Since that time, the ISIRD has organised international conferences at three-year intervals where various aspects of invertebrate biology are presented and discussed, naturally with the focus on reproduction and development. Traditionally, marine invertebrate groups have been well represented at all ISIRD congresses, but freshwater invertebrates have often been relatively overlooked at these meetings. The 12th ISIRD congress took place between August 16 and 20, 2010 in Prague, the Czech Republic. Several different Czech institutions collaborated on the organisation of this meeting. As aquatic invertebrate research has a long tradition in the country, we decided to include a section dedicated to popular model organisms in aquatic ecology and evolutionary biology, the "water fleas", cladocerans of the genus Daphnia. The section entitled "Daphnia and other cladocerans as model organisms" was open to any aspects of cladoceran biology directly or indirectly related to their reproduction or development. Unfortunately, the timing of the Prague congress completely overlapped the triennial congress of the International Society of Theoretical and Applied Limnology (SIL in Cape Town, South Africa. This large meeting in a very attractive setting attracted many cladocerologists from all over the world, including Europe. Therefore, the Daphnia section of the Prague ISIRD meeting remained moderate in size, attracting 13 contributions (eight talks

  4. Methodologies to assess the fate of polar organic compounds in aquatic environments


    Magnér, Jörgen


    Polar organic compounds (POCs) are chemicals with polar functional groups in their structure. The functional groups make the compounds hydrophilic and less prone to partition with biota. However, the knowledge of their fate is limited due to difficulties associated with their measurements. Although, the persistence of POCs in the environment is generally low, they are considered to be semi-persistent compounds due to their continuous introduction to the environment via wastewater. Studies hav...

  5. Tetrodotoxin--distribution and accumulation in aquatic organisms, and cases of human intoxication. (United States)

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu


    Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX). In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX as well, and since then TTX has been detected in a variety of other organisms. TTX is produced primarily by marine bacteria, and pufferfish accumulate TTX via the food chain that begins with these bacteria. Consequently, pufferfish become non-toxic when they are fed TTX-free diets in an environment in which the invasion of TTX-bearing organisms is completely shut off. Although some researchers claim that the TTX of amphibians is endogenous, we believe that it also has an exogenous origin, i.e., from organisms consumed as food. TTX-bearing animals are equipped with a high tolerance to TTX, and thus retain or accumulate TTX possibly as a biologic defense substance. There have been many cases of human intoxication due to the ingestion of TTX-bearing pufferfish, mainly in Japan, China, and Taiwan, and several victims have died. Several cases of TTX intoxication due to the ingestion of small gastropods, including some lethal cases, were recently reported in China and Taiwan, revealing a serious public health issue.

  6. The Mode of Action of Isocyanide in Three Aquatic Organisms, Balanus amphitrite, Bugula neritina and Danio rerio

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi-Fan


    Isocyanide is a potential antifouling compound in marine environments. In this study, we investigated its mode of action in three aquatic organisms. Two of them, the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, are major marine fouling invertebrates, and the other organism is the non-target species zebrafish Danio rerio. In the swimming larvae of B. neritina, isocyanide did not affect the total attachment rate (≤50 µg ml^(−1)), but it did change the attachment site by increasing the percentage of attachment on the bottom of the container rather than on the wall or air-water inter-surface. Isocyanide binds several proteins in B. neritina as identified via SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS: 1) a 30 kD protein band containing two proteins similar to voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC), which control the direct coupling of the mitochondrial matrix to the energy maintenance of the cytosol and the release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria of mammalian cells; and 2) an unknown 39 kD protein. In B. amphitrite cyprids, the isocyanide binding protein were 1) a protein similar to NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, which is the “entry enzyme” of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria; and 2) cytochrome P450. In Danio rerio embryos, isocyanide caused “wavy” notochords, hydrocephalus, pericardial edema, poor blood circulation, and defects in pigmentation and hematopoiesis, which phenocopied copper deficiency. This is the first report on isocyanide binding proteins in fouling organisms, as well as the first description of its phenotype and potential toxicology in zebrafish.

  7. The mode of action of isocyanide in three aquatic organisms, Balanus amphitrite, Bugula neritina and Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fan Zhang

    Full Text Available Isocyanide is a potential antifouling compound in marine environments. In this study, we investigated its mode of action in three aquatic organisms. Two of them, the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, are major marine fouling invertebrates, and the other organism is the non-target species zebrafish Danio rerio. In the swimming larvae of B. neritina, isocyanide did not affect the total attachment rate (≤50 µg ml(-1, but it did change the attachment site by increasing the percentage of attachment on the bottom of the container rather than on the wall or air-water inter-surface. Isocyanide binds several proteins in B. neritina as identified via SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS: 1 a 30 kD protein band containing two proteins similar to voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC, which control the direct coupling of the mitochondrial matrix to the energy maintenance of the cytosol and the release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria of mammalian cells; and 2 an unknown 39 kD protein. In B. amphitrite cyprids, the isocyanide binding protein were 1 a protein similar to NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, which is the "entry enzyme" of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria; and 2 cytochrome P450. In Danio rerio embryos, isocyanide caused "wavy" notochords, hydrocephalus, pericardial edema, poor blood circulation, and defects in pigmentation and hematopoiesis, which phenocopied copper deficiency. This is the first report on isocyanide binding proteins in fouling organisms, as well as the first description of its phenotype and potential toxicology in zebrafish.

  8. Reconciling the role of organic matter pathways in aquatic food webs by measuring multiple tracers in individuals. (United States)

    Jardine, Timothy D; Woods, Ryan; Marshall, Jonathan; Fawcetr, James; Lobegeiger, Jaye; Valdez, Dominic; Kainz, Martin J


    Few studies measure multiple ecological tracers in individual organisms, thus limiting our ability to differentiate among organic matter source pathways and understand consequences of dietary variation and the use of external subsidies in complex food webs. We combined two tracers, stable isotope (SI) ratios and fatty acids (FA), to investigate linkages among ecological compartments (water column, benthos, riparian zone) in food webs in waterholes of a dryland river network, the Border Rivers in southwestern Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive analyses of sources (plankton, periphyton, leaf litter, riparian grasses) and animals (benthic insects, mollusks, large crustaceans, fishes) for SI and FA showed that all three zones contribute to animal biomass, depending on species and life stage. Large fishes derived a subsidy from the riparian/floodplain zone, likely through the consumption of terrestrial and semi-aquatic insects and prawns that fed on detritivorous insects. Importantly, post-larval bony bream (Nematalosa erebi) and golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) were tightly connected to the water column, as evidenced by 13C-depleted, 15N-enriched isotope ratios and a high content of plankton-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:53] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6003]). These observations were consistent with expectations from nutritional requirements of fish early life stages and habitat changes associated with maturity. These results highlight the importance of high-quality foods during early development of fishes, and show that attempting to attribute food-web production to a single source pathway overlooks important but often subtle subsidies that maintain viable populations. A complete understanding of food-web dynamics must consider both quantity and quality of different available organic matter sources. This understanding can be achieved with a combined SI and FA approach, but more controlled dietary studies are needed to

  9. Estimation of the Risks of Collision or Strike to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Resulting from Operation of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL


    Hydrokinetic energy technologies have been proposed as renewable, environmentally preferable alternatives to fossil fuels for generation of electricity. Hydrokinetic technologies harness the energy of water in motion, either from waves, tides or from river currents. For energy capture from free-flowing rivers, arrays of rotating devices are most commonly proposed. The placement of hydrokinetic devices in large rivers is expected to increase the underwater structural complexity of river landscapes. Moore and Gregory (1988) found that structural complexity increased local fish populations because fish and other aquatic biota are attracted to structural complexity that provides microhabitats with steep flow velocity gradients (Liao 2007). However, hydrokinetic devices have mechanical parts, blades, wings or bars that move through the water column, posing a potential strike or collision risk to fish and other aquatic biota. Furthermore, in a setting with arrays of hydrokinetic turbines the cumulative effects of multiple encounters may increase the risk of strike. Submerged structures associated with a hydrokinetic (HK) project present a collision risk to aquatic organisms and diving birds (Cada et al. 2007). Collision is physical contact between a device or its pressure field and an organism that may result in an injury to that organism (Wilson et al. 2007). Collisions can occur between animals and fixed submerged structures, mooring equipment, horizontal or vertical axis turbine rotors, and structures that, by their individual design or in combination, may form traps. This report defines strike as a special case of collision where a moving part, such as a rotor blade of a HK turbine intercepts the path of an organism of interest, resulting in physical contact with the organism. The severity of a strike incidence may range from minor physical contact with no adverse effects to the organism to severe strike resulting in injury or death of the organism. Harmful effects

  10. Evaluation of the effect of water type on the toxicity of nitrate to aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Baker, Josh A; Gilron, Guy; Chalmers, Ben A; Elphick, James R


    A suite of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of freshwater organisms to nitrate (as sodium nitrate). Acute exposures with rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) and amphipods (Hyalella azteca), as well as chronic exposures with H. azteca (14-d survival and growth), midges (Chironomus dilutus; 10-d survival and growth), daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d survival and reproduction), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; 7-d survival and growth) were used to determine sublethal and lethal effect concentrations. Modification of nitrate toxicity was investigated across a range of ionic strengths, created through the use of very soft water, and standard preparations of synthetic soft, moderately-hard and hard dilution waters. The most sensitive species tested were C. dubia and H. azteca, in soft water, with reproduction and growth IC25 values of 13.8 and 12.2 mg/L NO3-N, respectively. All of the organisms exposed to nitrate demonstrated significantly reduced effects with increasing ionic strength associated with changes in water type. Possible mechanisms responsible for the modifying effect of increasing major ion concentrations on nitrate toxicity are discussed.

  11. ASE extraction method for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis in soft tissues of aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Nathalie [ISM/LPTC, UMR 5255 CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France); CRH, UMR 212 EME, Institut de Recherche et de Developpement, Av Jean Monnet BP171, 34203 Sete (France); Budzinski, Helene, E-mail: [ISM/LPTC, UMR 5255 CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Le Menach, Karyn; Tapie, Nathalie [ISM/LPTC, UMR 5255 CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)


    Since lipids are depleted in {sup 13}C relative to proteins and carbohydrates, variations in lipid composition among species and within individuals significantly influence {delta}{sup 13}C and may result in misleading ecological interpretations. Whereas lipid extraction before IRMS analysis constitutes a way of stable isotope result lipid-normalisation, such a procedure was given up because of the un-controlled effects of the methods used (i.e., 'Bligh and Dyer', Soxhlet, etc.) on {delta}{sup 15}N. The aim of this work was to develop a simple, rapid and efficient lipid extraction method allowing for simultaneous C and N stable isotope analysis in the biological soft tissues of aquatic organisms. The goal was to be free from the lipid influence on {delta}{sup 13}C values without interfering with {delta}{sup 15}N values. For that purpose, the modern automated pressurized liquid extraction technique ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) was selected. Eel muscles representative of a broad range of fat contents were extracted via ASE by using different semi-polar solvents (100% dichloromethane and 80% n-hexane/20% acetone) and by operating at different temperature (ambient temperature and 100 deg. C) and pressure (750 and 1900 psi) conditions. The results were discussed in terms of lipid extraction efficiency as well as {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N variability.

  12. Strategies for Transferring Mixtures of Organic Contaminants from Aquatic Environments into Bioassays. (United States)

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; Schäfer, Sabine; Witt, Gesine; Haase, Nora; Escher, Beate I


    Mixtures of organic contaminants are ubiquitous in the environment. Depending on their persistence and physicochemical properties, individual chemicals that make up the mixture partition and distribute within the environment and might then jointly elicit toxicological effects. For the assessment and monitoring of such mixtures, a variety of cell-based in vitro and low-complexity in vivo bioassays based on algae, daphnids or fish embryos are available. A very important and sometimes unrecognized challenge is how to combine sampling, extraction and dosing to transfer the mixtures from the environment into bioassays, while conserving (or re-establishing) their chemical composition at adjustable levels for concentration-effect assessment. This article outlines various strategies for quantifiable transfer from environmental samples including water, sediment, and biota into bioassays using total extraction or polymer-based passive sampling combined with either solvent spiking or passive dosing.

  13. Phototransformation of Amlodipine in Aqueous Solution: Toxicity of the Drug and Its Photoproduct on Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina DellaGreca


    Full Text Available The phototransformation of amlodipine in water was investigated under various conditions. A quantum yield ΦS2.2×10−4 and a half-life time t1/2 0.419 days were calculated when the drug in water (10−4 M was exposed to sunlight. The only photoproduct found was its pyridine derivative. Formation of this product was explained on the basis of a radical cation intermediate. The acute and chronic toxicity of the drug and its photoproduct were evaluated on different organisms of the freshwater chain (Brachionus calyciflorus, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia. The photoproduct exhibited a stronger toxic potential than the parent drug on the long time for C. dubia.

  14. The use of aquatic organisms as environmental indicators; Anvaendningen av vattenorganismer som miljoeindikatorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, E.


    This report is based on literature from the period 1949-1991. It includes a review on the environmental requirements of different taxa (as phytoplankton, waterplants, zooplankton and bottom fauna). In the report possible structures and changes caused by acidification under oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions are described. Over the last decade the use of biological parameters in monitoring has grown in importance and is likely to increase even more in the future. Both environmental indicators (species with narrow requirements) and bioindicators (species used for semiquantitative determination of bioavailability of xenobiotics) are useful. The sensitivity of organisms for e.g. acidification, oxygen deficiency, metal and oil pollutants and nutrients varies. For instance Mayflies has proved very suitable as an indicator of acidification, while bottom fauna (mainly chironomids and oligochaetes) has showed useful for evaluating ecological effects caused by industrial effluents, oxygen deficiency and nutrients. Diatoms is another useful group of indicators, particularly for oligotrophic and eurotrophic conditions. (31 refs., 6 figs.).

  15. A Review of Phage Therapy against Bacterial Pathogens of Aquatic and Terrestrial Organisms (United States)

    Doss, Janis; Culbertson, Kayla; Hahn, Delilah; Camacho, Joanna; Barekzi, Nazir


    Since the discovery of bacteriophage in the early 1900s, there have been numerous attempts to exploit their innate ability to kill bacteria. The purpose of this report is to review current findings and new developments in phage therapy with an emphasis on bacterial diseases of marine organisms, humans, and plants. The body of evidence includes data from studies investigating bacteriophage in marine and land environments as modern antimicrobial agents against harmful bacteria. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the topic of phage therapy, the use of phage-derived protein therapy, and the hosts that bacteriophage are currently being used against, with an emphasis on the uses of bacteriophage against marine, human, animal and plant pathogens. PMID:28335451

  16. Tracking transformation processes of organic micropollutants in aquatic environments using multi-element isotope fractionation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Thomas B., E-mail: [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)] [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics (IBP), ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Bolotin, Jakov [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Skarpeli-Liati, Marita; Wijker, Reto [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)] [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics (IBP), ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Kurt, Zohre; Nishino, Shirley F.; Spain, Jim C. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)


    The quantitative description of enzymatic or abiotic transformations of man-made organic micropollutants in rivers, lakes, and groundwaters is one of the major challenges associated with the risk assessment of water resource contamination. Compound-specific isotope analysis enables one to identify (bio)degradation pathways based on changes in the contaminants' stable isotope ratios even if multiple reactive and non-reactive processes cause concentrations to decrease. Here, we investigated how the magnitude and variability of isotope fractionation in some priority pollutants is determined by the kinetics and mechanisms of important enzymatic and abiotic redox reactions. For nitroaromatic compounds and substituted anilines, we illustrate that competing transformation pathways can be assessed via trends of N and C isotope signatures.

  17. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booij, Kees; Robinson, Craig D; Burgess, Robert M;


    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths and shor...... is the best available technology for chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds. Key issues to be addressed by scientists and environmental managers are outlined.......We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths...... and shortcomings of passive sampling are assessed for water, sediments, and biota. Passive water sampling is a suitable technique for measuring concentrations of freely dissolved compounds. This method yields results that are incompatible with the EU's quality standard definition in terms of total concentrations...

  18. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, Asunción, E-mail: [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Tornero, Victoria [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain); Bhattacharjee, Dola [Indian Institute of Science Education & Research — Kolkata, Department of Biological Sciences, Mohanpur Campus, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Aguilar, Alex [Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biodiversity (IRBIO), University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 643, Barcelona (Spain)


    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ{sup 15}N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health. - Highlights: • Trace elements were determined in organisms from the Sundarbans mangrove. • The levels found were similar to those determined in wildlife from other mangroves. • Levels in three edible species were close to threshold limits for human consumption. • Except for Cr, As and Hg

  19. Sensitivity of aquatic organisms to ethanol and its potential use as bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ferreira Silva


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility for the use of the organisms Lemna minor, Azolla caroliniana, Hyphessobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata and Daphnia magna as exposure bioindicators for ethanol (lethal and effective concentration 50% - LC50(I/EC50(I. Thus, the following concentrations were used 5.0; 10.0; 20.0; 30.0; 40.0 and 50.0 mg L-1 ethanol on L. minor; 25.0; 50.0; 75.0; 100.0; 150.0 and 200.0 mg L-1 on A. caroliniana; 0.3; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1 on H. eques; 0.05; 0.10; 0.20; 0.40 and 0.80 mg L-1 on P. canaliculata; and 40.0; 60.0; 80.0; 100.0; 120.0 and 140.0 mg L-1 on D. magna. An untreated control was also kept for all organisms, with three repetitions. The increase in the ethanol concentration elevated the electrical conductivity and decreased the water dissolved oxygen and pH. The ethanol LC50 for L. minor and A. caroliniana were 12.78 and 73.11 mg L-1, respectively, and was classified as slightly toxic; 1.22 mg L-1 for H. eques (moderately toxic; 0.39 mg L-1 for P. canaliculata (highly toxic and 98.85 mg L-1 for D. magna (slightly toxic. Thus, H. eques and P. canaliculata have showed good potential for the use as ethanol exposure bioindicators on water bodies.

  20. Preliminary assays for lemongrass essential oil ecotoxicological test in D. similis and C. silvestrii submitted to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimiliani, Giovana T.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose R., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cruz, Aurea S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Culturas Celulares


    Pharmaceutical products are of great interest in ecotoxicological studies due to being found some of these products in the superficial waters and sediments, water and sewage treatment effluents. It was verified an increase of insect repellent chemical products in the aquatic environment because of the increase of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes like dengue. As these compounds show toxicity, the use of essential oils natural products with repellent properties is increasing and the literature about the impact in the aquatic environment is scarce. The hydric frame would suffer natural radiation and radiations from energy generation nuclear plants impacts fall out of tests and nuclear accidents. There is no universal definition of environmental protection and there are few studies on radiation effects in the aquatic environment. In this study was determined the lemon grass essential oil toxicity level as well as the lethal dose of ionizing radiation, LD{sub 50}, in aquatic organisms. Cytotoxicity test was performed by in vitro neutral red uptake method in NCTC clone L929 cell line. In the LD{sub 50} test aquatic organisms were submitted to gamma radiation. The essential oil of lemongrass Cymbopogon flexuosus showed cytotoxicity index IC{sub 50} about 50{mu}g.mL{sup -1}. The LD{sub 50} for Daphnia similis was 242 Gy and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii about 525 Gy. Studies will be continued with acute and chronic ecotoxicological tests of lemongrass essential oil in natural organisms and in organisms submitted to gamma radiation, utilizing the results obtained in this work. (author)

  1. Assessment of biomarkers for contaminants of emerging concern on aquatic organisms downstream of a municipal wastewater discharge. (United States)

    Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G; Gillis, Patricia L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Matsumoto, Jacqueline; de Souza Machado, Anderson A; Giacomin, Marina; Moon, Thomas W; Massarsky, Andrey; Gagné, Francois; Servos, Mark R; Wilson, Joanna; Sultana, Tamanna; Metcalfe, Chris D


    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and estrogens, are detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. However, analytical monitoring of wastewater and surface water does not indicate whether CECs are affecting the organisms downstream. In this study, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and freshwater mussels Pyganodon grandis Say, 1829 (synonym: Anodonta grandis Say, 1829) were caged for 4 weeks in the North Saskatchewan River, upstream and downstream of the discharge from the WWTP that serves the Edmonton, AB, Canada. Passive samplers deployed indicated that concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, an estrogen (estrone) and an androgen (androstenedione) were elevated at sites downstream of the WWTP discharge. Several biomarkers of exposure were significantly altered in the tissues of caged fathead minnows and freshwater mussels relative to the upstream reference sites. Biomarkers altered in fish included induction of CYP3A metabolism, an increase in vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in male minnows, elevated ratios of oxidized to total glutathione (i.e. GSSG/TGSH), and an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In mussels, there were no significant changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and the levels of Vtg-like proteins were reduced, not elevated, indicating a generalized stress response. Immune function was altered in mussels, as indicated by elevated lysosomal activity per hemocyte in P. grandis caged closest to the wastewater discharge. This immune response may be due to exposure to bacterial pathogens in the wastewater. Multivariate analysis indicated a response to the CECs Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Trimethoprim (TPM). Overall, these data indicate that there is a 1 km zone of impact for aquatic organisms downstream of WWTP discharge. However, multiple stressors in municipal wastewater make measurement and

  2. The Potential Impacts of OTEC Intakes on Aquatic Organisms at an OTEC Site under Development on Kauai, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oney, Stephen K. [OTE Corporation; Hogan, Timothy [Alden Research Laboratory; Steinbeck, John [Tenera Environmental


    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy technology with the potential to contribute significantly to the baseload power needs of tropical island communities and remote U.S. military installations. As with other renewable energy technologies, however, there are potential challenges to its commercialization: technological, financial, social, and environmental. Given the large volumes of seawater required to drive the electricity-producing cycle, there is potential for the intakes to negatively impact the marine resources of the source waterbody through the impingement and entrainment of marine organisms. The goal of this project was to identify feasible warm water intake designs for a land-based OTEC facility proposed for development in Port Allen, Kauai and to characterize the populations of ichthyoplankton near the proposed warm water intake location that could be at risk of entrainment. The specific objectives of this project were to: • Complete a site-specific assessment of available and feasible warm water intake technologies to determine the best intake designs for minimizing impacts to aquatic organisms at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. • Complete a field sampling program to collect biological data to characterize the baseline populations of ichthyoplankton near the sites being considered for the warm water intake at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. Various intake design options are presented with the focus on providing adequate environmental protection to the local ichthyoplankton population while providing an economically viable intake option to the OTEC developer. Further definition by NOAA and other environmental regulators is required to further refine the designs presented to meet all US regulations for future OTEC development.

  3. Biotic ligand modeling approach: Synthesis of the effect of major cations on the toxicity of metals to soil and aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M


    The biotic ligand model (BLM) approach is used to assess metal toxicity, taking into account the competition of other cations with the free metal ions for binding to the biotic ligand sites of aquatic and soil organisms. The bioavailable fraction of metals, represented by the free metal ion, is a better measure than the total concentration for assessing their potential risk to the environment. Because BLMs are relating toxicity to the fraction of biotic ligands occupied by the metal, they can be useful for investigating factors affecting metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. In the present review, the effects of major cations on the toxicity of metals to soil and aquatic organisms were comprehensively studied by performing a meta-analysis of BLM literature data. Interactions at the binding sites were shown to be species- and metal-specific. The main factors affecting the relationships between toxicity and conditional binding constants for metal binding at the biotic ligand appeared to be Ca(2+) , Mg(2+) , and protons. Other important characteristics of the exposure medium, such as levels of dissolved organic carbon and concentrations of other cations, should also be considered to obtain a proper assessment of metal toxicity to soil and aquatic organisms.

  4. Using solid 13C NMR coupled with solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to investigate molecular species and lability of organic carbon and phosphorus from aquatic plants in Tai Lake, China (United States)

    Aquatic plants are involved in the storage and release capacity for organic matter and nutrients. In this study, solid 13C and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the biomass samples of six aquatic plants. Solid 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed the domin...

  5. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.


    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  6. Toxic effect of a marine bacterium on aquatic organisms and its algicidal substances against Phaeocystis globosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuchan Yang

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v, respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  7. Trace element accumulation and trophic relationships in aquatic organisms of the Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem (Bangladesh). (United States)

    Borrell, Asunción; Tornero, Victoria; Bhattacharjee, Dola; Aguilar, Alex


    The Sundarbans forest is the largest and one of the most diverse and productive mangrove ecosystems in the world. Located at the northern shoreline of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean and straddling India and Bangladesh, the mangrove forest is the result of three primary river systems that originate further north and northwest. During recent decades, the Sundarbans have been subject to increasing pollution by trace elements caused by the progressive industrialization and urbanization of the basins of these three rivers. As a consequence, animals and plants dwelling downstream in the mangroves are exposed to these pollutants in varying degrees, and may potentially affect human health when consumed. The aim of the present study was to analyse the concentrations of seven trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cd and As) in 14 different animal and plant species collected in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh to study their transfer through the food web and to determine whether their levels in edible species are acceptable for human consumption. δ(15)N values were used as a proxy of the trophic level. A decrease in Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd levels was observed with increasing trophic position. Trace element concentrations measured in all organisms were, in general, lower than the concentrations obtained in other field studies conducted in the same region. When examined with respect to accepted international standards, the concentrations observed in fish and crustaceans were generally found to be safe for human consumption. However, the levels of Zn in Scylla serrata and Cr and Cd in Harpadon nehereus exceeded the proposed health advisory levels and may be of concern for human health.

  8. Multispecies QSAR modeling for predicting the aquatic toxicity of diverse organic chemicals for regulatory toxicology. (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Kumar, Anuj; Mohan, Dinesh


    The research aims to develop multispecies quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) modeling tools capable of predicting the acute toxicity of diverse chemicals in various Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recommended test species of different trophic levels for regulatory toxicology. Accordingly, the ensemble learning (EL) approach based classification and regression QSAR models, such as decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) implementing stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms were developed using the algae (P. subcapitata) experimental toxicity data for chemicals. The EL-QSAR models were successfully applied to predict toxicities of wide groups of chemicals in other test species including algae (S. obliguue), daphnia, fish, and bacteria. Structural diversity of the selected chemicals and those of the end-point toxicity data of five different test species were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of the constructed QSAR models were compared using statistical parameters. The developed QSAR models (DTB and DTF) yielded a considerably high classification accuracy in complete data of model building (algae) species (97.82%, 99.01%) and ranged between 92.50%-94.26% and 92.14%-94.12% in four test species, respectively, whereas regression QSAR models (DTB and DTF) rendered high correlation (R(2)) between the measured and model predicted toxicity end-point values and low mean-squared error in model building (algae) species (0.918, 0.15; 0.905, 0.21) and ranged between 0.575 and 0.672, 0.18-0.51 and 0.605-0.689 and 0.20-0.45 in four different test species. The developed QSAR models exhibited good predictive and generalization abilities in different test species of varied trophic levels and can be used for predicting the toxicities of new chemicals for screening and prioritization of chemicals for regulation.

  9. Is Zeolite a Detoxificant: Modelling of Ferrous Chloride/Zeolite Application of Aquatic Organisms on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss to Determine Its Effects on Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu UÇAR


    Full Text Available Populations of native fish and aquatic ecosystems have been negatively affected by the contamination of ground and surface waters as a result of various activities. Due to the ferrous chloride (FeCl2, which is used as the reducing agent for the organic synthesis reactions in the contamination of water column and sediment, iron salts may be very toxic for some aquatic organism. In order to minimize these effects, natural products such as zeolite have been widely used recently. For this reason, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to FeCl2 and/or zeolite for 28 days and their oxidative stress responses were investigated. At the end of the treatment period, oxidative stress responses were determined with antioxidant enzyme activities in the samples taken from liver and kidneys. CAT, SOD, GPx and MDA values for kidney and liver tissues were found statistically important between control and treatment groups (p<0.05. In this study, zeolite application provided lower values in terms of enzyme activities, and the protective effect of zeolite for aquatic organism was supported by biochemical parameters. 

  10. Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants along a high-altitude aquatic food chain in the Tibetan Plateau: Processes and mechanisms. (United States)

    Ren, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Chuanfei; Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiruo; Yao, Tandong


    Biomagnification of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been found in marine and freshwater food chains; however, due to the relatively short food chains in high-altitude alpine lakes, whether trophic transfer would result in the biomagnification of POPs is not clear. The transfer of various POPs, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), along the aquatic food chain in Nam Co Lake (4700 m), in the central Tibetan Plateau, was studied. The POPs levels in the water, sediment and biota [plankton, invertebrates and fish (Gymnocypris namensis)] of Nam Co were generally low, with concentrations comparable to those reported for the remote Arctic. The composition profiles of POPs in the fish were different from that in the water, but similar to their food. DDEs, DDDs, PCB 138, 153 and 180 displayed significant positive correlations with trophic levels, with trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranged between 1.5 and 4.2, implying these chemicals can undergo final biomagnification along food chain. A fugacity-based dynamic bioaccumulation model was applied to the fish with localized parameters, by which the simulated concentrations were comparable to the measured data. Modeling results showed that most compounds underwent net gill loss and net gut uptake; only when the net result of the combined gut and gill fluxes would be positive, bioaccumulation could eventually occur. The net accumulation flux increased with fish age, which was caused by the continuous increase of gut uptake by aged fish. Due to the oligotrophic condition, efficient food absorption is likely the key factor that influences the gut POPs uptake. Long residence times with half-lives up to two decades were found for the higher chlorinated PCBs in Gymnocypris namensis.

  11. Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in Huaihe River Watershed, China. (United States)

    Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing


    The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied.

  12. Gadolinium-uptake by aquatic and terrestrial organisms-distribution determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Lingott, Jana; Lindner, Uwe; Telgmann, Lena; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Jakubowski, Norbert; Panne, Ulrich


    Gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents (CA) are used to enhance magnetic resonance imaging. As a consequence of excretion by patients and insufficient elimination in wastewater treatment plants they are detected in high concentrations in surface water. At present, little is known about the uptake of these species by living organisms in aquatic systems. Therefore the uptake of gadolinium containing chelates by plants and animals grown in exposed water or on soil irrigated with exposed water was investigated. For this purpose two types of plants were treated with two different contrast agents. The uptake of the Gd contrast agents was studied by monitoring the elemental distribution with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This technique allows the multi-elemental analysis of solid samples with high resolution and little sample preparation. The analysis of L. minor showed that the uptake of Gd correlated with the concentration of gadodiamide in the water. The higher the concentration in the exposed water, the larger the Gd signal in the LA-ICP-MS acquired image. Exposure time experiments showed saturation within one day. The L. minor had contact with the CAs through roots and fronds, whereas the L. sativum only showed uptake through the roots. These results show that an external absorption of the CA through the leaves of L. sativum was impossible. All the analyzed parts of the plant showed Gd signal from the CA; the highest being at the main vein of the leaf. It is shown that the CAs can be taken up from plants. Furthermore, the uptake and distribution of Gd in Daphnia magna were shown. The exposure via cultivation medium is followed by Gd signals on the skin and in the area of the intestine, while the uptake via exposed nutrition algae causes the significantly highest Gd intensities in the area of the intestine. Because there are hints of negative effects for human organism these findings are important as they show that Gd based

  13. Passive internal transport of aquatic organisms by waterfowl in Doñana, south-west Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figuerola, J.; Green, J.; Santamaria, L.


    Aim Waterbirds may play an important role in the maintenance of aquatic ecosystem biodiversity by transporting plants and invertebrate propagules between different wetlands. The aim of this study is to provide the first quantitative analysis of the transport of plant and animal propagules by a commu

  14. Defining an exposure-response relationship for suspended kaolin clay particulates and aquatic organisms: work toward defining a water quality guideline for suspended solids. (United States)

    Gordon, Andrew K; Palmer, Carolyn G


    Water quality guidelines for suspended solids generally rely on the percentage departure from reference condition, an approach that has been criticized. Attempts to develop a biological effects-base guideline have, however, been confounded by low data availability. Furthermore, the high biological response variability to suspended solids exposure suggests that organisms are responding not only to exposure concentration and duration but also to other mechanisms of effect associated with suspended particles (e.g., size, shape, and geochemical composition). An alternative option is to develop more situation and site specific guidelines by generating biological effects data to suspended particles of a particular geochemistry and restricted size range. With this in mind, aquatic organism responses to kaolin clay particle exposure were collated from the literature and incorporated into 2 exposure-response relationship approaches. The species sensitivity distribution approach produced a hazardous concentration affecting 5% of species estimate of 58 mg/L for mortality responses, and 36 mg/L for sublethal data. The severity-of-ill-effect approach produced similar estimates for lethal and sublethal data. These results suggest that aquatic organisms are slightly more tolerant of kaolin clay particles than particles from barite or bentonite clays, based on results from previous studies on these clay types. This type of information can enable better estimates of the risk faced by aquatic organisms exposed to suspended solids. For example, when the sediments of a particular water body are dominated by a particular type of clay particle, then the most appropriate exposure-response relationship can be applied.

  15. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.


    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  16. Microbial community analysis in the roots of aquatic plants and isolation of novel microbes including an organism of the candidate phylum OP10. (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Matsuzawa, Hiroaki; Nigaya, Masahiro; Mori, Kazuhiro; Kamagata, Yoichi


    A number of molecular ecological studies have revealed complex and unique microbial communities in various terrestrial plant roots; however, little is known about the microbial communities of aquatic plant roots in spite of their potential use for water quality improvement in aquatic environments (e.g. floating treatment wetland system). Here, we report the microbial communities inhabiting the roots of emerged plants, reed (Phragmites australis) and Japanese loosestrife (Lythrum anceps), collected from a floating treatment wetland in a pond by both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the microbial compositions between the two aquatic plant roots were clearly different (e.g. the predominant microbe was Betaproteobacteria for reed and Alphaproteobacteria for Japanese loosestrife). In comparisons of microbial communities between the plant roots and pond water taken from near the plants, the microbial diversity in the plant roots (e.g. 4.40-4.26 Shannon-Weiner index) were higher than that of pond water (e.g. 3.15 Shannon-Weiner index). Furthermore, the plant roots harbored 2.5-3.5 times more phylogenetically novel clone phylotypes than pond water. The culture-dependent approach also revealed differences in the microbial composition and diversity among the two plant roots and pond water. More importantly, compared to pond water, we succeeded in isolating approximately two times more novel isolate phylotypes, including a bacterium of candidate phylum OP10 (recently named Armatimonadetes) from the plant roots. These findings suggest that aquatic plants roots are significant sources for a variety of novel organisms.

  17. Methodology of comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of production lines of preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Ugryumova


    Full Text Available The factors affecting the efficiency and reliability of technical systems. Set stages of development and modernization of production lines that correspond to specific stages of evaluating the effectiveness and reliability. Considered several methods of definition of indicators of indicators of efficiency and reliability of the equipment in technological lines of fisheries sector: forecasting methods, structural methods, physical methods, logical-probability method (method by I.A. Ryabinin and topological method. Advantages and disadvantages, allowing you to work out the most suitable method, process lines preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms, connected in series. Modernized technological line of preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms differing from the typical line of seawater in hatcheries (Far East, as the presence of a large number of instrumentation: sensors, salinity and temperature; motomeru that continuously monitor turbidity in the range of 50÷100 EMF (30÷60 mg/1 by kaolin; signaling the flow sensors volume level of the filtrate and the backfill layer; analyzers of chemical composition of sea water; analyzers of suspended mechanical impurities; signaling sensors of acidity and oxygen content and replacement filters coarse, fine cleaning and auxiliary equipment. A program of comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of production lines, revealed that conducted the modernization of production line preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms has improved its efficiency by an average of 1.71% to reduce the amount of manual labor by 15.1%; control the process; provide the most rapid, efficient purification of sea water; reduce the cost of replacement filter media.

  18. Spectral study of the complexation of Nd(III) with glutathione reduced (GSH) in the presence and absence of Zn(II) in aquated organic solvents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Th David Singh; Ch Sumitra; N Rajmuhon Singh; M Indira Devi


    Studies on the difference in energy parameters and comparative absorption spectrophotometry involving 4-4 transitions on Nd(III) and glutathione reduced (GSH) in the absence and presence of Zn(II) have been carried out in aquated organic solvents (50 : 50) like methanol, dioxane, acetonitrile and dimethylformamide. Variations in the spectral energy parameters - Slater-Condon () factor, Lande spin-orbit coupling constant (4), nephelauxetic ratio (), bonding parameter (1/2) and percent covalency () - are calculated and correlated with binding of Nd(III) with GSH in presence and absence of Zn(II).

  19. Harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water: application for basic approval of the VARUNA ballast water treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, R.G.; Jongbloed, R.H.; Sneekes, A.C.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.


    This document contains the non-confidential information related to the application for Basic Approval of the VARUNA Ballast Water Treatment System submitted in accordance with the Procedure for approval of ballast water management systems that make use of Active Substances (G9) adopted by resolution

  20. Organization of vegetation cover of aquatic ecosystems at Borodinskiy opencast coal mine dumps (Kansk forest-steppe, Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Efimov


    Full Text Available The paper present the results of study of the floristic composition and importance of species of aquatic ecosystems on different types of technogenic surfaces of the Borodino coal mine and assessment of the impact of local factors on the structure and the dynamics of vegetation. The list of plant taxa containing 91 species of higher plants and 3 cha-rophytes. The largest amount of macrophytes species are Elodea canadensis Michx., Eleocharis palustris (L. Roem. & Schult., Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L., Potamogeton alpinus Balb., P. perfoliatus L., Sparganium emersum Rehm., Spirodela polyrhiza (L. Schleid., Typha latifolia L., Warnstorfia fluitans (Hedw. Loeske, Chara contraria A. Braun ex Kutz., the basis (up to 67.6‒70.9 % of vegetation mosaic of aquatic systems and differentiate its structure post-technogenic landscape. Sorensen index (QS = 0.63‒0.71 and Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rs = 0.29‒0.62, p < 0.01 values showed the greatest similarity between the species composition of the aquatic complexes arising on mineral surfaces planned dumps. The low level of similarity (QS = 0.13‒0.45; rs = 0.25‒0.34, p < 0.05 in spe-cies composition is typical fir ponds and wetlands formed around the perimeter of the heaps along the erosion of slopes. Non-parametric analysis of variance showed a statistically significant (p < 0.001 differentiation of the species composition of the variables values of the analyzed environmental factors: the direction of reclamation, type and age of geomorphic surfaces dumps. Aquatic complexes significantly complement and enrich the mosaic of man-made landscape of the Borodino coal mine, the potential of their diversity should be taken into account when developing plans and strategies for reclamation of disturbed areas.

  1. Fabrication of nano-mosquitocides using chitosan from crab shells: Impact on non-target organisms in the aquatic environment. (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Anitha, Jaganathan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chitravel; Amuthavalli, Pandiyan; Wang, Lan; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wei, Hui; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Kumar, Suresh; Pugazhendy, Kannaiyan; Higuchi, Akon; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni


    Mosquitoes are arthropods of huge medical and veterinary relevance, since they vector pathogens and parasites of public health importance, including malaria, dengue and Zika virus. Currently, nanotechnology is considered a potential eco-friendly approach in mosquito control research. We proposed a novel method of biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using chitosan (Ch) from crab shells. Ch-AgNP nanocomposite was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. Ch-AgNP were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi obtaining LC50 ranging from 3.18 ppm (I) to 6.54 ppm (pupae). The antibacterial properties of Ch-AgNP were proved against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, while no growth inhibition was reported in assays conducted on Proteus vulgaris. Concerning non-target effects, in standard laboratory considtions the predation efficiency of Danio rerio zebrafishes was 68.8% and 61.6% against I and II instar larvae of A. stephensi, respectively. In a Ch-AgNP-contaminated environment, fish predation was boosted to 89.5% and 77.3%, respectively. Quantitative analysis of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and LPO from hepatopancreas of fresh water crabs Paratelphusa hydrodromous exposed for 16 days to a Ch-AgNP-contaminated aquatic environment were conducted. Notably, deleterious effects of Ch-AgNP contaminating aquatic enviroment on the non-target crab P. hydrodromous were observed, particularly when doses higher than 8-10ppm are tested. Overall, this research highlights the potential of Ch-AGNP for the development of newer control tools against young instar populations of malaria mosquitoes, also highlighting some risks concerned the employ of nanoparticles in aquatic environments.

  2. Release of copper from sintered tungsten-bronze shot under different pH conditions and its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon G; Santore, Robert C; McGill, Ian


    Sintered tungsten-bronze is a new substitute for lead shot, and is about to be deposited in and around the wetlands of North America. This material contains copper in the alloyed form of bronze. This in vitro study was performed according to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria to determine the dissolution rate of copper from the shot, and to assess the toxic risk that it may present to aquatic organisms. The dissolution of copper from tungsten-bronze shot, pure copper shot, and glass beads was measured in a buffered, moderately hard, synthetic water of pH 5.5, 6.6, and 7.8 over a 28-day period. The dissolution of copper from both the control copper shot and the tungsten-bronze shot was affected significantly by the pH of the water and the duration of dissolution (all p valuestungsten bronze shot was 30 to 50 times lower than that from the copper shot, depending on pH (ptungsten-bronze shot after 28 days was 0.02 microg/L at pH 7.8, and 0.4 microg/L at pH 5.6, using a loading and exposure scenario specific in a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protocol. Ratio Quotient values derived from the highest EEC observed in this study (0.4 microg/L), and the copper toxic effect levels for all aquatic species listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria database, were all far less than the 0.1 criterion value. Given the conditions stipulated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, heavy loading from discharged tungsten-bronze shot would not pose a toxic risk to potable water, or to soil. Consequently, it would appear that no toxic risks to aquatic organisms will attend the use of tungsten-bronze shot of the approved composition. Given the likelihood that sintered tungsten-bronze of the same formula will be used for fishing weights, bullets, and wheel balance weights, it is expected that the use of this new material in these applications will not be associated with toxic risks to aquatic life.

  3. Statistically validated QSARs, based on theoretical descriptors, for modeling aquatic toxicity of organic chemicals in Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow). (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Villa, Fulvio; Gramatica, Paola


    The use of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships in assessing the potential negative effects of chemicals plays an important role in ecotoxicology. (LC50)(96h) in Pimephales promelas (Duluth database) is widely modeled as an aquatic toxicity end-point. The object of this study was to compare different molecular descriptors in the development of new statistically validated QSAR models to predict the aquatic toxicity of chemicals classified according to their MOA and in a unique general model. The applied multiple linear regression approach (ordinary least squares) is based on theoretical molecular descriptor variety (1D, 2D, and 3D, from DRAGON package, and some calculated logP). The best combination of modeling descriptors was selected by the Genetic Algorithm-Variable Subset Selection procedure. The robustness and the predictive performance of the proposed models was verified using both internal (cross-validation by LOO, bootstrap, Y-scrambling) and external statistical validations (by splitting the original data set into training and validation sets by Kohonen-artificial neural networks (K-ANN)). The model applicability domain (AD) was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability.

  4. Organic waste compounds in streams: Occurrence and aquatic toxicity in different stream compartments, flow regimes, and land uses in southeast Wisconsin, 2006–9 (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; Richards, Kevin D.; Geis, Steven W.; Magruder, Christopher


    An assessment of organic chemicals and aquatic toxicity in streams located near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, indicated high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms that could be related to organic waste compounds (OWCs). OWCs used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewage overflows, among other sources. Many of these compounds are toxic at elevated concentrations and (or) known to have endocrine-disrupting potential, and often they occur as complex mixtures. There is still much to be learned about the chronic exposure effects of these compounds on aquatic populations. During 2006–9, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD), conducted a study to determine the occurrence and potential toxicity of OWCs in different stream compartments and flow regimes for streams in the Milwaukee area. Samples were collected at 17 sites and analyzed for a suite of 69 OWCs. Three types of stream compartments were represented: water column, streambed pore water, and streambed sediment. Water-column samples were subdivided by flow regime into stormflow and base-flow samples. One or more compounds were detected in all 196 samples collected, and 64 of the 69 compounds were detected at least once. Base-flow samples had the lowest detection rates, with a median of 12 compounds detected per sample. Median detection rates for stormflow, pore-water, and sediment samples were more than double that of base-flow samples. Compounds with the highest detection rates include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), insecticides, herbicides, and dyes/pigments. Elevated occurrence and concentrations of some compounds were detected in samples from urban sites, as compared with more rural sites, especially during stormflow conditions. These include the PAHs and the domestic waste

  5. Laboratory evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and non-target aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Li, Weisheng; Huang, Congling; Wang, Kun; Fu, Jiantao; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhixiang


    Mosquito control using insecticides has been the most successful intervention known to reduce malaria prevalence or incidence. However, vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In this research, the leaf aqueous leachate of Tephrosia vogelii was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and toward adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea) and Oreochromis niloticus, two non-target aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii was evaluated against fourth-instar larvae, non-blood fed 3-5 days old laboratory strains of A. albopictus under laboratory condition. In addition, the objective of the present work was to study the environmental safety evaluation for aquatic ecosystem. Mortality was then recorded after 7d exposure. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii showed high mosquitocidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, with a LC50=1.18μg/mL. However, it had a remarkable acute toxicity also toward adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50=0.47μg/L and O. niloticus with a LC50=5.31μg/L. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae in the aquatic ecosystem, as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. The extract could be used in stagnant water bodies for the control of mosquitoes acting as vector for many communicable diseases.

  6. One-pot biogenic fabrication of silver nanocrystals using Quisqualis indica: Effectiveness on malaria and Zika virus mosquito vectors, and impact on non-target aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Vijayan, Periasamy; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni


    Currently, mosquito vector control is facing a number of key challenges, including the rapid development of resistance to synthetic pesticides and the recent spread of aggressive arbovirus outbreaks. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered an environmental friendly alternative to the employ of pyrethroids, carbamates and microbial agents (e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis), since AgNPs are easy to produce, effective and stable in the aquatic environment. However, their biophysical features showed wide variations according to the botanical agent using for the green synthesis, outlining the importance of screening local floral resources used as reducing and stabilizing agents. In this study, we focused on the biophysical properties and the mosquitocidal action of Quisqualis indica-fabricated AgNPs. AgNPs were characterized using spectroscopic (UV, FTIR, XRD) and microscopic (AFM, SEM, TEM and EDX) techniques. AFM, SEM and TEM confirmed the synthesis of poly-dispersed AgNPs with spherical shape and size ranging from 1 to 30nm. XRD shed light on the crystalline structure of these AgNPs. The acute toxicity of Quisqualis indica extract and AgNPs was evaluated against malaria, arbovirus, and filariasis vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as on three important non-target aquatic organisms. The Q. indica leaf extract showed moderate larvicidal effectiveness on Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=220.42), Ae. aegypti (LC50=203.63) and An. stephensi (LC50=185.98). Q. indica-fabricated AgNPs showed high toxicity against Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.63), Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.55) and An. stephensi (LC50=12.52), respectively. Notably, Q. indica-synthesized AgNPs were moderately toxic to non-target aquatic mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri (LC50=653.05μg/mL), Diplonychus indicus (LC50=860.94μg/mL) and Gambusia affinis (LC50=2183.16μg/mL), if compared to the targeted mosquitoes. Overall, the

  7. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms. (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro


    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species.

  8. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.


    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  9. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.


    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  10. 人工纳米材料对水生生物毒性的研究进展%Research progress on toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials to aquatic organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With rapid development of nanotechnology, manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) have been widely used in biomedicine, aerospace, construction and many other fields in recent years. Widespread public concerns regarding the aquatic toxicity caused by MNMs have been aroused. In this article, with investigation of huge amount of related scientific research references, five aspects of toxic effects toward aquatic organisms by MNMs have been reviewed. Firstly, the effects on individual growth of aquatic organisms; secondly, the effects on the level of cell and tissue (including gill, liver and brain tissue);thirdly, the effects on the level of molecular and ge-netic (including DNA structure, mRNA and protein expression);fourthly, the effects and mechanism of reproduc-tive toxicity;lastly, the effects on other physiological functions such as photosynthesis and respiration. Meanwhile, potential side effects of MNMs on aquatic organisms’ food chain were evaluated. Furthermore, we prospected the toxicology development direction of MNMs in aquatic environment with an aim to guide the related studies for domestic scholars.%  近年来纳米技术发展迅速,人工纳米材料(MNMs)在生物医学、航空航天和建筑等领域中广泛应用。然而,随着大量MNMs不断进入水环境,人工纳米粒子对水生生物的毒性效应已引起人们的关注。通过调研人工纳米粒子对水生生物毒性的最新研究成果,重点对人工纳米粒子在5个方面对水生生物的毒性效应进行综述:1)对水生生物个体生长的毒性效应;2)对肝组织、鳃组织和脑组织等在组织细胞水平的毒性效应;3)在分子和基因水平上对DNA结构、mRNA和相关蛋白质表达的影响;4)对水生生物的生殖毒性效应和机制;5)对其他生理作用如光合作用和呼吸作用的毒性影响。同时还分析了MNMs对食物链的影响,进一步对MNMs在水体环境中的毒理学发展方向进行了展望,

  11. Monitoring of PAHs and alkylated PAHs in aquatic organisms after 1 month from the Solar I oil spill off the coast of Guimaras Island, Philippines. (United States)

    Uno, Seiichi; Koyama, Jiro; Kokushi, Emiko; Monteclaro, Harold; Santander, Sheryll; Cheikyula, J Orkuma; Miki, Shizuho; Añasco, Nathaniel; Pahila, Ida G; Taberna, Hilario S; Matsuoka, Tatsuro


    Following the oil spill accident of the Solar I tanker in 2006 off the coast of Guimaras Island in the Philippines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs in some aquatic organisms were investigated at Luzaran in Guimaras and Taklong Islands, which were heavily polluted with spilled oil, immediately and 1 month after the accident. The concentrations of total PAHs were 11.9-52.3 ng/g dry weight in fish. Meanwhile, total PAH concentrations in shellfish were 38.0-3,102 ng/g dry weight in Luzaran and 128-236 ng/g dry weight in Taklong. Pyrene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene were dominant in most fish and chrysene in all shellfish. Significantly higher concentrations of all alkylated homologs were detected in shellfish than in fish. These differences had two possible causes, that is, the differences between fish and shellfish could be attributed to the uptake routes and/or their metabolizing abilities.

  12. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Johansen, Jacob L


    Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient current velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record current velocities to >500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  13. Quantifying water flow within aquatic ecosystems using load cell sensors: a profile of currents experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L Johansen

    Full Text Available Current velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these currents has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (500 cms⁻¹ and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.06±0.04%, and accuracy of 0.51±0.65% (mean ±S.D.. Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ≤20 kNm⁻² allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m, mid-slope (6 m and deep-slope (9 m depth of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that currents over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: currents differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that currents around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to currents of 0 to >82 cms⁻¹, while tidal currents rarely exceed 5.5 cms⁻¹. Rather, current velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz, emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats.

  14. Effects of Total Dissolved Solids on Aquatic Organisms: A Review of Literature and Recommendation for Salmonid Species


    P. K. Weber-Scannell; Duffy, L K; Phyllis K. Weber-Scannell; Duffy, Lawrence K.


    Total dissolves solids (TDS) are naturally present in water or are the result of mining or some industrial treatment of water. TDS contain minerals and organic molecules that provide benefits such as nutrients or contaminants such as toxic metals and organic pollutants. Current regulations require the periodic monitoring of TDS, which is a measurement of inorganic salts, organic matter and other dissolved materials in water. Measurements of TDS do not differentiate among ions. The amount of T...

  15. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity. (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos


    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone.

  16. An integrated approach to model the biomagnification of organic pollutants in aquatic food webs of the Yangtze Three Gorges Reservoir ecosystem using adapted pollution scenarios. (United States)

    Scholz-Starke, Björn; Ottermanns, Richard; Rings, Ursula; Floehr, Tilman; Hollert, Henner; Hou, Junli; Li, Bo; Wu, Ling Ling; Yuan, Xingzhong; Strauch, Katrin; Wei, Hu; Norra, Stefan; Holbach, Andreas; Westrich, Bernhard; Schäffer, Andreas; Roß-Nickoll, Martina


    The impounding of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) at the Yangtze River caused large flooding of urban, industrial, and agricultural areas, and profound land use changes took place. Consequently, substantial amounts of organic and inorganic pollutants were released into the reservoir. Additionally, contaminants and nutrients are entering the reservoir by drift, drainage, and runoff from adjacent agricultural areas as well as from sewage of industry, aquacultures, and households. The main aim of the presented research project is a deeper understanding of the processes that determines the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of organic pollutants, i.e., mainly pesticides, in aquatic food webs under the newly developing conditions of the TGR. The project is part of the Yangtze-Hydro environmental program, financed by the German Ministry of Education and Science. In order to test combinations of environmental factors like nutrients and pollution, we use an integrated modeling approach to study the potential accumulation and biomagnification. We describe the integrative modeling approach and the consecutive adaption of the AQUATOX model, used as modeling framework for ecological risk assessment. As a starting point, pre-calibrated simulations were adapted to Yangtze-specific conditions (regionalization). Two exemplary food webs were developed by a thorough review of the pertinent literature. The first typical for the flowing conditions of the original Yangtze River and the Daning River near the city of Wushan, and the second for the stagnant reservoir characteristics of the aforementioned region that is marked by an intermediate between lake and large river communities of aquatic organisms. In close cooperation with German and Chinese partners of the Yangtze-Hydro Research Association, other site-specific parameters were estimated. The MINIBAT project contributed to the calibration of physicochemical and bathymetric parameters, and the TRANSMIC project delivered

  17. Calibration of nylon organic chemical integrative samplers and sentinel samplers for quantitative measurement of pulsed aquatic exposures. (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B


    Environmental exposures often occur through short, pulsed events; therefore, the ability to accurately measure these toxicologically-relevant concentrations is important. Three different integrative passive sampler configurations were evaluated under different flow and pulsed exposure conditions for the measurement of current-use pesticides (n=19), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (n=10), and personal care products (n=5) spanning a broad range of hydrophobicities (log Kow 1.5-7.6). Two modified POCIS-style samplers were investigated using macroporous nylon mesh membranes (35μm pores) and two different sorbent materials (i.e. Oasis HLB and Dowex Optipore L-493). A recently developed design, the Sentinel Sampler (ABS Materials), utilizing Osorb media enclosed within stainless steel mesh (145μm pores), was also investigated. Relatively high sampling rates (Rs) were achieved for all sampler configurations during the short eight-day exposure (4300-27mL/d). Under flow conditions, median Rs were approximately 5-10 times higher for POCIS-style samplers and 27 times higher for Sentinel Samplers, as compared to static conditions. The ability of samplers to rapidly measure hydrophobic contaminants may be a trade off with increased flow dependence. Analyte accumulation was integrative under pulsed and continuous exposures for POCIS-style samplers with mean difference between treatments of 11% and 33%; however, accumulation into Sentinel Samplers was more variable. Collectively, results show that reducing membrane limitations allows for rapid, integrative accumulation of a broad range of analytes even under pulsed exposures. As such, these sampler designs may be suitable for monitoring environmental substances that have short aquatic half-lives.

  18. Size distribution effects of cadmium tellurium quantum dots (CdS/CdTe) immunotoxicity on aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Bruneau, A; Fortier, M; Gagne, F; Gagnon, C; Turcotte, P; Tayabali, A; Davis, T L; Auffret, M; Fournier, M


    The increasing use of products derived from nanotechnology has raised concern about their potential toxicity to aquatic life. This study sought to examine the comparative immunotoxicity of capped cadmium sulphide/cadmium telluride (CdS/CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) and possible impact of particle/aggregate size on two bivalves (Mytilus edulis and Elliptio complanata) and a fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The QDs were dispersed in sterile water and fractionated using a series of micro/ultrafiltration membranes of decreasing pore size: 450 nm, 100 nm, 50 nm, 25 nm, 100 kDa (6.8 nm), 30 kDa (4.6 nm), 10 kDa (3.2 nm) and 1 kDa (1.5 nm). The total concentrations of cadmium and tellurium were determined for the filtered material and for that retained on the filters (retentate). The immunotoxicity was determined by measuring cell viability and phagocytosis. Results revealed that nanoparticles retained on the ultrafilters had a higher Cd/Te ratio compared to the permeate fraction (ratio of 5 and 2 respectively) which could indicate that the CdS core was not associated with the permeable fraction of Cd. Our results demonstrate that the toxicity of CdS/CdTe QDs was concentration and size dependent. Large CdS/CdTe QD aggregates (25 nm < size < 100 nm) reduced phagocytosis more than did smaller nanoparticles (<25 nm). Moreover, our results revealed that the different species responded differently to these fractions. Mytilus edulis hemocytes were less sensitive to CdS/CdTe QDs than the Oncorhynchus mykiss macrophage and Elliptio complanata hemocytes.

  19. Direct interaction of dissolved organic matter with aquatic organisms%溶解性有机质与水生生物的直接相互作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕾; 沈超峰; 陈英旭


    溶解性有机质广泛存在于天然水体中,具有重要的生态与环境意义.然而在环境科学领域内,天然水体中的溶解性有机质长期以来仅仅被作为惰性的吸附剂对待,其自身的与生物的直接作用却一直被忽视.近年来,越来越多的研究证据表明溶解性有机质自身即具有生物效应.它能在生物表面吸附.并影响细胞膜的电化学性质与膜渗透性,能被生物吸收,进而诱导生物体内化学物质应激反应,诱导并调节生物体内代谢酶的活性,同时对生物产生一定的内分泌干扰效应.溶解性有机质对生物的轻度刺激作用是影响污染物的生物浓缩及毒性效应的重要因子之一,系统地研究其中的机制对评价实际环境中污染物的生态风险有着重要意义.本文综述了溶解性有机质与生物的直接作用的相关研究成果,并探讨目前此分支领域研究中出现的瓶颈问题.%Dissolved organic matter is widely present in aquatic environment with great ecological and environmental significance.In freshwater ecosystems, dissolved organic matter exceeds all living organisms by more than one order of magnitude.The ability of dissolved organic matter to affect aquatic biota indirectly by exerting strong control on the surrounding biogeochemical conditions is well established due to their ability to complex inorganic cations, including metals and a variety of organic compounds.In contrast, the potential direct interaction of these amphiphilic compounds with aquatic organisms themselves has been largely overlooked until recently.However, in the past decade, there has been growing recognition that dissolved organic matter can directly affect the physiology of organisms.Because of the chemical building blocks and physicochemical behavior of dissolved organic matter, researchers have postulated that these substances have a xenobiotic character, with effects such as sorption of dissolved organic matter on living

  20. Physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of natural organic matter (NOM) from various sources and implications for ameliorative effects on metal toxicity to aquatic biota. (United States)

    Al-Reasi, Hassan A; Wood, Chris M; Smith, D Scott


    Natural organic matter (NOM), expressed as dissolved organic carbon (DOC in mgCL(-1)), is an ubiquitous complexing agent in natural waters, and is now recognized as an important factor mitigating waterborne metal toxicity. However, the magnitude of the protective effect, judged by toxicity measures (e.g. LC50), varies substantially among different NOM sources even for similar DOC concentrations, implying a potential role of NOM physicochemical properties or quality of NOM. This review summarizes some key quality parameters for NOM samples, obtained by reverse osmosis, and by using correlation analyses, investigates their contribution to ameliorating metal toxicity towards aquatic biota. At comparable and environmentally realistic DOC levels, molecular spectroscopic characteristics (specific absorbance coefficient, SAC, and fluorescence index, FI) as well as concentrations of fluorescent fractions obtained from mathematical mixture resolution techniques (PARAFAC), explain considerable variability in the protective effects. NOM quality clearly influences the toxicity of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). NOM quality may also influence the toxicity of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd) and inorganic mercury (Hg), but as yet insufficient data are available to unequivocally support the latter correlations between toxicity reduction and NOM quality predictors. Cu binding capacities, protein-to-carbohydrate ratio, and lipophilicity, show insignificant correlation to the amelioration offered by NOMs, but these conclusions are based on data for Norwegian NOMs with very narrow ranges for the latter two parameters. Certainly, various NOMs alleviate metal toxicity differentially and therefore their quality measures should be considered in addition to their quantity.

  1. Transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes through silica based porous media: influences of aquatic chemistry, surface chemistry, and natural organic matter. (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Bitter, Julie L; Smith, Billy A; Fairbrother, D Howard; Ball, William P


    This paper provides results from studies of the transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) of varying surface oxygen concentrations under a range of aquatic conditions and through uniform silica glass bead media. In the presence of Na(+), the required ionic strength (IS) for maximum particle attachment efficiency (i.e., the critical deposition concentration, or CDC) increased as the surface oxygen concentration of the O-MWCNTs or pH increased, following qualitative tenets of theories based on electrostatic interactions. In the presence of Ca(2+), CDC values were lower than those with Na(+) present, but were no longer sensitive to surface oxygen content, suggesting that Ca(2+) impacts the interactions between O-MWCNTs and glass beads by mechanisms other than electrostatic alone. The presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) decreased the attachment efficiency of O-MWCNTs in the presence of either Na(+) or Ca(2+), but with more pronounced effects when Na(+) was present. Nevertheless, low concentrations of SRNOM (organic carbon) were sufficient to mobilize all O-MWCNTs studied at CaCl2 concentrations as high as 10 mM. Overall, this study reveals that NOM content, pH, and cation type show more importance than surface chemistry in affecting O-MWCNTs deposition during transport through silica-based porous media.

  2. The Vinylguaiacol/Indole or VGI ("Veggie") Ratio: A Novel Molecular Parameter to Evaluate the Relative Contributions of Terrestrial and Aquatic Organic Matter to Sediments (United States)

    Kruge, M. A.; Olsen, K. K.; Slusarczyk, J.; Gomez, E.


    The organic matter (OM) fraction of estuarine sediments is often distinctive and thus diagnostically useful in determinations of sedimentary provenance. Among the most fundamental distinctions to be made is that between terrestrial and aquatic OM. To supplement the parameters commonly used for this purpose (e.g., C/N and stable isotope ratios), we proposed the Vinylguaiacol/Indole or VGI ("Veggie") ratio, defined as [vinylguaiacol / (indole + vinylguaiacol)] using data produced by analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of dried, homogenized sediment samples. The ratio employs the peak areas of these two compounds on the mass chromatograms of their molecular ions (m/z 150 and 117). Major pyrolysis products of terrestrial plant lignin include a variety of methoxyphenols, notably 4-vinylguaiacol. In contrast, aquatic algae and bacteria characteristically produce distinctive organonitrogen compounds upon pyrolysis, particularly indole, derived from the amino acid tryptophan. The end member VGI ratio value of 1.00 is obtained for reference land plant matter, including the marsh plants Phragmites and Spartina, as well as maple and pine wood. The end member value of 0.00 is obtained for cultured microbes, including Escherichia coli and the cyanobacterium Anacystis. Vinylguaiacol and indole are commonly detected in Recent sediment pyrolyzates. We hypothesized that their relative quantities therein should be proportional to the relative contributions of land plant and microbial OM, respectively. Samples taken from Spartina peat marshes at the mouths of major rivers (Housatonic and Connecticut) entering Long Island Sound, wetlands behind the barrier island at Cape May (NJ), and a Phragmites-dominated tidal marsh along the Hackensack River (NJ) have high (> 0.8) VGI ratio values. Sediments collected within the Newark Bay (NJ) estuary from the lower Passaic and Hackensack Rivers and the Arthur Kill show mixed terrestrial and aquatic OM signatures (VGI from 0

  3. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program: Assessing Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms Exposed to Contaminated Sediments (United States)


    between log Ka and log K,. for biocon - centration (reprinted with permission from Connell 1990) chemicals by organisms but at the same time favors...contaminated relative to the water that it respires. Connell (1990) noted that biomagnification is likely to be of more significance than biocon - centration

  4. Tetrodotoxin – Distribution and Accumulation in Aquatic Organisms, and Cases of Human Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Arakawa


    Full Text Available Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX. In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX as well, and since then TTX has been detected in a variety of other organisms. TTX is produced primarily by marine bacteria, and pufferfish accumulate TTX via the food chain that begins with these bacteria. Consequently, pufferfish become non-toxic when they are fed TTX-free diets in an environment in which the invasion of TTX-bearing organisms is completely shut off. Although some researchers claim that the TTX of amphibians is endogenous, we believe that it also has an exogenous origin, i.e., from organisms consumed as food. TTX-bearing animals are equipped with a high tolerance to TTX, and thus retain or accumulate TTX possibly as a biologic defense substance. There have been many cases of human intoxication due to the ingestion of TTX-bearing pufferfish, mainly in Japan, China, and Taiwan, and several victims have died. Several cases of TTX intoxication due to the ingestion of small gastropods, including some lethal cases, were recently reported in China and Taiwan, revealing a serious public health issue.

  5. Optical properties of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems: Applications in ecosystem studies from headwater streams to the deep ocean. (Invited) (United States)

    Jaffe, R.


    The study of natural dissolved organic material (DOM) contributes to the better understanding of ecosystem function as the carbon flux between environmental compartments represents an important linkage between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Within freshwater and marine ecosystems, DOM typically represents the largest pool of detrital organic carbon and greatly exceeds the organic carbon present in living biomass. Thus, the sources and fate of DOM are important terms in carbon budgets. DOM can also influence ecosystem function by controlling microbial food webs, act as a means of nutrient transport, buffer pH and influence toxicity and bioavailability of pollutants, among others. DOM composition influences its ‘quality’ and thus its photo- and bio-reactivity, both of which exert a strong control of the diagenetic reworking of this carbon pool. However, the molecular composition of DOM is highly complex and diverse, and its characterization is a serious challenge to analytical chemists. In recent years, several novel analytical approaches to the characterization of DOM have evolved, including those that are highly structure specific and others that provide information on broader molecular characteristics. Whilst the former are usually expensive and time consuming, the latter, often based on optical properties measurements, feature high sample throughput at a reduced cost but at the expense of structural specificity. While both approaches are complementary under ideal conditions, the latter are best suited for studies involving large spatial and temporal scales. The analysis of DOM optical properties, in particular excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), has emerged as a practical tool for the broad characterization of DOM quality. This presentation will provide examples for the application of EEM-PARAFAC in assessing environmental dynamics of DOM on both spatial and temporal scales, and in both

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of the coordination chemistry and hydrolysis of gallium(III) in the presence of aquatic organic matter (United States)

    Hagvall, Kristoffer; Persson, Per; Karlsson, Torbjörn


    Interactions between metals and natural organic matter (NOM) are of great environmental importance and one of the key factors influencing hydrolysis, solubility, and speciation of the metals. However, studying geochemically relevant metals like Al, Fe, and Cu is sometimes associated with analytical problems; for example Fe and Cu are both redox active. Gallium (Ga) is a non-redox active metal that usually occurs at very low concentrations in environmental samples and therefore a wide concentration range of metal(III)-NOM species can be explored by adding Ga(III) to such samples. This makes Ga(III) a good probe and analogue for other metal ions, in particular Al. In addition, due to the increased usage of Ga in society, a better understanding of how Ga interacts with NOM is of importance but such studies are scarce. In this work, Ga(III) interactions with two different organic materials (Suwannee River natural organic matter and Suwannee River fulvic acid) were studied using infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy in a large experimental range (101-84,076 μg Ga g-1 dry weight; pH 3-8). Our IR spectroscopic results showed that Ga(III) is bonded mainly to carboxylic functional groups and suggested that only a fraction of the total number of carboxylic sites in the samples was actively involved in the bonding. Modeling of the EXAFS data revealed that Ga(III) formed mononuclear chelate complexes with NOM that strongly suppressed the hydrolysis and polymerization of Ga(III). At low Ga(III) concentrations (1675-16,649 μg g-1) organic complexes, consisting of 1-3 chelate ring structures, were the dominating species in the entire pH range while at higher concentrations (67,673-84,076 μg g-1, pH 3.0-7.0) we detected mixtures of mononuclear organic Ga(III) complexes, Ga(III) (hydr)oxide, and free Ga(III) (here defined as the hydrated Ga(III) ion and its soluble hydrolysis products). Moreover, the EXAFS results showed significantly

  7. Is there a risk for the aquatic environment due to the existence of emerging organic contaminants in treated domestic wastewater? Greece as a case-study. (United States)

    Thomaidi, Vasiliki S; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Borova, Viola L; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S


    The ecological threat associated with emerging pollutants detected in wastewater was estimated in country level. Treated wastewater was analyzed for pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs; whereas the concentrations of all emerging contaminants determined in Greek Sewage Treatment Plants were recorded through literature review. Toxicity data was collected after literature review or using ECOSAR and risk quotients (RQs) were calculated for treated wastewater and 25 Greek rivers, for 3 different aquatic organisms (fish, daphnia magna, algae). According to the results, monitoring data was available for 207 micropollutants belonging to 8 different classes. RQ>1 was calculated for 30 compounds in secondary treated wastewater. Triclosan presented RQ>1 (in algae) for all studied rivers; decamethylcyclopentasilane (in daphnia magna), caffeine (in algae) and nonylphenol (in fish) presented RQ>1 in rivers with dilution factors (DF) equal or lower to 1910, 913 and 824, respectively. The class of emerging contaminants that present the greatest threat due to single or mixture toxicity was endocrine disrupters. The mixture of microcontaminants seems to pose significant ecological risk, even in rivers with DF equal to 2388. Future national monitoring programs should include specific microcontaminants that seem to possess environment risk to surface water.

  8. Cesium accumulation by aquatic organisms at different trophic levels following an experimental release into a small reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E., E-mail: jepinder@uga.ed [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Hinton, T.G., E-mail: thomas.hinton@irsn.f [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Taylor, B.E., E-mail: [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P. O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Whicker, F.W., E-mail: ward.whicker@colostate.ed [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado, State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)


    The rates of accumulation and subsequent loss of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) by organisms at different trophic levels within plankton-based and periphyton-based food chains were measured following the addition of {sup 133}Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1} dry mass) and a loss rate parameter k (d{sup -1}) were estimated for each organism using time-series measurements of {sup 133}Cs concentrations in water and biota, and these parameters were used to estimate maximum concentrations, times to maximum concentrations, and concentration ratios (C{sub r}). The maximum {sup 133}Cs concentrations for plankton, periphyton, the insect larva Chaoborus punctipennis, which feeds on plankton, and the snail Helisoma trivolvis, which feeds on periphyton, occurred within the first 14 days following the addition, whereas the maximum concentrations for the fish species Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides occurred after 170 days. The C{sub r} based on dry mass for plankton and C. punctipennis were 1220 L kg{sup -1} and 5570 L kg{sup -1}, respectively, and were less than the C{sub r} of 8630 L kg{sup -1} for periphyton and 47,700 L kg{sup -1} for H. trivolvis. Although the C{sub r} differed between plankton-based and periphyton-based food chains, they displayed similar levels of biomagnification. Biomagnification was also indicated for fish where the C{sub r} for the mostly nonpiscivorous L. macrochirus of 22,600 L kg{sup -1} was three times less than that for mostly piscivorous M. salmoides of 71,500 L kg{sup -1}. Although the C{sub r} for M. salmoides was greater than those for periphyton and H. trivolvis, the maximum {sup 133}Cs concentrations for periphyton and H. trivolvis were greater than that for M. salmoides. - Research highlights: {yields} A simple uptake and loss model described the Cs dynamics in all the various biota. {yields} Concentrations of Cs were greater in periphyton than in plankton

  9. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni


    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological

  10. Facile biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Barleria cristata: mosquitocidal potential and biotoxicity on three non-target aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni


    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of important pathogens and parasites, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic mosquitocides often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular biosynthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, the impact of these nanomosquitocides against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. In this research, we biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the Barleria cristata leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of Ag NP was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of Ag NP. The presence of silver was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may also act as Ag NP capping agents. The acute toxicity of B. cristata leaf extract and biosynthesized Ag NP was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with lethal concentration (LC)50 values of 12.46, 13.49, and 15.01 μg/mL, respectively. Notably, biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus, Anisops bouvieri, and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 633.26 to 866.92 μg/mL. Overall, our results highlight that B. cristata-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against young instar populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance.

  11. Using solid (13)C NMR coupled with solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy to investigate molecular species and lability of organic carbon and phosphorus from aquatic plants in Tai Lake, China. (United States)

    Liu, Shasha; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Fengchang; Meng, Wei; Wang, Hao; He, Zhongqi; Guo, Wenjing; Song, Fanhao; Giesy, John P


    Forms and labilities of plant-derived organic matters (OMs) including carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) were fundamental for understanding their release, degradation and environmental behaviour in lake ecosystems. Thus, solid (13)C and solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to characterize biomass of six aquatic plants in Tai Lake, China. The results showed that carbohydrates (61.2% of the total C) were predominant C functional group in the solid (13)C NMR spectra of plant biomass, which may indicate high lability and bioavailability of aquatic plants-derived organic matter in lakes. There was 72.6-103.7% of the total P in aquatic plant biomass extracted by NaOH-EDTA extracts. Solution (31)P NMR analysis of these NaOH-EDTA extracts further identified several molecular species of P including orthophosphate (50.1%), orthophosphate monoesters (46.8%), DNA (1.6%) and pyrophosphate (1.4%). Orthophosphate monoesters included β-glycerophosphate (17.7%), hydrolysis products of RNA (11.7%), α-glycerophosphate (9.2%) and other unknown monoesters (2.1%). Additionally, phytate, the major form of organic P in many lake sediments, was detected in floating plant water poppy. These inorganic P (e.g. orthophosphate and pyrophosphate) and organic P (e.g. diester and its degradation products) identified in plant biomass were all labile and bioavailable P, which would play an important role in recycling of P in lakes. These results increased knowledge of chemical composition and bioavailability of OMs derived from aquatic plants in lakes.

  12. Acute toxicity of smoke screen materials to aquatic organisms, white phosphorus-felt, red phosphorus-butyl rubber and SGF No. 2 fog oil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; McFadden, K.M.; Bean, R.M.; Clark, M.L.; Thomas, B.L.; Killand, B.W.; Prohammer, L.A.; Kalkwarf, D.R.


    The acute toxicity of three obscurants was determined for nine freshwater organisms. The materials tested were white phosphorus-felt smoke, red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP-BR) smoke, and smoke generator fuel (SGF) No. 2 fog oil (bulk and vaporized). The chemistry of WP-F and RP-BR smoke in water and the resulting effects on aquatic organisms are similar. Combustion of these two obscurants and their deposition in water leads to the formation of many complex oxy-phosphoric acids. Rates of hydrolysis of these complex products to ortho-phosphate were inconsistent and unpredictable over time. These products acidify water and produce toxic effects after exhausting the buffering capacity of the water. Acute 96 hr tests using Daphnia magna with neutralized and nonneutralized exposure solutions indicated that the presence of unidentified toxic component(s) acted independently of pH. At pH levels of 6.0 to 7.0, phosphorus combustion products precipitated out of solution leading to a bimodal toxic response in extended 96-hr tests with Daphnia magna. Most components of fog oil had low solubility in water. Saturation was apparent at approximately 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L total oil. Vaporization had no demonstrable effect on the chemistry or toxicity of the fog oil. Neither the bulk fog oil nor the vaporized fog oil was acutely toxic to freshwater animals at concentrations less than 10 mg/L total oil. In oil-water mixes in excess of 1.0 mg/L total oil, fog oil quickly separated and floated to the surface. The primary hazard associated with vaporized and bulk fog oil was the physical effect of oil fouling the organisms. Photolysis increased the concentration of water-soluble components of the fog oil. Acute toxicity was demonstrated in oil-water mixes (approx.10 mg/L total oil) of photolyzed bulk and vaporized fog oil. No difference in toxicity was observed between photolyzed and non-photolyzed dilutions of OWM at comparable levels of total oil.

  13. Field and laboratory studies on the impact of two Bt rice lines expressing a fusion protein Cry1Ab/1Ac on aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Wang, Yongmo; Huang, Jiacheng; Hu, Huawei; Li, Jianhong; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan


    Genetically modified (GM) rice expressing Bt toxins is at the edge of commercial release in China. However, little information is available concerning the impact of Bt rice on aquatic organisms which are abundant in paddy field. A two-year study was conducted to assess the effects of two GM rice lines expressing a fusion protein Cry1Ab/1Ac (Bt rice) on three groups of zooplankton, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in field conditions. Multi-factor ANOVA revealed that the population densities of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in paddy field varied significantly between years and rice developmental stages, but did not differ significantly between Bt and non-Bt rice treatments. In all the field investigations, only one significant difference was found on copepods in the tillering stage of 2009, but the difference was not related to the presence of the Cry toxin. Under open-air conditions, we simulated the farming practice of straw mulch, using Bt rice straw as a food source for the water flea Daphnia hyalina. After one and two months of culture, the density of D. hyalina did not differ between Bt rice treatments and non-Bt rice treatments. A laboratory experiment found that purified Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac had no toxic effect on D. hyalina even in the treatment in which the Bt toxin concentration was as high as 2500ng/ml. Those above results indicate that the two Bt rice lines have no negative effect on the three groups of zooplankton. However, further studies are needed to compare the effects of Bt rice and non-Bt rice on the paddy zooplankton community in the context of integrated pest management which includes the use of pesticides.

  14. A novel technique for the precise measurement of CO2 production rate in small aquatic organisms as validated on aeshnid dragonfly nymphs. (United States)

    Harter, Till S; Brauner, Colin J; Matthews, Philip G D


    The present study describes and validates a novel yet simple system for simultaneous in vivo measurements of rates of aquatic CO2 production (ṀCO2 ) and oxygen consumption (ṀO2 ), thus allowing the calculation of respiratory exchange ratios (RER). Diffusion of CO2 from the aquatic phase into a gas phase, across a hollow fibre membrane, enabled aquatic ṀCO2  measurements with a high-precision infrared gas CO2 analyser. ṀO2  was measured with a PO2  optode using a stop-flow approach. Injections of known amounts of CO2 into the apparatus yielded accurate and highly reproducible measurements of CO2 content (R(2)=0.997, P<0.001). The viability of in vivo measurements was demonstrated on aquatic dragonfly nymphs (Aeshnidae; wet mass 2.17 mg-1.46 g, n=15) and the apparatus produced precise ṀCO2  (R(2)=0.967, P<0.001) and ṀO2  (R(2)=0.957, P<0.001) measurements; average RER was 0.73±0.06. The described system is scalable, offering great potential for the study of a wide range of aquatic species, including fish.

  15. Aquatic Therapy for Children (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech


    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  16. Modul.LES: a multi-compartment, multi-organism aquatic life support system as experimental platform for research in ∆g (United States)

    Hilbig, Reinhard; Anken, Ralf; Grimm, Dennis

    In view of space exploration and long-term satellite missions, a new generation of multi-modular, multi-organism bioregenerative life support system with different experimental units (Modul.LES) is planned, and subunits are under construction. Modul.LES will be managed via telemetry and remote control and therefore is a fully automated experimental platform for different kinds of investigations. After several forerunner projects like AquaCells (2005), C.E.B.A.S. (1998, 2003) or Aquahab (OHB-System AG the Oreochromis Mossambicus Eu-glena Gracilis Aquatic Habitat (OmegaHab) was successfully flown in 2007 in course of the FOTON-M3 Mission. It was a 3 chamber controlled life support system (CLSS), compris-ing a bioreactor with the green algae Euglena gracilis, a fish chamber with larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus and a filter chamber with biodegrading bacteria. The sensory super-vision of housekeeping management was registered and controlled by telemetry. Additionally, all scientific data and videos of the organisms aboard were stored and sequentially transmitted to relay stations. Based on the effective performance of OmegaHab, this system was chosen for a reflight on Bion-M1 in 2012. As Bion-M1 is a long term mission (appr. 4 weeks), this CLSS (OmegaHab-XP) has to be redesigned and refurbished with enhanced performance. The number of chambers has been increased from 3 to 4: an algae bioreactor, a fish tank for adult and larval fish (hatchery inserted), a nutrition chamber with higher plants and crustaceans and a filter chamber. The OmegaHab-XP is a full automated system with an extended satellite downlink for video monitoring and housekeeping data acquisition, but no uplink for remote control. OmegaHab-XP provides numerous physical and chemical parameters which will be monitored regarding the state of the biological processes and thus enables the automated con-trol aboard. Besides the two basic parameters oxygen content and temperature, products of the

  17. Viscosity and not biological mechanisms often controls the effects of temperature on ciliary activity and swimming velocity of small aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, H. U.


    A number of studies have shown that temperature-dependent viscosity of the ambient water controls or strongly affects bio-mechanical activity such as beat frequency of water-pumping cilia in mussels and ascidians, swimming velocity of sperm cells, ciliates and small (micro- and meso-scale) aquatic...

  18. Biotransformation and accumulation of selenium inside organisms in an engineered aquatic ecosystem designed for bioremediation of Se from agriculture drainage water and brine shrimp production (United States)

    Excessive selenium (Se) in soils and waters present in the westside of central California was determined to be responsible for ecotoxicities observed in water fowl frequenting large bodies of water, i.e., evaporation ponds. In order to monitor the fate and potentially design an aquatic Se remediatio...

  19. The use of enclosed plankton communities in aquatic ecotoxicology : fate effects of mercury, cadmium and selected aromatic organics in a marine model ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.


    Most investigations in ecotoxicology are carried out in the laboratory. Although laboratory experiments are indispensable and yield useful information, it is difficult if not impossible to extrapolate results of short-term laboratory tests currently in use to real field situations. The need in aquat

  20. 我国水生生物水质基准推导的物种选择%Species Selection for Deriving Water Quality Criteria for Protection of Aquatic Organisms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海磊; 吴丰昌; 李会仙; 冯承莲; 张瑞卿; 常红


    水生生物水质基准旨在保护水生生物不受水体中化学物质的有害影响,是水质基准体系的重要组成部分.不同区域水生态系统的生物区系不同,导致基准值也会存在差异.在综合研究美国、欧盟、加拿大、荷兰、澳大利亚和新西兰等国家和地区在推导水生生物水质基准的物种选择及其考虑因素的基础上,初步研究我国水生生物水质基准推导的物种选择原则.结果表明:推导我国水生生物水质基准需要选择来自8科的水生生物,分别为鲤科鱼类、硬骨鱼纲中的另一科、两栖动物纲的一科、浮游动物中节肢动物门和轮虫动物门各一科、底栖动物中节肢动物门和环节动物门各一科及一种最敏感的大型水生植物(或浮游植物),可全面代表我国水生态系统不同的营养级和生命形式.%As an important component of the water quality criteria system, the aquatic life criteria aim to protect aquatic biota from hazardous chemicals. The water quality values differ within ecosystems and in geographical regions. Based on overall analysis of the species selection for deriving aquatic life criteria in the United States, Europe, Canada, the Netherlands, Australia and New Zealand, the species selection required for deriving water quality criteria in China was discussed. The results showed that the aquatic organisms required for deriving the aquatic life criteria in China should come from eight different families; Cyprinidae, another family in Osteichthyes, a family in Amphibia, a family in Arthropoda and a family in Rotifera from zooplankton, a family in Arthropod a and a family in Annelida from Zoobenthos, and a macrophyte (or phytoplankton). These can comprehensively represent different trophic levels and life forms in the aquatic ecosystem.

  1. Bioavailability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in aquatic ecosystems : influence of natural and anthropic organic matter; Biodisponibilite des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les ecosystemes aquatiques: influence de la matiere organique naturelle et anthropique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourlay, C.


    Aquatic ecosystems receive micro-pollutants. They also contain organic matter (OM) of natural and anthropogenic origins. The contaminant bioavailability in aquatic media is determined by the interactions between contaminants and OM. This work deals with the influence of organic matter from anthropogenic media on the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic pollutants. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been used as model contaminants, since they are widely spread in urban media. In anthropogenic media, some OM may be bio-degraded. Up to now, most researches focused on the interactions between contaminants and humic OM that are mostly non-degradable, using physico-chemical characterizations of OM. On the contrary, in this work, the biodegradability of OM was deliberately taken into account. Indeed, we assume that the contaminant affinity for OM evolves during OM biodegradation, so that pollutants may be released in a bio-available form and then may be bond again by biodegradation sub-products. In laboratory evaluation, PAH bioavailability was assessed through the measurements of the bioaccumulation in Daphnia magna. The influence of organic matter on the bioavailability of PAHs and the evolution of this influence along OM bacterial mineralization were proved, as well as the strong binding efficiency of degradation by-products. A model of observed phenomena was elaborated. These observations about urban and natural OM effect were compared to in situ PAH bioavailability measurements in the river Seine basin. In this case, the bioavailability was estimated using Semi-Permeable Membrane Device (SPMD) sampling technique. (author)

  2. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates: Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms - Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Ward, Jeffrey A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.


    This fiscal year (FY) 2011 progress report (Task 2.1.3 Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask Electromagnetic Fields) describes studies conducted by PNNL as part of the DOE Wind and Water Power Program to examine the potential effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from marine and hydrokinetic devices on aquatic organisms, including freshwater and marine fish and marine invertebrates. In this report, we provide a description of the methods and results of experiments conducted in FY 2010-FY 2011 to evaluate potential responses of selected aquatic organisms. Preliminary EMF laboratory experiments during FY 2010 and 2011 entailed exposures with representative fish and invertebrate species including juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister). These species were selected for their ecological, commercial, and/or recreational importance, as well as their potential to encounter an MHK device or transmission cable during part or all of their life cycle. Based on previous studies, acute effects such as mortality were not expected to occur from EMF exposures. Therefore, our measurement endpoints focused on behavioral responses (e.g., detection of EMF, interference with feeding behavior, avoidance or attraction to EMF), developmental changes (i.e., growth and survival from egg or larval stage to juvenile), and exposure markers indicative of physiological responses to stress. EMF intensities during the various tests ranged from 0.1 to 3 millitesla, representing a range of upper bounding conditions reported in the literature. Experiments to date have shown there is little evidence to indicate distinct or extreme behavioral responses in the presence of elevated EMF for the species tested. Several developmental and physiological responses were observed in the fish exposures, although most were not

  3. N-15 NMR spectra of naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic natural organic matter samples of the International Humic Substances Society (United States)

    Thorn, K.A.; Cox, L.G.


    The naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic NOM samples from the International Humic Substances Society has been characterized by solid state CP/MAS 15N NMR. Soil samples include humic and fulvic acids from the Elliot soil, Minnesota Waskish peat and Florida Pahokee peat, as well as the Summit Hill soil humic acid and the Leonardite humic acid. Aquatic samples include Suwannee River humic, fulvic and reverse osmosis isolates, Nordic humic and fulvic acids and Pony Lake fulvic acid. Additionally, Nordic and Suwannee River XAD-4 acids and Suwannee River hydrophobic neutral fractions were analyzed. Similar to literature reports, amide/aminoquinone nitrogens comprised the major peaks in the solid state spectra of the soil humic and fulvic acids, along with heterocyclic and amino sugar/terminal amino acid nitrogens. Spectra of aquatic samples, including the XAD-4 acids, contain resolved heterocyclic nitrogen peaks in addition to the amide nitrogens. The spectrum of the nitrogen enriched, microbially derived Pony Lake, Antarctica fulvic acid, appeared to contain resonances in the region of pyrazine, imine and/or pyridine nitrogens, which have not been observed previously in soil or aquatic humic substances by 15N NMR. Liquid state 15N NMR experiments were also recorded on the Elliot soil humic acid and Pony Lake fulvic acid, both to examine the feasibility of the techniques, and to determine whether improvements in resolution over the solid state could be realized. For both samples, polarization transfer (DEPT) and indirect detection (1H-15N gHSQC) spectra revealed greater resolution among nitrogens directly bonded to protons. The amide/aminoquinone nitrogens could also be observed by direct detection experiments.

  4. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  5. Black magic in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.


    Sorption to sediment controlsthe actual fate and risks ofhydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs)in most aquatic environments. Sediment-bound HOCs are not readily available for uptake by organisms and degra

  6. Toxicity of environmental chemicals and their mixtures to selected aquatic organisms. Behaviour, development and biochemistry; Toxizitaet von Umweltchemikalien und deren Mischungen auf ausgewaehlte aquatische Organismen. Verhalten, Entwicklung und Biochemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienle, Cornelia


    In this work, the effects of various single substances (pesticides and metals) as well as binary mixtures of them on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae were assessed on biochemical, developmental, and organism levels. The influence of oxygen depletion on the toxicity of substances was included as an additional interacting factor. To analyse complex interactions, the predator-prey behaviour between zebrafish and chironomid larvae (Chironomus riparius) was investigated. Another aspect of this work were studies on complex mixtures of hydrocarbons such as the water accommodated fraction of crude oil, and their effects on the behaviour of marine amphipods (Corophium volutator), as well as semi-field experiments with freshwater amphipods (Gammarus pulex). My investigations showed that effects of various substances in environmentally relevant concentration ranges are exerted on different levels of biological organisation, both in amphipods and fish. It could be shown that abiotic parameters modify the effects of pollutants. When investigating mixtures of substances with similar or different modes of action, additivity occurred in the majority of cases which usually were consistent for all investigated parameters (enzyme activity, locomotor activity, developmental impairment, mortality). Effects of the neurotoxic insecticide chlorpyrifos on the interactions between fish and chironomids could be detected in environmentally relevant concentration ranges. The effects of the water accommodated fraction of crude oil which represents a great risk for aquatic organisms in costal habitats were displayed by alterations in the behaviour of the marine amphipod Corophium volutator. For a continuous monitoring of water quality in monitoring stations, the resident amphipod Gammarus pulex proved to be a suitable and relevant test organism, as it responds sensitive to complex mixtures of pollutants in surface waters. In summary, behavioural parameters proved to be integrative

  7. Toxicokinetic modeling challenges for aquatic nanotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu eChen


    Full Text Available Nanotoxicity has become of increasing concern since the rapid development of metal nanoparticles (NPs. Aquatic nanotoxicity depends on crucial qualitative and quantitative properties of nanomaterials that induce adverse effects on subcellular, tissue, and organ level. The dose-response effects of size-dependent metal NPs, however, are not well investigated in aquatic organisms. In order to determine the uptake and elimination rate constants for metal NPs in the metabolically active/ detoxified pool of tissues, a one-compartmental toxicokinetic model can be applied when subcellular partitioning of metal NPs data would be available. The present review is an attempt to describe the nano-characteristics of toxicokinetics and subcellular partitioning on aquatic organisms with the help of the mechanistic modeling for NP size-dependent physiochemical properties and parameters. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models can provide an effective tool to estimate the time course of NP accumulation in target organs and is useful in quantitative risk assessments. NP accumulation in fish should take into account different effects of different NP sizes to better understand tissue accumulative capacities and dynamics. The size-dependent NP partition coefficient is a crucial parameter that influences tissue accumulation levels in PBPK modeling. Further research is needed to construct the effective systems-level oriented toxicokinetic model that can provide a useful tool to develop quantitatively the robustly approximate relations that convey a better insight into the impacts of environmental metal NPs on subcellular and tissue/organ responses in aquatic organisms.

  8. The involvement of metallothionein in the development of aquatic invertebrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan; Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)


    The many documents on metallothioneins (MTs) in aquatic organisms focus especially on their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs, but there are a few papers that summarize the physiological role of MTs in aquatic organisms especially in their development. The multifaceted role of MTs include involvement in homeostasis, protection against heavy metals and oxidant damage, metabolic regulation, sequestration and/or redox control. MTs could be induced by heavy metals which are able to hinder gametogenesis, suppress embryogenesis, and hamper development. Here we pay more attention on the non-essential metal cadmium, which is the most studied heavy metal regarding MTs, and its effects on the development of aquatic invertebrates. In this paper, we have collected published information on MTs in aquatic organisms - mollusks, crustaceans, etc., and summarize its functions in aquatic invertebrates, especially those related to their development.

  9. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  10. Aquatic Life Benchmarks (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the...

  11. Respiration in Aquatic Insects. (United States)

    MacFarland, John


    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  12. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  13. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study (United States)


    block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Allelopathy "Bioassay . Growth inhibition. Aquatic macrophytes. Biocontrol Lena minor 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...Bibliography of Aquatic Plant Allelopathy ........ Al 2 ALLELOPATHIC AQUATIC PLANTS FOR AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT; A FEASIBILITY STUDY Introduction Background 1...nutrients, water, and other biotic effects could have overriding effects that appear as competition or allelopathy . These biotic factors must be

  14. 水产食品特定腐败菌与货架期的预测和延长%Specific spoilage organisms from aquatic product and prediction & prolongation of the shelf life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宪时; 许钟; 肖琳琳


    Fresh fish and lightly preserved fish products are welcome by the global market, however, they are also among the most perishable food products. The research on specific spoilage organisms (SSO) reveals the spoilage process of aquatic product. This paper reviews the current knowledge (past ten years) on SSO of fresh fish and lightly preserved fish products with particular emphasis on characteristics of SSO and how to apply this concept to determine, predict and extend the shelf life of aquatic product. During storage, the microflora changes owing to different abilities of the microorganisms to tolerate the preservation conditions. SSO is defined as special microorganisms which can increase rapidly during preservation and has the ability to produce off- odours and off- flavours associated with spoilage, and spoilage metabolites. Identification of an SSO relies on comparison of the sensory and chemical characteristics of spoiled product with those of isolates from the spoilage microflora. Generally, the SSO of fresh fish may be a single species or genus, but the ones of lightly preserved fish products will be more complex. One exciting area for use of SSO aims to obtain quantitative knowledge about probable behavior of SSO and their function during the progression of spoilage. Thus mathematical models on the growth of SSO are established to evaluate the quality lost degree of product, which provide a sound information for the rational development of devices to monitor loss of products shelf life. Models for the growth of Pseudomonas spp, S. putrefaciens, P. phosphoreum have been established, and validated for shelf life prediction of seafood successfully. Another application field of SSO intends to develop the techniques to prolong the shelf life of food products by inhibiting SSO targetedly. Targeted inhibition of spoilage bacteria during preservation reduces their growth and results in a significant extension of shelf life in despite of the activity of non

  15. Microencapsulated bio-markers for assessment of stress conditions in aquatic organisms in vivo Microencapsulated bio-markers for assessment of stress conditions (United States)

    Sadovoy, A.; Teh, C.; Korzh, V.; Escobar, M.; Meglinski, I.


    Bio-compatible polyelectrolyte sub-micron micro-capsules have been developed and applied to deliver fluorescent dyes into zebrafish larvae heart via direct injection in pericardium in vivo. The capsules shell performed as a membrane is impermeable for florescence dyes suspended within the capsules and is permeable for the external environment. Thus, the direct contact of fluorescence dyes with cells/tissues is excluded and the issues associated with the toxicity of fluorescence dyes and their bio-compatibility can be omitted. The hybrid laser-scanning imaging system combined with the fluorescent microscope has been used to monitor the paths of micro-capsules within zebrafish circulation system. We demonstrate that micro-capsules circulate in tissues, including brain and trunk, with no blood flow disruptions or any other deleterious effect on its cardiac function. The developed approach has a great potential to use of encapsulated bio-markers as a diagnostic tool in vascular biology and medicine as well as for monitoring of aquatic pollution and ecological risk assessment in eco-toxicological studies.

  16. 环境水体微污染有机物及其去除技术研究进展%A review of organic micro pollutants in aquatic environment and its removal technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦乔; 周庆; 李爱民


    水体有机污染物因其生物毒性对人体健康和生态环境造成了严重的危害.随着环保技术的发展,高浓度有机污染物已得到很好的去除.检测水平的不断提高使微量有机污染物日益受到广泛关注.为了深入地研究微污染有机物及其去除技术,对微污染有机物的种类、性质和危害进行了详细阐述,并综述了国内外生物法、膜处理技术、高级氧化技术、吸附技术对微污染有机物的去除效果,总结了各种技术的优缺点.%Organic pollutants in aquatic environment are harmful to human health and ecological environment. With the development of environmental science and engineering, organic pollutants in high concentration have been well removed from the wastewater. Nowadays, organic micro pollutants have got more attention because of their known and unknown toxicity. In order to further study the organic micro pollutants and their removal technologies, the categories, properties and hazards of organic micro pollutants are introduced in details. Removal technologies of organic micro pollutants are reviewed, including biological technology, membrane technology, advanced oxidation technology and adsorption technology. The advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are summarized.

  17. 塔山水库春季水生生物特征调查%The Feature Investigation of the Aquatic Organisms in Tashan Reservior in Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金吉; 王波; 徐鑫; 钱入彬


    对塔山水库春季湖水中浮游生物、底栖动物和入湖河道水生维管植物的生物学性质进行了调查。结果表明,塔山水库浮游植物共7门60属130种,主要优势种类为小环藻、尖针杆藻、冰岛直链藻等8种;共鉴定浮游动物5大类25种,主要优势种类为幼虫、独角聚花轮虫、浮游累枝虫、缩钟虫等;共鉴定底栖动物2大类,2种;浮游植物单位体积内 Chla为6.06~15.33 mg/m3,最高生产层日产量(以碳计)为0.26~0.65 g /(m3· d),水柱日产量(以碳计)为0.78~1.06 g /(m2·d);共记录水生维管植物9种,优势种为空心莲子草、浮萍、菹草和紫萍。塔山水库水质处于中度及以上富营养化水平。%To understand the ecosystem of the spring lake water in Tashan Reservoir,we conducted a research on the biological property of plankton and benthic fauna in the reservoir area and aquatic vascular plant in the inflowing river in this article.The result indicates that there are 7 phyla,60 genera and 1 30 species of phytoplankton,with 8 advantageous species such as Cyclotella,Syne-dra affinis and Melosira islandica;there are 5 classes of zooplankton tested,with 25 advantageous species such as larva,Conochilus unicornis,Wpistylis lacustris and Vorticella abbreviate;there are 2 species of benthic fauna in 2 classes tested.Phytoplankton′s chlo-rophyll content per unit volume ranges from 6.06 to 15.33 mg/m3,the daily yield of the highest productive layer is between 0.26 and 0.65 g/(m3 ·d),and the daily yield of water column is from 0.78 to 1 .06 g/(m2 ·d).There are 9 species of aquatic vascu-lar plant recorded,and the advantageous species are Alternanthera philoxeroide,Lemna minor,Potamogeton crispus and Spirodela polyrhiz.The indexes have shown that the water quality of Tashan Reservoir during the research period was moderate or above mod-erate level of eutrophication,and the main pollution came from the

  18. Preliminary ecological risk assessment of butylparaben and benzylparaben -1. Removal efficiency in wastewater treatment, acute/chronic toxicity for aquatic organisms, and effects on medaka gene expression. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mikako; Hirata, Yoshiko; Nakamura, Yuki; Nakamura, Yudai; Kitani, Chise; Sekizawa, Jun; Uchida, Masaya; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Koshio, Masaaki; Hirai, Narisato; Tatarazako, Norihisa


    Butylparaben and benzylparaben, used as preservatives mainly in cosmetic products, have recently been found to be weakly estrogenic. Batch activated-sludge treatment and batch chlorination were carried out to roughly determine the removal efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant. Combining the removal efficiency with the estimated annual consumption and the unaltered excretion ratio, the maximum predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was estimated. Conventional acute/chronic toxicity tests were conducted using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), daphnia (Daphnia magna), and green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) for n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben. Medaka vitellogenin assays were also conducted for the three compounds and DNA microarray analysis was carried out to examine the effects of benzylparaben on gene expression. The plasma vitellogenin concentration of male medaka increased for concentrations of 200, 100, and 100 microg L(-1) n-butylparaben, i-butylparaben, and benzylparaben for 14 days, respectively, while the expression levels of genes encoding proteins such as p53, cytochrome P450 3A40, and choriogenin-L increased for concentrations higher than 4 microg L(-1) of benzylparaben. Furthermore, the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was calculated using the lethal or effect concentration 50 (LC50 or EC50) values and no-effect concentrations (NOECs) obtained in the toxicity tests for these compounds. The maximum concentrations found in the aquatic environment or sewage effluent (MEC eff) were used to carry out preliminary environmental risk assessment. The calculated MEC/PNEC ratio suggests the necessity of further study such as a more detailed large-scale monitoring and chronic toxicity tests including reproduction inhibition and endocrine disruption.

  19. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon and selected fish-forage organisms (aquatic insects) in the upper Sacramento River, California (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Thompson, Larry D.; Walsh, Daniel


    This study assessed the downstream extent andseverity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)contamination from acid mine drainage on juvenile chinook salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and aquatic insects over aroughly 270-km reach of the Sacramento River below KeswickReservoir. During April–May 1998, salmon were collected fromfour sites in the river and from a fish hatchery that receiveswater from Battle Creek. Salmon from river sites were examinedfor gut contents to document their consumption of variousinvertebrate taxa, whereas salmon from river sites and thehatchery were used for metal determinations. Midge(Chironomidae) and caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae and mayfly(Ephemeroptera) nymphs were collected for metal determinationsduring April–June from river sites and from Battle and Buttecreeks. The fish hatchery and Battle and Butte creeks served asreference sites because they had no history of receiving minedrainage. Salmon consumed mostly midge larvae and pupae (44.0%,damp-dry biomass), caddisfly larvae (18.9%), Cladocera (5.8%),and mayfly nymphs (5.7%). These results demonstrated thatinsects selected for metal determinations were important as fishforage. Dry-weight concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn weregenerally far higher in salmon and insects from the river thanfrom reference sites. Within the river, high metalconcentrations persisted as far downstream as South Meridian (thelowermost sampling site). Maximum concentrations of Cd (30.7 μg g-1) and Zn (1230 μg g-1),but not Cu (87.4 μg g-1), in insects exceeded amounts that other investigators reported as toxic when fed for prolonged periods to juvenile salmonids.

  20. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  1. Aquatic Equipment Information. (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  2. Delayed XBT data from the Southern Surveyor, collected by Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), and submitted to the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP), date range from 02/07/2009 - 03/14/2009 (NODC Accession 0059379) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected in the Pacific Ocean aboard the Southern Surveyor from 07 February to 14 March 2009. Data were submitted by the CommonWealth Scientific...

  3. Toxicity of [C_8mim]PF_6 to aquatic organisms%离子液体[C_8mim]PF_6对水生生物的毒性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牧辉; 彭新晶; 戴宁; 陈继; 张凤君


    Three standard test methods for evaluating the toxicity of chemicals to aquatic organisms were applied to assess the toxic effects of l-octyl-3-methylimidazolium PF_6([C_8mim]PF_6)on the three aquatic organisms: Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna and zebra fish. Growth and chlorophyll a content of C. vulgaris were inhibited in the experimental content of [C_8mim]PF_6, the inhibiting effect increased significantly with increasing concentrations, and the toxic effects on chlorophyll a content were stronger than that of growth. The C. vulgaris cell even would be lethal in the higher concentration group (200mg/L). The toxic effects of [C_8mim] PF_6 was high-toxic to Daphnia magna, while was low-toxic to zebra fish, and the 48h LC_(50) and 96h LC_(50) was 4.47mg/L and 126.08mg/L, respectively. EC50/LC50 changed regularly with the test time. Maybe the two main reasons leading to the potential threat to the aquatic organisms were the affinity of [C_8mim]PF_6 with algae and lipophilic property itself.%运用评价化学品对水生生物毒性的标准试验方法,探讨离子液体1-辛基-3-甲基-咪唑六氟磷酸盐([C_8mim]PF_6)对普通小球藻、大型蚤和斑马鱼的毒性影响.结果表明,[C_8mim]PF_6在实验浓度下,对普通小球藻的生长和叶绿素a的产生均有抑制作用,浓度越高抑制作用越明显,且对叶绿素a含量的影响更为显著.高浓度组(200mg/L)可致死部分小球藻细胞;[C_8mim]PF_6对大型蚤的48h LC50为4.47mg/L,属于高毒性;[C_8mim]PF_6对斑马鱼的96h LC50为126.08mg/L,属于低毒性.[C_8mim]PF_6对这3种水生生物的抑制率/致死率(EC50/LC50)随时间呈规律性变化.[C_8mim]PF_6与藻类的亲和性及其亲脂特性可能是其对水生生物存在潜在毒性的2个主要原因.

  4. Introduced aquatic plants and algae (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  5. Aquatic Plants and their Control. (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  6. DIALOG: Fostering Early Career Development Across the Aquatic Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Susan Weiler, PhD


    year increasing numbers of graduates take advantage of the opportunity to be part of this international collection, and more scientists, employers and administrators use this resource to identify recent graduates and get an overview of their work. Dissertation abstracts are submitted on line and immediately posted on the ASLO web site in a format that can be searched by year, name, and key words ( In addition to the recognition, program participants receive a compilation of abstracts, a directory, and a demographic profile of their cohort. An electronic distribution list keeps recent grads informed about job opportunities, resources, recent advances across the aquatic sciences, and-other research and professional news. Finally, the interdisciplinary symposium offers a unique opportunity for grads to get to know each other and share common experiences, and address the challenges and opportunities facing new professionals. The DIALOG Program is a long-term investment in human resources and science infrastructure. The most interesting and important questions in aquatic and other sciences are increasingly interdisciplinary and this program brings together scientists from across the full spectrum of biologically relevant aquatic science. The DIALOG database will become increasingly useful as more graduates participate. While the full impact of the program will probably not be realized for many years, there have already been many tangible results. Several interdisciplinary (including some international) research collaborations have been started; an international student exchange program has been set up at two institutions; several workshops and meeting sessions have been organized; and the entire group continues to communicate about research, education, and science policy issues via an electronic distribution list. The goal of the DIALOG symposium is to foster cross-disciplinary and international understanding and interactions at an early career stage

  7. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Aquatic Genotoxicity Using the Comet Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Comet assay is a novel biological analysis, which is a sensitive, flexible, simple, rapid, and inexpensive method to assess aquatic genotoxicant. Since Singh and co-workers developed the method in 1988, its use has increased exponentially in various fields. This review discourses on the application of this assay in aquatic ecosystems. Various types of cells from various aquatic organisms have been tested by various genotoxicant both direct- and indirect-acting using the comet assay. The applications of this assay suggest that it is a useful assay to assess aquatic genotoxicants. However, there are some factors, which should be taken into account when using this assay as aquatic ecotoxicological assessment device such as inter-animal and cell variability.

  8. A quantication of photoproduction of CO2 throughout the water column by degradation of terrigenous organic compounds present in the dissolved form for aquatic ecosystems of the boreal region in Quebec (United States)

    Plouhinec, J.; Lucotte, M. M.; Ouellet, A.; Gelinas, Y.


    This study focuses on the quantity of CO2 produced by photodegradation in various pristine and disrupted water bodies. Photodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the water column was evaluated in relation to two environmental factors e.g., the presence or absence of logging on the watershed and the contrast between natural lakes and hydroelectric reservoirs. Water samples were irradiated after filtration under 0,2µm, and subsequently analyzed for their CO2 production. Mean energy normalized for the spectral energy exposed to samples was determined to evaluate the photoreactivity of DOM under similar exposure conditions. In complement, organic matter samples had been concentrated via reverse osmosis. We then characterized the origin of DOM present in the water column with lignin biomarkers. Our results confirmed that the photomineralization increased significantly with DOM concentration. The daily photodegradation production was strikingly different in natural lakes and hydroelectric reservoirs. Average springtime and summertime production was evaluated at 5.45 ± 5.61 µmol.L-1.d-1 for lakes, compared to 14.21 ± 8.77 µmol.L-1.d-1 for boreal reservoirs. A similar comparison between ecosystems affected and unaffected by logging, also showed contrasting results for the photodegradation of DOM. Moreover, our lignin biomarkers increased significantly with CO2 generation. It thus appears that allochthonous organic matter strongly influences CO2 photoproduction. Finally, we evaluated the Photochemical Contribution to CO2 diffusive Fluxes (PCFCO2) between 14% and 32% depending on the degree of perturbation of the aquatic system.

  9. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: The Habitat Value of Aquatic Macrophytes for Macroinvertebrates (United States)


    feed on abunaant organisms provided that they are palatable. Notable predators occur among the orders Coleoptera (beetles), Odonata (damselflies and...Westfall, M. J., Jr. 1984. " Odonata ," An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, 2d ed., R. W. Merritt and K. W. Cummins, eds., Kendall

  10. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan


    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  11. Simultaneous determination of the Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, nearly microscopic, nanoliter-volume aquatic organisms (Hyalella azteca) by rhenium-cup in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and axially viewed ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrea T.; Badiei, Hamid R.; Karanassios, Vassili [University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Evans, J. Catherine [University of Waterloo, Department of Biology, Waterloo, ON (Canada)


    The Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, up to 7-day-old aquatic organisms (Hyalella aztecabenthic amphipod) with an average volume of approximately 100 nL was determined simultaneously by using rhenium-cup (Re-cup) in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and an axially viewed inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) system. The direct elemental analysis capabilities of this system (i.e., no sample digestion) reduced sample preparation time, eliminated contamination concerns from the digestion reagent and, owing to its detection limits (e.g., in the low pg range for Cd and Zn), vit enabled simultaneous determinations of Cd and Zn in individual, neonate and young juvenile specimens barely visible to the unaided eye (e.g., nearly microscopic). As for calibration, liquid standards and the standard additions method were tested. Both methods gave comparable results, thus indicating that in this case liquid standards can be employed for calibration, and in the process making use of the standard additions method unnecessary. Overall, the ITV-ICP-AES approach by-passed the time-consuming acid digestions, eliminated the potential for contamination from the digestion reagents, improved considerably the speed of acquisition of analytical information and enabled simultaneous determinations of two elements using individual biological specimens. (orig.)

  12. Congener-specific analysis of the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by aquatic organisms in the maximum turbidity zone of the St. Lawrence estuary, Québec, Canada. (United States)

    Gagnon, M M; Dodson, J J; Comba, M E; Kaiser, K L


    The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of the biota of the St. Lawrence estuary maximum turbidity zone (MTZ) was investigated. The species analyzed consist of zooplankton (mostly Neomysis americana), larval smelt (Osmerus mordax), juvenile smelt, juvenile tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) and adult smelt, tomcod and capelin (Mallotus villosus). A significant increase in total PCB contamination from zooplankton to all fish developmental stages indicates that the St. Lawrence MTZ is a site of significant PCB contamination. The total PCB contamination of adult smelt and tomcod sampled in the St. Lawrence MTZ was greater than the limit of 0.1 ppm set by the International Joint Commission for the protection of predators. For zooplankton, tomcod and capelin, significant correlations were found between lipid content and PCB contamination. The congener-specific analyses showed that the bioconcentration factor of the individual congeners varied with the species involved and with the molecular structure of the congener. It was found that the chlorine atoms in positions 2, 4 and 5 on at least one phenyl ring of the PCB molecule was a dominant factor causing accumulation of PCBs in aquatic organisms. The pattern of PCB congeners found in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) whale tissues is similar to the PCB pattern found in the St. Lawrence estuary MTZ biota.

  13. Effects of Tidal Turbine Noise on Fish Task Effects on Aquatic Organisms: Acoustics/Noise - Fiscal Year 2011 - Progress Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Michele B.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Copping, Andrea E.


    Naturally spawning stocks of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that utilize Puget Sound are listed as threatened ( Chinook/CKPUG.cfm). Plans exist for prototype tidal turbines to be deployed into their habitat. Noise is known to affect fish in many ways, such as causing a threshold shift in auditory sensitivity or tissue damage. The characteristics of noise, its spectra and level, are important factors that influence the potential for the noise to injure fish. For example, the frequency range of the tidal turbine noise includes the audiogram (frequency range of hearing) of most fish. This study (Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask Acoustics) was performed during FY 2011 to determine if noise generated by a 6-m-diameter open-hydro turbine might affect juvenile Chinook salmon hearing or cause barotrauma. After they were exposed to simulated tidal turbine noise, the hearing of juvenile Chinook salmon was measured and necropsies performed to check for tissue damage. Experimental groups were (1) noise exposed, (2) control (the same handling as treatment fish but without exposure to tidal turbine noise), and (3) baseline (never handled). Preliminary results indicate that low levels of tissue damage may have occurred but that there were no effects of noise exposure on the auditory systems of the test fish.

  14. Desempenho do pimentão em cultivo orgânico, submetido ao desbaste e consórcio Performance of sweet pepper under organic cultivation, submitted to intercropping with crotalaria and branch pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcius Nei Zanin Cesar


    Full Text Available As cultivares de pimentão Magali R e Magda Super foram comparadas no sistema orgânico de produção, consorciadas ou não com crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, e sem desbaste de ramos ou desbastadas a partir da terceira ramificação. A produtividade, em frutos de padrão comercial, alcançou média geral de 37 t ha-1, com o máximo próximo de 43 t ha-1. O híbrido Magali R produziu frutos mais pesados e longos do que a cultivar Magda Super. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre as duas cultivares com relação à produtividade. Os frutos, tanto de Magali R quanto de Magda Super, ultrapassaram em média os 10 cm de comprimento mínimo para atingir a cotação " extra" de mercado. O número de frutos por planta aumentou nas parcelas não desbastadas, independentemente do consórcio. O desbaste de ramos reduziu o diâmetro basal médio, mas elevou o peso médio dos frutos, não influindo porém na produtividade. O híbrido Magali R apresentou apenas 15% de plantas com sintomas de mosaico, ao final do ciclo produtivo, contra 38% referentes à cv. Magda Super. O consórcio com a leguminosa resultou em ganho de produtividade e aumentou o comprimento dos frutos. Com a inclusão da crotalária, houve incremento do teor de nitrogênio nos frutos, bem como da quantidade desse elemento exportada na colheita.Sweet pepper cultivars Magali R and Magda Super under organic management were compared, intercropped or not with Crotalaria juncea, and submitted or not to pruning starting from the third branch. Average yield of commercial fruits was 37 t ha-1 with maximum value of 43 t ha-1. The hybrid Magali R produced heavier and longer fruits than cv. Magda Super. However, no significant difference of productivity was found between cultivars. Fruits of both Magali R and Magda Super reached more than 10 cm of average length, the minimum required for highest market standard. The number of fruits increased in plants not submitted to pruning

  15. Development of the Gecko (Pachydactylus turneri) Animal Model during Foton M-2 to Study Comparative Effects of Microgravity in Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms (United States)

    Almeida, E. A.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Gulimova, V.; Saveliev, S.; Tairbekov, M.; Iwaniec, U. T.; McNamra, A. J.; Turner, R. T.


    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight experience degeneration in bone, muscle, and possibly other tissues that require gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for normal regenerative growth. In the Gecko experiment aboard Foton M-2, we flew for the first time, five terrestrial Pachydactylus turneri specimens to develop a model of microgravity effects comparable to the newt Pleurodeles waltl, a well-established model organism for spaceflight. These lower vertebrate species have similar body plans and size, are poikilothermic, have tissue regenerative ability, and are adapted to moderate periods of fasting. Furthermore the gecko (Pachydactylus) can also survive prolonged periods without water. In pre-flight control experiments and after a 16-day Foton M-2 spaceflight without food or water, the geckos were recovered and showed no apparent negative health effects. However, detailed analysis of bone mass and architecture by micro Computed Tomography { pCT), showed that both synchronous control and spaceflight animals lost significant amounts of cancellous bone in the distal femur and humerus relative to basal controls. In addition, cell cycle analysis of 30h post-flight liver tissue reveals a shift of DNA content from G2 and S to G1, both in spaceflight and synchronous controls. Together, these results suggest that housing conditions alone induce rapid catabolism of cancellous bone and reduced normal tissue regeneration. Further use of the gecko Puchydactylus turneri as a spaceflight model requires modification of housing conditions, possibly by including water and food, or changing other factors such as eliminating housing stresses to obtain stable bone structure and tissue regeneration during spaceflight experiments.

  16. In vivo estimation of pigment composition and optical absorption cross-section by spectroradiometry in four aquatic photosynthetic micro-organisms. (United States)

    Méléder, Vona; Laviale, Martin; Jesus, Bruno; Mouget, Jean Luc; Lavaud, Johann; Kazemipour, Farzaneh; Launeau, Patrick; Barillé, Laurent


    The objective of the present study was to estimate in vivo pigment composition and to retrieve absorption cross-section values, a(∗), of photosynthetic micro-organisms using a non-invasive technique of reflectance spectrometry. To test the methodology, organisms from different taxonomical groups and different pigment composition were used (Spirulina platensis a Cyanophyta, Porphyridium cruentum a Rhodophyta, Dunaliella tertiolecta a Chlorophyta and Entomoneis paludosa a Bacillariophyta) and photoacclimated to two different irradiance levels: 25 μmol photonm(-2)s(-1) (Low Light, LL) and 500 μmol photonm(-2)s(-1) (High Light, HL). Second derivative spectra from reflectance were used to identify pigment in vivo absorption bands that were linked to specific pigments detected by high performance liquid chromatography. Whereas some absorption bands such as those induced by Chlorophyll (Chl) a (416, 440, 625 and around 675 nm) were ubiquous, others were taxonomically specific (e.g. 636 nm for Chl c in E. paludosa) and/or photo-physiological dependent (e.g. 489 nm for zeaxanthin in the HL-acclimated S. platensis). The optical absorption cross-section, a(∗), was retrieved from reflectance data using a radiative transfer model previously developed for microphytobenthos. Despite the cellular Chl a decrease observed from LL to HL (up to 88% for S. platensis), the a(∗) increased, except for P. cruentum. This was attributed to a 'package effect' and to a greater absorption by photoprotective carotenoids that did not contribute to the energy transfer to the core Chl a.

  17. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health (United States)

    Panek, Frank


    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  18. 水产品特定腐败菌研究进展%Research Advances on Specific Spoilage Organisms of Aquatic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    对国内外水产品特定腐败菌(specific spoilage organism,SSO)的究进展进行综述.在有氧冷藏中,水产鲜品最常见的SSO为假单胞菌(Pseudomonas spp.)与腐败希瓦氏菌(Shewanella putrefaciens).真空冷藏或气调包装水产品的SSO,国内外一致报道的有磷发光杆菌(Photobacterium phosphoreum)、乳酸菌(Lactobacillus)和肠杆菌(Enterobacteriaceae).温和加工水产品的SSO的情况较为复杂,通常为乳酸菌(Lactobacillus)、磷发光杆菌(Photobacterium phosphoreum)、肠杆菌(Enterobacteriaceae)等.SSO的应用领域之一是建立SSO数学模型,预测产品的腐败进程与剩余货架期;应用领域之二是靶向抑制SSO,延长货架期.

  19. One-step synthesis of polydispersed silver nanocrystals using Malva sylvestris: an eco-friendly mosquito larvicide with negligible impact on non-target aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni


    The synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles is evergreen branch of nanoscience with a growing number of biomedical implications. In this study, we investigated the synthesis of polydisperse and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap leaf extract of Malva sylvestris (Malvaceae). Bio-reduced AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity of M. sylvestris leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, AgNP showed higher toxicity against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 10.33, 11.23, and 12.19 μg/mL, respectively. Green-synthesized AgNP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 813.16 to 1044.52 μg/mL. Overall, this research firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of M. sylvestris, a potential bio-resource for rapid, cheap and effective synthesis of polydisperse and highly stable silver nanocrystals.

  20. Algal Bloom in Aquatic Ecosystems-an Overview


    M. Ghorbani; S.A. Mirbagheri; A. H. Hasani; S. M. Monavari; J.Nouri


    Algae play an important role in all aquatic ecosystems by providing all living organisms of water bodies with preliminary nutrients and energy required. However, abnormal and excessive algal growth so-called algal bloom would be detrimental as much. Given the importance of algae in aquatic environment as well as their sensitivity to environmental changes, algal measurements are of key components of water quality monitoring programs. The algal blooms could include a variety of adverse impacts...

  1. Pain in aquatic animals. (United States)

    Sneddon, Lynne U


    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  2. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces (United States)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.


    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  3. 75 FR 53273 - Federal Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Risk Analysis Protocol (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... aquatic nuisance species, which shall be administered through the National Sea Grant College Program and... comments and make revisions, as appropriate, to the Protocol before going final. You may submit a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiber Pessoa Borges


    Full Text Available High population growth and densities in urban areas and the consumerism present in modern societies have pronounced effect on the generation of organic waste, which may become an environmental problem. Aerobic composting is one of the best known alternatives to treating these wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of composting as an alternative to the disposal of organic wastes from aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata collected in the reservoir UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, Tocantins, Brazil and also produce an organic compound from different combinations of macrophytes, prunning residues and organic waste generated by the Campus of Palmas of UFT, TO. The study was conducted in an area of 80m² in unprotected environment at the experimental station of the Campus of Palmas. The experiments were done as three replications in the dry season (from 18.09.2008 to 11.21.2008 and rainy season (from 03.09.2009 to 05.04.2009 and the parameters temperature, pH, total nitrogen and carbon, and organic matter were monitored along with counts of microorganisms. It was possible to produce compost from the combinations of organic wastes within 65 days of composting during the dry season and 55 days in the rainy season. The aquatic macrophytes resulted in a good raw material for composting, since there is not a destination for the excess plant materials removed by the cleaning process of the reservoir.

  5. Distribuição de agregados e carbono orgânico em um Argissolo Amarelo distrocoeso em diferentes manejos Distribution of aggregates and organic carbon in an Ultisol submitted to different managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronildo S. Oliveira


    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar a estabilidade e a distribuição de agregados em um Argissolo Amarelo distrocoeso comparando-se os valores de uma área de mata nativa (MA, com três áreas cultivadas com cana-de-açúcar sendo uma sem irrigação (MSI, uma com irrigação (MCI e outra sob fertirrigação com vinhaça (MCV. O solo das três áreas cultivadas foi submetido ao mesmo tipo de preparo: gradagem pesada, gradagem leve e subsolagem. Amostras de solo com estrutura indeformada na área de mata e de cada área cultivada foram coletadas para determinação da estabilidade de agregados, expressa pelo diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP, índice de estabilidade de agregados (IEA, módulo de finura (MF, porcentagem de agregados estáveis em água com diâmetros maiores que 2,0 mm (AGRI e valores de carbono total. Os distintos tipos de manejo do solo com cana-de-açúcar promoveram perda da estabilidade de agregados com o aumento da profundidade. A estabilidade de agregados foi reduzida em relação à mata nativa na sequência: MA > MCV > MCI > MSI. Registraram-se, na área sem irrigação (MSI os menores índices de agregação, em que na submetida a fertirrigação com vinhaça (MCV os valores foram semelhantes aos da área de mata nativa apresentando maior índice de estabilidade de agregados em água. Correlações significativas e positivas foram obtidas entre carbono orgânico total e os índices de agregação do solo (DMP > AGRI > MF > IEA sob diferentes situações de manejo.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the stability and aggregate distribution of an Ultisol submitted to different management systems under sugarcane cultivation. Evaluated areas consisted of native forest (MA and sugarcane managed areas with irrigation (MCI, vinasse irrigation (MCV and without irrigation (MSI. Management of the areas followed the same conventional preparation: heavy and light harrowing and subsoiling. Undeformed soil samples

  6. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes? (United States)

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony


    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals.

  7. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code. (United States)

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F


    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples.

  8. Proceedings of the 36. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, L.; Triffault-Bouchet, G. [Centre d' expertise en analyse environnementale du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Fournier, M. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, Laval, PQ (Canada). Inst. Armand Frappier; Berryman, D.; Guay, I. [Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Campbell, P.G.C. [Quebec Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Eau, Terre et Environnement; Lebeuf, M.; Couillard, C. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne; Parent, L. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Pellerin, J. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski; Benoit, P. [Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs du Quebec, Longueil, PQ (Canada); Lacroix, E. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Burridge, L.E. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. Andrews, NB (Canada)] (eds.)


    This workshop was held to discuss topics related to aquatic and environmental toxicology. Principles, issues, and recent innovations in aquatic toxicology were reviewed. New developments in environmental monitoring were discussed, as well as issues related to environmental regulation. The workshop was attended by a range of stakeholders from governments, universities, and industry. The sessions were entitled: legacy contaminants 1 organics; nanotoxicology; environmental effects monitoring; oil sands; BFR and other emerging contaminants; biomarkers; neuro and endocrine disrupting compounds; remediation of degraded aquatic environments; legacy contaminants 2 hydrocarbons; waterborne and diet-borne metals; water and sediment standards and criteria; pesticides; amphibians and wildlife toxicology; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 2; environmental risk assessment; genomics, protemics, and metabolomics; contamination in the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine park; legacy contaminants 3 organics and metals; community level indicators; toxicity tests; toxicity mechanisms; areas of concern; general aquatic toxicology; general legacy contaminants; emerging contaminants; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 1; omics in aquatic ecotoxicology; organism or population level indicators; and toxicity tests. The workshop featured 250 presentations, of which 24 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  9. Proactive aquatic ecotoxicological assessment of room-temperature ionic liquids (United States)

    Kulacki, K.J.; Chaloner, D.T.; Larson, J.H.; Costello, D.M.; Evans-White, M. A.; Docherty, K.M.; Bernot, R.J.; Brueseke, M.A.; Kulpa, C.F.; Lamberti, G.A.


    Aquatic environments are being contaminated with a myriad of anthropogenic chemicals, a problem likely to continue due to both unintentional and intentional releases. To protect valuable natural resources, novel chemicals should be shown to be environmentally safe prior to use and potential release into the environment. Such proactive assessment is currently being applied to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). Because most ILs are water-soluble, their effects are likely to manifest in aquatic ecosystems. Information on the impacts of ILs on numerous aquatic organisms, focused primarily on acute LC50 and EC50 endpoints, is now available, and trends in toxicity are emerging. Cation structure tends to influence IL toxicity more so than anion structure, and within a cation class, the length of alkyl chain substituents is positively correlated with toxicity. While the effects of ILs on several aquatic organisms have been studied, the challenge for aquatic toxicology is now to predict the effects of ILs in complex natural environments that often include diverse mixtures of organisms, abiotic conditions, and additional stressors. To make robust predictions about ILs will require coupling of ecologically realistic laboratory and field experiments with standard toxicity bioassays and models. Such assessments would likely discourage the development of especially toxic ILs while shifting focus to those that are more environmentally benign. Understanding the broader ecological effects of emerging chemicals, incorporating that information into predictive models, and conveying the conclusions to those who develop, regulate, and use those chemicals, should help avoid future environmental degradation. ?? 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  10. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group (United States)

    Meyers, D.


    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  11. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  12. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj


    Many terrestrial plant canopies regulate spatial patterns in leaf density and leaf inclination to distribute light evenly between the photosynthetic tissue and to optimize light utilization efficiency. Sessile aquatic macrophytes, however, cannot maintain the same well-defined three......-dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  13. Aquatic Remediation of Communication Disorders. (United States)

    Smith, Virginia M.


    A 10-day aquatics program for learning disabled children with hand-eye coordination problems and low self-esteem is described. Activities for each session (including relaxation exercises) are listed. (CL)

  14. DIALOG: Fostering Early Career Development Across the Aquatic Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Susan Weiler, PhD


    year increasing numbers of graduates take advantage of the opportunity to be part of this international collection, and more scientists, employers and administrators use this resource to identify recent graduates and get an overview of their work. Dissertation abstracts are submitted on line and immediately posted on the ASLO web site in a format that can be searched by year, name, and key words ( In addition to the recognition, program participants receive a compilation of abstracts, a directory, and a demographic profile of their cohort. An electronic distribution list keeps recent grads informed about job opportunities, resources, recent advances across the aquatic sciences, and-other research and professional news. Finally, the interdisciplinary symposium offers a unique opportunity for grads to get to know each other and share common experiences, and address the challenges and opportunities facing new professionals. The DIALOG Program is a long-term investment in human resources and science infrastructure. The most interesting and important questions in aquatic and other sciences are increasingly interdisciplinary and this program brings together scientists from across the full spectrum of biologically relevant aquatic science. The DIALOG database will become increasingly useful as more graduates participate. While the full impact of the program will probably not be realized for many years, there have already been many tangible results. Several interdisciplinary (including some international) research collaborations have been started; an international student exchange program has been set up at two institutions; several workshops and meeting sessions have been organized; and the entire group continues to communicate about research, education, and science policy issues via an electronic distribution list. The goal of the DIALOG symposium is to foster cross-disciplinary and international understanding and interactions at an early career stage

  15. Aquatic Ecotoxicity Testing of Nanoparticles—The Quest To Disclose Nanoparticle Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Hartmann, Nanna B.;


    tests is high, and in most cases difficult to assess. This Review outlines some of the pitfalls in the aquatic toxicity testing of ENPs which may lead to misinterpretation of test results. Response types are also proposed to reveal potential nanoparticle effects in the aquatic test organisms....

  16. Bioavailability and Bioaccumulation of Metal-Based Engineered Nanomaterials in Aquatic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luoma, Samuel; Khan, Farhan R.; Croteau, Marie-Noelle


    Bioavailability of Me-ENMs to aquatic organisms links their release into the environment to ecological implications. Close examination shows some important differences in the conceptual models that define bioavailability for metals and Me-ENMs. Metals are delivered to aquatic animals from Me-ENMs...

  17. Alteração da atividade enzimática em organismos aquáticos por poluentes de origem agrícola: uma abordagem geral e sobre a suscetibilidade da fosfatase ácida Alteration of enzymatic activity in aquatic organisms by agricultural pollutants: a general approach and the susceptibility of the acid phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Martín Jonsson


    Full Text Available The input of agrochemicals in the aquatic compartment can results in biochemical injuries for living organisms. In this context, the knowledge of alterations of enzymatic activities due the presence of agriculture pollutants contributes for the elucidation of the mechanisms of toxicity, implementation of economic methods for monitoring purposes and establishment of maximum allowed concentrations. In the present work, the above considerations are discussed, and data concerning changes in enzymatic function by pesticides and fertilizer contaminants are reviewed. Also, we focused on the acid phosphatase due its susceptibility to several pollutants and diversity in cellular functions.

  18. Biosecurity in aquatic animal facilities: concepts and examples (United States)

    Biosecurity includes measures to minimize the risk of introduction and spread of infectious organisms within or between aquatic animal populations. Biosecurity measures at the site level include bioexclusion, within-site infectious disease control and biocontainment. This talk will focus on bioexclu...

  19. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France. (United States)

    St-Pierre, S; Chambers, D B; Lowe, L M; Bontoux, J G


    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media (water, sediments, and aquatic organisms) of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed (whole body) dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 microGy h(-1). These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations (about 400 microGy h(-1)), and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations (about 100 microGy h(-1)). As a result, chronic levels of radioactivity, artificial and natural, measured in aquatic media downstream of Marcoule are unlikely to result in adverse health impacts on the categories and species of aquatic organisms studied. Thus, based on the screening level analysis discussed in this paper, a more detailed evaluation of the dose rates does not appear to be warranted.

  20. 青海省黑河上游水生生物的调查研究%Investigation on aquatic organisms in the upper stream of Heihe River in Qinghai Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文家; 赵霞; 张妹婷


    于2010年5月对青海省黑河上游水生生物进行了调查,共采集到浮游植物4门39种,其中硅藻门25种,占64.10%,绿藻门7种,占17.95%,蓝藻门6种,占15.39%,隐藻门1种,占2.56%;浮游植物数量为23.63 ~ 137.66万个/L,平均为91.30万个/L,生物量为0.1796~1.0841 mg/L,平均为0.7306mg/L.采集到浮游动物3类13种,其中原生动物5种,占38.46%,轮虫7种,占53.85%,桡足类1种,占7.69%;浮游动物数量为1.52~ 11.22个/L,平均为6.06个/L,生物量为0.0076~0.0957 mg/L,平均为0.0353 mg/L.采集到鱼类4种,黄河裸裂尻鱼Schizopygopsis pylzovi Kessler为新增补记录.物种丰富度指数(D)为0.5247,香农-纳威生物多样性指数(H)为0.7887,物种丰富度和生物多样性指数均偏低.%An investigation on aquatic organisms was conducted in the upper stream of Heihe River in Qinghai Province, China, in May 2010. There were 39 phytoplankton species belonging to Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Cryptophyta, including 25 diatoms, accounting for 64. 10% of the total amount; 7 green algae, accounting for 17. 95% ; and 6 blue green algae, account for 15. 39%. The amount of the algae was varied from 236 300 ind./L to 1 376 600 ind./L with an average of 913 000 ind./L, while the biomass was arranged from 0. 1796 mg/L to 1.0841 mg/L with an average of 0.7306 mg/L. There were 13 species zooplankton, including 5 species protozoan accounting for 38. 64% , 7 species rotifers accounting for 53. 85% and 1 species copepod accounting for 7. 69 % . The amount of zooplankton was varied from 1.52 ind. /L to 11.22 ind. /L with an average of 6.06 ind. /L, while the biomass was ranged from 0.0076 mg/L to 0.0957 mg/L with an average of 0.0353 mg/L. Four species of fishes were found, among which Schizopygopsis pylzovi Kessler was the new recorded species in this region. The Richness index (D) was found to be 0.5247, Shannon-Wiener index (H) 0.7887, indicating that both the Richness index (D

  1. Aquatic animal telemetry: A panoramic window into the underwater world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussey, Nigel E.; Kessel, Steven T.; Aarestrup, Kim;


    providing unprecedented ecological insights by connecting animal movements with measures of their physiology and environment. These developments are revolutionizing the scope and scale of questions that can be asked about the causes and consequences of movement and are redefining how we view and manage......The distribution and interactions of aquatic organisms across space and time structure our marine, freshwater, and estuarine ecosystems. Over the past decade, technological advances in telemetry have transformed our ability to observe aquatic animal behavior and movement. These advances are now...

  2. Aquatic plants for removal of mevinphos from the aquatic environment (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.


    Fragrant waterlily (Nymphaea odorata, Ait.), joint-grass (Paspalum distichum L.), and rush (Juncus repens, Michx.) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of vascular aquatic plants in removing the insecticide mevinphos (dimethyl-1-carbomethoxy-1propen-2-yl phosphate) from waters contaminated with this chemical. The emersed aquatic plants fragrant waterlily and joint-grass removed 87 and 93 ppm of mevinphos from water test systems in less than 2 weeks without apparent damage to the plants; whereas rush, a submersed plant, removed less insecticide than the water-soil controls. Water-soil control still contained toxic levels of this insecticide, as demonstrated by fish bioassay studies, after 35 days.

  3. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient (United States)

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.


    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  4. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring. (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A


    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  5. An evaluation of the aquatic hazard of cumene (isopropyl benzene). (United States)

    Glickman, A H; Alexander, H C; Buccafusco, R J; Morris, C R; Francis, B O; Surprenant, D C; Ward, T J


    Cumene manufacturers were required under a TSCA Section 4(a) test rule to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of cumene to daphnids, rainbow trout, mysid shrimp, and sheepshead minnows. Because of cumene's high volatility (vapor pressure, 3.2 mm Hg at 20 degrees C), all tests were conducted under flowthrough conditions using a proportional diluter system. The 96-hr LC50s for rainbow trout, sheepshead minnow, and mysid shrimp, based on mean measured concentrations, were 4.8, 4.7, and 1.3 mg/liter, respectively. The 48-hr daphnid EC50 was 4.0 mg/liter. Although cumene is considered moderately toxic to aquatic organisms under rigorous laboratory conditions, its volatility and biodegradability greatly reduce its hazard to the aquatic environment.

  6. Visualizing aquatic bacteria by light and transmission electron microscopy. (United States)

    Silva, Thiago P; Noyma, Natália P; Duque, Thabata L A; Gamalier, Juliana P; Vidal, Luciana O; Lobão, Lúcia M; Chiarini-Garcia, Hélio; Roland, Fábio; Melo, Rossana C N


    The understanding of the functional role of aquatic bacteria in microbial food webs is largely dependent on methods applied to the direct visualization and enumeration of these organisms. While the ultrastructure of aquatic bacteria is still poorly known, routine observation of aquatic bacteria by light microscopy requires staining with fluorochromes, followed by filtration and direct counting on filter surfaces. Here, we used a new strategy to visualize and enumerate aquatic bacteria by light microscopy. By spinning water samples from varied tropical ecosystems in a cytocentrifuge, we found that bacteria firmly adhere to regular slides, can be stained by fluorochoromes with no background formation and fast enumerated. Significant correlations were found between the cytocentrifugation and filter-based methods. Moreover, preparations through cytocentrifugation were more adequate for bacterial viability evaluation than filter-based preparations. Transmission electron microscopic analyses revealed a morphological diversity of bacteria with different internal and external structures, such as large variation in the cell envelope and capsule thickness, and presence or not of thylakoid membranes. Our results demonstrate that aquatic bacteria represent an ultrastructurally diverse population and open avenues for easy handling/quantification and better visualization of bacteria by light microscopy without the need of filter membranes.

  7. Effect of pesticides on microbial communities in container aquatic habitats (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Donthu, Ravi Kiran; Fields, Christopher J.; Moise, Imelda K.; Kim, Chang-Hyun


    Container aquatic habitats support a specialized community of macroinvertebrates (e.g. mosquitoes) that feed on microbial communities associated with decaying organic matter. These aquatic habitats are often embedded within and around agricultural lands and are frequently exposed to pesticides. We used a microcosm approach to examine the single and combined effects of two herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), and three insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, permethrin) on microbial communities of container aquatic habitats. MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of both bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the microbial communities of indoor microcosms that were either exposed to each pesticide alone, a mix of herbicides, a mix of insecticides, or a mix of all five insecticides. Individual insecticides but not herbicides reduced the microbial diversity and richness and two insecticides, carbaryl and permethrin, also altered the microbial community structure. A mixture of herbicides had no effect on microbial diversity or structure but a mixture of insecticides or all five pesticides reduced microbial diversity and altered the community structure. These findings suggest that exposure of aquatic ecosystems to individual pesticides or their mixtures can disrupt aquatic microbial communities and there is need to decipher how these changes affect resident macroinvertebrate communities. PMID:28300212

  8. Effect of pesticides on microbial communities in container aquatic habitats. (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Donthu, Ravi Kiran; Fields, Christopher J; Moise, Imelda K; Kim, Chang-Hyun


    Container aquatic habitats support a specialized community of macroinvertebrates (e.g. mosquitoes) that feed on microbial communities associated with decaying organic matter. These aquatic habitats are often embedded within and around agricultural lands and are frequently exposed to pesticides. We used a microcosm approach to examine the single and combined effects of two herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), and three insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, permethrin) on microbial communities of container aquatic habitats. MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of both bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the microbial communities of indoor microcosms that were either exposed to each pesticide alone, a mix of herbicides, a mix of insecticides, or a mix of all five insecticides. Individual insecticides but not herbicides reduced the microbial diversity and richness and two insecticides, carbaryl and permethrin, also altered the microbial community structure. A mixture of herbicides had no effect on microbial diversity or structure but a mixture of insecticides or all five pesticides reduced microbial diversity and altered the community structure. These findings suggest that exposure of aquatic ecosystems to individual pesticides or their mixtures can disrupt aquatic microbial communities and there is need to decipher how these changes affect resident macroinvertebrate communities.

  9. Comparative Advantages of Cross-strait Aquatic Products Trade and Zhoushan Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the initial stage,the status quo of aquatic products industry in Taiwan and Zhoushan is analyzed.The aquatic products industry in Tai-wan is characterized by high input,high output,advanced fishery import and export trade,refined and specialized fishery organizations and thedominant role played by the government.However,in Zhoushan,there are many problems in the development of aquatic products industry,featu-ring weak brand consciousness,inadequate famous brand and pillar industries,frequently restricted by green trade barrier and disordered competi-tion of aquatic products market.The comparative advantages of aquatic products at both sides of Taiwan Strait are measured by using revealedcomparative advantage index(RCA) and trade specialized index(TSC),the results show that the aquatic products in both the mainland and Tai-wan have certain market share and competitiveness.The revealed comparative advantage index(RCA) of Taiwan’ aquatic products is higher thatthat in the mainland,while the RCA indices in the mainland and Taiwan all show descending trend;the trade specialized index(TSC) cross straitsis positive,which indicates specialized export,but this specialization also shows descending trend.Taiwan has advanced aquaculture technologyand the mainland owns cheap labor cost and low price,but due to the limited resources in the Taiwan Island and the backward processing technolo-gy of aquatic products in the mainland,the comparativeness of aquatic products in the mainland and Taiwan has slid slightly.Therefore,I probe intothe cooperation modality between Zhoushan and Taiwan in terms of mutual investment in aquatic industry,exchange and training for personnel crossstraits and establishing experimental point of aquatic industry of the Zhoushan Island and Taiwan Island.Besides,countermeasures for enhancingthe international comparativeness of aquatic industry in Zhoushan Island are put forward.

  10. Marine and other aquatic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandhyala Sridhar


    Full Text Available Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. “Suit squeeze” due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  11. Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Köpp, H.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Brock, T.C.M.; Forbes, V.E.


    Assessment of risks to aquatic organisms is important in the registration procedures for pesticides in industrialised countries. This risk assessment consists of two parts: (i) assessment of effects to these organisms derived from ecotoxicological experiments (=effect assessment), and (ii) assessmen

  12. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria (United States)

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  13. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged. (United States)

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  14. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); M.F. van Bressem; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)


    textabstractInfections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper vir

  15. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.


    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  16. Algal-bloom control by allelopathy of aquatic macrophytes——A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongying HU; Yu HONG


    Algal-bloom control is an important issue for water environment protection as it induces several nega-tive impacts on the lives of aquatic organisms, aquacul-ture, landscaping, and human health. The development of an environment-friendly, cost-effective, and convenient alternative for controlling algal bloom has gained much concern. Using the allelopathy of aquatic macrophytes as a novel and safe method for algal-bloom control is a promising alternative. This paper reviews the develop-ment and potential application about allelopathy of aquatic plants on algae, including the allelopathic research history, the potential research problems, the research methodology, and the reported aquatic macro-phytes and their inhibitory allelochemicals. Potential modes of inhibition action of allelochemicals on algae, possible ways for application, and future development directions of research on algal-bloom control by aquatic macrophytes were also presented.

  17. Can ozone be used to control the spread of freshwater Aquatic Invasive Species? (United States)

    Buley, Riley P.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Tix, John A.; Suski, Cory D.; Hubert, Terrance D.


    The introduction of aquatic invasive species to non-native habitats can cause negative ecological effects and also billions of dollars in economic damage to governments and private industries. Once aquatic invasive species are introduced, eradication may be difficult without adversely affecting native species and habitats, urging resource managers to find preventative methods to protect non-invaded areas. The use of ozone (O3) as a non-physical barrier has shown promise as it is lethal to a wide range of aquatic taxa, requires a short contact time, and is relatively environmentally safe in aquatic systems when compared to other chemicals. However, before O3 can be considered as an approach to prevent the spread of aquatic invasive species, its effects on non-target organisms and already established aquatic invasive species must be fully evaluated. A review of the current literature was conducted to summarize data regarding the effects of O3 on aquatic taxa including fish, macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, phytoplankton, microbes, and pathogens. In addition, we assessed the practicality of ozone applications to control the movement of aquatic invasive species, and identified data gaps concerning the use of O3 as a non-physical barrier in field applications.

  18. Improving Fishpond Sediment by Aquatic Vegetable Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tao


    Full Text Available Continuously intensive fish farming results in pond degradation that needs to be improved. Therefore, the experiment rotating intensive fish culture with two aquatic vegetables lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and water chestnuts (Eleocharis dulcis cultivation is conducted aiming at determining the effect of rotation as a sediment management technique on improving the pond sediment and assessing the food safety risk of the vegetables cultivated in the pond sediment from the aspects of heavy metal. The results showed that after rotation, the content of Total Nitrogen (TN and Organic Matter (OM in the upper 10 cm sediment decreased significantly (p<0.05, with TN content reduced 1.05 and 0.74 g/kg; OM content reduced 0.59 and 0.37%, respectively. The contents of Organic-Phosphorus (OP and Fe/Al-bound Phosphorus (Fe/Al-P in the sediment decreased significantly (p<0.05, with OP reduced 0.05 and 0.04 g/kg, Fe/Al-P reduced 0.19 and 0.15 g/kg, respectively. The heavy metal contents of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr and Zn except Cu in the pond sediment were under Chinese National II Soil Criterion and the contents of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu and Zn in edible vegetable rhizomes satisfied Safety Requirements for Non-environmental Pollution Vegetable. Rotation of fish culture with aquatic vegetables cultivation effectively mitigated excessive nutrient load in the sediment while recycled the nutrient in the sediment to produce safe vegetables. It could be considered as a viable sediment quality improving technique.

  19. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  20. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj


    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...... to distribute photons evenly between the photosynthetic tissues. As scattering and attenuation in the water column increase, the effect of thallus structure on production declines and thin transparent macrophytes are more efficient at utilizing light than thick opaque macrophytes. The results confirm...... combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...

  1. Anatomical adaptations of aquatic mammals. (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S


    This special issue of the Anatomical Record explores many of the anatomical adaptations exhibited by aquatic mammals that enable life in the water. Anatomical observations on a range of fossil and living marine and freshwater mammals are presented, including sirenians (manatees and dugongs), cetaceans (both baleen whales and toothed whales, including dolphins and porpoises), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), the sea otter, and the pygmy hippopotamus. A range of anatomical systems are covered in this issue, including the external form (integument, tail shape), nervous system (eye, ear, brain), musculoskeletal systems (cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebral column, flipper/forelimb), digestive tract (teeth/tusks/baleen, tongue, stomach), and respiratory tract (larynx). Emphasis is placed on exploring anatomical function in the context of aquatic life. The following topics are addressed: evolution, sound production, sound reception, feeding, locomotion, buoyancy control, thermoregulation, cognition, and behavior. A variety of approaches and techniques are used to examine and characterize these adaptations, ranging from dissection, to histology, to electron microscopy, to two-dimensional (2D) and 3D computerized tomography, to experimental field tests of function. The articles in this issue are a blend of literature review and new, hypothesis-driven anatomical research, which highlight the special nature of anatomical form and function in aquatic mammals that enables their exquisite adaptation for life in such a challenging environment.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This study was conducted to assess the existing concentration of 17β-estradiol(E2)in the sulfate water samples collected from rivers and lakes around Klang Valley,Malaysia.E2,which is a natural feminizing chemical produced in female organisms.regularly used to compare with other environmental estrogens because they behave similarly and react effectively as a hormone at a very low concentration.It was found that the average concentration of E2 in the aquatic environment of Klang Valley was(14.08 ±3.67)pg/mL,which was 14 times higher than those in the Japanese aquatic environment in this study.The river system had the average concentration of(20.02±5.26)pg/mL while the lake had an average concentration of(5.91 ±3.39)pg/mL.The E2 concentration was presumed high if the sourcesoccurred nearby the area.Current levels of E2 in the aquatic environment may possess threats to existing aquatic organisms.Since high level of E2 has been discovered in the aquatic environment around Klang Valley,further studies and monitoring of E2 and other EDCs concentrations are needed to determine their levels in Malaysian aquatic environment and help to control these chemicals pollution in the aquatic environment.

  3. Forestry practices and aquatic biodiversity: Fish (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.


    In the Pacific Northwest, fish communities are found in a diverse array of aquatic habitats ranging from the large coastal rivers of the temperate rainforests, to the fragmented and sometimes ephemeral streams of the xeric interior basins, and high-elevation streams and lakes in the mountainous areas (Rieman et al. 2003). Only high-elevation lakes and streams isolated above barriers to fish passage remained historically devoid of fish because they were never invaded following Pleistocene glaciation (Smith 1981). Despite this widespread distribution and once great population abundances, taxonomic diversity of fishes in these forested systems is naturally lower than in aquatic habitats in the eastern U.S. (Reeves, Bisson, and Dambacher 1998). Interactions among factors that influence species richness in aquatic systems (e.g., basin size, long-term stability of habitat, and barriers to colonization; Smith 1981) continue to influence the occurrence and persistence of fishes in these systems today. Consequently, the larger low-elevation rivers and estuaries support the greatest variety of fish species. In the high-elevation tributary streams, fish communities are less complex because these aquatic systems were less climatically and geologically stable, and fish populations were smaller and more prone to local extirpation. Furthermore, barriers to fish passage inhibited dispersal and colonization (Smith 1981). Streams in forested landscapes generally support salmon and trout, Oncorhynchus spp., whitefish Prosopium spp., sculpins Cottus spp., suckers Catostomus spp., and minnows (Cyprinidae), but in some of the colder streams, chars (e.g., Salvelinus confluentus and Salvelinus malma) and lampreys (Petromyzontidae)may also occur (Rieman et al. 2003).Although biodiversity defined in terms of fish species richness is low in the Pacific Northwest, intraspecific variability is high, and polytypic fish species are common in the diverse aquatic habitats of the region. For

  4. Bioaccumulation in aquatic systems: methodological approaches, monitoring and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Buchmeier, Georgia; Claus, Evelyn;


    Bioaccumulation, the accumulation of a chemical in an organism relative to its level in the ambient medium, is of major environmental concern. Thus, monitoring chemical concentrations in biota are widely and increasingly used for assessing the chemical status of aquatic ecosystems. In this paper......, various scientific and regulatory aspects of bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and the relevant critical issues are discussed. Monitoring chemical concentrations in biota can be used for compliance checking with regulatory directives, for identification of chemical sources or event-related environmental...... risk assessment. Assessing bioaccumulation in the field is challenging since many factors have to be considered that can affect the accumulation of a chemical in an organism. Passive sampling can complement biota monitoring since samplers with standardised partition properties can be used over a wide...

  5. Aquatic toxicity testing for hazard identification of engineered nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard

    tests, developed for testing soluble compounds, are equally applicable for ENPs. The preconditions for aquatic toxicity tests include aqueous solubility of the chemical test compound and stability during incubation. These criteria are not met for ENPs, as they are suspended rather than dissolved...... to exposure control and response mechanisms in aquatic toxicity tests with ENPs are addressed through: 1) Exposure timing measures to minimize the transformation processes of ENPs during test incubation, and 2) Multi-dimensional approaches including investigations of other organisms responses than...... duration was obtained through the application of an acute 2h 14C-assimilation test. For daphnids, a short-term (1-3h) pulse exposure was applied, followed by transfer of the organisms to pure medium, where acute and chronic effects were monitored according to standard guidelines during 48h and 21 days...

  6. Ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in aquatic environments. (United States)

    Koblížek, Michal


    Recognition of the environmental role of photoheterotrophic bacteria has been one of the main themes of aquatic microbiology over the last 15 years. Aside from cyanobacteria and proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are the third most numerous group of phototrophic prokaryotes in the ocean. This functional group represents a diverse assembly of species which taxonomically belong to various subgroups of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. AAP bacteria are facultative photoheterotrophs which use bacteriochlorophyll-containing reaction centers to harvest light energy. The light-derived energy increases their bacterial growth efficiency, which provides a competitive advantage over heterotrophic species. Thanks to their enzymatic machinery AAP bacteria are active, rapidly growing organisms which contribute significantly to the recycling of organic matter. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of the ecology of AAP bacteria in aquatic environments, implying their specific role in the microbial loop.

  7. Induced pluripotent stem cell technology and aquatic animal species. (United States)

    Temkin, Alexis M; Spyropoulos, Demetri D


    Aquatic animal species are the overall leaders in the scientific investigation of tough but important global health issues, including environmental toxicants and climate change. Historically, aquatic animal species also stand at the forefront of experimental biology, embryology and stem cell research. Over the past decade, intensive and high-powered investigations principally involving mouse and human cells have brought the generation and study of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to a level that facilitates widespread use in a spectrum of species. A review of key features of these investigations is presented here as a primer for the use of iPSC technology to enhance ongoing aquatic animal species studies. iPSC and other cutting edge technologies create the potential to study individuals from "the wild" closer to the level of investigation applied to sophisticated inbred mouse models. A wide variety of surveys and hypothesis-driven investigations can be envisioned using this new capability, including comparisons of organism-specific development and exposure response and the testing of fundamental dogmas established using inbred mice. However, with these new capabilities, also come new criteria for rigorous baseline assessments and testing. Both the methods for inducing pluripotency and the source material can negatively impact iPSC quality and bourgeoning applications. Therefore, more rigorous strategies not required for inbred mouse models will have to be implemented to approach global health issues using individuals from "the wild" for aquatic animal species.

  8. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems. (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P


    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota.

  9. Microbial nitrous oxide production and nitrogen cycling associated with aquatic invertebrates


    Heisterkamp, Ines


    Nitrogen cycling is intimately linked to the activity of microorganisms that mediate the diverse nitrogen transformations and play a fundamental role in regulating the fate of nitrogen in the Earth s terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Microbial activity is influenced by physical, chemical, and biological factors that can be profoundly shaped by macrofaunal organisms, especially in benthic aquatic systems. This thesis therefore aimed at investigating the interactions between microorganisms an...

  10. Aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of advanced cationic surfactant APA-22 compatible with the aquatic environment. (United States)

    Yamane, Masayuki; Toyo, Takamasa; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Sakai, Takaya; Kaneko, Youhei; Nishiyama, Naohiro


    Cationic surfactant is a chemical substance used in hair conditioner, fabric softener and other household products. By investigating the relationship between the aquatic toxicity and the chemical structures of two types of mono alkyl cationic surfactants, alkyl trimethylammonium salts and alkyl dimethylamine salts, we have found that the C22 alkyl chain length is effective to reduce the toxicity. Besides, we have recognized that the amidopropyl functional group contributes to the enhanced biodegradability by investigating the biodegradation trend of (alkylamidopropyl)dimethylamine salt (alkyl chain length: C18). Based on these findings, we have developed mono alkyl cationic surfactant called APA-22, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]docosanamide salt. APA-22 is formed by the C22 alkyl chain, amidopropyl functional group and di-methyltertiary amine group. We evaluated the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability of APA-22 by two standard methods (OECD Test Guideline 301B and ECETOC technical document No.28) and found that this substance was degraded rapidly in both conditions. The toxicity to algae, invertebrate and fish of this substance are evaluated by using OECD Test Guideline 201, 202 and 203, respectively. All acute toxicity values are >1 mg/L, which indicates that environmental toxicity of this substance is relatively less toxic to aquatic organism. In addition, we estimated the biodegradation pathway of APA-22 and observed the complete disappearance of APA-22 and its intermediates during the test periods. Based on the environmental data provided above, we concluded that APA22 is more compatible with the aquatic environment compared to other cationic surfactants with mono long alkyl chain.

  11. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Feasibility of Relating Phenology and Carbohydrate Partitioning to Improve Aquatic Plant Control (United States)


    the submersed species, coontail (Ceratophyliuw demerswm), elodea (EZodea ccznadensi), and egeria (Egeria densa), were higher in winter, with a deple...Best, E. P. H. 1977. Seasonal changes in mineral and organic compounds of Ceratophylluwn demerswn and Elodea canadensis. Aquatic Botany 3:337-348. Best...E. P. H., and J. H. A. Dassen. 1987. A seasonal study of growth char- acteristics and the levels of carbohydrates and proteins in Elodea nuttallii

  12. Estado de conocimiento de las concentraciones de cadmio, mercurio y plomo en organismos acuáticos de Venezuela - Current state of knowledge of the concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead from aquatic organisms of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Lugo, Raquel


    Full Text Available ResumenEn Venezuela, la contaminación por metales pesados está relacionadacon el desarrollo de la industria siderúrgica y petrolera, así como a la explotación indiscriminada de otros metales como el oro. Está bastante documentada la contaminación del lago de Maracaibo dado al desarrollo en sus cercanías de actividades urbanas, industriales, mineras y agropecuarias; del lago de Valencia, del río Tuy, Orinoco y Manzanares, entre otros En este trabajo se revisa el estado de conocimiento, en los últimos 10 años, de la concentración de plomo, cadmio y mercurio en especies acuáticas de diferentes áreas del País.SummaryContamination due to trace metals in Venezuela is related withindiscriminate exploitation of metals like gold, transport of river runoff, oil and siderurgica industries and urban zones. The Tuy, Orinoco, Tigre, Manzanares rivers and others basins as Valencia and Maracaibo lakes has been reported as polluted for many years. In this work, we reviewed the state of knowledge, in the last 10 years, of metals concentrations specially lead, cadmium and mercury, in aquatic species from diverse areas of country.

  13. The NEON Aquatic Network: Expanding the Availability of Biogeochemical Data (United States)

    Vance, J. M.; Bohall, C.; Fitzgerald, M.; Utz, R.; Parker, S. M.; Roehm, C. L.; Goodman, K. J.; McLaughlin, B.


    /sediment chemistry, aquatic organisms, geomorphology). The aquatic network will produce ~212 low-level data products for each site. NEON will produce several higher level data products such as measurements of whole-stream metabolism, gross primary productivity, ecosystem respiration, and fluxes of nitrogen, phosphorous and carbon that will enable users to analyze processes on a gross scale. These data may be integrated with NEON's terrestrial and airborne networks to bridge the gap between aquatic and terrestrial biogeochemical research. The NEON Aquatic Network is poised to greatly expand our ability to create more robust biogeochemical models. For example, hydrologic and stable isotope data will allow investigation of terrestrial-aquatic carbon flux. Constraints provided by NEON's terrestrial and atmospheric data concurrent with remotely sensed data will facilitate the scaling to regional and continental scales, potentially leading to greater accuracy in the global carbon budget. The NEON Aquatic Network represents a powerful tool that will give the scientific community access to standardized data over spatiotemporal scales that are needed to answer fundamental questions about natural ecological variability and responses to changes in the environment.

  14. Preparing, Submitting, and Tracking a Grant Application (United States)

    Information compiled by NCI's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program to help investigators learn more about NIH and NCI information and policies related to writing and submitting new, resubmission, late, and renewal grant applications.

  15. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  16. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  17. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America. (United States)

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve


    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  18. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.


    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  19. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems. (United States)

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat


    The introduction of invasive species, which often differ functionally from the components of the recipient community, generates ecological impacts that propagate along the food web. This review aims to determine how consistent the impacts of aquatic invasions are across taxa and habitats. To that end, we present a global meta-analysis from 151 publications (733 cases), covering a wide range of invaders (primary producers, filter collectors, omnivores and predators), resident aquatic community components (macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) and habitats (rivers, lakes and estuaries). Our synthesis suggests a strong negative influence of invasive species on the abundance of aquatic communities, particularly macrophytes, zooplankton and fish. In contrast, there was no general evidence for a decrease in species diversity in invaded habitats, suggesting a time lag between rapid abundance changes and local extinctions. Invaded habitats showed increased water turbidity, nitrogen and organic matter concentration, which are related to the capacity of invaders to transform habitats and increase eutrophication. The expansion of invasive macrophytes caused the largest decrease in fish abundance, the filtering activity of filter collectors depleted planktonic communities, omnivores (including both facultative and obligate herbivores) were responsible for the greatest decline in macrophyte abundance, and benthic invertebrates were most negatively affected by the introduction of new predators. These impacts were relatively consistent across habitats and experimental approaches. Based on our results, we propose a framework of positive and negative links between invasive species at four trophic positions and the five different components of recipient communities. This framework incorporates both direct biotic interactions (predation, competition, grazing) and indirect changes to the water physicochemical conditions mediated by invaders (habitat

  20. Bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic insects of streams located in areas with sugar cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano José Corbi


    Full Text Available Streams located in areas of sugar cane cultivation receive elevated concentrations of metal ions from soils of adjacent areas. The accumulation of metals in the sediments results in environmental problems and leads to bioaccumulation of metal ions by the aquatic organisms. In the present study, bioaccumulation of the metals ions Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in aquatic insects in streams impacted by the sugar cane was evaluated. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated by the sediment and that the collector organisms as Chironomus species accumulated higher concentration of metals than the predator organisms.

  1. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems (United States)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming


    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  2. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki


    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis, chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity, biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases, and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research.

  3. Sleep alterations in mammals: did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep? (United States)

    Madan, Vibha; Jha, Sushil K


    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates. Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state. During REM sleep, postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended. Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals, the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water. The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals, significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals. The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air. Also, these animals live in thermally challenging environments, where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air. Therefore, they have to be moving most of the time. As an adaptation, they have evolved unihemispheric sleep, during which they can rove as well as rest. A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery, as happens during REM sleep, is not suitable for these animals. It is possible that, in accord with Darwin's theory, aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  4. Mercury bioaccumulation along food webs in temperate aquatic ecosystems colonized by aquatic macrophytes in south western France. (United States)

    Gentès, Sophie; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Guyoneaud, Rémy; Monperrus, Mathilde; André, Jean-Marc; Davail, Stéphane; Legeay, Alexia


    Mercury (Hg) is considered as an important pollutant for aquatic systems as its organic form, methylmercury (MeHg), is easily bioaccumulated and bioamplified along food webs. In various ecosystems, aquatic periphyton associated with macrophyte was identified as an important place for Hg storage and methylation by microorganisms. Our study concerns temperate aquatic ecosystems (South Western France) colonized by invasive macrophytes and characterized by high mercury methylation potentials. This work establishes original data concerning Hg bioaccumulation in organisms (plants, crustaceans, molluscs and fish) from five contrasting ecosystems. For low trophic level species, total Hg (THg) concentrations were low (from 27±2ngTHgg(-1)dw in asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea to 418±114ngTHgg(-1)dw in crayfish Procambarus clarkii). THg concentrations in some carnivorous fish (high trophic level) were close to or exceeded the International Marketing Level (IML) with values ranging from 1049±220ngTHgg(-1)dw in pike perch muscle (Sander lucioperca) to 3910±1307ngTHgg(-1)dw in eel muscle (Anguilla Anguilla). Trophic levels for the individuals were also evaluated through stable isotope analysis, and linked to Hg concentrations of organisms. A significant Hg biomagnification (r(2)= 0.9) was observed in the Aureilhan lake, despite the absence of top predator fish. For this site, Ludwigia sp. periphyton, as an entry point of Hg into food webs, is a serious hypothesis which remains to be confirmed. This study provides a first investigation of Hg transfer in the ecosystems of south western France and allows the assessment of the risk associated with the presence of Hg in aquatic food webs.

  5. Inorganic nanomaterials in the aquatic environment: behavior, toxicity, and interaction with environmental elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyżewska Iwona


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present characteristics, toxicity and environmental behavior of nanoparticles (NPs (silver, copper, gold, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, iron oxide that most frequently occur in consumer products. In addition, NPs are addressed as the new aquatic environmental pollutant of the 21st century. NPs are adsorbed onto particles in the aquatic systems (clay minerals, fulvic and humic acids, or they can adsorb environmental pollutants (heavy metal ions, organic compounds. Nanosilver (nAg is released from consumer products into the aquatic environment. It can threaten aquatic organisms with high toxicity. Interestingly, copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs demonstrate higher toxicity to bacteria and aquatic microorganisms than those of nanosilver nAg. Their small size and reactivity can cause penetration into the tissues and interfere with the metabolic systems of living organisms and bacterial biogeochemical cycles. The behavior of NPs is not fully recognized. Nevertheless, it is known that NPs can agglomerate, bind with ions (chlorides, sulphates, phosphates or organic compounds. They can also be bound or immobilized by slurry. The NPs behavior depends on process conditions, i.e. pH, ionic strength, temperature and presence of other chemical compounds. It is unknown how NPs behave in the aquatic environment. Therefore, the research on this problem should be carried out under different process conditions. As for the toxicity, it is important to understand where the differences in the research results come from. As NPs have an impact on not only aquatic organisms but also human health and life, it is necessary to recognize their toxic doses and know standards/regulations that determine the permissible concentrations of NPs in the environment.

  6. Extreme adaptations for aquatic ectoparasitism in a Jurassic fly larva. (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Bo; Engel, Michael S; Wappler, Torsten; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Xiaoli; Zheng, Xiaoting; Rust, Jes


    The reconstruction of ancient insect ectoparasitism is challenging, mostly because of the extreme scarcity of fossils with obvious ectoparasitic features such as sucking-piercing mouthparts and specialized attachment organs. Here we describe a bizarre fly larva (Diptera), Qiyia jurassica gen. et sp. nov., from the Jurassic of China, that represents a stem group of the tabanomorph family Athericidae. Q. jurassica exhibits adaptations to an aquatic habitat. More importantly, it preserves an unusual combination of features including a thoracic sucker with six radial ridges, unique in insects, piercing-sucking mouthparts for fluid feeding, and crocheted ventral prolegs with upward directed bristles for anchoring and movement while submerged. We demonstrate that Q. jurassica was an aquatic ectoparasitic insect, probably feeding on the blood of salamanders. The finding reveals an extreme morphological specialization of fly larvae, and broadens our understanding of the diversity of ectoparasitism in Mesozoic insects.DOI:

  7. [The criteria of identification of "critical" populations in aquatic radiochemoecology]. (United States)

    Tsytsugina, B G; Polikarpov, G G


    Data on chromosome mutagenesis levels in populations of aquatic organisms in the Black and the Aegean Seas, the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers, the 30-km zone of ChNPP are presented. The highest level of mutagenesis was observed in hydrobionts populations in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP. The obvious damaged effects of ionizing radiation were noted only in these populations. The comparison of the adaptation rate of aquatic crustaceans and worms populations with different reproduction modes was made. It is found that the studied species with sexual reproduction have higher rate of adaptation to the pollution in comparison with species with prevalent asexual reproduction. Hypothetic mechanisms of population adaptation are discussed. On the basis of species and populations characteristics, the criteria for the identification of "critical" populations (species) and an algoritm of ecological risk assessment for them are proposed.

  8. Assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.; George, W.; Preslan, J. [and others


    This project discusses the following studies: identification and quantitation of heavy metals and petroleum products present in Bayou Trepagnier relative to control sites; assessment of the uptake and bioaccumulation of metals and organic contaminants of interest in aquatic species; establishment and use of polarographic methods for use in metal speciation studies to identify specific chemical forms present in sediments, waters and organism; and evaluation of contaminants on reproductive function of aquatic species as potential biomarkers of exposure. 14 refs.

  9. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential of pharmaceuticals with a focus to the aquatic environment. (United States)

    Zenker, Armin; Cicero, Maria Rita; Prestinaci, Francesca; Bottoni, Paola; Carere, Mario


    Pharmaceuticals, among the emerging contaminants, are one of the most relevant groups of substances in aquatic ecosystems due to universal use, their chemico-physical properties and known mode of action in aquatic organisms at low concentrations. After administration many drugs and their transformation products are only retained to some extent in wastewater treatment plants therefore entering the aquatic environment in considerable high amounts. The yearly consumption to treat human and animal diseases, also in livestock and aquaculture was estimated to be hundred thousands tons per year leading to high concentrations in surface water of developed countries. Mostly, pharmaceutical residues in effluents of wastewater treatment plants or in the water column of surface waters have been reported, but data about concentrations in the aquatic biota, partitioning of pharmaceuticals to biosolids, soils, and sediments and the bioaccumulation properties are often lacking. Chronic and subtle effects can be expected when aquatic organisms are long term exposed by pseudo-persistent, persistent and accumulative compounds. This review aims to summarize the current state of research about the fate of pharmaceuticals regarding bioconcentration, bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems. More comprehensive approaches for the evaluation of environmental (ERA) and human health risk assessment (HRA) are included and analytical methods required to detect bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals are discussed.

  10. The study of aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics: a scientometrical view of the main trends and gaps. (United States)

    Padial, A A; Bini, L M; Thomaz, S M


    Aquatic macrophytes comprises a diverse group of organisms including angiosperms, ferns, mosses, liverworts and some macroalgae that occur in seasonally or permanently wet environments. Among other implications, aquatic macrophytes are highly productive and with an important structuring role on aquatic environments. Ecological studies involving aquatic plants substantially increased in the last years. However, a precise view of researches devoted to aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics is necessary to reach a reliable evaluation of the scientific production. In the current study, we performed a scientometrics analysis of the scientific production devoted to Neotropical macrophytes in an attempt to find the main trends and gaps of researches concerning this group. The publication devoted to macrophytes in Neotropics increased conspicuously in the last two decades. Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Chile were the most productive among Neotropical countries. Our analyses showed that the studies dealt mostly with the influences of aquatic macrophytes on organisms and abiotic features. Studies with a predictive approach or aiming to test ecological hypothesis are scarce. In addition, researches aiming to describe unknown species are still necessary. This is essential to support conservation efforts and to subsidize further investigations testing ecological hypotheses.

  11. Persistence and renaturation efficiency of thermally treated waste recombinant DNA in defined aquatic microcosms. (United States)

    Fu, Xiao H; Wang, Lei; Le, Yi Q; Hu, Jia J


    To validate the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from thermally denatured recombinant DNA discharged into the eco-system, a constructed plasmid was used to investigate the persistence and renaturation efficiency of thermally denatured recombinant DNA in defined aquatic microcosms. The results revealed that there was undecayed recombinant plasmid pMDLKJ material being discharged into the aquatic microcosms even after thermal treatment at either 100°C (using boiling water) or at 120°C (using an autoclave). The plasmid had a relatively long persistence time. At least 10(2) copies μL(-1) of a specific 245 bp fragment of the plasmid could be detected after 12 h and a specific 628 bp fragment could be detected up to 2 h. The thermally denatured recombinant DNA could efficiently renature and recover its functional double stranded structure in aquatic microcosms and the highest concentration of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) occurred around 1 h after the thermally denatured DNA was added to the system. These results imply that when thermally treated recombinant DNAs are discharged into aquatic environments, they have enough time to renature and possibly transfer to other organisms. In addition, the recombinant DNA added to aquatic microcosms could be absorbed by the seston particles in water, such as mineral, organic and colloids particles with a maximum absorption value of about 5.18 ng L(-1). This absorbed DNA could persist longer in aquatic environments than free recombinant DNA, thus further favoring HGT.

  12. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants


    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo


    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  13. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants. (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  14. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention. (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John


    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  15. Aquatic Therapy. Making Waves in Therapeutic Recreation. (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John


    Therapeutic recreation professionals often use aquatic therapy to improve physiological and psychological functioning, and they have reported improvements for people with many different types of disabilities. The paper discusses aquatic therapy methods, water as a therapeutic environment, professional training and development, and lifestyle…

  16. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling. (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  17. Effects of micro- and nanoplastics on aquatic ecosystems: Current research trends and perspectives. (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo


    Contamination by bulk plastics and plastic debris is currently the one of the most serious environmental problems in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, small-scale plastic debris such as microplastics and nanoplastics has become leading contributors to the pollution of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Studies are investigating the impacts of micro-and nanoplastics on aquatic organisms and ecosystems worldwide. This review covers 83 studies that investigated the distribution of microplastics and the ecotoxicity of micro- and nanoplastics in marine and freshwater ecosystems. The studies indicated that micro-sized plastics and plastic debris were distributed at various concentrations in aquatic ecosystems around the world. They had various effects on the growth, development, behavior, reproduction, and mortality of aquatic animals. We discuss these studies in detail and suggest directions for future research.

  18. Interfaces in aquatic ecosystems: Implications for transport and impact of anthropogenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knulst, J.


    Mechanisms that govern transport, accumulation and toxicity of persistent pollutants at interfaces in aquatic ecosystems were the foci of this thesis. Specific attention was paid to humic substances, their occurrence, composition, and role in exchange processes across interfaces. It was concluded that: The composition of humic substances in aquatic surface microlayers is different from that of the subsurface water and terrestrial humic matter. Levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aquatic surface microlayer reflect the DOC levels in the subsurface water. While the levels and enrichment of DOC in the microlayer generally show small variations, the levels and enrichment of particulate organic carbon (POC) vary to a great extent. Similarities exist between aquatic surface films, artificial semi-permeable and biological membranes regarding their structure and functioning. Acidification and liming of freshwater ecosystems affect DOC:POC ratio and humic composition of the surface film, thus influencing the partitioning of pollutants across aquatic interfaces. Properties of lake catchment areas extensively govern DOC:POC ratio both in the surface film and subsurface water. Increased UV-B irradiation changes the DOC:POC ratio in the surface film and thus affect transfer of matter across the interface. Transport of lipophilic, persistent organic pollutants across semi-permeable membranes is influenced by the solutes organic composition. 106 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  19. Cetacean brains: how aquatic are they? (United States)

    Marino, Lori


    The adaptation of cetaceans to a fully aquatic lifestyle represents one of the most dramatic transformations in mammalian evolutionary history. Two of the most salient features of modern cetaceans are their fully aquatic lifestyle and their large brains. This review article will offer an overview of comparative neuroanatomical research on aquatic mammals, including analyses of odontocete cetacean, sirenian, pinniped, and fossil archaeocete brains. In particular, the question of whether a relationship exists between being fully aquatic and having a large brain is addressed. It has been hypothesized that the large, well-developed cetacean brain is a direct product of adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. The current consensus is that the paleontological evidence on brain size evolution in cetaceans is not consistent with this hypothesis. Cetacean brain enlargement took place millions of years after adaptation to a fully aquatic existence. Neuroanatomical comparisons with sirenians and pinnipeds provide no evidence for the idea that the odontocete's large brain, high encephalization level, and extreme neocortical gyrification is an adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. Although echolocation has been suggested as a reason for the high encephalization level in odontocetes, it should be noted that not all aquatic mammals echolocate and echolocating terrestrial mammals (e.g., bats) are not particularly highly encephalized. Echolocation is not a requirement of a fully aquatic lifestyle and, thus, cannot be considered a sole effect of aquaticism on brain enlargement. These results indicate that the high encephalization level of odontocetes is likely related to their socially complex lifestyle patterns that transcend the influence of an aquatic environment.

  20. 21 CFR 822.14 - May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again? (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again? 822.14 Section 822.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE...

  1. Environmental impact of heavy metal pollution in natural aquatic systems


    Tayab, Muhammad Rehan


    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The distribution of heavy metals between soil and soil solutions is a key issue in evaluating the environmental impact of long term applications of heavy metals to land. Contamination of soils by heavy metals has been reported by many workers. Metal adsorption is affected by many factors, including soil pH, clay mineralogy, abundance of oxides and organic matter, soil composition and solution...

  2. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.


    This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

  3. Environmental Parasitology. Interactions between parasites and pollutants in the aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sures B.


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing number of papers showing how parasitism and pollution can interact with each other in aquatic organisms. Among the variety of investigated aspects especially the combined effects of pollution and simultaneous infection on the health of aquatic hosts (molluscs, crustaceans, fish, mammals is of considerable interest. Effects of pollution on the occurrence and distribution of parasites is another interesting field of “Environmental Parasitology” attracting increasing attention. This mini-review presents some promising examples of interdisciplinary studies paying attention to the fact that under natural conditions no organism will only be affected by either parasites or pollution.

  4. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.


    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  5. Energetic extremes in aquatic locomotion by coral reef fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Fulton

    Full Text Available Underwater locomotion is challenging due to the high friction and resistance imposed on a body moving through water and energy lost in the wake during undulatory propulsion. While aquatic organisms have evolved streamlined shapes to overcome such resistance, underwater locomotion has long been considered a costly exercise. Recent evidence for a range of swimming vertebrates, however, has suggested that flapping paired appendages around a rigid body may be an extremely efficient means of aquatic locomotion. Using intermittent flow-through respirometry, we found exceptional energetic performance in the Bluelined wrasse Stethojulis bandanensis, which maintains tuna-like optimum cruising speeds (up to 1 metre s(-1 while using 40% less energy than expected for their body size. Displaying an exceptional aerobic scope (22-fold above resting, streamlined rigid-body posture, and wing-like fins that generate lift-based thrust, S. bandanensis literally flies underwater to efficiently maintain high optimum swimming speeds. Extreme energetic performance may be key to the colonization of highly variable environments, such as the wave-swept habitats where S. bandanensis and other wing-finned species tend to occur. Challenging preconceived notions of how best to power aquatic locomotion, biomimicry of such lift-based fin movements could yield dramatic reductions in the power needed to propel underwater vehicles at high speed.

  6. Aquatic toxicology of fluoxetine: understanding the knowns and the unknowns. (United States)

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Grossman, Leah; Nguyen, Michael; Maximino, Caio; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Echevarria, David J; Kalueff, Allan V


    Fluoxetine is one of the most prescribed psychotropic medications, and is an agent of increasing interest for environmental toxicology. Fish and other aquatic organisms are excellent models to study neuroactive small molecules like fluoxetine. However, prone to variance due to experimental factors, data obtained in these models need to be interpreted with caution, using proper experimental protocols, study designs, validated endpoints as well as well-established models and tests. Choosing the treatment protocol and dose range for fluoxetine and other serotonergic drugs is critical for obtaining valid test results and correct data interpretation. Here we discuss the value of aquatic models to study fluoxetine effects, based on prior high-quality research, and outline the directions of future translational studies in the field. We review fluoxetine-evoked phenotypes in acute vs. chronic protocols, discussing them in the contact of complex role of serotonin in behavioral regulation. We conclude that zebrafish and other aquatic models represent a useful in-vivo tool for fluoxetine pharmacology and (eco)toxicology research.

  7. Selenium biotransformations in an engineered aquatic ecosystem for bioremediation of agricultural wastewater via brine shrimp production. (United States)

    Schmidt, Radomir; Tantoyotai, Prapakorn; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Bañuelos, Gary S; Hristova, Krassimira R; Freeman, John L


    An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate selenium (Se), occurring as oxidized inorganic selenate from hypersalinized agricultural drainage water while producing brine shrimp enriched in organic Se and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for use in value added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism into organic Se (seleno-amino acids) and partially removed via gaseous volatile Se formation. Furthermore, filter-feeding brine shrimp that accumulated this organic Se were removed by net harvest. Thriving in this engineered pond system, brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and brine fly (Ephydridae sp.) have major ecological relevance as important food sources for large populations of waterfowl, breeding, and migratory shore birds. This aquatic ecosystem was an ideal model for study because it mimics trophic interactions in a Se polluted wetland. Inorganic selenate in drainage water was metabolized differently in microalgae, bacteria, and diatoms where it was accumulated and reduced into various inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine fly larva then bioaccumulated Se from ingesting aquatic microorganisms and further metabolized Se predominately into organic Se forms. Importantly, adult brine flies, which hatched from aquatic larva, bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations of all organisms tested.

  8. Human Exploitation of Aquatic Landscapes. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes


    Full Text Available Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures and in the formation of communal identities. The aim of this special themed issue of Internet Archaeology is to contribute to a better understanding of different forms of human interaction with aquatic landscapes.

  9. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.


    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  10. A Mixed Picture of AQUATIC PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Aquatic products constitute an important part of China's international trade in agricultural products with the strongest competitiveness for export.The aquatic products industry of apparent competitive edge has maintained a considerable trade surplus despite the general trend of trade deficit among agricultural products in recent years.Nevertheless,the great changes taking place in the global economic and trade pattern in late years have given rise to the increasing uncertainties of the supply and demand as well as the price in the international aquatic products market.

  11. 31 CFR 103.81 - Submitting requests. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting requests. 103.81 Section 103.81 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING... which the request is made. (b) A request filed by a corporation shall be signed by a corporate...

  12. Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis-An Assessment of the Biodiversity and Conservation Status of Native Aquatic Animal Species (United States)

    Covert, S. Alex; Kula, Stephanie P.; Simonson, Laura A.


    The goal of the GAP Analysis Program is to keep common species common by identifying those species and habitats that are not yet adequately represented in the existing matrix of conservation lands. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is sponsored by the Biological Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Ohio Aquatic GAP (OH-GAP) is a pilot project that is applying the GAP concept to aquatic-specifically, riverine-data. The mission of GAP is to provide regional assessments of the conservation status of native animal species and to facilitate the application of this information to land-management activities. OH-GAP accomplished this through * mapping aquatic habitat types, * mapping the predicted distributions of fish, crayfish, and bivalves, * documenting the presence of aquatic species in areas managed for conservation, * providing GAP results to the public, planners, managers, policy makers, and researchers, and * building cooperation with multiple organizations to apply GAP results to state and regional management activities. Gap analysis is a coarse-scale assessment of aquatic biodiversity and conservation; the goal is to identify gaps in the conservation of native aquatic species. It is not a substitute for biological field studies and monitoring programs. Gap analysis was conducted for the continuously flowing streams in Ohio. Lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and the Lake Erie islands were not included in this analysis. The streams in Ohio are in the Lake Erie and Ohio River watersheds and pass through six of the level III ecoregions defined by Omernik: the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains, Huron/Erie Lake Plain, Erie Drift Plains, Interior Plateau, and the Western Allegheny Plateau. To characterize the aquatic habitats available to Ohio fish, crayfish, and bivalves, a classification system needed to be developed and mapped. The process of classification includes delineation of areas of relative

  13. Calculation and Comparison of Energy Interaction and Intensity Parameters for the Interaction of Nd(III with DL-Valine, DL-Alanine and β-Alanine in Presence and Absence of Ca2+/Zn2+ in Aqueous and Different Aquated Organic Solvents Using 4f-4f Transition Spectra as Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Debecca Devi


    Full Text Available Absorption difference and comparative absorption spectrophotometric studies involving 4f-4f transitions of Nd(III and different amino acids: DL-valine, DL-alanine, and β-alanine in presence and absence of Ca(II and Zn(II in aqueous and different aquated organic solvents have been carried out. Variations in the spectral energy parameters: Slater-Condon (FK factor, Racah (EK, Lande factor (ξ4f, nephelauxetic ratio (β, bonding (b1/2, percentage covalency (δ are calculated to explore the mode of interaction of Nd(III with different amino acids: DL-valine, DL-alanine, and β-alanine. The values of experimentally calculated oscillator strength (P and computed values of Judd-Ofelt electric dipole intensity parameters, Tλ (λ = 2,4,6, are also determined for different 4f-4f transitions. The variation in the values of P and Tλ parameters explicitly shows the relative sensitivities of the 4f-4f transitions as well as the specific correlation between relative intensities, ligand structures, and nature of Nd(III-ligand interaction.

  14. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports. (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D


    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  15. Dynamical and multi scale approach of the relationships between the aquatic organisms and their environment; Approche multi-echelles des relations dynamiques entre les organismes aquatiques et leur environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daufresne, M.


    Identifying the causes of spatio-temporal variations in communities has long been at the core of ecological research. I have studied the dynamic relationship between stream-living organisms and their environment. I have shown, for the first time in large stream ecosystems, the effect of climate change on fish and invertebrate community structures. At the population scale, I enhanced understanding of the influence of high discharge level during emergence on brown trout population dynamics. At the individual scale, an experimental study improved understanding of the influence of stream velocity on downstream displacement of emerging trout. Finally, this work highlighted that environmental constraints could have paradoxical effects at different biological or temporal scales. (author)

  16. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter


      A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested...... delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic...... animals is quantitatively important in nitraterich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability...

  17. VT Biodiversity Project - Aquatic Sites boundary lines (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Exemplary aquatic sites in Vermont, both standing water and running water, are represented in this dataset. It is the result of an analysis by the...

  18. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) - Volusia County Seagrass (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Aquatic vegetation in Volusia County. DEP SEA_GRASSES This polygon GIS data set represents a compilation of statewide seagrass data from various source agencies and...

  19. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database Marine Fishes (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NAS) information resource is an established central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of...

  20. Edible aquatic Coleoptera of the world with an emphasis on Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno José


    Full Text Available Abstract Anthropoentomophagy is an ancient culinary practice wherein terrestrial and aquatic insects are eaten by humans. Of these species of insects, terrestrial insects are far more commonly used in anthropoentomophagy than aquatic insects. In this study we found that there are 22 genera and 78 species of edible aquatic beetles in the world. The family Dytiscidae hosts nine genera, Gyrinidae one, Elmidae two, Histeridae one, Hydrophilidae six, Haliplidae two and Noteridae one. Of the recorded species, 45 correspond to the family Dytiscidae, 19 to Hydrophilidae, three to Gyrinidae, four to Elmidae, two to Histeridae, four to Haliplidae and one to Noteridae. These beetles are the most prized organisms of lentic watersThe family that has the highest number of edible food insect genera and species is Dytiscidae. Here, the global geographic distribution of species in these organisms is shown, and a discussion is presented of its importance as a renewable natural resource widely used for food in various countries.

  1. Edible aquatic Coleoptera of the world with an emphasis on Mexico. (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José Manuel Pino; Camacho, Victor Hugo Martínez


    Anthropoentomophagy is an ancient culinary practice wherein terrestrial and aquatic insects are eaten by humans. Of these species of insects, terrestrial insects are far more commonly used in anthropoentomophagy than aquatic insects. In this study we found that there are 22 genera and 78 species of edible aquatic beetles in the world. The family Dytiscidae hosts nine genera, Gyrinidae one, Elmidae two, Histeridae one, Hydrophilidae six, Haliplidae two and Noteridae one. Of the recorded species, 45 correspond to the family Dytiscidae, 19 to Hydrophilidae, three to Gyrinidae, four to Elmidae, two to Histeridae, four to Haliplidae and one to Noteridae. These beetles are the most prized organisms of lentic waters. The family that has the highest number of edible food insect genera and species is Dytiscidae. Here, the global geographic distribution of species in these organisms is shown, and a discussion is presented of its importance as a renewable natural resource widely used for food in various countries.

  2. Sulfonylurea herbicides – methodological challenges in setting aquatic limit values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Baun, Anders; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    Lemna spp. have been shown to be up to 1000 times more sensitive to some sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs) than the green alga (e.g., P. subcapitata) which is commonly used as a representative organism for aquatic primary producers in environmental risk assessments. When the compounds are evaluated...... which the plants recovered within 5 days. Difficulties in maintaining the concentration of the test substances were encountered due to a rapid hydrolysis of certain SUs in aqueous solution. These preliminary results raise the question whether the presently used standard Lemna tests are suitable...

  3. 76 FR 60863 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting (United States)


    ... include: Commercial harvest of aquatic invasive species, State Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plans...-Chair, Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, Acting Assistant Director--Fisheries and Habitat... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  4. Using to Detect Emerging Trends in Aquatic Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Grossel


    Full Text Available is an open-source aquatic biosecurity intelligence application. By combining automated data collection and human analysis, provides fast and accurate disease outbreak detection and forecasts, accompanied with nuanced explanations. The system has been online and open to the public since 1 January 2010, it has over 200 registered expert users around the world, and it typically publishes about seven daily reports and two weekly disease alerts. We document the major trends in aquatic animal health that the system has detected over these two years, and conclude with some forecasts for the future.

  5. Nodularia spumigena Peptides—Accumulation and Effect on Aquatic Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Mazur-Marzec


    Full Text Available Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD. In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect on Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, were examined. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses provided evidence that both blue mussels collected after a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea and the crustaceans exposed under laboratory conditions to N. spumigena extract accumulated the cyclic anabaenopeptins (APs. In the crustaceans, the linear peptides, spumigins (SPUs and aeruginosins (AERs, were additionally detected. Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms. However, high numbers of dead crustaceans were also recorded in the nodularin-free fraction, which contained protease inhibitors classified to spumigins and aeruginosins. These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.

  6. Cross-species evaluation of molecular target sequence and structural conservation as a line of evidence for identification of susceptible taxa to inform derivation of aquatic life criteria (United States)

    The 1985 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidelines for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria (ALC) require acute and chronic toxicity testing with a fixed list of taxa that cover aquatic organisms from vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. In considering Guideline revision...

  7. Presence, fate and effects of the intense sweetener sucralose in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik, E-mail: [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Nizzetto, Luca [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Huggett, Duane B. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 310559, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)


    Sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-b-D-fructo-furanosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranoside), sold under the trade name Splenda Registered-Sign , has been detected in municipal effluents and surface waters in the United States and Europe. The environmental presence of sucralose has led to interest in the possibility of toxic effects in non-target species. This review presents an environmental risk assessment of sucralose based on available data concerning its presence, fate and effects in the environment. Sucralose, which is made by selective chlorination of sucrose, is a highly stable compound, which undergoes negligible metabolism in mammals, including humans, and displays a low biodegradation potential in the environment. This intense sweetener is highly soluble in water, displays a low bioaccumulation potential and a low sorption potential to soil and organic matter, and thus is predominantly present in the water column. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for sucralose, based on measured data in surface waters, was determined to be 10 {mu}g/L. Aquatic toxicity studies using standardized, validated protocols used in regulatory decision making indicate that sucralose does not alter survival, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms (such as plants, algae, crustaceans and fish) at concentrations > 9000 times higher than those detected in the environment. Some studies, using non-standardized protocols, have reported behavioral and other non-traditional responses in aquatic organisms, but the relevance of these findings for assessing adverse effects on individuals and populations will require further investigation. In terms of traditional risk assessment, the proposed predicted no effect concentration for aquatic organisms (PNEC) was determined to be 0.93 mg/L, based on the lowest no effect concentration (NOEC) from a validated chronic study with mysid shrimp and an application factor of 100. The resultant PEC/PNEC quotient was determined to be

  8. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports. (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin


    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  9. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events. (United States)

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M


    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  10. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Affonso

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012, channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012 and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples were applied to the variables in order to: 1 quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2 assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system’s types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system’s types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are

  11. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Copping, Andrea E.; Marshall, Kathryn E.


    Energy generated by the world’s oceans and rivers offers the potential to make substantial contributions to the domestic and global renewable energy supply. However, the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry faces challenges related to siting, permitting, construction, and operation of pilotand commercial-scale facilities. One of the challenges is to understand the potential effects to marine organisms from electromagnetic fields, which are produced as a by-product of transmitting power from offshore to onshore locations through underwater transmission cables. This report documents the progress of the third year of research (fiscal year 2012) to investigate environmental issues associated with marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) generation. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Wind and Water Technologies Office. The report addresses the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on selected marine species where significant knowledge gaps exist. The species studied this fiscal year included one fish and two crustacean species: the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister), and American lobster (Homarus americanus).

  12. A sugar biomarker proxy for assessing terrestrial versus aquatic sedimentary input (United States)

    Hepp, Johannes; Rabus, Max; Laforsch, Christian; Anhäuser, Tobias; Glaser, Bruno; Zech, Michael


    Lake sediments are valuable, often continuous and potentially high resolution archives for studying past climate changes. Thereby, one of the crucial questions is often whether the origin of the organic matter in lake sediments is allochthonous (terrestrial) or autochthonous (aquatic). Here we present patterns of neutral sugars of various plants and algae species to answer the question whether the deoxyhexoses (fucose, rhamnose) to pentoses (arabinose, xylose) ratio can serve as a proxy for aquatic versus terrestrial sedimentary lake input, respectively. Our sugar pattern results show that the fucose + rhamnose content plotted against arabinose and xylose in a ternary diagram can be used to distinguish between algae and other (namely aquatic plants, emergent plant, and terrestrial plants) sugar sources. This finding is confirmed by a compilation with sugar data from the literature. Mosses plot within the range of algae. Although the (fucose + rhamnose)/(arabinose + xylose) ratio yields some overlapping between algae and soil/litter samples, we recommend this ratio, particularly when applied within a multiproxy approach, as promising proxy for distinguishing between aquatic vs. terrestrial organic matter in sedimentary archives. Regarding the sugar concentrations of the investigated samples, emergent plants show the highest values as well as the highest variability. Mosses, aquatic plants and algae yield lower sugar concentrations comparable to those of terrestrial plants.

  13. Unifying Rules for Aquatic Locomotion (United States)

    Saadat, Mehdi; Domel, August; di Santo, Valentina; Lauder, George; Haj-Hariri, Hossein


    Strouhal number, St (=fA/U) , a scaling parameter that relates speed, U, to the tail-beat frequency, f, and tail-beat amplitude, A, has been used many times to describe animal locomotion. It has been observed that swimming animals cruise at 0.2 experimental evidence of a self-propelled fish-like swimmer, we show that when cruising at minimum hydrodynamic input power, St is predetermined, and is only a function of the shape, i.e. drag coefficient and area. The narrow range for St, 0.2-0.4, has been previously associated with optimal propulsive efficiency. However, St alone is insufficient for deciding optimal motion. We show that hydrodynamic input power (energy usage to propel over a unit distance) in fish locomotion is minimized at all cruising speeds when A* (= A/L), a scaling parameter that relates tail-beat amplitude, A, to the length of the swimmer, L, is constrained to a narrow range of 0.15-0.25. Our analysis proposes a constraint on A*, in addition to the previously found constraint on St, to fully describe the optimal swimming gait for fast swimmers. A survey of kinematics for dolphin, as well as new data for trout, show that the range of St and A* for fast swimmers indeed are constrained to 0.2-0.4 and 0.15-0.25, respectively. Our findings provide physical explanation as to why fast aquatic swimmers cruise with relatively constant tail-beat amplitude at approximately 20 percent of body length, while their swimming speed is linearly correlated with their tail-beat frequency.

  14. Fire and aquatic ecosystems in forested biomes of North America (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.


    Synthesis of the literature suggests that physical, chemical, and biological elements of a watershed interact with long-term climate to influence fire regime, and that these factors, in concordance with the postfire vegetation mosaic, combine with local-scale weather to govern the trajectory and magnitude of change following a fire event. Perturbation associated with hydrological processes is probably the primary factor influencing postfire persistence of fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and diatoms in fluvial systems. It is apparent that salmonids have evolved strategies to survive perturbations occurring at the frequency of wildland fires (100a??102 years), but local populations of a species may be more ephemeral. Habitat alteration probably has the greatest impact on individual organisms and local populations that are the least mobile, and reinvasion will be most rapid by aquatic organisms with high mobility. It is becoming increasingly apparent that during the past century fire suppression has altered fire regimes in some vegetation types, and consequently, the probability of large stand-replacing fires has increased in those areas. Current evidence suggests, however, that even in the case of extensive high-severity fires, local extirpation of fishes is patchy, and recolonization is rapid. Lasting detrimental effects on fish populations have been limited to areas where native populations have declined and become increasingly isolated because of anthropogenic activities. A strategy of protecting robust aquatic communities and restoring aquatic habitat structure and life history complexity in degraded areas may be the most effective means for insuring the persistence of native biota where the probability of large-scale fires has increased.

  15. Summary of information on synthetic organic compounds and trace elements in tissue of aquatic biota, Clark Fork-Pend Oreille and Spokane River basins, Montana, Idaho, and Washington, 1974-96 (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Dutton, DeAnn M.


    As part of the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basins study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, data collected between 1974 and 1996 were compiled to describe contaminants in tissue of riverine species. Tissue-contaminant data from 11 monitoring programs and studies representing 28 sites in the study area were summarized. Tissue-contaminant data for most streams generally were lacking. Many studies have focused on and around mining-affected areas on the Clark Fork and Coeur d'Alene Rivers and their major tributaries. DDT and PCBs and their metabolites and congeners were the synthetic organic contaminants most commonly detected in fish tissue. Fish collected from the Spokane River in Washington contained elevated concentrations of PCB arochlors, some of which exceeded guidelines for the protection of human health and predatory wildlife. Tissue samples of fish from the Flathead River watershed contained higher-than-expected concentrations of PCBs, which might have resulted from atmospheric transport. Trace element concentrations in fish and macroinvertebrates collected in and around mining areas were elevated compared with background concentrations. Some cadmium, copper, lead, and mercury concentrations in fish tissue were elevated compared with results from other studies, and some exceeded guidelines. Macroinvertebrates from the Coeur d'Alene River contained higher concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc than did macroinvertebrates from other river systems in mining-affected areas. A few sportfish fillet samples, most from the Spokane River in Washington, were collected to assess human health risk. Concentrations of PCBs in these fillets exceeded screening values for the protection of human health. At present, there is no coordinated, long-term fish tissue monitoring program for rivers in the study area, even though contaminants are present in fish at levels considered a threat to human health. Development of a coordinated, centralized national data


    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and borderline metals that complex wi...

  17. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-Use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems. (United States)

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  18. Young mangrove stands produce a large and high quality litter input to aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, B.T.; Tinh, H.Q.; Tam, D.T.; Scheffer, M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.


    Mangrove swamps are key ecosystems along the Vietnam coast. Although mangrove litter is thought to represent an important input of organic matter and nutrients to the coastal aquatic systems, the factors determining the quality and size of this litter flux have not been studied so far. We monitored


    The last 3 decades have witnessed numerous large-scale mortality events of aquatic organisms in North America. Affected species range from ecologically-important sea urchins to commercially-valuable American lobsters and protected marine mammals. Short-term forensic investigation...

  20. Experimental quantification of long distance dispersal potential of aquatic snails in the gut of migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H A van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available Many plant seeds and invertebrates can survive passage through the digestive system of birds, which may lead to long distance dispersal (endozoochory in case of prolonged retention by moving vectors. Endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds has nowadays been documented for many aquatic plant seeds, algae and dormant life stages of aquatic invertebrates. Anecdotal information indicates that endozoochory is also possible for fully functional, active aquatic organisms, a phenomenon that we here address experimentally using aquatic snails. We fed four species of aquatic snails to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, and monitored snail retrieval and survival over time. One of the snail species tested was found to survive passage through the digestive tract of mallards as fully functional adults. Hydrobia (Peringia ulvae survived up to five hours in the digestive tract. This suggests a maximum potential transport distance of up to 300 km may be possible if these snails are taken by flying birds, although the actual dispersal distance greatly depends on additional factors such as the behavior of the vectors. We put forward that more organisms that acquired traits for survival in stochastic environments such as wetlands, but not specifically adapted for endozoochory, may be sufficiently equipped to successfully pass a bird's digestive system. This may be explained by a digestive trade-off in birds, which maximize their net energy intake rate rather than digestive efficiency, since higher efficiency comes with the cost of prolonged retention times and hence reduces food intake. The resulting lower digestive efficiency allows species like aquatic snails, and potentially other fully functional organisms without obvious dispersal adaptations, to be transported internally. Adopting this view, endozoochorous dispersal may be more common than up to now thought.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yanovych


    Full Text Available Purpose. Due to the pollution of fisheries water bodies by industrial and agricultural waste waters, as well as by xenobiotics coming from other sources, taking into account a pridictable increase in the amounts of such effluents in the short and long terms, the problems related to the study of the effects of the pollutants of different nature and origin on aquatic organisms, especially fish, as well as a prediction of possible adverse consequences on aquatic ecosystems, becomes particularly important. The aim of our work was an analysis and synthesis of existing literature data concerning the indication in the biomonitoring of aquatic environments based on biological markers of salmonids as highly sensitive objects of fish fauna to external factors. Findings. The review summarizes and systematizes the data concerning the use of salmonids in biomonitoring studies. Furthermore, we highlighted and characterized the specificity of bioindication parameters of the aquatic environment state, such as the biochemical, genetic, physiological, morphological, histopathological, behavioral and population markers and noted the effects of hydroecosystem ecotoxication on different levels of biological organization (cell, individual, population, fish community. We also described the possibility of biological monitoring based on saprobic indexes identified for indicator species belonging to salmonids. Originality. In the article describes the structure, pros and cons of the use of specific biomarkers of individual salmonid fish and their populations for assessing the ecological status of aquatic environments. Practical value. The data given in the article can be used to improve the system of the ecological monitoring of aquatic environments by extending the range of indicator indices with organism and population biomarkers of highly sensitive salmonid species.

  2. Strong linkages between DOM optical properties and main clades of aquatic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral, Valentina; Graeber, Daniel; Calliari, Danilo


    Despite considerable research on the linkages between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bacteria, it is not yet clear how the abundance of the main aquatic clades relates to DOM composition in natural aquatic systems. We evaluated this relation using PARAFAC modeling of excitation...... factors for modeling their abundance in situ. The combination and significance of the factors was specific for each bacterial group, strongly indicating that they behave as coherent and distinctive units. Cytophaga-Flavobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were the groups which correlated with more DOM...

  3. Ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bart, H. Jr.; Martinat, P.; Spahn, S. [and others


    This project has three major subsections; reports on the progress are detailed in the article. Community and Trophic Responses of fishes to aquatic contamination looks at the fate of environmental contaminants in fish from a lateral floodplain swamp in the lower Mississippi River system and at the ecological risks contaminants pose for fish and other aquatic organisms. Contaminants include cadmium, mercury, nickel, chromium, HCB and HCBC. The second section looks at tree cores of baldcypress as biomarkers of present and past pollution events by heavy metals. The third section evaluates the effects of environmental contamination on colonial wading birds and the usefulness of these birds as indicators of environmental contamination. 3 refs.

  4. Biomarkers in aquatic plants: selection and utility. (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Cedergreen, Nina


    This review emphasizes the predictive ability, sensitivity and specificity of aquatic plant biomarkers as biomonitoring agents of exposure and effect. Biomarkers of exposure are those that provide functional measures of exposure that are characterized at a sub-organism level. Biomarkers of effect require causal linkages between the biomarker and effects, measured at higher levels of biological organization. With the exception of pathway specific metabolites, the biomarkers assessed in this review show variable sensitivity and predictive ability that is often confounded by variations in growth conditions, rendering them unsuitable as stand alone indicators of environmental stress. The use of gene expression for detecting pollution has been, and remains immature; this immaturity derives from inadequate knowledge on predictive ability, sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the ability to the detect mode of action of unknown toxicants using gene expression is not as clear-cut as initially hypothesized. The principal patterns in gene expression is not as clear-cut as initially hypothesized. The principal patterns in gene expression are generally derived from stress induced genes, rather than on ones that respond to substances with known modes of action (Baerson et al. 2005). Future developments in multivariate statistics and chemometric methods that enhance pattern analyses in ways that could produce a "fingerprint", may improve methods for discovering modes of action of unknown toxicants. Pathway specific metabolites are unambiguous, sensitive, correlate well to growth effects, and are relatively unaffected by growth conditions. These traits make them excellent biomarkers under both field and laboratory conditions. Changes in metabolites precede visible growth effects; therefore, measuring changes in metabolite concentrations (Harring et al. 1998; Shaner et al. 2005). The metabolic phase I enzymes (primarily associated with P-450 activity) are non-specific biomarkers

  5. Sleep alterations in mammals: Did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vibha Madan; Sushil K.Jha


    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates.Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state.During REM sleep,postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended.Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals,the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep.Further,we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water.The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals,significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals.The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air.Also,these animals live in thermally challenging environments,where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air.Therefore,they have to be moving most of the time.As an adaptation,they have evolved unihemispheric sleep,during which they can rove as well as rest.A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery,as happens during REM sleep,is not suitable for these animals.It is possible that,in accord with Darwin's theory,aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time.In this review,we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  6. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana. (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer


    The volume of e-waste is growing around the world, and, increasingly, it is being disposed of by export from developed to developing countries. This is the situation in Ghana, and, in this paper we address the potential consequences of such e-waste disposal. Herein, we describe how e-waste is processed in Ghana, and what the fate is of e-waste-chemical contaminants during recycling and storage. Finally, to the extent it is known, we address the prospective adverse effects of e-waste-related contaminants on health and aquatic life downstream from a large e-waste disposal facility in Accra, Ghana.In developing countries, including Ghana, e-waste is routinely disassembled by unprotected workers that utilize rudimentary methods and tools. Once disassembled,e-waste components are often stored in large piles outdoors. These processing and storage methods expose workers and local residents to several heavy metals and organic chemicals that exist in e-waste components. The amount of e-waste dumped in Ghana is increasing annually by about 20,000 t. The local aquatic environment is at a potential high risk, because the piles of e-waste components stored outside are routinely drenched or flooded by rainfall, producing run-off from storage sites to local waterways. Both water and sediment samples show that e-waste-related contaminant shave entered Ghana's water ways.The extent of pollution produced in key water bodies of Ghana (Odaw River and the Korle Lagoon) underscores the need for aquatic risk assessments of the many contaminants released during e-waste processing. Notwithstanding the fact that pollutants from other sources reach the water bodies, it is clear that these water bodies are also heavily impacted by contaminants that are found in e-waste. Our concern is that such exposures have limited and will continue to limit the diversity of aquatic organisms.There have also been changes in the abundance and biomass of surviving species and changes in food chains. Therefore

  7. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning


    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  8. Azole Fungicides as Synergists in the Aquatic Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen

    the aquaticcrustacean Daphnia magna in both laboratory experiments and natural-like environments. In the PhDthesis, synergy is defined as happening in mixtures where either EC50 values decrease more than two-foldbelow the prediction by the model of Concentration Addition (horizontal assessment of synergy) or wherethe...... forbifenthrin. Subsequent experiments indirectly assessed sorption strength by measuring the bioaccessiblefraction of the sorbed pesticides using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) rods. Bifenthrin bioaccessibilitywas significantly reduced in an algae suspension of approximately 17,000 cells mL-1 while a tendency...... ofsynergistically acting azoles in the environment. As a consequence of sorbents acting as vectors andpotential accumulation within exposed organisms, aquatic organisms may experience larger exposureconcentrations, leading to greater synergistic effects, than expected based on single azole concentrationsmeasured...

  9. Aquatic exercise & balneotherapy in musculoskeletal conditions. (United States)

    Verhagen, Arianne P; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A


    This is a best-evidence synthesis providing an evidence-based summary on the effectiveness of aquatic exercises and balneotherapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The most prevalent musculoskeletal conditions addressed in this review include: low back pain, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Over 30 years of research demonstrates that exercises in general, and specifically aquatic exercises, are beneficial for reducing pain and disability in many musculoskeletal conditions demonstrating small to moderate effect sizes ranging between 0.19 and 0.32. Balneotherapy might be beneficial, but the evidence is yet insufficient to make a definitive statement about its use. High-quality trials are needed on balneotherapy and aquatic exercises research especially in specific patient categories that might benefit most.

  10. Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review. (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Smagghe, Guy


    There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters for the pest management of insects. This article provides a brief description of the insect hormone system, a short sum-up of the relevant insect groups with aquatic life stages, and an overview of the additional evidence for endocrine disruption in aquatic insects from laboratory and field studies since 1999. In addition, the suitability of insects as sentinels for endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is discussed. Conclusions are drawn and research needs are defined.

  11. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports. (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo


    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  12. Fishes and other aquatic species in the Byzantine literature. Classification, terminology and scientific names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Fishes and other aquatic species were substantial food in the every day life of Byzantine people. The predomination of Christianity contributed to the increased consumption of fishes and other seafood compared to the meat of land animals and chicken. More than a hundred ten names of fishes and about thirty names of other aquatic organisms are found in the sources of the Byzantine literature. Most frequent references are found in the medical texts of the Byzantine doctors, where, fishes are classified in categories depending on their physiology and origin, because, according to the writers, these are determining factors for the evaluation of the nutritional value of each species.The purpose of this study is to present the terminology of the fishes and the various aquatic species that are found in the Byzantine sources and to identify, in parallel, each species with its current scientific name.  

  13. Evaluation of nutrient limitation in aquatic ecosystems with nitrogen fixing bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gen-fu; WU Xue-chang; XUAN Xiao-dong; ZHOU Xue-ping


    There has always been a great need for simple and accurate bioassays for evaluating nutrient limitation in aquatic ecosystems. Whereas organic carbon is usually considered to be the limiting nutrient for microbial growth in many aquatic ecosystems,there are, however, many water sources that are limited by phosphorus or nitrogen. A method named "nitrogen fixing bacterial growth potential" (NFBGP) test, which is based on pre-culturing ofautochthonous (target) microorganisms was described. The method was applied to evaluate phosphorus or nitrogen nutrient limitation in lake and sewage water samples using an isolate of the nitrogen fixing bacterium, Azorhizobium sp. WS6. The results corresponded well to those from the traditional algal growth potential (AGP) test and the bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) test, suggesting that the NFBGP test is a useful supplementary method for evaluating the limiting nutrient, especially phosphorus, in an aquatic environment.

  14. Differentiation of environmental aquatic bacterial isolates by MALDI-TOF MS. (United States)

    Popović, Natalija Topić; Kazazić, Snježana P; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra


    Identification of bacteria in aquatic and environmental applications, for monitoring purposes and research, for health assessments and therapy considerations of farmed and free-living aquatic organisms, still relies on conventional phenotypic and biochemical protocols. Although molecular techniques based on DNA amplification and sequencing are finding ways into diagnostic laboratories, they are time-consuming, costly and difficult in the case of multiplex assays. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid and accurate proteomic method reliable for identification of unknown bacteria to the genus and species level. Upon extension of databases, it will certainly find its position in environmental sciences. The paper presents an overview of the principle of the method, its effectiveness in comparison with conventional and molecular identification procedures, and applicability on environmental and aquatic isolates, discussing its advantages and shortcomings, as well as possible future implementations.

  15. An integrated approach to aquatic health assessment: water quality index and multibiomarker response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedeno-Diaz, J. E.; Lopez-Lopez, E.; Jimenez-Trujillo, P.; Tejeda-Vera, R.; Espainal Carrion, T.


    The pollution of water bodies reduces their quality and is stressful to their biota. In a river, water usually is of the high-est quality in its headwaters reaches, becoming dirtier along its length as it passes through different land uses. Therefore, the aquatic environment should be assessed using physicochemical and biological features in order to provide a full spectrum of aquatic ecosystem health. Water Quality Indexes can be used to aggregate data on water quality parameters and to translate this information into a single value. The use of bio markers as indicators of toxicity delineates the effects of xenobiotics before the appearance of diseases in aquatic organism. The use of a battery bio markers may be useful to evaluate the various response to mixtures of pollutants. (Author)

  16. Illustrated field guide for aquatic insects study: A collection that lets you view life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Castiblanco-Zerda


    Full Text Available This work was developed from the aquatic insects collection (CIA of National Pedagogical University of Colombia, Bogotá. A field guide and ID portable key was outlined, which contributed to the study of aquatic insects with alternative collection methods, through the development of methodologies for observation of living organisms (in situ and in vivo for identification until taxonomic level of family during the field practice and its subsequent return to the habitat, taking into account students’ practical work needs in the field and the active use of Biology Department biological resources. It was concluded that the recognition of aquatic insects families allows articulation between collection and field practices, as well as students’ reflection on methods and goals of the collection, and evaluation of other procedural possibilities as those presented in this work.

  17. Behavior and Potential Impacts of Metal-Based Engineered Nanoparticles in Aquatic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Peng


    Full Text Available The specific properties of metal-based nanoparticles (NPs have not only led to rapidly increasing applications in various industrial and commercial products, but also caused environmental concerns due to the inevitable release of NPs and their unpredictable biological/ecological impacts. This review discusses the environmental behavior of metal-based NPs with an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms and kinetics. The focus is on knowledge gaps in the interaction of NPs with aquatic organisms, which can influence the fate, transport and toxicity of NPs in the aquatic environment. Aggregation transforms NPs into micrometer-sized clusters in the aqueous environment, whereas dissolution also alters the size distribution and surface reactivity of metal-based NPs. A unique toxicity mechanism of metal-based NPs is related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the subsequent ROS-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, aggregation, dissolution and ROS generation could influence each other and also be influenced by many factors, including the sizes, shapes and surface charge of NPs, as well as the pH, ionic strength, natural organic matter and experimental conditions. Bioaccumulation of NPs in single organism species, such as aquatic plants, zooplankton, fish and benthos, is summarized and compared. Moreover, the trophic transfer and/or biomagnification of metal-based NPs in an aquatic ecosystem are discussed. In addition, genetic effects could result from direct or indirect interactions between DNA and NPs. Finally, several challenges facing us are put forward in the review.

  18. Responses of Aquatic Bacteria to Terrestrial Runoff: Effects on Community Structure and Key Taxonomic Groups (United States)

    Le, Huong T.; Ho, Cuong T.; Trinh, Quan H.; Trinh, Duc A.; Luu, Minh T. N.; Tran, Hai S.; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean L.; Merroune, Asmaa; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Pommier, Thomas


    Organic fertilizer application is often touted as an economical and effective method to increase soil fertility. However, this amendment may increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff into downstream aquatic ecosystems and may consequently alter aquatic microbial community. We focused on understanding the effects of DOC runoff from soils amended with compost, vermicompost, or biochar on the aquatic microbial community of a tropical reservoir. Runoff collected from a series of rainfall simulations on soils amended with different organic fertilizers was incubated for 16 days in a series of 200 L mesocosms filled with water from a downstream reservoir. We applied 454 high throughput pyrosequencing for bacterial 16S rRNA genes to analyze microbial communities. After 16 days of incubation, the richness and evenness of the microbial communities present decreased in the mesocosms amended with any organic fertilizers, except for the evenness in the mesocosms amended with compost runoff. In contrast, they increased in the reservoir water control and soil-only amended mesocosms. Community structure was mainly affected by pH and DOC concentration. Compared to the autochthonous organic carbon produced during primary production, the addition of allochthonous DOC from these organic amendments seemed to exert a stronger effect on the communities over the period of incubation. While the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes were positively associated with higher DOC concentration, the number of sequences representing key bacterial groups differed between mesocosms particularly between the biochar runoff addition and the compost or vermi-compost runoff additions. The genera of Propionibacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. were highly abundant in the compost runoff additions suggesting that they may represent sentinel species of complex organic carbon inputs. Overall, this work further underlines the importance of studying the off-site impacts of organic fertilizers as

  19. Diversity and Distribution of California Dragonflies and Other Aquatic Taxa Over the Past Century


    Damerow, Joan


    Climate and land-use change have altered and continue to affect the diversity, composition, and distribution of freshwater organisms throughout the world. This is particularly true in arid and semi-arid regions, where aquatic organisms may experience more pronounced reductions in available habitat with declines in precipitation, increases in water demand, and habitat degradation through human land-use. However, documentation of changes in taxonomic assemblages over long-time periods has been ...

  20. The mechanisms of nickel toxicity in aquatic environments: an adverse outcome pathway analysis. (United States)

    Brix, Kevin V; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R


    Current ecological risk assessment and water quality regulations for nickel (Ni) use mechanistically based, predictive tools such as biotic ligand models (BLMs). However, despite many detailed studies, the precise mechanism(s) of Ni toxicity to aquatic organisms remains elusive. This uncertainty in the mechanism(s) of action for Ni has led to concern over the use of tools like the BLM in some regulatory settings. To address this knowledge gap, the authors used an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analysis, the first AOP for a metal, to identify multiple potential mechanisms of Ni toxicity and their interactions with freshwater aquatic organisms. The analysis considered potential mechanisms of action based on data from a wide range of organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments on the premise that molecular initiating events for an essential metal would potentially be conserved across taxa. Through this analysis the authors identified 5 potential molecular initiating events by which Ni may exert toxicity on aquatic organisms: disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis, disruption of Mg(2+) homeostasis, disruption of Fe(2+/3+) homeostasis, reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage, and an allergic-type response of respiratory epithelia. At the organ level of biological organization, these 5 potential molecular initiating events collapse into 3 potential pathways: reduced Ca(2+) availability to support formation of exoskeleton, shell, and bone for growth; impaired respiration; and cytotoxicity and tumor formation. At the level of the whole organism, the organ-level responses contribute to potential reductions in growth and reproduction and/or alterations in energy metabolism, with several potential feedback loops between each of the pathways. Overall, the present AOP analysis provides a robust framework for future directed studies on the mechanisms of Ni toxicity and for developing AOPs for other metals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-10. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Occurrence of antibiotics in water, sediments, aquatic plants, and animals from Baiyangdian Lake in North China. (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi


    This study investigated the presence and distribution of 22 antibiotics, including eight quinolones, nine sulfonamides and five macrolides, in the water, sediments, and biota samples from Baiyangdian Lake, China. A total of 132 samples were collected in 2008 and 2010, and laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the lake. Sulfonamides were the dominant antibiotics in the water (0.86-1563 ng L(-1)), while quinolones were prominent in sediments (65.5-1166 μg kg(-1)) and aquatic plants (8.37-6532 μg kg(-1)). Quinolones (17.8-167 μg kg(-1)) and macrolides [from below detection limit (BDL) to 182 μg kg(-1)] were often found in aquatic animals and birds. Salvinia natans exhibited the highest bioaccumulation capability for quinolones among three species of aquatic plants. Geographical differences of antibiotic concentrations were greatly due to anthropogenic activities. Sewage discharged from Baoding City was likely the main source of antibiotics in the lake. Risk assessment of antibiotics on aquatic organisms suggested that algae and aquatic plants might be at risk in surface water, while animals were likely not at risk.

  2. Monthly variations of Oomycetes (zoosporic fungi and aquatic Hypomycetes at Sohag (Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Khallil


    Full Text Available Fifty-eight fungal species related to twenty-six genera of Perenosporales and Saprolegniales (32 species, 7 genera, 671 colonies and aquatic Hyphomycetes (26 species; 19 genera; 1038 colonies were recovered from the surface water (zoosporic fungi and submerged decaying leaves (aquatic Hyphomycetes samples collected monthly (10 samples each month during the period of experiment (18 months. The richest samples in either zoosporic fungi or aquatic Hyphomycetes were those of comparatively low or moderate temperature, high contents of organic matter and dissolved oxygen. The pH volue and the total soluble salts did not show any regular monthly variations and did not exhibit any considerable influence on fungal population. Achlya racemosa, Dictyuchus sterile (Saprolegniales and Alatospora acuminata, Trisclophorus monosporus (aquatic Hyphomycetes were the most prevalent species. Some fungal species showed their highest population in winter months whereas others in summer months. Moreover, some species were recovered throughout the year. One species of Saprolegniales (Isoachlya toruloides and three species of aquatic Hyphomycetes (Exophiala jeanselmei, Flabellospora Sp. and Varicosporium delicatum are new records to Egypt.

  3. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Jablanica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Katarina S.


    Full Text Available Research on the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates was carried out during 2005 and 2006 at four sampling sites along the Jablanica River, a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara River. Fifty-seven taxa were recorded in the course of the investigation. The most diverse group was Ephemeroptera, followed by Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Members of the Rhitrogena semicolorata group were the most abundant. Our results could be the basis for evaluation of the influence of damming of the Jablanica River on the status of its water and can serve as a model for studying the influ­ence of hydromorphological degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems. (United States)

    Cavicchioli, Ricardo


    The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

  5. Physical and chemical properties of substrates produced using macrophytes aquatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walda Monteiro Farias


    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes are widely used as bioindicators of water quality because their proliferation usually occurs in eutrophic water sources and has hit several parts of Brazil and the world, restricted the multiple uses of aquatic ecosystems. However, this group of plants is able to retain considerable amounts of nutrients, presenting high productivity and high growth rate, thus, a good source of biomass for use in the production of substrates. In order to evaluate the potential of aquatic macrophytes water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Solms., water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L. and cattail (Typha domingensis Pers. in the production of substrates was performed in this work, the physical and chemical characterization and evaluation of the degree of humification. The treatments were arranged in a 3 × 4 factorial, completely randomized design with three replications. All substrates produced with 100% macrophyte density present within the limits of 400 kg m-3, considered ideal. The composite substrates with water hyacinth and water lettuce are with the electrical conductivity of 0,79 a 2,49 dS m-1 within recommended. organic compounds produced are considered mature and have high levels of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium; The substrate produced with 70% water lettuce +30 % dung and 70% composed of cattail manure +20% +10% topsoil and 70 +30% cattail manure have C/N ratio within the considered ideal; the humification ratio and humification index, except for the four treatments (70 % water lettuce manure +30%, 5 (100% water hyacinth and 8 (70% water hyacinth manure +30% are within the considered ideal, the percentage of humic acids and polymerization rate, except for treatments 1 (100% water lettuce and 12 (100% cattail, are shown below the ideal.

  6. Methodological tests of a heterotrophy index for aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Antonio

    Full Text Available Experiments in glucose mineralization were carried out to investigate the effects caused by natural forcing functions on both the decomposition rates and heterotrophy capacity of aquatic ecosystems. In addition, the methodology used could show connections between mineralization rates measured in both laboratory and field work with those measured in aquatic ecosystems. Water samples from Infernão lagoon (21º35'S and 47º51'W were collected, filtered, enriched with glucose, and incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The glucose concentration variation, dissolved oxygen (DO consumption, pH, electric conductivity, and total CO2 amount in the water were determined for sixteen days. In the period with intense oxygen consumption there was also an evident glucose demand and the dissolved oxygen consumption rate was approximately the same as that for glucose mineralization. The process in the aerobic chambers was 2.2 times faster than that in the anaerobic chambers. An initial acidification of the water samples, probably due to microbial carbonic acid liberation, was noted. A rise in pH values was also observed at the end of the process. The electric conductivity was low for both aerobic and anaerobic chambers, indicating a probable ion uptake by microbial organisms due to the presence of carbon sources. The glucose content variations corresponded to both CO2 formation and dissolved oxygen consumption. It was estimated that 19.4% of the initial glucose content turned into CO2 and the remaining 80.6% into humic compounds and microbial biomass. This experiment showed that glucose can be used as a substrate indicating the heterotrophy of a given aquatic ecosystem.

  7. Methodological tests of a heterotrophy index for aquatic ecosystems. (United States)

    Antonio, R M; Bianchini Júnior, I


    Experiments in glucose mineralization were carried out to investigate the effects caused by natural forcing functions on both the decomposition rates and heterotrophy capacity of aquatic ecosystems. In addition, the methodology used could show connections between mineralization rates measured in both laboratory and field work with those measured in aquatic ecosystems. Water samples from Infernão lagoon (21 degrees 35'S and 47 degrees 51'W) were collected, filtered, enriched with glucose, and incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The glucose concentration variation, dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption, pH, electric conductivity, and total CO2 amount in the water were determined for sixteen days. In the period with intense oxygen consumption there was also an evident glucose demand and the dissolved oxygen consumption rate was approximately the same as that for glucose mineralization. The process in the aerobic chambers was 2.2 times faster than that in the anaerobic chambers. An initial acidification of the water samples, probably due to microbial carbonic acid liberation, was noted. A rise in pH values was also observed at the end of the process. The electric conductivity was low for both aerobic and anaerobic chambers, indicating a probable ion uptake by microbial organisms due to the presence of carbon sources. The glucose content variations corresponded to both CO2 formation and dissolved oxygen consumption. It was estimated that 19.4% of the initial glucose content turned into CO2 and the remaining 80.6% into humic compounds and microbial biomass. This experiment showed that glucose can be used as a substrate indicating the heterotrophy of a given aquatic ecosystem.

  8. Glossary of Aquatic Ecological Terms, (United States)


    Toxicity, Direct Toxicity) ACTINOMYCETES Filamentous microorganisms intermediate betweri the fungi and bacteria, although more close],- related to the...closely associated with the benthic region than other zones; e.g., flounders. BIOASSAY A determination of the biological effect of some organisms to test the quality of a receiving water downstream from a waste discharge. (See Bioassay ) BIOSTIMULATION A general term used to


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. McLachlan


    In December 1992, the CBR was awarded a five-year grant of $25M from the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project was an interdisciplinary, collaborative research and education project aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments. This project funded 15 collaborative cluster multi-year projects and 41 one-year initiation projects out of 165 submitted research proposals. This project was carried out by 134 research and technical support faculty from Xavier University (School of Arts and Sciences, and College of Pharmacy) and Tulane University (Schools of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Health and Tropical Medicine), and 173 publications and 140 presentations were produced. More than 100 graduate and undergraduate students were trained through these collaborative cluster and initiation research projects. Nineteen Tulane graduate students received partial funding to conduct their own competitively-chosen research projects, and 28 Xavier undergraduate LIFE Scholars and 30 LIFE Interns were supported with DOE funding to conduct their mentored research projects. Studies in this project have defined: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, (2) the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and (3) the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The bayou and spoil banks of Bayou Trepagnier were mapped and analyzed in terms of risks associated with the levels of hydrocarbons and metals at specific sample sites. Data from contaminated sample sites have been incorporated into a large database and used in GIS analyses to track the fate and transport of heavy metals from spoil banks into the surrounding marsh. These data are crucial

  10. A critical view on microplastic quantification in aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Janssen, Colin R; Marques, Antonio; Granby, Kit; Fait, Gabriella; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Diogène, Jorge; Bekaert, Karen; Robbens, Johan; Devriese, Lisa


    Microplastics, plastic particles and fragments smaller than 5mm, are ubiquitous in the marine environment. Ingestion and accumulation of microplastics have previously been demonstrated for diverse marine species ranging from zooplankton to bivalves and fish, implying the potential for microplastics to accumulate in the marine food web. In this way, microplastics can potentially impact food safety and human health. Although a few methods to quantify microplastics in biota have been described, no comparison and/or intercalibration of these techniques have been performed. Here we conducted a literature review on all available extraction and quantification methods. Two of these methods, involving wet acid destruction, were used to evaluate the presence of microplastics in field-collected mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from three different "hotspot" locations in Europe (Po estuary, Italy; Tagus estuary, Portugal; Ebro estuary, Spain). An average of 0.18±0.14 total microplastics g(-1) w.w. for the Acid mix Method and 0.12±0.04 total microplastics g(-1) w.w. for the Nitric acid Method was established. Additionally, in a pilot study an average load of 0.13±0.14 total microplastics g(-1) w.w. was recorded in commercial mussels (Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis) from five European countries (France, Italy, Denmark, Spain and The Netherlands). A detailed analysis and comparison of methods indicated the need for further research to develop a standardised operating protocol for microplastic quantification and monitoring.

  11. Simple Mechanisms for Broadspectrum Color Control in Aquatic Organisms (United States)


    theses are in preparation Presentations acknowledging AFOSR funding (Invited) AP Roberts. Pigments, PAHs, and UV: The “eco” of ecotoxicology ...PAHs, Mercury, and Nanoparticles: The Ecotoxicology of Energy. Departmental Seminar. Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research. University of Colorado...2009. PAHs, Mercury, and Nanoparticles: The Ecotoxicology of Energy. Departmental Seminar. University of Colorado-Denver. Denver, CO. Kovach, M

  12. A critical view on microplastic quantification in aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Janssen, Colin R.


    Microplastics, plastic particles and fragments smaller than 5mm, are ubiquitous in the marine environment. Ingestion and accumulation of microplastics have previously been demonstrated for diverse marine species ranging from zooplankton to bivalves and fish, implying the potential for microplastics...... to accumulate in the marine food web. In this way, microplastics can potentially impact food safety and human health. Although a few methods to quantify microplastics in biota have been described, no comparison and/or intercalibration of these techniques have been performed. Here we conducted a literature...... review on all available extraction and quantification methods. Two of these methods, involving wet acid destruction, were used to evaluate the presence of microplastics in field-collected mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from three different "hotspot" locations in Europe (Po estuary, Italy; Tagus...

  13. A critical view on microplastic quantification in aquatic organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Cauwenberghe, Van Lisbeth; Janssen, Colin R.; Marques, Antonio; Granby, Kit; Fait, Gabriella; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Diogène, Jorge; Bekaert, Karen; Robbens, Johan; Devriese, Lisa


    Microplastics, plastic particles and fragments smaller than 5mm, are ubiquitous in the marine environment. Ingestion and accumulation of microplastics have previously been demonstrated for diverse marine species ranging from zooplankton to bivalves and fish, implying the potential for microplasti

  14. Influence of selected fluorescent dyes on small aquatic organisms (United States)

    Rowiński, Paweł; Chrzanowski, Marcin


    Rhodamine B and Rhodamine WT are fluorescent dyes commonly used as tracers in hydrological investigations. Since introducing intensely red substances into rivers raises understandable doubts of ecological nature, the authors aimed at examining the influence of these dyes on small water fauna using bioindication methods. Quantitative results, calculated with the use of Bliss-Weber probit statistical method, were achieved by means of standardized ecotoxicological tests containing ready-to-hatch resting forms of fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus). Qualitative studies included observation of water flea crustacean (Daphnia magna) and horned planorbis snail (Planorbis corneus), both typically present in rivers and representative for temperate climate, as well as guppy fish (Poecilla reticulata), paramecium protozoan (Paramaecium caudatum) and the above-mentioned fairy shrimp. The investigation revealed that both dyes in concentrations used for hydrological purposes are low enough to exert almost no toxic impact on water fauna considered.

  15. The role of "the aquatic" in human evolution: constraining the aquatic ape hypothesis. (United States)

    Foley, Robert; Lahr, Marta Mirazón


    Few things show the distinctiveness of human evolution research better than the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis (AAH). On one hand, we have "orthodox" research into human evolution, firmly based on land; on the other, we have the aquatic ape community, convinced not only that our ancestors went through an aquatic phase, but that the professional scientific community ignores their work and keeps it out of the mainstream. How many fields of science have two entirely parallel communities that essentially are hermetically sealed from each other?


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Maluf


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of cattle cross breeds ½ Aberdeen Angus x ½Nelore and Nelore confined submitted to immunocastration 218 male animals were used, feedlot, averaging 342 kg, divided into three experimental groups, T1: 117 steers ½ Angus x ½ Nelore no castrated (ANC, T2: 51 Nelore steers uncastrated (NNC and T3: 50 Nellore steers immunocastrated (NIC. The experiment lasted 144 days of confinement. The selection of animals for group formation was according to the individual weight, breed, sex condition and age. For immunocastration it wasused Bopriva® vaccine. The rating was finished according to the parameter used by the meatpacking industry ranging from 1 to 5. The experimental design was completely randomized in three groups. For the analyzes the variables studied statistics were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test both at the 5% level of significance. The results showed differences (p <0.01 at various features of productive performance and carcass between treatments. For slaughter weight, the ANC animals were higher (with 582.1 kg to Nelore, regardless of sexual condition, and the NNC were in turn heavier than the NIC, 527.4 and 503.7 respectively. Finally, it observed that the use of immunocastration in Nellore animals provided a decrease in productive performance of confined animals, but provided better finish carcass similar to crossbred (ANC.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 江敏; 彭章晓; 何琳


    Ivermectin (IVM) is a widely applied veterinary pharmaceutical which is used in large amount to treat livestock. It has been a potential environmental problem, that the drug often appears intact in the metabolite of livestock, and its transport from soil to surface water via runoff. In natural environment, dissipation is relatively slow, and the residues can cause mortality in a diverse range of invertebrates. So ivermectin may destroy the aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the potential toxicity of ivermectin to aquatic organisms, we simulated a natural riverway environment when monitoring the degradation speed of it, and then chose seven aquatic organisms which take up different ecological riche to test acute toxicity by national standard metords. The results displayed that the degradation of Ivermectin (IVM) in water environment was slow, and the degradation rate of IVM in sediment was only 28.3% of 70 days' experiment under 25 °C. The results showed no obviously toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum and the 96h EC50 to Chlorella vulgaris was 19.80 mg/L, it did not exhibit high toxicity. But the toxicity of IVM to Brachydanio rerio, Gambusia affinis, Carassius auratus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Daphnia magnet were relatively higher, and date was 40.48 u.g/L (96h LC50), 34.81 ug/L (96h LC50), 13.79 ng/L (96h LC50), 7.87 ug/L (96h LC50) and 4.81 ng/L (24h LC50) respectively. IVM would influence the aqua-biology obviously when the drug residue appeared in water environment, so it is necessary to learn more on ivermectin.%伊维菌素作为一种高效的抗寄生虫兽药,在畜禽业有着广泛的应用.但药物随着畜禽动物的代谢产物的排放而进入自然生态系统也成为逐渐显现的环境问题.由于药物具有在自然环境中难以快速降解和对水生枝角类高毒性的特点,因此流入天然水体的伊维菌素存在着影响水生态平衡的风险.为了比较全面评估药物对水生动物潜在的毒害作用,研究

  18. Aquatic macrophytes drive sediment stoichiometry and the suspended particulate organic carbon composition of a tropical coastal lagoon Macrófitas aquáticas determinam a estequiometria do sedimento e a composição do carbono orgânico particulado em suspensão de uma lagoa costeira tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Cardoso Marinho


    Full Text Available AIM: This research aimed to evaluate (1 the influence of the aquatic macrophytes Typha domingensis Pers., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult. (emergent and Potamogeton stenostachys K. Schum. (submersed on sediment stoichiometry and (2 the contribution of these aquatic macrophytes to organic carbon composition in different compartments of a tropical coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas Lagoon, Macaé-RJ; METHODS: The concentration of carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P was determined in 2-cm intervals in the first 10 cm of sediment in both littoral and limnetic regions. In the littoral region, the sediment was collected in three different sites: T. domingensis, E. interstincta and P. stenostachys stands. In order to know the pathways of C in Cabiunas lagoon, the isotopic signature (δ13C of restinga terrestrial vegetation, zooplankton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, dissolved and suspended material on water were evaluated; RESULTS: The concentrations of C and N in the sediment of the E. interstincta and T. domingensis stands were significantly higher than in the sediment of the limnetic region. The concentration of phosphorus in the sediment colonized by T. domingensis was higher than in the limnetic region and in P. stenostachys stand. The highest molar C:P ratios were found in E. interstincta and P. stenostachys stands. The highest N:P ratios were also found in the littoral region. Carbon stable isotopic analysis (δ13C signatures showed that a majority of the particulate organic carbon (POC in the water column had aquatic macrophyte tissues origin; CONCLUSIONS: Emergent macrophytes strongly contribute to nutrient enrichment of the sediment of Cabiúnas lagoon. In general, macrophyte detritus alters the littoral region sediment stoichiometry and quality for decomposers, by accumulating much more C in relation to N and P when compared to limnetic region. However, macrophytes importance isn't restricted to the sediment once they have a central

  19. Pilot randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of aquatic and land physical therapy on musculoskeletal dysfunction of sickle cell disease patients


    Camila Tatiana Zanoni; Fábio Galvão; Alberto Cliquet Junior; Sara Teresinha Olalla Saad


    Objective: To compare the effect of aquatic and land-based physiotherapy in reducing musculoskeletal hip and lower back pain and increasing overall physical capabilities of sickle cell disease patients. Methods: Informed written consent was obtained from all volunteers who were submitted to evaluations using different functional scales: Lequesne's Algofunctional Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index, trunk and hip range of motion, goniometry, trunk and hip muscle strength assessment usi...

  20. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Lacustrine Submergent Aquatic Vegetation (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Submergent aquatic vegetation (SAV) provides the foundation for wildlife use in aquatic systems. Sago pondweed is of particular significance in providing protein by...

  1. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  2. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  3. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report) (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management ...

  4. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  5. Teachers and Aquatic Education--A Survey. (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    The Minnesota Sea Grant Education Sub-program provided funds to the University of Minnesota in 1980 to develop aquatic education materials (dealing with freshwater systems) for grades 5-9. The project resulted in the development and classroom testing of 13 instructional modules. A second grant (1982) funded workshops to introduce Minnesota…

  6. The neurotoxin BMAA in aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, E.J.


    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue and in many aquatic systems, it leads to the proliferation of toxic phytoplankton species. The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is one of the compounds that can be present in phytoplankton. BMAA has been suggested to play a role in the ne

  7. Aquatics Therapy and the Halliwick Concept (United States)

    Skinner, Alison; Thomson, Ann


    Aquatic therapy is the use of the properties of water for the therapeutic benefit of people of all ages and abilities. This article illustrates how people with disabilities may maximize the benefits of activities in water, including individual and group work and swimming. The overall aim is to encourage family activity and social interaction. The…

  8. Adapted Aquatics for Children with Autism (United States)

    Martinez, Coleen A.


    This article provides information for physical education teachers to use while teaching their students with autism in an adapted aquatics unit plan. Crollick, Mancil, & Stopka (2006) have found that activities such as running, cycling, or swimming can reduce inappropriate behaviors in children who are autistic. They recommend further that…

  9. Aquatic Exercise and Heat-Related Injuries. (United States)

    Sova, Ruth


    Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…

  10. Applicator Training Manual for: Aquatic Weed Control. (United States)

    Herron, James W.

    The aquatic weeds discussed in this manual include algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submerged weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. Secondary effects of improper application rates and faulty application are described. Finally, techniques of limited…

  11. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems (United States)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok


    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  12. Thermal Pollution Impact upon Aquatic Life. (United States)

    Shiomoto, Gail T.; Olson, Betty H.


    Conventional and nuclear power plants release waste heat to cooling water which then returns to receiving bodies of surface water. This thermal pollution causes a variety of effects in the aquatic ecosystem. More must be learned about these effects to ensure adequate regulation of thermal discharges. (RE)

  13. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9. (United States)

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  14. Science to support aquatic animal health (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille


    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  15. Biodegradation of Guanidinium By Aquatic Microorganisms. (United States)


    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates . Appl. Microbiol. 30:922-929. 21. Pfaender, F.K. and G.W. Bartholomew. 1982. Measurement of Aquatic Biodegradation Rates by...incubation, after which time its disappearance became linear , and it could no longer be detected by the 20th day. Results for an identical water sample

  16. The Effects of Aquatic Exercise on Physiological and Biomechanical Responses


    Denning, Matthew M.


    Due to recent advances in aquatic research, technology, and facilities, many modes of aquatic therapy now exist. These aquatic modes assist individuals (e.g., osteoarthritis patients) in the performance of activities that may be too difficult to complete on land. However, the biomechanical requirements of each aquatic therapy mode may elicit different physiological and functional responses. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to: (a) provide a review of the physiological and biomechani...

  17. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin


    VJ. Pott; Pott, A; LCP. Lima; SN. Moreira; AKM Oliveira


    This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas) and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river fl...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pesticides have been used in agriculture to avoid productivity losses caused by various organisms. However, the indiscriminate use of these chemicals has resulted in negative impacts on the environment, such as residues in soil, water, air, plants and animals. Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used in agricultural management to control pests of sugar cane in Brazil, and it can be leached into aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to evaluate the environmental risk of toxic concentrations and dissipation of fipronil to Poecilia reticulata, based on the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50 value estimated at 0.08 ± 0.01 mg/L without sediment and 0.09 ± 0.01 mg/L with sediment of fipronil in the aquatic environment. These values of fipronil were classified as extremely toxic to P. reticulata in both cases, which showed high environmental risk of poisoning to a shallow film of water of 1 ha and 0.30 m deep, with and without sediment. On the other hand, in bodies of water 1 ha and 2.0 m deep, it was of moderate toxicity. Dissipation of fipronil in the water was not affected by temperature, sediment or photoperiod. The minimum time to which fipronil caused 50% acute mortality (0.08 mg/L after dilution of 0.75 mg/L was 242 days; the withdrawal period, after which no mortality occurs (0.025 mg/L, was 263 days.

  19. Aquatic polymers can drive pathogen transmission in coastal ecosystems. (United States)

    Shapiro, Karen; Krusor, Colin; Mazzillo, Fernanda F M; Conrad, Patricia A; Largier, John L; Mazet, Jonna A K; Silver, Mary W


    Gelatinous polymers including extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) are fundamental to biophysical processes in aquatic habitats, including mediating aggregation processes and functioning as the matrix of biofilms. Yet insight into the impact of these sticky molecules on the environmental transmission of pathogens in the ocean is limited. We used the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii as a model to evaluate polymer-mediated mechanisms that promote transmission of terrestrially derived pathogens to marine fauna and humans. We show that transparent exopolymer particles, a particulate form of EPS, enhance T. gondii association with marine aggregates, material consumed by organisms otherwise unable to access micrometre-sized particles. Adhesion to EPS biofilms on macroalgae also captures T. gondii from the water, enabling uptake of pathogens by invertebrates that feed on kelp surfaces. We demonstrate the acquisition, concentration and retention of T. gondii by kelp-grazing snails, which can transmit T. gondii to threatened California sea otters. Results highlight novel mechanisms whereby aquatic polymers facilitate incorporation of pathogens into food webs via association with particle aggregates and biofilms. Identifying the critical role of invisible polymers in transmission of pathogens in the ocean represents a fundamental advance in understanding and mitigating the health impacts of coastal habitat pollution with contaminated runoff.

  20. Adenosine triphosphate concentration in relation to microbial biomass in aquatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, H.W. Jr.


    Analyses of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) extracted from a sediment community of an aquatic ecosystem by the sulfuric acid method are complicated by inhibitions from inorganic and organic compounds. Inhibitions by inorganic compounds are reversible while those by organic compounds are irreversible. The primary inhibition by organic compounds results by complexing with acid-soluble fulvic acids which will prevent the detection of as much as 80% of the ATP present in a sample by the luciferin-luciferase reaction. Analytical techniques were developed to partially circumvent such interferences. Biomass interpretations from ATP concentrations in aquatic systems are complicated by the diversity of the microbiota and by the variability in the carbon to ATP ratio caused by environmental conditions. However, when levels of ATP are considered as a physiological condition of a sedimentary community, this data provides a means to interpret community metabolism not available hitherto.

  1. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Effects of Water Chemistry on Submersed Aquatic Plants: A Synthesis (United States)


    plants exhibiting C4 photosynthesis, C is conserved by refixing photorespired CO2. These terres- trial adaptations have counterparts in the aquatic...such as low photorespiration rates and low CO2 compensation points. The advantages of this photosynthetic pathway include conservation of... photorespired C and efficient C assimilation under the high dissolved oxygen and low free CO2 concentrations common in dense submersed aquatic plant populations

  2. Production of EPA and DHA in aquatic ecosystems and their transfer to the land. (United States)

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N


    Most omnivorous animals, including humans, have to some degree relied on physiologically important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from food. Only some taxa of microalgae, rather than higher plants can synthesize de novo high amounts of EPA and DHA. Once synthesized by microalgae, PUFA are transferred through trophic chain to organisms of higher levels. Thus, aquatic ecosystems play the unique role in the Biosphere as the principal source of EPA and DHA for most omnivorous animals, including inhabitants of terrestrial ecosystems. PUFA are transferred from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems through riparian predators, drift of carrion and seaweeds, emergence of amphibiotic insects, and water birds. The essential PUFA are transferred through trophic chains with about twice higher efficiency than bulk carbon. Thereby, PUFA are accumulated, rather than diluted in biomass of organisms of higher trophic levels, e.g., in fish. Mankind is faced with a severe deficiency of EPA and DHA in diet. Although additional sources of PUFA supply for humans, such as aquaculture, biotechnology of microorganisms and transgenic terrestrial oil-seed producing plants are developed, natural fish production of aquatic ecosystems will remain one of the main sources of EPA and DHA for humans. Aquatic ecosystems have to be protected from anthropogenic impacts, such as eutrophication, pollution and warming, which reduce PUFA production.

  3. Biomass production of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth and Egeria densa (egeria in organic fish farm effluent treatment system / Produção de biomassa das macrófitas aquáticas Eichhornia crassipes (aguapé e Egeria densa (egeria em sistema de tratamento de efluente de piscicultura orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Coldebella


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the production of biomass of the aquatic macrophytes water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and egeria (Egeria densa in three hydraulic detention times in a organic pisciculture effluent treatment system. The system was composed for 18 experimental tanks of 2.00 x 1.00 x 0.65m length, width and depth respectively, coated with polypropylene canvas. An entirely randomized 2 macrophytes x 3 hydraulic detention times (HDT and 3 repetitions. The HDT used was 4, 8, and 12 hours. The biomass production was evaluated at the end of the experiment which was extended at 08/07 to 19/08/2006. The water hyacinth showed the best results of biomass production (P0.05. For egeria the treatment that presented the best production of biomass was reached which TDH of 12 hours, being of 0.10 kg.m-2, followed for the HDT of 8 and 4 hours, not differing between the HDT (P>0.05. One concludes that the water hyacinth produced higher biomass than egeria in all of the HDT evaluated.O presente trabalho teve por o objetivo avaliar a produção de biomassa das macrófitas aquáticas aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes e egeria (Egeria densa em um sistema de tratamento de efluente de piscicultura orgânica, sob 3 condições de tempo de detenção hidráulica. O sistema foi composto por 18 tanques experimentais de 2,00 x 1,00 x 0,65 m de comprimento, largura e profundidade, respectivamente, revestidos com lona de polipropileno. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com 2 macrófitas, 3 tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH e 3 repetições. Os TDH utilizados foram de 4, 8 e 12 horas. O sistema foi operado de 08/07 a 19/08/2006. A produção de biomassa foi avaliada ao final do experimento. O aguapé apresentou os melhores resultados de produção de biomassa (P0,05. Para a egeria o tratamento que apresentou a melhor produção de biomassa foi no TDH de 12 horas, sendo de 0,10 kg.m- 2, seguido pelos TDH de 8 e 4 horas, não diferindo

  4. Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1 virus survival in complex artificial aquatic biotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viseth Srey Horm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Very little is known regarding the persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses in aquatic environments in tropical countries, although environmental materials have been suggested to play a role as reservoirs and sources of transmission for H5N1 viruses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The survival of HPAI H5N1 viruses in experimental aquatic biotopes (water, mud, aquatic flora and fauna relevant to field conditions in Cambodia was investigated. Artificial aquatic biotopes, including simple ones containing only mud and water, and complex biotopes involving the presence of aquatic flora and fauna, were set up. They were experimentally contaminated with H5N1 virus. The persistence of HPAI H5N1 virus (local avian and human isolates was determined by virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs and by real-time reverse-polymerase chain reaction. Persistence of infectious virus did not exceed 4 days, and was only identified in rain water. No infectious virus particles were detected in pond and lake water or mud even when high inoculum doses were used. However, viral RNA persisted up to 20 days in rain water and 7 days in pond or lake water. Viral RNA was also detected in mud samples, up to 14 days post-contamination in several cases. Infectious virus and viral RNA was detected in few cases in the aquatic fauna and flora, especially in bivalves and labyrinth fish, although these organisms seemed to be mostly passive carriers of the virus rather than host allowing virus replication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although several factors for the survival and persistence of HPAI viruses in the environment are still to be elucidated, and are particularly hard to control in laboratory conditions, our results, along with previous data, support the idea that environmental surveillance is of major relevance for avian influenza control programs.

  5. Trophic transfer of metal-based nanoparticles in aquatic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangaa, Stine Rosendal; Selck, Henriette; Winther-Nielsen, Margrethe


    -ENPs, and where this information is scarce, we utilize the existing literature on aqueous metal trophic transfer as a potential starting point for greater mechanistic insight and for setting directions for future studies. We identify four key factors affecting trophic transfer of Me-ENPs: (1) environmental...... environment where they have been shown to be taken up by a variety of species. Therefore, there is a possibility that Me-ENPs will enter and pass through aquatic food webs, but research on this topic is limited. In this tutorial review, we discuss the factors contributing to trophic transfer of Me...... transformations of Me-ENPs, (2) uptake and accumulation in prey organisms, (3) internal fate and localization in the prey, and (4) digestive physiology of the predator. Whilst much research has been conducted on the first two of these factors, key knowledge gaps exist in our understanding of how Me-ENP trophic...

  6. EAWAG Forum Chriesbach - A new building for aquatic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This brochure describes the 'Forum Chriesbach' - a new building for Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology EAWAG that features a facade of blue glass panels that block the sun's rays in summer and let them through in winter, a highly insulating structural cladding and a ventilation system which almost needs no heating and active cooling. A photovoltaic system, which covers one third of the building's electricity requirements, a glass-roofed atrium which brings light into the building and provides night-time cooling during summer is also described. An extensively greened roof which retains rainwater, rainwater-flushed toilets with separate collection of urine, the use of environmentally compatible materials and a staff canteen with an attractive selection of organic menus are noted. The construction of the institute is briefly documented and its energy systems are described as are the materials used in its construction.

  7. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects. (United States)

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P


    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments.

  8. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz


    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... management. Marineecosystems aims at understanding the mechanisms that govern the interaction between individuals,species and populations in an ecosystem enabling us to determine the stability and flexibility of theecosystem.Marine living resources looks at the sustainable utilization of fish and shellfish...... stocks.Ecosystem effects expands from the ecosystem approach to fisheries management to an integratedapproach where other human activities are taken into consideration. Fisheries management developsmethods, models and tools for predicting and evaluating the effects of management measures andregulations...

  9. Pectinases in leaf degradation by aquatic Hyphomycetes


    Chamier, Anne-Carole


    Packs of oak and alder leaves were submerged in late autumn in the River Bourne, a moderately eutrophic stream in Surrey so that the colonization pattern of aquatic Hyphomycetes on the leaves could be quantified as the leaves were degraded. The physico-chemical of the water was monitored over the experimental period and the inoculum available for leaf colonization was measured by filter counts of conidia in the stream. Colonization of the leaves by pectolytic bacteria was also measured. There...

  10. Aspects of Aquatic Pollution in Nigeria


    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei


    Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Yet aquatic resources consists of extremely wide range of floral and fauna resources which offer a broad array of goods with potential utilitarian application in agriculture, innovative industry and the pharmaceutical industry which renders valuable benefits and services. The slow poisoning of the waters is witnessed in Nigeria and the destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur during petroleum operations...

  11. Aquatic therapy for patients with rheumatic disease. (United States)

    McNeal, R L


    Aquatic therapy is justifiably a rapidly expanding, beneficial form of patient treatment. The goals established at the initial and subsequent evaluations usually are met as quickly and as sensibly as possible. Understanding the theory of water techniques is essential in implementing an aquatic therapy program. The success of the program, however, will always depend on the pleasure and benefits achieved by the patients. Remember, rheumatic patients most likely will need to modify their previous daily functioning. Patients need to be aware of the long-term ramifications of the disease process and understand how treatment and care may be altered during various stages of exacerbation and remission. Patient education is critical in ensuring individual responsibility for the changes that must be made when not supervised by a professional. Aquatic therapy is a step in molding a positive lifestyle change for the patient. The patient can be encouraged to be fitness oriented and, at the same time, exercise in a manner that is safe, effective, and biomechanically and physiologically sound. The environment, hopefully, also will be conductive to family and social interaction that ultimately encourages the compliance of long-term exercise programs.

  12. Hazard of pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment: Prioritization by structural approaches and prediction of ecotoxicity. (United States)

    Sangion, Alessandro; Gramatica, Paola


    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) are recognized as Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CEC) since they are detected in the environment in increasing amount, mainly in aquatic compartment, where they may be hazardous for wildlife. The huge lack of experimental data for a large number of end-points requires tools able to quickly highlight the potentially most hazardous and toxic pharmaceuticals, focusing experiments on the prioritized compounds. In silico tools, like QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) models based on structural molecular descriptors, can predict missing data for toxic end-points necessary to prioritize existing, or even not yet synthesized chemicals for their potential hazard. In the present study, new externally validated QSAR models, specific to predict acute toxicity of APIs in key organisms of the three main aquatic trophic levels, i.e. algae, Daphnia and two species of fish, were developed using the QSARINS software. These Multiple Linear regressions - Ordinary Least Squares (MLR-OLS) models are based on theoretical molecular descriptors calculated by free PaDEL-Descriptor software and selected by Genetic Algorithm. The models are statistically robust, externally predictive and characterized by a wide structural applicability domain. They were applied to predict acute toxicity for a large set of APIs without experimental data. Then predictions were processed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a trend, driven by the combination of toxicities for all the studied organisms, was highlighted. This trend, named Aquatic Toxicity Index (ATI), allowed the raking of pharmaceuticals according to their potential toxicity upon the whole aquatic environment. Finally a QSAR model for the prediction of this Aquatic Toxicity Index (ATI) was proposed to be applicable in QSARINS for the screening of existing APIs for their potential hazard and the a priori chemical design of not environmentally hazardous APIs.

  13. Recording and submitting specimen history data (United States)

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.


    SummaryIn wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step toward establishing a diagnosis and aiding agencies with management considerations. The diagnostic process and overall investigation is often greatly expedited by a chronological record accompanying specimens submitted for laboratory evaluation. Knowing where and when the outbreak is taking place, what the environmental conditions and species involved are, and clinical signs in sick animals, along with necropsy findings and diagnostic test results are important for understanding the natural history or epizootiology of disease outbreaks. It becomes increasingly difficult to retrospectively obtain all of the pertinent history as time passes. The most helpful information is that which is obtained at the time of the die-off event by perceptive field biologists and other observers. Significant events preceding morbidity and/or mortality also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. In this chapter, readers will find information regarding what type of information should be recorded, how it should be recorded and why it is relevant to a disease investigation. A thoughtful approach in providing as much information as possible surrounding the situation including about host species and the biotic and abiotic environment, greatly aids in determining the most likely causative agent(s).

  14. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne;


    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms....... Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...... Daphnia magna as the test organism. To date, the limited number of studies has indicated acute toxicity in the low mgl(-1) range and higher of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates, although some indications of chronic toxicity and behavioral changes have also been described at concentrations...

  15. Aquatic biota as potential biological indicators of the contamination, bioaccumulation and health risks caused by organochlorine pesticides in a large, shallow Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Yan; He, Wei


    Aquatic biota have long been recognized as bioindicators of the contamination caused by hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in aquatic environments. The primary purpose of the present study is to identify which species of aquatic biota are the most sensitive to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs...... to OCPs and may serve as the most effective bioindicators for monitoring OCP contamination in the water and suspended solids of Lake Chaohu. Megalobrama amblycephala, which contained the highest wet weight mean OCP concentration, is the most sensitive OCP indicator and can be used to assess the human...

  16. Learning Disability Documentation in Higher Education: What Are Students Submitting? (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.


    This study examined the supporting documentation submitted by students with learning disability (LD) diagnoses. The participants were 210 students who were enrolled in a college support program for students with disabilities at a private liberal arts college. Findings showed that although most students submitted a psychoeducational evaluation,…

  17. 7 CFR 3405.12 - Intent to submit a proposal. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intent to submit a proposal. 3405.12 Section 3405.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... of a Proposal § 3405.12 Intent to submit a proposal. To assist CSREES in preparing for the review...

  18. 7 CFR 3406.21 - Intent to submit a proposal. (United States)


    ... Submission of a Teaching or Research Proposal § 3406.21 Intent to submit a proposal. To assist CSREES in... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intent to submit a proposal. 3406.21 Section 3406.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH,...

  19. Surprising spectra of root-associated fungi in submerged aquatic plants. (United States)

    Kohout, Petr; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Ctvrtlíková, Martina; Rydlová, Jana; Suda, Jan; Vohník, Martin; Sudová, Radka


    Similarly to plants from terrestrial ecosystems, aquatic species harbour wide spectra of root-associated fungi (RAF). However, comparably less is known about fungal diversity in submerged roots. We assessed the incidence and diversity of RAF in submerged aquatic plants using microscopy, culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. We studied RAF of five submerged isoetid species collected in four oligotrophic freshwater lakes in Norway. Levels of dark septate endophytes (DSE) colonization differed among the lakes and were positively related to the organic matter content and negatively related to pH. In total, we identified 41 fungal OTUs using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, belonging to Mucoromycotina, Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota as well as Basidiomycota. Sequences corresponding to aquatic hyphomycetes (e.g. Nectria lugdunensis, Tetracladium furcatum and Varicosporium elodeae) were obtained. Eight arbuscular mycorrhizal taxa belonging to the orders Archaeosporales, Diversisporales and Glomerales were also detected. However, the vast majority of the fungal species detected (e.g. Ceratobasidium sp., Cryptosporiopsis rhizophila, Leptodontidium orchidicola, and Tuber sp.) have previously been known only from roots of terrestrial plants. The abundance and phylogenetic distribution of mycorrhizal as well as nonmycorrhizal fungi in the roots of submerged plants have reshaped our views on the fungal diversity in aquatic environment.

  20. Parental effects of endocrine disrupting compounds in aquatic wildlife: Is there evidence of transgenerational inheritance? (United States)

    Schwindt, Adam R


    The effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on aquatic wildlife are increasingly being recognized for their complexity. Investigators have detected alterations at multiple levels of biological organization in offspring exposed to EDCs through the blood or germ line of the parents, suggesting that generational consequences of EDCs are evident. Exposure to EDCs through the parents is concerning because if the resulting phenotype of the offspring is heritable and affects fitness, then evolutionary consequences may be evident. This review summarizes the evidence for transgenerational effects of EDCs in aquatic wildlife and illustrates cases where alterations appear to be transmitted maternally, paternally, or parentally. The literature indicates that EDC exposure to the parents induces developmental, physiological, endocrinological, and behavioral changes as well as increased mortality of offspring raised in clean environments. What is lacking, however, is a clear demonstration of heritable transgenerational effects in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, it is not known if the parental effects are the result of developmental or phenotypic plasticity or if the altered phenotypes are durably passed to subsequent generations. Epigenetic changes to gene regulation are discussed as a possible mechanism responsible for EDC induced parental effects. Additional research is needed to evaluate if heritable effects of EDCs are evident in aquatic wildlife, as has been demonstrated for terrestrial mammals.


    Filzgerald, G P


    Field observations of changes in the populations of aquatic weeds and phytoplankton have confirmed that aquatic weeds have antagonistic activity toward phytoplankton. Nutritional studies in the laboratory indicate that cultures of the aquatic weeds, Myriophyllum sp., Ceratophyllum sp., and duckweed (Lemma minor L.); liquid cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., Dickson variety); and cultures of the filamentous green algae, Cladophora sp. and Pithophora oedogonium (Mont.) Withrock, will remain relatively free of epiphytes or competing phytoplankton if the cultures are nitrogen-limited. Field observations of Cladophora sp. have confirmed that the growth of epiphytes on the Cladophora is related to conditions of surplus available nitrogen compounds. It is proposed that this antagonistic activity may be due to a "nitrogen sink" effect in which the aquatic weeds or filamentous green algae prevent the growth of contaminating algae by competition for the limited nitrogen compounds available. However, the presence of bacteria-sized organisms which have selective toxicity to certain algae indicates that perhaps multiple factors exist. Discussed are the ecological implications of associations of certain algae with bacteria that have selective toxicities for other species of algae under certain environmental conditions such as nitrogen-limited growth.

  2. Biodegradation of pesticides using fungi species found in the aquatic environment. (United States)

    Oliveira, B R; Penetra, A; Cardoso, V V; Benoliel, M J; Barreto Crespo, M T; Samson, R A; Pereira, V J


    Relatively limited attention has been given to the presence of fungi in the aquatic environment compared to their occurrence in other matrices. Taking advantage and recognizing the biodegradable capabilities of fungi is important, since these organisms may produce many potent enzymes capable of degrading toxic pollutants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential ability of some species of filamentous fungi that occur in the aquatic environment to degrade pesticides in untreated surface water. Several laboratory-scale experiments were performed using the natural microbial population present in the aquatic environment as well as spiked fungi isolates that were found to occur in different water matrices, to test the ability of fungi to degrade several pesticides of current concern (atrazine, diuron, isoproturon and chlorfenvinphos). The results obtained in this study showed that, when spiked in sterile natural water, fungi were able to degrade chlorfenvinphos to levels below detection and unable to degrade atrazine, diuron and isoproturon. Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus and Trichoderma harzianum were found to be able to resist and degrade chlorfenvinphos. These fungi are therefore expected to play an important role in the degradation of this and other pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  3. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  4. Aquatic plants exposed to pharmaceuticals: effects and risks. (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Hanson, Mark L; Solomon, Keith R; Brooks, Bryan W


    Pharmaceuticals are biologically active, ubiquitous, low-level contaminants that are continuously introduced into the environment from both human and veterinary applications at volumes comparable to total pesticide loadings. Recent analytical advances have made possible the detection of a number of these compounds in environmental samples, raising concerns over potential nontarget effects to aquatic organisms, especially given the highly specific biologically active nature of these compounds. These concerns become paramount when the evolutionary conservation of metabolic pathways and receptors is taken into consideration, particularly in the case of aquatic plants, where a great deal of homology is displayed between the chloroplast and bacteria, as well as between other metabolic pathways across multiple phyla of biological organization. Common receptors have been identified in plants for a number of antibiotics affecting chloroplast replication (fluoroquinolones) transcription and translation (tetracyclines macrolides, lincosamides, P-aminoglycosides, and pleuromutilins), metabolic pathways such as folate biosynthesis (sulfonamides) and fatty acid biosynthesis (triclosan), as well as other classes of pharmaceuticals that affect sterol biosynthesis (statin-type blood lipid regulators). Toxicological investigations into the potency of these compounds indicates susceptibility across multiple plant species, although sensitivity to these compounds varies widely between blue-green algae, green algae, and higher plants in a rather inconsistent manner, except that Cyanobacteria are largely the most sensitive to antibiotic compounds. This differential sensitivity is likely dependent on differences in metabolic potential as well as uptake kinetics, which has been demonstrated for a number of compounds from another class of biologically active compounds, pesticides. The demonstration of conserved receptors and pathways in plants is not surprising, although it has been

  5. The carbon to nitrogen ratio in isoenergetic wheat based diets controls the growth rate of the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Temmink, H.


    The aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv) contains high levels of proteins and can provide an excellent fish food. Large-scale production of Lv on low value organic substrates, such as by-products produced during wheat processing, therefore can be a promising and sustainable concept for the aquac

  6. Effects of triclosan on aquatic invertebrates in tropics and the influence of pH on its toxicity on microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatikarn, Jidapa; Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Price, Oliver R.; Den Brink, van Paul J.


    The antimicrobial triclosan (TCS) has been detected in household wastewaters (untreated and treated) and receiving environments across the globe. The toxic effects of TCS on temperate standard aquatic test organisms have been widely reported with microalgae being the most sensitive. However, envi

  7. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sequestration in sediment on bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moermond, C.T.A.; Roessink, I.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Meijer, T.; Koelmans, A.A.


    It is not clear whether sequestration or aging of organic chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) limits accumulation in higher levels of aquatic food chains. Therefore, the effect of aging on accumulation was studied in 1-m3 model ecosystems that

  8. Aquatic toxicity of the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin and its metabolites. (United States)

    Baumann, Michaela; Weiss, Klaus; Maletzki, Dirk; Schüssler, Walter; Schudoma, Dieter; Kopf, Willi; Kühnen, Ute


    The human macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin is widespread in surface waters. Our study shows that its major metabolite 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin is found in surface waters in comparable amounts. This metabolite is known to be pharmacologically active. Additionally, clarithromycin is partly metabolised to N-desmethyl-clarithromycin, which has no antimicrobial activity. For clarithromycin, some ecotoxicological studies on aquatic organisms have been published. However, many of them are not conform with the scientific principles as given in the "Technical guidance for deriving environmental quality standards" (TGD-EQS), because numerous studies were poorly documented and the methods did not contain analytical measurements confirming that the exposure concentrations were in the range of ± 20% of the nominal concentrations. Ecotoxicological effects of clarithromycin and its two metabolites on the zebrafish Danio rerio (embryo test), the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the aquatic monocotyledonous macrophyte Lemna minor, the freshwater green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus (Chlorophyta) and the cyanobacterium Anabaena flosaquae were investigated in compliance with the TGD-EQS. Environmental risk assessment was performed using ErC10 values of Anabaena, the species most sensitive to clarithromycin and 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin in our testing. Based oncomparable toxicity and similar concentrations of clarithromycin and its active metabolite 14-hydroxy(R)-clarithromycin in surface waters, an additional multiplication factor of 2 to the assessment factor of 10 on the ErC10 of clarithromycin should be used. Consequently, a freshwater quality standard of 0.130 μg L(-1) is proposed for clarithromycin as the "lead substance". Taking this additional multiplication factor of 2 into account, single monitoring of clarithromycin may be sufficient, in order to reduce the number of substances listed for routine monitoring programs.

  9. Act together – implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eDziallas


    Full Text Available Mutual interactions in form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new life forms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components of many known endosymbioses and their short generation times and strong potential for genetic exchange may be important drivers of speciation. Hosts provide endo- and ectosymbionts with stable, nutrient-rich environments and protection from environmental stresses. This is of particular importance in aquatic ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh and nutrient-deficient habitats. Thus it is not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes are widespread and often result in new ecological functions of symbiotic communities. This enables ciliates to thrive under a wide range of environmental conditions including ultraoligotrophic or anoxic habitats. We summarize the current understanding of this exciting research topic to identify the many areas in which knowledge is lacking and to stimulate future research by providing an overview on new methodologies and by formulating a number of emerging

  10. Habitat Complexity in Aquatic Microcosms Affects Processes Driven by Detritivores (United States)

    Flores, Lorea; Bailey, R. A.; Elosegi, Arturo; Larrañaga, Aitor; Reiss, Julia


    Habitat complexity can influence predation rates (e.g. by providing refuge) but other ecosystem processes and species interactions might also be modulated by the properties of habitat structure. Here, we focussed on how complexity of artificial habitat (plastic plants), in microcosms, influenced short-term processes driven by three aquatic detritivores. The effects of habitat complexity on leaf decomposition, production of fine organic matter and pH levels were explored by measuring complexity in three ways: 1. as the presence vs. absence of habitat structure; 2. as the amount of structure (3 or 4.5 g of plastic plants); and 3. as the spatial configuration of structures (measured as fractal dimension). The experiment also addressed potential interactions among the consumers by running all possible species combinations. In the experimental microcosms, habitat complexity influenced how species performed, especially when comparing structure present vs. structure absent. Treatments with structure showed higher fine particulate matter production and lower pH compared to treatments without structures and this was probably due to higher digestion and respiration when structures were present. When we explored the effects of the different complexity levels, we found that the amount of structure added explained more than the fractal dimension of the structures. We give a detailed overview of the experimental design, statistical models and R codes, because our statistical analysis can be applied to other study systems (and disciplines such as restoration ecology). We further make suggestions of how to optimise statistical power when artificially assembling, and analysing, ‘habitat complexity’ by not confounding complexity with the amount of structure added. In summary, this study highlights the importance of habitat complexity for energy flow and the maintenance of ecosystem processes in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27802267

  11. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil


    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches; Marina Gulo Alcorinte; Lucas Henrique Sahm; Guilherme Rossi Gorni; Maria Lúcia Ribeiro


    Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Pau...

  12. Inland Aquatic Resources and Biogeochemical Cycles (United States)

    Melack, J. M.


    The biosphere is the entire planetary system that includes, sustains and is influenced by life. The central issue of the science of the biosphere is the extent to which the Earth's surface, atmosphere and hydrosphere is the result of biological rather than abiotic processes. Space science and technology accelerates the understanding of global biological processes by providing repetive synoptic observations on large spatial scales once the relationships between the processes and the remotely sensed quantities are established. Especially promising applications of space technology are the measurement of biological productivity and portions of geochemical cycles in aquatic ecosystems and the evaluation and management of the quality of freshwater resources.

  13. Decomposition of aquatic plants in lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godshalk, G.L.


    This study was carried out to systematically determine the effects of temperature and oxygen concentration, two environmental parameters crucial to lake metabolism in general, on decomposition of five species of aquatic vascular plants of three growth forms in a Michigan lake. Samples of dried plant material were decomposed in flasks in the laboratory under three different oxygen regimes, aerobic-to-anaerobic, strict anaerobic, and aerated, each at 10/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C. In addition, in situ decomposition of the same species was monitored using the litter bag technique under four conditions.

  14. Monitoring aquatic environments with autonomous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Philip Aagaard

    High frequency measurements from autonomous sensors have become a widely used tool among aquatic scientists. This report focus primarily on the use of ecosystem metabolism based on high frequency oxygen measurements and relates the calculations to spatial variation, biomass of the primary producers...... and in shallow systems the macrophytes can completely dominate primary production. This was despite the fact that the plants in the studied system were light-saturated most of the light hours and occasionally carbon limited. It was also shown that the GPP and the total phytoplankton biomass in a nutrient...

  15. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major ``greenhouse`` gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  16. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.M. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Sprague, S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))


    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse'' gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  17. Aquatic Exercise and Thermoregulation in Pregnancy. (United States)

    Soultanakis, Helen N


    Aquatic exercise, in a general sense, is any type of movement performed in the water for the purpose of improving health and fitness. Water, with its properties, provides buoyancy to lighten the "load" of pregnancy, hydrostatic pressure to alleviate pregnancy-induced edema, and many other benefits. Sports in extreme temperatures may involve some risks. The fact that a person's conductivity increases about 25 times in water comes with a great loss, which is the depression of the evaporative mechanism. Altered thermal control mechanisms in water, both in the gravid and the nongravid state, will be addressed in this review. convenience.

  18. Application of portable in situ UV fluorescence sensors in natural and engineered aquatic systems. (United States)

    Fox, Bethany; Rushworth, Cathy; Atrridge, John


    Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous throughout aquatic systems. This heterogeneous mixture of organic matter is central for aquatic ecosystems and, both local and global, biogeochemical cycling. Improvements in technology and data analysis has allowed for advances in the understanding and characterisation of aquatic organic matter. However, much of the technological expansions have focussed on benchtop instruments. In recent years, there has been interest in the continued development of portable in situ sensors for monitoring NOM characteristics within a wide range of applications, spanning both natural and engineered systems. The UviLux (Chelsea Technologies Group Ltd., UK) is an in situ portable UV fluorescence sensor that can be configured to monitor a range of NOM in aquatic systems, as well as anthropogenic inputs such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and optical brighteners. Here we will focus on the use of the Tryptophan and CDOM UviLux sensors across a variety of applications in both natural systems, such as rivers and leachate into groundwater, and engineered systems, including drinking water and waste water treatment. Recent work has focused on standardising the fluorescence output across the UviLux range of sensors, reporting data in quinine sulphate units (QSU), which enables the output from two different fluorometers to be directly compared both to each other, and to bench-top data. A key advantage of deploying multiple sensors is the ability to fingerprint the fluorescence, by providing, for example, a Tryptophan/CDOM ratio. From the data collected, the ratio of the different fluorescence regions has been shown to provide more robust in situ data and help identify true temporal variations and patterns across multiple applications and sampling locations.

  19. Accumulation and fluxes of mercury in terrestrial and aquatic food chains with special reference to Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius


    Full Text Available Mercury is known for its biomagnification especially in aquatic food chains and for its toxic effects on different organisms including man. In Finland mercury has formerly been used in industry and agriculture and in addition many anthropogenic activities may increase the mercury levels in ecosystems. Phenyl mercury was widely used as slimicide in the pulp and paper industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In the chlor-alkali industry metallic mercury was used as catalyst at three plants. The most toxic form of mercury, methyl mercury, may be formed in soils, water, sediments and organisms. Many factors, including microbial activity, temperature, oxygen status etc., affect the methylation rate. In the lake ecosystem bioaccumulation of methyl mercury is very strong. In early 1980s there was a restriction of fishing concerning approximately 4000 km2 of lakes and sea areas because of mercury pollution. In aquatic systems we still find elevated concentrations near former emission sources. Long-range atmospheric transport and mechanical operations like ditching and water regulation may cause increased levels of mercury in the aquatic ecosystems. In the Finnish agriculture organic mercury compounds were used for seed dressing until 1992. Although the amounts used were substantial the concentrations in agricultural soils have remained rather low. In terrestrial food chains bioaccumulation is normally weak with low or moderate concentration at all ecosystem levels. Due to a weak uptake through roots terrestrial, vascular plants normally contain only small amounts of mercury. There is a bidirectional exchange of mercury between vegetation and atmosphere. Contrary to vascular plants, there is a very wide range of concentrations in fungi. Mercury may pose a threat to human health especially when accumulated in aquatic food chains.

  20. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy. (United States)

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro


    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area.

  1. Testing a 'genes-to-ecosystems' approach to understanding aquatic-terrestrial linkages. (United States)

    Crutsinger, Gregory M; Rudman, Seth M; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A; McKown, Athena D; Sato, Takuya; MacDonald, Andrew M; Heavyside, Julian; Geraldes, Armando; Hart, Edmund M; LeRoy, Carri J; El-Sabaawi, Rana W


    A 'genes-to-ecosystems' approach has been proposed as a novel avenue for integrating the consequences of intraspecific genetic variation with the underlying genetic architecture of a species to shed light on the relationships among hierarchies of ecological organization (genes → individuals → communities → ecosystems). However, attempts to identify genes with major effect on the structure of communities and/or ecosystem processes have been limited and a comprehensive test of this approach has yet to emerge. Here, we present an interdisciplinary field study that integrated a common garden containing different genotypes of a dominant, riparian tree, Populus trichocarpa, and aquatic mesocosms to determine how intraspecific variation in leaf litter alters both terrestrial and aquatic communities and ecosystem functioning. Moreover, we incorporate data from extensive trait screening and genome-wide association studies estimating the heritability and genes associated with litter characteristics. We found that tree genotypes varied considerably in the quality and production of leaf litter, which contributed to variation in phytoplankton abundances, as well as nutrient dynamics and light availability in aquatic mesocosms. These 'after-life' effects of litter from different genotypes were comparable to the responses of terrestrial communities associated with the living foliage. We found that multiple litter traits corresponding with aquatic community and ecosystem responses differed in their heritability. Moreover, the underlying genetic architecture of these traits was complex, and many genes contributed only a small proportion to phenotypic variation. Our results provide further evidence that genetic variation is a key component of aquatic-terrestrial linkages, but challenge the ability to predict community or ecosystem responses based on the actions of one or a few genes.

  2. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.

  3. Tulane/Xavier University Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This progress report covers activities for the period January 1 - March 31, 1995 on project concerning `Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin.` The following activities are each summarized by bullets denoting significant experiments/findings: biotic and abiotic studies on the biological fate, transport and ecotoxicity of toxic and hazardous waste in the Mississippi River Basin; assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in quatic species as a biomarker of exposure; hazardous wastes in aquatic environments: biological uptake and metabolism studies; ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River system; bioremediation of selected contaminants in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin; a sensitive rapid on-sit immunoassay for heavy metal contamination; pore-level flow, transport, agglomeration and reaction kinetics of microorganism; biomarkers of exposure and ecotoxicity in the Mississippi River Basin; natural and active chemical remediation of toxic metals, organics and radionuclides in the aquatic environment; expert geographical information systems for assessing hazardous wastes in aquatic environments; enhancement of environmental education; and a number of just initiated projects including fate and transport of contaminants in aquatic environments; photocatalytic remediation; radionuclide fate and modeling from Chernobyl.

  4. Intense ultraviolet perturbations on aquatic primary producers

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Horvath, Jorge


    During the last decade, the hypothesis that one or more biodiversity drops in the Phanerozoic eon, evident in the geological record, might have been caused by the most powerful kind of stellar explosion so far known (Gamma Ray Bursts) has been discussed in several works. These stellar explosions could have left an imprint in the biological evolution on Earth and in other habitable planets. In this work we calculate the short-term lethality that a GRB would produce in the aquatic primary producers on Earth. This effect on life appears as a result of ultraviolet (UV) re-transmission in the atmosphere of a fraction of the gamma energy, resulting in an intense UV flash capable of penetrating ~ tens of meters in the water column in the ocean. We focus on the action of the UV flash on phytoplankton, as they are the main contributors to global aquatic primary productivity. Our results suggest that the UV flash could cause an hemispheric reduction of phytoplankton biomass in the upper mixed layer of the World Ocean o...

  5. Selenium toxicosis in wild aquatic birds (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Kilness, A.W.; Simmons, J.L.; Stroud, R.K.; Hoffman, D.J.; Moore, John F.


    Severe gross and microscopic lesions and other changes were found in adult aquatic birds and in embryos from Kesterson Reservoir (a portion of Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge), Merced County, Calif., during 1984. Adult birds from that area were emaciated, had subacute to extensive chronic hepatic lesions, and had excess fluid and fibrin in the peritoneal cavity. Biochemical changes in their livers included elevated glycogen and non-protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity but lowered protein, total sulfhydryl, and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. Congenital malformations observed grossly in embryos were often multiple and included anophthalmia, microphthalmia, abnormal beaks, amelia, micromelia, ectrodactyly, and hydrocephaly. Mean concentrations of selenium in livers (94.4 ppm, dry weight) and kidneys (96.6 ppm) of birds collected at the Kesterson ponds were about 10 times those found at a nearby control area (8.3 and 12.2 ppm). We conclude that selenium present in the agricultural drainage water supplied to the Kesterson ponds accumulated in the food chain of aquatic birds to toxic concentrations and caused the lesion and other changes observed.

  6. Methane carbon supports aquatic food webs to the fish level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Sanseverino

    Full Text Available Large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane (CH(4 are produced by anaerobic mineralization of organic matter in lakes. In spite of extensive freshwater CH(4 emissions, most of the CH(4 is typically oxidized by methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB before it can reach the lake surface and be emitted to the atmosphere. In turn, it has been shown that the CH(4-derived biomass of MOB can provide the energy and carbon for zooplankton and macroinvertebrates. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of specific fatty acids synthesized by MOB in fish tissues having low carbon stable isotope ratios. Fish species, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes were collected from a shallow lake in Brazil and analyzed for fatty acids (FA and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13C. The fatty acids 16:1ω8c, 16:1ω8t, 16:1ω6c, 16:1ω5t, 18:1ω8c and 18:1ω8t were used as signature for MOB. The δ(13C ratios varied from -27.7‰ to -42.0‰ and the contribution of MOB FA ranged from 0.05% to 0.84% of total FA. Organisms with higher total content of MOB FAs presented lower δ(13C values (i.e. they were more depleted in (13C, while organisms with lower content of MOB signature FAs showed higher δ(13C values. An UPGMA cluster analysis was carried out to distinguish grouping of organisms in relation to their MOB FA contents. This combination of stable isotope and fatty acid tracers provides new evidence that assimilation of methane-derived carbon can be an important carbon source for the whole aquatic food web, up to the fish level.

  7. Plant-microbe interaction in aquatic system and their role in the management of water quality: a review (United States)

    Srivastava, Jatin K.; Chandra, Harish; Kalra, Swinder J. S.; Mishra, Pratibha; Khan, Hena; Yadav, Poonam


    Microbial assemblage as biofilm around the aquatic plant forms a firm association that largely depends upon the mutual supplies of nutrients, e.g., microbes interact with plants in an aquatic system most likely for organic carbon and oxygen, whereas plants receive defensive immunity and mineral exchange. Apart from the mutual benefits, plant-microbe interactions also influence the water quality especially at rhizosphere providing inherent ability to the aquatic system for the mitigation of pollution from the water column. The review presents and in-depth information along with certain research advancements made in the field of ecological and bio/chemical aspects of plant-microbe interactions and the underlying potential to improve water quality.

  8. Factory-discharged pharmaceuticals could be a relevant source of aquatic environment contamination: review of evidence and need for knowledge. (United States)

    Cardoso, Olivier; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Sanchez, Wilfried


    Human and veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are involved in contamination of surface water, ground water, effluents, sediments and biota. Effluents of waste water treatment plants and hospitals are considered as major sources of such contamination. However, recent evidences reveal high concentrations of a large number of APIs in effluents from pharmaceutical factories and in receiving aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, laboratory exposures to these effluents and field experiments reveal various physiological disturbances in exposed aquatic organisms. Also, it seems to be relevant to increase knowledge on this route of contamination but also to develop specific approaches for further environmental monitoring campaigns. The present study summarizes available data related to the impact of pharmaceutical factory discharges on aquatic ecosystem contaminations and presents associated challenges for scientists and environmental managers.

  9. The potential of the fresh-water fern Azolla in aquatic farming systems (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Werf, vd, Adrie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Brouwer, Paul; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Brinkhuis, Henk


    With aquatic farming systems a new avenue in agriculture is explored, in which the competition with conventional arable land is avoided. The aquatic, ubiquitous, floating fern Azolla is not yet widely explored as potential crop in such farming systems, despite its high potential because it grows in many natural systems under low-light intensities, has an enormous annual yield, and has special biomass qualities for applications in food, feed and specialty chemical industries. But, what makes Azolla particularly interesting as cost-effective crop is its capability to take up atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria Anabaena azollae. This makes Azolla independent of nitrogen fertilization. In order to explore the potential of Azolla as a crop for a suite of applications, we have assembled a team of expertise: AZOFAST, consisting of agricultural engineers, plant physiologists, chemical engineers and organic chemists. Our growth experiments reveal high annual production yields with constant harvest. We are developing a germination and spore collecting/preservation protocol as a first step to domestication. Finally we have explored the biomass quality of different species of extant Azolla. We performed organic chemical analyses on lipid and tannin extracts, and quantified yields of specific compounds within these fractions. In our presentation we will present some of our results to show the potential of Azolla as a new, sustainable aquatic crop serving all kinds of industrial streams from protein feed to platform chemicals.

  10. Patterning and predicting aquatic insect richness in four West-African coastal rivers using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edia E.O.


    Full Text Available Despite their importance in stream management, the aquatic insect assemblages are still little known in West Africa. This is particularly true in South-Eastern Ivory Coast, where aquatic insect assemblages were hardly studied. We therefore aimed at characterising aquatic insect assemblages on four coastal rivers in South-Eastern Ivory Coast. Patterning aquatic insect assemblages was achieved using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM, an unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN method. This method was applied to pattern the samples based on the richness of five major orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera and Odonata. This permitted to identify three clusters that were mainly related to the local environmental status of sampling sites. Then, we used the environmental characteristics of the sites to predict, using a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP, trained by BackPropagation algorithm (BP, a supervised ANN, the richness of the five insect orders. The BP showed high predictability (0.90 for both Diptera and Trichoptera, 0.84 for both Coleoptera and Odonata, 0.69 for Ephemeroptera. The most contributing variables in predicting the five insect order richness were pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, water temperature, percentage of rock and the canopy. This underlines the crucial influence of both instream characteristics and riparian context.

  11. Seasonal dynamics in the relative density of aquatic flora along some coastal areas of the Red Sea, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Ansari


    Full Text Available Plants are the producers of all autotrophic ecosystems’ and are the base of the food chain taking energy from the sun and converting it into food for all other organisms through photosynthesis. Plants grow in certain places and seasons when the environmental factors are suitable for their germination, growth and developments that influence their diversity. Environmental factors can include abiotic factors such as temperature, light, moisture, soil nutrients; or biotic factors like competition from other plants or grazing by animals. Anthropogenic perturbations can also influence distribution patterns. Monitoring of ecological habitats and diversity of some aquatic flora along some coastal areas of Red Sea has been done to understand the dynamics of aquatic plants influenced by prevailing environmental and anthropogenic perturbations The results of this research showed that the summer season is the most suitable period for the study of aquatic plant diversity along the coastal sites of Red Sea. The aquatic flora had high relative density and diversity in April, May, June and July and these four months of the summer season are best for collection of aquatic plants from the selected coastal areas of Red Sea for medicinal purposes and ecological studies.

  12. What is bioturbation? The need for a precise definition for fauna in aquatic sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Delefosse, Matthieu


    referred to as particle reworking, while water movement (if considered) is re ferred to as bioirrigation in many cases. For consistency, we therefore propose that, for contemporary aquatic scientific disciplines, faunal bioturbation in aquatic environments includes all transport processes carried out...... by animals that directly or indirectly affect sediment matrices. These processes include both particle reworking and burrow ventilation. With this definition, bioturbation acts as an ‘umbrella’ term that covers all transport processes and their physical effects on the substratum. Particle reworking occurs...... through burrow construction and maintenance, as well as ingestion and defecation, and causes biomixing of the substratum. Organic matter and microorganisms are thus displaced vertically and laterally within the sediment matrix. Particle reworking animals can be categorized as biodiffusors, upward...

  13. Effects of vegetations on the removal of contaminants in aquatic environments:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; ZHENG Sha-sha; WANG Pei-fang; QIAN Jin


    This paper reviews the removal of contaminants including nutrients, metals and organic pollutants by vegetations in aquatic environments. The removal efficiencies are considered with respect to 16, 19 and 14 kinds of different aquatic plants, respectively in three tables. Due to different characteristics, the removal effects of plants on contaminants from the overlying water differ greatly. The vegetation can improve the water quality mainly through two ways: (1) to adsorb and absorb pollutants from water, (2) to prevent pollutants from releasing from sediment. The contaminant removal mechanisms of vegetations and related physical, chemical and biological effects are discussed. The effects of vegetations on the contaminant removal are found to depend on the environmental conditions, the number and the type of plants, the nature and the chemical structure of the pollutants. In addition, the contaminant release and removal by vegetations under hydrodynamic conditions is specially addressed. Further research directions are suggested.

  14. Hyperspectral Aquatic Radiative Transfer Modeling Using a High-Performance Cluster Computing Based Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillippi, Anthony [Texas A& M University; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; King, Amy L [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL; Guneralp, Inci [Texas A& M University


    For aquatic studies, radiative transfer (RT) modeling can be used to compute hyperspectral above-surface remote sensing reflectance that can be utilized for inverse model development. Inverse models can provide bathymetry and inherent- and bottom-optical property estimation. Because measured oceanic field/organic datasets are often spatio-temporally sparse, synthetic data generation is useful in yielding sufficiently large datasets for inversion model development; however, these forward-modeled data are computationally expensive and time-consuming to generate. This study establishes the magnitude of wall-clock-time savings achieved for performing large, aquatic RT batch-runs using parallel computing versus a sequential approach. Given 2,600 simulations and identical compute-node characteristics, sequential architecture required {approx}100 hours until termination, whereas a parallel approach required only {approx}2.5 hours (42 compute nodes) - a 40x speed-up. Tools developed for this parallel execution are discussed.

  15. Hyperspectral Aquatic Radiative Transfer Modeling Using a High-Performance Cluster Computing-Based Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Anthony M [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; King, Amy L [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL; Guneralp, Inci [Texas A& M University


    Abstract For aquatic studies, radiative transfer (RT) modeling can be used to compute hyperspectral above-surface remote sensing reflectance that can be utilized for inverse model development. Inverse models can provide bathymetry and inherent-and bottom-optical property estimation. Because measured oceanic field/organic datasets are often spatio-temporally sparse, synthetic data generation is useful in yielding sufficiently large datasets for inversion model development; however, these forward-modeled data are computationally expensive and time-consuming to generate. This study establishes the magnitude of wall-clock-time savings achieved for performing large, aquatic RT batch-runs using parallel computing versus a sequential approach. Given 2,600 simulations and identical compute-node characteristics, sequential architecture required ~100 hours until termination, whereas a parallel approach required only ~2.5 hours (42 compute nodes) a 40x speed-up. Tools developed for this parallel execution are discussed.

  16. Influence of trophic status on the behaviour of contaminants in aquatic systems (United States)

    Baxter, R. M.; Carey, J. H.; Lean, D. R. S.; Burnison, B. K.


    The problems of eutrophication through nutrient enrichment and contamination with persistent contaminants have traditionally been regarded as unrelated by water scientists and managers, but recently evidence has appeared suggesting that the fate of organic contaminants in an aquatic ecosystem is influenced by the trophic state of the system. There is also evidence that the dissolved organic matter in dystrophic, or humic, waters may influence contaminant dynamics. Mechanisms that may be involved include changes in the metabolic capabilities of organisms with changes in trophic state; reductive degradation in the anoxic hypolimnia of highly productive waters; binding of contaminants by dissolved organic matter or organisms, or photochemical degradation induced by light-absorbing molecules. The possible significance of these processes is discussed.

  17. Aquatic Bird Bornavirus 1 in Wild Geese, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane;


    To investigate aquatic bird bornavirus 1 in Europe, we examined 333 brains from hunter-killed geese in Denmark in 2014. Seven samples were positive by reverse transcription PCR and were 98.2%-99.8% identical; they were also 97.4%-98.1% identical to reference strains of aquatic bird bornavirus 1...

  18. Aquatic beetle species and their distributions in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ling; JIA Feng-long; Tursun Dilbar; ZHENG Zhe-min


    The species of aquatic beetles and their distributions in lotic and lentic habitats were investigated during July to August of 2005 and 2006 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. A total of 66 species belonging to 7 beetle families (Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Helophoridae, Noteridae, Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae) are recorded, of which 16 are new records of aquatic beetles for China.

  19. Methane emissions to the atmosphere through aquatic plants (United States)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Bartlett, K. B.


    The movement of methane (CH4) from anaerobic sediments through the leaves, stems, and flowers of aquatic plants and into the atmosphere was found to provide a significant pathway for the emission of CH4 from the aquatic substrates of flooded wetlands. Methane concentrations well above the surrounding ambient air levels were found in the mesophyll of 16 varies of aquatic plants and are attributed to transpiration, diffusion, and pressure-induced flow of gaseous CH4 from the roots when they are embedded in CH4-saturated anaerobic sediments. Methane emissions from the emergent parts of aquatic plants were measured using floating chamber techniques and by enclosing the plants in polyethylene bags of known volume. Concentration changes were monitored in the trapped air using syringes and gas chromatographic techniques. Vertical profiles of dissolved CH4 in sediment pore water surrounding the aquatic plants' rhizomes were obtained using an interstitial sampling technique. Methane emissions from the aquatic plants studied varied from 14.8 mg CH4/d to levels too low to be detectable. Rooted and unrooted freshwater aquatic plants were studied as well as saltwater and brackish water plants. Included in the experiment is detailed set of measurements on CH4 emissions from the common cattail (Typha latifolia). This paper illustrates that aquatic plants play an imp